Science.gov

Sample records for 1d velocity models

  1. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  2. Minimum 1-D P-wave velocity reference model for Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeifar, Meysam; Diehl, Tobias; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    Uniform high-precision earthquake location is of importance in a seismically active area like northern Iran where the earthquake catalogue is a prerequisite for seismic hazard assessment and tectonic interpretation. We compile a complete and consistent local earthquake data set for the northern Iran region, using information from two independently operating seismological networks, Iran Seismological Center (IRSC) network, administered by the Geophysical Institute of Tehran University, and Iran Broadband network administered by International Institute of Engineering Earthquake and Seismology (IIEES). Special care is taken during the merging process to reduce the number of errors in the data, including station parameters, event pairing, phase identification, and to the assessment of quantitative observation uncertainties. The derived P-wave 1D-velocity model for Northern Iran may serve for consistent routine high-precision earthquake location and as initial reference model for 3D seismic tomography.

  3. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciTech Connect

    Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  4. An improved 1-D seismic velocity model for seismological studies in the Campania-Lucania region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; De Matteis, Raffaella; Satriano, Claudio; Amoroso, Ortensia; Zollo, Aldo

    2013-10-01

    We present a 1-D velocity model of the Earth's crust in Campania-Lucania region obtained by solving the coupled hypocentre-velocity inverse problem for 1312 local earthquakes recorded at a dense regional network. The model is constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates 1-D `minimum' velocity model from body wave traveltimes, together with station corrections, which account for deviations from the simple 1-D structure. The spatial distribution of station corrections correlates with the P-wave velocity variations of a preliminary 3-D crustal velocity model that has been obtained from the tomographic inversion of the same data set of P traveltimes. We found that station corrections reflect not only inhomogeneous near-surface structures, but also larger-scale geological features associated to the transition between carbonate platform outcrops at Southwest and Miocene sedimentary basins at Northeast. We observe a significant trade-off between epicentral locations and station corrections, related to the existence of a thick low-velocity layer to the NE. This effect is taken into account and minimized by re-computing station corrections, fixing the position of a subset of well-determined hypocentres, located in the 3-D tomographic model.

  5. Forward waveform modelling procedure for 1-D crustal velocity structure and its application to the southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seongryong; Rhie, Junkee; Kim, Geunyoung

    2011-04-01

    We propose a full-grid search procedure for broad-band waveform modelling to determine a 1-D crustal velocity model. The velocity model can be more constrained because of the use of broad-band waveforms instead of traveltimes for the crustal phases, although only a small number of event-station pairs were employed. Despite the time-consuming nature of the full-grid search method to search the whole model parameter space, the use of an empirical relationship between the P- and S-wave velocities can significantly reduce computation time. The proposed method was applied to a case in the southern Korean Peninsula. Broad-band waveforms obtained from two inland earthquakes that occurred on 2007 January 20 (Mw 4.6) and 2004 April 26 (Mw 3.6) were used to test the method. The three-layers over half-space crustal velocity model of the P- and S-wave velocities was estimated. Comparisons of waveform fitness between the final model and previously published models demonstrate advancements in the average value of waveform fitness for the inland earthquakes. In addition, 1-D velocity models were determined for three distinct tectonic regions, namely, the Gyonggi Massif, the Okcheon Belt and the Gyeongsang Basin, which are all located inside the study area. A comparison between the three models demonstrates that the crustal thickness of the southern Korean Peninsula increases from NW to SE and that the lower crustal composition of the Okcheon belt differs from that of the other tectonic regions.

  6. Prediction of the expansion velocity of ultracold 1D quantum gases for integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Zhongtao; Vidmar, Lev; Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Bolech, Carlos

    In the theory of Bethe-ansatz integrable quantum systems, rapidities play an important role as they are used to specify many-body states. The physical interpretation of rapidities going back to Sutherland is that they are the asymptotic momenta after letting a quantum gas expand into a larger volume rendering it dilute and noninteracting. We exploit this picture to calculate the expansion velocity of a one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model by using the distribution of rapidities defined by the initial state. Our results are consistent with the ones from time-dependent density-matrix renormalization. We show in addition that an approximate Bethe-ansatz solution works well also for the Bose-Hubbard model. Our results are of interests for future sudden-expansion experiments with ultracold quantum gases.

