Science.gov

Sample records for 1d two-dimensional 2d

  1. QUENCH2D. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, A.; Beck, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  2. CBEAM. 2-D: a two-dimensional beam field code

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, K.A.

    1985-05-01

    CBEAM.2-D is a two-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations for the case of an electron beam propagating through an air medium. Solutions are performed in the beam-retarded time frame. Conductivity is calculated self-consistently with field equations, allowing sophisticated dependence of plasma parameters to be handled. A unique feature of the code is that it is implemented on an IBM PC microcomputer in the BASIC language. Consequently, it should be available to a wide audience.

  3. ANALYSIS OF 209 CHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS USING COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE 1-D MODE FOLLOWED BY THE 2-D MODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the initial discovery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment, the detection and identification of certain PCB congeners using the traditional one dimensional (1-D) chromatographic technique has been very challenging, especially, separating the 46 isomeric pe...

  4. On the current drive capability of low dimensional semiconductors: 1D versus 2D

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Y.; Appenzeller, J.

    2015-10-29

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Lastly, our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  5. On the Current Drive Capability of Low Dimensional Semiconductors: 1D versus 2D.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Appenzeller, J

    2015-12-01

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  6. F2D users manual: A two-dimensional compressible gas flow code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo-Anttila, A.

    1993-08-01

    The F2D computer code is a general purpose, two-dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-corrector solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicability of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes, and flow in heated porous media.

  7. F2D. A Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow Code

    SciTech Connect

    Suo-Anttila, A.

    1993-08-01

    F2D is a general purpose, two dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-correction solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicability of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.

  8. F2D users manual: A two-dimensional compressible gas flow code

    SciTech Connect

    Suo-Anttila, A.

    1993-08-01

    The F2D computer code is a general purpose, two-dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-corrector solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicability of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.

  9. Two-dimensional (2D) correlation coefficient analyses of heavily overlapped near-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Sasić, Slobodan; Sato, Harumi; Shimoyama, Masahiko; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2005-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation coefficient analysis is employed to classify and characterize spectral variations among heavily overlapped near-infrared spectra of pellets and films of three kinds of polyethylene (PE), high-density (HD), low density (LD), and linear low-density (LLD) polyethylene, and five kinds of ivory signature seals. The sample-sample (SS) 2D correlation maps are used for classification while the wavenumber-wavenumber (WW) 2D correlation maps are used for determining spectral variation among the above materials. Both correlation maps are obtained by multiplying the original data with themselves. It is found that the NIR spectra of pellets and films of HD PE are clearly different from those of LD PE and LLD PE, while the NIR spectra of five kinds of ivory seals yield easily discernable squares in the SS correlation maps. The background variation is thought to be behind the differentiation of the PE samples because the WW correlation maps do not indicate appearance of new bands. The correlation results are compared with those of principal component analysis (PCA). This study is a novel application of 2D correlation coefficient analysis which reveals that a comprehensive description of demanding spectral systems is achievable by utterly simple mathematical means because 2D correlation maps are obtained via a single mathematical operation.

  10. BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  11. Two dimensional spectroscopy of Liquids in THz-domain: THz analogue of 2D Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, K.; Tanimura, Y.

    1998-03-01

    After the initial proposal(Y. Tanimura and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9496 (1993)), the two dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the liquid phase has been received a considerable attention. Both experimental and theoretical activity of this field has been quite high. Since we have two controllable delay times, we can obtain more information than the lower-order experiments such as OKE. The new information includes that on heterogeneous distribution in liquids. Recently, it is found that the coupling between the modes in liquids can be investigated by the technique, both experimentally and theoretically(A. Tokmakoff, M.J. Lang, D.S. Larsen, G.R. Fleming, V. Chernyak, and S. Mukamel, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press))^,(K. Okumura and Y. Tanimura, Chem. Phys. Lett. 278, 175 (1997)) In this talk, we will emphasize that we can perform the THz analogue of the 2D Raman spectroscopy if the THz short-pulse laser becomes available, which may not be in the far future. Theoretically, we can formulate this novel THz spectroscopy on the same footing as the 2D Raman spectroscopy. We will clarify new aspects of this technique comparing with the 2D Raman spectroscopy--- the reason it worth trying the tough experiment. See

  12. Removal of interfering substances in samples prepared for two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Berkelman, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Biological samples may contain contaminants that interfere with analysis by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Lysates or biological fluids are complex mixtures that contain a wide variety of nonprotein substances in addition to the proteins to be analyzed. These substances often interfere with the resolution of the electrophoretic separation or the visualization of the result. Macromolecules (e.g., polysaccharides and DNA) can interfere with electrophoretic separation by clogging gel pores. Small ionic molecules can impair isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation by rendering the sample too conductive. Other substances (e.g., phenolics and lipids) can bind to proteins, influencing their electrophoretic properties or solubility. In many cases, measures to remove interfering substances can result in significantly clearer 2-D patterns with more visible spots and better resolution. It should be borne in mind, however, that analysis of samples by 2-D electrophoresis is usually most successful and informative when performed with minimally processed samples, so it is important that any steps taken to remove interfering substance be appropriate to the sample and only performed when necessary. Procedures for the removal of interfering substances therefore represent a compromise between removing nonprotein contaminants, and minimizing interference with the integrity and relative abundances of the sample proteins. This chapter presents a number of illustrative examples of optimized sample preparation methods in which specific interfering substances are removed by a variety of different strategies.

  13. A comparison of 1D and 2D LSTM architectures for the recognition of handwritten Arabic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Breuel, Thomas M.; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Arabic handwriting recognition method based on recurrent neural network. We use the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture, that have proven successful in different printed and handwritten OCR tasks. Applications of LSTM for handwriting recognition employ the two-dimensional architecture to deal with the variations in both vertical and horizontal axis. However, we show that using a simple pre-processing step that normalizes the position and baseline of letters, we can make use of 1D LSTM, which is faster in learning and convergence, and yet achieve superior performance. In a series of experiments on IFN/ENIT database for Arabic handwriting recognition, we demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can outperform 2D LSTM networks. Furthermore, we provide comparisons with 1D LSTM networks trained with manually crafted features to show that the automatically learned features in a globally trained 1D LSTM network with our normalization step can even outperform such systems.

  14. Computer program BL2D for solving two-dimensional and axisymmetric boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Venkit

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the formulation, validation, and user's manual for the computer program BL2D. The program is a fourth-order-accurate solution scheme for solving two-dimensional or axisymmetric boundary layers in speed regimes that range from low subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers. A basic implementation of the transition zone and turbulence modeling is also included. The code is a result of many improvements made to the program VGBLP, which is described in NASA TM-83207 (February 1982), and can effectively supersede it. The code BL2D is designed to be modular, user-friendly, and portable to any machine with a standard fortran77 compiler. The report contains the new formulation adopted and the details of its implementation. Five validation cases are presented. A detailed user's manual with the input format description and instructions for running the code is included. Adequate information is presented in the report to enable the user to modify or customize the code for specific applications.

  15. Computer program BL2D for solving two-dimensional and axisymmetric boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Venkit

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the formulation, validation, and user's manual for the computer program BL2D. The program is a fourth-order-accurate solution scheme for solving two-dimensional or axisymmetric boundary layers in speed regimes that range from low subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers. A basic implementation of the transition zone and turbulence modeling is also included. The code is a result of many improvements made to the program VGBLP, which is described in NASA TM-83207 (February 1982), and can effectively supersede it. The code BL2D is designed to be modular, user-friendly, and portable to any machine with a standard fortran77 compiler. The report contains the new formulation adopted and the details of its implementation. Five validation cases are presented. A detailed user's manual with the input format description and instructions for running the code is included. Adequate information is presented in the report to enable the user to modify or customize the code for specific applications.

  16. CoPc 2D and 1D Arrangement on a Ferromagnetic Surface.

    PubMed

    Annese, Emilia; ViolBarbosa, Carlos E; Rossi, Giorgio; Fujii, Jun

    2016-05-31

    We investigated the growth and electronic properties of Co-phthalocyanine (CoPc) molecule deposited on iron film with different structures (pseudomorph-fcc and bcc) and on iron nanowires by scanning tunnelling microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). CoPc molecules self-assemble in a two-dimensional (2D) arrangement with the molecular plane parallel to the iron surfaces, and the local order is lost after the first layer. The molecule-ferromagnet interaction causes the broadening of Co and N unoccupied molecular states as well as different electronic distribution of N states as a function of the atomic structure of iron surface. The ferromagnetic coupling between the molecule and the iron film is dominated by the electronic interaction between Co and the first Fe layer. CoPc 2D arrangement turns into 1D by using as a template the iron nanowire grown on a facet surface of oxidized Cu(332) surface. CoPc molecules interact weakly with the iron nanowires manifesting a substantial Co 3dz spectral feature in XAS spectrum and the possibility of a magnetic interaction between Co moment and iron nanowires. Both CoPc 2D and 1D arrangements can open up new interesting scenarios to tune the magnetic properties of hybrid interfaces involving metallorganic molecules. PMID:27191039

  17. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

    2013-10-11

    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  18. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.

    2009-06-01

    Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are

  19. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO2, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS2, graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:23152940

  20. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO(2), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS(2), graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications.

  1. Impact of Nanosize on Supercapacitance: Study of 1D Nanorods and 2D Thin-Films of Nickel Oxide.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ranjit A; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Devan, Rupesh S; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-04-20

    We synthesized unique one-dimensional (1D) nanorods and two-dimensional (2D) thin-films of NiO on indium-tin-oxide thin-films using a hot-filament metal-oxide vapor deposition technique. The 1D nanorods have an average width and length of ∼100 and ∼500 nm, respectively, and the densely packed 2D thin-films have an average thickness of ∼500 nm. The 1D nanorods perform as parallel units for charge storing. However, the 2D thin-films act as one single unit for charge storing. The 2D thin-films possess a high specific capacitance of ∼746 F/g compared to 1D nanorods (∼230 F/g) using galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements at a current density of 3 A/g. Because the 1D NiO nanorods provide more plentiful surface areas than those of the 2D thin-films, they are fully active at the first few cycles. However, the capacitance retention of the 1D nanorods decays faster than that of the 2D thin-films. Also, the 1D NiO nanorods suffer from instability due to the fast electrochemical dissolution and high nanocontact resistance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy verifies that the low dimensionality of the 1D NiO nanorods induces the unavoidable effects that lead them to have poor supercapacitive performances. On the other hand, the slow electrochemical dissolution and small contact resistance in the 2D NiO thin-films favor to achieve high specific capacitance and great stability.

  2. Impact of Nanosize on Supercapacitance: Study of 1D Nanorods and 2D Thin-Films of Nickel Oxide.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ranjit A; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Devan, Rupesh S; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-04-20

    We synthesized unique one-dimensional (1D) nanorods and two-dimensional (2D) thin-films of NiO on indium-tin-oxide thin-films using a hot-filament metal-oxide vapor deposition technique. The 1D nanorods have an average width and length of ∼100 and ∼500 nm, respectively, and the densely packed 2D thin-films have an average thickness of ∼500 nm. The 1D nanorods perform as parallel units for charge storing. However, the 2D thin-films act as one single unit for charge storing. The 2D thin-films possess a high specific capacitance of ∼746 F/g compared to 1D nanorods (∼230 F/g) using galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements at a current density of 3 A/g. Because the 1D NiO nanorods provide more plentiful surface areas than those of the 2D thin-films, they are fully active at the first few cycles. However, the capacitance retention of the 1D nanorods decays faster than that of the 2D thin-films. Also, the 1D NiO nanorods suffer from instability due to the fast electrochemical dissolution and high nanocontact resistance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy verifies that the low dimensionality of the 1D NiO nanorods induces the unavoidable effects that lead them to have poor supercapacitive performances. On the other hand, the slow electrochemical dissolution and small contact resistance in the 2D NiO thin-films favor to achieve high specific capacitance and great stability. PMID:27028491

  3. A Study of Two Dimensional Electron Gas Using 2D Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Carl; Paul, Jagannath; Karaiskaj, Denis

    2015-03-01

    The dephasing of FES was measured in a symmetrically modulation doped 12 nm single quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas system using time integrated four wave mixing (TIFWM) and a two dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy (2DFTS). At high in-well carrier densities of ~4 x 1011 cm-2, many body effects that are prevalent and measurable with non-linear optical spectroscopy. Effects of exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon scattering events, exciton populations, and biexciton formation are detectable at these carrier concentrations. Homogeneous linewidths obtained from 2DFT and TIFWM yield a zero Kelvin linewidth of 1.42 meV and an acoustic phonon scattering coefficient of 158 μ eV/K. These observations indicate a rapid increase in homogeneous linewidth with increased temperature. NSF REU Grant # DMR-1263066: REU Site in Applied Physics at USF.

  4. NATRAN2. Fluid Hammer Analysis 1D & 2D Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-03-03

    NATRAN2 analyzes short-term pressure-pulse transients in a closed hydraulic system consisting of a two-dimensional axisymmetric domain connected to a one-dimensional piping network. The one-dimensional network may consist of series or parallel piping, pipe junctions, diameter discontinuities, junctions of three to six branches, closed ends, surge tanks, far ends, dummy junctions, acoustic impedance discontinuities, and rupture disks. By default, the working fluid is assumed to be liquid sodium without cavitation; but another working fluid can be specified in terms of its density, sonic speed, and viscosity. The source pressure pulse can arise from one of the following: a pressure-time function specified at some point in the two-dimensional domain, a pressure-time function or a sodium-water reaction specified at some point in the one-dimensional domain. The pressure pulse from a sodium-water reaction is assumed to be generated according to the dynamic model of Zaker and Salmon.

  5. GEO2D - Two-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    DOE Data Explorer

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file contains a zipped file that contains many files required to run GEO2D. GEO2D is a computer code for simulating ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems in two-dimensions. GEO2D performs a detailed finite difference simulation of the heat transfer occurring within the working fluid, the tube wall, the grout, and the ground. Both horizontal and vertical wells can be simulated with this program, but it should be noted that the vertical wall is modeled as a single tube. This program also models the heat pump in conjunction with the heat transfer occurring. GEO2D simulates the heat pump and ground loop as a system. Many results are produced by GEO2D as a function of time and position, such as heat transfer rates, temperatures and heat pump performance. On top of this information from an economic comparison between the geothermal system simulated and a comparable air heat pump systems or a comparable gas, oil or propane heating systems with a vapor compression air conditioner. The version of GEO2D in the attached file has been coupled to the DOE heating and cooling load software called ENERGYPLUS. This is a great convenience for the user because heating and cooling loads are an input to GEO2D. GEO2D is a user friendly program that uses a graphical user interface for inputs and outputs. These make entering data simple and they produce many plotted results that are easy to understand. In order to run GEO2D access to MATLAB is required. If this program is not available on your computer you can download the program MCRInstaller.exe, the 64 bit version, from the MATLAB website or from this geothermal depository. This is a free download which will enable you to run GEO2D..

  6. Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R

    2016-03-01

    Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777

  7. Development of models for the two-dimensional, two-fluid code for sodium boiling NATOF-2D. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.G.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1981-09-01

    Several features were incorporated into NATOF-2D, a two-dimensional, two fluid code developed at MIT for the purpose of analysis of sodium boiling transients under LMFBR conditions. They include improved interfacial mass, momentum and energy exchange rate models, and a cell-to-cell radial heat conduction mechanism which was calibrated by simulation of Westinghouse Blanket Heat Transfer Test Program Runs 544 and 545. Finally, a direct method of pressure field solution was implemented into a direct method of pressure field solution was implemented into NATOF-2D, replacing the iterative technique previously available, and resulted in substantially reduced computational costs.

  8. Enhancement of long-range correlations in a 2D vortex lattice by an incommensurate 1D disorder potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillamon, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; de Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, R.

    In two dimensional (2D) systems, theory has proposed that random disorder destroys long range correlations driving a transition to a glassy state. Here, I will discuss new insights into this issue obtained through the direct visualization of the critical behaviour of a 2D superconducting vortex lattice formed in a thin film with a smooth 1D thickness modulation. Using scanning tunneling microscopy at 0.1K, we have tracked the modification in the 2D vortex arrangements induced by the 1D thickness modulation while increasing the vortex density by three orders of magnitude. Upon increasing the field, we observed a two-step order-disorder transition in the 2D vortex lattice mediated by the appearance of dislocations and disclinations and accompanied by an increase in the local vortex density fluctuations. Through a detailed analysis of correlation functions, we find that the transition is driven by the incommensurate 1D thickness modulation. We calculate the critical points and exponents and find that they are well above theoretical expectation for random disorder. Our results show that long range 1D correlations in random potentials enhance the stability range of the ordered phase in a 2D vortex lattice. Work supported by Spanish MINECO, CIG Marie Curie Grant, Axa Research Fund and FBBVA.

  9. FRANC2D: A two-dimensional crack propagation simulator. Version 2.7: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wawrzynek, Paul; Ingraffea, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    FRANC 2D (FRacture ANalysis Code, 2 Dimensions) is a menu driven, interactive finite element computer code that performs fracture mechanics analyses of 2-D structures. The code has an automatic mesh generator for triangular and quadrilateral elements. FRANC2D calculates the stress intensity factor using linear elastic fracture mechanics and evaluates crack extension using several methods that may be selected by the user. The code features a mesh refinement and adaptive mesh generation capability that is automatically developed according to the predicted crack extension direction and length. The code also has unique features that permit the analysis of layered structure with load transfer through simulated mechanical fasteners or bonded joints. The code was written for UNIX workstations with X-windows graphics and may be executed on the following computers: DEC DecStation 3000 and 5000 series, IBM RS/6000 series, Hewlitt-Packard 9000/700 series, SUN Sparc stations, and most Silicon Graphics models.

  10. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of the Photosystem II D1D2-cyt.b559 Reaction Center Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Jeffrey Allen

    Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is a powerful new technique for examining the electronic and vibronic couplings and dynamics of chemical, semiconductor, and biological samples. We present several technical innovations in the implementation of 2DES. We have performed two-color 2DES experiments, extending the technique's ability to study energy transfer to states at frequencies far from the initial absorption. We have demonstrated 2DES in the pump-probe geometry using a pulse-shaper. This method eliminates many technical challenges inherent to previous implementations of 2DES, making it a more widely accessible technique. To broaden the available frequency information, we have demonstrated 2DES with a continuum probe pulse. We have utilized this method to observe vibrational wavepacket dynamics in a laser dye, demonstrating that these dynamics modulate 2D lineshapes and must be accounted for in modelling 2DES data. We perform 2DES studies on the Qy band of the D1D2-cyt.b559 reaction center of plant photosystem II. This reaction center is the core oxygen-evolving complex in plant photosynthesis, taking in light energy and forming a charge separated state capable of splitting water. Understanding the relationship between the structure and function has both fundamental importance and applications to improving artificial light-harvesting. Traditional spectroscopy methods have been unable to completely resolve the time-ordering of energy and charge transfer events or the degree of electronic coupling between chromophores due to severe spectral congestion in the Q y band. 2DES extends previous methods by frequency-resolving an additional dimension to reveal the degree of static disorder and electronic coupling, as well as a detailed picture of energy and charge transfer dynamics that will allow tests of excitonic models of the reaction center. Our data show direct evidence of electronic coupling and rapid sub-ps energy transfer between "blue" and "red

  11. Two-Dimensional Numerical Evaluation of 1-D Multi-FM SSD Experiments on OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvydky, A.; Hohenberger, M.; Marozas, J. A.; Bonino, M. J.; Canning, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Kessler, T. J.; Kruschwitz, B. E.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    Adequate single-beam smoothing is crucial for successful direct-drive target implosions. One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) has been proposed to provide the required level of smoothing. A prototype multi-FM SSD system has been integrated into one beamline of the OMEGA EP Laser System and has been used in laser-driven planar-foil experiments to study the effectiveness of multi-FM SSD in reducing laser imprint. Recent experiments have achieved significantly improved signal-to-noise by employing a newly-qualified soft x-ray imaging diagnostic. Results of 2-D DRACO simulations will be compared with the available experimental data. The simulations include realistic time-dependent far-field spot intensity calculations that emulate the effect of the SSD and have a sufficiently fine computational mesh to resolve speckles. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates.

    PubMed

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.

  13. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates.

    PubMed

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque. PMID:25773968

  14. Enhanced job control language procedures for the SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karavitis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)

  15. Dynamical Models of SAURON and CALIFA Galaxies: 1D and 2D Rotational Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinova, Veselina; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; van den Bosch, R.

    2013-01-01

    The mass of a galaxy is the most important parameter to understand its structure and evolution. The total mass we can infer by constructing dynamical models that fit the motion of the stars and gas in the galaxy. The dark matter content then follows after subtracting the luminous matter inferred from colors and/or spectra. Here, we present the mass distribution of a sample of 18 late-type spiral (Sb-Sd) galaxies, using two-dimensional stellar kinematics obtained with the integral-field spectrograph SAURON. The observed second order velocity moments of these galaxies are fitted with solutions of the Axisymmetric Jeans equations and give us an accurate estimation of the mass-to-light ratio profiles and rotational curves. The rotation curves of the galaxies are obtained by the Asymmetric Drift Correction (ADC) and Multi-Gaussian Expansion (MGE) methods, corresponding to one- and two-dimensional mass distribution. Their comparison shows that the mass distribution based on the 2D stellar kinematics is much more reliable than 1D one. SAURON integral field of view looks at the inner parts of the galaxies in contrast with CALIFA survey. CALIFA survey provides PMAS/PPAK integral-field spectroscopic data of ~ 600 nearby galaxies as part of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area. We show the first CALIFA dynamical models of different morphological type of galaxies, giving the clue about the mass distribution of galaxies through the whole Hubble sequence and their evolution from the blue cloud to the red sequence.

  16. 1D and 2D Occam's Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data Applied in Volcano-Geothermal Area In Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariani, Elsi; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2016-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) magnetotelluric data inversion were conducted to reveal the subsurface resistivity structure beneath the eastern part of a volcano in Central Java, Indonesia. Fifteen magnetotelluric sounding data spanning two lines of investigation were inverted using Occam's inversion scheme. The result depict that there are extensively conductive layer (2-10 ohm meter) below the volcanic overburden. This conductive layer is interpreted as the clay cap resulted from thermal alteration. A higher resistivity layer (10-80 ohm meter) underlies the clay cap and is interpreted as the reservoir whose top boundaries vary between 1000 m above and 2000 m below sea level.

  17. Evaluation of the entropy consistent euler flux on 1D and 2D test problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Nur Khairunnisa Hanisah; Ismail, Farzad

    2012-06-01

    Perhaps most CFD simulations may yield good predictions of pressure and velocity when compared to experimental data. Unfortunately, these results will most likely not adhere to the second law of thermodynamics hence comprising the authenticity of predicted data. Currently, the test of a good CFD code is to check how much entropy is generated in a smooth flow and hope that the numerical entropy produced is of the correct sign when a shock is encountered. Herein, a shock capturing code written in C++ based on a recent entropy consistent Euler flux is developed to simulate 1D and 2D flows. Unlike other finite volume schemes in commercial CFD code, this entropy consistent flux (EC) function precisely satisfies the discrete second law of thermodynamics. This EC flux has an entropy-conserved part, preserving entropy for smooth flows and a numerical diffusion part that will accurately produce the proper amount of entropy, consistent with the second law. Several numerical simulations of the entropy consistent flux have been tested on two dimensional test cases. The first case is a Mach 3 flow over a forward facing step. The second case is a flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil while the third case is a hypersonic flow passing over a 2D cylinder. Local flow quantities such as velocity and pressure are analyzed and then compared with mainly the Roe flux. The results herein show that the EC flux does not capture the unphysical rarefaction shock unlike the Roe-flux and does not easily succumb to the carbuncle phenomenon. In addition, the EC flux maintains good performance in cases where the Roe flux is known to be superior.

  18. User's manual for DYNA2D: an explicit two-dimensional hydrodynamic finite-element code with interactive rezoning

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1982-02-01

    This revised report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional axisymmetric and plane strain finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 4-node solid elements, and the equations-of motion are integrated by the central difference method. An interactive rezoner eliminates the need to terminate the calculation when the mesh becomes too distorted. Rather, the mesh can be rezoned and the calculation continued. The command structure for the rezoner is described and illustrated by an example.

  19. Two-dimensional crystal melting and D4-D2-D0 on toric Calabi-Yau singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaka, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    We construct a two-dimensional crystal melting model which reproduces the BPS index of D2-D0 states bound to a non-compact D4-brane on an arbitrary toric CalabiYau singularity. The crystalline structure depends on the toric divisor wrapped by the D4-brane. The molten crystals are in one-to-one correspondence with the torus fixed points of the moduli space of the quiver gauge theory on D-branes. The F- and D-term constraints of the gauge theory are regarded as a generalization of the ADHM constraints on instantons. We also show in several examples that our model is consistent with the wall-crossing formula for the BPS index.

  20. Investigation on wide-band scattering of a 2-D target above 1-D randomly rough surface by FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Guo, Li-Xin; Jiao, Yong-Chang; Li, Ke

    2011-01-17

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with a pulse wave excitation is used to investigate the wide-band composite scattering from a two-dimensional(2-D) infinitely long target with arbitrary cross section located above a one-dimensional(1-D) randomly rough surface. The FDTD calculation is performed with a pulse wave incidence, and the 2-D representative time-domain scattered field in the far zone is obtained directly by extrapolating the currently calculated data on the output boundary. Then the 2-D wide-band scattering result is acquired by transforming the representative time-domain field to the frequency domain with a Fourier transform. Taking the composite scattering of an infinitely long cylinder above rough surface as an example, the wide-band response in the far zone by FDTD with the pulsed excitation is computed and it shows a good agreement with the numerical result by FDTD with the sinusoidal illumination. Finally, the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) from a 2-D target above 1-D rough surface versus the incident frequency, and the representative scattered fields in the far zone versus the time are analyzed in detail.

  1. Fully adiabatic 31P 2D-CSI with reduced chemical shift displacement error at 7 T--GOIA-1D-ISIS/2D-CSI.

    PubMed

    Chmelík, M; Kukurová, I Just; Gruber, S; Krššák, M; Valkovič, L; Trattnig, S; Bogner, W

    2013-05-01

    A fully adiabatic phosphorus (31P) two-dimensional (2D) chemical shift spectroscopic imaging sequence with reduced chemical shift displacement error for 7 T, based on 1D-image-selected in vivo spectroscopy, combined with 2D-chemical shift spectroscopic imaging selection, was developed. Slice-selective excitation was achieved by a spatially selective broadband GOIA-W(16,4) inversion pulse with an interleaved subtraction scheme before nonselective adiabatic excitation, and followed by 2D phase encoding. The use of GOIA-W(16,4) pulses (bandwidth 4.3-21.6 kHz for 10-50 mm slices) reduced the chemical shift displacement error in the slice direction ∼1.5-7.7 fold, compared to conventional 2D-chemical shift spectroscopic imaging with Sinc3 selective pulses (2.8 kHz). This reduction was experimentally demonstrated with measurements of an MR spectroscopy localization phantom and with experimental evaluation of pulse profiles. In vivo experiments in clinically acceptable measurement times were demonstrated in the calf muscle (nominal voxel volume, 5.65 ml in 6 min 53 s), brain (10 ml, 6 min 32 s), and liver (8.33 ml, 8 min 14 s) of healthy volunteers at 7 T. High reproducibility was found in the calf muscle at 7 T. In combination with adiabatic excitation, this sequence is insensitive to the B1 inhomogeneities associated with surface coils. This sequence, which is termed GOIA-1D-ISIS/2D-CSI (goISICS), has the potential to be applied in both clinical research and in the clinical routine.

  2. FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

    PubMed

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P M; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W; Dickinson, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

  3. Two-dimensional (2D) Chemiluminescence (CL) correlation spectroscopy for studying thermal oxidation of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Hagihara, Hideaki; Suda, Hiroyuki; Mizukado, Jyunji

    2016-11-01

    Application of the two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is extended to Chemiluminescence (CL) spectra of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) under thermally induced oxidation. Upon heating, the polymer chains of the iPP undergoes scissoring and fragmentation to develop several intermediates. While different chemical species provides the emission at different wavelength regions, entire feature of the time-dependent CL spectra of the iPP samples were complicated by the presence of overlapped contributions from singlet oxygen (1O2) and carbonyl species within sample. 2D correlation spectra showed notable enhancement of the spectral resolution to provide penetrating insight into the thermodynamics of the polymer system. For example, the, oxidation induce scissoring and fragmentation of the polymer chains to develop the carbonyl group. Further reaction results in the consumption of the carbonyl species and subsequent production of different 1O2 species each developed in different manner. Consequently, key information on the thermal oxidation can be extracted in a surprisingly simple manner without any analytical expression for the actual response curves of spectral intensity signals during the reaction.

  4. FireStem2D – A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires

    PubMed Central

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S.; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W.; Dickinson, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes. PMID:23894599

  5. Water dynamics in salt solutions studied with ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Michael D; Moilanen, David E; Wong, Daryl; Rosenfeld, Daniel E; Fenn, Emily E; Park, Sungnam

    2009-09-15

    Water is ubiquitous in nature, but it exists as pure water infrequently. From the ocean to biology, water molecules interact with a wide variety of dissolved species. Many of these species are charged. In the ocean, water interacts with dissolved salts. In biological systems, water interacts with dissolved salts as well as charged amino acids, the zwitterionic head groups of membranes, and other biological groups that carry charges. Water plays a central role in a vast number of chemical processes because of its dynamic hydrogen-bond network. A water molecule can form up to four hydrogen bonds in an approximately tetrahedral arrangement. These hydrogen bonds are continually being broken, and new bonds are being formed on a picosecond time scale. The ability of the hydrogen-bond network of water to rapidly reconfigure enables water to accommodate and facilitate chemical processes. Therefore, the influence of charged species on water hydrogen-bond dynamics is important. Recent advances in ultrafast coherent infrared spectroscopy have greatly expanded our understanding of water dynamics. Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is providing new observables that yield direct information on the fast dynamics of molecules in their ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions. The 2D IR vibrational echoes are akin to 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) but operate on time scales that are many orders of magnitude shorter. In a 2D IR vibrational echo experiment (see the Conspectus figure), three IR pulses are tuned to the vibrational frequency of interest, which in this case is the frequency of the hydroxyl stretching mode of water. The first two pulses "label" the initial molecular structures by their vibrational frequencies. The system evolves between pulses two and three, and the third pulse stimulates the emission of the vibrational echo pulse, which is the signal. The vibrational echo pulse is heterodyne, detected by combining it

  6. Numerical simulations of heavily polluted fine-grained sediment remobilization using 1D, 1D+, and 2D channel schematization.

    PubMed

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar

    2015-03-01

    This article used various hydrodynamic and sediment transport models to analyze the potential and the limits of different channel schematizations. The main aim was to select and evaluate the most suitable simulation method for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment. Three types of channel schematization were selected to study the flow potential for remobilizing fine-grained sediment in artificially modified channels. Schematization with a 1D cross-sectional horizontal plan, a 1D+ approach, splitting the riverbed into different functional zones, and full 2D mesh, adopted in MIKE by the DHI modeling suite, was applied to the study. For the case study, a 55-km stretch of the Bílina River, in the Czech Republic, Central Europe, which has been heavily polluted by the chemical and coal mining industry since the mid-twentieth century, was selected. Long-term exposure to direct emissions of toxic pollutants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulted in deposits of pollutants in fine-grained sediments in the riverbed. Simulations, based on three hydrodynamic model schematizations, proved that for events not exceeding the extent of the riverbed profile, the 1D schematization can provide comparable results to a 2D model. The 1D+ schematization can improve accuracy while keeping the benefits of high-speed simulation and low requirements of input DEM data, but the method's suitability is limited by the channel properties. PMID:25687259

  7. Proteomic analysis of ovomucoid hypersensitivity in mice by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE).

    PubMed

    Hobson, D J; Rupa, P; Diaz, G J; Zhang, H; Yang, M; Mine, Y; Turner, P V; Kirby, G M

    2007-12-01

    There is a need to develop reliable methods to assess the safety of genetically modified and other novel foods. The aim of this study was to identify protein biomarkers of food allergy in mice exposed to ovomucoid (OVM), a major food allergen found in chicken egg white. BALB/c mice were repeatedly sensitized by gavage with OVM and cholera toxin (CT) and control mice were exposed to a mixture of amino acids with CT. At the endpoint, all mice were challenged intraperitoneally with OVM and alum. Type-1 hypersensitivity was confirmed in OVM-sensitized mice by observation of clinical signs of anaphylaxis and elevated levels of plasma histamine, OVM-specific IgE and OVM-specific IgG by ELISA. Differential protein expression was assessed in albumin-depleted plasma as well as in mesenteric lymph node, liver, spleen, and ileum by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma proteins overexpressed in OVM-sensitized mice included haptoglobin (41-fold), serum amyloid A (19-fold) and peroxiredoxin-2 (1.9-fold). Further validation of these plasma proteins in other animal models of food allergy with different food allergens is required to assess their potential as candidate biomarkers for use in evaluating the allergenicity of novel foods.

  8. Plasma as a tool for growth of 1D and 2D nanomaterials and their conversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvelbar, Uros

    2015-09-01

    The growth of 1D and 2D nanostructures in low pressure oxygen plasma is presented with the special stress on metal-oxide nanowires and their deterministic growth mechanisms. Since the resulting nanostructures not always have required properties for applications their modifications are required. Therefore their conversions into different oxides or sulphites/nitrides are required with either molecules, atoms, electrons or photons.

  9. 1D/2D Carbon Nanomaterial-Polymer Dielectric Composites with High Permittivity for Power Energy Storage Applications.

    PubMed

    Dang, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Ming-Sheng; Zha, Jun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    With the development of flexible electronic devices and large-scale energy storage technologies, functional polymer-matrix nanocomposites with high permittivity (high-k) are attracting more attention due to their ease of processing, flexibility, and low cost. The percolation effect is often used to explain the high-k characteristic of polymer composites when the conducting functional fillers are dispersed into polymers, which gives the polymer composite excellent flexibility due to the very low loading of fillers. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets (GNs), as one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanomaterials respectively, have great potential for realizing flexible high-k dielectric nanocomposites. They are becoming more attractive for many fields, owing to their unique and excellent advantages. The progress in dielectric fields by using 1D/2D carbon nanomaterials as functional fillers in polymer composites is introduced, and the methods and mechanisms for improving dielectric properties, breakdown strength and energy storage density of their dielectric nanocomposites are examined. Achieving a uniform dispersion state of carbon nanomaterials and preventing the development of conductive networks in their polymer composites are the two main issues that still need to be solved in dielectric fields for power energy storage. Recent findings, current problems, and future perspectives are summarized.

  10. 1D/2D Carbon Nanomaterial-Polymer Dielectric Composites with High Permittivity for Power Energy Storage Applications.

    PubMed

    Dang, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Ming-Sheng; Zha, Jun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    With the development of flexible electronic devices and large-scale energy storage technologies, functional polymer-matrix nanocomposites with high permittivity (high-k) are attracting more attention due to their ease of processing, flexibility, and low cost. The percolation effect is often used to explain the high-k characteristic of polymer composites when the conducting functional fillers are dispersed into polymers, which gives the polymer composite excellent flexibility due to the very low loading of fillers. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets (GNs), as one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanomaterials respectively, have great potential for realizing flexible high-k dielectric nanocomposites. They are becoming more attractive for many fields, owing to their unique and excellent advantages. The progress in dielectric fields by using 1D/2D carbon nanomaterials as functional fillers in polymer composites is introduced, and the methods and mechanisms for improving dielectric properties, breakdown strength and energy storage density of their dielectric nanocomposites are examined. Achieving a uniform dispersion state of carbon nanomaterials and preventing the development of conductive networks in their polymer composites are the two main issues that still need to be solved in dielectric fields for power energy storage. Recent findings, current problems, and future perspectives are summarized. PMID:26865507

  11. User's Guide for ECAP2D: an Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis Program for Two Dimensional Oscillating Cascades, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1995-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.

  12. 2D MHD and 1D HD Models of a Solar Flare—a Comprehensive Comparison of the Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falewicz, R.; Rudawy, P.; Murawski, K.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Without any doubt, solar flaring loops possess a multithread internal structure that is poorly resolved, and there are no means to observe heating episodes and thermodynamic evolution of the individual threads. These limitations cause fundamental problems in numerical modeling of flaring loops, such as selection of a structure and a number of threads, and an implementation of a proper model of the energy deposition process. A set of one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic models of a flaring loop are developed to compare energy redistribution and plasma dynamics in the course of a prototypical solar flare. Basic parameters of the modeled loop are set according to the progenitor M1.8 flare recorded in AR 10126 on 2002 September 20 between 09:21 UT and 09:50 UT. The nonideal 1D models include thermal conduction and radiative losses of the optically thin plasma as energy-loss mechanisms, while the nonideal 2D models take into account viscosity and thermal conduction as energy-loss mechanisms only. The 2D models have a continuous distribution of the parameters of the plasma across the loop and are powered by varying in time and space along and across the loop heating flux. We show that such 2D models are an extreme borderline case of a multithread internal structure of the flaring loop, with a filling factor equal to 1. Nevertheless, these simple models ensure the general correctness of the obtained results and can be adopted as a correct approximation of the real flaring structures.

  13. 2D MHD AND 1D HD MODELS OF A SOLAR FLARE—A COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Falewicz, R.; Rudawy, P.; Murawski, K.; Srivastava, A. K. E-mail: rudawy@astro.uni.wroc.pl E-mail: asrivastava.app@iitbhu.ac.in

    2015-11-01

    Without any doubt, solar flaring loops possess a multithread internal structure that is poorly resolved, and there are no means to observe heating episodes and thermodynamic evolution of the individual threads. These limitations cause fundamental problems in numerical modeling of flaring loops, such as selection of a structure and a number of threads, and an implementation of a proper model of the energy deposition process. A set of one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic models of a flaring loop are developed to compare energy redistribution and plasma dynamics in the course of a prototypical solar flare. Basic parameters of the modeled loop are set according to the progenitor M1.8 flare recorded in AR 10126 on 2002 September 20 between 09:21 UT and 09:50 UT. The nonideal 1D models include thermal conduction and radiative losses of the optically thin plasma as energy-loss mechanisms, while the nonideal 2D models take into account viscosity and thermal conduction as energy-loss mechanisms only. The 2D models have a continuous distribution of the parameters of the plasma across the loop and are powered by varying in time and space along and across the loop heating flux. We show that such 2D models are an extreme borderline case of a multithread internal structure of the flaring loop, with a filling factor equal to 1. Nevertheless, these simple models ensure the general correctness of the obtained results and can be adopted as a correct approximation of the real flaring structures.

  14. Assessment and improvement of the 2D/1D method stability in DeCART

    SciTech Connect

    Stimpson, S.; Young, M.; Collins, B.; Kelley, B.; Downar, T.

    2013-07-01

    As part of ongoing work with Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the 2D/1D code, DeCART, has demonstrated some of the advantages of the 2D/1D method with respect to realistic, full-core analysis, particularly over explicit 3D transport methods, which generally have higher memory and computation requirements. The 2D/1D method performs 2D-radial transport sweeps coupled with ID-axial diffusion calculations to provide a full 3D simulation. DeCART employs the 2D method of characteristics for the radial sweeps and ID one-node nodal diffusion for the axial sweeps, coupling the two methods with transverse leakages to ensure a more consistent representation of the transport equation. It has been observed that refinement of the axial plane thickness leads to instabilities in the calculation scheme. This work assesses the sources of these instabilities and the approaches to improve them, especially with respect to negative scattering cross sections and the tightness of the 2D-radial/ID-axial coupling schemes. Fourier analyses show that the existing iteration scheme is not unconditionally stable, suggesting a tighter coupling scheme is required. For this reason 3D-CMFD has been implemented, among other developments, to ensure more stable calculation. A matrix of test cases has been used to assess the convergence, with the primary parameter being the axial plane thickness, which has been refined down to 1 cm. These cases demonstrate the issues observed and how the modification improve the stability. However, it is apparent that more work is necessary to ensure unconditional stability. (authors)

  15. 2D ESR image reconstruction from 1D projections using the modulated field gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páli, T.; Sass, L.; Horvat, L. I.; Ebert, B.

    A method for the reconstruction of 2D ESR images from 1 D projections which is based on the modulated field gradient method has been explored. The 2D distribution of spin-labeled stearic acid in oriented and unoriented dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine multilayers on a flat quartz support was determined. Such samples are potentially useful for the determination of lipid lateral diffusion in oriented multilayers by monitoring the spreading of a sharp concentration profile in one or two dimensions. The limitations of the method are discussed and the improvements which are needed for dynamic measurements are outlined.

  16. Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M.; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-01

    The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality.

  17. Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-13

    The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality. PMID:27232033

  18. A 2D/1D coupling neutron transport method based on the matrix MOC and NEM methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Zheng, Y.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2013-07-01

    A new 2D/1D coupling method based on the matrix MOC method (MMOC) and nodal expansion method (NEM) is proposed for solving the three-dimensional heterogeneous neutron transport problem. The MMOC method, used for radial two-dimensional calculation, constructs a response matrix between source and flux with only one sweep and then solves the linear system by using the restarted GMRES algorithm instead of the traditional trajectory sweeping process during within-group iteration for angular flux update. Long characteristics are generated by using the customization of commercial software AutoCAD. A one-dimensional diffusion calculation is carried out in the axial direction by employing the NEM method. The 2D and ID solutions are coupled through the transverse leakage items. The 3D CMFD method is used to ensure the global neutron balance and adjust the different convergence properties of the radial and axial solvers. A computational code is developed based on these theories. Two benchmarks are calculated to verify the coupling method and the code. It is observed that the corresponding numerical results agree well with references, which indicates that the new method is capable of solving the 3D heterogeneous neutron transport problem directly. (authors)

  19. 1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih

    2014-05-01

    Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond

  20. 2D materials. Graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems for energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Yu, Guihua; Stoller, Meryl; Tozzini, Valentina; Ferrari, Andrea C; Ruoff, Rodney S; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional crystals and hybrid systems showcase several key properties that can address emerging energy needs, in particular for the ever growing market of portable and wearable energy conversion and storage devices. Graphene's flexibility, large surface area, and chemical stability, combined with its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, make it promising as a catalyst in fuel and dye-sensitized solar cells. Chemically functionalized graphene can also improve storage and diffusion of ionic species and electric charge in batteries and supercapacitors. Two-dimensional crystals provide optoelectronic and photocatalytic properties complementing those of graphene, enabling the realization of ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices or systems for hydrogen production. Here, we review the use of graphene and related materials for energy conversion and storage, outlining the roadmap for future applications.

  1. Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of

  2. Users manual for AUTOMESH-2D: A program of automatic mesh generation for two-dimensional scattering analysis by the finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Chongyu; Volakis, John L.

    1990-01-01

    AUTOMESH-2D is a computer program specifically designed as a preprocessor for the scattering analysis of two dimensional bodies by the finite element method. This program was developed due to a need for reproducing the effort required to define and check the geometry data, element topology, and material properties. There are six modules in the program: (1) Parameter Specification; (2) Data Input; (3) Node Generation; (4) Element Generation; (5) Mesh Smoothing; and (5) Data File Generation.

  3. Metal-dielectric photonic crystal superlattice: 1D and 2D models and empty lattice approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kichin, G.; Weiss, T.; Gao, H.; Henzie, J.; Odom, T. W.; Tikhodeev, S. G.; Giessen, H.

    2012-10-01

    Periodic nanostructures are one of the main building blocks in modern nanooptics. They are used for constructing photonic crystals and metamaterials and provide optical properties that can be changed by adjusting the geometrical parameters of the structures. In this paper the optical properties of a photonic crystal slab with a 2D superlattice are discussed. The structure consists of a gold layer with a finite periodic pattern of air holes that is itself repeated periodically with a larger superperiod. We propose simplified 1D and 2D models to understand the physical nature of Wood's anomalies in the optical spectra of the investigated structure. The latter are attributed to the Rayleigh anomalies, surface plasmon Bragg resonances and the hole-localized plasmons.

  4. In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin

    2007-05-01

    In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples. PMID:17466778

  5. Introducing 2D Materials—a new multidisciplinary journal devoted to all aspects of graphene and related two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fal'ko, Vladimir I.

    2014-06-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing, I am pleased to announce the opening of 2D Materials. Research on two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology, and extending from fundamental science to novel applications. It is this situation which defines the scope and mission of 2D Materials, a new journal that will serve all sides of this multidisciplinary field by publishing urgent research of the highest quality and impact.

  6. 1D and 2D NMR studies of isobornyl acrylate - Methyl methacrylate copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Deepika; Hooda, Sunita; Brar, A. S.; Shankar, Ravi

    2011-10-01

    Isobornyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate (B/M) copolymers of different compositions were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using methyl-2-bromopropionate as an initiator and PMDETA copper complex as catalyst under nitrogen atmosphere at 70 °C. 1H NMR spectrum was used to determine the compositions of copolymer. The copolymer compositions were then used to determine the reactivity ratios of monomers. Reactivity ratios of co-monomers in B/M copolymer, determined from linear Kelen-Tudos method (KT) and non linear Error-in-Variable Method (EVM), are rB = 0.41 ± 0.11, rM = 1.11 ± 0.33 and rB = 0.52, rM = 1.31 respectively. The complete resonance assignments of 1H and 13C{ 1H} NMR spectra were carried out with the help of Distortion less Enhancement by Polarization Transfer (DEPT), two-dimensional Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC). 2D HSQC assignments were further confirmed by 2D Total Correlation Spectroscopy (TOCSY). The carbonyl carbon of B and M units and methyl carbon of M unit were assigned up to triad compositional and configurational sequences whereas β-methylene carbons were assigned up to tetrad compositional and configurational sequences. Similarly the methine carbon of B unit was assigned up to pentad level. 1,3 and 1,4 bond order couplings of carbonyl carbon and quaternary carbon resonances with methine, methylene and methyl protons were studied in detail using 2D Hetero Nuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC) spectra.

  7. Characterization of saturated MHD instabilities through 2D electron temperature profile reconstruction from 1D ECE measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertoli, M.; Horváth, L.; Pokol, G. I.; Igochine, V.; Barrera, L.

    2013-05-01

    A new method for the reconstruction of two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature profiles in the presence of saturated magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) modes from the one-dimensional (1D) electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic is presented. The analysis relies on harmonic decomposition of the electron temperature oscillations through short time Fourier transforms and requires rigid poloidal mode rotation as the only assumption. The method is applicable to any magnetic perturbation as long as the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers m and n are known. Its application to the case of a (m, n) = (1, 1) internal kink mode on ASDEX Upgrade is presented and a new way to estimate the mode displacement is explained. For such modes, it is shown that the higher order harmonics usually visible in the ECE spectrogram arise also for the pure m = n = 1 mode and that they cannot be directly associated with m = n > 1 magnetic perturbations. This method opens up new possibilities for electron heat transport studies in the presence of saturated MHD modes and a way to disentangle the impurity density contributions from electron temperature effects in the analysis of the soft x-ray data.

  8. 1-D and 2-D NMR-based metabolomics of earthworms exposed to endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in soil.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Jimmy; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J

    2013-04-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to investigate the toxic mode of action (MOA) of endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, and its degradation product, endosulfan sulfate, to Eisenia fetida earthworms in soil. Three soil concentrations (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) were used for both endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate. Both earthworm coelomic fluid (CF) and tissues were extracted and then analyzed using (1)H and (1)H-(13)C NMR techniques. A similar separation trajectory was observed for endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate-exposed earthworms in the mean principal component analysis (PCA) scores plot for both the earthworm CF and tissue extracts. A neurotoxic and apoptotic MOA was postulated for both endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate exposed earthworms as significant fluctuations in glutamine/GABA-glutamate cycle metabolites and spermidine were detected respectively. This study highlights the application of NMR-based metabolomics to understand molecular-level toxicity of persistent organochlorine pesticides and their degradation products directly in soil.

  9. Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-04-28

    Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ∼1000 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.

  10. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Maskaly, Karlene Rosera

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with

  11. Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-04-01

    Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ~1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor

  12. VARSAT2D: Finite-element analysis of variably saturated two-dimensional flow. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Nieber, J.L.; Friedel, M.J.; Munir, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This information circular describes a computer program called VARSAT2D, a comprehensive unsaturated fluid flow simulator developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. VARSAT2D solves for either a vertical or horizontal, transient or steady-state solution in variably saturated, heterogeneous, anisotropic porous media using the Galerkin finite-element approach. Simplex triangular elements are used. Moisture retention characteristics are described by specifying either the Brooks and Corey, Brutsaert, or Van Genuchten power functions, with hysteresis described using the Maulem independent domain model. Boundary conditions may include any combination of time-varying seepage, pressure along solution domain boundaries and/or at internal node points, unit hydraulic gradient at the lower boundary, and a uniform source and/or sink. The program should be a welcome addition for mining and environmental hydrologists, researchers, and engineers interested in modeling unsaturated fluid flow.

  13. In-situ 1-D and 2-D mapping of soil core and rock samples using the LIBS long spark

    SciTech Connect

    Rodolfa, C. T.; Cremers, D. A.; Ebinger, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    LIBS is being developed for stand-off interrogation of samples up to 20 m from a lander or rover. Stand-off capability is important to access targets not conveniently located for in-situ analysis. On the other hand, in-situ techniques are still important and are being developed for future missions such as MSL. Retrieved samples may consist of loose soils, subsurface soil cores, drilled rock cores, and ice cores. For these sample types, it is possible to employ LIBS analysis and take advantage of LIBS capabilities. These include: (1) rapid analysis, (2) good detection sensitivity for many elements, (3) good spatial resolution (3-100 microns), and (4) ability to clean a surface prior to analysis. Using LIBS, it is possible to perform a 1-dimensional analysis, for example, determining element concentrations along a soil core, or a 2-dimensional mapping of the sample surface using a unique 'long' spark. Two-dimensional sampling has been developed previously by focusing the laser pulses as small spots on the sample and then moving the sample a short distance between sampling locations. Although demonstrated, this method is time consuming, requiring a large number of shots to span even a small region (for 3 micron resolution, an area 600 x 480 microns sampled in {approx} 30 min using a 20 Hz laser). For a spacecraft instrument, the ability to more rapidly prepare a 2D elemental spatial map will be desirable. Here they discuss the use of LIBS for sampling along a core in 1D (detection of carbon) and for 2D mapping of a rock face.

  14. Longevity of duct tape in residential air distribution systems: 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D joints

    SciTech Connect

    Abushakra, Bass

    2002-05-30

    The aging tests conducted so far showed that duct tape tends to degrade in its performance as the joint it is applied to requires a geometrical description of a higher number of space dimensions (1-D, 2-D, 3-D). One-dimensional joints are the easiest to seal with duct tape, and thus the least to experience failure. Two-dimensional joints, such as the flexible duct core-to-collar joints tested in this study, are less likely to fail than three-dimensional collar-to-plenum joints, as the shrinkage could have a positive effect in tightening the joint. Three-dimensional joints are the toughest to seal and the most likely to experience failure. The 2-D flexible duct core-to-collar joints passed the six-month period of the aging test in terms of leakage, but with the exception of the foil-butyl tape, showed degradation in terms hardening, brittleness, partial peeling, shrinkage, wrinkling, delamination of the tape layers, flaking, cracking, bubbling, oozing and discoloration. The baking test results showed that the failure in the duct tape joints could be attributed to the type of combination of the duct tape and the material it is applied to, as the duct tape behaves differently with different substrates. Overall, the foil-butyl tape (Tape 4) had the best results, while the film tape (Tape 3) showed the most deterioration. The conventional duct tapes tested (Tape 1 and Tape 2) were between these two extremes, with Tape 2 performing better than Tape 1. Lastly, we found that plastic straps became discolored and brittle during the tests, and a couple of straps broke completely. Therefore, we recommend that clamping the duct-taped flexible core-to-collar joints should be done with metallic adjustable straps.

  15. Comparison of 1D and 2D modelling with soil erosion model SMODERP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Weyskrabova, Lenka; Zajicek, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The contribution presents a comparison of a runoff simulated by profile method (1D) and spatially distributed method (2D). Simulation model SMODERP is used for calculation and prediction of soil erosion and surface runoff from agricultural land. SMODERP is physically based model that includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. 1D model was developed in past, new 2D model was developed in last two years. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D model was developed as a tool for widespread GIS software ArcGIS. The physical relations were implemented through Python script. This script uses ArcGIS system tools for raster and vectors treatment of the inputs. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm in the preliminary version of 2D model. More advanced multiple flow algorithm is planned in the next version. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Surface runoff is described in the model by kinematic wave equation. Equation uses Manning roughness coefficient for surface runoff. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of forty measurements performed on the laboratory rainfall simulator. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Numerical stability of the model is solved by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamically changed depending on how flow is generated and developed. SMODERP is meant to be used not only for the research purposes, but mainly for the engineering practice. We also present how the input data can be obtained based on available resources (soil maps and data, land use, terrain models, field research, etc.) and how can

  16. DynaProt 2D: an advanced proteomic database for dynamic online access to proteomes and two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Oliver; Görg, Angelika

    2005-01-01

    DynaProt 2D presents an advanced online database for dynamic access to proteomes and two-dimensional (2D) gels. The database was designed to administer complete in silico proteomes and links them with experimental proteomic data in the manner of 2D electrophoresis gels (IPG-Dalt). The 2D gels serve as reference maps in 2D gel analysis as well as tools for navigation of the database to switch between experimental and predicted data. Therefore, all identified spots in the gels are clickable and linked with summarized protein information. The protein information tables contain calculated characteristics, which are often used in proteomics, such as the molecular weight, isoelectric point, codon adaptation index, grand average of hydropathicity, etc. The design of the database permits online extension of gel data and protein attributes without knowledge of any software language. Besides navigation via 2D gels, the clear graphical user interface permits quick and intuitive searching throughout complete proteomes and supports, e.g. the search for proteins with isoelectric points within pH ranges of interest or protein classes (e.g. ribosomal proteins or transporters). The first organism implemented in the database is Lactococcus lactis. The database is available at www.wzw.tum.de/proteomik/lactis. PMID:15608266

  17. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  18. Comparison of 1D and 2D CSR Models with Application to the FERMI@ELETTRA Bunch Compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, G.; Ellison, J.A.; Heinemann, K.

    2011-03-28

    We compare our 2D mean field (Vlasov-Maxwell) treatment of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects with 1D approximations of the CSR force which are commonly implemented in CSR codes. In our model we track particles in 4D phase space and calculate 2D forces [1]. The major cost in our calculation is the computation of the 2D force. To speed up the computation and improve 1D models we also investigate approximations to our exact 2D force. As an application, we present numerical results for the Fermi{at}Elettra first bunch compressor with the configuration described in [1].

  19. An algorithm for circular test and improved optical configuration by two-dimensional (2D) laser heterodyne interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shanzhi; Yu, Shengrui; Han, Qingfu; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H). Furthermore, an improved optical configuration with a single laser is presented based on a 2D laser heterodyne interferometer. Compared with the existed non-contact method, it has a more pure homogeneity of the laser sources of 2D displacement sensing for advanced metrology. The algorithm and modeling are both illustrated. And error budget is also achieved. At last, to validate them, test experiments for motion paths are implemented based on a gantry machining center. Contrast test results support the proposal.

  20. Surface plasmon hurdles leading to a strongly localized giant field enhancement on two-dimensional (2D) metallic diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Brûlé, Yoann; Demésy, Guillaume; Gralak, Boris; Popov, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    An extensive numerical study of diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a single gold cone on a plane gold substrate and by a periodical array of such cones shows formation of curls in the map of the Poynting vector. They result from the interference between the incident wave, the wave reflected by the substrate, and the field scattered by the cone(s). In case of a single cone, when going away from its base along the surface, the main contribution in the scattered field is given by the plasmon surface wave (PSW) excited on the surface. As expected, it has a predominant direction of propagation, determined by the incident wave polarization. Two particular cones with height approximately 1/6 and 1/3 of the wavelength are studied in detail, as they present the strongest absorption and field enhancement when arranged in a periodic array. While the PSW excited by the smaller single cone shows an energy flux globally directed along the substrate surface, we show that curls of the Poynting vector generated with the larger cone touch the diopter surface. At this point, their direction is opposite to the energy flow of the PSW, which is then forced to jump over the vortex regions. Arranging the cones in a two-dimensional subwavelength periodic array (diffraction grating), supporting a specular reflected order only, resonantly strengthens the field intensity at the tip of cones and leads to a field intensity enhancement of the order of 10 000 with respect to the incident wave intensity. The enhanced field is strongly localized on the rounded top of the cones. It is accompanied by a total absorption of the incident light exhibiting large angular tolerances. This strongly localized giant field enhancement can be of much interest in many applications, including fluorescence spectroscopy, label-free biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), nonlinear optical effects and photovoltaics.

  1. FTOM-2D: a two-dimensional approach to model the detailed thermal behavior of nonplanar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, B.; Stein, K.

    2015-10-01

    The Fraunhofer thermal object model (FTOM) predicts the temperature of an object as a function of the environmental conditions. The model has an outer layer exchanging radiation and heat with the environment and a stack of layers beyond modifying the thermal behavior. The innermost layer is at a constant or variable temperature called core temperature. The properties of the model (6 parameters) are fitted to minimize the difference between the prediction and a time series of measured temperatures. The model can be used for very different objects like backgrounds (e.g. meadow, forest, stone, or sand) or objects like vehicles. The two dimensional enhancement was developed to model more complex objects with non-planar surfaces and heat conduction between adjacent regions. In this model we call the small thermal homogenous interacting regions thermal pixels. For each thermal pixel the orientation and the identities of the adjacent pixels are stored in an array. In this version 7 parameters have to be fitted. The model is limited to a convex geometry to reduce the complexity of the heat exchange and allow for a higher number of thermal pixels. For the test of the model time series of thermal images of a test object (CUBI) were analyzed. The square sides of the cubes were modeled as 25 thermal pixels (5 × 5). In the time series of thermal images small areas in the size of the thermal pixels were analyzed to generate data files that can easily be read by the model. The program was developed with MATLAB and the final version in C++ using the OpenMP multiprocessor library. The differential equation for the heat transfer is the time consuming part in the computation and was programmed in C. The comparison show a good agreement of the fitted and not fitted thermal pixels with the measured temperatures. This indicates the ability of the model to predict the temperatures of the whole object.

  2. A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new “2D/1D” approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.

  3. Gap opening in graphene by 1D and 2D periodic corrugations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Ivan; Bratkovsky, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Using first-principles methods and symmetry arguments, we show that a graphene monolayer, which is periodically corrugated in one or two direction(s), can be either semimetal or semiconductor, depending on how strong corrugation is or how the initial symmetry is broken. In the case of 1D periodic ripples, a gap at the Dirac points opens up only due to (i) breaking of the inversion symmetry or equivalence between A and B sublattices and/or (ii) merging of two inequivalent Dirac points, D and -D. Since breaking the inversion symmetry has only relatively modest effect, a tangible gap can be mainly induced by mutual annihilation of the Dirac points, which requires large corrugations, close to mechanical breaking point. In contrast to 1D, the 2D ripples can additionally induce a semiconducting gap via mixing of electronic states belonging to two different K, K' valleys. In this case, a gap on the order of 0.5 eV can be opened up at strains safely lower than the graphene failure strain [1]. [4pt] [1] I.I. Naumov, A.M. Bratkovsky, arXiv:1104.0314v1.

  4. 1D and 2D Assembly of Plant Viruses for Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Wang

    2013-01-11

    The research focused on the development of novel bionanoparticle (BNP)-based materials, especially the assembly of chemically and genetically-tailored BNP at the interface between immiscible fluids. The chemical, physical, dynamical and mechanistic aspects have been studied in this research. In particular, rod-like tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based anisotropic nanorods were synthesized via RNA or polymer assisted assembling process. Such kind of TMV-rods offers an ideal model system for the mechanistic study of orienting and packing anisotropic nanoparticles, which may have great potential in the applications of photovoltaic and field emission devices. Specific objectives include: 1) Synthesize BNPs with controlled functionality at defined positions; 2) synthesize 1D nanorods with defined length via polymer or RNA assisted assembly of TMV or TMV coat proteins; 3) self-assemble and crosslink BNPs and TMV-nanorods at liquid-liquid interfaces; 4) quantitatively characterize the structural organization of the 1D and 2D BNP-assemblies using both small angle neutron scattering and synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering; and 5) develop methods to apply grazing incidence small angle X-ray/neutron scattering to investigate the assemblies of BNPs.

  5. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy for dynamic absorption behavior of oleic acid (OA) onto silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genkawa, Takuma; Kanematsu, Wataru; Shinzawa, Hideyuki

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic absorption behavior of oleic acid (OA) onto silica gel was probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Once OA is injected into silica gel placed on a horizontal attenuated total reflectance prism, the silica gel starts to absorb the OA molecules due to the molecular-level interaction based on hydrogen bonding between the COOH of OA and the OH of silica gel. The substantial level of variation of spectral feature is readily observed during the absorption of OA onto silica gel. 2D correlation analysis of the time-dependent IR spectra reveals fine details of absorption dynamics of OA molecules depending on the molecular structure. The predominant absorption of the monomers occurs at the onset of the absorption, and it is then quickly followed by the decrease in the dimers. In other words, the dissociation of the liquid crystals occurs via the disuniting of the tightly packed OA dimers.

  6. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of Nylon 6 during quenching studied by projection two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.

  7. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-10-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).

  8. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489

  9. Imidization induced structural changes of 6FDA-ODA poly(amic acid) by two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyemi; Chae, Boknam; Im, Ji Hyuk; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Seung Woo

    2014-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) gradient mapping method and 2D correlation analysis of in situ FTIR spectra were used to probe the thermal imidization-induced spectral changes in 6FDA-ODA poly(amic acid) (PAA) films prepared by a reaction of 4,4‧-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and 4,4‧-oxydianiline (ODA) in N,N‧-dimethylacetamide. Large spectral changes in the in situ FTIR spectra of 6FDA-ODA PAA film were observed in the range, 130-230 °C. The thermal imidization of 6FDA-ODA PAA films strongly affects the spectral changes in amic acid groups in the PAA unit. The spectral change in the amic acid groups occurred before those of the imide ring. The cyclic anhydrides, isoimdes and intermolecular links are present together with the imide ring in the thermally-cured 6FDA-ODA PAA films.

  10. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation study of the structural characterization of a surface immobilized polypeptide film stimulated by pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Boknam; Son, Seok Ho; Kwak, Young Jun; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-11-01

    The pH-induced structural changes to surface immobilized poly (L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) films were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. Significant spectral changes were observed in the FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA film between pH 6 and 7. The 2D correlation spectra constructed from the pH-dependent FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA films revealed the spectral changes induced by the alternations of the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group in the PLGA side chain. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, weak spectral changes in the secondary structure of the PLGA main chain were induced by deprotonation of the carboxylic acid side group.

  11. One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4

    DOE PAGES

    Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.

    2015-12-08

    In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ionsmore » on the spinel lattice.« less

  12. One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4

    PubMed Central

    Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S.-W.; Ratcliff, W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ions on the spinel lattice. PMID:26644220

  13. One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4

    SciTech Connect

    Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.

    2015-12-08

    In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ions on the spinel lattice.

  14. One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S.-W.; Ratcliff, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ions on the spinel lattice.

  15. Continuous fabrication of scalable 2-dimensional (2D) micro- and nanostructures by sequential 1D mechanical patterning processes.

    PubMed

    Ok, Jong G; Panday, Ashwin; Lee, Taehwa; Jay Guo, L

    2014-12-21

    We present a versatile and simple methodology for continuous and scalable 2D micro/nano-structure fabrication via sequential 1D patterning strokes enabled by dynamic nano-inscribing (DNI) and vibrational indentation patterning (VIP) as well as a 'single-stroke' 2D patterning using a DNI tool in VIP. PMID:25363145

  16. Influence of Transport on Two-Dimensional Model Simulation. Tracer Sensitivity to 2-D Model Transport. 1; Long Lived Tracers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we examine the sensitivity of long lived tracers to changes in the base transport components in our 2-D model. Changes to the strength of the residual circulation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere and changes to the lower stratospheric K(sub zz) had similar effects in that increasing the transport rates decreased the overall stratospheric mean age, and increased the rate of removal of material from the stratosphere. Increasing the stratospheric K(sub yy) increased the mean age due to the greater recycling of air parcels through the middle atmosphere, via the residual circulation, before returning to the troposphere. However, increasing K(sub yy) along with self-consistent increases in the corresponding planetary wave drive, which leads to a stronger residual circulation, more than compensates for the K(sub yy)-effect, and produces significantly younger ages throughout the stratosphere. Simulations with very small tropical stratospheric K(sub yy) decreased the globally averaged age of air by as much as 25% in the middle and upper stratosphere, and resulted in substantially weaker vertical age gradients above 20 km in the extratropics. We found only very small stratospheric tracer sensitivity to the magnitude of the horizontal mixing across the tropopause, and to the strength of the mesospheric gravity wave drag and diffusion used in the model. We also investigated the transport influence on chemically active tracers and found a strong age-tracer correlation, both in concentration and calculated lifetimes. The base model transport gives the most favorable overall comparison with a variety of inert tracer observations, and provides a significant improvement over our previous 1995 model transport. Moderate changes to the base transport were found to provide modest agreement with some of the measurements. Transport scenarios with residence times ranging from moderately shorter to slightly longer relative to the base case simulated N2O lifetimes

  17. 1-D and 2-D Probabilistic Inversions of Fault Zone Guided Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulley, A.; Eccles, J. D.; Kaipio, J. P.; Malin, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Fault Zone Guided Waves (FZGWs) are seismic coda that are trapped by the low velocity damage zone of faults. Inversions of these phases can be carried out using their measured dispersion and a Bayesian probability approach. This method utilises a Markov chain Monte Carlo which allows uncertainties and trade-offs to be quantified. Accordingly we have developed a scheme that estimates the dispersion curve and amplitude response variability from a FZGW record. This method allows the computation of both the point estimates and the covariance of the dispersion curve. The subsequent estimation of fault zone parameters is then based on a Gaussian model for the dispersion curve. We then show that inversions using FZGW dispersion data can only resolve fault zone velocity contrast and fault zone width - it leaves densities, absolute country rock velocities and the earthquake location unresolved. We show that they do however significantly affect the estimated fault zone velocities and widths. As these parameters cannot be resolved, we allow for their effects on the estimates of fault zone width and velocity contrast by using the Bayesian approximation error method. We show that using this method reduces computational time from days to minutes and the associated loss of accuracy is insignificant compared to carrying out the inversion on all parameters. We have extended our scheme to 2-D using 1-D slices. The Bayesian approximation error methodology is further employed to provide a 'correction term' with uncertainty for the 1-D slice approximation. We investigate these features with both synthetic data and FZGW data from the Alpine Fault of New Zealand.

  18. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038

  19. Spectral functions in the 1D and 2D Bose Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, Robert; Duchon, Eric; Trivedi, Nandini

    2014-03-01

    We use state of the art numerical techniques including quantum Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods to obtain the low energy excitation spectra in the superfluid and Mott-insulator phases of the Bose Hubbard model. These results are checked in 1D against Bethe Ansatz and tDMRG results and extended to 2D where such approaches are impossible. In the superfluid, we find linearly dispersing Bogoliubov sound modes as well as additional gapped modes broadened by interaction effects. In the Mott insulator, we find evidence for a finite gap and well defined quasiparticle excitations. We examine properties such as the excitation lifetime, density of states, and speed of sound as the system is tuned across the quantum phase transition that separates the superfluid and Mott states. These results provide an important theoretical framework for upcoming ultracold atom experiments in one and two dimensions. We acknowledge support from the NSF DMR-0907275 (R.I., E.D. and N.T.).

  20. Study of aging in oil paintings by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spyros, Apostolos; Anglos, Demetrios

    2004-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is proposed as an efficient analytical tool in the study of painted artworks. The binding medium from two original oil paintings, dated from the early 20th and the late 17th century, was studied via high-resolution 1D and 2D NMR, establishing the advanced state of hydrolysis and oxidation of the oil paint. Studies of the solvent-extractable component from model samples of various drying oils, raw oil paints, and aged oil paints allowed the definition of several markers based on the integral ratios of various chemical species present in the 1H and 13C NMR spectra. These markers are sensitive to hydrolytic and oxidative processes that reflect the extent of aging in oil paintings. The rapidity, simplicity, and nondestructive nature of the proposed analytical NMR methodology represents a great advantage, since the usually minute sample quantities available from original artwork can be subsequently analyzed further by other analytical techniques, if necessary. PMID:15373425

  1. Communication: two-dimensional gas-phase coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (2D-CARS): simultaneous planar imaging and multiplex spectroscopy in a single laser shot.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J

    2013-06-14

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been widely used as a powerful tool for chemical sensing, molecular dynamics measurements, and rovibrational spectroscopy since its development over 30 years ago, finding use in fields of study as diverse as combustion diagnostics, cell biology, plasma physics, and the standoff detection of explosives. The capability for acquiring resolved CARS spectra in multiple spatial dimensions within a single laser shot has been a long-standing goal for the study of dynamical processes, but has proven elusive because of both phase-matching and detection considerations. Here, by combining new phase matching and detection schemes with the high efficiency of femtosecond excitation of Raman coherences, we introduce a technique for single-shot two-dimensional (2D) spatial measurements of gas phase CARS spectra. We demonstrate a spectrometer enabling both 2D plane imaging and spectroscopy simultaneously, and present the instantaneous measurement of 15,000 spatially correlated rotational CARS spectra in N2 and air over a 2D field of 40 mm(2). PMID:23781772

  2. Communication: Two-dimensional gas-phase coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (2D-CARS): Simultaneous planar imaging and multiplex spectroscopy in a single laser shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been widely used as a powerful tool for chemical sensing, molecular dynamics measurements, and rovibrational spectroscopy since its development over 30 years ago, finding use in fields of study as diverse as combustion diagnostics, cell biology, plasma physics, and the standoff detection of explosives. The capability for acquiring resolved CARS spectra in multiple spatial dimensions within a single laser shot has been a long-standing goal for the study of dynamical processes, but has proven elusive because of both phase-matching and detection considerations. Here, by combining new phase matching and detection schemes with the high efficiency of femtosecond excitation of Raman coherences, we introduce a technique for single-shot two-dimensional (2D) spatial measurements of gas phase CARS spectra. We demonstrate a spectrometer enabling both 2D plane imaging and spectroscopy simultaneously, and present the instantaneous measurement of 15 000 spatially correlated rotational CARS spectra in N2 and air over a 2D field of 40 mm2.

  3. Communication: Two-dimensional gas-phase coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (2D-CARS): Simultaneous planar imaging and multiplex spectroscopy in a single laser shot

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been widely used as a powerful tool for chemical sensing, molecular dynamics measurements, and rovibrational spectroscopy since its development over 30 years ago, finding use in fields of study as diverse as combustion diagnostics, cell biology, plasma physics, and the standoff detection of explosives. The capability for acquiring resolved CARS spectra in multiple spatial dimensions within a single laser shot has been a long-standing goal for the study of dynamical processes, but has proven elusive because of both phase-matching and detection considerations. Here, by combining new phase matching and detection schemes with the high efficiency of femtosecond excitation of Raman coherences, we introduce a technique for single-shot two-dimensional (2D) spatial measurements of gas phase CARS spectra. We demonstrate a spectrometer enabling both 2D plane imaging and spectroscopy simultaneously, and present the instantaneous measurement of 15, 000 spatially correlated rotational CARS spectra in N2 and air over a 2D field of 40 mm2.

  4. The newly developed three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) thyroid ultrasound are strongly correlated, but 2D overestimates thyroid volume in the presence of nodules.

    PubMed

    Rago, T; Bencivelli, W; Scutari, M; Di Cosmo, C; Rizzo, C; Berti, P; Miccoli, P; Pinchera, A; Vitti, P

    2006-05-01

    The newly developed three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) thyroid ultrasound (US) were compared in assessing thyroid volume (TV) in 104 patients: 53 had an isolated thyroid nodule, 32 toxic diffuse goiter, 17 non-toxic multinodular goiter, 1 toxic multinodular goiter and 1 a toxic adenoma. A real-time Technos apparatus (Esaote SpA, Italy) with a 7,5 MHz linear transducer was used. The volume of thyroid lobes by 2D was calculated according to the ellipsoid formula. In the same session, TV by 3D US was calculated using a probe tracking system (in vivo ScanNT Esaote 3.4 MedCom. Darmasdt) and software to reconstruct 3D images, directly giving the lobe volume. There was a very good agreement between 2D and 3D, but in 94/208 lobes with nodular lesions 2D showed a 10% systematic overestimation compared to 3D, the percentage error being higher in lobes with lower volumes. A possible explanation for this result is the inadequacy of the ellipsoid formula in forecasting the correct lobe profile in the presence of nodules. This intrinsic defect of 2D US should be taken into account when evaluating TV in patients with nodular goiter.

  5. Comparison of the 1D flux theory with a 2D hydrodynamic secondary settling tank model.

    PubMed

    Ekama, G A; Marais, P

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of the 1D idealized flux theory (1DFT) for design of secondary settling tanks (SSTs) is evaluated by comparing its predicted maximum surface overflow (SOR) and solids loading (SLR) rates with that calculated from the 2D hydrodynamic model SettlerCAD using as a basis 35 full scale SST stress tests conducted on different SSTs with diameters from 30 to 45m and 2.25 to 4.1 m side water depth, with and without Stamford baffles. From the simulations, a relatively consistent pattern appeared, i.e. that the 1DFT can be used for design but its predicted maximum SLR needs to be reduced by an appropriate flux rating, the magnitude of which depends mainly on SST depth and hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Simulations of the sloping bottom shallow (1.5-2.5 m SWD) Dutch SSTs tested by STOWa and the Watts et al. SST, all with doubled SWDs, and the Darvill new (4.1 m) and old (2.5 m) SSTs with interchanged depths, were run to confirm the sensitivity of the flux rating to depth and HLR. Simulations with and without a Stamford baffle were also done. While the design of the internal features of the SST, such as baffling, have a marked influence on the effluent SS concentration for underloaded SSTs, these features appeared to have only a small influence on the flux rating, i.e. capacity, of the SST, In the meantime until more information is obtained, it would appear that from the simulations so far that the flux rating of 0.80 of the 1DFT maximum SLR recommended by Ekama and Marais remains a reasonable value to apply in the design of full scale SSTs--for deep SSTs (4 m SWD) the flux rating could be increased to 0.85 and for shallow SSTs (2.5 m SWD) decreased to 0.75. It is recommended that (i) while the apparent interrelationship between SST flux rating and depth suggests some optimization of the volume of the SST, that this be avoided and that (ii) the depth of the SST be designed independently of the surface area as is usually the practice and once selected, the

  6. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging analysis of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite by multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.

  7. In-plane heterojunctions enable multiphasic two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets as efficient photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Rui; Liang, Liangbo; Hood, Zachary D.; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander; Ievlev, Anton V.; Come, Jeremy; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Wang, Hui; Ma, Cheng; et al

    2016-08-30

    Two-dimensional (2D) single-layer MoS2 nanosheets are demonstrated as efficient photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water reduction, thanks to specific in-plane heterojunctions constructed in the MoS2 monolayer. These functional heterojunctions are formed among the different phases of chemically exfoliated MoS2 monolayers: semiconducting 2H, metallic 1T, and quasi-metallic 1T' phases. The proportion of the three MoS2 phases can be systematically controlled via thermal annealing of the nanosheets. Interestingly, a volcano relationship is observed between the photocatalytic HER activity and the annealing temperature with an optimum activity obtained after annealing at 60 °C. First-principles calculations were integrated with experimental studies tomore » shed light on the role of the multiphases of MoS2 and reveal that optimum photocatalytic HER activity results from the formation of the in-plane heterojunctions between 1T' MoS2 and 2H MoS2. Importantly, this facilitates not only balanced light absorption and charge generation by the 2H phase, efficient charge separation at the 1T'/2H interface, but also favorable HER over the basal sites of 1T' MoS2. Furthermore, our work manifests how the confluence of the optical, electronic and chemical properties of 2D MoS2 monolayers can be fully captured for efficient photocatalytic water reduction.« less

  8. Gold-induced nanowires on the Ge(100) surface yield a 2D and not a 1D electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, N.; Heimbuch, R.; Eliëns, S.; Smit, S.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Caux, J.-S.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Golden, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    Atomic nanowires on semiconductor surfaces induced by the adsorption of metallic atoms have attracted a lot of attention as possible hosts of the elusive, one-dimensional Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. The Au/Ge(100) system in particular is the subject of controversy as to whether the Au-induced nanowires do indeed host exotic, 1D (one-dimensional) metallic states. In light of this debate, we report here a thorough study of the electronic properties of high quality nanowires formed at the Au/Ge(100) surface. The high-resolution ARPES data show the low-lying Au-induced electronic states to possess a dispersion relation that depends on two orthogonal directions in k space. Comparison of the E (kx,ky) surface measured using high-resolution ARPES to tight-binding calculations yields hopping parameters in the two different directions that differ by approximately factor of two. Additionally, by pinpointing the Au-induced surface states in the first, second, and third surface Brillouin zones and analyzing their periodicity in k||, the nanowire propagation direction seen clearly in STM can be imported into the ARPES data. We find that the larger of the two hopping parameters corresponds, in fact, to the direction perpendicular to the nanowires (tperp). This proves that the Au-induced electron pockets possess a two-dimensional, closed Fermi surface, and this firmly places the Au/Ge(100) nanowire system outside potential hosts of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. We combine these ARPES data with scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements of the spatially resolved electronic structure and find that the spatially straight—wirelike—conduction channels observed up to energies of order one electron volt below the Fermi level do not originate from the Au-induced states seen in the ARPES data. The former are rather more likely to be associated with bulk Ge states that are localized to the subsurface region. Despite our proof of the 2D (two-dimentional) nature of the Au

  9. Spring phytoplankton bloom and associated lower trophic level food web dynamics on Georges Bank: 1-D and 2-D model studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Rubao; Chen, Changsheng; Franks, Peter J. S.; Townsend, David W.; Durbin, Edward G.; Beardsley, Robert C.; Gregory Lough, R.; Houghton, Robert W.

    2006-11-01

    A coupled biological-physical model was developed and tested in one-dimensional (1-D, vertical) and two-dimensional (2-D, cross-sectional) domains to examine the spring phytoplankton bloom and associated lower trophic level food web dynamics on Georges Bank (GB). The biological model consists of nine compartments: dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and silicate), phytoplankton (large and small size classes), zooplankton (large and small size classes), and detrital organic nitrogen and biogenic silica. The 1-D model results showed that in the shallow central bank, the timing and duration of spring blooms are closely linked to the light intensity and its downward penetration, while the intensity of blooms is regulated by initial nutrient concentrations and zooplankton grazing pressure. In the deeper flank area, the bloom dynamics is directly controlled by the seasonal development of stratification. The interactions between the shallow and deep regions of the bank were examined by a 2-D model, which showed that the cross-sectional gradients of biological quantities were caused mainly by the shallow-deep topographic transition and tidal mixing. Between the shallow and deep regions, a possible phytoplankton maximum concentration area was seen in the model at the time before the formation of the tidal-mixing front. Once the tidal-mixing front was established during late spring, the model showed a relatively high concentration of phytoplankton near the front as the result of the tidally driven up-front nutrient flux. Both the 1-D and 2-D models captured the basic seasonal cycles of the nutrients and phytoplankton in the central bank, but failed to reproduce those patterns in the deep flank regions, where horizontal advection might play a significant role.

  10. Stability and accuracy of 3D neutron transport simulations using the 2D/1D method in MPACT

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, Benjamin; Stimpson, Shane; Kelley, Blake W.; Young, Mitchell T. H.; Kochunas, Brendan; Graham, Aaron; Larsen, Edward W.; Downar, Thomas; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-08-25

    We derived a consistent “2D/1D” neutron transport method from the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, to calculate fuel-pin-resolved neutron fluxes for realistic full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) problems. The 2D/1D method employs the Method of Characteristics to discretize the radial variables and a lower order transport solution to discretize the axial variable. Our paper describes the theory of the 2D/1D method and its implementation in the MPACT code, which has become the whole-core deterministic neutron transport solver for the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator VERA-CS. We also performed several applications on both leadership-class and industry-classmore » computing clusters. Results are presented for whole-core solutions of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 and compared to both continuous-energy Monte Carlo results and plant data.« less

  11. Advanced Nodal P3/SP3 Axial Transport Solvers for the MPACT 2D/1D Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Stimpson, Shane G; Collins, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    As part of its initiative to provide multiphysics simulations of nuclear reactor cores, the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is developing the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS). The MPACT code, which is the primary neutron transport solver of VERA-CS, employs the two-dimensional/one-dimensional (2D/1D) method to solve 3-dimensional neutron transport problems and provide sub-pin-level resolution of the power distribution. While 2D method of characteristics is used to solve for the transport effects within each plane, 1D-nodal methods are used axially. There have been extensive studies of the 2D/1D method with a variety nodal methods, and the P3/SP3 solver has proved to be an effective method of providing higher-fidelity solutions while maintaining a low computational burden.The current implementation in MPACT wraps a one-node nodal expansion method (NEM) kernel for each moment, iterating between them and performing multiple sweeps to resolve flux distributions. However, it has been observed that this approach is more sensitive to convergence problems. This paper documents the theory and application two new nodal P3/SP3 approaches to be used within the 2D/1D method in MPACT. These two approaches aim to provide enhanced stability compared with the pre-existing one-node approach. Results from the HY-NEM-SP3 solver show that the accuracy is consistent with the one-node formulations and provides improved convergence for some problems; but the solver has issues with cases in thin planes. Although the 2N-SENM-SP3 solver is still under development, it is intended to resolve the issues with HY-NEM-SP3 but it will incur some additional computational burden by necessitating an additional 1D-CMFD-P3 solver to generate the second moment cell-averaged scalar flux.

  12. Tunable Plasmonic Reflection by Bound 1D Electron States in a 2D Dirac Metal.

    PubMed

    Jiang, B-Y; Ni, G X; Pan, C; Fei, Z; Cheng, B; Lau, C N; Bockrath, M; Basov, D N; Fogler, M M

    2016-08-19

    We show that the surface plasmons of a two-dimensional Dirac metal such as graphene can be reflected by linelike perturbations hosting one-dimensional electron states. The reflection originates from a strong enhancement of the local optical conductivity caused by optical transitions involving these bound states. We propose that the bound states can be systematically created, controlled, and liquidated by an ultranarrow electrostatic gate. Using infrared nanoimaging, we obtain experimental evidence for the locally enhanced conductivity of graphene induced by a carbon nanotube gate, which supports this theoretical concept. PMID:27588873

  13. Tunable Plasmonic Reflection by Bound 1D Electron States in a 2D Dirac Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Ni, G. X.; Pan, C.; Fei, Z.; Cheng, B.; Lau, C. N.; Bockrath, M.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the surface plasmons of a two-dimensional Dirac metal such as graphene can be reflected by linelike perturbations hosting one-dimensional electron states. The reflection originates from a strong enhancement of the local optical conductivity caused by optical transitions involving these bound states. We propose that the bound states can be systematically created, controlled, and liquidated by an ultranarrow electrostatic gate. Using infrared nanoimaging, we obtain experimental evidence for the locally enhanced conductivity of graphene induced by a carbon nanotube gate, which supports this theoretical concept.

  14. Structure elucidation of organic compounds from natural sources using 1D and 2D NMR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Gulacti; Ulubelen, Ayhan

    2007-05-01

    In our continuing studies on Lamiaceae family plants including Salvia, Teucrium, Ajuga, Sideritis, Nepeta and Lavandula growing in Anatolia, many terpenoids, consisting of over 50 distinct triterpenoids and steroids, and over 200 diterpenoids, several sesterterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids along with many flavonoids and other phenolic compounds have been isolated. For Salvia species abietanes, for Teucrium and Ajuga species neo-clerodanes for Sideritis species ent-kaurane diterpenes are characteristic while nepetalactones are specific for Nepeta species. In this review article, only some interesting and different type of skeleton having constituents, namely rearranged, nor- or rare diterpenes, isolated from these species will be presented. For structure elucidation of these natural diterpenoids intensive one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques ( 1H, 13C, APT, DEPT, NOE/NOESY, 1H- 1H COSY, HETCOR, COLOC, HMQC/HSQC, HMBC, SINEPT) were used besides mass and some other spectroscopic methods.

  15. Final LDRD report : the physics of 1D and 2D electron gases in III-nitride heterostructure NWs.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Arslan, Ilke; Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Morales, Eugenia T.; Leonard, Francois Leonard; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Talin, Albert Alec; Prasankumar, Rohit P.; Lin, Yong

    2009-09-01

    The proposed work seeks to demonstrate and understand new phenomena in novel, freestanding III-nitride core-shell nanowires, including 1D and 2D electron gas formation and properties, and to investigate the role of surfaces and heterointerfaces on the transport and optical properties of nanowires, using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Obtaining an understanding of these phenomena will be a critical step that will allow development of novel, ultrafast and ultraefficient nanowire-based electronic and photonic devices.

  16. In vivo 1D and 2D correlation MR spectroscopy of the soleus muscle at 7T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Saadallah; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Wald, Lawrence L.; Mountford, Carolyn E.

    2010-05-01

    AimThis study aims to (1) undertake and analyse 1D and 2D MR correlation spectroscopy from human soleus muscle in vivo at 7T, and (2) determine T1 and T2 relaxation time constants at 7T field strength due to their importance in sequence design and spectral quantitation. MethodSix healthy, male volunteers were consented and scanned on a 7T whole-body scanner (Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany). Experiments were undertaken using a 28 cm diameter detunable birdcage coil for signal excitation and an 8.5 cm diameter surface coil for signal reception. The relaxation time constants, T1 and T2 were recorded using a STEAM sequence, using the 'progressive saturation' method for the T1 and multiple echo times for T2. The 2D L-Correlated SpectroscopY (L-COSY) method was employed with 64 increments (0.4 ms increment size) and eight averages per scan, with a total time of 17 min. ResultsT1 and T2 values for the metabolites of interest were determined. The L-COSY spectra obtained from the soleus muscle provided information on lipid content and chemical structure not available, in vivo, at lower field strengths. All molecular fragments within multiple lipid compartments were chemically shifted by 0.20-0.26 ppm at this field strength. 1D and 2D L-COSY spectra were assigned and proton connectivities were confirmed with the 2D method. ConclusionIn vivo 1D and 2D spectroscopic examination of muscle can be successfully recorded at 7T and is now available to assess lipid alterations as well as other metabolites present with disease. T1 and T2 values were also determined in soleus muscle of male healthy volunteers.

  17. Comparison between a 1D and a 2D numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R. H.; Elmegaard, Brian; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders

    2008-05-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration system represents an environmentally attractive alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration. This paper compares the results of two numerical AMR models: (1) a 1D finite difference model and (2) a 2D finite element model. Both models simulate a reciprocating AMR and can determine the cyclical steady-state temperature profile of the system as well as performance parameters such as the refrigeration capacity, the work input and the coefficient of performance (COP). The models are used to analyse an AMR with a regenerator made of flat parallel plates of gadolinium operating in the presence of a 1 T magnetic field. The results are used to discuss under which circumstances a 1D model is insufficient and a 2D model is necessary. The results indicate that when the temperature gradients in the AMR perpendicular to the flow are small a 1D model obtains accurate results of overall results such as the refrigeration capacity but that a 2D model is required for a detailed analysis of the phenomena occurring inside the AMR.

  18. Dimensional reduction study of piezoelectric ceramics constitutive equations from 3-D to 2-D and 1-D.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meiling; Leighton, Glenn

    2008-11-01

    Accurate performance evaluation is crucial to the design and development of macro/micro-sized piezoelectric devices, and key to this is the proper use of the stiffness/ compliance and piezoelectric coefficients of the piezoelectric ceramics involved. Although the literature points out effective piezoelectric coefficients e(31,f) and d(33,f) for thin film materials and reduced dimensionality of equations for bulk material, the elastic and piezoelectric coefficients remain unchanged from the 3-D equations in most reported 1-D and 2-D analyses of the macro/micro-sized devices involving the e form of the constitutive equations. The use of unchanged coefficients leads to variations between numerically predicted and experimental results in most devices. To understand effects of the dimensional reduction from 3-D to 2-D and 1-D on stiffness/compliance and piezoelectric coefficients, this paper derives the 2-D and 1-D constitutive equations from the 3-D equations, focusing on the discussion of often-required device configurations for sensor and actuator design and analysis. Two modified coefficients are proposed, termed reduced and enhanced, which enable better understanding of effects of the dimensional reduction and also effects on the design and analysis of sensors and actuators.

  19. Plasmonic spectrum on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle pairs with different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Huang, Jin-Wei; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the near field intensity and absorption spectra of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle (MNP) pairs using the finite element method (FEM) and taking into account the different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications are investigated. A tunable optical spectrum corresponding to the transverse SPR modes is observed. The peak resonance wavelength (λ res) can be shifted to red as the core patterns in rod-shape MNPs have been changed. We find that the 2D periodic array of core–shell MNP pairs (case 2) exhibit a red shifted SPR that can be tuned the gap enhancement and absorption efficiency simultaneously over an extended wavelength range. The tunable optical performances give us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the periodic array of rod-shape MNP pairs on SPRs that can be as a promising candidate for plasmonic biosensor and solar cell applications.

  20. Engineering of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for carrier multiplication: Core/shell, 1D, and 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qianglu

    Near infrared emitting semiconductors have been used widely in industry especially in solar-cell fabrications. The efficiency of single junction solar-cell can reach the Shockley-Queisser limit by using optimum band gap material such as silicon and cadmium telluride. The theoretical efficiency can be further enhanced through carrier multiplication, in which a high energy photon is absorbed and more than one electron-hole pair can be generated, reaching more than 100% quantum efficiency in the high energy region of sunlight. The realization of more than unity external quantum efficiency in lead selenide quantum dots solar cell has motivated vast investigation on lowering the carrier multiplication threshold and further improving the efficiency. This dissertation focuses on synthesis of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for their optical spectroscopy studies. PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots were synthesized by cation exchange to obtain thick shells (up to 14 monolayers) for studies of visible and near infrared dual band emissions and carrier multiplication efficiency. By examining the reaction mechanism, a thermodynamic and a kinetic model are introduced to explain the vacancy driven cation exchange. As indicated by the effective mass model, PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots has quasi-type-II band alignment, possessing electron delocalized through the entire quantum dot and hole localized in the core, which breaks down the symmetry of energy levels in the conduction and valence band, leading to hot-hole-assisted efficient multi-exciton generation and a lower carrier multiplication threshold to the theoretical value. For further investigation of carrier multiplication study, PbTe, possessing the highest efficiency among lead chalcogenides due to slow intraband cooling, is synthesized in one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanostructures. By using dodecanethiol as the surfactant, PbTe NRs can be prepared with high uniformity in width and resulted in fine quantum

  1. Revisiting the Anderson Model with Power-Law Correlated Disorder in 1D and 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Greg; Sandler, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The dimensionality of a disordered system directly affects the critical energy where a localization/delocalization transition occurs. In non-interacting systems with uncorrelated disorder, it is widely known that all states in one-dimension are localized. However, for some correlations there exist transition energies similar to mobility edges or small subsets of extended states that are robust against disorder. In this talk, we will present results on the diffusion of a wavepacket in a power-law correlated random potential of the form < V (r) V (0) > =1/(a + r)α . We also report results for the participation ratio Pr =1/N 2 < |ai |4 > . Preliminary results for 1D chains support the existence of a mobility edge near the band center. Square and graphene lattices will also be discussed. This work has been supported by the NSF-PIRE mwn/ciam and NSF Grant DMR-0710581.

  2. A Comparison of 1D and 2D (Unbiased) Experimental Methods for Measuring CSAsolarDD Cross-Correlated Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batta, Gy.; Kövér, K. E.; Kowalewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional and enhanced 1D experiments and different NOESY experiments (the 2D unbiased method) were performed for measuring CSA/DD cross-correlated relaxation on trehalose, a compound which could be approximated as a spherical top, and on simple model compounds comprisingC3vsymmetry (CHCl3, triphenylsilane (TPSi)). The comparison gives experimental evidence for the equivalence of the methods within the limits of the two-spin approach. 1D data are evaluated with both the simple initial rate and the Redfield relaxation matrix approach. The 2D data are obtained from the so-called transfer matrix using the Perrin-Gipe eigenvalue/eigenvector method. For the improved performance of the 2D method, anX-filtered (HHH) NOESY is suggested at the natural abundance of13C (or other dilute, low γ species). Also, experimental parameters crucial for reliable CSA data are tested (e.g., the impact of insufficient relaxation delay). Error estimation is carried out for fair comparison of methods. Revised liquid state1H and13C (29Si) CSA data are presented for chloroform and TPSi.

  3. 1-D and 2-D modeling of U-Ti alloy response in impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, B.; Favorsky, V.; Landau, A.; Shvarts, D.; Zaretsky, E. B.

    2003-09-01

    Dynamie response of a U-0.75wt%Ti alloy bas been studied in planar (disk-on-disk), reverse (disk-on-rod) and symmetric (rod-on-rod) ballistic impact experiments performed with a 25 mm light-gas gun. The impact velocities ranged between 100 and 500 m/see and the samples were softly recovered for further examination, revealing different degrees of spall fracture (planar impact) and of adiabatic shear bands (ballistic experiments). The back (planar experiments) and the lateral (ballistic experiments) surface velocities were continuously monitored by VISAR. The velocity profiles and the damage maps were simulated using a 2-D AUTODYN^TM Lagrangian finite differences code. Simulations of the planar experiments were performed with special attention to the compressive path of the loading cycle in order to calibrate a modified Steinberg-Cochran-Guinan (SCG) constitutive model. The Bauschinger effect and a single-parameter spall model were added to describe the unloading and tensile paths. The calibrated SCG model was then employed to simulate the ballistic experiments. An erosion AUTODYN built-in subroutine with a threshold value of plastic strain was chosen to describe the failure in the ballistic impact experiments. The results of the suggested experimental-numerical technique can be taken into account in estimating the different contributions to the shock-induced plastic deformation and failure.

  4. 2D Spatial Frequency Considerations in Comparing 1D Power Spectral Density Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Barber, S.; Church, E.L.; Kaznatcheev, K.; McKinney, W.R.; Yashchuk, V.Y.

    2010-06-14

    The frequency footprint of ID and 2D profiling instruments needs to be carefully considered in comparing ID surface roughness spectrum measurements made by different instruments. Contributions from orthogonal direction frequency components can not be neglected. The use of optical profiling instruments is ubiquitous in the measurement of the roughness of optical surfaces. Their ease-of-use and non-contact measurement method found widespread use in the optics industry for measuring the quality of delicate optical surfaces. Computerized digital data acquisition with these instruments allowed for quick and easy calculation of surface roughness statistics, such as root-mean-square (RMS) roughness. The computing power of the desktop computer allowed for the rapid conversion of spatial domain data into the frequency domain, enabling the application of sophisticated signal processing techniques to be applied to the analysis of surface roughness, the most powerful of which is the power spectral density (PSP) function. Application of the PSD function to surface statistics introduced the concept of 'bandwidth-limited' roughness, where the value of the RMS roughness depends critically upon the spatial frequency response of the instrument. Different instruments with different spatial frequency response characteristics give different answers when measuring the same surface.

  5. 1-D and 2-D resonances in an Alpine valley identified from ambient noise measurements and 3-D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Olivier; Cornou, Cécile; Jongmans, Denis; Schwartz, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    H/V spectral ratios are regularly used for estimating the bedrock depth in 1-D like basins exhibiting smooth lateral variations. In the case of 2-D or 3-D pronounced geometries, observational and numerical studies have shown that H/V curves exhibit peculiar shapes and that the H/V frequency generally overestimates 1-D theoretical resonance frequency. To investigate the capabilities of the H/V method in complex structures, a detailed comparison between measured and 3-D-simulated ambient vibrations was performed in the small-size lower Romanche valley (French Alps), which shows significant variations in geometry, downstream and upstream the Séchilienne basin. Analysing the H/V curve characteristics, two different wave propagation modes were identified along the valley. Relying on previous geophysical investigation, a power-law relationship was derived between the bedrock depth and the H/V peak frequency, which was used for building a 3-D model of the valley geometry. Simulated and experimental H/V curves were found to exhibit quite similar features in terms of curve shape and peak frequency values, validating the 3-D structure. This good agreement also evidenced two different propagation modes in the valley: 2-D resonance in the Séchilienne basin and 1-D resonance in the external parts. This study underlines the interest of H/V curves for investigating complex basin structures.

  6. Strain-Gated Field Effect Transistor of a MoS2-ZnO 2D-1D Hybrid Structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Libo; Xue, Fei; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Xin; Wang, Longfei; Kou, Jinzong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an exciting material due to its unique electrical, optical, and piezoelectric properties. Owing to an intrinsic band gap of 1.2-1.9 eV, monolayer or a-few-layer MoS2 is used for fabricating field effect transistors (FETs) with high electron mobility and on/off ratio. However, the traditional FETs are controlled by an externally supplied gate voltage, which may not be sensitive enough to directly interface with a mechanical stimulus for applications in electronic skin. Here we report a type of top-pressure/force-gated field effect transistors (PGFETs) based on a hybrid structure of a 2D MoS2 flake and 1D ZnO nanowire (NW) array. Once an external pressure is applied, the piezoelectric polarization charges created at the tips of ZnO NWs grown on MoS2 act as a gate voltage to tune/control the source-drain transport property in MoS2. At a 6.25 MPa applied stimulus on a packaged device, the source-drain current can be tuned for ∼25%, equivalent to the results of applying an extra -5 V back gate voltage. Another type of PGFET with a dielectric layer (Al2O3) sandwiched between MoS2 and ZnO also shows consistent results. A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the received data. This study sets the foundation for applying the 2D material-based FETs in the field of artificial intelligence.

  7. Strain-Gated Field Effect Transistor of a MoS2-ZnO 2D-1D Hybrid Structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Libo; Xue, Fei; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Xin; Wang, Longfei; Kou, Jinzong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an exciting material due to its unique electrical, optical, and piezoelectric properties. Owing to an intrinsic band gap of 1.2-1.9 eV, monolayer or a-few-layer MoS2 is used for fabricating field effect transistors (FETs) with high electron mobility and on/off ratio. However, the traditional FETs are controlled by an externally supplied gate voltage, which may not be sensitive enough to directly interface with a mechanical stimulus for applications in electronic skin. Here we report a type of top-pressure/force-gated field effect transistors (PGFETs) based on a hybrid structure of a 2D MoS2 flake and 1D ZnO nanowire (NW) array. Once an external pressure is applied, the piezoelectric polarization charges created at the tips of ZnO NWs grown on MoS2 act as a gate voltage to tune/control the source-drain transport property in MoS2. At a 6.25 MPa applied stimulus on a packaged device, the source-drain current can be tuned for ∼25%, equivalent to the results of applying an extra -5 V back gate voltage. Another type of PGFET with a dielectric layer (Al2O3) sandwiched between MoS2 and ZnO also shows consistent results. A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the received data. This study sets the foundation for applying the 2D material-based FETs in the field of artificial intelligence. PMID:26695840

  8. Topological defect formation in 1D and 2D spin chains realized by network of optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamerly, Ryan; Inaba, Kensuke; Inagaki, Takahiro; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    A network of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) is used to simulate classical Ising and XY spin chains. The collective nonlinear dynamics of this network, driven by quantum noise rather than thermal fluctuations, seeks out the Ising/XY ground state as the system transitions from below to above the lasing threshold. We study the behavior of this “Ising machine” for three canonical problems: a 1D ferromagnetic spin chain, a 2D square lattice and problems where next-nearest-neighbor couplings give rise to frustration. If the pump turn-on time is finite, topological defects form (domain walls for the Ising model, winding number and vortices for XY) and their density can be predicted from a numerical model involving a linear “growth stage” and a nonlinear “saturation stage”. These predictions are compared against recent data for a 10,000-spin 1D Ising machine.

  9. Configuration space method for calculating binding energies of exciton complexes in quasi-1D/2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, Igor

    A configuration space method, pioneered by Landau and Herring in studies of molecular binding and magnetism, is developed to obtain universal asymptotic relations for lowest energy exciton complexes (trion, biexciton) in confined semiconductor nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes, as well as coupled quantum wells. Trions are shown to be more stable (have greater binding energy) than biexcitons in strongly confined quasi-1D structures with small reduced electron-hole masses. Biexcitons are more stable in less confined quasi-1D structures with large reduced electron-hole masses. The theory predicts a crossover behavior, whereby trions become less stable than biexcitons as the transverse size of the quasi-1D nanostructure increases, which might be observed on semiconducting carbon nanotubes of increasing diameters. This method is also efficient in calculating binding energies for trion-type electron-hole complexes formed by indirect excitons in double coupled quantum wells, quasi-2D nanostructures that show new interesting electroabsorption/refraction phenomena. Supported by DOE-DE-SC0007117.