  7. Calibration of a 1D Crustal Velocity and Q Model for Ground Motion Simulations in Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    I have performed low frequency (f < 1 Hz) ground motion simulations for the 2008 Mw 5.23 Mt. Carmel, Illinois and 2011 Mw 5.74 Mineral, Virginia earthquakes to calibrate a rock-site 1D crustal velocity and Q structure model for central and eastern US (CEUS). For each earthquake, the observed ground motions were simulated at sites extending out to about 900 km from the epicenter. Sites within the Mississippi embayment are not included in the modeling. The initial 1D velocity model was developed by averaging profiles extracted from the CUS V1.3 3D velocity model (Ramirez-Guzman et al, 2012) at each of the recording sites, with the surface shear wave velocity set at 2200 m/s. The Mt. Carmel earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=25, dip=90, rake=-175) at a depth of 14 km and a slip-rate function having a Brune corner frequency of 0.89 Hz (Hartzell and Mendoza, 2011). The Mineral earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=26, dip=55, rake=108) at a depth of 6 km and a slip-rate function having a corner frequency of 0.50 Hz. Full waveform Green's functions were computed using the FK method of Zhu and Rivera (2002). The initial model does well at reproducing the median level of observed response spectral acceleration (Sa) for most sites out to 300 km at periods of 2 to 5 sec, including the observed flattening in distance attenuation between 70 and 150 km. However, this model under predicts the motions beyond about 400 km distance. Increasing Q in the mid- and lower crust from the original value of 700 to 5000 removes this under prediction of the larger distance motions. Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) estimates have been computed from the simulations using the ground motion-intensity conversion equations of Atkinson and Kaka (2007; AK2007) and Dangkua and Cramer (2011; DC2011-ENA) for comparison against the observed "Did You Feel It" intensity estimates. Given the bandwidth limitations of the simulations, I use the conversion

  8. Constraining Source Locations of Shallow Subduction Megathrust Earthquakes in 1-D and 3-D Velocity Models - A Case Study of the 2002 Mw=6.4 Osa Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, I.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake source locations are generally routinely constrained using a global 1-D Earth model. However, the source location might be associated with large uncertainties. This is definitively the case for earthquakes occurring at active continental margins were thin oceanic crust subducts below thick continental crust and hence large lateral changes in crustal thickness occur as a function of distance to the deep-sea trench. Here, we conducted a case study of the 2002 Mw 6.4 Osa thrust earthquake in Costa Rica that was followed by an aftershock sequence. Initial relocations indicated that the main shock occurred fairly trenchward of most large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench off central Costa Rica. The earthquake sequence occurred while a temporary network of ocean-bottom-hydrophones and land stations 80 km to the northwest were deployed. By adding readings from permanent Costa Rican stations, we obtain uncommon P wave coverage of a large subduction zone earthquake. We relocated this catalog using a nonlinear probabilistic approach using a 1-D and two 3-D P-wave velocity models. The 3-D model was either derived from 3-D tomography based on onshore stations and a priori model based on seismic refraction data. All epicentres occurred close to the trench axis, but depth estimates vary by several tens of kilometres. Based on the epicentres and constraints from seismic reflection data the main shock occurred 25 km from the trench and probably along the plate interface at 5-10 km depth. The source location that agreed best with the geology was based on the 3-D velocity model derived from a priori data. Aftershocks propagated downdip to the area of a 1999 Mw 6.9 sequence and partially overlapped it. The results indicate that underthrusting of the young and buoyant Cocos Ridge has created conditions for interpolate seismogenesis shallower and closer to the trench axis than elsewhere along the central Costa Rica margin.