  10. Floodplain mapping via 1D and quasi-2D numerical models in the valley of Thessaly, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Athanasios; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Tegos, Aristoteles; Pagana, Vasiliki; Panagopoulos, Panayiotis-Dionisios; Mamassis, Nikolaos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    The European Union Floods Directive defines a flood as 'a covering by water of land not normally covered by water'. Human activities, such as agriculture, urban development, industry and tourism, contribute to an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events. The study of the hydraulic behaviour of a river is important in flood risk management. Here, we investigate the behaviour of three hydraulic models, with different theoretical frameworks, in a real case scenario. The area is located in the Penios river basin, in the plain of Thessaly (Greece). The three models used are the one-dimensional HEC-RAS and the quasi two-dimensional LISFLOOD-FP and FLO-2D which are compared to each other, in terms of simulated maximum water depth as well as maximum flow velocity, and to a real flood event. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed to determine how each simulation is affected by the river and floodplain roughness coefficient, in terms of flood inundation.

  11. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Island, Joshua O; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M; Ares, José R; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S J; Ferrer, Isabel J; D'Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance. PMID:26931161

  12. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties

    PubMed Central

    Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D’Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance. PMID:26931161

  13. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D'Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-03-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance.

  14. Extending the Nonlinear-Beam-Dynamics Concept of 1D Fixed Points to 2D Fixed Lines.

    PubMed

    Franchetti, G; Schmidt, F

    2015-06-12

    The origin of nonlinear dynamics traces back to the study of the dynamics of planets with the seminal work of Poincaré at the end of the nineteenth century: Les Méthodes Nouvelles de la Mécanique Céleste, Vols. 1-3 (Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1899). In his work he introduced a methodology fruitful for investigating the dynamical properties of complex systems, which led to the so-called "Poincaré surface of section," which allows one to capture the global dynamical properties of a system, characterized by fixed points and separatrices with respect to regular and chaotic motion. For two-dimensional phase space (one degree of freedom) this approach has been extremely useful and applied to particle accelerators for controlling their beam dynamics as of the second half of the twentieth century. We describe here an extension of the concept of 1D fixed points to fixed lines in two dimensions. These structures become the fundamental entities for characterizing the nonlinear motion in the four-dimensional phase space (two degrees of freedom).

  15. Extending the Nonlinear-Beam-Dynamics Concept of 1D Fixed Points to 2D Fixed Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchetti, G.; Schmidt, F.

    2015-06-01

    The origin of nonlinear dynamics traces back to the study of the dynamics of planets with the seminal work of Poincaré at the end of the nineteenth century: Les Méthodes Nouvelles de la Mécanique Céleste, Vols. 1-3 (Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1899). In his work he introduced a methodology fruitful for investigating the dynamical properties of complex systems, which led to the so-called "Poincaré surface of section," which allows one to capture the global dynamical properties of a system, characterized by fixed points and separatrices with respect to regular and chaotic motion. For two-dimensional phase space (one degree of freedom) this approach has been extremely useful and applied to particle accelerators for controlling their beam dynamics as of the second half of the twentieth century. We describe here an extension of the concept of 1D fixed points to fixed lines in two dimensions. These structures become the fundamental entities for characterizing the nonlinear motion in the four-dimensional phase space (two degrees of freedom).

  16. Extending the Nonlinear-Beam-Dynamics Concept of 1D Fixed Points to 2D Fixed Lines.

    PubMed

    Franchetti, G; Schmidt, F

    2015-06-12

    The origin of nonlinear dynamics traces back to the study of the dynamics of planets with the seminal work of Poincaré at the end of the nineteenth century: Les Méthodes Nouvelles de la Mécanique Céleste, Vols. 1-3 (Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1899). In his work he introduced a methodology fruitful for investigating the dynamical properties of complex systems, which led to the so-called "Poincaré surface of section," which allows one to capture the global dynamical properties of a system, characterized by fixed points and separatrices with respect to regular and chaotic motion. For two-dimensional phase space (one degree of freedom) this approach has been extremely useful and applied to particle accelerators for controlling their beam dynamics as of the second half of the twentieth century. We describe here an extension of the concept of 1D fixed points to fixed lines in two dimensions. These structures become the fundamental entities for characterizing the nonlinear motion in the four-dimensional phase space (two degrees of freedom). PMID:26196806

  17. Kondo effect at low electron density and high particle-hole asymmetry in 1D, 2D, and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žitko, Rok; Horvat, Alen

    2016-09-01

    Using the perturbative scaling equations and the numerical renormalization group, we study the characteristic energy scales in the Kondo impurity problem as a function of the exchange coupling constant J and the conduction-band electron density. We discuss the relation between the energy gain (impurity binding energy) Δ E and the Kondo temperature TK. We find that the two are proportional only for large values of J , whereas in the weak-coupling limit the energy gain is quadratic in J , while the Kondo temperature is exponentially small. The exact relation between the two quantities depends on the detailed form of the density of states of the band. In the limit of low electron density the Kondo screening is affected by the strong particle-hole asymmetry due to the presence of the band-edge van Hove singularities. We consider the cases of one- (1D), two- (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) tight-binding lattices (linear chain, square lattice, cubic lattice) with inverse-square-root, step-function, and square-root onsets of the density of states that are characteristic of the respective dimensionalities. We always find two different regimes depending on whether TK is higher or lower than μ , the chemical potential measured from the bottom of the band. For 2D and 3D, we find a sigmoidal crossover between the large-J and small-J asymptotics in Δ E and a clear separation between Δ E and TK for TK<μ . For 1D, there is, in addition, a sizable intermediate-J regime where the Kondo temperature is quadratic in J due to the diverging density of states at the band edge. Furthermore, we find that in 1D the particle-hole asymmetry leads to a large decrease of TK compared to the standard result obtained by approximating the density of states to be constant (flat-band approximation), while in 3D the opposite is the case; this is due to the nontrivial interplay of the exchange and potential scattering renormalization in the presence of particle-hole asymmetry. The 2D square

  18. Laser-based linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves at surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D).

    PubMed

    Hess, Peter; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Mayer, Andreas P

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic features and applications of linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves propagating along surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D) are discussed. Laser-based excitation, detection, or contact-free analysis of these guided waves with pump-probe methods are reviewed. Determination of material parameters by broadband surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and other applications in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are considered. The realization of nonlinear SAWs in the form of solitary waves and as shock waves, used for the determination of the fracture strength, is described. The unique properties of dispersion-free wedge waves (WWs) propagating along homogeneous wedges and of dispersive wedge waves observed in the presence of wedge modifications such as tip truncation or coatings are outlined. Theoretical and experimental results on nonlinear wedge waves in isotropic and anisotropic solids are presented.

  19. Coronates, spherical containers, bowl-shaped surfaces, porous 1D-, 2D-, 3D-metallo-coordination polymers, and metallodendrimers.

    PubMed

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular coordination cages and polymers bear exceptional advantages over their organic counterparts. They are available in one-pot reactions and in high yields and display physical properties that are generally inaccessible with organic species. Moreover, their weak, reversible, noncovalent bonding interactions facilitate error checking and self-correction. This review emphasizes the achievements in supramolecular coordination container as well as polymer chemistry initiated by serendipity and their materialization based on rational design. The recognition of similarities in the synthesis of different supramolecular assemblies allows prediction of potential structures in related cases. The combination of detailed symmetry considerations with the basic rules of coordination chemistry has only recently allowed for the design of rational strategies for the construction of a variety of nanosized spherical containers, bowls, 1D-, 2D-, and 3D-coordination polymers with specified size and shape. PMID:22160460

  20. Individual speckle diffraction based 1D and 2D Random Grating Fabrication for detector and solar energy harvesting applications

    PubMed Central

    Bingi, Jayachandra; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckles and speckle patterns, which are formed by the random interference of scattered waves from optically rough surfaces, have found tremendous applications in a wide range of metrological and biomedical fields. Here, we demonstrate a novel edge diffraction phenomenon of individual speckle for the fabrication of 1D and 2D micron and sub-micron size random gratings. These random gratings exhibit broadband response with interesting diffusive diffraction patterns. As an immediate application for solar energy harvesting, significant reduction in transmission and enhanced absorption in thin “Si-random grating-Si” sandwich structure is demonstrated. This work has multifaceted significance where we exploited the individual speckle diffraction properties for the first time. Besides the solar harvesting applications, random gratings are suitable structures for fabrication of theoretically proposed random quantum well IR detectors and hence expected that this work will augur well for such studies in the near future. PMID:26842242

  1. Transition from 1D to 2D Laser-Induced Ultrasonic Wave Propagation in an Extended Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laloš, Jernej; Požar, Tomaž; Možina, Janez

    2016-05-01

    Optodynamic interaction between a laser pulse and the surface of an opaque, solid elastic object produces transient waves that propagate and reverberate within the object. They can be, in general, categorized into three distinctive types which are all formed through different mechanisms: ablation-induced waves, light-pressure-induced waves, and thermoelastic waves. In this paper, out-of-plane displacements of such waves are simulated at the epicentral position on the opposite side of an extended plane-parallel elastic plate. Wave propagation is mathematically described by Green's transfer functions convolved with suitable time profiles of the incoming laser pulses. The simulated size of the circularly symmetric laser-illuminated area on the plate surface is varied to show the limit-to-limit transition of the displacement waveforms: from a 2D point source to an infinite 1D source.

  2. Using 1D2D Hydrodynamic Modeling to Inform Restoration Planning in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden-Lesmeister, A.; Remo, J. W.; Piazza, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) in Louisiana is the principal distributary of the Mississippi River (MR), and its basin contains the largest contiguous area of baldcypress-water tupelo swamp forests in North America. After designation of the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB) as a federal floodway following the destructive 1927 MR flood, it was extensively modified to accommodate a substantial portion of the MR flow (~25%) to mitigate flooding in southern Louisiana. These modifications and increased flows resulted in substantial incision along large portions of the AR, altering connectivity between the river and its associated waterbodies. As a result of incision, the hydroperiod has been substantially altered, which has contributed to a decline in ecological health of the ARB's baldcypress-water tupelo forests. While it is recognized that the altered hydroperiod has negatively affected natural baldcypress regeneration, it is unclear whether proposed projects designed to enhance flow connectivity will increase long-term survival of these forests. In this study, we have constructed a 1D2D hydrodynamic model using SOBEK 2.12 to realistically model key physical parameters such as residence times, inundation extent, water-surface elevations (WSELs), and flow velocities to increase our understanding of the ARB's altered hydroperiod and the consequences for baldcypress-water tupelo forests. While the model encompasses a majority of the ARB, our modeling effort is focused on the Flat Lake Water Management Unit located in the southern portion of the ARB, where it will also be used to evaluate flow connectivity enhancement projects within the management unit. We believe our 1D2D hybrid hydraulic modeling approach will provide the flexibility and accuracy needed to guide connectivity enhancement efforts in the ARB and may provide a model framework for guiding similar efforts along other highly-altered river systems.

  3. Study of proton conductivity of a 2D flexible MOF and a 1D coordination polymer at higher temperature.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Suresh; Biswas, Soumava; Konar, Sanjit

    2015-02-16

    We report the proton conduction properties of a 2D flexible MOF and a 1D coordination polymer having the molecular formulas {[Zn(C10H2O8)0.5(C10S2N2H8)]·5H2O]}n (1) and {[Zn(C10H2O8)0.5(C10S2N2H8)]·2H2O]}n (2), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 show high conductivity values of 2.55 × 10(-7) and 4.39 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 80 °C and 95% RH. The conductivity value of compound 1 is in the range of those for previously reported flexible MOFs, and compound 2 shows the highest proton conductivity among the carboxylate-based 1D CPs. The dimensionality and the internal hydrogen bonding connectivity play a vital role in the resultant conductivity. Variable-temperature experiments of both compounds at high humidity reveal that the conductivity values increase with increasing temperature, whereas the variable humidity studies signify the influence of relative humidity on high-temperature proton conductivity. The time-dependent measurements for both compounds demonstrate their ability to retain conductivity up to 10 h.

  4. Comparing and contrasting 2D versus 1D performance modeling in NV-IPM v1.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, Jonathan G.; Teaney, Brian P.

    2016-05-01

    Version 1.6 of the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) introduced two-dimensional Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and noise signals within the model architecture. These two-dimensional signals enable the model to more accurately treat systems with non-separable MTF components. These non-separable MTF components may be introduced by optical elements, electronic post-processing, or atmospheric effects. In this paper we discuss the differences between the new two-dimensional signal architecture and the one-dimensional separable representation used in earlier versions of the model and highlight some cases which demonstrate the utility of the two-dimensional signals.

  5. Current status of one- and two-dimensional numerical models: Successes and limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. J.; Gray, J. L.; Lundstrom, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    The capabilities of one and two-dimensional numerical solar cell modeling programs (SCAP1D and SCAP2D) are described. The occasions when a two-dimensional model is required are discussed. The application of the models to design, analysis, and prediction are presented along with a discussion of problem areas for solar cell modeling.

  6. Analysis of branched DNA replication and recombination intermediates from prokaryotic cells by two-dimensional (2D) native-native agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.

  7. Dosimetric comparisons of carbon ion treatment plans for 1D and 2D ripple filters with variable thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printz Ringbæk, Toke; Weber, Uli; Santiago, Alina; Simeonov, Yuri; Fritz, Peter; Krämer, Michael; Wittig, Andrea; Bassler, Niels; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    A ripple filter (RiFi)—also called mini-ridge filter—is a passive energy modulator used in particle beam treatments that broadens the Bragg peak (BP) as a function of its maximum thickness. The number of different energies requested from the accelerator can thus be reduced, which significantly reduces the treatment time. A new second generation RiFi with 2D groove shapes was developed using rapid prototyping, which optimizes the beam-modulating material and enables RiFi thicknesses of up to 6 mm. Carbon ion treatment plans were calculated using the standard 1D 3 mm thick RiFi and the new 4 and 6 mm 2D RiFis for spherical planning target volumes (PTVs) in water, eight stage I non-small cell lung cancer cases, four skull base chordoma cases and three prostate cancer cases. TRiP98 was used for treatment planning with facility-specific base data calculated with the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT12A. Dose-volume-histograms, spatial dose distributions and dosimetric indexes were used for plan evaluation. Plan homogeneity and conformity of thinner RiFis were slightly superior to thicker RiFis but satisfactory results were obtained for all RiFis investigated. For the 6 mm RiFi, fine structures in the dose distribution caused by the larger energy steps were observed at the PTV edges, in particular for superficial and/or very small PTVs but performances for all RiFis increased with penetration depth due to straggling and scattering effects. Plans with the new RiFi design yielded for the studied cases comparable dosimetric results to the standard RiFi while the 4 and 6 mm RiFis lowered the irradiation time by 25–30% and 45–49%, respectively.

  8. Dosimetric comparisons of carbon ion treatment plans for 1D and 2D ripple filters with variable thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Ringbæk, Toke Printz; Weber, Uli; Santiago, Alina; Simeonov, Yuri; Fritz, Peter; Krämer, Michael; Wittig, Andrea; Bassler, Niels; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    A ripple filter (RiFi)-also called mini-ridge filter-is a passive energy modulator used in particle beam treatments that broadens the Bragg peak (BP) as a function of its maximum thickness. The number of different energies requested from the accelerator can thus be reduced, which significantly reduces the treatment time. A new second generation RiFi with 2D groove shapes was developed using rapid prototyping, which optimizes the beam-modulating material and enables RiFi thicknesses of up to 6 mm. Carbon ion treatment plans were calculated using the standard 1D 3 mm thick RiFi and the new 4 and 6 mm 2D RiFis for spherical planning target volumes (PTVs) in water, eight stage I non-small cell lung cancer cases, four skull base chordoma cases and three prostate cancer cases. TRiP98 was used for treatment planning with facility-specific base data calculated with the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT12A. Dose-volume-histograms, spatial dose distributions and dosimetric indexes were used for plan evaluation. Plan homogeneity and conformity of thinner RiFis were slightly superior to thicker RiFis but satisfactory results were obtained for all RiFis investigated. For the 6 mm RiFi, fine structures in the dose distribution caused by the larger energy steps were observed at the PTV edges, in particular for superficial and/or very small PTVs but performances for all RiFis increased with penetration depth due to straggling and scattering effects. Plans with the new RiFi design yielded for the studied cases comparable dosimetric results to the standard RiFi while the 4 and 6 mm RiFis lowered the irradiation time by 25-30% and 45-49%, respectively. PMID:27203127

  9. Dosimetric comparisons of carbon ion treatment plans for 1D and 2D ripple filters with variable thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printz Ringbæk, Toke; Weber, Uli; Santiago, Alina; Simeonov, Yuri; Fritz, Peter; Krämer, Michael; Wittig, Andrea; Bassler, Niels; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    A ripple filter (RiFi)—also called mini-ridge filter—is a passive energy modulator used in particle beam treatments that broadens the Bragg peak (BP) as a function of its maximum thickness. The number of different energies requested from the accelerator can thus be reduced, which significantly reduces the treatment time. A new second generation RiFi with 2D groove shapes was developed using rapid prototyping, which optimizes the beam-modulating material and enables RiFi thicknesses of up to 6 mm. Carbon ion treatment plans were calculated using the standard 1D 3 mm thick RiFi and the new 4 and 6 mm 2D RiFis for spherical planning target volumes (PTVs) in water, eight stage I non-small cell lung cancer cases, four skull base chordoma cases and three prostate cancer cases. TRiP98 was used for treatment planning with facility-specific base data calculated with the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT12A. Dose-volume-histograms, spatial dose distributions and dosimetric indexes were used for plan evaluation. Plan homogeneity and conformity of thinner RiFis were slightly superior to thicker RiFis but satisfactory results were obtained for all RiFis investigated. For the 6 mm RiFi, fine structures in the dose distribution caused by the larger energy steps were observed at the PTV edges, in particular for superficial and/or very small PTVs but performances for all RiFis increased with penetration depth due to straggling and scattering effects. Plans with the new RiFi design yielded for the studied cases comparable dosimetric results to the standard RiFi while the 4 and 6 mm RiFis lowered the irradiation time by 25-30% and 45-49%, respectively.

  10. Dosimetric comparisons of carbon ion treatment plans for 1D and 2D ripple filters with variable thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Ringbæk, Toke Printz; Weber, Uli; Santiago, Alina; Simeonov, Yuri; Fritz, Peter; Krämer, Michael; Wittig, Andrea; Bassler, Niels; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    A ripple filter (RiFi)-also called mini-ridge filter-is a passive energy modulator used in particle beam treatments that broadens the Bragg peak (BP) as a function of its maximum thickness. The number of different energies requested from the accelerator can thus be reduced, which significantly reduces the treatment time. A new second generation RiFi with 2D groove shapes was developed using rapid prototyping, which optimizes the beam-modulating material and enables RiFi thicknesses of up to 6 mm. Carbon ion treatment plans were calculated using the standard 1D 3 mm thick RiFi and the new 4 and 6 mm 2D RiFis for spherical planning target volumes (PTVs) in water, eight stage I non-small cell lung cancer cases, four skull base chordoma cases and three prostate cancer cases. TRiP98 was used for treatment planning with facility-specific base data calculated with the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT12A. Dose-volume-histograms, spatial dose distributions and dosimetric indexes were used for plan evaluation. Plan homogeneity and conformity of thinner RiFis were slightly superior to thicker RiFis but satisfactory results were obtained for all RiFis investigated. For the 6 mm RiFi, fine structures in the dose distribution caused by the larger energy steps were observed at the PTV edges, in particular for superficial and/or very small PTVs but performances for all RiFis increased with penetration depth due to straggling and scattering effects. Plans with the new RiFi design yielded for the studied cases comparable dosimetric results to the standard RiFi while the 4 and 6 mm RiFis lowered the irradiation time by 25-30% and 45-49%, respectively.

  11. A review of MBE grown 0D, 1D and 2D quantum structures in a nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Mata, Maria; Zhou, Xiang; Furtmayr, Florian; Teubert, Jörg; Gradecak, Silvija; Eickhoff, Martin; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Arbiol, Jordi

    2013-05-01

    We review different strategies to achieve a three-dimensional energy bandgap modulation in a nanowire (NW) by the introduction of self-assembled 0D, 1D and 2D quantum structures, quantum dots (QDs), quantum wires (QWRs) and quantum wells (QWs). Starting with the well-known axial, radial (coaxial/prismatic) or polytypic quantum wells in GaN/AlN, GaAs/AlAs or wurtzite/zinc-blende systems, respectively, we move to more sophisticated structures by lowering their dimensionality. New recent approaches developed for the self-assembly of GaN quantum wires and InAs or AlGaAs quantum dots on single nanowire templates are reported and discussed. Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microcopy is presented as a powerful tool to determine the structure and morphology at the atomic scale allowing for the creation of 3D atomic models that can help us to understand the enhanced optical properties of these advanced quantum structures.

  12. Structure and Coordination Determination of Peptide-metal Complexes Using 1D and 2D 1H NMR

    PubMed Central

    Shoshan, Michal S.; Tshuva, Edit Y.; Shalev, Deborah E.

    2013-01-01

    Copper (I) binding by metallochaperone transport proteins prevents copper oxidation and release of the toxic ions that may participate in harmful redox reactions. The Cu (I) complex of the peptide model of a Cu (I) binding metallochaperone protein, which includes the sequence MTCSGCSRPG (underlined is conserved), was determined in solution under inert conditions by NMR spectroscopy. NMR is a widely accepted technique for the determination of solution structures of proteins and peptides. Due to difficulty in crystallization to provide single crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography, the NMR technique is extremely valuable, especially as it provides information on the solution state rather than the solid state. Herein we describe all steps that are required for full three-dimensional structure determinations by NMR. The protocol includes sample preparation in an NMR tube, 1D and 2D data collection and processing, peak assignment and integration, molecular mechanics calculations, and structure analysis. Importantly, the analysis was first conducted without any preset metal-ligand bonds, to assure a reliable structure determination in an unbiased manner. PMID:24378924

  13. Coupled leaky mode theory for light absorption in 2D, 1D, and 0D semiconductor nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiling; Cao, Linyou

    2012-06-18

    We present an intuitive, simple theoretical model, coupled leaky mode theory (CLMT), to analyze the light absorption of 2D, 1D, and 0D semiconductor nanostructures. This model correlates the light absorption of nanostructures to the optical coupling between incident light and leaky modes of the nanostructure. Unlike conventional methods such as Mie theory that requests specific physical features of nanostructures to evaluate the absorption, the CLMT model provides an unprecedented capability to analyze the absorption using eigen values of the leaky modes. Because the eigenvalue shows very mild dependence on the physical features of nanostructures, we can generally apply one set of eigenvalues calculated using a real, constant refractive index to calculations for the absorption of various nanostructures with different sizes, different materials, and wavelength-dependent complex refractive index. This CLMT model is general, simple, yet reasonably accurate, and offers new intuitive physical insights that the light absorption of nanostructures is governed by the coupling efficiency between incident light and leaky modes of the structure.

  14. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  15. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    1997-11-18

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  16. 2D FTLE in 3D Flows: The accuracy of using two-dimensional data for Lagrangian analysis in a three-dimensional turbulent channel simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwood, Matthew; Green, Melissa

    2012-11-01

    In experimental, three-dimensional vortex-dominated flows, common particle image velocimetry (PIV) data is often collected in only the plane of interest due to equipment constraints. For flows with significant out of plane velocities or velocity gradients, this can create large discrepancies in Lagrangian analyses that require accurate particle trajectories. A Finite Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) analysis is one such example, and has been shown to be very powerful at examining vortex dynamics and interactions in a variety of aperiodic flows. In this work, FTLE analysis of a turbulent channel simulation was conducted using both full three-dimensional velocity data and modified planar data extracted from the same computational domain. When the out of plane velocity component is neglected the difference in FTLE fields is non-trivial. A quantitative comparison and computation of error is presented for several planes across the width of the channel to determine the efficacy of using 2D analyses on the inherently 3D flows.

  17. Status of the solar and infrared radiation submodels in the LLNL 1-D and 2-D chemical-transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, K.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have implemented a series of state of the art radiation transport submodels in previously developed one dimensional and two dimensional chemical transport models of the troposphere and stratosphere. These submodels provide the capability of calculating accurate solar and infrared heating rates. They are a firm basis for further radiation submodel development as well as for studying interactions between radiation and model dynamics under varying conditions of clear sky, clouds, and aerosols. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Bulk anisotropic excitons in type-II semiconductors built with 1D and 2D low-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyotecatl, H. A.; Del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Reyes, J. A.; Vazquez, G. J.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J. A.; Reyes-Esqueda, J. A.; Cocoletzi, G. H.

    2005-08-01

    We used a simple variational approach to account for the difference in the electron and hole effective masses in Wannier-Mott excitons in type-II semiconducting heterostructures in which the electron is constrained in an one-dimensional quantum wire (1DQW) and the hole is in a two-dimensional quantum layer (2DQL) perpendicular to the wire or viceversa. The resulting Schrodinger equation is similar to that of a 3D bulk exciton because the number of free (nonconfined) variables is three; two coming from the 2DQL and one from the 1DQW. In this system the effective electron-hole interaction depends on the confinement potentials.

  19. Efficient transmission of 1D and 2D chaotic map encrypted images with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasem, Hossam M.; Nasr, Mohamed E.; Sallam, Elsayed A.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2011-10-01

    Image transmission takes place as an important research branch in multimedia broadcasting communication systems in the last decade. Our paper presents image transmission over a FFT-OFDM (Fast Fourier Transform Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). The need for encryption techniques increase with the appearance of the expression which said that our world became small village, and the use of image application such as conference and World Wide Web which increase rapidly in recent years. Encryption is an effective method for protecting the transmitted data by converting it into a form being invisible over transmission path and visible in receiver side. This paper presents a new hybrid encryption technique based on combination of Backer maps and logistic map. This proposed technique aims to increase PSNR and reduce the noise in the received image. The encryption is done by shuffling the positions of a pixel image using two dimensional Baker maps then encrypt using XOR operation with logistic map to generate cipher image over orthogonal frequency multiplexing (OFDM). The encryption approach adopted in this paper is based on chaotic Baker maps because the encoding and decoding steps in this approach are simple and fast enough for HDTV applications. The experimental results reveal the superiority of the proposed chaotic based image encryption technique using two logistic maps and two dimensional Backer map over normal Backer map.

  20. Design and synthesis of new 1D and 2D R-isophthalic acid-based coordination polymers (R = hydrogen or bromine).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren; Gong, Qihan; Emge, Thomas J; Banerjee, Debasis; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Three new R-isophthalic acid-based (R = H or Br) coordination polymers have been designed and synthesized. By changing the N-containing ligand in the system, we are able to tune the dimensionality of coordination polymers from one-dimension (1D) to two-dimensions (2D) with the same basic building unit. Also, different metal ions can be incorporated into the same structures. Compound 1 [Cu(bipa)(py)2]·0.5(H2O) (H2bipa = 5-bromoisophthalic acid; py = pyridine) and compound 2 [Co(bipa)(py)2] are 1D chain structures. Compound 3 [Cu8(ipa)8(bpe)8]·2(bpe)·4(H2O) (bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane) is a 2D layered structure.

  1. Head and Tail Deformations, Torsional Coriolis Coupling, and E(1d)-E(2d) Vibrational Mixing in Ethane-Like Molecules.

    PubMed

    Lattanzi; di Lauro C

    1999-12-01

    The mechanism of torsional Coriolis interaction of E(1d) and E(2d) vibrational modes in ethane-like molecules is investigated, and it is shown that this coupling can drastically affect the torsional splitting in the degenerate vibrational states. A basic point of our treatment is that the sets of coordinates of head and tail which combine with the + sign to generate E(1d) normal coordinates are in general different from those which combine with the - sign to generate E(2d) normal coordinates. It is shown that the zeta(gamma) torsional Coriolis coefficients calculated by the usual methods of normal mode analysis are related to the vibrational angular momenta within head and tail referred to the internal rotor axis systems. With knowledge of the L and L(-1) matrices it is possible to transform these coefficients for reference to the molecule-fixed frame. It is peculiar that torsional Coriolis matrix elements occur between E(1d) and E(2d) vibrational components with the same x or y orientation in the molecule-fixed frame. The matrix elements of the torsional Coriolis operator and other operators responsible for the end-to-end coupling are determined, and a method for calculating vibration-torsion energies, and then torsional splittings, in degenerate vibrational states is outlined. Detailed calculations require a global model, involving all the degenerate vibrational basis states in a complex mechanism of interactions, but it is shown that useful information can be obtained by means of simplified models. Our semiempirical rule that degenerate vibrational states with a large negative value of the diagonal vibration-rotation Coriolis coefficient are likely to deviate much from the behavior of E(1d) or E(2d) vibrational states, with a sensible decrease of the torsional splittings, is confirmed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Theory of two-dimensional microcavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kensuke S.

    2005-07-15

    We present theoretical models of two-dimensional (2D) microcavity lasers. The relation between stationary lasing modes and resonances or metastable states is elucidated for arbitrary shapes of 2D resonant microcavities.

  3. Unraveling the heterogeneity in N butyl-N-methylpiperidinium trifluromethanesulfonimide ionic liquid by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Neha; Saha, Satyen

    2014-06-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids are one of the most exciting classes of materials in the last decade. In particular piperidinium (PIP) cation based ionic liquid (IL) (such as PIP14NTf2) have found application in electrochemistry/batteries. In this Letter, 2D NMR (NOESY and HOESY) is employed for studying the interactions present between cations and anions. HOESY spectrum shows that fluorine of NTf2 unusually interacts with all proton of the cation (PIP14). Combined HOESY and NOESY indicate that NTf2 anion is distributed heterogeneously in liquid. Existence of micro heterogeneity in this important class of IL is proposed.

  4. Dimensional Reduction From 2D Layer to 1D Band for Germanophosphates Induced by the "Tailor Effect" of Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Zuo; Liu, Biao; Wen, Lei; Zhuang, Rong-Chuan; Zhao, Jing-Tai; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao; Huang, Ya-Xi

    2015-07-20

    The "tailor effect" of fluoride, exclusively as a terminal rather than a bridge, was applied successfully to design low-dimensional structures in the system of transition metal germanophosphates for the first time. Two series of new compounds with low-dimensional structures are reported herein. K[M(II)Ge(OH)2(H0.5PO4)2] (M = Fe, Co) possess flat layered structures built from single chains of edge-sharing M(II)O6 and GeO6 octahedra interconnected by HPO4 tetrahedra. Their fluorinated derivatives, K4[M(II)Ge2F2(OH)2(PO4)2(HPO4)2]·2H2O (M = Fe, Co), exhibit band structures of two four-membered ring germanium phosphate single chains sandwiched by M(II)O6 octahedra via corner-sharing. Both of these structures contain anionic chains of the condensation of four-membered rings built from alternating GeO4Φ2 (Φ = F, OH) octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra via sharing common GeO4Φ2 (Φ = F, OH) octahedra, the topology of which is the same as that of the mineral kröhnkite [Na2Cu(SO4)2·2H2O]. Note that the switch from the two-dimensional layered structure to the one-dimensional band structure was performed simply by the addition of a small amount of KF·2H2O to the reaction mixture. This structural alteration arises from the incorporation of one terminal F atom to the coordination sphere of Ge, which breaks the linkage between the transition metal and germanium octahedra in the layer to form the band structure.

  5. From 1D to 2D via 3D: dynamics of surface motion segmentation for ocular tracking in primates.

    PubMed

    Masson, Guillaume S

    2004-01-01

    In primates, tracking eye movements help vision by stabilising onto the retinas the images of a moving object of interest. This sensorimotor transformation involves several stages of motion processing, from the local measurement of one-dimensional luminance changes up to the integration of first and higher-order local motion cues into a global two-dimensional motion immune to antagonistic motions arising from the surrounding. The dynamics of this surface motion segmentation is reflected into the various components of the tracking responses and its underlying neural mechanisms can be correlated with behaviour at both single-cell and population levels. I review a series of behavioural studies which demonstrate that the neural representation driving eye movements evolves over time from a fast vector average of the outputs of linear and non-linear spatio-temporal filtering to a progressive and slower accurate solution for global motion. Because of the sensitivity of earliest ocular following to binocular disparity, antagonistic visual motion from surfaces located at different depths are filtered out. Thus, global motion integration is restricted within the depth plane of the object to be tracked. Similar dynamics were found at the level of monkey extra-striate areas MT and MST and I suggest that several parallel pathways along the motion stream are involved albeit with different latencies to build-up this accurate surface motion representation. After 200-300 ms, most of the computational problems of early motion processing (aperture problem, motion integration, motion segmentation) are solved and the eye velocity matches the global object velocity to maintain a clear and steady retinal image. PMID:15477021

  6. Molecular, 1D and 2D assemblies from hexakis(3-pyridyloxy)cyclophosphazene containing 20-membered metallamacrocyclic motifs.

    PubMed

    Suriya Narayanan, Ramakirushnan; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2016-02-01

    The coordination behaviour of hexakis(3-pyridyloxy)cyclophosphazene (L) towards divalent metal ions is described. The reaction of L with hydrated metal nitrates afforded [{N3P3(O-C5H4N-3)6}2{Zn(H2O)3(NO3)}2{Zn(H2O)2(NO3)}2]n[NO3]2n·4nH2O·nCH3OH (1), [{N3P3(O-C5H4N-3)6}2{Zn(H2O)3(NO3)}2{Cu(NO3)}2]n[NO3]2n·4nH2O·nCH3CN (2), [{N3P3(O-C5H4N-3)6}2{(NO3)Cd-(μ-(NO3)-Cd(NO3)2(μ-(NO3)Cd(NO3)}]n·2nCH3OH·3nH2O (3), and [{N3P3(O-C5H4N-3)6}2{Cd(H2O)3(NO3)}2][NO3]2·9H2O (4). 1 and 2 are one-dimensional coordination polymers while 3 is a two-dimensional coordination polymer. On the other hand 4 is a molecular metallamacrocycle. A common feature of 1-4 is the presence of a 20-membered dimetallamacrocyclic motif constructed through the involvement of a pair of cyclophosphazene ligands through their geminal pyridyloxy substituents. The P-N bond distances in L and its metal complexes 1-4 are nearly the same indicating the flexible nature of the coordination pyridyloxy arms present on the cyclophosphazene scaffold. PMID:26687430

  7. In-Depth Characterization and Spectral Library Building of Glycopeptides in the Tryptic Digest of a Monoclonal Antibody Using 1D and 2D LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Yan, Xinjian; Liang, Yuxue; Stein, Stephen E

    2016-05-01

    This work presents a detailed analysis of glycopeptides produced in the tryptic digestion of an IgG1 reference material. Analysis was done by nanospray ESI LC-MS/MS over a wide range of HCD collision energies with both conventional 1D separation for various digestion conditions and a 20 fraction 2D-LC study of a single digest. An extended version of NIST-developed software for analysis of "shotgun" proteomics served to identify the glycopeptides from their precursor masses and product ions for peptides with up to three missed cleavages. A peptide with a single missed cleavage, TKPREEQYNSTYR, was dominant and led to the determination of almost all glycans reported in this study. The 2D studies found a total of 247 glycopeptide ions and 60 glycans of different masses, including 30 glycans found in the 1D studies. This significantly larger number of glycans than found in any other glycoanalysis of therapeutic glycoproteins is due to both the improved separation of sialylated versus asialylated species in the first (high-pH) dimension and the ability to inject large amounts of glycosylated peptides in the 2D studies. Systematic variations in retention with glycan size were also noted. Energy-dependent changes in HCD fragmentation confirmed the proposed glycan structures and led to a peak-annotated mass spectral library to aid the analysis of glycopeptides derived from IgG1 drugs.

  8. Nanoscale integration of two-dimensional materials by lateral heteroepitaxy.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Peter; Huang, Yuan; Sutter, Eli

    2014-08-13

    Materials integration in heterostructures with novel properties different from those of the constituents has become one of the most powerful concepts of modern materials science. Two-dimensional (2D) crystals represent a new class of materials from which such engineered structures can be envisioned. Calculations have predicted emergent properties in 2D heterostructures with nanoscale feature sizes, but methods for their controlled fabrication have been lacking. Here, we use sequential graphene and boron nitride growth on Ru(0001) to show that lateral heteroepitaxy, the joining of 2D materials by preferential incorporation of different atomic species into exposed 1D edges during chemical vapor deposition on a metal substrate, can be used for the bottom-up synthesis of 2D heterostructures with characteristic dimensions on the nanoscale. Our results suggest that on a proper substrate, this method lends itself to building nanoheterostructures from a wide range of 2D materials.

  9. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung Lim, Mi; Maeng, Young Jae; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C) reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  10. SOLVING THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL DIFFUSION FLOW MODEL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V.; Lai, Chintu

    1985-01-01

    A simplification of the two-dimensional (2-D) continuity and momentum equations is the diffusion equation. To investigate its capability, the numerical model using the diffusion approach is applied to a hypothetical failure problem of a regional water reservoir. The model is based on an explicit, integrated finite-difference scheme, and the floodplain is simulated by a popular home computer which supports 64K FORTRAN. Though simple, the 2-D model can simulate some interesting flooding effects that a 1-D full dynamic model cannot.

  11. Time-domain calculations of the 1D and 2D spectra of resonantly-coupled vibrations in liquids and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Hajime

    2012-12-01

    A time-domain computational method for calculating 1D and 2D spectra of resonantly-coupled vibrations in condensed-phase systems is presented. This method simultaneously takes into account the diagonal frequency modulations, the off-diagonal vibrational couplings, and the dynamics of the system, and is applicable to systems of wide interest, e.g., the O-H stretching modes of water and alcohols, and the amide I modes of proteins. The case of the amide I mode of (Ala-d)4 in D2O solution is shown as an example.

  12. Two-dimensional SLIM with application to pulse Doppler MIMO radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbarian-Jahromi, Mohammad; Kahaei, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) sparse signal model is developed for pulse Doppler MIMO radars. Using this model, we develop the 2D sparse learning via iterative minimization (2D SLIM) algorithm. Simulation results show that the 2D SLIM compared to the 1D SLIM drastically reduces the computational burden while both of them have the same performance. Also, for estimation of range-angle-Doppler parameters, the 2D SLIM outperforms the matched filter (MF), smoothed L0-norm (SL0), iterative adaptive approach (IAA), and spectral projected gradient for l 1-norm minimization (SPGL1) algorithms.

  13. A direct sensitivity comparison between flow-modulated comprehensive 2D and 1D GC in untargeted and targeted MS-based experiments.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, Peter Q; Franchina, Flavio A; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Cacciola, Francesco; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-09-01

    The present contribution is focused on the measurement of the analytical sensitivity attained in untargeted/targeted MS/MS experiments, performed using flow-modulator comprehensive 2D and 1D GC. The comprehensive 2D experiment was performed by diverting part of the high flow (circa 80%) to flush the accumulation loop (about 28 mL/min) to waste, to reduce the gas flow entering the ion source. 1D analyses were performed through: (i) unmodulated and (ii) single column applications. An equivalent temperature program was applied in the modulated and unmodulated analyses, while a faster one was employed in the single column one. In all application types, the (same) triple quadrupole instrument was operated in the full-scan and multiple reaction monitoring modes. A genuine sweet orange oil and the same sample spiked with 20 phytosanitary compounds were employed to reach the research objective. The results highlight the problems related to the flow modulation-MS combination. Specifically, it was found that sensitivity was on average three to four times higher in unmodulated and optimized single-column applications. PMID:23868497

  14. PBE–DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Saïl, K. Bassou, G.; Gafour, M. H.; Miloua, F.

    2015-12-15

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units (n = 1–11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6–31 G(d, p) level of theory and the Perdew–Burke–Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, E{sub gap}, V{sub oc}, and V{sub bi}) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies (E{sub ex}), the maximal absorption wavelength (λ{sub max}), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs.

  15. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  16. Comparison of one- and two-dimensional sodium-boiling models. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Prediction of sodium boiling and dryout in the fuel subassemblies of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) under certain accident aconditions is of paramount importance in LMFBR safety. In the present paper, boiling and dryout calculations performed by two computer codes, one-dimensional (1-D), LOOP-1 and two-dimensional (2-D), THORAX are presented and compared with experimental data.

  17. Application of Organophosphonic Acids by One-Step Supercritical CO2 on 1D and 2D Semiconductors: Toward Enhanced Electrical and Sensing Performances.

    PubMed

    Bhartia, Bhavesh; Bacher, Nadav; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Khatib, Salam; Song, Jing; Guo, Shifeng; Troadec, Cedric; Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Srinivasan, Madapusi Palavedu; Haick, Hossam

    2015-07-15

    Formation of dense monolayers with proven atmospheric stability using simple fabrication conditions remains a major challenge for potential applications such as (bio)sensors, solar cells, surfaces for growth of biological cells, and molecular, organic, and plastic electronics. Here, we demonstrate a single-step modification of organophosphonic acids (OPA) on 1D and 2D structures using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) as a processing medium, with high stability and significantly shorter processing times than those obtained by the conventional physisorption-chemisorption method (2.5 h vs 48-60 h).The advantages of this approach in terms of stability and atmospheric resistivity are demonstrated on various 2D materials, such as indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and 2D Si surfaces. The advantage of the reported approach on electronic and sensing devices is demonstrated by Si nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FETs), which have shown a few orders of magnitude higher electrical and sensing performances, compared with devices obtained by conventional approaches. The compatibility of the reported approach with various materials and its simple implementation with a single reactor makes it easily scalable for various applications. PMID:26087766

  18. Application of Organophosphonic Acids by One-Step Supercritical CO2 on 1D and 2D Semiconductors: Toward Enhanced Electrical and Sensing Performances.

    PubMed

    Bhartia, Bhavesh; Bacher, Nadav; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Khatib, Salam; Song, Jing; Guo, Shifeng; Troadec, Cedric; Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Srinivasan, Madapusi Palavedu; Haick, Hossam

    2015-07-15

    Formation of dense monolayers with proven atmospheric stability using simple fabrication conditions remains a major challenge for potential applications such as (bio)sensors, solar cells, surfaces for growth of biological cells, and molecular, organic, and plastic electronics. Here, we demonstrate a single-step modification of organophosphonic acids (OPA) on 1D and 2D structures using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) as a processing medium, with high stability and significantly shorter processing times than those obtained by the conventional physisorption-chemisorption method (2.5 h vs 48-60 h).The advantages of this approach in terms of stability and atmospheric resistivity are demonstrated on various 2D materials, such as indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and 2D Si surfaces. The advantage of the reported approach on electronic and sensing devices is demonstrated by Si nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FETs), which have shown a few orders of magnitude higher electrical and sensing performances, compared with devices obtained by conventional approaches. The compatibility of the reported approach with various materials and its simple implementation with a single reactor makes it easily scalable for various applications.

  19. Structure and Dynamics of Asymmetric Poly(styrene-b-1,4-isoprene) Diblock Copolymer under 1D and 2D Nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Kipnusu, Wycliffe K; Elmahdy, Mahdy M; Mapesa, Emmanuel U; Zhang, Jianqi; Böhlmann, Winfried; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Papadakis, Christine M; Kremer, Friedrich

    2015-06-17

    The impact of 1- and 2-dimensional (2D) confinement on the structure and dynamics of poly(styrene-b-1,4-isoprene) P(S-b-I) diblock copolymer is investigated by a combination of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS), and Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS). 1D confinement is achieved by spin coating the P(S-b-I) to form nanometric thin films on silicon substrates, while in the 2D confinement, the copolymer is infiltrated into cylindrical anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanopores. After dissolving the AAO matrix having mean pore diameter of 150 nm, the SEM images of the exposed P(S-b-I) show straight nanorods. For the thin films, GISAXS and AFM reveal hexagonally packed cylinders of PS in a PI matrix. Three dielectrically active relaxation modes assigned to the two segmental modes of the styrene and isoprene blocks and the normal mode of the latter are studied selectively by BDS. The dynamic glass transition, related to the segmental modes of the styrene and isoprene blocks, is independent of the dimensionality and the finite sizes (down to 18 nm) of confinement, but the normal mode is influenced by both factors with 2D geometrical constraints exerting greater impact. This reflects the considerable difference in the length scales on which the two kinds of fluctuations take place. PMID:25660102

  20. Comparative evaluation of 1D and quasi-2D hydraulic models based on benchmark and real-world applications for uncertainty assessment in flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Tegos, Aristoteles; Oikonomou, Athanasios; Pagana, Vassiliki; Koukouvinos, Antonios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional hydraulic freeware models (HEC-RAS, LISFLOOD-FP and FLO-2d) are widely used for flood inundation mapping. These models are tested on a benchmark test with a mixed rectangular-triangular channel cross section. Using a Monte-Carlo approach, we employ extended sensitivity analysis by simultaneously varying the input discharge, longitudinal and lateral gradients and roughness coefficients, as well as the grid cell size. Based on statistical analysis of three output variables of interest, i.e. water depths at the inflow and outflow locations and total flood volume, we investigate the uncertainty enclosed in different model configurations and flow conditions, without the influence of errors and other assumptions on topography, channel geometry and boundary conditions. Moreover, we estimate the uncertainty associated to each input variable and we compare it to the overall one. The outcomes of the benchmark analysis are further highlighted by applying the three models to real-world flood propagation problems, in the context of two challenging case studies in Greece.

  1. Improved Large-Scale Inundation Modelling by 1D-2D Coupling and Consideration of Hydrologic and Hydrodynamic Processes - a Case Study in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, J. M.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, R.; Winsemius, H.; Haag, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of fluvial floods is paramount to accurate flood hazard and risk modeling. Currently, economic losses due to flooding constitute about one third of all damage resulting from natural hazards. Given future projections of climate change, the anticipated increase in the World's population and the associated implications, sound knowledge of flood hazard and related risk is crucial. Fluvial floods are cross-border phenomena that need to be addressed accordingly. Yet, only few studies model floods at the large-scale which is preferable to tiling the output of small-scale models. Most models cannot realistically model flood wave propagation due to a lack of either detailed channel and floodplain geometry or the absence of hydrologic processes. This study aims to develop a large-scale modeling tool that accounts for both hydrologic and hydrodynamic processes, to find and understand possible sources of errors and improvements and to assess how the added hydrodynamics affect flood wave propagation. Flood wave propagation is simulated by DELFT3D-FM (FM), a hydrodynamic model using a flexible mesh to schematize the study area. It is coupled to PCR-GLOBWB (PCR), a macro-scale hydrological model, that has its own simpler 1D routing scheme (DynRout) which has already been used for global inundation modeling and flood risk assessments (GLOFRIS; Winsemius et al., 2013). A number of model set-ups are compared and benchmarked for the simulation period 1986-1996: (0) PCR with DynRout; (1) using a FM 2D flexible mesh forced with PCR output and (2) as in (1) but discriminating between 1D channels and 2D floodplains, and, for comparison, (3) and (4) the same set-ups as (1) and (2) but forced with observed GRDC discharge values. Outputs are subsequently validated against observed GRDC data at Óbidos and flood extent maps from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The present research constitutes a first step into a globally applicable approach to fully couple

  2. Combinatorial variation of structure in considerations of compound lumping in one- and two-dimensional property representations of condensable atmospheric organic compounds. 1. Lumping by 1-D volatility with nC fixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, James F.; Niakan, Negar; Asher, William E.

    2013-12-01

    Many current models that aim to predict urban and regional levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) use either the 2 product (2p) framework for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, or a static 1-D volatility basis set (1-D-VBS). These approaches assume that: 1) the compounds involved in OPM condensation/evaporation can be lumped simply by volatility with no specificity regarding carbon number nC, MW, or polar functionality; 2) water uptake does not occur; and 3) the compounds are non-ionizing. This work considers the consequences for uniphasic PM caused by the first two assumptions due to effects of the condensed-phase mean molecular weight MWbar and activity coefficients (ζi), including when RH (relative humidity) > 0. Setting nC = 10 for all bins, multiple chemical structures were developed for each bin of a 1-D-VBS for un-aged SOA in the α-pinene/ozone system. For each bin, a group-contribution vapor pressure (pLo) prediction method was used to find multiple structures such that the groups-based log pLo for nC = 10 and variable numbers of aldehyde, ketone, hydroxyl, and carboxylic acid groups agrees, within ±0.5, with the bin volatility. The number of possible combinations with one structure taken from each bin was 17,640. The Raster-Roulette Organic Aerosol (RROA) model was used to calculate the equilibrium mass concentrations (μg m-3) of OPM (Mo) and co-condensed water (Mw) at 25 °C for each combination for ranges of RH and ΔHC (change in parent hydrocarbon concentration). UNIFAC was used to determine the needed values of ζi. Frequency distributions from RROA for Mo, Mw, and the O:C ratio were developed. For Mo levels typical of the ambient atmosphere, then for the 1-D-VBS and all bins constrained at nC = 10, significant RH-induced enhancement of OPM condensation was observed in the distributions. The spread of the distributions was found to increase rapidly as the level of OPM decreased. The within-bin spread of ±0.5 log units in the groups

  3. ZnO Nanorods on a LaAlO3 -SrTiO3 Interface: Hybrid 1D-2D Diodes with Engineered Electronic Properties.

    PubMed

    Bera, Ashok; Lin, Weinan; Yao, Yingbang; Ding, Junfeng; Lourembam, James; Wu, Tom

    2016-02-10

    Integrating nanomaterials with different dimensionalities and properties is a versatile approach toward realizing new functionalities in advanced devices. Here, a novel diode-type heterostructure is reported consisting of 1D semiconducting ZnO nanorods and 2D metallic LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface. Tunable insulator-to-metal transitions, absent in the individual components, are observed as a result of the competing temperature-dependent conduction mechanisms. Detailed transport analysis reveals direct tunneling at low bias, Fowler-Nordheim tunneling at high forward bias, and Zener breakdown at high reverse bias. Our results highlight the rich electronic properties of such artificial diodes with hybrid dimensionalities, and the design principle may be generalized to other nanomaterials.

  4. Fermi Surface Studies of QUASI-1D and QUASI-2D Organic Superconductors Using Periodic Orbit Resonance in High Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, S.; Kovalev, A. E.; Hill, S.; Takasaki, S.; Yamada, J.; Anzai, H.; Qualls, J. S.; Kawano, K.; Tamura, M.; Naito, T.; Kobayashi, H.