  9. Photodetachment of O^- Yielding O(1D_2, {}^3P) Atoms, Viewed with Velocity Map Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Stephen T.; Laws, Benjamin A.; Lewis, Brenton R.; Duong, Ly

    2016-06-01

    lectron photodetachment of O^-(2P3/2,1/2) is measured using velocity-map imaging at wavelengths near 350 nm, where detachment yields both O(^1D_2) and O(^3P2,1,0) atoms, simultaneously, producing slow (˜ 0.1 eV) and fast electrons (˜ 2 eV). The photoelectron spectrum resolves the fine-structure transitions, which together with the well known atomic fine-structure splittings, and intensity ratios, provide an excellent test of the spectral quality of the velocity-map imaging technique. Although the photoelectron angular distribution for the two atomic limits have the same negative anisotropy sign, the energy dependence differs. The variation is qualitatively in accordance with R-matrix cross section calculations, that indicate a more gradual d-wave onset for the ^1D limit. However, more exact evaluation is only possible with information about the matrix element phases. Research supported by the Australian Research Council Discovery Project GrantDP160102585. physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/ASD/energy1.pl O. Scharf and M. R. Godefried, arXiv:0808.3529v1 O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat, Phys. Rev. A, 73, 022714 (2006). doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.73.022714

  10. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  11. On a 1D nonlocal transport equation with nonlocal velocity and subcritical or supercritical diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    We study a 1D transport equation with nonlocal velocity with subcritical or supercritical dissipation. For all data in the weighted Sobolev space Hk (wλ,κ) ∩L∞, where k = max ⁡ (0 , 3 / 2 - α) and wλ,κ is a given family of Muckenhoupt weights, we prove a global existence result in the subcritical case α ∈ (1 , 2). We also prove a local existence theorem for large data in H2 (wλ,κ) ∩L∞ in the supercritical case α ∈ (0 , 1). The proofs are based on the use of the weighted Littlewood-Paley theory, interpolation along with some new commutator estimates.

  12. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  13. Ion velocity distribution at the termination shock: 1-D PIC simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Quanming; Yang Zhongwei; Lembege, Bertrand

    2012-11-20

    The Voyager 2 (V2) plasma observations of the proton temperature downstream of the quasi-perpendicular heliospheric termination shock (TS) showed that upstream thermal solar wind ions played little role in the shock dissipation mechanism and their downstream temperature is an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. While pickup ions (PUI) are generally expected to play an important role in energy dissipation at the shock, the details remain unclear. Here, one-dimensional (1-D) Particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to examine kinetic properties and downstream velocity distribution functions of pickup ions (the hot supra-thermal component) and solar wind protons (SWs, the cold component) at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock. The code treats the pickup ions self-consistently as a third component. Present results show that: (1) both of the incident SWs and PUIs can be separated into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions, the energy gain of the R ions at the shock front is much larger than that of the DT ions; (2) the fraction of reflected SWs and their downstream temperature decrease with the relative percentage PUI%; (3) no matter how large the PUI% is, the downstream ion velocity distribution function always can be separated into three parts: 1. a high energy tail (i.e. the wings) dominated by the reflected PUIs, 2. a low energy core mainly contributed by the directly transmitted SWs, and 3. a middle energy part which is a complicated superposition of reflected SWs and directly transmitted PUIs. The significance of the presence of pickup ions on shock front micro-structure and nonstationarity is also discussed.

  14. Ion velocity distribution at the termination shock: 1-D PIC simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Quanming; Yang, Zhongwei; Lembège, Bertrand

    2012-11-01

    The Voyager 2 (V2) plasma observations of the proton temperature downstream of the quasi-perpendicular heliospheric termination shock (TS) showed that upstream thermal solar wind ions played little role in the shock dissipation mechanism and their downstream temperature is an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. While pickup ions (PUI) are generally expected to play an important role in energy dissipation at the shock, the details remain unclear. Here, one-dimensional (1-D) Particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to examine kinetic properties and downstream velocity distribution functions of pickup ions (the hot supra-thermal component) and solar wind protons (SWs, the cold component) at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock. The code treats the pickup ions self-consistently as a third component. Present results show that: (1) both of the incident SWs and PUIs can be separated into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions, the energy gain of the R ions at the shock front is much larger than that of the DT ions; (2) the fraction of reflected SWs and their downstream temperature decrease with the relative percentage PUI%; (3) no matter how large the PUI% is, the downstream ion velocity distribution function always can be separated into three parts: 1. a high energy tail (i.e. the wings) dominated by the reflected PUIs, 2. a low energy core mainly contributed by the directly transmitted SWs, and 3. a middle energy part which is a complicated superposition of reflected SWs and directly transmitted PUIs. The significance of the presence of pickup ions on shock front micro-structure and nonstationarity is also discussed.

  15. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  16. Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.

  17. 1-D Tremor Streaks: Implications for a Streak Source Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, H.; Ghosh, A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent observations of non-volcanic tremor in Cascadia and Japan show “streaks” of tremor moving up and down dip in a convergence-parallel direction at “driving velocities” (i.e., 30 to 120 km/hr). Streak lengths of 30 to 40 km are occasionally observed. We explore the implications of these observations for a source model and spectrum of tremor. Key elements involve the extreme geometry and slow “rupture velocity” implied by the streaks. The source spectrum of tremor and other ETS seismic radiation exhibits a spectral falloff roughly as the inverse of frequency (1/f) in contrast to that of earthquakes, which follow a spectral falloff of 1/f squared above a corner frequency. Nevertheless, several observations suggest that the deformation that generates tremor is shear slip in the plate convergence direction. A fundamental question, then, has been what slip source could produce such an observed 1/f falloff over a wide frequency range. We propose a kinematic model, consistent with the 1-D geometry of the tremor streaks, in which fault displacement and width are strongly limited and rupture growth occurs only along fault length, which is oriented in a convergence-parallel direction (up or down dip). This is a version of the well-known Haskell model in which the durations of the two boxcars are very different. A 1/f spectral falloff holds between the corner frequencies associated with the two durations. Thus, the frequency range of the observed 1/f spectral falloff of tremor provides constraints on the durations of the boxcars. Further constraints involve the maximum likely displacement in an ETS event, the rupture velocities of the streaks, and the moment release rate. The narrow streak geometry implies fairly high strain and stress drops, in contrast to the low overall stress drops inferred from tidal modulation of tremor and the low strain across the entire ETS region. The observation of tremor streaks migrating at 10's of km/hour, in conjunction with the

  18. An approach to jointly invert hypocenters and 1D velocity structure and its application to the Lushan earthquake series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hui; Mechie, James; Li, Haibing; Xue, Guangqi; Su, Heping; Cui, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Earthquake location is essential when defining fault systems and other geological structures. Many methods have been developed to locate hypocenters within a 1D velocity model. In this study, a new approach, named MatLoc, has been developed which can simultaneously invert for the locations and origin times of the hypocenters and the velocity structure, from the arrival times of local earthquakes. Moreover, it can invert for layer boundary depths, such as Moho depths, which can be well constrained by the Pm and Pn phases. For this purpose, the package was developed to take into account reflected phases, e.g., the Pm phase. The speed of the inversion is acceptable due to the use of optimized matrix calculations. The package has been used to re-locate the Lushan earthquake series which occurred in Sichuan, China, from April 20 to April 22, 2013. The results obtained with the package show that the Lushan earthquake series defines the dip of the Guankou fault, on which most of the series occurred, to be 39° toward the NW. Further, the surface projection of the Lushan earthquake series is consistent with the regional tectonic strike which is about N45° E.

  19. Structural stability of a 1D compressible viscoelastic fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xiaokai; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with a compressible viscoelastic fluid model proposed by Öttinger. Although the model has a convex entropy, the Hessian matrix of the entropy does not symmetrize the system of first-order partial differential equations due to the non-conservative terms in the constitutive equation. We show that the corresponding 1D model is symmetrizable hyperbolic and dissipative and satisfies the Kawashima condition. Based on these, we prove the global existence of smooth solutions near equilibrium and justify the compatibility of the model with the Navier-Stokes equations.

  20. Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips.