    We have studied periodic orbit resonances (PORs) in order to probe the topology of the Fermi surface (FS) of the quasi-1D organic conductor (TMTSF)2ClO4 and the quasi-2D organic conductors κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 and κ-(ET)2I3. The FS of (TMTSF)2ClO4 consists of a pair of weakly corrugated open sheets, while κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 and κ-(ET)2I3 additionally possess warped cylindrical FS sections. In this paper, we review the POR technique for the straightforward case of (TMTSF)2ClO4. We then report on a detailed study of the FS topology for κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2.

  5. Fermi Surface Studies of QUASI-1D and QUASI-2D Organic Superconductors Using Periodic Orbit Resonance in High Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, S.; Kovalev, A. E.; Hill, S.; Takasaki, S.; Yamada, J.; Anzai, H.; Qualls, J. S.; Kawano, K.; Tamura, M.; Naito, T.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-04-01

    We have studied periodic orbit resonances (PORs) in order to probe the topology of the Fermi surface (FS) of the quasi-1D organic conductor (TMTSF)2ClO4 and the quasi-2D organic conductors κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 and κ-(ET)2I3. The FS of (TMTSF)2ClO4 consists of a pair of weakly corrugated open sheets, while κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 and κ-(ET)2I3 additionally possess warped cylindrical FS sections. In this paper, we review the POR technique for the straightforward case of (TMTSF)2ClO4. We then report on a detailed study of the FS topology for κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2.

  6. A time series generalized functional model based method for vibration-based damage precise localization in structures consisting of 1D, 2D, and 3D elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaris, C. S.; Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the problem of vibration-based damage precise localization via data-based, time series type, methods for structures consisting of 1D, 2D, or 3D elements. A Generalized Functional Model Based method is postulated based on an expanded Vector-dependent Functionally Pooled ARX (VFP-ARX) model form, capable of accounting for an arbitrary structural topology. The FP model's operating parameter vector elements are properly constrained to reflect any given topology. Damage localization is based on operating parameter vector estimation within the specified topology, so that the location estimate and its uncertainty bounds are statistically optimal. The method's effectiveness is experimentally demonstrated through damage precise localization on a laboratory spatial truss structure using various damage scenarios and a single pair of random excitation - vibration response signals in a low and limited frequency bandwidth.

  7. Can a highly flexible copper(i) cluster-containing 1D and 2D coordination polymers exhibit MOF-like properties?

    PubMed

    Bonnot, Antoine; Juvenal, Frank; Lapprand, Anthony; Fortin, Daniel; Knorr, Michael; Harvey, Pierre D

    2016-07-28

    The reaction of CuI with the highly flexible dithioether ligand p-TolS(CH2)8STol-p affords both in MeCN or in EtCN the 2D coordination polymers [Cu8I8{p-TolS(CH2)8STol-p}3(solvent)2]n (1·MeCN and 1·EtCN) containing octanuclear Cu8I8 clusters as connection nodes. In contrast, treatment of CuI with p-tBuC6H4S(CH2)8SC6H4But-p in EtCN solution leads to the formation of the luminescent 1D CP [Cu4I4{tBuC6H4S(CH2)8SC6H4-tBu}2(EtCN)2]n (2·EtCN) incorporating Cu4(μ3-I)4 clusters of the closed cubane type as secondary building units (SBUs). The 2D coordination polymers 1·MeCN and 1·EtCN demonstrate the ability to lose their solvent crystallisation molecules under vacuum and readsorb the same or a new one using vapor as monitored by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, IR, chromaticity, emission spectra and emission lifetime measurements. Conversely, the 1D material 2·EtCN does not readsorb EtCN, likely due to the collapse of the macrocycles formed by the metal cluster nodes and flexible long-chained ArSC8SAr ligands but absorbs a smaller substrate such as CO2. PMID:27333826

  8. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  9. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  10. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  11. Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Assisted Growth of 2D Ultrathin MoS2 Nanosheets on Various 1D Carbons for Superior Li-Storage.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qunting; Qian, Feng; Yang, Siming; Gao, Tian; Liu, Weijie; Shao, Jie; Zheng, Honghe

    2016-01-20

    Transitional metal sulfide/carbon hybrids with well-defined structures could not only maximize the functional properties of each constituent but engender some unique synergistic effects, holding great promise for applications in Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors and for catalysis. Herein, a facile and versatile approach is developed to controllably grow 2D ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets with a large quantity of exposed edges onto various 1D carbons, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), electrospun carbon nanofibers, and Te-nanowire-templated carbon nanofibers. The typical approach involves the employment of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled polyelectrolyte, which controls spatially the uniform growth and orientation of ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets on these 1D carbons irrespective of their surface properties. Such unique structures of the as-prepared CNTs@MoS2 hybrid are significantly favorable for the fast diffusions of both Li-ions and electrons, satisfying the kinetic requirements of high-power lithium ion batteries. As a result, CNTs@MoS2 hybrids exhibit excellent electrochemical performances for lithium storage, including a high reversible capacity (1027 mAh g(-1)), high-rate capability (610 mAh g(-1) at 5 C), and excellent cycling stability (negligible capacity loss after 200 continuous cycles).

  12. Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Assisted Growth of 2D Ultrathin MoS2 Nanosheets on Various 1D Carbons for Superior Li-Storage.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qunting; Qian, Feng; Yang, Siming; Gao, Tian; Liu, Weijie; Shao, Jie; Zheng, Honghe

    2016-01-20

    Transitional metal sulfide/carbon hybrids with well-defined structures could not only maximize the functional properties of each constituent but engender some unique synergistic effects, holding great promise for applications in Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors and for catalysis. Herein, a facile and versatile approach is developed to controllably grow 2D ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets with a large quantity of exposed edges onto various 1D carbons, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), electrospun carbon nanofibers, and Te-nanowire-templated carbon nanofibers. The typical approach involves the employment of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled polyelectrolyte, which controls spatially the uniform growth and orientation of ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets on these 1D carbons irrespective of their surface properties. Such unique structures of the as-prepared CNTs@MoS2 hybrid are significantly favorable for the fast diffusions of both Li-ions and electrons, satisfying the kinetic requirements of high-power lithium ion batteries. As a result, CNTs@MoS2 hybrids exhibit excellent electrochemical performances for lithium storage, including a high reversible capacity (1027 mAh g(-1)), high-rate capability (610 mAh g(-1) at 5 C), and excellent cycling stability (negligible capacity loss after 200 continuous cycles). PMID:26709711

  13. Syntheses, crystal structures, and characterization of three 1D, 2D and 3D complexes based on mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huai-Xia; Liang, Zhen; Hao, Bao-Lian; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2014-10-01

    Three new 1D to 3D complexes, namely, {[Ni(btec)(Himb)2(H2O)2]·6H2O}n (1), {[Cd(btec)0.5(imb)(H2O)]·1.5H2O}n (2), and {[Zn(btec)0.5(imb)]·H2O}n (3) (H4btec=1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, imb=2-(1H-imidazol-1-methyl)-1H-benzimidazole) have been synthesized by adjusting the central metal ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that complex 1 possesses a 1D chain structure which is further extended into the 3D supramolecular architecture via hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 features a 2D network with Schla¨fli symbol (53·62·7)(52·64). Complex 3 presents a 3D framework with a point symbol of (4·64·8)(42·62·82). Moreover, their IR spectra, PXRD patterns, thermogravimetric curves, and luminescent emissions were studied at room temperature.

  14. A novel 1D/2D model for simulating conjugate heat transfer applied to flow boiling in tubes with external fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Łopata, Stanisław; Nowak, Marzena

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.

  15. A novel 1D/2D model for simulating conjugate heat transfer applied to flow boiling in tubes with external fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Łopata, Stanisław; Nowak, Marzena

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.

  16. Syntheses, crystal structures, and characterization of three 1D, 2D and 3D complexes based on mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huai-Xia; Liang, Zhen; Hao, Bao-Lian; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Three new 1D to 3D complexes, namely, ([Ni(btec)(Himb){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), ([Cd(btec){sub 0.5}(imb)(H{sub 2}O)]·1.5H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2), and ([Zn(btec){sub 0.5}(imb)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) (H{sub 4}btec=1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, imb=2-(1H-imidazol-1-methyl)-1H-benzimidazole) have been synthesized by adjusting the central metal ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that complex 1 possesses a 1D chain structure which is further extended into the 3D supramolecular architecture via hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 features a 2D network with Schla¨fli symbol (5{sup 3}·6{sup 2}·7)(5{sup 2}·6{sup 4}). Complex 3 presents a 3D framework with a point symbol of (4·6{sup 4}·8)(4{sup 2}·6{sup 2}·8{sup 2}). Moreover, their IR spectra, PXRD patterns, thermogravimetric curves, and luminescent emissions were studied at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three new 1D to 3D complexes with different structural and topological motifs have been obtained by modifying the central metal ions. Additionally, their IR, TG analyses and fluorescent properties are also investigated. - Highlights: • Three complexes based on mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands. • The complexes are characterized by IR, luminescence and TGA techniques. • Benzenetetracarboxylates display different coordination modes in complexes 1–3. • Changing the metal ions can result in complexes with completely different structures.

  17. Cyano-bridged coordination polymer hydrogel-derived Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids with structural diversity: from 3D, 2D, to 2D/1D and enhanced lithium-storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Chen, Xuguang; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Ding, Liangxin; Wu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Metal oxide nanohybrids with uniform dimensions and controlled architectures possess unique compositional and structural superiorities, and thus harbor promising potential for a series of applications in energy, catalysis, and sensing systems. Herein, we propose a facile, general, and scalable cyano-bridged coordination polymer hydrogel-derived thermal-oxidation route for the construction of main-group metal and transition-metal heterometallic oxide nanohybrids with controlled constituents and architectures. The formation of Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids has been demonstrated as an example by using cyano-bridged Sn(iv)-Fe(ii) bimetallic coordination polymer hydrogels (i.e., SnCl4-K4Fe(CN)6 cyanogels, Sn-Fe cyanogels) as precursors. The physicochemical properties of Sn-Fe cyanogels with different Sn/Fe ratios have been systematically examined, and it is found that perfect Sn-Fe cyanogels without unbridged Sn(iv) or Fe(ii) can be formed with Sn/Fe ratios from 2 : 1 to 1 : 2. More importantly, the simple adjustment of Sn/Fe ratios in the Sn-Fe cyanogel precursors can realize flexible dimensional control of the Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids, and 2D/1D SnO2-Fe2O3 hierarchitectures, 2D SnO2-Fe2O3 nanosheets, and 3D SnO2-Fe2O3 networks have been synthesized using the Sn-Fe 1 : 2, Sn-Fe 1 : 1, and Sn-Fe 2 : 1 cyanogels as precursors, respectively. To demonstrate their compositional/structural superiorities and potential applications, the lithium-storage utilization of the Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids has been selected as an objective application, and the nanohybrids exhibit Sn/Fe ratio-dependent lithium-storage performance. As a representative example, the 2D/1D SnO2-Fe2O3 hierarchitectures manifest markedly enhanced Li-storage performance in terms of reversible capacities and cycling stability in comparison with their constituent units, i.e., bare SnO2 nanosheets and Fe2O3 nanorods. The proposed cyanogel-derived thermal-oxidation strategy could open up new

  18. Dopamine D1, D2, D3 Receptors, Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Type-2 (VMAT2) and Dopamine Transporter (DAT) Densities in Aged Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianjun; Xu, Jinbin; Cairns, Nigel J.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Mach, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine D1, D2, D3 receptors, vesicular monoamine transporter type-2 (VMAT2), and dopamine transporter (DAT) densities were measured in 11 aged human brains (aged 77–107.8, mean: 91 years) by quantitative autoradiography. The density of D1 receptors, VMAT2, and DAT was measured using [3H]SCH23390, [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine, and [3H]WIN35428, respectively. The density of D2 and D3 receptors was calculated using the D3-preferring radioligand, [3H]WC-10 and the D2-preferring radioligand [3H]raclopride using a mathematical model developed previously by our group. Dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors are extensively distributed throughout striatum; the highest density of D3 receptors occurred in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The density of the DAT is 10–20-fold lower than that of VMAT2 in striatal regions. Dopamine D3 receptor density exceeded D2 receptor densities in extrastriatal regions, and thalamus contained a high level of D3 receptors with negligible D2 receptors. The density of dopamine D1 linearly correlated with D3 receptor density in the thalamus. The density of the DAT was negligible in the extrastriatal regions whereas the VMAT2 was expressed in moderate density. D3 receptor and VMAT2 densities were in similar level between the aged human and aged rhesus brain samples, whereas aged human brain samples had lower range of densities of D1 and D2 receptors and DAT compared with the aged rhesus monkey brain. The differential density of D3 and D2 receptors in human brain will be useful in the interpretation of PET imaging studies in human subjects with existing radiotracers, and assist in the validation of newer PET radiotracers having a higher selectivity for dopamine D2 or D3 receptors. PMID:23185343

  19. Generation of a pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity section by inversion of a series of 1D dispersion curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves utilizes a multichannel recording system to estimate near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities from high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity (vS) section is constructed by aligning 1D models at the midpoint of each receiver spread and using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. The receiver spread length sets the theoretical lower limit and any vS structure with its lateral dimension smaller than this length will not be properly resolved in the final vS section. A source interval smaller than the spread length will not improve the horizontal resolution because spatial smearing has already been introduced by the receiver spread. In this paper, we first analyze the horizontal resolution of a pair of synthetic traces. Resolution analysis shows that (1) a pair of traces with a smaller receiver spacing achieves higher horizontal resolution of inverted S-wave velocities but results in a larger relative error; (2) the relative error of the phase velocity at a high frequency is smaller than at a low frequency; and (3) a relative error of the inverted S-wave velocity is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio of data. These results provide us with a guideline to balance the trade-off between receiver spacing (horizontal resolution) and accuracy of the inverted S-wave velocity. We then present a scheme to generate a pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with high horizontal resolution using multichannel records by inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves calculated through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. This method chooses only a pair of consecutive traces within a shot gather to calculate a dispersion curve. We finally invert surface-wave dispersion curves of synthetic and real-world data. Inversion results of both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that

  20. NKG2D performs two functions in invariant NKT cells: Direct TCR-independent activation of NK-like cytolysis, and co-stimulation of activation by CD1d

    PubMed Central

    Kuylenstierna, Carlotta; Björkström, Niklas K.; Andersson, Sofia K.; Sahlström, Peter; Bosnjak, Lidija; Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Moll, Markus; Sandberg, Johan K.

    2012-01-01

    Invariant NKT cells are important in the activation and regulation of immune responses. They can also function as CD1d-restricted killer cells. However, the role of activating innate NK cell receptors expressed on NKT cells in triggering cytolytic function is poorly characterized. Here, we initially confirmed that the cellular stress-ligand receptor NKG2D is expressed on CD4− NKT cells, whereas most CD4+ NKT cells lack this receptor. Interestingly, NKG2D+ NKT cells frequently expressed perforin, and both NKG2D and perforin localized at the site of contact with NKG2D ligand-expressing target cells. CD4− NKT cells degranulated in response to NKG2D engagement in a redirected activation assay independently of stimulation via their invariant TCR. NKT cells killed P815 cells coated with anti-NKG2D mAb and CD1d-negative K562 tumor target cells in an NKG2D-dependent manner. Furthermore, NKG2D engagement co-stimulated TCR-mediated NKT cell activation in response to endogenous CD1d-presented ligands or suboptimal levels of anti-CD3 triggering. These data indicate that the CD4− subset of human NKT cells can mediate direct lysis of target cells via NKG2D engagement independently of CD1d, and that NKG2D also functions as a co-stimulatory receptor in these cells. NKG2D thus plays both a direct and a co-stimulatory role in the activation of NKT cells. PMID:21590763

  1. Testing a new analytical approach for determination of vibrational transition moment directions in low symmetry planar molecules: 1-D- and 2-D-naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Rogojerov, Marin; Keresztury, Gábor; Kamenova-Nacheva, Mariana; Sundius, Tom

    2012-12-01

    A new analytical approach for improving the precision in determination of vibrational transition moment directions of low symmetry molecules (lacking orthogonal axes) is discussed in this paper. The target molecules are partially uniaxially oriented in nematic liquid crystalline solvent and are studied by IR absorption spectroscopy using polarized light. The fundamental problem addressed is that IR linear dichroism measurements of low symmetry molecules alone cannot provide sufficient information on molecular orientation and transition moment directions. It is shown that computational prediction of these quantities can supply relevant complementary data, helping to reveal the hidden information content and achieve a more meaningful and more precise interpretation of the measured dichroic ratios. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational method proposed by us recently for determination of the average orientation of molecules with C(s) symmetry has now been replaced by a more precise analytical approach. The new method introduced and discussed in full detail here uses a mathematically evaluated angle between two vibrational transition moment vectors as a reference. The discussion also deals with error analysis and estimation of uncertainties of the orientational parameters. The proposed procedure has been tested in an analysis of the infrared linear dichroism (IR-LD) spectra of 1-D- and 2-D-naphthalene complemented with DFT calculations using the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQM FF) method. PMID:22981590

  2. Fundamental SAR ATR performance predictions for design trade-offs: 1D HRR versus 2D SAR versus 3D SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Larry L.; Brendel, Gary F.

    1999-08-01

    This paper continues the development of a fundamental, algorithm-independent view of the ATR performance that can be achieved using SAR data. Such ATR performance predictions are intended to enable evaluation of performance tradeoffs for SAR designs, including both parameter selections (e.g., bandwidth and transmit power) and added domains of SAR observation, such as 3-D, full polarimetry, aspect diversity, and/or frequency diversity. Using a Bayesian framework, we show target classification performance predictions for two tactical targets (either stationary with radar netting assumed deployed, or moving) using three different domains of observation: 1-D HRR (high-range-resolution radar), 2-D SAR, and 3-D SAR. Comparisons of the three domains are made at 3m, 1m, 0.5m and 0.3m range and cross-range resolutions. The discussion of 3-D SAR includes parameter tradeoffs of various height resolutions at the target, and various numbers of sensors. For each measurement modality, we list some of the unique sensitivities which could cause performance degradations.

  3. Local doping of two-dimensional materials

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  4. Multi-dimensional transition-metal coordination polymers of 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide: 1D chains and 2D sheets.

    PubMed

    Jia, Junhua; Blake, Alexander J; Champness, Neil R; Hubberstey, Peter; Wilson, Claire; Schröder, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Reaction of 4,4'-bipyridine -N, N' -dioxide (L) with a variety of transition-metal salts in MeOH affords a range of coordination polymer products. For the complexes [FeCl 3(mu-L)] infinity, 1, and ([Cu(L) 2(OHMe) 2(mu-L)].2PF 6. n(solv)) infinity, 2, 1D chain structures are observed, whereas ([Mn(mu-L) 3].2ClO 4) infinity, 3, and ([Cu(mu-L) 3].2BF 4) infinity, 4, both show 2D sheet architectures incorporating an unusual 3 (6)- hxl topology. The more common 4 (4)- sql topology is observed in [Cd(ONO 2) 2(mu-L) 2] infinity, 5, ([Cu(OHMe) 2(mu-L) 2].2ZrF 5) infinity, 6, ([Cu(L) 2(mu-L) 2].2EF 6) infinity ( 7 E = P; 8 E = Sb), and ([Et 4N][Cu(OHMe) 0.5(mu-L) 2(mu-FSiF 4F) 0.5].2SbF 6. n(solv)) infinity, 9. In 6, the [ZrF 5] (-) anion, formed in situ from [ZrF 6] (2-), forms 1D anionic chains ([ZrF 5] (-)) infinity of vertex-linked octahedra, and these chains thread through a pair of inclined polycatenated ([Cu(OHMe) 2(mu-L) 2] (2+)) infinity 4 (4)- sql grids to give a rare example of a triply intertwined coordination polymer. 9 also shows a 3D matrix structure with 4 (4)- sql sheets of stoichiometry ([Cu(L) 2] (2+)) infinity coordinatively linked by bridging [SiF 6] (2-) anions to give a structure of 5-c 4 (4).6 (6)- sqp topology. The mononuclear [Cu(L) 6].2BF 4 ( 10) and [Cd(L) 6].2NO 3 ( 11) and binuclear complexes [(Cu(L)(OH 2)) 2(mu-L) 2)].2SiF 6. n(solv), 12, are also reported. The majority of the coordination polymers are free of solvent and are nonporous. Thermal treatment of materials that do contain solvent results in structural disintegration of the complex structures giving no permanent porosity.

  5. Two-dimensional stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy of molecules with broadband x-ray pulses

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Jason D.; Zhang, Yu; Healion, Daniel; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-01-01

    Expressions for the two-dimensional stimulated x-ray Raman spectroscopy (2D-SXRS) signal obtained using attosecond x-ray pulses are derived. The 1D- and 2D-SXRS signals are calculated for trans-N-methyl acetamide (NMA) with broad bandwidth (181 as, 14.2 eV FWHM) pulses tuned to the oxygen and nitrogen K-edges. Crosspeaks in 2D signals reveal electronic Franck-Condon overlaps between valence orbitals and relaxed orbitals in the presence of the core-hole. PMID:22583220

  6. On-line 1D and 2D porous layer open tubular/LC-ESI-MS using 10-microm-i.d. poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) columns for ultrasensitive proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Quanzhou; Yue, Guihua; Valaskovic, Gary A; Gu, Ye; Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Karger, Barry L

    2007-08-15

    Following on our recent work, on-line one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) porous layer open tubular/liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PLOT/LC-ESI-MS) platforms using 3.2 mx10 microm i.d. poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) PLOT columns have been developed to provide robust, high-performance, and ultrasensitive proteomic analysis. With the use of a PicoClear tee, the dead volume connection between a 50 microm i.d. PS-DVB monolithic micro-SPE column and the PLOT column was minimized. The micro-SPE/PLOT column assembly provided a separation performance similar to that obtained with direct injection onto the PLOT column at a mobile phase flow rate of 20 nL/min. The trace analysis potential of the platform was evaluated using an in-gel tryptic digest sample of a gel fraction (15-40 kDa) of a cervical cancer (SiHa) cell line. As an example of the sensitivity of the system, approximately 2.5 ng of protein in 2 microL of solution, an amount corresponding to 20 SiHa cells, was subjected to on-line micro-SPE-PLOT/LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis using a linear ion trap MS. A total of 237 peptides associated with 163 unique proteins were identified from a single analysis when using stringent criteria associated with a false positive rate of less than 1%. The number of identified peptides and proteins increased to 638 and 343, respectively, as the injection amount was raised to approximately 45 ng of protein, an amount corresponding to 350 SiHa cells. In comparison, only 338 peptides and 231 unique proteins were identified (false positive rate again less than 1%) from 750 ng of protein from the identical gel fraction, an amount corresponding to 6000 SiHa cells, using a typical 15 cmx75 microm i.d. packed capillary column. The greater sensitivity, higher recovery, and higher resolving power of the PLOT column resulted in the increased number of identifications from only approximately 5% of the injected sample amount. The resolving power of the

  7. Two-dimensional aperture coding for magnetic sector mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Russell, Zachary E; Chen, Evan X; Amsden, Jason J; Wolter, Scott D; Danell, Ryan M; Parker, Charles B; Stoner, Brian R; Gehm, Michael E; Brady, David J; Glass, Jeffrey T

    2015-02-01

    In mass spectrometer design, there has been a historic belief that there exists a fundamental trade-off between instrument size, throughput, and resolution. When miniaturizing a traditional system, performance loss in either resolution or throughput would be expected. However, in optical spectroscopy, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) aperture coding have been used for many years to break a similar trade-off. To provide a viable path to miniaturization for harsh environment field applications, we are investigating similar concepts in sector mass spectrometry. Recently, we demonstrated the viability of 1D aperture coding and here we provide a first investigation of 2D coding. In coded optical spectroscopy, 2D coding is preferred because of increased measurement diversity for improved conditioning and robustness of the result. To investigate its viability in mass spectrometry, analytes of argon, acetone, and ethanol were detected using a custom 90-degree magnetic sector mass spectrometer incorporating 2D coded apertures. We developed a mathematical forward model and reconstruction algorithm to successfully reconstruct the mass spectra from the 2D spatially coded ion positions. This 2D coding enabled a 3.5× throughput increase with minimal decrease in resolution. Several challenges were overcome in the mass spectrometer design to enable this coding, including the need for large uniform ion flux, a wide gap magnetic sector that maintains field uniformity, and a high resolution 2D detection system for ion imaging. Furthermore, micro-fabricated 2D coded apertures incorporating support structures were developed to provide a viable design that allowed ion transmission through the open elements of the code. PMID:25510933

  8. Co-nucleus 1D/2D Heterostructures with Bi2S3 Nanowire and MoS2 Monolayer: One-Step Growth and Defect-Induced Formation Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongtao; Huang, Le; Li, Bo; Wang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Ziqi; Li, Jingbo; Wei, Zhongming

    2016-09-27

    Heterostructures constructed by low-dimensional (such as 0D, 1D, and 2D) materials have opened up opportunities for exploring interesting physical properties and versatile (opto)electronics. Recently, 2D/2D heterostructures, in particular, atomically thin graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides, including graphene/MoS2, WSe2/MoS2, and WS2/WSe2, were efficiently prepared (by transfer techniques, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth, etc.) and systematically studied. In contrast, investigation of 1D/2D heterostructures was still very challenging and rarely reported, and the understanding of such heterostructures was also not well established. Herein, we demonstrate the one-step growth of a heterostructure on the basis of a 1D-Bi2S3 nanowire and a 2D-MoS2 monolayer through the CVD method. Multimeans were employed, and the results proved the separated growth of a Bi2S3 nanowire and a MoS2 sheet in the heterostructure rather than forming a BixMo1-xSy alloy due to their large lattice mismatch. Defect-induced co-nucleus growth, which was an important growth mode in 1D/2D heterostructures, was also experimentally confirmed and systematically investigated in our research. Such 1D/2D heterostructures were further fabricated and utilized in (opto)electronic devices, such as field-effect transistors and photodetectors, and revealed their potential for multifunctional design in electrical properties. The direct growth of such nanostructures will help us to gain a better comprehension of these specific configurations and allow device functionalities in potential applications.

  9. Wired up: interconnecting two-dimensional materials with one-dimensional atomic chains.

    PubMed

    Rong, Youmin; Warner, Jamie H

    2014-12-23

    Atomic wires are chains of atoms sequentially bonded together and epitomize the structural form of a one-dimensional (1D) material. In graphene, they form as interconnects between regions when the nanoconstriction eventually becomes so narrow that it is reduced to one atom thick. In this issue of ACS Nano, Cretu et al. extend the discovery of 1D atomic wire interconnects in two-dimensional (2D) materials to hexagonal boron nitride. We highlight recent progress in the area of 1D atomic wires within 2D materials, with a focus on their atomic-level structural analysis using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. We extend this discussion to the formation of nanowires in transition metal dichalcogenides under similar electron-beam irradiation conditions. The future outlook for atomic wires is considered in the context of new 2D materials and hybrids of C, B, and N. PMID:25474120

  10. Wired up: interconnecting two-dimensional materials with one-dimensional atomic chains.

    PubMed

    Rong, Youmin; Warner, Jamie H

    2014-12-23

    Atomic wires are chains of atoms sequentially bonded together and epitomize the structural form of a one-dimensional (1D) material. In graphene, they form as interconnects between regions when the nanoconstriction eventually becomes so narrow that it is reduced to one atom thick. In this issue of ACS Nano, Cretu et al. extend the discovery of 1D atomic wire interconnects in two-dimensional (2D) materials to hexagonal boron nitride. We highlight recent progress in the area of 1D atomic wires within 2D materials, with a focus on their atomic-level structural analysis using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. We extend this discussion to the formation of nanowires in transition metal dichalcogenides under similar electron-beam irradiation conditions. The future outlook for atomic wires is considered in the context of new 2D materials and hybrids of C, B, and N.

  11. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  12. Pressure Tuning of First Dimension Columns in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Khan M; Kulsing, Chadin; Marriott, Philip J

    2016-09-20

    The experimental approach and mechanism of pressure tuning (PT) are introduced for the first stage of a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) separation. The PT-GC × GC system incorporates a first dimension ((1)D) coupled column ensemble comprising a pair of (1)D columns ((1)D1 and (1)D2) connected via a microfluidic splitter device, allowing variable decompression of carrier gas across each (1)D column, and a conventional (2)D narrow bore column. By variation of junction pressure between the (1)D1 and (1)D2 columns, tunable total (1)D retentions of analytes are readily derived. Separations of a standard mixture comprising a number of different chemical classes (including alkanes, monoaromatics, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters) and Australian tea tree oil (TTO) were studied as practical examples of the PT-GC × GC system application. This illustrated the change of analyte retention time with experimental conditions depending on void time and retention on the different columns. In addition to void time change, variation of carrier gas relative decompression in the (1)D ensemble leads to tunable contribution of the (1)D1/(1)D2 columns that changes apparent polarity and selectivity of the ensemble. The resulting changes in (1)D elution order further altered elution temperature and thus retention of each analyte on the (2)D column in temperature-programmed GC × GC. 2D orthogonality measurements were then conducted to evaluate overall separation performance under application of different (1)D junction pressure. As a result, distribution and selectivity of particular target compounds, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated terpenes in 2D space, and thus orthogonality, could be adequately tuned. This indicates the potential of PT-GC × GC to be applicable for practical sample separation and provides a general approach to tune selectivity of target compounds.

  13. Pressure Tuning of First Dimension Columns in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Khan M; Kulsing, Chadin; Marriott, Philip J

    2016-09-20

    The experimental approach and mechanism of pressure tuning (PT) are introduced for the first stage of a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) separation. The PT-GC × GC system incorporates a first dimension ((1)D) coupled column ensemble comprising a pair of (1)D columns ((1)D1 and (1)D2) connected via a microfluidic splitter device, allowing variable decompression of carrier gas across each (1)D column, and a conventional (2)D narrow bore column. By variation of junction pressure between the (1)D1 and (1)D2 columns, tunable total (1)D retentions of analytes are readily derived. Separations of a standard mixture comprising a number of different chemical classes (including alkanes, monoaromatics, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters) and Australian tea tree oil (TTO) were studied as practical examples of the PT-GC × GC system application. This illustrated the change of analyte retention time with experimental conditions depending on void time and retention on the different columns. In addition to void time change, variation of carrier gas relative decompression in the (1)D ensemble leads to tunable contribution of the (1)D1/(1)D2 columns that changes apparent polarity and selectivity of the ensemble. The resulting changes in (1)D elution order further altered elution temperature and thus retention of each analyte on the (2)D column in temperature-programmed GC × GC. 2D orthogonality measurements were then conducted to evaluate overall separation performance under application of different (1)D junction pressure. As a result, distribution and selectivity of particular target compounds, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated terpenes in 2D space, and thus orthogonality, could be adequately tuned. This indicates the potential of PT-GC × GC to be applicable for practical sample separation and provides a general approach to tune selectivity of target compounds. PMID:27548569

  14. A quasi two-dimensional model for sound attenuation by the sonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Lim, K M; Chew, C H

    2012-10-01

    Sound propagation in the sonic crystal (SC) along the symmetry direction is modeled by sound propagation through a variable cross-sectional area waveguide. A one-dimensional (1D) model based on the Webster horn equation is used to obtain sound attenuation through the SC. This model is compared with two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulation and experiment. The 1D model prediction of frequency band for sound attenuation is found to be shifted by around 500 Hz with respect to the finite element simulation. The reason for this shift is due to the assumption involved in the 1D model. A quasi 2D model is developed for sound propagation through the waveguide. Sound pressure profiles from the quasi 2D model are compared with the finite element simulation and the 1D model. The result shows significant improvement over the 1D model and is in good agreement with the 2D finite element simulation. Finally, sound attenuation through the SC is computed based on the quasi 2D model and is found to be in good agreement with the finite element simulation. The quasi 2D model provides an improved method to calculate sound attenuation through the SC.

  15. Two dimensional molecular electronics spectroscopy for molecular fingerprinting, DNA sequencing, and cancerous DNA recognition.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Arunkumar Chitteth; Rezapour, Mohammad Reza; Yun, Jeonghun; Cho, Yeonchoo; Cho, Woo Jong; Min, Seung Kyu; Lee, Geunsik; Kim, Kwang S

    2014-02-25

    Laser-driven molecular spectroscopy of low spatial resolution is widely used, while electronic current-driven molecular spectroscopy of atomic scale resolution has been limited because currents provide only minimal information. However, electron transmission of a graphene nanoribbon on which a molecule is adsorbed shows molecular fingerprints of Fano resonances, i.e., characteristic features of frontier orbitals and conformations of physisorbed molecules. Utilizing these resonance profiles, here we demonstrate two-dimensional molecular electronics spectroscopy (2D MES). The differential conductance with respect to bias and gate voltages not only distinguishes different types of nucleobases for DNA sequencing but also recognizes methylated nucleobases which could be related to cancerous cell growth. This 2D MES could open an exciting field to recognize single molecule signatures at atomic resolution. The advantages of the 2D MES over the one-dimensional (1D) current analysis can be comparable to those of 2D NMR over 1D NMR analysis.

  16. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-01

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants. PMID:22720790

  17. Three new 2-D metal-organic frameworks containing 1-D metal chains bridged by N-benzesulfonyl-glutamic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Lufang; Huo Xiankuan; Wang Liya Wang Jiange; Fan Yaoting

    2007-05-15

    To explore the possibility of obtaining the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) bearing the bsgluH{sub 2} ligand, two new Cd(II) and one Cu(II) coordination polymers, [Cd(bsglu)(bipy)] {sub n} (1), [Cd(bsglu).(H{sub 2}O)] {sub n} (2) and {l_brace}[Cu{sub 2}(bsglu){sub 2}(bipy){sub 2}].4H{sub 2}O{r_brace} {sub n} (3) (bsglu=N-benzesulfonyl-glutamic acid bianion, bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibit one-dimensional coordination chains, which are further connected to form two-dimensional supramolecular networks through {pi}-{pi} aromatic stacking interactions in a novel zipper-like way. Compound 2 presents a two-dimensional layer structure. To the best of our knowledge, 2 is the first two-dimensional complex formed from transition metal and bsgluH{sub 2} ligand. Interestingly, the bsglu anion exhibits remarkable versatile coordination modes in these complexes. Fluorescent analyses show that 1 exhibits photoluminescence in the solid state. Magnetic measurements for 3 revealed that the Cu(II) chain exhibit a weak antiferromagnetic behavior with a J value of -0.606 cm{sup -1}. - Graphical abstract: Three new complexes, [Cd(bsglu)(bipy)] {sub n} (1), [Cd(bsglu).(H{sub 2}O)] {sub n} (2) and {l_brace}[Cu{sub 2}(bsglu){sub 2}(bipy){sub 2}].4H{sub 2}O{r_brace} {sub n} (3), constructed from Cd(II) or Cu(II) salt with N-benzesulfonyl-glutamic acid were synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibit one-dimensional chains which are further connected to form two-dimensional supramolecular networks through {pi}-{pi} aromatic stacking interactions in a novel zipper-like way. Compound 2 presents a two-dimensional layer structure. Luminescence of 1 and magnetic properties of 3 are also investigated.

  18. 2D hexagonal quaternion Fourier transform in color image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel concept of the quaternion discrete Fourier transform on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, which we call the two-dimensional hexagonal quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D HQDFT). The concept of the right-side 2D HQDFT is described and the left-side 2-D HQDFT is similarly considered. To calculate the transform, the image on the hexagonal lattice is described in the tensor representation when the image is presented by a set of 1-D signals, or splitting-signals which can be separately processed in the frequency domain. The 2-D HQDFT can be calculated by a set of 1-D quaternion discrete Fourier transforms (QDFT) of the splitting-signals.

  19. Aniso2D

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  20. Two dimensional vernier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  1. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A. J.; Oza, A. T.

    2007-12-01

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  2. Analytic theory of two-dimensional NMR in systems with coupled macro- and micropores.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David Linton; Schwartz, Lawrence M

    2014-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments involve a sequence of longitudinal (T(1)) and transverse (T(2)) measurements. When such experiments are applied to porous media, they are believed to provide new and important information regarding diffusive coupling between distinct pore subpopulations. However, we show in this paper that, in many cases of interest, this is simply not true. One often encounters systems in which the one-dimensional (1D) T(1) and T(2) processes are each controlled by just two distinct decay modes. If these modes form a complete set, then one can derive analytic formulas that describe, exactly, the 2D NMR measurements. Therefore, for such systems, the 2D measurements bring no additional information over that which is already present in the 1D results. Our predictions agree quite well with numerical results based on the microporous grain-consolidation (μ-GC) model. PMID:25314457

  3. Low-cost two-dimensional gel densitometry.

    PubMed

    Levenson, R M; Maytin, E V; Young, D A

    1986-11-01

    A major obstacle to full utilization of the powerful technique of two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis is the expense and complexity of quantifying the results. Using an analog-to-digital converter already present in the widely available Commodore 64 or Commodore 128 microcomputer, we have developed a 2-D gel densitometer (GELSCAN) which adds only $20.00 to the cost of the Commodore system (currently around $700.00). The system is designed to work with autoradiograms of 2-D gels. Spots of interest are identified visually and then positioned manually over a light source. A pinhole photoelectric sensor mounted in a hand-held, Plexiglas holder, or "mouse," is briefly rubbed over each spot. Maximum density of the spot is determined and its value is converted to counts per minute via an internal calibration curve which corrects for the nonlinear response of film to radiation. Local spot backgrounds can be subtracted and values can be normalized between gels to adjust for variation in amount of radioactivity applied or in exposure time. Reproducibility is excellent and the technique has some practical as well as theoretical advantages over other more complicated approaches to 2-D gel densitometry. In addition, the GELSCAN system can also be used for scanning individual bands in 1-D gels, quantitation of "dot-blot" autoradiograms and other tasks involving transmission densitometry.

  4. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Applications for chemists and biochemists

    SciTech Connect

    Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2-D NMR) has become a very powerful class of experiments (in the hands of an adept scientist) with broad adaptability to new situations. It is the product of a happy marriage between modern pulse FT-NMR technology, with its large memory and high-speed computers, and the physicists and chemists who love to manipulate spin systems. Basic 2-D experiments are now a standard capability of modern NMR spectrometers, and this timely book intends to make 2-D NMR users of those who are familiar with normal 1-D NMR. The 2-D NMR goal is correlation of the lines of the observed NMR spectrum with other properties of the system. This book deals with applications to high-resolution spectrum analysis, utilizing either coupling between the NMR-active nuclei or chemical exchange to perform the correlation. The coupling can be scalar (through bonds) or direct through space (within 5 A). The coupling may be homonuclear (between like nuclei) or heteronuclear.

  5. Two-dimensional interface engineering of a titania-graphene nanosheet composite for improved photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Hui; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhao, Lixia

    2013-12-26

    A graphene-based two-dimensional (2D) nanoplatform provides new opportunities for fabricating 2D heterojunction interfaces to fortify charge transfer in semiconductor assemblies. In this report, TiO2 nanosheet/graphene composite based 2D-2D heterojunctions were fabricated by a solvothermal process. Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization revealed a homogeneous sheetlike morphology with intimate interfacial contact between the TiO2 nanosheet and graphene due to chemical interactions. Compared with 0D-2D Degussa P25 (TiO2)/graphene and 1D-2D TiO2 nanotube/graphene composites, the 2D-2D TiO2 nanosheet/graphene hybrid demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol under UV irradiation. Radical trapping and ESR experiments revealed the enhanced generation of ·OH and O2(•-) in the 2D-2D heterojunction system. By analyzing TiO2 excited state deactivation lifetime, the interfacial electron transfer rates determined for 0D-2D, 1D-2D, and 2D-2D TiO2/graphene composites were 1.15 × 10(8) s(-1), 3.47 × 10(8) s(-1), and 1.06 × 10(9) s(-1), respectively. It was therefore proposed that the fast charge separation in the TiO2 nanosheet/graphene photocatalyst promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species and enhanced the photodegradation reactions. The results underscore the key role of nanomaterial dimensionality in interfacial charge transfer processes. PMID:24308534

  6. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  7. Synthesis and structure elucidation of a series of pyranochromene chalcones and flavanones using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sunayna S; Koorbanally, Neil A

    2014-06-01

    A series of novel pyranochromene chalcones and corresponding flavanones were synthesized. This is the first report on the confirmation of the absolute configuration of chromene-based flavanones using X-ray crystallography. These compounds were characterized by 2D NMR spectroscopy, and their assignments are reported herein. The 3D structure of the chalcone 3b and flavanone 4g was determined by X-ray crystallography, and the structure of the flavanone was confirmed to be in the S configuration at C-2.

  8. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.

    PubMed

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability.

  9. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters

    PubMed Central

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability. PMID:27222739

  10. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.

    PubMed

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability. PMID:27222739

  11. Studies of Photosynthetic Energy and Charge Transfer by Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of energy transfer in complex condensed-phase systems. Its experimental implementation is challenging but can be greatly simplified by implementing a pump-probe geometry, where the two phase-stable collinear pump pulses are created with an acousto-optic pulse-shaper. This approach also allows the use of a continuum probe pulse, expanding the available frequency range of the detection axis and allowing studies of energy transfer and electronic coupling over a broad range of frequencies. We discuss several benefits of 2D electronic spectroscopy and present 2D data on the D1-D2 reaction center complex of Photosystem II from spinach. We discuss the ability of 2D spectroscopy to distinguish between current models of energy and charge transfer in this system.

  12. Brain-Computer Interfaces for 1-D and 2-D Cursor Control: Designs Using Volitional Control of the EEG Spectrum or Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Matthews, Bryan; Rosipal, Roman

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and tested two EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for users to control a cursor on a computer display. Our system uses an adaptive algorithm, based on kernel partial least squares classification (KPLS), to associate patterns in multichannel EEG frequency spectra with cursor controls. Our first BCI, Target Practice, is a system for one-dimensional device control, in which participants use biofeedback to learn voluntary control of their EEG spectra. Target Practice uses a KF LS classifier to map power spectra of 30-electrode EEG signals to rightward or leftward position of a moving cursor on a computer display. Three subjects learned to control motion of a cursor on a video display in multiple blocks of 60 trials over periods of up to six weeks. The best subject s average skill in correct selection of the cursor direction grew from 58% to 88% after 13 training sessions. Target Practice also implements online control of two artifact sources: a) removal of ocular artifact by linear subtraction of wavelet-smoothed vertical and horizontal EOG signals, b) control of muscle artifact by inhibition of BCI training during periods of relatively high power in the 40-64 Hz band. The second BCI, Think Pointer, is a system for two-dimensional cursor control. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) are triggered by four flickering checkerboard stimuli located in narrow strips at each edge of the display. The user attends to one of the four beacons to initiate motion in the desired direction. The SSVEP signals are recorded from eight electrodes located over the occipital region. A KPLS classifier is individually calibrated to map multichannel frequency bands of the SSVEP signals to right-left or up-down motion of a cursor on a computer display. The display stops moving when the user attends to a central fixation point. As for Target Practice, Think Pointer also implements wavelet-based online removal of ocular artifact; however, in Think Pointer muscle

  13. Assessing the applicability of the 1D flux theory to full-scale secondary settling tank design with a 2D hydrodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Ekama, G A; Marais, P

    2004-02-01

    The applicability of the one-dimensional idealized flux theory (1DFT) for the design of secondary settling tanks (SSTs) is evaluated by comparing its predicted maximum surface overflow (SOR) and solids loading (SLR) rates with that calculated with the two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model SettlerCAD using as a basis 35 full-scale SST stress tests conducted on different SSTs with diameters from 30 to 45m and 2.25-4.1m side water depth (SWD), with and without Stamford baffles. From the simulations, a relatively consistent pattern appeared, i.e. that the 1DFT can be used for design but its predicted maximum SLR needs to be reduced by an appropriate flux rating, the magnitude of which depends mainly on SST depth and hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Simulations of the Watts et al. (Water Res. 30(9)(1996)2112) SST, with doubled SWDs and the Darvill new (4.1m) and old (2.5m) SSTs with interchanged depths, were run to confirm the sensitivity of the flux rating to depth and HLR. Simulations with and without a Stamford baffle were also performed. While the design of the internal features of the SST, such as baffling, has a marked influence on the effluent SS concentration while the SST is underloaded, these features appeared to have only a small influence on the flux rating, i.e. capacity, of the SST. Until more information is obtained, it would appear from the simulations that the flux rating of 0.80 of the 1DFT maximum SLR recommended by Ekama and Marais (Water Pollut. Control 85(1)(1986)101) remains a reasonable value to apply in the design of full-scale SSTs-for deep SSTs (4m SWD) the flux rating could be increased to 0.85 and for shallow SSTs (2.5m SWD) decreased to 0.75. It is recommended that (i) while the apparent interrelationship between SST flux rating and depth suggests some optimization of the volume of the SST, this be avoided and (ii) the depth of the SST be designed independently of the surface area as is usually the practice and once selected, the

  14. Enhanced Collective Magnetic Properties in 2D Monolayers of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Favored by Local Order and Local 1D Shape Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Toulemon, Delphine; Liu, Yu; Cattoën, Xavier; Leuvrey, Cédric; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Pichon, Benoit P

    2016-02-16

    Magnetic nanoparticle arrays represent a very attractive research field because their collective properties can be efficiently modulated as a function of the structure of the assembly. Nevertheless, understanding the way dipolar interactions influence the intrinsic magnetic properties of nanoparticles still remains a great challenge. In this study, we report on the preparation of 2D assemblies of iron oxide nanoparticles as monolayers deposited onto substrates. Assemblies have been prepared by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and the SAM assisted assembling technique combined to CuAAC "click" reaction. These techniques afford to control the formation of well-defined monolayers of nanoparticles on large areas. The LB technique controls local ordering of nanoparticles, while adjusting the kinetics of CuAAC "click" reaction strongly affects the spatial arrangement of nanoparticles in monolayers. Fast kinetics favor disordered assemblies while slow kinetics favor the formation of chain-like structures. Such anisotropic assemblies are induced by dipolar interactions between nanoparticles as no magnetic field is applied and no solvent evaporation is performed. The collective magnetic properties of monolayers are studied as a function of average interparticle distance, local order and local shape anisotropy. We demonstrate that local control on spatial arrangement of nanoparticles in monolayers significantly strengthens dipolar interactions which enhances collective properties and results in possible super ferromagnetic order. PMID:26807596

  15. Bioinspired, Highly Stretchable, and Conductive Dry Adhesives Based on 1D-2D Hybrid Carbon Nanocomposites for All-in-One ECG Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehoon; Park, Junyong; Sohn, Jongmoo; Cho, Donghwi; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2016-04-26

    Here we propose a concept of conductive dry adhesives (CDA) combining a gecko-inspired hierarchical structure and an elastomeric carbon nanocomposite. To complement the poor electrical percolation of 1D carbon nanotube (CNT) networks in an elastomeric matrix at a low filler content (∼1 wt %), a higher dimensional carbon material (i.e., carbon black, nanographite, and graphene nanopowder) is added into the mixture as an aid filler. The co-doped graphene and CNT in the composite show the lowest volume resistance (∼100 ohm·cm) at an optimized filler ratio (1:9, total filler content: 1 wt %) through a synergetic effect in electrical percolation. With an optimized conductive elastomer, gecko-inspired high-aspect-ratio (>3) microstructures over a large area (∼4 in.(2)) are successfully replicated from intaglio-patterned molds without collapse. The resultant CDA pad shows a high normal adhesion force (∼1.3 N/cm(2)) even on rough human skin and an excellent cycling property for repeatable use over 30 times without degradation of adhesion force, which cannot be achieved by commercial wet adhesives. The body-attachable CDA can be used as a metal-free, all-in-one component for measuring biosignals under daily activity conditions (i.e., underwater, movements) because of its superior conformality and water-repellent characteristic. PMID:26986477

  16. Trends in data processing of comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Matos, João T V; Duarte, Regina M B O; Duarte, Armando C

    2012-12-01

    The operation of advanced chromatographic systems, namely comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) chromatography coupled to multidimensional detectors, allows achieving a great deal of data that need special care to be processed in order to characterize and quantify as much as possible the analytes under study. The aim of this review is to identify the main trends, research needs and gaps on the techniques for data processing of multidimensional data sets obtained from comprehensive 2D chromatography. The following topics have been identified as the most promising for new developments in the near future: data acquisition and handling, peak detection and quantification, measurement of overlapping of 2D peaks, and data analysis software for 2D chromatography. The rational supporting most of the data processing techniques is based on the generalization of one-dimensional (1D) chromatography although algorithms, such as the inverted watershed algorithm, use the 2D chromatographic data as such. However, for processing more complex N-way data there is a need for using more sophisticated techniques. Apart from using other concepts from 1D chromatography, which have not been tested for 2D chromatography, there is still room for new improvements and developments in algorithms and software for dealing with 2D comprehensive chromatographic data.

  17. Imaging two-dimensional mechanical waves of skeletal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Christer; Claesson, Kenji; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is related to rapid mechanical shortening and thickening. Recently, specialized ultrasound systems have been applied to demonstrate and quantify transient tissue velocities and one-dimensional (1-D) propagation of mechanical waves during muscle contraction. Such waves could potentially provide novel information on musculoskeletal characteristics, function and disorders. In this work, we demonstrate two-dimensional (2-D) mechanical wave imaging following the skeletal muscle contraction. B-mode image acquisition during multiple consecutive electrostimulations, speckle-tracking and a time-stamp sorting protocol were used to obtain 1.4 kHz frame rate 2-D tissue velocity imaging of the biceps brachii muscle contraction. The results present novel information on tissue velocity profiles and mechanical wave propagation. In particular, counter-propagating compressional and shear waves in the longitudinal direction were observed in the contracting tissue (speed 2.8-4.4 m/s) and a compressional wave in the transverse direction of the non-contracting muscle tissue (1.2-1.9 m/s). In conclusion, analysing transient 2-D tissue velocity allows simultaneous assessment of both active and passive muscle tissue properties.

  18. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.

  19. 2D co-catalytic MoS2 nanosheets embedded with 1D TiO2 nanoparticles for enhancing photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaohui; Qi, Xiang; Shen, Yongzhen; Xiao, Si; Xu, Guanghua; Zhang, Zhen; Huang, Zongyu; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    2D photocatalytic TiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanosheets (HNs) have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal process. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra are carried out and confirm a well crystalized anatase and 2H-MoS2 hybridization. Additional morphological and microstructural tests verify a distinct MoS2 framework, indicating the relatively stability of the MoS2 nanosheet platform with a high specific surface area. UV-vis spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra exhibit an enhanced light absorption ability and conductivity of TiO2/MoS2 compared to that of just TiO2. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) tests also demonstrate the photocurrent of 20 : 1 TiO2/MoS2 HNs is greatly improved compared to that of as-prepared TiO2. The saturation current density is about 33 µA cm-2 when the applied potential is 0.2 V, which is nearly twice that of pure TiO2 and four times as high as 5 : 1 TiO2/MoS2 HNs and 1 : 1 TiO2/MoS2 HNs. Besides that, the duration test exhibits no detectable distinction after processing 25 cycles. The improved photocatalytic activities are perhaps derived from the high conductivity and the increased active sites for the introduction of co-catalytic MoS2 nanosheets as well as the positive synergetic effect between the TiO2 and MoS2. This work demonstrates that the as-prepared TiO2/MoS2 HNs may have a great potential application in PEC hydrogen production.

  20. Quantification of transition dipole strengths using 1D and 2D spectroscopy for the identification of molecular structures via exciton delocalization: Application to α-helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechko, Maksim; Zanni, Martin T.

    2012-11-01

    Vibrational and electronic transition dipole strengths are often good probes of molecular structures, especially in excitonically coupled systems of chromophores. One cannot determine transition dipole strengths using linear spectroscopy unless the concentration is known, which in many cases it is not. In this paper, we report a simple method for measuring transition dipole moments from linear absorption and 2D IR spectra that does not require knowledge of concentrations. Our method is tested on several model compounds and applied to the amide I' band of a polypeptide in its random coil and α-helical conformation as modulated by the solution temperature. It is often difficult to confidently assign polypeptide and protein secondary structures to random coil or α-helix by linear spectroscopy alone, because they absorb in the same frequency range. We find that the transition dipole strength of the random coil state is 0.12 ± 0.013 D2, which is similar to a single peptide unit, indicating that the vibrational mode of random coil is localized on a single peptide unit. In an α-helix, the lower bound of transition dipole strength is 0.26 ± 0.03 D2. When taking into account the angle of the amide I' transition dipole vector with respect to the helix axis, our measurements indicate that the amide I' vibrational mode is delocalized across a minimum of 3.5 residues in an α-helix. Thus, one can confidently assign secondary structure based on exciton delocalization through its effect on the transition dipole strength. Our method will be especially useful for kinetically evolving systems, systems with overlapping molecular conformations, and other situations in which concentrations are difficult to determine.

  1. 2D co-catalytic MoS2 nanosheets embedded with 1D TiO2 nanoparticles for enhancing photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaohui; Qi, Xiang; Shen, Yongzhen; Xiao, Si; Xu, Guanghua; Zhang, Zhen; Huang, Zongyu; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    2D photocatalytic TiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanosheets (HNs) have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal process. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra are carried out and confirm a well crystalized anatase and 2H-MoS2 hybridization. Additional morphological and microstructural tests verify a distinct MoS2 framework, indicating the relatively stability of the MoS2 nanosheet platform with a high specific surface area. UV–vis spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra exhibit an enhanced light absorption ability and conductivity of TiO2/MoS2 compared to that of just TiO2. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) tests also demonstrate the photocurrent of 20 : 1 TiO2/MoS2 HNs is greatly improved compared to that of as-prepared TiO2. The saturation current density is about 33 µA cm‑2 when the applied potential is 0.2 V, which is nearly twice that of pure TiO2 and four times as high as 5 : 1 TiO2/MoS2 HNs and 1 : 1 TiO2/MoS2 HNs. Besides that, the duration test exhibits no detectable distinction after processing 25 cycles. The improved photocatalytic activities are perhaps derived from the high conductivity and the increased active sites for the introduction of co-catalytic MoS2 nanosheets as well as the positive synergetic effect between the TiO2 and MoS2. This work demonstrates that the as-prepared TiO2/MoS2 HNs may have a great potential application in PEC hydrogen production.

  2. Extraordinarily Bound Quasi-One-Dimensional Trions in Two-Dimensional Phosphorene Atomic Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Renjing; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Fan; Yang, Jiong; Wang, Zhu; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Xing, Bobin; Yu, Zongfu; Fu, Lan; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2016-02-23

    We report a trion (charged exciton) binding energy of ∼162 meV in few-layer phosphorene at room temperature, which is nearly 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than those in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors (20-30 meV) and quasi-2D quantum wells (∼1-5 meV). Such a large binding energy has only been observed in truly one-dimensional (1D) materials such as carbon nanotubes, whose optoelectronic applications have been severely hindered by their intrinsically small optical cross sections. Phosphorene offers an elegant way to overcome this hurdle by enabling quasi-1D excitonic and trionic behaviors in a large 2D area, allowing optoelectronic integration. We experimentally validated the quasi-1D nature of excitonic and trionic dynamics in phospherene by demonstrating completely linearly polarized light emission from excitons and trions in few-layer phosphorene. The implications of the extraordinarily large trion binding energy in a higher-than-one-dimensional material are far-reaching. It provides a room-temperature 2D platform to observe the fundamental many-body interactions in the quasi-1D region.

  3. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-06-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  4. Two dimensionality in quasi-one-dimensional cobalt oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, J.; Nozaki, H.; Brewer, J. H.; Ansaldo, E. J.; Morris, G. D.; Takami, T.; Ikuta, H.; Mizutani, U.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetism of quasi-one-dimensional (1D) cobalt oxides ACoO ( A=Ca, Sr and Ba, n=1-5 and ∞) was investigated by μ+SR using polycrystalline samples, at temperatures from 300 K down to 1.8 K. The wTF- μ+SR experiments showed the existence of a magnetic transition in all six samples investigated. The onset temperature of the transition (Tcon) was found to decrease with n; that is, 100±25, 90±10, 85±10, 65±10 50±10, and 15±1 K for n=1-5, and ∞, respectively. In particular, for the samples with n=2-5, Tcon was detected only by the present μ+SR measurements. A muon spin oscillation was clearly observed in both Ca 3Co 2O 6(n=1) and BaCoO 3(n=∞), whereas only a fast relaxation is apparent even at 1.8 K in the other four samples ( n=2-5). Taking together with the fact that the paramagnetic Curie temperature ranges from -150 to -200 K for the compound with n=2 and 3, the μ+SR result indicates that a two-dimensional (2D) short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) order, which has been thought to be unlikely to exist at high T due to a relatively strong 1D F interaction, appears below Tcon for all compounds with n=1-5; but quasi-static long-range AF order formed only in Ca 3Co 2O 6, below 25 K. For BaCoO 3(n=∞), as T decreased from 300 K, 1D F order appeared below 53 K, and a sharp 2D AF transition occurred at 15 K.

  5. [Progress in Application of Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy for Detection of Food Quality].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ren-jie; Yang, Yan-rong; Liu, Hai-xue; Dong, Gui-mei; Du, Yan-hong; Shan, Hui-yong; Zhang, Wei-yu

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the food safety and quality has always been a serious issue. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a rapid and widely available method to determine the quality of food. Due to high spectral resolution, good spectral selectivity and good ability of spectrogram analysis, the technology of two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is an effective method for solving three major problems encountered by the conventional one-dimensional (1D) spectrum: low selectivity of the spectra, difficulty in extracting the information of the spectral feature and difficulty in spectrogram analysis. Therefore, 2D correlation spectroscopy, which is suited to distinguish similar samples hardly distinguished by the conventional 1D spectroscopy, has been successfully applied in many complex biological systems. The developmental process, the experimental way to obtain spectrum, the fundamental mathematical principle and the properties of 2D correlation spectroscopy were introduced in this paper. At the same time, it is pointed out that the origin of weak characteristic bands of substance can be verified in terms of the positive or negative corss peaks in synchronous 2D correlation spectrum combined with the existence or inexistence of corss peaks in asynchronous 2D correlation spectrum. The application of 2D near-infrared, mid-infrared, fluorescence, and raman correlation spectroscopy in the detection of food quality and adulteration, concentrated specifically on diary product, wine, oil, meat, honey, and rice were reviewed. Finally, the limitations and future development prospects were pointed out.

  6. [Progress in Application of Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy for Detection of Food Quality].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ren-jie; Yang, Yan-rong; Liu, Hai-xue; Dong, Gui-mei; Du, Yan-hong; Shan, Hui-yong; Zhang, Wei-yu

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the food safety and quality has always been a serious issue. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a rapid and widely available method to determine the quality of food. Due to high spectral resolution, good spectral selectivity and good ability of spectrogram analysis, the technology of two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is an effective method for solving three major problems encountered by the conventional one-dimensional (1D) spectrum: low selectivity of the spectra, difficulty in extracting the information of the spectral feature and difficulty in spectrogram analysis. Therefore, 2D correlation spectroscopy, which is suited to distinguish similar samples hardly distinguished by the conventional 1D spectroscopy, has been successfully applied in many complex biological systems. The developmental process, the experimental way to obtain spectrum, the fundamental mathematical principle and the properties of 2D correlation spectroscopy were introduced in this paper. At the same time, it is pointed out that the origin of weak characteristic bands of substance can be verified in terms of the positive or negative corss peaks in synchronous 2D correlation spectrum combined with the existence or inexistence of corss peaks in asynchronous 2D correlation spectrum. The application of 2D near-infrared, mid-infrared, fluorescence, and raman correlation spectroscopy in the detection of food quality and adulteration, concentrated specifically on diary product, wine, oil, meat, honey, and rice were reviewed. Finally, the limitations and future development prospects were pointed out. PMID:26672279

  7. Realization of two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhan; Zhang, Long; Sun, Wei; Xu, Xiao-Tian; Wang, Bao-Zong; Ji, Si-Cong; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Shuai; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Cold atoms with laser-induced spin-orbit (SO) interactions provide a platform to explore quantum physics beyond natural conditions of solids. Here we propose and experimentally realize two-dimensional (2D) SO coupling and topological bands for a rubidium-87 degenerate gas through an optical Raman lattice, without phase-locking or fine-tuning of optical potentials. A controllable crossover between 2D and 1D SO couplings is studied, and the SO effects and nontrivial band topology are observed by measuring the atomic cloud distribution and spin texture in momentum space. Our realization of 2D SO coupling with advantages of small heating and topological stability opens a broad avenue in cold atoms to study exotic quantum phases, including topological superfluids.

  8. One-dimensional electrical contact to a two-dimensional material.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Meric, I; Huang, P Y; Gao, Q; Gao, Y; Tran, H; Taniguchi, T; Watanabe, K; Campos, L M; Muller, D A; Guo, J; Kim, P; Hone, J; Shepard, K L; Dean, C R

    2013-11-01

    Heterostructures based on layering of two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride represent a new class of electronic devices. Realizing this potential, however, depends critically on the ability to make high-quality electrical contact. Here, we report a contact geometry in which we metalize only the 1D edge of a 2D graphene layer. In addition to outperforming conventional surface contacts, the edge-contact geometry allows a complete separation of the layer assembly and contact metallization processes. In graphene heterostructures, this enables high electronic performance, including low-temperature ballistic transport over distances longer than 15 micrometers, and room-temperature mobility comparable to the theoretical phonon-scattering limit. The edge-contact geometry provides new design possibilities for multilayered structures of complimentary 2D materials. PMID:24179223

  9. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance petrophysics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin; Dunn, Keh-Jim

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) opens a wide area for exploration in petrophysics and has significant impact to petroleum logging technology. When there are multiple fluids with different diffusion coefficients saturated in a porous medium, this information can be extracted and clearly delineated from CPMG measurements of such a system either using regular pulsing sequences or modified two window sequences. The 2D NMR plot with independent variables of T2 relaxation time and diffusion coefficient allows clear separation of oil and water signals in the rocks. This 2D concept can be extended to general studies of fluid-saturated porous media involving other combinations of two or more independent variables, such as chemical shift and T1/T2 relaxation time (reflecting pore size), proton population and diffusion contrast, etc. PMID:15833623

  10. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation and Space Charge for a 1-D Bunch on an Arbitrary Planar Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, R.L.; /SLAC

    2008-01-08

    Realistic modeling of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and the space charge force in single-pass systems and rings usually requires at least a two-dimensional (2-D) description of the charge/current density of the bunch. Since that leads to costly computations, one often resorts to a 1-D model of the bunch for first explorations. This paper provides several improvements to previous 1-D theories, eliminating unnecessary approximations and physical restrictions.

  11. Two-dimensional probe absorption in coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ningwu; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Chengxian; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) probe absorption in coupled quantum dots. It is found that, due to the position-dependent quantum interference effect, the 2D optical absorption spectrum can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme may provide some technological applications in solid-state quantum communication.

  12. pentahexoctite: A new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Babu Ram; Manjanath, Aaditya; Singh, Abhishek K.

    2014-11-01

    The ability of carbon to exist in many forms across dimensions has spawned search in exploring newer allotropes consisting of either, different networks of polygons or rings. While research on various 3D phases of carbon has been extensive, 2D allotropes formed from stable rings are yet to be unearthed. Here, we report a new sp2 hybridized two-dimensional allotrope consisting of continuous 5-6-8 rings of carbon atoms, named as ``pentahexoctite''. The absence of unstable modes in the phonon spectra ensures the stability of the planar sheet. Furthermore, this sheet has mechanical strength comparable to graphene. Electronically, the sheet is metallic with direction-dependent flat and dispersive bands at the Fermi level ensuring highly anisotropic transport properties. This sheet serves as a precursor for stable 1D nanotubes with chirality-dependent electronic and mechanical properties. With these unique properties, this sheet becomes another exciting addition to the family of robust novel 2D allotropes of carbon.

  13. Pentahexoctite: a new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Babu Ram; Manjanath, Aaditya; Singh, Abhishek K

    2014-01-01

    The ability of carbon to exist in many forms across dimensions has spawned search in exploring newer allotropes consisting of either, different networks of polygons or rings. While research on various 3D phases of carbon has been extensive, 2D allotropes formed from stable rings are yet to be unearthed. Here, we report a new sp(2) hybridized two-dimensional allotrope consisting of continuous 5-6-8 rings of carbon atoms, named as "pentahexoctite". The absence of unstable modes in the phonon spectra ensures the stability of the planar sheet. Furthermore, this sheet has mechanical strength comparable to graphene. Electronically, the sheet is metallic with direction-dependent flat and dispersive bands at the Fermi level ensuring highly anisotropic transport properties. This sheet serves as a precursor for stable 1D nanotubes with chirality-dependent electronic and mechanical properties. With these unique properties, this sheet becomes another exciting addition to the family of robust novel 2D allotropes of carbon.

  14. A two dimensional silicon-based photonic crystal microcavity biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mindy; Fauchet, Philippe M.

    2006-08-01

    The optical properties of photonic bandgap (PBG) structures are highly sensitive to environmental variation. PBG structures thus are an attractive platform for biosensing applications. We experimentally demonstrate a label-free biosensor based on a two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal microcavity slab. The microcavity is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate and integrated with tapered ridge waveguides for light coupling. The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method is used to model the sensor. The resonance of the microcavity is designed to be around 1.58 μm. In order to capture the target biological materials, the internal surface of the photonic crystal is first functionalized. Binding of the targets is monitored by observing a red shift of the transmission resonance. The magnitude of the shift depends on the amount of material captured by the internal surface. Compared to 1-D PBG biosensors, 2-D devices require a smaller amount of target material and can accommodate larger targets. Experimental results are compared with the predictions obtained from the FDTD simulations.

  15. pentahexoctite: A new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Babu Ram; Manjanath, Aaditya; Singh, Abhishek K.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of carbon to exist in many forms across dimensions has spawned search in exploring newer allotropes consisting of either, different networks of polygons or rings. While research on various 3D phases of carbon has been extensive, 2D allotropes formed from stable rings are yet to be unearthed. Here, we report a new sp2 hybridized two-dimensional allotrope consisting of continuous 5-6-8 rings of carbon atoms, named as “pentahexoctite”. The absence of unstable modes in the phonon spectra ensures the stability of the planar sheet. Furthermore, this sheet has mechanical strength comparable to graphene. Electronically, the sheet is metallic with direction-dependent flat and dispersive bands at the Fermi level ensuring highly anisotropic transport properties. This sheet serves as a precursor for stable 1D nanotubes with chirality-dependent electronic and mechanical properties. With these unique properties, this sheet becomes another exciting addition to the family of robust novel 2D allotropes of carbon. PMID:25418419

  16. An atlas of two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Miró, Pere; Audiffred, Martha; Heine, Thomas

    2014-09-21

    The discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials together with recent advances in exfoliation techniques have set the foundations for the manufacturing of single layered sheets from any layered 3D material. The family of 2D materials encompasses a wide selection of compositions including almost all the elements of the periodic table. This derives into a rich variety of electronic properties including metals, semimetals, insulators and semiconductors with direct and indirect band gaps ranging from ultraviolet to infrared throughout the visible range. Thus, they have the potential to play a fundamental role in the future of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and the assembly of novel ultrathin and flexible devices. We categorize the 2D materials according to their structure, composition and electronic properties. In this review we distinguish atomically thin materials (graphene, silicene, germanene, and their saturated forms; hexagonal boron nitride; silicon carbide), rare earth, semimetals, transition metal chalcogenides and halides, and finally synthetic organic 2D materials, exemplified by 2D covalent organic frameworks. Our exhaustive data collection presented in this Atlas demonstrates the large diversity of electronic properties, including band gaps and electron mobilities. The key points of modern computational approaches applied to 2D materials are presented with special emphasis to cover their range of application, peculiarities and pitfalls. PMID:24825454

  17. An atlas of two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Miró, Pere; Audiffred, Martha; Heine, Thomas

    2014-09-21

    The discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials together with recent advances in exfoliation techniques have set the foundations for the manufacturing of single layered sheets from any layered 3D material. The family of 2D materials encompasses a wide selection of compositions including almost all the elements of the periodic table. This derives into a rich variety of electronic properties including metals, semimetals, insulators and semiconductors with direct and indirect band gaps ranging from ultraviolet to infrared throughout the visible range. Thus, they have the potential to play a fundamental role in the future of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and the assembly of novel ultrathin and flexible devices. We categorize the 2D materials according to their structure, composition and electronic properties. In this review we distinguish atomically thin materials (graphene, silicene, germanene, and their saturated forms; hexagonal boron nitride; silicon carbide), rare earth, semimetals, transition metal chalcogenides and halides, and finally synthetic organic 2D materials, exemplified by 2D covalent organic frameworks. Our exhaustive data collection presented in this Atlas demonstrates the large diversity of electronic properties, including band gaps and electron mobilities. The key points of modern computational approaches applied to 2D materials are presented with special emphasis to cover their range of application, peculiarities and pitfalls.

  18. Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer in a Heterogeneous Fracture Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisladottir, V. R.; Roubinet, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy harvesting requires extraction and injection of geothermal fluid. Doing so in an optimal way requires a quantitative understanding of site-specific heat transfer between geothermal fluid and the ambient rock. We develop a heat transfer particle-tracking approach to model that interaction. Fracture-network models of heat transfer in fractured rock explicitly account for the presence of individual fractures, ambient rock matrix, and fracture-matrix interfaces. Computational domains of such models span the meter scale, whereas fracture apertures are on the millimeter scale. The computations needed to model these multi-scale phenomenon can be prohibitively expensive, even for methods using nonuniform meshes. Our approach appreciably decreases the computational costs. Current particle-tracking methods usually assume both infinite matrix and one-dimensional (1D) heat transfer in the matrix blocks. They rely on 1D analytical solutions for heat transfer in a single fracture, which can lead to large predictive errors. Our two-dimensional (2D) heat transfer simulation algorithm is mesh-free and takes into account both longitudinal and transversal heat conduction in the matrix. It uses a probabilistic model to transfer particle to the appropriate neighboring fracture unless it returns to the fracture of origin or remains in the matrix. We use this approach to look at the impact of a fracture-network topology (e.g. the importance of smaller scale fractures), as well as the matrix block distribution on the heat transport in heterogeneous fractured rocks.

  19. Protein expression profiles of human lymph and plasma mapped by 2D-DIGE and 1D SDS–PAGE coupled with nanoLC–ESI–MS/MS bottom-up proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Cristina C.; Aphkhazava, David; Nieves, Edward; Callaway, Myrasol; Olszewski, Waldemar; Rotzschke, Olaf; Santambrogio, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In this study a proteomic approach was used to define the protein content of matched samples of afferent prenodal lymph and plasma derived from healthy volunteers. The analysis was performed using two analytical methodologies coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DEF nanoLC Orbitrap–ESI–MS/MS), and two-dimensional fluorescence difference-in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE nanoLC–ESI–MS/MS). The 253 significantly identified proteins (p<0.05), obtained from the tandem mass spectrometry data, were further analyzed with pathway analysis (IPA) to define the functional signature of prenodal lymph and matched plasma. The 1DEF coupled with nanoLC–MS–MS revealed that the common proteome between the two biological fluids (144 out of 253 proteins) was dominated by complement activation and blood coagulation components, transporters and protease inhibitors. The enriched proteome of human lymph (72 proteins) consisted of products derived from the extracellular matrix, apoptosis and cellular catabolism. In contrast, the enriched proteome of human plasma (37 proteins) consisted of soluble molecules of the coagulation system and cell–cell signaling factors. The functional networks associated with both common and source-distinctive proteomes highlight the principal biological activity of these immunologically relevant body fluids. PMID:23202415

  20. Design of one-dimensional power spectrum using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for discrimination of paper-based kraft tapes.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Sara; Saito, Koichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Moribe, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectrum (1D-PS), was designed for the discrimination of adhesive packing tapes, i.e., kraft tapes. The 1D-PS offered complementary information to that provided by the improved two-dimensional PS (2D-PS), which was calculated using our previously established image processes combined with a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to obtain information about the spatial periodicity within kraft tapes. The 1D-PS was calculated using a three-step image process: (i) the 2D-FFT was applied to 50 randomly selected areas in a transmitted light image; (ii) the obtained 2D-PSs were accumulated without applying a logarithmic transform; (iii) the wavenumber and the maximum intensity were plotted on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Through an intra-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs collected from single rolls showed similar profiles. In an inter-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs from 50 commercially available brand-name products were classified into 29 groups. The 1D-PSs contained other useful information than that provided by the improved 2D-PSs: they presented more peaks and absolute intensity with a wider range. The 1D-PSs enabled us to compare the spectra quickly and easily, owing to their unchanging profiles regardless of the orientation of the scanned images. A combined use of the 1D-PSs with the improved 2D-PSs-both spectrum types being convenient, rapid, non-destructive, and applicable to dirty and/or damaged samples-could further improve the identification of kraft tapes. PMID:26461031

  1. Design of one-dimensional power spectrum using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for discrimination of paper-based kraft tapes.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Sara; Saito, Koichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Moribe, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectrum (1D-PS), was designed for the discrimination of adhesive packing tapes, i.e., kraft tapes. The 1D-PS offered complementary information to that provided by the improved two-dimensional PS (2D-PS), which was calculated using our previously established image processes combined with a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to obtain information about the spatial periodicity within kraft tapes. The 1D-PS was calculated using a three-step image process: (i) the 2D-FFT was applied to 50 randomly selected areas in a transmitted light image; (ii) the obtained 2D-PSs were accumulated without applying a logarithmic transform; (iii) the wavenumber and the maximum intensity were plotted on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Through an intra-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs collected from single rolls showed similar profiles. In an inter-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs from 50 commercially available brand-name products were classified into 29 groups. The 1D-PSs contained other useful information than that provided by the improved 2D-PSs: they presented more peaks and absolute intensity with a wider range. The 1D-PSs enabled us to compare the spectra quickly and easily, owing to their unchanging profiles regardless of the orientation of the scanned images. A combined use of the 1D-PSs with the improved 2D-PSs-both spectrum types being convenient, rapid, non-destructive, and applicable to dirty and/or damaged samples-could further improve the identification of kraft tapes.

  2. Three-state analytic theory of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance in systems with coupled macro- and micropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David Linton; Schwartz, Lawrence M.

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments involve a sequence of longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) measurements. In a previous paper we showed that if each of these 1D measurements can be represented by two exponential decays then there can be an accurate analytic solution for the 2D measurements with no additional information. In this paper we extend the theory to the case where there are three decay channels for the 1D measurements. The resulting analytic theory introduces a single free parameter, which is a rotation angle in the vector space spanned by the normal modes. Our predictions agree quite well with numerical results based on the microporous grain consolidation (μ GC ) model. The theory allows one to deduce information about decay modes in situations in which they may not be measurable in a conventional 1D measurement because the amplitude of that mode is too small.

  3. Three-state analytic theory of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance in systems with coupled macro- and micropores.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David Linton; Schwartz, Lawrence M

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments involve a sequence of longitudinal (T(1)) and transverse (T(2)) measurements. In a previous paper we showed that if each of these 1D measurements can be represented by two exponential decays then there can be an accurate analytic solution for the 2D measurements with no additional information. In this paper we extend the theory to the case where there are three decay channels for the 1D measurements. The resulting analytic theory introduces a single free parameter, which is a rotation angle in the vector space spanned by the normal modes. Our predictions agree quite well with numerical results based on the microporous grain consolidation (μGC) model. The theory allows one to deduce information about decay modes in situations in which they may not be measurable in a conventional 1D measurement because the amplitude of that mode is too small. PMID:26172724

  4. Quantum hydrodynamics approach to the formation of waves in polarized two-dimensional systems of charged and neutral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.; Trukhanova, M. I.

    2011-12-15

    In this paper, we explicate a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of polarized particles. Although we focused primarily on the two-dimensional (2D) physical systems, the method is valid for three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems too. The presented method is based upon the Schroedinger equation. Fundamental QHD equations for charged and neutral particles were derived from the many-particle microscopic Schroedinger equation. The fact that particles possess the electric dipole moment (EDM) was taken into account. The explicated QHD approach was used to study dispersion characteristics of various physical systems. We analyzed dispersion of waves in a two-dimensional ion and hole gas placed into an external electric field, which is orthogonal to the gas plane. Elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized particles were studied for 1D, 2D, and 3D cases. The polarization dynamics in systems of both neutral and charged particles is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves as well as changes in the dispersion characteristics of already known waves. We also analyzed wave dispersion in 2D exciton systems, in 2D electron-ion plasma, and in 2D electron-hole plasma. Generation of waves in 3D-system neutral particles with EDM by means of the beam of electrons and neutral polarized particles is investigated.

  5. Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H.; Koh, W. S.; Ang, L. K.

    2014-04-15

    Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

  6. Superlubric-pinned Aubry transition of two dimensional monolayers in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystalline colloidal monolayers sliding over a laser-induced optical lattice ``corrugation'' potential emulate friction between ideal crystal surfaces. Static friction is always present when the monolayer and the optical lattices are commensurate, but when they are incommensurate the presence or absence of static friction depends upon the system parameters. In 1D, at the Aubry dynamical phase transition the static friction goes continuously from zero (superlubricity) to finite as the periodic corrugation strength is increased. We look for the Aubry-like transition in the more realistic 2D case of a monolayer in an incommensurate periodic potential using molecular dynamics simulations. Results confirm a clear and sharp 2D superlubric-pinned transition upon increasing corrugation strength. Unlike the 1D Aubry transition which is continuous, the 2D transition is first-order, with a jump of static friction. At the 2D Aubry transition there is no change of symmetry, a sudden rise of the colloid-colloid interaction energy, and a compensating drop of the colloid-corrugation energy. The observability of the superlubric-pinned colloid transition is proposed and discussed. This work has been supported by ERC Advanced Grant N. 320796 MODPHYSFRICT.

  7. Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H.; Koh, W. S.; Ang, L. K.

    2014-04-01

    Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

  8. Can Two-Dimensional Boron Superconduct?

    PubMed

    Penev, Evgeni S; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2016-04-13

    Two-dimensional boron is expected to exhibit various structural polymorphs, all being metallic. Additionally, its small atomic mass suggests strong electron-phonon coupling, which in turn can enable superconducting behavior. Here we perform first-principles analysis of electronic structure, phonon spectra, and electron-phonon coupling of selected 2D boron polymorphs and show that the most stable structures predicted to feasibly form on a metal substrate should also exhibit intrinsic phonon-mediated superconductivity, with estimated critical temperature in the range of Tc ≈ 10-20 K.

  9. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:26394207

  10. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  11. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jinfeng

    Ultrathin semiconductors present various novel electronic properties. The first experimental realized two-dimensional (2D) material is graphene. Searching 2D materials with heavy elements bring the attention to Si, Ge and Sn. 2D buckled Si-based silicene was realized by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. Ge-based germanene was realized by mechanical exfoliation. Sn-based stanene has its unique properties. Stanene and its derivatives can be 2D topological insulators (TI) with a very large band gap as proposed by first-principles calculations, or can support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. For the first time, in this work, we report a successful fabrication of 2D stanene by MBE. The atomic and electronic structures were determined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in combination with first-principles calculations. This work will stimulate the experimental study and exploring the future application of stanene. In cooperation with Fengfeng Zhu, Wei-jiong Chen, Yong Xu, Chun-lei Gao, Dan-dan Guan, Canhua Liu, Dong Qian, Shou-Cheng Zhang.

  12. Dopamine D1/D5, But not D2/D3, Receptor Dependency of Synaptic Plasticity at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses that Is Enabled by Patterned Afferent Stimulation, or Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hagena, Hardy; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Although the mossy fiber (MF) synapses of the hippocampal CA3 region display quite distinct properties in terms of the molecular mechanisms that underlie synaptic plasticity, they nonetheless exhibit persistent (>24 h) synaptic plasticity that is akin to that observed at the Schaffer collateral (SCH)-CA1 and perforant path (PP)-dentate gyrus (DG) synapses of freely behaving rats. In addition, they also respond to novel spatial learning with very enduring forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These latter forms of synaptic plasticity are directly related to the learning behavior: novel exploration of generalized changes in space facilitates the expression of LTP at MF-CA3 synapses, whereas exploration of novel configurations of large environmental features facilitates the expression of LTD. In the absence of spatial novelty, synaptic plasticity is not expressed. Motivation is a potent determinant of whether learning about the spatial experience effectively occurs and the neuromodulator dopamine (DA) plays a key role in motivation-based learning. Prior research on the regulation by DA receptors of long-term synaptic plasticity in CA1 and DG synapses in vivo suggests that whereas D2/D3 receptors may modulate a general predisposition toward expressing plasticity, D1/D5 receptors may directly regulate the direction of change in synaptic strength that occurs during learning. Although the CA3 region is believed to play a pivotal role in many forms of learning, the role of dopamine receptors in persistent (>24 h) forms of synaptic plasticity at MF-CA3 synapses is unknown. Here, we report that whereas pharmacological antagonism of D2/D3 receptors had no impact on LTP or LTD, antagonism of D1/D5 receptors significantly impaired LTP and LTD that were induced by solely by means of patterned afferent stimulation, or LTP/LTD that are typically enhanced by the conjunction of afferent stimulation and novel spatial learning. These data indicate an

  13. Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng-Feng; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Xu, Yong; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Can-Hua; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-10-01

    Following the first experimental realization of graphene, other ultrathin materials with unprecedented electronic properties have been explored, with particular attention given to the heavy group-IV elements Si, Ge and Sn. Two-dimensional buckled Si-based silicene has been recently realized by molecular beam epitaxy growth, whereas Ge-based germanene was obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and mechanical exfoliation. However, the synthesis of Sn-based stanene has proved challenging so far. Here, we report the successful fabrication of 2D stanene by molecular beam epitaxy, confirmed by atomic and electronic characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in combination with first-principles calculations. The synthesis of stanene and its derivatives will stimulate further experimental investigation of their theoretically predicted properties, such as a 2D topological insulating behaviour with a very large bandgap, and the capability to support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect.

  14. Two-dimensional dipolar nematic colloidal crystals.

    PubMed

    Skarabot, M; Ravnik, M; Zumer, S; Tkalec, U; Poberaj, I; Babic, D; Osterman, N; Musevic, I

    2007-11-01

    We study the interactions and directed assembly of dipolar nematic colloidal particles in planar nematic cells using laser tweezers. The binding energies for two stable configurations of a colloidal pair with homeotropic surface alignment are determined. It is shown that the orientation of the dipolar colloidal particle can efficiently be controlled and changed by locally quenching the nematic liquid crystal from the laser-induced isotropic phase. The interaction of a single colloidal particle with a single colloidal chain is determined and the interactions between pairs of colloidal chains are studied. We demonstrate that dipolar colloidal chains self-assemble into the two-dimensional (2D) dipolar nematic colloidal crystals. An odd-even effect is observed with increasing number of colloidal chains forming the 2D colloidal crystal. PMID:18233658

  15. Cloaking two-dimensional fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2011-09-15

    A cloaking theory for a two-dimensional spin-(1/2) fermion is proposed. It is shown that the spinor of the two-dimensional fermion can be cloaked perfectly through controlling the fermion's energy and mass in a specific manner moving in an effective vector potential inside a cloaking shell. Different from the cloaking of three-dimensional fermions, the scaling function that determines the invisible region is uniquely determined by a nonlinear equation. It is also shown that the efficiency of the cloaking shell is unaltered under the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  16. Two-dimensional cyanates: stabilization through hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Tsetseris, Leonidas

    2016-06-01

    According to first-principles calculations, it should be possible to grow two-dimensional (2D) forms of copper thio-cyanate (CuSCN) and copper seleno-cyanate (CuSeCN) since their energies are only marginally higher than those of their most stable three-dimensional (3D) wurtzite structures. Here we show using the same theoretical approach that chemisorption reactions of hydrogen molecules with the above-mentioned 2D CuSCN and CuSeCN systems enhance their stability as they decrease the energy difference with respect to the corresponding hydrogenated forms of the wurtzite crystals. Hydrogenation causes a sizeable decrease in the energy band gap by 0.56 eV and 0.65 eV for hydrogenated 2D-CuSCN (CuSCNH2) and 2D-CuSeCN (CuSeCNH2), respectively. Finally, we describe the stability of hydrogen vacancies in CuSCNH2 and CuSeCNH2 and show that the presence of isolated single H vacancies or di-vacancies does not affect significantly the electronic properties of the host systems close to the valence and conduction band edges. PMID:27183226

  17. Two-dimensional atomic crystals beyond graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.

    2014-06-01

    Carbon-based nanostructures have been the center of intense research and development for more than two decades now. Of these materials, graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) layered material system, has had a significant impact on science and technology over the past decade after monolayers of this material were experimentally isolated in 2004. The recent emergence of other classes of 2D graphene-like layered materials has added yet more exciting dimensions for research in exploring the diverse properties and applications arising from these 2D material systems. For example, hexagonal-BN, a layered material closest in structure to graphene, is an insulator, while NbSe2, a transition metal di-chalcogenide, is metallic and monolayers of other transition metal di-chalcogenides such as MoS2 are direct band-gap semiconductors. The rich spectrum of properties that 2D layered material systems offer can potentially be engineered ondemand, and creates exciting prospects for using such materials in applications ranging from electronics, sensing, photonics, energy harvesting and flexible electronics over the coming years.

  18. Two-dimensional T2 distribution mapping in porous solids with phase encode MRI.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Oleg V; Balcom, Bruce J

    2011-09-01

    Two pure phase encode MRI sequences, CPMG-prepared SPRITE and spin-echo SPI with compressed sensing, for two-dimensional (2-D) T2 distribution mapping have been presented. The sequences are 2-D extensions of their 1-D predecessors previously described and are intended for studying processes in porous solids and other samples with short relaxation times whenever 2-D T2 maps are preferable to simple 1-D profiling. The sequences were tested on model samples and natural water-saturated rocks, in a low field MRI instrument. 2-D spin-echo SPI and CPMG-SPRITE demonstrate a similar performance, enabling measurement of T2 down to 1-2 ms. Both experiments are time consuming (up to 2-2.5 h sample dependent). As such, they can be recommended mostly for measurement during steady state conditions or when studying relatively slow dynamic processes (e.g. enhanced oil recovery, cement paste hydration, curing rubber, infiltration of paramagnetic ions). PMID:21757381

  19. Universal Conductance Fluctuation in Two-Dimensional Topological Insulators

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Duk-Hyun; Chang, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs), a fundamental question still remains open how mesoscopic conductance fluctuations in 2D TIs are affected by spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Here, we investigate the effect of SOI on the universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) in disordered 2D TIs. Although 2D TI exhibits UCF like any metallic systems, the amplitude of these fluctuations is distinguished from that of conventional spin-orbit coupled 2D materials. Especially, in 2D systems with mirror symmetry, spin-flip scattering is forbidden even in the presence of strong intrinsic SOI, hence increasing the amplitude of the UCF by a factor of compared with extrinsic SOI that breaks mirror symmetry. We propose an easy way to experimentally observe the existence of such spin-flip scattering in 2D materials. Our findings provide a key to understanding the emergence of a new universal behavior in 2D TIs. PMID:26055574

  20. Two-dimensional resonance frequency tuning approach for vibration-based energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lin; Prasad, M. G.; Fisher, Frank T.

    2016-06-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting seeks to convert ambient vibrations to electrical energy and is of interest for, among other applications, powering the individual nodes of wireless sensor networks. Generally it is desired to match the resonant frequencies of the device to the ambient vibration source to optimize the energy harvested. This paper presents a two-dimensionally (2D) tunable vibration-based energy harvesting device via the application of magnetic forces in two-dimensional space. These forces are accounted for in the model separately, with the transverse force contributing to the transverse stiffness of the system while the axial force contributes to a change in axial stiffness of the beam. Simulation results from a COMSOL magnetostatic 3D model agree well with the analytical model and are confirmed with a separate experimental study. Furthermore, analysis of the three possible magnetization orientations between the fixed and tuning magnets shows that the transverse parallel magnetization orientation is the most effective with regards to the proposed 2D tuning approach. In all cases the transverse stiffness term is in general significantly larger than the axial stiffness contribution, suggesting that from a tuning perspective it may be possible to use these stiffness contributions for coarse and fine frequency tuning, respectively. This 2D resonant frequency tuning approach extends earlier 1D approaches and may be particularly useful in applications where space constraints impact the available design space of the energy harvester.

  1. Protein Expression for Novel Prognostic Markers (Cyclins D1, D2, D3, B1, B2, ITGβ7, FGFR3, PAX5) Correlate With Previously Reported Gene Expression Profile Patterns in Plasma Cell Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Adnan; Akhter, Ariz; Pournazari, Payam; Mahe, Etienne; Shariff, Sami; Farooq, Fahad; Elyamany, Ghaleb; Shahbani-Rad, Meer-Taher; Rashid-Kolvear, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    Among plasma cell myeloma (PCM) patients, gene expression profiling (GEP)-based molecular classification has proven to be an independent predictor of survival, after autologous stem cell transplantation. However, GEP has limited routine clinical applicability given its complex methodology, high cost, and limited availability in clinical laboratories. In this study, we have evaluated biomarkers identified from GEP discoveries, utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC) platform in a cohort of PCM patients. IHC staining for cyclins B1, B2, D1, D2, D3, FGFR3, PAX5, and integrin β7 (ITGβ7) was performed on the bone marrow biopsies of 93 newly diagnosed PCM patients. Expression of FGFR3 was noted in 10 (11%) samples correlating completely with t(4;14)(p16;q32) results (P<0.001); however, the association between FGFR3 and cyclin D2 expression was not significant (P=0.14). ITGβ7 expression was present in 9/93 (9%) patients and all these samples also demonstrated upregulated expression of cyclin D2 (P=0.014). Expression of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 was variable in this cohort. Positive protein expression of cyclin D1 was noted in 30/93 (32%), D2 in 17/93 (18%), and D3 in 5/93 (5%) samples. Coexpression of cyclins D1 and D2 was observed in 13/93 (14%) samples, whereas 28 (30%) samples were negative for all the 3 cyclin D proteins. Cyclin B1 was not expressed in any sample, despite adequate staining in positive controls. Cyclin B2 was expressed in 33/93 (35%) and PAX5 protein was noted in 7/93 (8%) samples. In summary, we have demonstrated that mRNA-based prognostic markers can be detected by routine IHC in decalcified bone marrow samples. This approach may provide a useful tool for the wider adoption of prognostic makers for risk stratification of PCM patients. We anticipate that such an approach might allow patients with high-risk immunoprofiles to be considered for other potential novel therapeutic agents, potentially sparing some patients the toxicity of stem cell transplant.

  2. Analysis of membrane-protein complexes of the marine sulfate reducer Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 by 1D blue native-PAGE complexome profiling and 2D blue native-/SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Wöhlbrand, Lars; Ruppersberg, Hanna S; Feenders, Christoph; Blasius, Bernd; Braun, Hans-Peter; Rabus, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtain energy from cytoplasmic reduction of sulfate to sulfide involving APS-reductase (AprAB) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). These enzymes are predicted to obtain electrons from membrane redox complexes, i.e. the quinone-interacting membrane-bound oxidoreductase (QmoABC) and DsrMKJOP complexes. In addition to these conserved complexes, the genomes of SRB encode a large number of other (predicted) membrane redox complexes, the function and actual formation of which is unknown. This study reports the establishment of 1D Blue Native-PAGE complexome profiling and 2D BN-/SDS-PAGE for analysis of the membrane protein complexome of the marine sulfate reducer Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2. Analysis of normalized score profiles of >800 proteins in combination with hierarchical clustering and identification of 2D BN-/SDS-PAGE separated spots demonstrated separation of membrane complexes in their native form, e.g. ATP synthase. In addition to the QmoABC and DsrMKJOP complexes, other complexes were detected that constitute the basic membrane complexome of D. toluolica Tol2, e.g. transport proteins (e.g. sodium/sulfate symporters) or redox complexes involved in Na(+) -based bioenergetics (RnfABCDEG). Notably, size estimation indicates dimer and quadruple formation of the DsrMKJOP complex in vivo. Furthermore, cluster analysis suggests interaction of this complex with a rhodanese-like protein (Tol2_C05230) possibly representing a periplasmic electron transfer partner for DsrMKJOP. PMID:26792001

  3. Multi-Dark Soliton Solutions of the Two-Dimensional Multi-Component Yajima-Oikawa Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi

    2015-03-01

    We present a general form of multi-dark soliton solutions of two-dimensional (2D) multi-component soliton systems. Multi-dark soliton solutions of the 2D and 1D multi-component Yajima-Oikawa (YO) systems, which are often called the 2D and 1D multi-component long wave-short wave resonance interaction systems, are studied in detail. Taking the 2D coupled YO system with two short wave and one long wave components as an example, we derive the general N-dark-dark soliton solution in both the Gram type and Wronski type determinant forms for the 2D coupled YO system via the KP hierarchy reduction method. By imposing certain constraint conditions, the general N-dark-dark soliton solution of the 1D coupled YO system is further obtained. The dynamics of one dark-dark and two dark-dark solitons are analyzed in detail. In contrast with bright-bright soliton collisions, it is shown that dark-dark soliton collisions are elastic and there is no energy exchange among solitons in different components. Moreover, the dark-dark soliton bound states including the stationary and moving ones are discussed. For the stationary case, the bound states exist up to arbitrary order, whereas, for the moving case, only the two-soliton bound state is possible under the condition that the coefficients of nonlinear terms have opposite signs.

  4. Assembly of 1D, 2D and 3D lanthanum(iii) coordination polymers with perchlorinated benzenedicarboxylates: positional isomeric effect, structural transformation and ring-opening polymerisation of glycolide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chun; Dai, An-Qi; Huang, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Ai-Jun; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun

    2016-02-28

    Utilizing a series of positional isomers of tetrachlorinated benzenedicarboxylic acid ligands, seven La(iii)-based coordination polymers were solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Their structural dimensionalities varying from 1D double chains, to the 2D 3,4,5-connected network, to 3D 6-connected pcu topological nets are only governed by the positions of carboxyl groups on the tetrachlorinated benzene ring. A comprehensive analysis and comparison reveals that the size of the carbonyl solvent molecules (DMF, DEF, DMA, and NMP) can affect the coordination geometries around the La(iii) ions, the coordination modes of carboxylate groups, the packing arrangements, and the void volumes of the overall crystal lattices. One as-synthesized framework further shows an unprecedented structural transformation from a 3D 6-connected network to a 3D 4,5-connected net through the dissolution and reformation pathway in water, suggesting that these easily hydrolyzed lanthanide complexes may serve as precursors to produce new high-dimensional frameworks. The bulk solvent-free melt polymerisation of glycolide utilizing these La(iii) complexes as initiators has been reported herein for the first time. All complexes were found to promote the polymerization of glycolide over a temperature range of 200 to 220 °C, producing poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) with a molecular weight up to 93,280. Under the same experimental conditions, the different catalytic activities for these complexes may result from their structural discrepancy.

  5. Assembly of 1D, 2D and 3D lanthanum(iii) coordination polymers with perchlorinated benzenedicarboxylates: positional isomeric effect, structural transformation and ring-opening polymerisation of glycolide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chun; Dai, An-Qi; Huang, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Ai-Jun; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun

    2016-02-28

    Utilizing a series of positional isomers of tetrachlorinated benzenedicarboxylic acid ligands, seven La(iii)-based coordination polymers were solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Their structural dimensionalities varying from 1D double chains, to the 2D 3,4,5-connected network, to 3D 6-connected pcu topological nets are only governed by the positions of carboxyl groups on the tetrachlorinated benzene ring. A comprehensive analysis and comparison reveals that the size of the carbonyl solvent molecules (DMF, DEF, DMA, and NMP) can affect the coordination geometries around the La(iii) ions, the coordination modes of carboxylate groups, the packing arrangements, and the void volumes of the overall crystal lattices. One as-synthesized framework further shows an unprecedented structural transformation from a 3D 6-connected network to a 3D 4,5-connected net through the dissolution and reformation pathway in water, suggesting that these easily hydrolyzed lanthanide complexes may serve as precursors to produce new high-dimensional frameworks. The bulk solvent-free melt polymerisation of glycolide utilizing these La(iii) complexes as initiators has been reported herein for the first time. All complexes were found to promote the polymerization of glycolide over a temperature range of 200 to 220 °C, producing poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) with a molecular weight up to 93,280. Under the same experimental conditions, the different catalytic activities for these complexes may result from their structural discrepancy. PMID:26811117

  6. Hydrothermal syntheses and characterization of two novel luminescent Cadmium(II) frameworks: From 1D infinite triple Cd-(trz)-Cd bridges to a rare I2O0 network with 2D Cd-Br-Cd inorganic connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi Xin; Li, Jian Hui; Wang, You You; Wu, Xiang Xia; Huo, Jian Zhong; Ding, Bin; Wang, Xiu Guang; Zhu, Zhao Zhou; Xia, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Using the 4-substituted-1,2,4-triazole derivate ligand 4-p-tolyl-1,2,4-triazole (L), two novel luminescent Cadmium(II) frameworks, namely {[Cd(μ2-L)3]·(NO3)2·L}n (1) and [Cd1.5(μ2-L)(μ2-Br)2(μ3-Br)]n (2) have been isolated under hydrothermal conditions. The structural analysis reveals that 1 presents a one-dimensional (1D) chain structural motif containing novel infinite triple Cd-(trz)-Cd bridges (triply trz-bridged M-M species). While 2 presents a rare I2O0 type framework, in which the infinite 2D Cd-Br-Cd inorganic connectivity with a 4-connected Kagome topology can be observed. The FT-IR, PXRD and thermal stabilities of 1-2 have investigated. The solid-state photo-luminescent spectra of organic ligand L and 1-2 also have been measured indicating strong emission bands.

  7. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized.

  8. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  9. Two-Dimensional Optical Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lee, Alexander; Bruls, Dominique; Busch, Christopher; Immink, Andre; Coene, Wim; Hekstra, Andries

    2004-07-01

    Two-dimensional optical storage aims at increasing the data capacity and data rate for a given physical read-out system. It uses parallel read-out in combination with advanced signal-processing. Experimental results results on read only memory (ROM) discs are presented that proof the concept. Laser beam recorded discs proof the concept, and electron beam recorded disc show the feasibility at real physical parameters for a density at 35 GB with ample tilt margins.

  10. Two-dimensional soft nanomaterials: a fascinating world of materials.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Wu, Dongqing; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-01-21

    The discovery of graphene has triggered great interest in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials for scientists in chemistry, physics, materials science, and related areas. In the family of newly developed 2D nanostructured materials, 2D soft nanomaterials, including graphene, Bx Cy Nz nanosheets, 2D polymers, covalent organic frameworks (COFs), and 2D supramolecular organic nanostructures, possess great advantages in light-weight, structural control and flexibility, diversity of fabrication approaches, and so on. These merits offer 2D soft nanomaterials a wide range of potential applications, such as in optoelectronics, membranes, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, sensing, biotechnology, etc. This review article provides an overview of the development of 2D soft nanomaterials, with special highlights on the basic concepts, molecular design principles, and primary synthesis approaches in the context.

  11. Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Zheng

    2014-08-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS2) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. Lastly, in this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of variousmore » 2D heterostructures.« less

  12. Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Zheng

    2014-08-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS2) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. Lastly, in this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of various 2D heterostructures.

  13. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  14. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Viscoelastic effects in a two-dimensional classical electron liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrotra, Ravi

    1987-08-01

    The shear viscosity of a classical two-dimensional (2D) electron liquid is estimated by adapting the theory of Kirkwood, Buff, and Green for three dimensions to two dimensions. It is found to be large enough so that shear modes, if not overdamped by other scattering mechanisms, should be able to propagate through the electron liquid above a minimum temperature-dependent frequency, which is a small fraction of the highest frequency in the corresponding 2D electron solid.

  16. A two-dimensional angular-resolved proton spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Su; Yuan, Xiaohui; Fang, Yuan; Ge, Xulei; Deng, Yanqing; Wei, Wenqing; Gao, Jian; Fu, Feichao; Jiang, Tao; Liao, Guoqian; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Li, Yutong; Zhao, Li; Ma, Yanyun; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel design of two-dimensional (2D) angular-resolved spectrometer for full beam characterization of ultrashort intense laser driven proton sources. A rotated 2D pinhole array was employed, as selective entrance before a pair of parallel permanent magnets, to sample the full proton beam into discrete beamlets. The proton beamlets are subsequently dispersed without overlapping onto a planar detector. Representative experimental result of protons generated from femtosecond intense laser interaction with thin foil target is presented.