  1. Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334

  2. Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids

    PubMed Central

    Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D’Errico, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334

  3. Nonlocal Order Parameters for the 1D Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montorsi, Arianna; Roncaglia, Marco

    2012-12-01

    We characterize the Mott-insulator and Luther-Emery phases of the 1D Hubbard model through correlators that measure the parity of spin and charge strings along the chain. These nonlocal quantities order in the corresponding gapped phases and vanish at the critical point Uc=0, thus configuring as hidden order parameters. The Mott insulator consists of bound doublon-holon pairs, which in the Luther-Emery phase turn into electron pairs with opposite spins, both unbinding at Uc. The behavior of the parity correlators is captured by an effective free spinless fermion model.

  4. A simple quasi-1D model of Fibonacci anyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasen, David; Mong, Roger; Clarke, David; Alicea, Jason; Fendley, Paul

    2015-03-01

    There exists various ways of understanding the topological properties of Ising anyons--from simple free-fermion toy models to formal topological quantum field theory. For other types of anyons simple toy models rarely exist; their properties have to be obtained using formal self-consistency relations. We explore a family of gapped 1D local bosonic models that in a certain limit become trivial to solve and provide an intuitive picture for Fibonacci anyons. One can interpret this model as a quasi-1D wire that forms the building block of a 2D topological phase with Fibonacci anyons. With this interpretation all topological properties of the Fibonacci anyons become manifest including ground state degeneracy and braid relations. We conjecture that the structure of the model is protected by an emergent symmetry analogous to fermion parity. 1) NSF Grant DMR-1341822 2) Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF physics frontier center with support from the Moore Foundation. 3) NSERC-PGSD.

  5. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  6. A 1D model of the arterial circulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Aslanidou, Lydia; Trachet, Bram; Reymond, Philippe; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Segers, Patrick; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    At a time of growing concern over the ethics of animal experimentation, mouse models are still an indispensable source of insight into the cardiovascular system and its most frequent pathologies. Nevertheless, reference data on the murine cardiovascular anatomy and physiology are lacking. In this work, we developed and validated an in silico, one dimensional model of the murine systemic arterial tree consisting of 85 arterial segments. Detailed aortic dimensions were obtained in vivo from contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography in 3 male, C57BL/6J anesthetized mice and 3 male ApoE(-/-) mice, all 12-weeks old. Physiological input data were gathered from a wide range of literature data. The integrated form of the Navier-Stokes equations was solved numerically to yield pressures and flows throughout the arterial network. The resulting model predictions have been validated against invasive pressure waveforms and non-invasive velocity and diameter waveforms that were measured in vivo on an independent set of 47 mice. In conclusion, we present a validated one-dimensional model of the anesthetized murine cardiovascular system that can serve as a versatile tool in the field of preclinical cardiovascular research.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Imploding Plasma liners Using the 1D Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code HELIOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. S.; Hanna, D. S.; Awe, T. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Stanic, M.; Cassibry, J. T.; Macfarlane, J. J.

    2010-11-01

    The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is attempting to form imploding plasma liners to reach 0.1 Mbar upon stagnation, via 30--60 spherically convergent plasma jets. PLX is partly motivated by the desire to develop a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion. The liner density, atomic makeup, and implosion velocity will help determine the maximum pressure that can be achieved. This work focuses on exploring the effects of atomic physics and radiation on the 1D liner implosion and stagnation dynamics. For this reason, we are using Prism Computational Science's 1D Lagrangian rad-hydro code HELIOS, which has both equation of state (EOS) table-lookup and detailed configuration accounting (DCA) atomic physics modeling. By comparing a series of PLX-relevant cases proceeding from ideal gas, to EOS tables, to DCA treatments, we aim to identify how and when atomic physics effects are important for determining the peak achievable stagnation pressures. In addition, we present verification test results as well as brief comparisons to results obtained with RAVEN (1D radiation-MHD) and SPHC (smoothed particle hydrodynamics).