  17. Differences in aquatic habitat quality as an impact of one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic model simulated flow variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, R. M.; Sohrabi, M.; Tonina, D.; McKean, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic habitat models utilize flow variables which may be predicted with one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models to simulate aquatic habitat quality. Studies focusing on the effects of hydrodynamic model dimensionality on predicted aquatic habitat quality are limited. Here we present the analysis of the impact of flow variables predicted with 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models on simulated spatial distribution of habitat quality and Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fall-spawning Chinook salmon. Our study focuses on three river systems located in central Idaho (USA), which are a straight and pool-riffle reach (South Fork Boise River), small pool-riffle sinuous streams in a large meadow (Bear Valley Creek) and a steep-confined plane-bed stream with occasional deep forced pools (Deadwood River). We consider low and high flows in simple and complex morphologic reaches. Results show that 1D and 2D modeling approaches have effects on both the spatial distribution of the habitat and WUA for both discharge scenarios, but we did not find noticeable differences between complex and simple reaches. In general, the differences in WUA were small, but depended on stream type. Nevertheless, spatially distributed habitat quality difference is considerable in all streams. The steep-confined plane bed stream had larger differences between aquatic habitat quality defined with 1D and 2D flow models compared to results for streams with well defined macro-topographies, such as pool-riffle bed forms. KEY WORDS: one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic models, habitat modeling, weighted usable area (WUA), hydraulic habitat suitability, high and low discharges, simple and complex reaches

  18. Optical Spectroscopy of Two Dimensional Graphene and Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Long

    a charge transfer process between graphene and BN when the exposure of visible light is introduced. We show this photo-induced doping in graphene resembles the modulation doping technique in traditional semiconductor heterojunctions, where a charge doping is introduced while the high mobility is maintained. This work reveals importance of interactions between stacked 2D materials on the overall properties and demonstrate a repeatable and convenient way of fabricating high quality graphene devices with active control of doping patterning. Along this direction, we did further STM experiment to visualize and manipulate charged defects in boron nitride with the help of graphene. The last theme is about the interesting properties of bilayer graphene, which is to some extent more interesting than monolayer graphene due to its electric-field dependent band structures. Firstly, we visualized the stacking boundary within exfoliated bilayer graphene by near field infrared microscopy. In dual-gated field-effect-transistor devices fabricated on the boundaries, we demonstrated the existence of topologically protected one dimensional conducting channels at the boundary through electric transport measurement. The 1D boundary states also demonstrated the first graphene-based valleytronic device. The topics we are going to talk about in this thesis are quite diversified. Just like the versatile nature of optical spectroscopy, we never limit ourself to a specific technique and do incremental things. Most of the experiments are driven by the important and interesting problems in the two dimensional materials field and we chose the right tool and conceive the right experiment to answer that question. Both pure optical methods and combinations with electric transport and STM measurements were used. I believe the flexibility of optical spectroscopy and its compatibility with other experimental techniques provide a powerful toolbox to explore many possibilities beyond the reach of a

  19. Two-dimensional swimming behavior of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Zhai, He; Sanchez, Sandra; Kearns, Daniel; Wu, Yilin

    Many bacteria swim by flagella motility which is essential for bacterial dispersal, chemotaxis, and pathogenesis. Here we combined single-cell tracking, theoretical analysis, and computational modeling to investigate two-dimensional swimming behavior of a well-characterized flagellated bacterium Bacillus subtilis at the single-cell level. We quantified the 2D motion pattern of B. subtilis in confined space and studied how cells interact with each other. Our findings shed light on bacterial colonization in confined environments, and will serve as the ground for building more accurate models to understand bacterial collective motion. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail: ylwu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk.

  20. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  1. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  2. Modulating two-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal crystal arrays by deformable soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Tieqiang; Zhang, Junhu; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhu, Difu; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xun; Yang, Bai

    2010-02-16

    We report a simple method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) periodic non-close-packed (ncp) arrays of colloidal microspheres with controllable lattice spacing, lattice structure, and pattern arrangement. This method combines soft lithography technique with controlled deformation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to convert 2D hexagonal close-packed (hcp) silica microsphere arrays into ncp ones. Self-assembled 2D hcp microsphere arrays were transferred onto the surface of PDMS stamps using the lift-up technique, and then their lattice spacing and lattice structure could be adjusted by solvent swelling or mechanical stretching of the PDMS stamps. Followed by a modified microcontact printing (microcp) technique, the as-prepared 2D ncp microsphere arrays were transferred onto a flat substrate coated with a thin film of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). After removing the PVA film by calcination, the ncp arrays that fell on the substrate without being disturbed could be lifted up, deformed, and transferred again by another PDMS stamp; therefore, the lattice feature could be changed step by step. Combining isotropic solvent swelling and anisotropic mechanical stretching, it is possible to change hcp colloidal arrays into full dimensional ncp ones in all five 2D Bravais lattices. This deformable soft lithography-based lift-up process can also generate patterned ncp arrays of colloidal crystals, including one-dimensional (1D) microsphere arrays with designed structures. This method affords opportunities and spaces for fabrication of novel and complex structures of 1D and 2D ncp colloidal crystal arrays, and these as-prepared structures can be used as molds for colloidal lithography or prototype models for optical materials. PMID:19715332

  3. Modulating two-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal crystal arrays by deformable soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Tieqiang; Zhang, Junhu; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhu, Difu; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xun; Yang, Bai

    2010-02-16

    We report a simple method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) periodic non-close-packed (ncp) arrays of colloidal microspheres with controllable lattice spacing, lattice structure, and pattern arrangement. This method combines soft lithography technique with controlled deformation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to convert 2D hexagonal close-packed (hcp) silica microsphere arrays into ncp ones. Self-assembled 2D hcp microsphere arrays were transferred onto the surface of PDMS stamps using the lift-up technique, and then their lattice spacing and lattice structure could be adjusted by solvent swelling or mechanical stretching of the PDMS stamps. Followed by a modified microcontact printing (microcp) technique, the as-prepared 2D ncp microsphere arrays were transferred onto a flat substrate coated with a thin film of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). After removing the PVA film by calcination, the ncp arrays that fell on the substrate without being disturbed could be lifted up, deformed, and transferred again by another PDMS stamp; therefore, the lattice feature could be changed step by step. Combining isotropic solvent swelling and anisotropic mechanical stretching, it is possible to change hcp colloidal arrays into full dimensional ncp ones in all five 2D Bravais lattices. This deformable soft lithography-based lift-up process can also generate patterned ncp arrays of colloidal crystals, including one-dimensional (1D) microsphere arrays with designed structures. This method affords opportunities and spaces for fabrication of novel and complex structures of 1D and 2D ncp colloidal crystal arrays, and these as-prepared structures can be used as molds for colloidal lithography or prototype models for optical materials.

  4. Equilibrium structural properties of two-dimensional nonideal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaulina, O. S.; Vasilieva, E. V.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    The pair correlation functions and the mean squared displacements of charged dust particles were studied experimentally for quasi-two-dimensional (2D) nonideal systems. The experiments were carried out in a plasma of a capacitive radio-frequency (RF-) discharge in argon for monolayers of monodispersed (melamine formaldehyde) spheres. A comparison with the existing theoretical and numerical data is presented.

  5. Adapting Grids For Computing Two-Dimensional Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1992-01-01

    SAGE2D is two-dimensional implementation of Self Adaptive Grid Evolution computer program that intelligently redistributes initial grid points on basis of initial flow-field solution. Grids modified according to initial computed flows enabling recomputation at greater accuracy. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Mesh2d

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  7. Probing environment fluctuations by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of molecular systems at temperatures below 5 K.

    PubMed

    Rancova, Olga; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Abramavicius, Darius

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy at cryogenic and room temperatures reveals excitation energy relaxation and transport, as well as vibrational dynamics, in molecular systems. These phenomena are related to the spectral densities of nuclear degrees of freedom, which are directly accessible by means of hole burning and fluorescence line narrowing approaches at low temperatures (few K). The 2D spectroscopy, in principle, should reveal more details about the fluctuating environment than the 1D approaches due to peak extension into extra dimension. By studying the spectral line shapes of a dimeric aggregate at low temperature, we demonstrate that 2D spectra have the potential to reveal the fluctuation spectral densities for different electronic states, the interstate correlation of static disorder and, finally, the time scales of spectral diffusion with high resolution.

  8. Probing environment fluctuations by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of molecular systems at temperatures below 5 K

    SciTech Connect

    Rancova, Olga; Abramavicius, Darius; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2015-06-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy at cryogenic and room temperatures reveals excitation energy relaxation and transport, as well as vibrational dynamics, in molecular systems. These phenomena are related to the spectral densities of nuclear degrees of freedom, which are directly accessible by means of hole burning and fluorescence line narrowing approaches at low temperatures (few K). The 2D spectroscopy, in principle, should reveal more details about the fluctuating environment than the 1D approaches due to peak extension into extra dimension. By studying the spectral line shapes of a dimeric aggregate at low temperature, we demonstrate that 2D spectra have the potential to reveal the fluctuation spectral densities for different electronic states, the interstate correlation of static disorder and, finally, the time scales of spectral diffusion with high resolution.

  9. Experimental study on interface region of two-dimensional Si layers by forming gas annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Yuhya; Kikuchi, Reika; Suzuki, Ayaka; Inoue, Ryohsuke; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Miki; Nagamine, Yoshiki; Aoki, Takashi; Maeda, Tatsuro

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally studied the SiO2/Si and Si/buried oxide (BOX) interface regions of a two-dimensional (2D) Si layer, by forming gas annealing (FGA). A photoluminescence (PL) result measured at various lattice temperature, T L, values shows that the PL intensity I PL of the 2D-Si layer rapidly increases and then saturates with increasing FGA temperature, T A, and time, t A. I PL also increases with decreasing T L. A one-dimensional (1D) Schroedinger equation simulator indicates that some of the electrons in the 2D-Si layer generated by a PL excitation laser are quantum-mechanically transmitted into Si interface regions. Actually, we experimentally confirmed that the PL spectra of the 2D-Si layer can be fitted by the PL emission from two regions with different PL peak photon energy values, E PH, which consist of a typical 2D-Si and the interface regions of both the surface SiO2/Si and Si/BOX. Thus, this forming gas dependence is probably attributable to the improved lifetime τ of electrons in the surface interface region, because the Si surface is terminated by H atoms. Moreover, the E PH of the interface region is higher than that of the 2D-Si layer, because of the graded increased bandgap in the interface regions. However, the E PH of 2D-Si is independent of both T A and T L, and this T L independence does not agree with that of a 3D-Si layer. Consequently, we experimentally verified the larger impact of the Si interface on the performance of 2D-Si layer.

  10. Two-dimensional material confined water.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: The interface between water and other materials under ambient conditions is of fundamental importance due to its relevance in daily life and a broad range of scientific research. The structural and dynamic properties of water at an interface have been proven to be significantly difference than those of bulk water. However, the exact nature of these interfacial water adlayers at ambient conditions is still under debate. Recent scanning probe microscopy (SPM) experiments, where two-dimensional (2D) materials as ultrathin coatings are utilized to assist the visualization of interfacial water adlayers, have made remarkable progress on interfacial water and started to clarify some of these fundamental scientific questions. In this Account, we review the recently conducted research exploring the properties of confined water between 2D materials and various surfaces under ambient conditions. Initially, we review the earlier studies of water adsorbed on hydrophilic substrates under ambient conditions in the absence of 2D coating materials, which shows the direct microscopic results. Subsequently, we focus on the studies of water adlayer growth at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates in the presence of 2D coating materials. Ice-like water adlayers confined between hydrophobic graphene and hydrophilic substrates can be directly observed in detail by SPM. It was found that the packing structure of the water adlayer was determined by the hydrophilic substrates, while the orientation of intercalation water domains was directed by the graphene coating. In contrast to hydrophilic substrates, liquid-like nanodroplets confined between hydrophobic graphene and hydrophobic substrates appear close to step edges and atomic-scale surface defects, indicating that atomic-scale surface defects play significant roles in determining the adsorption of water on hydrophobic substrates. In addition, we also review the phenomena of confined water between 2D hydrophilic MoS2 and

  11. Two-dimensional material confined water.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: The interface between water and other materials under ambient conditions is of fundamental importance due to its relevance in daily life and a broad range of scientific research. The structural and dynamic properties of water at an interface have been proven to be significantly difference than those of bulk water. However, the exact nature of these interfacial water adlayers at ambient conditions is still under debate. Recent scanning probe microscopy (SPM) experiments, where two-dimensional (2D) materials as ultrathin coatings are utilized to assist the visualization of interfacial water adlayers, have made remarkable progress on interfacial water and started to clarify some of these fundamental scientific questions. In this Account, we review the recently conducted research exploring the properties of confined water between 2D materials and various surfaces under ambient conditions. Initially, we review the earlier studies of water adsorbed on hydrophilic substrates under ambient conditions in the absence of 2D coating materials, which shows the direct microscopic results. Subsequently, we focus on the studies of water adlayer growth at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates in the presence of 2D coating materials. Ice-like water adlayers confined between hydrophobic graphene and hydrophilic substrates can be directly observed in detail by SPM. It was found that the packing structure of the water adlayer was determined by the hydrophilic substrates, while the orientation of intercalation water domains was directed by the graphene coating. In contrast to hydrophilic substrates, liquid-like nanodroplets confined between hydrophobic graphene and hydrophobic substrates appear close to step edges and atomic-scale surface defects, indicating that atomic-scale surface defects play significant roles in determining the adsorption of water on hydrophobic substrates. In addition, we also review the phenomena of confined water between 2D hydrophilic MoS2 and

  12. Mode competition and mode control in free electron lasers with one and two dimensional Bragg resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.N.; Ginzburg, N.S.; Sergeev, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    In the report we present a time domain approach to the theory of FELs with one and two dimensional Bragg resonators. It is demonstrated that traditional 1-D Bragg resonators provide possibilities for effective longitudinal mode control. In particular, simulation of the FEL realized in the joint experiment of JINR (Dybna) and IAP (N. Novgord) confirms achievement of the single mode operating regime with high efficiency of about 20%. However, 1-D Bragg resonators lose their selectivity as the transverse size of the system is increased. We simulate mode competition in FELs with coaxial 1-D Bragg resonators and observe a progressively more complicated azimuthal mode competition pattern as the perimeter of the resonator is increased. At the same time, using 2-D Bragg resonators for the same electron beam and microwave system perimeter gives very fast establishment of the single frequency regime with an azimuthally symmetric operating mode. Therefore, FELs utilising 2-D Bragg resonators with coaxial and planar geometry may be considered as attractive sources of high power spatially coherent radiation in the mm and sub-mm wave bands.

  13. Two-dimensional colloidal alloys.

    PubMed

    Law, Adam D; Buzza, D Martin A; Horozov, Tommy S

    2011-03-25

    We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3 μm diameter) and small (1 μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations. PMID:21517357

  14. Two-Dimensional Colloidal Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Adam D.; Buzza, D. Martin A.; Horozov, Tommy S.

    2011-03-01

    We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3μm diameter) and small (1μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations.

  15. Developing Sediment Transport and Dredging Prediction Model of Ohio River at Olmsted Locks and Dams Area using HEC-RAS (1D/2D)By Ganesh Raj Ghimire1 and Bruce A. Devantier 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment deposition is a serious issue in the construction and operation of large reservoir and inland navigation projects in the United States and around the world. Olmsted Locks and Dams in the Ohio River navigation system is facing similar challenges of huge sediment deposition during the ongoing in-wet construction methodology since 1993. HEC-RAS 5.0 integrated with ArcGIS, will be used to yield unsteady 2D hydrodynamic model of Ohio River at Olmsted area. Velocity, suspended sediment, bed sediment and hydrographic survey data acquired from public archives of USGS and USACE Louisville District will be input into the model. Calibration and validation of model will be performed against the measured stage, flow and velocity data. It will be subjected to completely unsteady 1D sediment transport modeling new to HEC-RAS 5.0 which incorporates sediment load and bed gradation via a DSS file, commercial dredging and BSTEM model. Sediment model will be calibrated to replicate the historical bed volume changes. Excavated cross-sections at Olmsted area will also be used to predict the sediment volume trapped inside the ditch over the period between excavations and placement of dam shells at site. Model will attempt to replicate historical dredging volume data and compare with the deposition volume from simulation model to formulate the dredging prediction model. Hence, the results of this research will generate a model that can form a basis for scheduling the dredging event prior to the placement of off-shore cast shells replacing the current as and when required approach of dredging plan. 1 Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Carbondale, Illinois, 62901-6603 2 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Carbondale, Illinois, 62901-6603

  16. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  17. Two-Dimensional Radiation Hydrodynamics with Detailed Equations of State and Opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, J. F.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Moses, G. A.; Peterson, R. R.; Wang, P.; Cohen, D. H.

    1996-11-01

    The University of Wisconsin presently models ICF targets and target chambers with the 1-D BUCKY computer code.(J.J. MacFarlane, G.A. Moses, and R.R. Peterson, Univ. of Wis. Report UWFDM-984 (1995).) Progress on incorporating the BUCKY physics models in the ZEUS-2D two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamics computer code(J.M. Stone, D. Mihalas, and M.L. Norman, Ap. J. Suppl.) 80, 753--845 (1992). will be reported. ZEUS-2D has been modified to use detailed equations of state and opacities, multigroup flux-limited radiation diffusion, and multiple materials. Selected studies of radiation burn-through, heat-pulse propagation, and x-ray emission from hohlraums will be presented. Cylindrically symmetric hohlraums exhibit primarily two-dimensional emission of x rays, with axial jets and conical lobes out the laser entrance holes. This information will be particularly useful for evaluating the response of the chamber wall and diagnostics to high-yield NIF shots.

  18. Two-dimensional crystals: managing light for optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Eda, Goki; Maier, Stefan A

    2013-07-23

    Semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) crystals such as MoS2 and WSe2 exhibit unusual optical properties that can be exploited for novel optoelectronics ranging from flexible photovoltaic cells to harmonic generation and electro-optical modulation devices. Rapid progress of the field, particularly in the growth area, is beginning to enable ways to implement 2D crystals into devices with tailored functionalities. For practical device performance, a key challenge is to maximize light-matter interactions in the material, which is inherently weak due to its atomically thin nature. Light management around the 2D layers with the use of plasmonic nanostructures can provide a compelling solution.

  19. Two-Dimensional Layered Materials-Based Spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Guohui; Wu, Xing; Tong, Wenqi; Duan, Chungang

    2015-12-01

    The recent emergence of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials — graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides — opens a new avenue for exploring the internal quantum degrees of freedom of electrons and their potential for new electronics. Here, we provide a brief review of experimental achievements concerning electrical spin injection, spin transport, graphene nanoribbons spintronics and transition metal dichalcogenides spin and pseudospins. Future research in 2D layered materials spintronics will need to address the development of applications such as spin transistors and spin logic devices, as well as exotic physical properties including pseudospins-valley phenomena in graphene and other 2D materials.

  20. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P

    2015-12-18

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.

  1. Solution structural characterization of cyanometmyoglobin: Resonance assignment of heme cavity residues by two-dimensional NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, S.D.; La Mar, G.N. )

    1990-02-13

    Steady-state nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE), two-dimensional (2D) nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), and 2D spin correlation spectroscopy (COSY) have been applied to the fully paramagnetic low-spin, cyanide-ligated complex of sperm whale ferric myoglobin to assign the majority of the heme pocket side-chain proton signals and the remainder of the heme signals. It is shown that the 2D NOESY map reveals essentially all dipolar connectivities observed in ordinary 1D NOE experiments and expected on the basis of crystal coordinates, albeit often more weakly than in a diamagnetic analogue. For extremely broad ({approximately}600-Hz) and rapidly relaxing (T{sub 1} {approximately} 3 ms) signals which show no NOESY peaks, the authors demonstrate that conventional steady-state NOEs obtained under very rapid pulsing conditions still allow detection of the critical dipolar connectivities that allow unambiguous assignments. Numerous critical COSY cross peaks between strongly hyperfine-shifted peaks were resolved and assigned. In all, 95% (53 of 56 signals) of the total proton sets within {approximately}7.5 {angstrom} of the iron, the region experiencing the strongest hyperfine shifts and paramagnetic relaxation, are now unambiguously assigned. Hence it is clear that the 2D methods can be profitably applied to paramagnetic proteins. The scope and limitations of such application are discussed. The resulting hyperfine shift pattern for the heme confirmed expectations based on model compounds.

  2. Novel phases and reentrant melting of two-dimensional colloidal crystals.

    PubMed

    Radzihovsky, L; Frey, E; Nelson, D R

    2001-03-01

    We investigate two-dimensional (2D) melting in the presence of a one-dimensional (1D) periodic potential as, for example, realized in recent experiments on 2D colloids subjected to two interfering laser beams. The topology of the phase diagram is found to depend primarily on two factors: the relative orientation of the 2D crystal and the periodic potential troughs, which selects a set of Bragg planes running parallel to the troughs, and the commensurability ratio p=a(')/d of the spacing a(') between these Bragg planes to the period d of the periodic potential. The complexity of the phase diagram increases with the magnitude of the commensurabilty ratio p. Rich phase diagrams, with "modulated liquid," "floating," and "locked floating" solid and smectic phases are found. Phase transitions between these phases fall into two broad universality classes, roughening and melting, driven by the proliferation of discommensuration walls and dislocations, respectively. We discuss correlation functions and the static structure factor in these phases, and make detailed predictions about the universal features close to the phase boundaries. We predict that for charged systems with highly screened short-range interactions, these melting transitions are generically reentrant as a function of the strength of the periodic potential, a prediction that is in accord with recent 2D colloid experiments. Implications of our results for future experiments are also discussed. PMID:11308653

  3. One- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation using experimentally generated flow turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Louis F.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations of one- and two-dimensional (1- or 2-D) simulations of Stirling machines centered around experimental data generated by the U. of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) are covered. This rig was used to investigate oscillating flows about a zero mean with emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions in tubes. The Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) and in particular, its heater, were the subjects of the simulations. The heater was treated as a 1- or 2-D entity in an otherwise 1-D system. The 2-D flow effects impacted the transient flow predictions in the heater itself but did not have a major impact on overall system performance. Information propagation effects may be a significant issue in the simulation (if not the performance) of high-frequency, high-pressure Stirling machines. This was investigated further by comparing a simulation against an experimentally validated analytic solution for the fluid dynamics of a transmission line. The applicability of the pressure-linking algorithm for compressible flows may be limited by characteristic number (defined as flow path information traverses per cycle); this warrants further study. Lastly the METR was simulated in 1- and 2-D. A two-parameter k-w foldback function turbulence model was developed and tested against a limited set of METR experimental data.

  4. Continuum in MDGC Technology: From Classical Multidimensional to Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kulsing, Chadin; Nolvachai, Yada; Rawson, Paul; Evans, David J; Marriott, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) comprise methods such as multiple heart-cut (H/C) analysis and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC); however, clear approaches to evaluate the MDGC results, choice of the most appropriate method, and optimized separation remain of concern. In order to track the capability of these analytical techniques and select an effective experimental approach, a fundamental approach was developed utilizing a time summation model incorporating temperature-dependent linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). The approach allows prediction of optimized analyte distribution in the 2D space for various MDGC approaches employing different experimental variables such as column lengths, temperature programs, and stationary phase combinations in order to evaluate separation performance (apparent (1)D, (2)D, total number of separated peaks, and orthogonality) for simulated MDGC results. The methodology applied LSER to generate results for nonpolar-polar and polar-nonpolar 2D column configurations for separation of 678 compounds in an oxidized kerosene-based jet fuel sample. Three-dimensional plots were generated in order to illustrate the dependency of separation performance on (2)D column length and number of injections for different stationary phase combinations. With a given limit of analysis time, a MDGC approach to obtain an optimized total separated peak number for a particular column set was proposed depending on (1)D and (2)D analyte peak distribution. This study introduces fundamental concepts and establishes approaches to design effective GC × GC or multiple H/C systems for different column combinations, to provide the best overall separation outcomes with the highest separated peak number and/or orthogonality.

  5. Evaluation of reversible interconversion in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using enantioselective columns in first and second dimensions.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Sabrina; Wong, Yong Foo; Chin, Sung-Tong; Grant, Jacob; Lupton, David; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-07-24

    The reversible molecular interconversion behaviour of a synthesised oxime (2-phenylpropanaldehyde oxime; (C6H5)CH(CH3)CHN(OH)) was investigated by both, single dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Previous studies on small molecular weight oximes were extended to this larger aromatic oxime (molar mass 149.19gmol(-1)) with interest in the extent of interconversion, enantioselective resolution, and retention time. On a polyethylene glycol (PEG; wax-type) column, a characteristic interconversion zone between two antipodes of E and Z isomers was formed by molecules which have undergone isomerisation on the column (E⇌Z). The extent of interconversion was investigated by varying chromatographic conditions (oven temperature and carrier flow rate) to understand the nature of the behaviour observed. The extent of interconversion was negligible in both enantioselective and methyl-phenylpolysiloxane phase-columns, correlating with the low polarity of the stationary phase. In order to obtain isomerisation along with enantio-resolution, a wax-type and an enantioselective column were coupled in either enantioselective-wax or wax-enantioselective order. The most appropriate column arrangement was selected for study by using a GC×GC experiment with either a wax-phase or phenyl-methylpolysiloxane phase as (2)D column. In addition to evaluation of these fast elution columns, a long narrow-bore enantioselective column (10m) was introduced as (2)D, providing an enantioselective-PEG (coupled-column ensemble: (1)D1+(1)D2)×enantioselective ((2)D) column combination. In this instance, the (1)D1 enantioselective column provides enantiomeric separation of the corresponding enantiomers ((R) and (S)) of (E)- and (Z)-2-phenylpropanaldehyde oxime, followed by E/Z isomerisation in the coupled (1)D2 PEG (reactor) column. The resulting chromatographic interconversion region was modulated and separated into either E/Z isomers

  6. Bi-layer ^3He: a simple two dimensional heavy fermion system with quantum criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, John

    2008-03-01

    Two dimensional helium films provide simple model systems for the investigation of quantum phase transitions in two dimensions. Monolayer ^3He absorbed on graphite, with various pre-platings, behaves as a two dimensional Mott-Hubbard system, complete with a density driven ``metal-insulator'' transition [1, 2] into what appears to be a gapless spin-liquid. In two dimensions the corrections to the temperature dependence of the fluid heat capacity, beyond the term linear in T, are anomalous and attributed to quasi-1D scattering [3]. On the other hand, bi-layer ^3He films adsorbed on the surface of graphite show evidence of two-band heavy-fermion behavior and quantum criticality [4, 5]. The relevant control parameter is the total density of the ^3He film. The ^3He bilayer system can be driven toward a quantum critical point (QCP) at which the effective mass appears to diverge, the effective inter-band hybridization vanishes, and a local moment state appears. A theoretical model in terms of a ``Kondo breakdown selective Mott transition'' has recently been suggested [6]. * In collaboration with: A Casey, M Neumann, J Nyeki, B Cowan. [1] Evidence for a Mott-Hubbard Transition in a Two-Dimensional ^3He Fluid Monolayer, A. Casey, H. Patel, J. Ny'eki, B. P. Cowan, and J. Saunders Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 115301 (2003) [2] D Tsuji et al. J. Low Temp. Phys. 134, 31 (2004) [3] A V Chubukov et al. Phys. Rev. B71, 205112 (2005) [4] Bilayer ^3He; a simple two dimensional heavy fermion system with quantum criticality, Michael Neumann, Jan Nyeki, Brian Cowan, John Saunders. Science 317, 1356 (2007) [5] Heavy fermions in the original Fermi liquid. Christopher A Hooley and Andrew P Mackenzie. Science 317, 1332 (2007) [6] C Pepin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 206401 (2007) and A Benlagra and C Pepin, arXiv: 0709.0354

  7. The analysis of carbohydrates in milk powder by a new "heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Hou, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yunan; He, Langchong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a new"heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of carbohydrate contents in milk powder was presented. In this two dimensional liquid chromatography system, a Venusil XBP-C4 analysis column was used in the first dimension ((1)D) as a pre-separation column, a ZORBAX carbohydrates analysis column was used in the second dimension ((2)D) as a final-analysis column. The whole process was completed in less than 35min without a particular sample preparation procedure. The capability of the new two dimensional HPLC method was demonstrated in the determination of carbohydrates in various brands of milk powder samples. A conventional one dimensional chromatography method was also proposed. The two proposed methods were both validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection, accuracy and precision. The comparison between the results obtained with the two methods showed that the new and completely automated two dimensional liquid chromatography method is more suitable for milk powder sample because of its online cleanup effect involved.

  8. Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis (2DE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłodzińska, Ewa; Buszewski, Bogusław

    The chemical compounds, which are present in the environment, increasingly cause bad effects on health. The most serious effects are tumors and various mutations at the cellular level. Such compounds, from the analytical point of view, can serve the function of biomarkers, constituting measurable changes in the organism's cells and biochemical processes occurring therein. The challenge of the twenty-first century is therefore searching for effective and reliable methods of identification of biomarkers as well as understanding bodily functions, which occur in living organisms at the molecular level. The irreplaceable tool for these examinations is proteomics, which includes both quality and quantity analysis of proteins composition, and also makes it possible to learn their functions and expressions. The success of proteomics examinations lies in the usage of innovative analytical techniques, such as electromigration technique, two-dimensional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (2D PAGE), liquid chromatography, together with high resolution mass spectrometry and bio-informatical data analysis. Proteomics joins together a number of techniques used for analysis of hundreds or thousands of proteins. Its main task is not the examination of proteins inside the particular tissue but searching for the differences in the proteins' profile between bad and healthy tissues. These differences can tell us a lot regarding the cause of the sickness as well as its consequences. For instance, using the proteomics analysis it is possible to find relatively fast new biomarkers of tumor diseases, which in the future will be used for both screening and foreseeing the course of illness. In this chapter we focus on two-dimensional electrophoresis because as it seems, it may be of enormous importance when searching for biomarkers of cancer diseases.

  9. Negative Magnetoresistance in Viscous Flow of Two-Dimensional Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. S.

    2016-10-01

    At low temperatures, in very clean two-dimensional (2D) samples, the electron mean free path for collisions with static defects and phonons becomes greater than the sample width. Under this condition, the electron transport occurs by formation of a viscous flow of an electron fluid. We study the viscous flow of 2D electrons in a magnetic field perpendicular to the 2D layer. We calculate the viscosity coefficients as the functions of magnetic field and temperature. The off-diagonal viscosity coefficient determines the dispersion of the 2D hydrodynamic waves. The decrease of the diagonal viscosity in magnetic field leads to negative magnetoresistance which is temperature and size dependent. Our analysis demonstrates that this viscous mechanism is responsible for the giant negative magnetoresistance recently observed in the ultrahigh-mobility GaAs quantum wells. We conclude that 2D electrons in those structures in moderate magnetic fields should be treated as a viscous fluid.

  10. Estimation of the two-dimensional presampled modulation transfer function of digital radiography devices using one-dimensional test objects

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The modulation transfer function (MTF) of medical imaging devices is commonly reported in the form of orthogonal one-dimensional (1D) measurements made near the vertical and horizontal axes with a slit or edge test device. A more complete description is found by measuring the two-dimensional (2D) MTF. Some 2D test devices have been proposed, but there are some issues associated with their use: (1) they are not generally available; (2) they may require many images; (3) the results may have diminished accuracy; and (4) their implementation may be particularly cumbersome. This current work proposes the application of commonly available 1D test devices for practical and accurate estimation of the 2D presampled MTF of digital imaging systems. Methods: Theory was developed and applied to ensure adequate fine sampling of the system line spread function for 1D test devices at orientations other than approximately vertical and horizontal. Methods were also derived and tested for slit nonuniformity correction at arbitrary angle. Techniques were validated with experimental measurements at ten angles using an edge test object and three angles using a slit test device on an indirect-detection flat-panel system [GE Revolution XQ/i (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI)]. The 2D MTF was estimated through a simple surface fit with interpolation based on Delaunay triangulation of the 1D edge-based MTF measurements. Validation by synthesis was also performed with simulated images from a hypothetical direct-detection flat-panel device. Results: The 2D MTF derived from physical measurements yielded an average relative precision error of 0.26% for frequencies below the cutoff (2.5 mm−1) and approximate circular symmetry at frequencies below 4 mm−1. While slit analysis generally agreed with the results of edge analysis, the two showed subtle differences at frequencies above 4 mm−1. Slit measurement near 45° revealed radial asymmetry in the MTF resulting from the square pixel

  11. 2D Magneto-Optical Trapping of Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummon, Matthew T.; Yeo, Mark; Stuhl, Benjamin K.; Collopy, Alejandra L.; Xia, Yong; Ye, Jun

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate one- and two-dimensional transverse laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of the polar molecule yttrium (II) oxide (YO). In a 1D magneto-optical trap (MOT), we characterize the magneto-optical trapping force and decrease the transverse temperature by an order of magnitude, from 25 to 2 mK, limited by interaction time. In a 2D MOT, we enhance the intensity of the YO beam and reduce the transverse temperature in both transverse directions. The approach demonstrated here can be applied to many molecular species and can also be extended to 3D.

  12. Two dimensional bias correction of temperature and precipitation copulas in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, C.; Haerter, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In most climate model bias-correction procedures, temperature and precipitation are corrected independently, thereby degrading the dynamical link represented within the model. We propose a methodology that advances the state-of-the-art by correcting not just the independent intensity distributions but the full two-dimensional statistical distribution of temperature and precipitation as described by the copula. To illustrate the methodology and its potential to affect copulas, it was applied to a synthetic temperature and precipitation (T&P) dataset. Figure 1a shows two histograms derived from synthetic 2D T&P datasets. The dashed color-filled contours represent the simulated T&P data histogram while the solid contours represent the observed T&P data. The distribution shown in fig. 1e is the copula extracted from the synthetic observed T&P data set used to derive the non-colored 2D histogram shown in fig. 1a. The copula extracted from the simulated data is flat. In fig 1b (1c) the simulated 2D histogram has been bias corrected using linear (high order) 1D bias corrections separately for temperature and precipitation. Inspection of fig. 1b and 1c will reveal that the simple independent bias corrections of temperature and precipitation improve the 2D histogram greatly without affecting the copula at all. In fact the copulas derived from the 2D colored histograms in fig 1b and 1c are still flat! Finally, in fig. 1d, the full 2D bias correction is applied. Figure 1f shows the copula of the corrected data from fig. 1d. Now that we have applied the full 2D bias correction developed in this study, we obtain some structure in the derived copula. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed method, it is applied to the a regional climate model output and weather station data over Germany. A standard cross-validation is performed by dividing the data into two non overlapping 10 year periods. Results show that the methodology effectively improves the temperature

  13. Thermal Independent Modulator for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Luong, Jim; Guan, Xiaosheng; Xu, Shifen; Gras, Ronda; Shellie, Robert A

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a modulation strategy for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) with complete thermal independence between the cooling and heating stages and without the need for GC oven heat for remobilization. Based on this approach, a compact thermal independent modulator (TiM) with thermoelectric cooling and micathermic heating has been successfully innovated for use in GC×GC. The device operates externally to a gas chromatograph, does not require liquid cryogen, and has minimal consumables requirements. The augmentation of an additional gas flow stream results in a number of critical chromatographic parameter improvements such as the decoupling of flows of first- and second-dimension columns to attain both efficiency and speed optimized flow in each dimension, the potential for independent retention time locking or scaling in either dimension, the improvement of modulator reinjection efficiency, as well as facilitating back-flushing for the first dimension to enhance system cleanliness and throughput. TiM was found to be useful for chromatographic applications over a volatility range equivalent to nC6 to nC24 under conditions used. Repeatability of retention time for model compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes were found to be quite satisfactory with relative standard deviations of less than 0.009% in (1)D and less than 0.008% in (2)D (n = 10). Typical peak widths of 120 ms or less with a relative standard deviation of less than 4.7% were achieved for the aromatic model compounds. In this article, the performance of the modulator is demonstrated and a series of challenging chromatographic applications are presented to illustrate usefulness of the apparatus. PMID:27537206

  14. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent light: theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel B; Howey, Dylan J; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2013-07-25

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I((4)) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and new opportunities.

  15. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  16. Two-Dimensional Recall: Immediate Identification of Clusters in Episodic and Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschke, Herman

    1977-01-01

    To show the organization of recall, items that are remembered together can be written on the same line of a two-dimensional (2D) grid. Such 2D recall does not induce the clustering it reveals. Various aspects of 2D recall and the clustering it reveals are discussed. (Author/RM)

  17. Effects of pH mismatch between the two dimensions of reversed-phase×reversed-phase two-dimensional separations on second dimension separation quality for ionogenic compounds-I. Carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Dwight R; O'Neill, Kelly; Harmes, David C

    2015-02-27

    Two persistent impediments to wider adoption of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) are the perceptions that 2D methods are generally less sensitive than 1D ones, and that coupling of certain separation modes in a 2D system is difficult because of the negative impact of the effluent of the first separation on the second separation. In this work we address these problems in the specific case where reversed-phase separations are used in both dimensions of a 2D-LC system, but the pH is varied such that the ionization state of carboxylic acid analytes is different (i.e., neutral or negatively charged, in eluents buffered at pH 2 or 7) in the two columns. We first demonstrate that the effect of first dimension ((1)D) effluent on the performance of second dimension ((2)D) separation of ionogenic solutes is much more serious than it is for neutral compounds where the pH of the eluent does not play a role in retention. We have systematically varied the properties of the sample solution injected into the (2)D column (i.e., the (1)D effluent), as well as the (2)D eluent, with the goal of establishing guidelines for conditions that yield acceptable (2)D performance. We find that the organic solvent content of the (1)D effluent and (2)D eluent is not as important as the buffer concentrations in these two solutions, and that the greater the ratio of buffer concentration in the (1)D effluent relative to the (2)D eluent, the smaller the volume one can inject into the (2)D column before dramatic peak splitting occurs. We have then used the information from these simple experiments to guide both 1D experiments that mimic the (2)D separation, and actual 2D separations, to demonstrate that online adjustment of the properties of the (1)D effluent by dilution with a buffered solvent prior to injection into the (2)D column is a very effective solution to the pH mismatch problem. We find that when the buffer capacity of the diluent is high enough to effectively titrate the (1)D

  18. An in-depth numerical study of the two-dimensional Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation

    PubMed Central

    Kalogirou, A.; Keaveny, E. E.; Papageorgiou, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation in one spatial dimension (1D KSE) is one of the most well-known and well-studied partial differential equations. It exhibits spatio-temporal chaos that emerges through various bifurcations as the domain length increases. There have been several notable analytical studies aimed at understanding how this property extends to the case of two spatial dimensions. In this study, we perform an extensive numerical study of the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation (2D KSE) to complement this analytical work. We explore in detail the statistics of chaotic solutions and classify the solutions that arise for domain sizes where the trivial solution is unstable and the long-time dynamics are completely two-dimensional. While we find that many of the features of the 1D KSE, including how the energy scales with system size, carry over to the 2D case, we also note several differences including the various paths to chaos that are not through period doubling. PMID:26345218

  19. Wide-field two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jun; Li, Guo; Wang, Lidai; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Maslov, Konstantin; Engelbach, John A.; Garbow, Joel R.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an emerging technique that directly images optical absorption in tissue at high spatial resolution. To date, the majority of OR-PAM systems are based on single focused optical excitation and ultrasonic detection, limiting the wide-field imaging speed. While one-dimensional multifocal OR-PAM (1D-MFOR-PAM) has been developed, the potential of microlens and transducer arrays has not been fully realized. Here, we present the development of two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy (2D-MFOR-PACM), using a 2D microlens array and a full-ring ultrasonic transducer array. The 10 × 10 mm2 microlens array generates 1800 optical foci within the focal plane of the 512-element transducer array, and raster scanning the microlens array yields optical-resolution photoacoustic images. The system has improved the in-plane resolution of a full-ring transducer array from ≥100 µm to 29 µm and achieved an imaging time of 36 seconds over a 10 × 10 mm2 field of view. In comparison, the 1D-MFOR-PAM would take more than 4 minutes to image over the same field of view. The imaging capability of the system was demonstrated on phantoms and animals both ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:24322226

  20. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Kevin

    2015-12-08

    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  1. Two-dimensional dynamic fluid bowtie attenuators.

    PubMed

    Hermus, James R; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Fluence field modulated (FFM) CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only one-dimensional modulators have been proposed, as the extension to two-dimensional (2-D) modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based fluence field modulated designs. This work proposes to use liquid and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam, as unlike solids, these materials can be arranged allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Liquid iodine, zinc chloride, cerium chloride, erbium oxide, iron oxide, and gadolinium chloride were studied. Gaseous xenon, uranium hexafluoride, tungsten hexafluoride, and nickel tetracarbonyl were also studied. Additionally, we performed a proof-of-concept experiment using a 96 cell array in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with erbium oxide allowing for the smallest thickness. For the gases, tungsten hexaflouride required the smallest pressure to compensate for 30 cm of soft tissue. The 96 cell iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter-to-primary ratio. For both liquids and gases, when k-edges were located within the diagnostic energy range used for imaging, the mean beam energy exhibited the smallest change with compensation amount. The thickness of liquids and the gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the space constraints of C-arm-based cone beam CT (CBCT) and diagnostic CT systems. The gas pressures also seem logistically implementable within the space and tube loading constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems. PMID:26835499

  2. Band engineering for novel two-dimensional atomic layers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingsheng; Wang, Hong; Fu, Wei; Gong, Yongji; Zhou, Wu; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Liu, Zheng

    2015-04-24

    The discovery of graphene has sparked much interest in science and lead to the development of an ample variety of novel two-dimensional (2D) materials. With increasing research interest in the field of 2D materials in recent years, the researchers have shifted their focus from the synthesis to the modification of 2D materials, emphasizing their electronic structures. In this review, the possibilities of altering the band structures are discussed via three different approches: (1) alloying 2D materials, so called ternary 2D materials, such as hexagonal carbonized boron nitrides (h-BCN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) ternary materials; (2) stacking 2D materials vertically, which results in 2D heterostructures named van der Waals (vdW) solids (using hexagonal boron nitrides (h-BN)/graphene and TMDs stacking as examples), and growing lateral TMDs heterostructrues; (3) controlling the thickness of 2D materials, that is, the number of layers. The electronic properties of some 2D materials are very sensitive to the thickness, such as in TMDs and black phosphorus (BP). The variations of band structures and the resulting physical properties are systematically discussed.

  3. Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.

  4. Order Parameters for Two-Dimensional Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2007-10-01

    We derive methods that explain how to quantify the amount of order in ``ordered'' and ``highly ordered'' porous arrays. Ordered arrays from bee honeycomb and several from the general field of nanoscience are compared. Accurate measures of the order in porous arrays are made using the discrete pair distribution function (PDF) and the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) from 2-D discrete Fourier transforms calculated from the real-space data using MATLAB routines. An order parameter, OP3, is defined from the PDF to evaluate the total order in a given array such that an ideal network has the value of 1. When we compare PDFs of man-made arrays with that of our honeycomb we find OP3=0.399 for the honeycomb and OP3=0.572 for man's best hexagonal array. The DWF also scales with this order parameter with the least disorder from a computer-generated hexagonal array and the most disorder from a random array. An ideal hexagonal array normalizes a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller parameter is derived which describes the disorder in the arrays. An order parameter S, defined by the DWF, takes values from [0, 1] and for the analyzed man-made array is 0.90, while for the honeycomb it is 0.65. This presentation describes methods to quantify the order found in these arrays.

  5. Dual-injection system with multiple injections for determining bidimensional retention indexes in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Stefan; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    A new instrumental approach for collection of retention index data in the first (1D) and second (2D) dimensions of a comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GCxGC) experiment has been developed. First-dimension indexes were determined under conventional linear programmed temperature conditions (Van den Dool indexes). To remove the effect that the short secondary column imposes on derived 1D indexes, as well as to avoid handling of pulsed GCxGC peaks, the proposed approach uses a flow splitter to divert part of the primary column flow to a supplementary detector to simultaneously generate a conventional 1D chromatogram, along with the GCxGC chromatogram. The critical 2D indexes (KovAts indexes) are based upon isovolatility curves of normal alkanes in 2D space, providing a reference scale against which to correlate each individual target peak throughout the entire GCxGC run. This requires the alkanes to bracket the analytes in order to allow retention interpolation. Exponential curves produced in the 2D separation space require a novel approach for delivery of alkane standards into the 2D column by using careful solvent-free solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling. Sequential introduction of alkane mixtures during GCxGC runs was performed by thermal desorption in a second injector which was directly coupled through a short transfer line to the entrance of the secondary column, just prior to the modulator so that they do not have to travel through the 1D column. Thus, each alkane mixture injection was quantitatively focused by the cryogenic trap, then launched at predetermined times onto the 2D column. The system permitted construction of an alkane retention map upon which bidimensional indexes of a 25-perfume ingredient mixture could be derived. Comparison of results with indexes determined in temperature-variable one-dimensional (1D) GC showed good correlation. Plotting of the separation power in the second dimension was possible by mapping

  6. A comparative study of two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average algorithm to estimate the multifractal spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shunning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang

    2016-07-01

    Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm have been established as two important methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of the one-dimensional random fractal signal. They have been generalized to deal with two-dimensional and higher-dimensional fractal signals. This paper gives a brief introduction of the two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average (2D-MFDMA) algorithm, and a detailed description of the application of the two-dimensional fractal signal processing by using the two methods. By applying the 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA to the series generated from the two-dimensional multiplicative cascading process, we systematically do the comparative analysis to get the advantages, disadvantages and the applicabilities of the two algorithms for the first time from six aspects such as the similarities and differences of the algorithm models, the statistical accuracy, the sensitivities of the sample size, the selection of scaling range, the choice of the q-orders and the calculation amount. The results provide a valuable reference on how to choose the algorithm from 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA, and how to make the schemes of the parameter settings of the two algorithms when dealing with specific signals in practical applications.

  7. Two-dimensional magmons with damage and the transition to magma-fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhengyu; Bercovici, David

    2016-07-01

    Magma-fracturing during melt migration is associated with the propagation of a pore-generating damage front ahead of high-pressure fluid injection, which facilitates the transport of melt in the asthenosphere and initiates dike propagation in the lithosphere. We examine the propagation of porous flow in a damageable matrix by applying the two-phase theory for compaction and damage proposed by Bercovici et al. (2001a) and Bercovici and Ricard (2003) in 2-D. Damage (void generation and microcracking) is treated by considering the generation of interfacial surface energy by deformational work. We examine the stability of 1-D solitary waves to 2-D perturbations, and study the formation of finite-amplitude, two-dimensional solitary waves with and without solenoidal (rotational) flow of the matrix. We show that the wavelength and growth rate of the most unstable perturbations are dependent on both background porosity and the presence of solenoidal flow field. The effect of damage on finite amplitude 2-D solitary waves is then examined with numerical experiments. Stably propagating circular waves become flattened (elongated perpendicular to gravity) for small porosity, or elongated (parallel to gravity) for large porosity with increased damage. We show that the weakening of the matrix due to damage leads to these changes in wave geometry, which indicates a transition from magmatic porous flow to dike-like or sill-like magma-fracturing as magma passes through a semi-brittle/semi-ductile zone in the lithosphere.

  8. Two-dimensional epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor heterostructures: A platform for topological superconducting networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, J.; Kjaergaard, M.; Suominen, H. J.; Kim, Younghyun; Nichele, F.; Pakrouski, K.; Stankevic, T.; Lutchyn, R. M.; Krogstrup, P.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Kraemer, S.; Nayak, C.; Troyer, M.; Marcus, C. M.; Palmstrøm, C. J.

    2016-04-01

    Progress in the emergent field of topological superconductivity relies on synthesis of new material combinations, combining superconductivity, low density, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). For example, theory [1-4] indicates that the interface between a one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor (Sm) with strong SOC and a superconductor (S) hosts Majorana modes with nontrivial topological properties [5-8]. Recently, epitaxial growth of Al on InAs nanowires was shown to yield a high quality S-Sm system with uniformly transparent interfaces [9] and a hard induced gap, indicted by strongly suppressed sub gap tunneling conductance [10]. Here we report the realization of a two-dimensional (2D) InAs/InGaAs heterostructure with epitaxial Al, yielding a planar S-Sm system with structural and transport characteristics as good as the epitaxial wires. The realization of 2D epitaxial S-Sm systems represent a significant advance over wires, allowing extended networks via top-down processing. Among numerous potential applications, this new material system can serve as a platform for complex networks of topological superconductors with gate-controlled Majorana zero modes [1-4]. We demonstrate gateable Josephson junctions and a highly transparent 2D S-Sm interface based on the product of excess current and normal state resistance.

  9. Nanocavity absorption enhancement for two-dimensional material monolayer systems.

    PubMed

    Song, Haomin; Jiang, Suhua; Ji, Dengxin; Zeng, Xie; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Chu; Xu, Yun; Gan, Qiaoqiang

    2015-03-23

    Here we propose a strategy to enhance the light-matter interaction of two-dimensional (2D) material monolayers based on strong interference effect in planar nanocavities, and overcome the limitation between optical absorption and the atomically-thin thickness of 2D materials. By exploring the role of spacer layers with different thicknesses and refractive indices, we demonstrate that a nanocavity with an air spacer layer placed between a graphene monolayer and an aluminum reflector layer will enhance the exclusive absorption in the graphene monolayer effectively, which is particularly useful for the development of atomically-thin energy harvesting/conversion devices.

  10. Ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic circuits.

    PubMed

    Andress, William F; Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y M; Qin, Ling; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren; Ham, Donhee

    2012-05-01

    We report electronics regime (GHz) two-dimensional (2D) plasmonic circuits, which locally and nonresonantly interface with electronics, and thus offer to electronics the benefits of their ultrasubwavelength confinement, with up to 440,000-fold mode-area reduction. By shaping the geometry of 2D plasmonic media 80 nm beneath an unpatterned metallic gate, plasmons are routed freely into various types of reflections and interferences, leading to a range of plasmonic circuits, e.g., plasmonic crystals and plasmonic-electromagnetic interferometers, offering new avenues for electronics.

  11. Two-dimensional molecular crystals of phosphonic acids on graphene.

    PubMed

    Prado, Mariana C; Nascimento, Regiane; Moura, Luciano G; Matos, Matheus J S; Mazzoni, Mario S C; Cancado, Luiz G; Chacham, Helio; Neves, Bernardo R A

    2011-01-25

    The synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional (2D) molecular crystals composed of long and linear phosphonic acids atop graphene is reported. Using scanning probe microscopy in combination with first-principles calculations, we show that these true 2D crystals are oriented along the graphene armchair direction only, thereby enabling an easy determination of graphene flake orientation. We have also compared the doping level of graphene flakes via Raman spectroscopy. The presence of the molecular crystal atop graphene induces a well-defined shift in the Fermi level, corresponding to hole doping, which is in agreement with our ab initio calculations.

  12. Ultrafast Charge Transfer Visualized by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixner, O.; Christensson, N.; Hauer, J.; Milota, F.; Mančal, T.; Lukeš, V.; Kauffmann, H. F.

    2013-03-01

    Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES) is used to investigate ultrafast excited-state dynamics in a lutetium bisphthalocyanine dimer. Following optical excitation, a chain of electron and hole transfer steps gives rise to characteristic cross-peak dynamics in the electronic 2D spectra. The combination of density matrix propagation and quantum chemical calculations results in a molecular view of the charge transfer dynamics and highlights the role of the counter-ion in providing an energetic perturbation which promotes charge transfer across the complex.

  13. Functionalization of Two-Dimensional Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; McDonald, Aidan R

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterials that have the potential for application in catalysis, electronics, photonics, energy storage, and sensing. TMDs are rather inert, and thus pose problems for chemical derivatization. However, to further modify the properties of TMDs and fully harness their capabilities, routes towards their chemical functionalization must be identified. Herein, recent efforts toward the chemical (bond-forming) functionalization of 2D TMDs are critically reviewed. Recent successes are highlighted, along with areas where further detailed analyses and experimentation are required. This burgeoning field is very much in its infancy but has already provided several important breakthroughs. PMID:26848815

  14. Application of two dimensional periodic molecular dynamics to interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, David H.; Slater, Ben; Catlow, C. Richard A.

    1997-08-01

    We have applied two-dimensional molecular dynamics to the surface of a crystalline aspartame and the interface between the crystal face and a solvent (water). This has allowed us to look at the dynamic processes at the surface. Understanding the surface structure and properties are important to controlling the crystal morphology. The thermodynamic ensemble was constant Number, surface Area and Temperature (NAT). The calculations have been carried out using a 2D Ewald summation and 2D periodic boundary conditions for the short range potentials. The equations of motion integration has been carried out using the standard velocity Verlet algorithm.

  15. Scalable Transfer of Suspended Two-Dimensional Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; He, Yongmin; Lei, Sidong; Najmaei, Sina; Gong, Yongji; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Lulu; Yang, Yingchao; Hong, Sanghyun; Hao, Ji; Shi, Gang; George, Antony; Keyshar, Kunttal; Zhang, Xiang; Dong, Pei; Ge, Liehui; Vajtai, Robert; Lou, Jun; Jung, Yung Joon; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-08-12

    Large-scale suspended architectures of various two-dimensional (2D) materials (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and graphene) are demonstrated on nanoscale patterned substrates with different physical and chemical surface properties, such as flexible polymer substrates (polydimethylsiloxane), rigid Si substrates, and rigid metal substrates (Au/Ag). This transfer method represents a generic, fast, clean, and scalable technique to suspend 2D atomic layers. The underlying principle behind this approach, which employs a capillary-force-free wet-contact printing method, was studied by characterizing the nanoscale solid-liquid-vapor interface of 2D layers with respect to different substrates. As a proof-of-concept, a photodetector of suspended MoS2 has been demonstrated with significantly improved photosensitivity. This strategy could be extended to several other 2D material systems and open the pathway toward better optoelectronic and nanoelectromechnical systems.

  16. Nonlinear plasmonics in a two-dimensional plasma layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, Bengt; Liu, Chuan Sheng

    2016-05-01

    The nonlinear electron dynamics in a two-dimensional (2D) plasma layer are investigated theoretically and numerically. In contrast to the Langmuir oscillations in a three-dimensional (3D) plasma, a well-known feature of the 2D system is the square root dependence of the frequency on the wavenumber, which leads to unique dispersive properties of 2D plasmons. It is found that for large amplitude plasmonic waves there is a nonlinear frequency upshift similar to that of periodic gravity waves (Stokes waves). The periodic wave train is subject to a modulational instability, leading to sidebands growing exponentially in time. Numerical simulations show the breakup of a 2D wave train into localized wave packets and later into wave turbulence with immersed large amplitude solitary spikes. The results are applied to systems involving massless Dirac fermions in graphene as well as to sheets of electrons on liquid helium.

  17. Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha; Huang, Jinyang; Sun, Xiaoming

    2015-04-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials according to their size of thickness difference. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Highlights: • Density gradient ultracentrifugation was applied on size separation of 2D material. • Isopycnic separation was applied on separation of low density materials. • Rate-zonal separation was applied on separation of large density materials. • Size

  18. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-08-01

    The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. The factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented. The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. Particularly, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films. PMID:27254831

  19. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage

    DOE PAGES

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-06-02

    The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Moreover, synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. Some factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented.more » The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Some various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. In particular, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films.« less

  20. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Numata, K.; Dai, W.; Hunger, M.

    2014-03-31

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.

  1. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael; Louie, Steven G.; Ringe, Emilie; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Akinwande, Deji; Zhu, Jun; Schuller, John; Schaak, Raymond; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-11-06

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.

  2. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene.

    PubMed

    Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Lin, Zhong; Meunier, Vincent; Jung, Yeonwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael S; Cooper, Valentino R; Liang, Liangbo; Louie, Steven G; Ringe, Emilie; Zhou, Wu; Kim, Steve S; Naik, Rajesh R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones, Humberto; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Zhu, Jun; Akinwande, Deji; Alem, Nasim; Schuller, Jon A; Schaak, Raymond E; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-12-22

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 from graphite was a defining moment for the "birth" of a field: two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here, we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials "beyond graphene". We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals (vdW) forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene that enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene. PMID:26544756

  3. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene.

    PubMed

    Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Lin, Zhong; Meunier, Vincent; Jung, Yeonwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael S; Cooper, Valentino R; Liang, Liangbo; Louie, Steven G; Ringe, Emilie; Zhou, Wu; Kim, Steve S; Naik, Rajesh R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones, Humberto; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Zhu, Jun; Akinwande, Deji; Alem, Nasim; Schuller, Jon A; Schaak, Raymond E; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-12-22

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 from graphite was a defining moment for the "birth" of a field: two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here, we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials "beyond graphene". We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals (vdW) forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene that enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.

  4. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; et al

    2015-11-06

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulkmore » solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.« less

  5. Two-Dimensional Nanostructure- Reinforced Biodegradable Polymeric Nanocomposites for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Gaurav; Henslee, Allan M.; Farshid, Behzad; Lin, Liangjun; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Qin, Yi-Xian; Mikos, Antonios G.; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of two dimensional (2D) carbon and inorganic nanostructures as reinforcing agents of crosslinked composites of the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer polypropylene fumarate (PPF) as a function of nanostructure concentration. PPF composites were reinforced using various 2D nanostructures: single- and multi-walled graphene oxide nanoribbons (SWGONRs, MWGONRs), graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs), and molybdenum di-sulfite nanoplatelets (MSNPs) at 0.01–0.2 weight% concentrations. Cross-linked PPF was used as the baseline control, and PPF composites reinforced with single- or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, MWCNT) were used as positive controls. Compression and flexural testing show a significant enhancement (i.e., compressive modulus = 35–108%, compressive yield strength = 26–93%, flexural modulus = 15–53%, and flexural yield strength = 101–262% greater than the baseline control) in the mechanical properties of the 2D-reinforced PPF nanocomposites. MSNPs nanocomposites consistently showed the highest values among the experimental or control groups in all the mechanical measurements. In general, the inorganic nanoparticle MSNPs showed a better or equivalent mechanical reinforcement compared to carbon nanomaterials, and 2-D nanostructures (GONP, MSNP) are better reinforcing agents compared to 1-D nanostructures (e.g. SWCNTs). The results also indicate that the extent of mechanical reinforcement is closely dependent on the nanostructure morphology and follows the trend nanoplatelets > nanoribbons > nanotubes. Transmission electron microscopy of the cross-linked nanocomposites indicates good dispersion of nanomaterials in the polymer matrix without the use of a surfactant. The sol-fraction analysis showed significant changes in the polymer cross-linking in the presence of MSNP (0.01–0.2 wt %) and higher loading concentrations of GONP and MWGONR (0.1–0.2 wt%). The analysis of surface area and aspect ratio of

  6. On the Importance of Noncovalent Carbon-Bonding Interactions in the Stabilization of a 1D Co(II) Polymeric Chain as a Precursor of a Novel 2D Coordination Polymer.

    PubMed

    Pal, Pampi; Konar, Saugata; Lama, Prem; Das, Kinsuk; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2016-07-14

    A new cobalt(II) coordination polymer 2 with μ1,5 dicyanamide (dca) and a bidentate ligand 3,5-dimethyl-1-(2'-pyridyl)pyrazole (pypz) is prepared in a stepwise manner using the newly synthesized one-dimensional linear Co(II) coordination polymer 1 as a precursor. The structural and thermal characterizations elucidate that the more stable complex 2 shows a two-dimensional layer structural feature. Here, Co(II) atoms with μ1,5 dicyanamido bridges are linked by the ligand pypz forming a macrocyclic chain that runs along the crystallographic 'c' axis having 'sql' (Shubnikov notation) net topology with a 4-connected uninodal node having point symbol {4(4).6(2)}. The remarkable noncovalent carbon-bonding contacts detected in the X-ray structure of compound 1 are analyzed and characterized by density functional theory calculations and the analysis of electron charge density (atoms in molecules). PMID:27295490

  7. On the Importance of Noncovalent Carbon-Bonding Interactions in the Stabilization of a 1D Co(II) Polymeric Chain as a Precursor of a Novel 2D Coordination Polymer.

    PubMed

    Pal, Pampi; Konar, Saugata; Lama, Prem; Das, Kinsuk; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2016-07-14

    A new cobalt(II) coordination polymer 2 with μ1,5 dicyanamide (dca) and a bidentate ligand 3,5-dimethyl-1-(2'-pyridyl)pyrazole (pypz) is prepared in a stepwise manner using the newly synthesized one-dimensional linear Co(II) coordination polymer 1 as a precursor. The structural and thermal characterizations elucidate that the more stable complex 2 shows a two-dimensional layer structural feature. Here, Co(II) atoms with μ1,5 dicyanamido bridges are linked by the ligand pypz forming a macrocyclic chain that runs along the crystallographic 'c' axis having 'sql' (Shubnikov notation) net topology with a 4-connected uninodal node having point symbol {4(4).6(2)}. The remarkable noncovalent carbon-bonding contacts detected in the X-ray structure of compound 1 are analyzed and characterized by density functional theory calculations and the analysis of electron charge density (atoms in molecules).

  8. Preparative two-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the purification of complex pharmaceutical samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinong; Zeng, Lu; Pham, Catherine; Xu, Rongda

    2014-01-10

    A new preparative two-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system (2D LC-LC/MS) has been designed and implemented to enhance capability and resolving power for the separation and purification of pharmaceutical samples. The system was constructed by modifications of a conventional preparative LC/MS instrument with the addition of a set of switching valves and a sample loop, as well as interfacing a custom software program with MassLynx. The system integrates two chromatographic separations from the first and second dimensions into a single automated run to perform the purification of a target compound from a complex mixture without intermediate steps of sample preparation. The chromatography in the first dimension, operated in the heart-cutting mode, separates the target compound from the impurities by mass-triggered fractionation based on its molecular weight. This purified fraction from the first dimension is stored in the sample loop, and then gets transferred to the second column by using at-column dilution. A control software program, coined Prep 2D LCMS, was designed to integrate with MassLynx to retrieve data acquisition status. All of the chromatographic hardware components used in this preparative 2D LC-LC/MS system are from the original open access preparative LC/MS system, which has high level of robustness and affords easy and user-friendly operation. The new system is very versatile and capable of collecting multiple fractions with different masses under various purification modes as configured in the methods, such as conventional one-dimensional (1D) purification and/or 2D purification. This new preparative 2D LC-LC/MS system is therefore the ideal tool for medicinal chemistry lab in drug discovery environment. PMID:24309715

  9. A two dimensional artificial reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Myron W.

    1991-01-01

    The current presumption is that it is necessary to don goggles, gloves and a data suit to experience artificial reality. However, there is another technology that offers an alternative or complement to the encumbering techniques associated with NASA. In VIDEOPLACE, your image appears in a 2D graphic world created by a computer. The VIDEOPLACE computer can analyze a person's image in 1/30 second and can detect when an object is touched. Thus, it can generate a graphic or auditory response to an illusory contact. VIDEOPLACE technology exists in two formats: the VIDEODESK and the VIDEOPLACE. In the VIDEODESK environment, the image of your hands can be used to perform the normal mouse functions, such as menuing and drawing. In addition, you have the advantage of multipoint control. For instance, you can use the thumbs and forefingers of each hand as control points for a spline curve. Perhaps most important, the image of your hands can be compressed and transmitted to a colleague over an ISDN voice channel to appear on the remote screen superimposed over identical information. Likewise, the image of your colleague's hands can appear on both screens. The result is that the two of you can use your hands to point to features on your respective screens as you speak, exactly as you would if you were sitting together. In the VIDEOPLACE environment, you can interact with graphic creatures and the images of other people in other locations in a graphic world. Your whole body can be moved, scaled and rotated in real-time without regard to the laws of physics. Thus, VIDEOPLACE can be used to create a fantasy world in which the laws of cause and effect are composed by an artist.

  10. Coexistence of one- and two-dimensional supramolecular assemblies of terephthalic acid on Pd(111) due to self-limiting deprotonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas-Ventura, M. E.; Klappenberger, F.; Clair, S.; Pons, S.; Kern, K.; Brune, H.; Strunskus, T.; Wöll, Ch.; Fasel, R.; Barth, J. V.

    2006-11-01

    The adsorption of terephthalic acid [C6H4(COOH)2, TPA] on a Pd(111) surface has been investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at room temperature. We find the coexistence of one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) molecular ordering. Our analysis indicates that the 1D phase consists of intact TPA chains stabilized by a dimerization of the self-complementary carboxyl groups, whereas in the 2D phase, consisting of deprotonated entities, the molecules form lateral ionic hydrogen bonds. The supramolecular growth dynamics and the resulting structures are explained by a self-limiting deprotonation process mediated by the catalytic activity of the Pd surface. Our models for the molecular ordering are supported by molecular mechanics calculations and a simulation of high resolution STM images.

  11. van der Waals epitaxy and photoresponse of two-dimensional CdSe plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dan-Dan; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lei; Li, Xuan-Ze; Tian, Li-Feng; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2016-06-01

    Here we demonstrate the first growth of two-dimensional (2D) single-crystalline CdSe plates on mica substrates via van der Waals epitaxy. The as-synthesized 2D plates exhibit hexagonal, truncated triangular and triangular shapes with the lateral size around several microns. Photodetectors based on 2D CdSe plates present a fast response time of 24 ms, revealing that 2D CdSe is a promising building block for ultrathin optoelectronic devices.

  12. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490

  13. Tensor representation of color images and fast 2D quaternion discrete Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a general, efficient, split algorithm to compute the two-dimensional quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D QDFT), by using the special partitioning in the frequency domain, is introduced. The partition determines an effective transformation, or color image representation in the form of 1-D quaternion signals which allow for splitting the N × M-point 2-D QDFT into a set of 1-D QDFTs. Comparative estimates revealing the efficiency of the proposed algorithms with respect to the known ones are given. In particular, a proposed method of calculating the 2r × 2r -point 2-D QDFT uses 18N2 less multiplications than the well-known column-row method and method of calculation based on the symplectic decomposition. The proposed algorithm is simple to apply and design, which makes it very practical in color image processing in the frequency domain.

  14. Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems

    DOE PAGES

    Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.

    2015-04-10

    There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screeningmore » length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.« less

  15. Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.

    2015-04-01

    There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.

  16. Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.

    2015-04-10

    There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.

  17. Two-Dimensional Atomic Crystals: Paving New Ways for Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jincheng; Li, Tengfei; Djerdj, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals are attractive for use in next-generation nanoelectronics, due to their unique performances, which may lead to the resolution of the technological and fundamental challenges in semiconductor industry. Based on the introduction of 2D atomic crystal-based transistors and ambipolar behavior, the review presents a brief summary of 2D atomic crystal integration circuits, including memory, logic gate, amplifier, inverter, oscillator, mixer, switch and modulator. The devices show promising performances for the application in future nanoelectronics. In particular, the 2D atomic crystals, such as graphene, demonstrate good compatibility with the existing semiconductor process. The quaternary digital modulations have been achieved with flexible and transparent all-graphene circuits. Moreover, the heterojunction based on 2D atomic crystals may enable new devices beyond conventional field-effect transistors. The results make us be optimistic that practical 2D atomic crystal technologies with complex functionality will be achieved in the near future. Therefore, 2D atomic crystals are paving new ways for nanoelectronics.

  18. Two-dimensional photonic crystal chemical and biomolecular sensors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhongyu; Smith, Natasha L; Zhang, Jian-Tao; Asher, Sanford A

    2015-01-01

    We review recent progress in the development of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal (PC) materials for chemical and biological sensing applications. Self-assembly methods were developed in our laboratory to fabricate 2-D particle array monolayers on mercury and water surfaces. These hexagonal arrays strongly forward Bragg diffract light to report on their array spacings. By embedding these 2-D arrays onto responsive hydrogel surfaces, 2-D PC sensing materials can be fabricated. The 2-D PC sensors utilize responsive polymer hydrogels that are chemically functionalized to show volume phase transitions in selective response to particular chemical species. Novel hydrogels were also developed in our laboratory by cross-linking proteins while preserving their native structures to maintain their selective binding affinities. The volume phase transitions swell or shrink the hydrogels, which alter their 2-D array spacings, and shift their diffraction wavelengths. These shifts can be visually detected or spectrally measured. These 2-D PC sensing materials have been used for the detection of many analytes, such as pH, surfactants, metal ions, proteins, anionic drugs, and ammonia. We are exploring the use of organogels that use low vapor pressure ionic liquids as their mobile phases for sensing atmospheric analytes. PMID:25867803

  19. Novel stilbene-based Fischer base analog of leuco-TAM - (2E,2'Z)-{2-(4-(E)-styrylphenyl)propane-1,3-diylidene}bis(1,3,3-trimethylindoline) - derivatives: synthesis and structural consideration by 1D NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Keum, Sam-Rok; Lim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-02-01

    We report the synthesis of a series of novel stilbene-based (St) Fischer base analogs of leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes by treating Fischer base with (E)-4-styrylbenzaldehyde derivatives. All St-LTAM molecules examined herein are characterized by 1D and 2D NMR. They were found to exhibit ZE configuration and isomerize to their diastereomers EE and ZZ in 2-3 h. They exhibit type I behavior of diastereomeric isomerization. PMID:26448377

  20. Measuring Monotony in Two-Dimensional Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    This note introduces a monotony coefficient as a new measure of the monotone dependence in a two-dimensional sample. Some properties of this measure are derived. In particular, it is shown that the absolute value of the monotony coefficient for a two-dimensional sample is between /"r"/ and 1, where "r" is the Pearson's correlation coefficient for…

  1. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHOCKS IN AND ABOVE POST-FLARE LOOPS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION AND A SIMPLIFIED MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Naoki; Shibata, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Takuma

    2015-06-01

    Solar flares are an explosive phenomenon where super-sonic flows and shocks are expected in and above the post-flare loops. To understand the dynamics of post-flare loops, a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (2D MHD) simulation of a solar flare has been carried out. We found new shock structures in and above the post-flare loops, which were not resolved in the previous work by Yokoyama and Shibata. To study the dynamics of flows along the reconnected magnetic field, the kinematics and energetics of the plasma are investigated along selected field lines. It is found that shocks are crucial to determine the thermal and flow structures in the post-flare loops. On the basis of the 2D MHD simulation, we developed a new post-flare loop model, which we defined as the pseudo-2D MHD model. The model is based on the one-dimensional (1D) MHD equations, where all variables depend on one space dimension, and all the three components of the magnetic and velocity fields are considered. Our pseudo-2D model includes many features of the multi-dimensional MHD processes related to magnetic reconnection (particularly MHD shocks), which the previous 1D hydrodynamic models are not able to include. We compared the shock formation and energetics of a specific field line in the 2D calculation with those in our pseudo-2D MHD model, and found that they give similar results. This model will allow us to study the evolution of the post-flare loops in a wide parameter space without expensive computational cost or neglecting important physics associated with magnetic reconnection.

  2. Several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs of FANCG are required for assembly of the BRCA2/D1-D2-G-X3 complex, FANCD2 monoubiquitylation and phleomycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James B; Blom, Eric; Cunningham, Ryan; Xiao, Yuxuan; Kupfer, Gary M; Jones, Nigel J

    2010-07-01

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) FANCG protein is an integral component of the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitylation of FANCD2. FANCG is also part of another protein complex termed D1-D2-G-X3 that contains FANCD2 and the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 (FANCD1) and XRCC3. Formation of the D1-D2-G-X3 complex is mediated by serine-7 phosphorylation of FANCG and occurs independently of the FA core complex and FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. FANCG contains seven tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions and here we show that mutation of several of the TPR motifs at a conserved consensus residue ablates the in vivo binding activity of FANCG. Expression of mutated TPR1, TPR2, TPR5 and TPR6 in Chinese hamster fancg mutant NM3 fails to functionally complement its hypersensitivities to mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin and fails to restore FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrate that these TPR-mutated FANCG proteins fail to interact with BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCA or FANCF. The interactions of other proteins in the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are also absent, including the interaction of BRCA2 with both the monoubiquitylated (FANCD2-L) and non-ubiquitylated (FANCD2-S) isoforms of FANCD2. Interestingly, a mutation of TPR7 (R563E), that complements the MMC and phleomycin hypersensitivity of human FA-G EUFA316 cells, fails to complement NM3, despite the mutated FANCG protein co-precipitating with FANCA, BRCA2 and XRCC3. Whilst interaction of TPR7-mutated FANCG with FANCF does appear to be reduced in NM3, FANCD2 is monoubiquitylated suggesting that sub-optimal interactions of FANCG in the core complex and the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are responsible for the observed MMC- and phleomycin-hypersensitivity, rather than a defect in FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Our data demonstrate that FANCG functions as a mediator of protein-protein interactions and is vital for the assembly of multi-protein complexes

  3. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  4. A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paesler, Michael

    2012-02-01

    A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm—within a few percent—that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have little trouble identifying discrepancies such as the loss of a few percent of the gravitational potential energy due to air friction encountered by a falling ball. Two-dimensional (2-D) systems can require more sophisticated analysis for higher level laboratories, but such systems often incorporate complicating components that can make the exercise academically incomplete and experimentally less accurate. The following describes a simple 2-D energy conservation experiment based on the popular "Newton's Cradle" toy that allows students to account for nearly all of the mechanical energy in the system in an academically complete analysis.

  5. Collective excitations of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of weak disorder and a two-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Ying; Liang Zhaoxin; Hu Bambi

    2010-05-15

    We investigate the combined effects of weak disorder and a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice on the collective excitations of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at zero temperature. Accordingly, we generalize the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid for a weakly interacting Bose gas in a 2D optical lattice to include the effects of weak disorder. Our analytical results for the collective frequencies beyond the mean-field approximation reveal the peculiar role of disorder, interplaying with the 2D optical lattice and interatomic interaction, on elementary excitations along the 3D to 1D crossover. In particular, consequences of disorder on the phonon propagation and surface modes are analyzed in detail. The experimental scenario is also proposed.

  6. Lateral and Vertical Two-Dimensional Layered Topological Insulator Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Jinsong; Zheng, Guangyuan; Sun, Yongming; Hong, Seung Sae; Xiong, Feng; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Cui, Yi

    2015-11-24

    The heterostructured configuration between two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials has enabled the engineering of the band gap and the design of novel devices. So far, the synthesis of single-component topological insulator (TI) 2D materials such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 has been achieved through vapor phase growth and molecular beam epitaxy; however, the spatial controlled fabrication of 2D lateral heterostructures in these systems has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we report an in situ two-step synthesis process to form TI lateral heterostructures. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray mapping results show the successful spatial control of chemical composition in these as-prepared heterostructures. The edge-induced growth mechanism is revealed by the ex situ atomic force microscope measurements. Electrical transport studies demonstrate the existence of p-n junctions in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 heterostructures.

  7. Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.

  8. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    SciTech Connect

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  9. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de

    2015-08-15

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  10. Extended quantum jump description of vibronic two-dimensional spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Keß, Martin; Wehner, Johannes G.; Engel, Volker; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Eisfeld, Alexander

    2015-06-07

    We calculate two-dimensional (2D) vibronic spectra for a model system involving two electronic molecular states. The influence of a bath is simulated using a quantum-jump approach. We use a method introduced by Makarov and Metiu [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10126 (1999)] which includes an explicit treatment of dephasing. In this way it is possible to characterize the influence of dissipation and dephasing on the 2D-spectra, using a wave function based method. The latter scales with the number of stochastic runs and the number of system eigenstates included in the expansion of the wave-packets to be propagated with the stochastic method and provides an efficient method for the calculation of the 2D-spectra.

  11. Extended quantum jump description of vibronic two-dimensional spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Keß, Martin; Wehner, Johannes G; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Eisfeld, Alexander; Engel, Volker

    2015-06-01

    We calculate two-dimensional (2D) vibronic spectra for a model system involving two electronic molecular states. The influence of a bath is simulated using a quantum-jump approach. We use a method introduced by Makarov and Metiu [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10126 (1999)] which includes an explicit treatment of dephasing. In this way it is possible to characterize the influence of dissipation and dephasing on the 2D-spectra, using a wave function based method. The latter scales with the number of stochastic runs and the number of system eigenstates included in the expansion of the wave-packets to be propagated with the stochastic method and provides an efficient method for the calculation of the 2D-spectra. PMID:26049460

  12. Nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal.

    PubMed

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The theory of Bloembergen and Pershan for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is extended to a nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal, i.e., a single planar atomic lattice, placed between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real 2D system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. As a particular case that contains all the essential physical features, second-order harmonic generation is considered. The theory, due to its simplicity that stems from the special character of a single planar atomic lattice, is able to elucidate and explain the rich experimental details of harmonic generation from a 2D atomic crystal.

  13. Two dimensional WS2 lateral heterojunctions by strain modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lan; Zhang, Yuhan; Hu, Song; Wang, Xiangfu; Liu, Chunsheng; Guo, Yandong; Wang, Xinran; Yan, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    "Strain engineering" has been widely used to tailor the physical properties of layered materials, like graphene, black phosphorus, and transition-metal dichalcogenides. Here, we exploit thermal strain engineering to construct two dimensional (2D) WS2 in-plane heterojunctions. Kelvin probe force microscopy is used to investigate the surface potentials and work functions of few-layer WS2 flakes, which are grown on SiO2/Si substrates by chemical vapor deposition, followed by a fast cooling process. In the interior regions of strained WS2 flakes, work functions are found to be much larger than that of the unstrained regions. The difference in work functions, together with the variation of band gaps, endows the formation of heterojunctions in the boundaries between inner and outer domains of WS2 flakes. This result reveals that the existence of strain offers a unique opportunity to modulate the electronic properties of 2D materials and construct 2D lateral heterojunctions.

  14. Coherent transfer by adiabatic passage in two-dimensional lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage (CTAP) is a well-established technique for robust spatial transport of quantum particles in linear chains. Here we introduce two exactly-solvable models where the CTAP protocol can be extended to two-dimensional lattice geometries. Such bi-dimensional lattice models are synthesized from time-dependent second-quantization Hamiltonians, in which the bosonic field operators evolve adiabatically like in an ordinary three-level CTAP scheme thus ensuring adiabatic passage in Fock space. - Highlights: • New ways of coherent transport by adiabatic passage (CTAP) in 2D lattices. • Synthesis of exactly-solvable 2D lattices from a simple three-well model. • CTAP in 2D lattices can be exploited for quantum state transfer.

  15. One-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays of nanoholes generated by laser in the semiconfined configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugomer, S.; Maksimović, A.; Peto, G.; Toth, A.; Horvath, E.

    2006-11-01

    We have shown that nanoporosity can be generated on metal surfaces by nanosecond laser-matter interactions in the semiconfined configuration. The scanning electron microscope analysis has shown that nanoholes of ˜25-50nm in diameter, arranged in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) irregular and regular arrays, have been formed. The interpretation is based on the generation of a dispersive, dissipative system of nonlinear solitary plasma waves (humps) that leave temperature/pressure fingerprints on the metal surface. It has been shown that the 1D irregular array of nanoholes can be interpreted as a result of the irregular string of solitary humps obtained by numerical simulation based on the Benney pd equation with the Gaussian perturbation. The 2D random array of nanoholes can be interpreted as a result of random solitary humps that can be obtained by numerical simulation from the Benney equation with the periodic perturbation. The regular string of nanoholes has been shown to appear as a result of breather modes (bound state of solitons), the numerical simulation of which has been based on the Boussinesq equation. The regular 2D array of nanoholes has been interpreted as fingerprints of breather modes, in agreement with the result of the numerical simulation of Tajiri and Murakami, [J. Math. Phys. 34, 2400 (1993)], based on the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation.

  16. Solitons and vortices in two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger systems with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2015-04-07

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.

  17. Solitons and vortices in two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger systems with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    DOE PAGES

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2015-04-07

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, withmore » the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.« less

  18. Method for determining molar concentrations of metabolites in complex solutions from two-dimensional 1H-13C NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ian A; Schommer, Seth C; Hodis, Brendan; Robb, Kate A; Tonelli, Marco; Westler, William M; Sussman, Michael R; Markley, John L

    2007-12-15

    One-dimensional (1D) (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used extensively for high-throughput analysis of metabolites in biological fluids and tissue extracts. Typically, such spectra are treated as multivariate statistical objects rather than as collections of quantifiable metabolites. We report here a two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy (fast metabolite quantification, FMQ, by NMR) for identifying and quantifying the approximately 40 most abundant metabolites in biological samples. To validate this technique, we prepared mixtures of synthetic compounds and extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Medicago sativa. We show that accurate (technical error 2.7%) molar concentrations can be determined in 12 min using our quantitative 2D (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy. In contrast, traditional 1D (1)H NMR analysis resulted in 16.2% technical error under nearly ideal conditions. We propose FMQ by NMR as a practical alternative to 1D (1)H NMR for metabolomics studies in which 50-mg (extract dry weight) samples can be obtained. PMID:17985927

  19. Method for determining molar concentrations of metabolites in complex solutions from two-dimensional 1H-13C NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ian A; Schommer, Seth C; Hodis, Brendan; Robb, Kate A; Tonelli, Marco; Westler, William M; Sussman, Michael R; Markley, John L

    2007-12-15

    One-dimensional (1D) (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used extensively for high-throughput analysis of metabolites in biological fluids and tissue extracts. Typically, such spectra are treated as multivariate statistical objects rather than as collections of quantifiable metabolites. We report here a two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy (fast metabolite quantification, FMQ, by NMR) for identifying and quantifying the approximately 40 most abundant metabolites in biological samples. To validate this technique, we prepared mixtures of synthetic compounds and extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Medicago sativa. We show that accurate (technical error 2.7%) molar concentrations can be determined in 12 min using our quantitative 2D (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy. In contrast, traditional 1D (1)H NMR analysis resulted in 16.2% technical error under nearly ideal conditions. We propose FMQ by NMR as a practical alternative to 1D (1)H NMR for metabolomics studies in which 50-mg (extract dry weight) samples can be obtained.

  20. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  1. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  2. Two-component model of 2D trigger-associated hadron correlations on rapidity space yta×ytt derived from 1D pt spectra for p-p collisions at s=200GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Prindle, Duncan J.

    2013-11-01

    A two-component model (TCM) for single-particle pt spectra describes 200 GeV p-p data accurately. Based on that TCM a spectrum hard component was isolated that is related quantitatively to pQCD predictions for jet fragmentation down to low jet energies (≈3GeV). Here we address jet-related structure in 2D trigger-associated (TA) correlations as a more-detailed method to explore the kinematic limits of low-energy jet production and low-momentum jet fragment structure in p-p collisions. We derive a TCM for p-p TA correlations that can be used to isolate 2D jet-related structure. Inferred minimum-bias (mainly low-energy) jet-related TA correlations may challenge several major assumptions about jet production in p-p (and A-A) collisions. These results should be relevant to p-p underlying-event studies and Monte Carlo predictions of multiple parton interactions.

  3. Fast, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Dwight R.; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoli; Carr, Peter W.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rutan, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute need to improve the separating power of liquid chromatography, especially for multi-constituent biological samples, is becoming increasingly evident. In response, over the past few years, there has been a great deal of interest in the development of two dimension liquid chromatography (2DLC). Just as 1DLC is preferred to 1DGC based on its compatibility with biological materials we believe that ultimately 2DLC will be preferred to the much more highly developed 2DGC for such samples. The huge advantage of 2D chromatographic techniques over 1D methods is inherent in the tremendous potential increase in peak capacity (resolving power). This is especially true of comprehensive 2D chromatography wherein it is possible, under ideal conditions, to obtain a total peak capacity equal to the product of the peak capacities of the first and second dimension separations. However, the very long timescale (typically several hours to tens of hours) of comprehensive 2DLC is clearly its chief drawback. Recent advances in the use of higher temperatures to speed up isocratic and gradient elution liquid chromatography have been used to decrease the time needed to do the second dimension LC separation of 2DLC to about 20 seconds for a full gradient elution run. Thus fast, high temperature LC is becoming a very promising technique. Peak capacities of over 2000 and rates of peak capacity production of nearly 1 peak/s have been achieved. In consequence, many real samples showing more than 200 peaks with signal to noise ratios of better than 10:1 have been run in total times of under 30 minutes. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive review of 2DLC, but is deliberately focused on the issues involved in doing fast 2DLC by means of elevating the column temperature; however, many issues of broader applicability will be discussed. PMID:17888443

  4. Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.

  5. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  6. Two-dimensional correlation analysis and waterfall plots for detecting positional fluctuations of spectral changes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Soo Ryeon; Noda, Isao; Lee, Chang-Hee; Lee, Phil Ho; Hwang, Hyonseok; Jung, Young Mee

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the potentials and pitfalls of using various waterfall plots, such as conventional waterfall plots, two-dimensional (2D) gradient maps, moving window two-dimensional analysis (MW2D), perturbation-correlation moving window two-dimensional analysis (PCMW2D), and moving window principal component analysis two-dimensional correlation analysis (MWPCA2D), in the detection of the existence of band position shifts. Waterfall plots of the simulated spectral datasets are compared with conventional 2D correlation spectra. Different waterfall plots give different features in differentiating the behaviors of frequency shift versus two overlapped bands. Two-dimensional correlation spectra clearly show the very characteristic cluster pattern for both band position shifts and two overlapped bands. The vivid pattern differences are readily detectable in various waterfalls plots. Various types of waterfall plots of temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectra of ethylene glycol, which does not have the actual band shift but only two overlapped bands, and of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of 2 wt% acetone in a mixed solvent of CHCl(3)/CCl(4) demonstrate that waterfall plots are not able to unambiguously detect the difference between real band shift and two overlapped bands. Thus, the presence or lack of the asynchronous 2D butterfly pattern seems like the most effective diagnostic tool for band shift detection. PMID:21396181

  7. Two-dimensional correlation analysis and waterfall plots for detecting positional fluctuations of spectral changes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Soo Ryeon; Noda, Isao; Lee, Chang-Hee; Lee, Phil Ho; Hwang, Hyonseok; Jung, Young Mee

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the potentials and pitfalls of using various waterfall plots, such as conventional waterfall plots, two-dimensional (2D) gradient maps, moving window two-dimensional analysis (MW2D), perturbation-correlation moving window two-dimensional analysis (PCMW2D), and moving window principal component analysis two-dimensional correlation analysis (MWPCA2D), in the detection of the existence of band position shifts. Waterfall plots of the simulated spectral datasets are compared with conventional 2D correlation spectra. Different waterfall plots give different features in differentiating the behaviors of frequency shift versus two overlapped bands. Two-dimensional correlation spectra clearly show the very characteristic cluster pattern for both band position shifts and two overlapped bands. The vivid pattern differences are readily detectable in various waterfalls plots. Various types of waterfall plots of temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectra of ethylene glycol, which does not have the actual band shift but only two overlapped bands, and of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of 2 wt% acetone in a mixed solvent of CHCl(3)/CCl(4) demonstrate that waterfall plots are not able to unambiguously detect the difference between real band shift and two overlapped bands. Thus, the presence or lack of the asynchronous 2D butterfly pattern seems like the most effective diagnostic tool for band shift detection.

  8. Myocardial Strain Imaging Based on Two-Dimensional Displacement Vector Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    The abnormalities of myocardial wall motion caused by changes in wall stiffness often appear in the early stage of ischemic heart disease. Since the myocardium exhibits complex and large motion, a two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) assessment of stiffness distribution is required for accurate diagnosis. Although a 3D assessment is ultimately required, as a stepped approach for practical use, we propose novel methods for tracking the 2D motion using a one-dimensional (1D) phased array and for assessing myocardial malfunction by visualizing the invariant of a strain tensor. The feasibilities of the proposed methods were evaluated by numerically simulating the short-axis imaging of a 3D myocardial model. This model includes a hard infarction located between 1 and 3 o’clock, which is difficult to detect by conventional tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging, and the motions of the model were assigned by referring to actual myocardial motion. These results revealed that the proposed imaging methods clearly depicted the hard infarction area which conventional imaging could not detect.

  9. Liquid gradient in two-dimensional matrix for high throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan-Wen; Xu, Bi-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Based on the ingenious combination of two different gradient generation mechanisms, this work reports a novel approach for a high throughput linear liquid gradient in a two-dimensional (2D) matrix. Specifically, a typical Christmas Tree structure with two inlets was designed as the first mixture gradient generator, upon which the second diffusion gradient generator was coupled to produce the desired concentration series on the basis of the distance difference. Rather than a simple 1D line, the integration of the two generators would result in an innovative 2D matrix of reservoirs, which was then characterized both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, calculation of fluid field demonstrated the formation of a concentration gradient, which was then confirmed by the dye solution visualization analysis. For high throughput screening application, doxorubicin (Dox) was then selected as model medicine to treat the acute myeloblastic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Cell viability displayed that cell death rate enhanced with the increase of drug concentration, and this result was higher than that on a 96-well plate, and the corresponding mechanism was properly discussed. Subsequently, Dox and quercetin were employed simultaneously to generate an overlapping gradient and its effect on HL-60 cells was investigated. Due to the automatic formation of concentration gradient that could improve the work efficiency, this work provides a promising tool for future high throughput drug screening.

  10. Ab Initio Prediction of Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials.

    PubMed

    Blonsky, Michael N; Zhuang, Houlong L; Singh, Arunima K; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-10-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials present many unique materials concepts, including material properties that sometimes differ dramatically from those of their bulk counterparts. One of these properties, piezoelectricity, is important for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems applications. Using symmetry analysis, we determine the independent piezoelectric coefficients for four groups of predicted and synthesized 2D materials. We calculate with density-functional perturbation theory the stiffness and piezoelectric tensors of these materials. We determine the in-plane piezoelectric coefficient d11 for 37 materials within the families of 2D metal dichalcogenides, metal oxides, and III-V semiconductor materials. A majority of the structures, including CrSe2, CrTe2, CaO, CdO, ZnO, and InN, have d11 coefficients greater than 5 pm/V, a typical value for bulk piezoelectric materials. Our symmetry analysis shows that buckled 2D materials exhibit an out-of-plane coefficient d31. We find that d31 for 8 III-V semiconductors ranges from 0.02 to 0.6 pm/V. From statistical analysis, we identify correlations between the piezoelectric coefficients and the electronic and structural properties of the 2D materials that elucidate the origin of the piezoelectricity. Among the 37 2D materials, CdO, ZnO, and CrTe2 stand out for their combination of large piezoelectric coefficient and low formation energy and are recommended for experimental exploration. PMID:26312745

  11. Ab Initio Prediction of Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials.

    PubMed

    Blonsky, Michael N; Zhuang, Houlong L; Singh, Arunima K; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-10-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials present many unique materials concepts, including material properties that sometimes differ dramatically from those of their bulk counterparts. One of these properties, piezoelectricity, is important for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems applications. Using symmetry analysis, we determine the independent piezoelectric coefficients for four groups of predicted and synthesized 2D materials. We calculate with density-functional perturbation theory the stiffness and piezoelectric tensors of these materials. We determine the in-plane piezoelectric coefficient d11 for 37 materials within the families of 2D metal dichalcogenides, metal oxides, and III-V semiconductor materials. A majority of the structures, including CrSe2, CrTe2, CaO, CdO, ZnO, and InN, have d11 coefficients greater than 5 pm/V, a typical value for bulk piezoelectric materials. Our symmetry analysis shows that buckled 2D materials exhibit an out-of-plane coefficient d31. We find that d31 for 8 III-V semiconductors ranges from 0.02 to 0.6 pm/V. From statistical analysis, we identify correlations between the piezoelectric coefficients and the electronic and structural properties of the 2D materials that elucidate the origin of the piezoelectricity. Among the 37 2D materials, CdO, ZnO, and CrTe2 stand out for their combination of large piezoelectric coefficient and low formation energy and are recommended for experimental exploration.

  12. Two-Dimensional Ffowcs Williams/Hawkings Equation Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.

    2005-01-01

    FWH2D is a Fortran 90 computer program that solves a two-dimensional (2D) version of the equation, derived by J. E. Ffowcs Williams and D. L. Hawkings, for sound generated by turbulent flow. FWH2D was developed especially for estimating noise generated by airflows around such approximately 2D airframe components as slats. The user provides input data on fluctuations of pressure, density, and velocity on some surface. These data are combined with information about the geometry of the surface to calculate histories of thickness and loading terms. These histories are fast-Fourier-transformed into the frequency domain. For each frequency of interest and each observer position specified by the user, kernel functions are integrated over the surface by use of the trapezoidal rule to calculate a pressure signal. The resulting frequency-domain signals are inverse-fast-Fourier-transformed back into the time domain. The output of the code consists of the time- and frequency-domain representations of the pressure signals at the observer positions. Because of its approximate nature, FWH2D overpredicts the noise from a finite-length (3D) component. The advantage of FWH2D is that it requires a fraction of the computation time of a 3D Ffowcs Williams/Hawkings solver.

  13. Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Adrien; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav; Kis, Andras

    2015-12-01

    The performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional layered crystals, including graphene, semiconductors of the transition metal dichalcogenide family such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as well as other emerging two-dimensional semiconductors such as atomically thin black phosphorus, is significantly affected by the electrical contacts that connect these materials with external circuitry. Here, we present a comprehensive treatment of the physics of such interfaces at the contact region and discuss recent progress towards realizing optimal contacts for two-dimensional materials. We also discuss the requirements that must be fulfilled to realize efficient spin injection in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  14. Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Allain, Adrien; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav; Kis, Andras

    2015-12-01

    The performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional layered crystals, including graphene, semiconductors of the transition metal dichalcogenide family such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as well as other emerging two-dimensional semiconductors such as atomically thin black phosphorus, is significantly affected by the electrical contacts that connect these materials with external circuitry. Here, we present a comprehensive treatment of the physics of such interfaces at the contact region and discuss recent progress towards realizing optimal contacts for two-dimensional materials. We also discuss the requirements that must be fulfilled to realize efficient spin injection in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  15. Two Dimensional Mechanism for Insect Hovering

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Wang, Z.

    2000-09-04

    Resolved computation of two dimensional insect hovering shows for the first time that a two dimensional hovering motion can generate enough lift to support a typical insect weight. The computation reveals a two dimensional mechanism of creating a downward dipole jet of counterrotating vortices, which are formed from leading and trailing edge vortices. The vortex dynamics further elucidates the role of the phase relation between the wing translation and rotation in lift generation and explains why the instantaneous forces can reach a periodic state after only a few strokes. The model predicts the lower limits in Reynolds number and amplitude above which the averaged forces are sufficient. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  16. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD).

  17. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). PMID:24548435

  18. Two-dimensional interpreter for field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhauer, Loren

    2014-08-15

    An interpretive method is developed for extracting details of the fully two-dimensional (2D) “internal” structure of field-reversed configurations (FRC) from common diagnostics. The challenge is that only external and “gross” diagnostics are routinely available in FRC experiments. Inferring such critical quantities as the poloidal flux and the particle inventory has commonly relied on a theoretical construct based on a quasi-one-dimensional approximation. Such inferences sometimes differ markedly from the more accurate, fully 2D reconstructions of equilibria. An interpreter based on a fully 2D reconstruction is needed to enable realistic within-the-shot tracking of evolving equilibrium properties. Presented here is a flexible equilibrium reconstruction with which an extensive data base of equilibria was constructed. An automated interpreter then uses this data base as a look-up table to extract evolving properties. This tool is applied to data from the FRC facility at Tri Alpha Energy. It yields surprising results at several points, such as the inferences that the local β (plasma pressure/external magnetic pressure) of the plasma climbs well above unity and the poloidal flux loss time is somewhat longer than previously thought, both of which arise from full two-dimensionality of FRCs.

  19. 2D biological representations with reduced speckle obtained from two perpendicular ultrasonic arrays.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, Miguel A; Gomez-Sacristan, Angel; Sempere-Payá, Víctor M

    2016-04-29

    Ultrasound diagnosis is a widely used medical tool. Among the various ultrasound techniques, ultrasonic imaging is particularly relevant. This paper presents an improvement to a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic system using measurements taken from perpendicular planes, where digital signal processing techniques are used to combine one-dimensional (1D) A-scans were acquired by individual transducers in arrays located in perpendicular planes. An algorithm used to combine measurements is improved based on the wavelet transform, which includes a denoising step during the 2D representation generation process. The inclusion of this new denoising stage generates higher quality 2D representations with a reduced level of speckling. The paper includes different 2D representations obtained from noisy A-scans and compares the improvements obtained by including the denoising stage.

  20. 2D biological representations with reduced speckle obtained from two perpendicular ultrasonic arrays.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, Miguel A; Gomez-Sacristan, Angel; Sempere-Payá, Víctor M

    2016-04-29

    Ultrasound diagnosis is a widely used medical tool. Among the various ultrasound techniques, ultrasonic imaging is particularly relevant. This paper presents an improvement to a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic system using measurements taken from perpendicular planes, where digital signal processing techniques are used to combine one-dimensional (1D) A-scans were acquired by individual transducers in arrays located in perpendicular planes. An algorithm used to combine measurements is improved based on the wavelet transform, which includes a denoising step during the 2D representation generation process. The inclusion of this new denoising stage generates higher quality 2D representations with a reduced level of speckling. The paper includes different 2D representations obtained from noisy A-scans and compares the improvements obtained by including the denoising stage. PMID:27163318

  1. Two-dimensional order and disorder thermofields

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, L. V.

    2006-11-15

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain the two-dimensional order and disorder thermal operators using the Thermofield Bosonization formalism. We show that the general property of the two-dimensional world according with the bosonized Fermi field at zero temperature can be constructed as a product of an order and a disorder variables which satisfy a dual field algebra holds at finite temperature. The general correlation functions of the order and disorder thermofields are obtained.

  2. Efficient Two-Dimensional-FFT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miko, J.

    1992-01-01

    Program computes 64 X 64-point fast Fourier transform in less than 17 microseconds. Optimized 64 X 64 Point Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform combines performance of real- and complex-valued one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) to execute two-dimensional FFT and coefficients of power spectrum. Coefficients used in many applications, including analyzing spectra, convolution, digital filtering, processing images, and compressing data. Source code written in C, 8086 Assembly, and Texas Instruments TMS320C30 Assembly languages.

  3. Supramolecular Scaffold for Tailoring the Two-Dimensional Assembly of Functional Molecular Units into Organic Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Leung, Franco King-Chi; Ishiwari, Fumitaka; Kajitani, Takashi; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Yamada, Yoichi M A; Fukushima, Takanori

    2016-09-14

    Tailoring structurally anisotropic molecular assemblies while controlling their orientation on solid substrates is an important subject for advanced technologies that use organic thin films. Here we report a supramolecular scaffold based on tripodal triptycene assemblies, which enables functional molecular units to assemble into a highly oriented, multilayered two-dimensional (2D) structure on solid substrates. The triptycene building block carries an ethynyl group and three flexible side chains at the 10- and 1,8,13-positions, respectively. These bridgehead-substituted tripodal triptycenes self-assembled on solid substrates to form a well-defined "2D hexagonal + 1D lamellar" structure, which developed parallel to the surface of the substrates. Remarkably, the assembling properties of the triptycene building blocks, particularly for a derivative with tri(oxyethylene)-containing side chains, were not impaired when the alkyne terminal was functionalized with a large molecular unit such as C60, which is comparable in diameter to the triptycene framework. Consequently, thin films with a multilayered 2D assembly of the C60 unit were obtained. Flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (FP-TRMC) measurements revealed that the C60 film exhibits highly anisotropic charge-transport properties. Bridgehead-substituted tripodal triptycenes may provide a versatile supramolecular scaffold for tailoring the 2D assembly of molecular units into a highly oriented thin film, and in turn for exploiting the full potential of anisotropic molecular functions. PMID:27549349

  4. A two-dimensional matrix correction for off-axis portal dose prediction errors

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Daniel W.; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This study presents a follow-up to a modified calibration procedure for portal dosimetry published by Bailey et al. ['An effective correction algorithm for off-axis portal dosimetry errors,' Med. Phys. 36, 4089-4094 (2009)]. A commercial portal dose prediction system exhibits disagreement of up to 15% (calibrated units) between measured and predicted images as off-axis distance increases. The previous modified calibration procedure accounts for these off-axis effects in most regions of the detecting surface, but is limited by the simplistic assumption of radial symmetry. Methods: We find that a two-dimensional (2D) matrix correction, applied to each calibrated image, accounts for off-axis prediction errors in all regions of the detecting surface, including those still problematic after the radial correction is performed. The correction matrix is calculated by quantitative comparison of predicted and measured images that span the entire detecting surface. The correction matrix was verified for dose-linearity, and its effectiveness was verified on a number of test fields. The 2D correction was employed to retrospectively examine 22 off-axis, asymmetric electronic-compensation breast fields, five intensity-modulated brain fields (moderate-high modulation) manipulated for far off-axis delivery, and 29 intensity-modulated clinical fields of varying complexity in the central portion of the detecting surface. Results: Employing the matrix correction to the off-axis test fields and clinical fields, predicted vs measured portal dose agreement improves by up to 15%, producing up to 10% better agreement than the radial correction in some areas of the detecting surface. Gamma evaluation analyses (3 mm, 3% global, 10% dose threshold) of predicted vs measured portal dose images demonstrate pass rate improvement of up to 75% with the matrix correction, producing pass rates that are up to 30% higher than those resulting from the radial correction technique alone. As in

  5. Evaluation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional volatility basis sets in simulating the aging of secondary organic aerosol with smog-chamber experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Donahue, Neil M; Chuang, Wayne; Hildebrandt Ruiz, Lea; Ng, Nga L; Wang, Yangjun; Hao, Jiming

    2015-02-17

    We evaluate the one-dimensional volatility basis set (1D-VBS) and two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) in simulating the aging of SOA derived from toluene and α-pinene against smog-chamber experiments. If we simulate the first-generation products with empirical chamber fits and the subsequent aging chemistry with a 1D-VBS or a 2D-VBS, the models mostly overestimate the SOA concentrations in the toluene oxidation experiments. This is because the empirical chamber fits include both first-generation oxidation and aging; simulating aging in addition to this results in double counting of the initial aging effects. If the first-generation oxidation is treated explicitly, the base-case 2D-VBS underestimates the SOA concentrations and O:C increase of the toluene oxidation experiments; it generally underestimates the SOA concentrations and overestimates the O:C increase of the α-pinene experiments. With the first-generation oxidation treated explicitly, we could modify the 2D-VBS configuration individually for toluene and α-pinene to achieve good model-measurement agreement. However, we are unable to simulate the oxidation of both toluene and α-pinene with the same 2D-VBS configuration. We suggest that future models should implement parallel layers for anthropogenic (aromatic) and biogenic precursors, and that more modeling studies and laboratory research be done to optimize the "best-guess" parameters for each layer.