  8. Survey of Multi-Material Closure Models in 1D Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Maeng, Jungyeoul Brad; Hyde, David Andrew Bulloch

    2015-07-28

    Accurately treating the coupled sub-cell thermodynamics of computational cells containing multiple materials is an inevitable problem in hydrodynamics simulations, whether due to initial configurations or evolutions of the materials and computational mesh. When solving the hydrodynamics equations within a multi-material cell, we make the assumption of a single velocity field for the entire computational domain, which necessitates the addition of a closure model to attempt to resolve the behavior of the multi-material cells’ constituents. In conjunction with a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, we present a variety of both the popular as well as more recently proposed multi-material closure models and survey their performances across a spectrum of examples. We consider standard verification tests as well as practical examples using combinations of fluid, solid, and composite constituents within multi-material mixtures. Our survey provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of various multi-material closure models in different problem configurations.

  9. A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.

  10. Generation of a pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity section by inversion of a series of 1D dispersion curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves utilizes a multichannel recording system to estimate near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities from high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity (vS) section is constructed by aligning 1D models at the midpoint of each receiver spread and using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. The receiver spread length sets the theoretical lower limit and any vS structure with its lateral dimension smaller than this length will not be properly resolved in the final vS section. A source interval smaller than the spread length will not improve the horizontal resolution because spatial smearing has already been introduced by the receiver spread. In this paper, we first analyze the horizontal resolution of a pair of synthetic traces. Resolution analysis shows that (1) a pair of traces with a smaller receiver spacing achieves higher horizontal resolution of inverted S-wave velocities but results in a larger relative error; (2) the relative error of the phase velocity at a high frequency is smaller than at a low frequency; and (3) a relative error of the inverted S-wave velocity is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio of data. These results provide us with a guideline to balance the trade-off between receiver spacing (horizontal resolution) and accuracy of the inverted S-wave velocity. We then present a scheme to generate a pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with high horizontal resolution using multichannel records by inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves calculated through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. This method chooses only a pair of consecutive traces within a shot gather to calculate a dispersion curve. We finally invert surface-wave dispersion curves of synthetic and real-world data. Inversion results of both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that

  11. Quasi 1D Modeling of Mixed Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Woolwine, Kyle J.

    2012-01-01

    The AeroServoElasticity task under the NASA Supersonics Project is developing dynamic models of the propulsion system and the vehicle in order to conduct research for integrated vehicle dynamic performance. As part of this effort, a nonlinear quasi 1-dimensional model of the 2-dimensional bifurcated mixed compression supersonic inlet is being developed. The model utilizes computational fluid dynamics for both the supersonic and subsonic diffusers. The oblique shocks are modeled utilizing compressible flow equations. This model also implements variable geometry required to control the normal shock position. The model is flexible and can also be utilized to simulate other mixed compression supersonic inlet designs. The model was validated both in time and in the frequency domain against the legacy LArge Perturbation INlet code, which has been previously verified using test data. This legacy code written in FORTRAN is quite extensive and complex in terms of the amount of software and number of subroutines. Further, the legacy code is not suitable for closed loop feedback controls design, and the simulation environment is not amenable to systems integration. Therefore, a solution is to develop an innovative, more simplified, mixed compression inlet model with the same steady state and dynamic performance as the legacy code that also can be used for controls design. The new nonlinear dynamic model is implemented in MATLAB Simulink. This environment allows easier development of linear models for controls design for shock positioning. The new model is also well suited for integration with a propulsion system model to study inlet/propulsion system performance, and integration with an aero-servo-elastic system model to study integrated vehicle ride quality, vehicle stability, and efficiency.

  12. 1-D Radiative-Convective Model for Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a one dimensional radiative-convective model to study the thermal structure of terrestrial exoplanetary atmospheres. The radiative transfer and equilibrium chemistry in our model is based on similar methodologies in models used for studying Extrasolar Giant Planets (Fortney et al. 2005b.) We validated our model in the optically thin and thick limits, and compared our pressure-temperature profiles against the analytical solutions of Robinson & Catling (2012). For extrasolar terrestrial planets with pure hydrogen atmospheres, we evaluated the effects of H2-H2 collision induced absorption and identified the purely roto-translational band in our modeled spectra. We also examined how enhanced atmospheric metallicities affect the temperature structure, chemistry, and spectra of terrestrial exoplanets. For a terrestrial extrasolar planet whose atmospheric compostion is 100 times solar orbiting a sun-like star at 2 AU, our model resulted in a reducing atmosphere with H2O, CH4, and NH3 as the dominant greenhouse gases.