  6. Evaluation of one-dimensional and two-dimensional volatility basis sets in simulating the aging of secondary organic aerosol with smog-chamber experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Donahue, Neil M; Chuang, Wayne; Hildebrandt Ruiz, Lea; Ng, Nga L; Wang, Yangjun; Hao, Jiming

    2015-02-17

    We evaluate the one-dimensional volatility basis set (1D-VBS) and two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) in simulating the aging of SOA derived from toluene and α-pinene against smog-chamber experiments. If we simulate the first-generation products with empirical chamber fits and the subsequent aging chemistry with a 1D-VBS or a 2D-VBS, the models mostly overestimate the SOA concentrations in the toluene oxidation experiments. This is because the empirical chamber fits include both first-generation oxidation and aging; simulating aging in addition to this results in double counting of the initial aging effects. If the first-generation oxidation is treated explicitly, the base-case 2D-VBS underestimates the SOA concentrations and O:C increase of the toluene oxidation experiments; it generally underestimates the SOA concentrations and overestimates the O:C increase of the α-pinene experiments. With the first-generation oxidation treated explicitly, we could modify the 2D-VBS configuration individually for toluene and α-pinene to achieve good model-measurement agreement. However, we are unable to simulate the oxidation of both toluene and α-pinene with the same 2D-VBS configuration. We suggest that future models should implement parallel layers for anthropogenic (aromatic) and biogenic precursors, and that more modeling studies and laboratory research be done to optimize the "best-guess" parameters for each layer. PMID:25581402

  7. A Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow Code

    1995-03-17

    F2D is a general purpose, two dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-correction solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicabilitymore » of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.« less

  8. Dimensional reductions from 2-D Nb 4P 2S 21 to 1-D ANb 2PS 10 ( A=Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl) and to 0-D Tl 5[Nb 2S 4C l8]Cl using halide molten salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyunjin; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Seri; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2008-08-01

    We found new synthetic routes to obtain 1-D quaternary thiophosphate compounds and a 0-D molecular complex containing a Nb 2S 4 core from a 2-D ternary thiophosphate, Nb 4P 2S 21. When Nb 4P 2S 21 was reacted with alkali metal halides ( ACl; A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) or TlCl at 500-700 °C, the -S-S-S- bridges in 2-D Nb 2PS 10-S-S 10PNb 2 were excised to form a 1-D chain, and cations were inserted between the chains to form ANb 2PS 10 ( A=Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl). We also found that thallium chloride (TlCl) is an excellent reagent for further excision, and it substitutes chloride ligands for the sulfur ligands of 2-D Nb 4P 2S 21 to form the molecular complex Tl 5[Nb 2S 4Cl 8]Cl. Crystal data for TlNb 2PS 10: monoclinic, Pn, a=6.9452(11) Å, b=7.3761(12) Å, 12.873(2) Å, β=104.472(3)°, and Z=2. Crystal data for Tl 5[Nb 2S 4Cl 8]Cl: orthorhombic, Immm, a=7.001(5) Å, b=9.509(7) Å, c=15.546(11) Å, and Z=2.

  9. Ultrafast Band Structure Control of a Two-Dimensional Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Ulstrup, Søren; Čabo, Antonija Grubišić; Miwa, Jill A; Riley, Jonathon M; Grønborg, Signe S; Johannsen, Jens C; Cacho, Cephise; Alexander, Oliver; Chapman, Richard T; Springate, Emma; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; King, Phil D C; Hofmann, Philip

    2016-06-28

    The electronic structure of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors can be significantly altered by screening effects, either from free charge carriers in the material or by environmental screening from the surrounding medium. The physical properties of 2D semiconductors placed in a heterostructure with other 2D materials are therefore governed by a complex interplay of both intra- and interlayer interactions. Here, using time- and angle-resolved photoemission, we are able to isolate both the layer-resolved band structure and, more importantly, the transient band structure evolution of a model 2D heterostructure formed of a single layer of MoS2 on graphene. Our results reveal a pronounced renormalization of the quasiparticle gap of the MoS2 layer. Following optical excitation, the band gap is reduced by up to ∼400 meV on femtosecond time scales due to a persistence of strong electronic interactions despite the environmental screening by the n-doped graphene. This points to a large degree of tunability of both the electronic structure and the electron dynamics for 2D semiconductors embedded in a van der Waals-bonded heterostructure. PMID:27267820

  10. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-09-26

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assemblies in different dimensions to achieve 2D conducting polymer nanosheets with structural ordering at the mesoscale. The supramolecular assemblies of amphipathic perfluorinated carboxylic acids and block co-polymers serve as 2D interfaces and meso-inducing moieties, respectively, which guide the polymerization of aniline into 2D, free-standing mesoporous conducting polymer nanosheets. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering combined with various microscopy demonstrates that the resulting mesoscale-ordered nanosheets have hexagonal lattice with d-spacing of about 30 nm, customizable pore sizes of 7-18 nm and thicknesses of 13-45 nm, and high surface area. Such template-directed assembly produces polyaniline nanosheets with enhanced π-π stacking interactions, thereby resulting in anisotropic and record-high electrical conductivity of approximately 41 S cm(-1) for the pristine polyaniline nanosheet based film and approximately 188 S cm(-1) for the hydrochloric acid-doped counterpart. Our moldable approach creates a new family of mesoscale-ordered structures as well as opens avenues to the programmed assembly of multifunctional materials. PMID:27603275

  11. Two Dimensional Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanorods with Tunable Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-05-11

    Organo-metal halide perovskite is an efficient light harvester in photovoltaic solar cells. Organometal halide perovskite is used mainly in its "bulk" form in the solar cell. Confined perovskite nanostructures could be a promising candidate for efficient optoelectronic devices, taking advantage of the superior bulk properties of organo-metal halide perovskite, as well as the nanoscale properties. In this paper, we present facile low-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskite nanorods (NRs). These NRs show a shift to higher energies in the absorbance and in the photoluminescence compared to the bulk material, which supports their 2D structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the NRs demonstrates their 2D nature combined with the tetragonal 3D perovskite structure. In addition, by alternating the halide composition, we were able to tune the optical properties of the NRs. Fast Fourier transform, and electron diffraction show the tetragonal structure of these NRs. By varying the ligands ratio (e.g., octylammonium to oleic acid) in the synthesis, we were able to provide the formation mechanism of these novel 2D perovskite NRs. The 2D perovskite NRs are promising candidates for a variety of optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes, lasing, solar cells, and sensors. PMID:27089497

  12. Gate-induced superconductivity in two-dimensional atomic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystals are attracting growing interest in condensed matter physics, since these systems exhibit not only rich electronic and photonic properties but also exotic electronic phase transitions including superconductivity and charge density wave. Moreover, owing to the recent development of transfer methods after exfoliation and electric-double-layer transistors, superconducting 2D atomic crystals, the thicknesses of which are below 1–2 nm, have been successfully obtained. Here, we present a topical review on the recent discoveries of 2D crystalline superconductors by ionic-liquid gating and a series of their novel properties. In particular, we highlight two topics; quantum metallic states (or possible metallic ground states) and superconductivity robust against in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena can be discussed with the effects of weakened disorder and/or broken spacial inversion symmetry leading to valley-dependent spin-momentum locking (spin-valley locking). These examples suggest the superconducting 2D crystals are new platforms for investigating the intrinsic quantum phases as well as exotic nature in 2D superconductors.

  13. Gate-induced superconductivity in two-dimensional atomic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystals are attracting growing interest in condensed matter physics, since these systems exhibit not only rich electronic and photonic properties but also exotic electronic phase transitions including superconductivity and charge density wave. Moreover, owing to the recent development of transfer methods after exfoliation and electric-double-layer transistors, superconducting 2D atomic crystals, the thicknesses of which are below 1-2 nm, have been successfully obtained. Here, we present a topical review on the recent discoveries of 2D crystalline superconductors by ionic-liquid gating and a series of their novel properties. In particular, we highlight two topics; quantum metallic states (or possible metallic ground states) and superconductivity robust against in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena can be discussed with the effects of weakened disorder and/or broken spacial inversion symmetry leading to valley-dependent spin-momentum locking (spin-valley locking). These examples suggest the superconducting 2D crystals are new platforms for investigating the intrinsic quantum phases as well as exotic nature in 2D superconductors.

  14. 3D reconstruction of two-dimensional crystals.

    PubMed

    Stahlberg, Henning; Biyani, Nikhil; Engel, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals determines the structure of membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer by imaging with cryo-electron microscopy and image processing. Membrane proteins can be packed in regular 2D arrays by their reconstitution in the presence of lipids at low lipid to protein weight-to-weight ratio. The crystal quality depends on the protein purity and homogeneity, its stability, and on the crystallization conditions. A 2D crystal presents the membrane protein in a functional and fully lipidated state. Electron crystallography determines the 3D structure even of small membrane proteins up to atomic resolution, but 3D density maps have a better resolution in the membrane plane than in the vertical direction. This problem can be partly eliminated by applying an iterative algorithm that exploits additional known constraints about the 2D crystal. 2D electron crystallography is particularly attractive for the structural analysis of membrane proteins that are too small for single particle analyses and too unstable to form 3D crystals. With the recent introduction of direct electron detector cameras, the routine determination of the atomic 3D structure of membrane-embedded membrane proteins is in reach. PMID:26093179

  15. Photocurrent generation with two-dimensional van der Waals semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Buscema, Michele; Island, Joshua O; Groenendijk, Dirk J; Blanter, Sofya I; Steele, Gary A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. This family of materials allows for the realization of versatile electronic devices and holds promise for next-generation (opto)electronics. Their electronic properties strongly depend on the number of layers, making them interesting from a fundamental standpoint. For electronic applications, semiconducting 2D materials benefit from sizable mobilities and large on/off ratios, due to the large modulation achievable via the gate field-effect. Moreover, being mechanically strong and flexible, these materials can withstand large strain (>10%) before rupture, making them interesting for strain engineering and flexible devices. Even in their single layer form, semiconducting 2D materials have demonstrated efficient light absorption, enabling large responsivity in photodetectors. Therefore, semiconducting layered 2D materials are strong candidates for optoelectronic applications, especially for photodetection. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on semiconducting 2D materials, focusing on the transition metal dichalcogenides, novel van der Waals materials, black phosphorus, and heterostructures.

  16. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-09-26

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assemblies in different dimensions to achieve 2D conducting polymer nanosheets with structural ordering at the mesoscale. The supramolecular assemblies of amphipathic perfluorinated carboxylic acids and block co-polymers serve as 2D interfaces and meso-inducing moieties, respectively, which guide the polymerization of aniline into 2D, free-standing mesoporous conducting polymer nanosheets. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering combined with various microscopy demonstrates that the resulting mesoscale-ordered nanosheets have hexagonal lattice with d-spacing of about 30 nm, customizable pore sizes of 7-18 nm and thicknesses of 13-45 nm, and high surface area. Such template-directed assembly produces polyaniline nanosheets with enhanced π-π stacking interactions, thereby resulting in anisotropic and record-high electrical conductivity of approximately 41 S cm(-1) for the pristine polyaniline nanosheet based film and approximately 188 S cm(-1) for the hydrochloric acid-doped counterpart. Our moldable approach creates a new family of mesoscale-ordered structures as well as opens avenues to the programmed assembly of multifunctional materials.

  17. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  18. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  19. Large-scale fabrication of two-dimensional spider-web-like gelatin nano-nets via electro-netting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Yang, Jianmao

    2011-09-01

    For the first time, two-dimensional (2D) gelatin nano-nets are fabricated by regulating the solution properties and several process parameters during electrospinning/electro-netting. The spider-web-like nano-nets that comprise interlinked one-dimensional (1D) ultrathin nanowires (10-35 nm) are stacked layer-by-layer and widely distributed in the three-dimensional (3D) porous membranes. The final morphology of the gelatin nano-nets, including nanowire diameter, area density and pore-width of the nano-nets, is highly dependent on the solution concentration, salt concentration, kinds of solvents, applied voltage, ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH). The occurrence of rapid phase separation on the splitting-film and the formation of hydrogen bond among gelatin molecules during electro-netting are proposed as the possible mechanisms for the formation of these spider-web-like nano-nets.

  20. High temperature diaphragm valve-based comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Freye, Chris E; Mu, Lan; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-12-11

    A high-temperature diaphragm valve-based comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) instrument is demonstrated which readily allows separations up to 325°C. Previously, diaphragm valve-based GC×GC was limited to 175°C if the valve was mounted in the oven, or limited to 265°C if the valve was faced mounted on the outside of the oven. A new diaphragm valve has been commercially developed, in which the temperature sensitive O-rings that previously limited the separation temperatures have been replaced with Kalrez O-rings, a perfluoroelastomer, allowing for significantly higher temperatures permitting a greater range of volatile and semi-volatile compounds to be readily separated. In the current investigation, a separation temperature up to 325°C is demonstrated with the valve mounted directly in the oven. Since the temperature limit for most commonly used GC columns is at or below 325°C, the scope of diaphragm valve-based GC×GC is now dramatically broadened to encompass a majority of all column stationary phase chemistries. A 44-component mixture of alkanes, alcohols, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons is used to study this new configuration whose boiling points range from 98°C (n-heptane) to 450°C (n-triacontane). For the test mixture using a modulation period PM of 1.0s, peak shapes on second dimension separations, (2)D, are symmetric with average widths at base of 79.4ms, producing a (2)D peak capacity of (2)nc∼12. Based on the average peak width of 2.4s for the first dimension separation with a run time of 32.5min, the (1)D peak capacity is (1)nc∼800. Thus, the ideal two-dimensional peak capacity [Formula: see text] is 9600. Little variation in within-analyte (2)D peak width was observed with an average %RSD of less than 3.0%. Furthermore, retention time on (2)D was very reproducible with an average %RSD less than 0.5%. Measured peak areas (sum of all (2)D peaks for given analyte) had an average %RSD of 4.4%. The transfer fraction from (1)D

  1. High temperature diaphragm valve-based comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Freye, Chris E; Mu, Lan; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-12-11

    A high-temperature diaphragm valve-based comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) instrument is demonstrated which readily allows separations up to 325°C. Previously, diaphragm valve-based GC×GC was limited to 175°C if the valve was mounted in the oven, or limited to 265°C if the valve was faced mounted on the outside of the oven. A new diaphragm valve has been commercially developed, in which the temperature sensitive O-rings that previously limited the separation temperatures have been replaced with Kalrez O-rings, a perfluoroelastomer, allowing for significantly higher temperatures permitting a greater range of volatile and semi-volatile compounds to be readily separated. In the current investigation, a separation temperature up to 325°C is demonstrated with the valve mounted directly in the oven. Since the temperature limit for most commonly used GC columns is at or below 325°C, the scope of diaphragm valve-based GC×GC is now dramatically broadened to encompass a majority of all column stationary phase chemistries. A 44-component mixture of alkanes, alcohols, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons is used to study this new configuration whose boiling points range from 98°C (n-heptane) to 450°C (n-triacontane). For the test mixture using a modulation period PM of 1.0s, peak shapes on second dimension separations, (2)D, are symmetric with average widths at base of 79.4ms, producing a (2)D peak capacity of (2)nc∼12. Based on the average peak width of 2.4s for the first dimension separation with a run time of 32.5min, the (1)D peak capacity is (1)nc∼800. Thus, the ideal two-dimensional peak capacity [Formula: see text] is 9600. Little variation in within-analyte (2)D peak width was observed with an average %RSD of less than 3.0%. Furthermore, retention time on (2)D was very reproducible with an average %RSD less than 0.5%. Measured peak areas (sum of all (2)D peaks for given analyte) had an average %RSD of 4.4%. The transfer fraction from (1)D

  2. Optimal design of 2D digital filters based on neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-hua; He, Yi-gang; Zheng, Zhe-zhao; Zhang, Xu-hong

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) digital filters are widely useful in image processing and other 2-D digital signal processing fields,but designing 2-D filters is much more difficult than designing one-dimensional (1-D) ones.In this paper, a new design approach for designing linear-phase 2-D digital filters is described,which is based on a new neural networks algorithm (NNA).By using the symmetry of the given 2-D magnitude specification,a compact express for the magnitude response of a linear-phase 2-D finite impulse response (FIR) filter is derived.Consequently,the optimal problem of designing linear-phase 2-D FIR digital filters is turned to approximate the desired 2-D magnitude response by using the compact express.To solve the problem,a new NNA is presented based on minimizing the mean-squared error,and the convergence theorem is presented and proved to ensure the designed 2-D filter stable.Three design examples are also given to illustrate the effectiveness of the NNA-based design approach.

  3. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet Wavelength Range.

    PubMed

    West, Brantley A; Moran, Andrew M

    2012-09-20

    Coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopies conducted at visible and infrared wavelengths are having a transformative impact on the understanding of numerous processes in condensed phases. The extension of 2D spectroscopy to the ultraviolet spectral range (2DUV) must contend with several challenges, including the attainment of adequate laser bandwidth, interferometric phase stability, and the suppression of undesired nonlinearities in the sample medium. Solutions to these problems are motivated by the study of a wide range of biological systems whose lowest-frequency electronic resonances are found in the UV. The development of 2DUV spectroscopy also makes possible the attainment of new insights into elementary chemical reaction dynamics (e.g., electrocyclic ring opening in cycloalkenes). Substantial progress has been made in both the implementation and application of 2DUV spectroscopy in the past several years. In this Perspective, we discuss 2DUV methodology, review recent applications, and speculate on what the future will hold.

  4. Two-dimensional freezing criteria for crystallizing colloidal monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziren; Alsayed, Ahmed M; Yodh, Arjun G; Han, Yilong

    2010-04-21

    Video microscopy was employed to explore crystallization of colloidal monolayers composed of diameter-tunable microgel spheres. Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal liquids were frozen homogenously into polycrystalline solids, and four 2D criteria for freezing were experimentally tested in thermal systems for the first time: the Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, the Lowen-Palberg-Simon dynamical freezing criterion, and two other rules based, respectively, on the split shoulder of the radial distribution function and on the distribution of the shape factor of Voronoi polygons. Importantly, these freezing criteria, usually applied in the context of single crystals, were demonstrated to apply to the formation of polycrystalline solids. At the freezing point, we also observed a peak in the fluctuations of the orientational order parameter and a percolation transition associated with caged particles. Speculation about these percolated clusters of caged particles casts light on solidification mechanisms and dynamic heterogeneity in freezing. PMID:20423183

  5. Two-dimensional freezing criteria for crystallizing colloidal monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ziren; Han Yilong; Alsayed, Ahmed M.

    2010-04-21

    Video microscopy was employed to explore crystallization of colloidal monolayers composed of diameter-tunable microgel spheres. Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal liquids were frozen homogenously into polycrystalline solids, and four 2D criteria for freezing were experimentally tested in thermal systems for the first time: the Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, the Loewen-Palberg-Simon dynamical freezing criterion, and two other rules based, respectively, on the split shoulder of the radial distribution function and on the distribution of the shape factor of Voronoi polygons. Importantly, these freezing criteria, usually applied in the context of single crystals, were demonstrated to apply to the formation of polycrystalline solids. At the freezing point, we also observed a peak in the fluctuations of the orientational order parameter and a percolation transition associated with caged particles. Speculation about these percolated clusters of caged particles casts light on solidification mechanisms and dynamic heterogeneity in freezing.

  6. Exchange interactions of magnetic surfaces below two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Rico; Caciuc, Vasile; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Blügel, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this theoretical investigation we demonstrate that the adsorption of spatially extended two-dimensional (2D) π systems such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on the ferromagnetic fcc Co(111) surface leads to a specific behavior of the in-plane and interlayer Co-Co magnetic exchange interactions. More specifically, for both systems the magnetic exchange coupling within the first Co layer is enhanced, while the one between the first and the second Co layer is not modified, in contrast to the magnetic interlayer softening induced by organic molecules. Importantly, the in-plane magnetic hardening effect is mainly due to the hybridization between the pz states of the 2D π system and the d states of the Co surface.

  7. Dispersion-free continuum two-dimensional electronic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haibin; Caram, Justin R; Dahlberg, Peter D; Rolczynski, Brian S; Viswanathan, Subha; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Khadivi, Amir; Talapin, Dmitri V; Engel, Gregory S

    2014-03-20

    Electronic dynamics span broad energy scales with ultrafast time constants in the condensed phase. Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy permits the study of these dynamics with simultaneous resolution in both frequency and time. In practice, this technique is sensitive to changes in nonlinear dispersion in the laser pulses as time delays are varied during the experiment. We have developed a 2D spectrometer that uses broadband continuum generated in argon as the light source. Using this visible light in phase-sensitive optical experiments presents new challenges in implementation. We demonstrate all-reflective interferometric delays using angled stages. Upon selecting an ~180  nm window of the available bandwidth at ~10  fs compression, we probe the nonlinear response of broadly absorbing CdSe quantum dots and electronic transitions of Chlorophyll a.

  8. Pressure Gradient Effects On Two-Dimensional Plasma Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S; Smith, R F; Dunn, J; Keenan, R; Nilsen, J; Hunter, J R; Filevich, J; Rocca, J J; Marconi, M C; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2004-10-05

    Recent advances in interferometry has allowed for the characterization of the electron density expansion within a laser produced plasma to within 10 {micro}m of the target surface and over picosecond timescales. This technique employs the high brightness output of the transient gain Ni-like Pd collisional x-ray laser at 14.7 nm to construct an effective moving picture of the two-dimensional (2-D) expansion of the plasma. We present experimentally measured density profiles of an expanding Al plasma generated through laser irradiation in a 14mm line focus geometry. Significant lateral expansion was observed at all times as well as a pronounced on-axis electron density dip. Detailed modeling with a 2-D plasma physics code gives good agreement to experimental observations. Large pressure gradients associated with the tight focal spot conditions are calculated to dominate in shaping the plasma density profile.

  9. Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Transition-Metal Oxide for Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Kan, Erjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Shuanglin; Xiao, Chuanyun; Xiang, Hongjun; Deng, Kaiming

    2013-04-01

    Two-dimensional materials have been the hot subject of studies due to their great potential in applications. However, their applications in spintronics have been blocked by the difficulty in producing ordered spin structures in 2D structures. Here we demonstrated that the ultrathin films of recently experimentally realized wurtzite MnO can automatically transform into a stable graphitic structure with ordered spin arrangement via density functional calculation, and the stability of graphitic structure can be enhanced by external strain. Moreover, the antiferromagnetic ordering of graphitic MnO single layer can be switched into half-metallic ferromagnetism by small hole-doping, and the estimated Curie temperature is higher than 300 K. Thus, our results highlight a promising way toward 2D magnetic materials.

  10. Nonlinear screening in large two-dimensional Coulomb clusters.

    PubMed

    Kong, Minghui; Vagov, A; Partoens, B; Peeters, F M; Ferreira, W P; Farias, G A

    2004-11-01

    The distortion due to a fixed point impurity with variable charge placed in the center of a classical harmonically confined two-dimensional (2D) large Coulomb cluster is studied. We find that the net topological charge (N(-)-N+ ) of the system is always equal to six independent of the position and charge of the impurity. In comparison with a 2D cluster without impurity charge, only the breathing mode remains unchanged. The screening length is found to be a highly nonlinear function of the impurity charge. For values of the impurity charge smaller than the charge of the other particles, the system has almost the same screening strength. When the impurity charge is larger, the screening length is strongly enhanced. This result can be explained by the competition between the different forces active in the system.

  11. Nonlinear screening in large two-dimensional Coulomb clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Minghui; Vagov, A.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F.M.; Ferreira, W.P.; Farias, G.A.

    2004-11-01

    The distortion due to a fixed point impurity with variable charge placed in the center of a classical harmonically confined two-dimensional (2D) large Coulomb cluster is studied. We find that the net topological charge (N{sub -}-N{sub +}) of the system is always equal to six independent of the position and charge of the impurity. In comparison with a 2D cluster without impurity charge, only the breathing mode remains unchanged. The screening length is found to be a highly nonlinear function of the impurity charge. For values of the impurity charge smaller than the charge of the other particles, the system has almost the same screening strength. When the impurity charge is larger, the screening length is strongly enhanced. This result can be explained by the competition between the different forces active in the system.

  12. Ultrabroadband two-quantum two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellen, Tobias A.; Bizimana, Laurie A.; Carbery, William P.; Breen, Ilana; Turner, Daniel B.

    2016-08-01

    A recent theoretical study proposed that two-quantum (2Q) two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy should be a background-free probe of post-Hartree-Fock electronic correlations. Testing this theoretical prediction requires an instrument capable of not only detecting multiple transitions among molecular excited states but also distinguishing molecular 2Q signals from nonresonant response. Herein we describe a 2Q 2D spectrometer with a spectral range of 300 nm that is passively phase stable and uses only beamsplitters and mirrors. We developed and implemented a dual-chopping balanced-detection method to resolve the weak molecular 2Q signals. Experiments performed on cresyl violet perchlorate and rhodamine 6G revealed distinct 2Q signals convolved with nonresonant response. Density functional theory computations helped reveal the molecular origin of these signals. The experimental and computational results demonstrate that 2Q electronic spectra can provide a singular probe of highly excited electronic states.

  13. Nonlinear compressional waves in a two-dimensional Yukawa lattice.

    PubMed

    Avinash, K; Zhu, P; Nosenko, V; Goree, J

    2003-10-01

    A modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is obtained for studying the propagation of nonlinear compressional waves and pulses in a chain of particles including the effect of damping. Suitably altering the linear phase velocity makes this equation useful also for the problem of phonon propagation in a two-dimensional (2D) lattice. Assuming a Yukawa potential, we use this method to model compressional wave propagation in a 2D plasma crystal, as in a recent experiment. By integrating the modified KdV equation the pulse is allowed to evolve, and good agreement with the experiment is found. It is shown that the speed of a compressional pulse increases with its amplitude, while the speed of a rarefactive pulse decreases. It is further discussed how the drag due to the background gas has a crucial role in weakening nonlinear effects and preventing the emergence of a soliton. PMID:14683049

  14. Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).

  15. Superfluid response of two-dimensional parahydrogen clusters in confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Idowu, Saheed; Boninsegni, Massimo

    2015-04-07

    We study by computer simulations the effect of confinement on the superfluid properties of small two-dimensional (2D) parahydrogen clusters. For clusters of fewer than twenty molecules, the superfluid response in the low temperature limit is found to remain comparable in magnitude to that of free clusters, within a rather wide range of depth and size of the confining well. The resilience of the superfluid response is attributable to the “supersolid” character of these clusters. We investigate the possibility of establishing a bulk 2D superfluid “cluster crystal” phase of p-H{sub 2}, in which a global superfluid response would arise from tunnelling of molecules across adjacent unit cells. The computed energetics suggests that for clusters of about ten molecules, such a phase may be thermodynamically stable against the formation of the equilibrium insulating crystal, for values of the cluster crystal lattice constant possibly allowing tunnelling across adjacent unit cells.

  16. Dynamic metastability in the two-dimensional Potts ferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Berganza, Miguel; Petri, Alberto; Coletti, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) Potts model on the square lattice after a quench below the discontinuous transition point. By means of numerical simulations of systems with q=12, 24, and 48, we observe the onset of a stationary regime below the temperature-driven transition, in a temperature interval decreasing with the system size and increasing with q. These results obtained dynamically agree with those obtained from the analytical continuation of the free energy [J. L. Meunier and A. Morel, Eur. Phys. J. B 13, 341 (2000)], from which metastability in the 2D Potts model results to be a finite-size effect. PMID:25353747

  17. Two-dimensional inorganic analogues of graphene: transition metal dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Jana, Manoj K; Rao, C N R

    2016-09-13

    The discovery of graphene marks a major event in the physics and chemistry of materials. The amazing properties of this two-dimensional (2D) material have prompted research on other 2D layered materials, of which layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are important members. Single-layer and few-layer TMDCs have been synthesized and characterized. They possess a wide range of properties many of which have not been known hitherto. A typical example of such materials is MoS2 In this article, we briefly present various aspects of layered analogues of graphene as exemplified by TMDCs. The discussion includes not only synthesis and characterization, but also various properties and phenomena exhibited by the TMDCs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene'.

  18. Towards application of one- and two-dimensional nanomaterials for reinforcement of polymeric nanocomposite bone grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrshid, Behzad

    One- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) nanomaterials possess extraordinary physiochemical properties such as large surface area, excellent mechanical properties, high surface energy and good dispersivity in organic and biological solvents, therefore, they have been extensively used as reinforcing agents to improve the mechanical properties of polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have been used as reinforcing agents for biodegradable polymeric scaffolds and composites, however, their short- and long-term in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility is an area of extensive debate. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of addition of low concentrations (0.01-0.2 wt. %) of 1-D and 2-D carbon nanomaterials (graphene oxide nanoplatelets, graphene oxide nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes) and inorganic nanomaterials (boron nitride nanotubes, boron nitride nanoplatelers, tungsten disulfide nanotubes and molybdenum disulfide nanoplatelets) on the mechanical properties, cytocompatibility, and bioactivity of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) nanocomposites towards their potential applications as porous and nonporous implants for bone tissue engineering. Addition of nanomaterials in the PPF matrix improved the compressive and flexural mechanical properties of non-porous crosslinked PPF nanocomposites and porous PPF scaffolds. Our results suggest that in addition to high surface roughness and surface area of the nanomaterials, the presence of functional groups on the surface of nanomaterials leads to an increased nanomaterial-polymer interaction and a uniform dispersion of nanomaterials in polymer matrix which may be the key factors responsible for an improved mechanical reinforcement. The in vitro studies showed an excellent cytocompatibility for both carbon and inorganic nanomaterial reinforced PPF nanocomposites and scaffolds. Protein adsorption studies and in vitro

  19. Two-dimensional Topology of Cosmological Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yougang; Park, Changbom; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-11-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  20. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  1. Surfactant mediated one- and two-dimensional ZnO nanostructured thin films for dye sensitized solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.; Mummoorthi, M.; Rajendran, S.; Ravi, G.

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were electrodeposited from aqueous zinc chloride on FTO glass substrates. The effects of organic surfactant such as cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on structural, morphological, crystal quality and optical properties of electrodeposited ZnO films were investigated. The x-ray diffraction pattern revealed that the prepared thin films were pure wutrzite hexagonal structure. The thin films deposited using organic surfactant in this work showed different morphologies such as nanoplatelet and flower. The hexagonal platelet and flower-like nanostructures were obtained in the presence of CTAB and PVA surfactant, respectively. The crystal quality and atomic vacancies of the prepared nanostructured thin films were investigated by micro Raman spectroscopic technique. The emission properties and optical quality of the films were studied by photoluminescence spectrometry. PEMA-LiClO4-EC gel polymer electrolyte has been used to replace the liquid electrolyte for reducing the leakage problem. Graphene counter electrode was used as an alternative for platinum electrode. Eosin yellow dye was used as a sensitizer. J-V characterizations were carried out for different 1D and 2D nanostructures. The nanoflower structure exhibited higher efficiency (η = 0.073%) than the other two nanostructures.

  2. Pressure profiles of nonuniform two-dimensional atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiyanov, Kirill; Barmashova, Tatiana; Makhalov, Vasiliy; Turlapov, Andrey

    2016-06-01

    Spatial profiles of the pressure have been measured in atomic Fermi gases with primarily two-dimensional (2D) kinematics. The in-plane motion of the particles is confined by a Gaussian-shape potential. The two-component deeply degenerate Fermi gases are prepared at different values of the s -wave attraction. The pressure profile is found using the force-balance equation, from the measured density profile and the trapping potential. The pressure is compared to zero-temperature models within the local density approximation. In the weakly interacting regime, the pressure lies above a Landau Fermi-liquid theory and below the ideal-Fermi-gas model, whose prediction coincides with that of the Cooper-pair mean-field theory. The values closest to the data are provided by the approach where the mean field of Cooper pairs is supplemented with fluctuations. In the regime of strong interactions, in response to the increasing attraction, the pressure shifts below this model reaching lower values calculated within Monte Carlo methods. Comparison to models shows that interaction-induced departure from 2D kinematics is either small or absent. In particular, comparison with a lattice Monte Carlo suggests that kinematics is two dimensional in the strongly interacting regime.

  3. Statistical mechanics of shell models for two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, E.; Boffetta, G.; Crisanti, A.; Frick, P.; Paladin, G.; Vulpiani, A.

    1994-12-01

    We study shell models that conserve the analogs of energy and enstrophy and hence are designed to mimic fluid turbulence in two-dimensions (2D). The main result is that the observed state is well described as a formal statistical equilibrium, closely analogous to the approach to two-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics of Onsager [Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 6, 279 (1949)], Hopf [J. Rat. Mech. Anal. 1, 87 (1952)], and Lee [Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)]. In the presence of forcing and dissipation we observe a forward flux of enstrophy and a backward flux of energy. These fluxes can be understood as mean diffusive drifts from a source to two sinks in a system which is close to local equilibrium with Lagrange multipliers (``shell temperatures'') changing slowly with scale. This is clear evidence that the simplest shell models are not adequate to reproduce the main features of two-dimensional turbulence. The dimensional predictions on the power spectra from a supposed forward cascade of enstrophy and from one branch of the formal statistical equilibrium coincide in these shell models in contrast to the corresponding predictions for the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations in 2D. This coincidence has previously led to the mistaken conclusion that shell models exhibit a forward cascade of enstrophy. We also study the dynamical properties of the models and the growth of perturbations.

  4. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun

    2016-04-15

    Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers.

  5. Two-dimensional Cu2Si monolayer with planar hexacoordinate copper and silicon bonding.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ming; Bačić, Vladimir; Popov, Ivan A; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Heine, Thomas; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric

    2015-02-25

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with planar hypercoordinate motifs are extremely rare due to the difficulty in stabilizing the planar hypercoordinate configurations in extended systems. Furthermore, such exotic motifs are often unstable. We predict a novel Cu2Si 2D monolayer featuring planar hexacoordinate copper and planar hexacoordinate silicon. This is a global minimum in 2D space which displays reduced dimensionality and rule-breaking chemical bonding. This system has been studied with density functional theory, including molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations. Bond order analysis and partitioning reveals 4c-2e σ bonds that stabilize the two-dimensional structure. We find that the system is quite stable during short annealing simulations up to 900 K, and predict that it is a nonmagnetic metal. This work opens up a new branch of hypercoordinate two-dimensional materials for study.

  6. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II–VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  7. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. PMID:27102681

  8. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  9. An iterative inter-track interference mitigation method for two-dimensional magnetic recording systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warisarn, C.; Losuwan, T.; Supnithi, P.; Kovintavewat, P.

    2014-05-01

    At high recording density, the readback signal of two-dimensional magnetic recording is inevitably corrupted by the two-dimensional (2D) interference consisting of inter-symbol interference and inter-track interference (ITI), which can significantly degrade the overall system performance. This paper proposes an iterative ITI mitigation method using three modified 2D soft-output Viterbi algorithm (2D-SOVA) detectors in conjunction with an iterative processing technique to combat the 2D interference. The codeword of the outer code is divided and then written on three separate tracks. For every iteration, all 2D-SOVA detectors exchange the soft information to improve the reliability of the a priori information and use it in the branch metric calculation, before feeding the refined soft information to the outer decoder. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional receiver and the existing partial ITI mitigation method.

  10. Grain boundaries in hybrid two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuhua; Yang, Yang; Yakobson, Boris I.

    2014-10-01

    In two-dimensional (2D) materials, bisector grain boundaries (GBs) are energetically favorable as they allow perfect match of neighbor grains. We demonstrate here a contrasting behavior for GBs in hybrid 2D materials, which tend to be non-bisector and obey a universal law to optimally match the heterogeneous grains: the ratio of cosines of the rotation angles of two neighbor grains equals the ratio of constituent's lattice parameters, reminiscent of Snell's law for light refraction. Details of the optimal GB structures are further formulated in terms of tilt angle, lattice mismatch strain and deviation angle from the bisector line, in good agreement with comprehensive numerical analyses. The ground state structures of the GBs manifest as a series of laterally misaligned bisector segments, which are verified by intensive first-principle calculations. Our findings not only provide a general guidance for exploring GBs in various hybrid 2D materials but also serve as an important stepping stone for understanding mechanical and electronic behaviors in these 2D nanoscale patchworks.

  11. Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures

  12. Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham; Choi, Hyunho; Liang, Hong

    2015-12-21

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (R{sub h}). However, the R{sub h} represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.

  13. Two-dimensional ultrasound image matching system for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaim, Amjad; Keck, Rick W.; Selman, Steven H.; Jankun, Jerzy

    2001-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound imaging is commonly used for diagnosis in a variety of medical fields. However, there are several drawbacks of conventional 2D-ultrasound imaging. These include prostate or transducer movement that produces sets of different images that are difficult to interpret. Also during patient's reexamination correspondence between sets of images before reexamination and after is difficult to establish. This can be described as a problem of correlation between two sets of images: the first created before distortion or examination, the second one after. We propose a method to register 2D ultrasound volumes based on external markers introduced in the prostate. The metal balls are inserted in the prostate at three distinct locations in the prostate. These appear as bright dots in the ultrasound field, serve as reference points, are then outlined through a user-interactive program from two sets of images. Then, the computer program rotates and translates till they match respectively, and displays the mapped points with their corresponding location. Based on this idea we developed an image-guided system for PDT that require high-precision placement of implants. In the planning stage, the system performs an automatic acquisition of 2D transrectal ultrasound images that will ultimately be used to construct the treatment plan. At the time of the therapy, new sets of ultrasound images are acquired and a match is established between the virtual world and the patient's real world with the aid of manually introduced markers and image matching algorithms.

  14. Two-dimensional state in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sebastien

    2011-02-15

    The dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) state in driven three-dimensional (3D) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated through high-resolution direct numerical simulations and in the presence of an external magnetic field at various intensities. For such a flow the 2D state (or slow mode) and the 3D modes correspond, respectively, to spectral fluctuations in the plane k{sub ||}=0 and in the area k{sub ||}>0. It is shown that if initially the 2D state is set to zero it becomes nonnegligible in few turnover times, particularly when the external magnetic field is strong. The maintenance of a large-scale driving leads to a break for the energy spectra of 3D modes; when the driving is stopped, the previous break is removed and a decay phase emerges with Alfvenic fluctuations. For a strong external magnetic field the energy at large perpendicular scales lies mainly in the 2D state, and in all situations a pinning effect is observed at small scales.

  15. Effective viscosity of two-dimensional suspensions: Confinement effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyeux, Vincent; Priem, Stephane; Jibuti, Levan; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad; Peyla, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared two-dimensional (2D) suspension of non-Brownian disks in the presence of walls. Although it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions in the presence of walls, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension provides valuable insights and helps in the understanding of 3D results. Due to the direct visualization of the whole 2D flow (the shear plane), we are able to give a clear interpretation of the full hydrodynamics of semidilute confined suspensions. For instance, we examine the role of disk-wall and disk-disk interactions to determine the dissipation of confined sheared suspensions whose effective viscosity depends on the area fraction ϕ of the disks as ηeff=η0[1 +[η ] ϕ +β ϕ2+O (ϕ3) ] . We provide numerical estimates of [η ] and β for a wide range of confinements. As a benchmark for our simulations, we compare the numerical results obtained for [η ] and β for very weak confinements with analytical values [η] ∞ and β∞ obtained for an infinite fluid. If the value [η] ∞=2 is well known in the literature, much less is published on the value of β . Here we analytically calculate with very high precision β∞=3.6 . We also reexamine the 3D case in the light of our 2D results.

  16. Two-dimensional state in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sébastien

    2011-02-01

    The dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) state in driven three-dimensional (3D) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated through high-resolution direct numerical simulations and in the presence of an external magnetic field at various intensities. For such a flow the 2D state (or slow mode) and the 3D modes correspond, respectively, to spectral fluctuations in the plane k(∥)=0 and in the area k(∥)>0. It is shown that if initially the 2D state is set to zero it becomes nonnegligible in few turnover times, particularly when the external magnetic field is strong. The maintenance of a large-scale driving leads to a break for the energy spectra of 3D modes; when the driving is stopped, the previous break is removed and a decay phase emerges with Alfvénic fluctuations. For a strong external magnetic field the energy at large perpendicular scales lies mainly in the 2D state, and in all situations a pinning effect is observed at small scales.

  17. Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Choi, Hyunho; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (Rh). However, the Rh represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.

  18. Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya

    2015-04-01

    Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.

  19. Two-dimensional nanocrystals of molecular Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Lin, Zhiwei; Shan, Wenpeng; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Jing; Huang, Mingjun; Lotz, Bernard; Yu, Xinfei; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Yue, Kan; Cheng, Stephen Z D

    2014-07-30

    This paper describes a rational strategy to obtain self-assembled two-dimensional (2D) nanocrystals with definite and uniform thickness from a series of molecular Janus particles based on molecular nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs are 3D framework with rigid shapes. Three different types of MNPs based on derivatives of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS), [60]fullerene (C60), and Lindqvist-type polyoxometalate (POM) are used as building blocks to construct these amphiphilic molecular Janus particles by covalently connecting hydrophobic crystalline BPOSS with a charged hydrophilic MNP. The formation of 2D nanocrystals with an exact thickness of double layers of molecules is driven by directional crystallization of the BPOSS MNP and controlled by various factors such as solvent polarity, number of counterions, and sizes of the MNPs. Strong solvating interactions of the ionic MNPs in polar solvents (e.g., acetonitrile and dimethylformamide) are crucial to provide repulsive interactions between the charged outlying ionic MNPs and suppress further aggregation along the layer normal direction. The number of counterions per molecule plays a major role in determining the self-assembled morphologies. Size matching of the hydrophobic and ionic MNPs is another critical factor in the formation of 2D nanocrystals. Self-assembly of rationally designed molecular Janus particles provides a unique "bottom-up" strategy to engineer 2D nanostructures.

  20. Two-Dimensional, Ordered, Double Transition Metals Carbides (MXenes).

    PubMed

    Anasori, Babak; Xie, Yu; Beidaghi, Majid; Lu, Jun; Hosler, Brian C; Hultman, Lars; Kent, Paul R C; Gogotsi, Yury; Barsoum, Michel W

    2015-10-27

    The higher the chemical diversity and structural complexity of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the higher the likelihood they possess unique and useful properties. Herein, density functional theory (DFT) is used to predict the existence of two new families of 2D ordered, carbides (MXenes), M'2M″C2 and M'2M″2C3, where M' and M″ are two different early transition metals. In these solids, M' layers sandwich M″ carbide layers. By synthesizing Mo2TiC2Tx, Mo2Ti2C3Tx, and Cr2TiC2Tx (where T is a surface termination), we validated the DFT predictions. Since the Mo and Cr atoms are on the outside, they control the 2D flakes' chemical and electrochemical properties. The latter was proven by showing quite different electrochemical behavior of Mo2TiC2Tx and Ti3C2Tx. This work further expands the family of 2D materials, offering additional choices of structures, chemistries, and ultimately useful properties.

  1. Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A

    2016-05-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus, we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them.

  2. Two-Dimensional Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendl, A.

    2008-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma the transport of energy and particles perpendicular to the magnetic field is in general mainly caused by quasi two-dimensional turbulent fluid mixing. The physics of turbulence and structure formation is of ubiquitous importance to every magnetically confined laboratory plasma for experimental or industrial…

  3. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  4. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  5. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibit remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.

  6. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibitmore » remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.« less

  7. Program Generates Two-Dimensional Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.

    1994-01-01

    TDIGG is fast and versatile computer program for generating two-dimensional computational grids for use in programs solving equations of flow by finite-difference methods. Both algebraic and elliptic grid-generation systems included. Enables user to view results of each iteration. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Anisotropic dielectric properties of two-dimensional matrix in pseudo-spin ferroelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The anisotropic dielectric properties of a two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric system were studied using the statistical calculation of the pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian model. It is necessary to delay the time for measurements of the observable and the independence of the new spin configuration under Monte Carlo sampling, in which the thermal equilibrium state depends on the temperature and size of the system. The autocorrelation time constants of the normalized relaxation function were determined by taking temperature and 2D lattice size into account. We discuss the dielectric constants of a two-dimensional ferroelectric system by using the Metropolis method in view of the Slater-Takagi defect energies.

  9. Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-08-19

    Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as

  10. Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-08-19

    Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as

  11. Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-08-01

    Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as

  12. Ligand-controlled assembly of Cd(II) coordination polymers based on mixed ligands of naphthalene-dicarboxylate and dipyrido[3,2-d:2‧,3‧-f]quinoxaline: From 0D+1D cocrystal, 2D rectangular network (4,4), to 3D PtS-type architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiuli; Chen, Baokuan; Lin, Hongyan

    2009-03-01

    Three novel Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)(H 2O) 2][Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)]·2H 2O ( 1), [Cd(Dpq)(1,4-NDC)(H 2O)] ( 2), and [Cd(Dpq)(2,6-NDC)] ( 3) have been obtained from hydrothermal reactions of cadmium(II) nitrate with the mixed ligands dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq) and three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands [1,8-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,8-H 2NDC), 1,4-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,4-H 2NDC), and 2,6-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H 2NDC)]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the three polymers exhibit novel structures due to different naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid. Compound 1 is a novel cocrystal of left- and right-handed helical chains and binuclear complexes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds and π- π stacking interactions. Compound 2 shows a 2D rectangular network (4,4) bridged by 1,4-NDC with two kinds of coordination modes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through inter-layer π- π stacking interactions. Compound 3 is a new 3D coordination polymer with distorted PtS-type network. In addition, the title compounds exhibit blue/green emission in solid state at room temperature.

  13. Ligand-controlled assembly of Cd(II) coordination polymers based on mixed ligands of naphthalene-dicarboxylate and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline: From 0D+1D cocrystal, 2D rectangular network (4,4), to 3D PtS-type architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Guocheng; Chen Yongqiang; Wang Xiuli Chen Baokuan; Lin Hongyan

    2009-03-15

    Three novel Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)].2H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(Dpq)(1,4-NDC)(H{sub 2}O)] (2), and [Cd(Dpq)(2,6-NDC)] (3) have been obtained from hydrothermal reactions of cadmium(II) nitrate with the mixed ligands dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq) and three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands [1,8-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,8-H{sub 2}NDC), 1,4-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,4-H{sub 2}NDC), and 2,6-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H{sub 2}NDC)]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the three polymers exhibit novel structures due to different naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid. Compound 1 is a novel cocrystal of left- and right-handed helical chains and binuclear complexes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds and {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 2 shows a 2D rectangular network (4,4) bridged by 1,4-NDC with two kinds of coordination modes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through inter-layer {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 3 is a new 3D coordination polymer with distorted PtS-type network. In addition, the title compounds exhibit blue/green emission in solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three novel Cd(II) compounds have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions exhibiting a systematic variation of architecture by the employment of three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands.

  14. [CSNP discovery by two-dimensional gene scanning (TDGS)].

    PubMed

    Suh, Y

    2001-04-21

    Challenges in the post-genomic era are to use genetic information in correlating individual gene variations (SNPs; single nucleotide polymorphisms, the most common form of genetic variation) with medically important parameters, such as disease susceptibility, individual responses to drugs and prognostic variables. What is missing is a high-throughput technology to identify all possible SNPs in essentially all human genes in population-based studies with high accuracy and speed in a cost-effective manner. Most tests advocated for their high throughput at low cost are actually SNP screening tests. That is, they screen samples for the presence of one or multiple previously identified SNPs. Such screening methods are only useful when all relevant SNPs in the genes of interest are known, which is presently not the case. Moreover, the usefulness of any one SNP varies enormously from population to population. Indeed, for the Korean population, where no information on possible sequence variation is available, a mutational scanning method, capable to detect all possible gene variations will be most useful. Two-Dimensional Gene Scanning (TDGS) is a high-throughput platform that enables to detect all possible SNPs in an entire gene in one gel under one set of conditions, with high sensitivity and specificity. TDGS is based on automated two-dimensional (2-D) DNA electrophoresis according to size and base pair sequence to detect DNA fragments containing all possible variations. Because the 2-D format permits the analysis of as many as 40 fragments of 250 bp on average in parallel, TDGS allows extensive multiplex PCR (megaplex PCR), i.e. up to 26 fragments in one single reaction, resulting in a significant cost reduction. TDGS tests are designed using a computer program to optimally position PCR primers around the relevant target sequences (exons). A simple automated 2-D instrument allows scanning all exons of a large gene in 8 different samples well within 3 hours. Using three

  15. Estimation of the two-dimensional presampled modulation transfer function of digital radiography devices using one-dimensional test objects

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The modulation transfer function (MTF) of medical imaging devices is commonly reported in the form of orthogonal one-dimensional (1D) measurements made near the vertical and horizontal axes with a slit or edge test device. A more complete description is found by measuring the two-dimensional (2D) MTF. Some 2D test devices have been proposed, but there are some issues associated with their use: (1) they are not generally available; (2) they may require many images; (3) the results may have diminished accuracy; and (4) their implementation may be particularly cumbersome. This current work proposes the application of commonly available 1D test devices for practical and accurate estimation of the 2D presampled MTF of digital imaging systems. Methods: Theory was dev