  13. Validation of 1-D transport and sawtooth models for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J.W.; Turner, M.F.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors describe progress on validating a number of local transport models by comparing their predictions with relevant experimental data from a range of tokamaks in the ITER profile database. This database, the testing procedure and results are discussed. In addition a model for sawtooth oscillations is used to investigate their effect in an ITER plasma with alpha-particles.

  14. Kinetic and Stochastic Models of 1D yeast ``prions"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay

    2005-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeasts have proteins, which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast ``prions" are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein (1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics along with our own stochastic approach (2). Both models assume reconformation only upon aggregation, and include aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates.

  15. Kinetic Model for 1D aggregation of yeast ``prions''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay; Cox, Daniel; Singh, Rajiv

    2004-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeast have proteins which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast forms are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein(1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics(2). The model assumes reconformation only upon aggregation, and includes aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates. We will compare to a more realistic stochastic kinetics model and present prelimary attempts to describe recent experiments on SUP35 strains. *-Supported by U.S. Army Congressionally Mandated Research Fund. 1) P. Chien and J.S. Weissman, Nature 410, 223 (2001); http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/bionet03/collins/. 2) J. Masel, V.A.> Jansen, M.A. Nowak, Biophys. Chem. 77, 139 (1999).

  16. 1D numerical model of muddy subaqueous and subaerial debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imran, J.; Parker, G.; Locat, J.; Lee, H.

    2001-01-01

    A 1D numerical model of the downslope flow and deposition of muddy subaerial and subaqueous debris flows is presented. The model incorporates the Herschel-Bulkley and bilinear rheologies of viscoplastic fluid. The more familiar Bingham model is integrated into the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The conservation equations of mass and momentum of single-phase laminar debris flow are layer-integrated using the slender flow approximation. They are then expressed in a Lagrangian framework and solved numerically using an explicit finite difference scheme. Starting from a given initial shape, a debris flow is allowed to collapse and propagate over a specified topography. Comparison between the model predictions and laboratory experiments shows reasonable agreement. The model is used to study the effect of the ambient fluid density, initial shape of the failed mass, and rheological model on the simulated propagation of the front and runout characteristics of muddy debris flows. It is found that initial failure shape influence the front velocity but has little bearing on the final deposit shape. In the Bingham model, the excess of shear stress above the yield strength is proportional to the strain rate to the first power. This exponent is free to vary in the Herschel-Bulkley model. When it is set at a value lower than unity, the resulting final deposits are thicker and shorter than in the case of the Bingham rheology. The final deposit resulting from the bilinear model is longer and thinner than that from the Bingham model due to the fact that the debris flow is allowed to act as a Newtonian fluid at low shear rate in the bilinear model.

  17. Human CD1d knock-in mouse model demonstrates potent antitumor potential of human CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiangshu; Rao, Ping; Carreño, Leandro J.; Kim, Seil; Lawrenczyk, Agnieszka; Porcelli, Steven A.; Cresswell, Peter; Yuan, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Despite a high degree of conservation, subtle but important differences exist between the CD1d antigen presentation pathways of humans and mice. These differences may account for the minimal success of natural killer T (NKT) cell-based antitumor therapies in human clinical trials, which contrast strongly with the powerful antitumor effects in conventional mouse models. To develop an accurate model for in vivo human CD1d (hCD1d) antigen presentation, we have generated a hCD1d knock-in (hCD1d-KI) mouse. In these mice, hCD1d is expressed in a native tissue distribution pattern and supports NKT cell development. Reduced numbers of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells were observed, but at an abundance comparable to that in most normal humans. These iNKT cells predominantly expressed mouse Vβ8, the homolog of human Vβ11, and phenotypically resembled human iNKT cells in their reduced expression of CD4. Importantly, iNKT cells in hCD1d knock-in mice exert a potent antitumor function in a melanoma challenge model. Our results show that replacement of mCD1d by hCD1d can select a population of functional iNKT cells closely resembling human iNKT cells. These hCD1d knock-in mice will allow more accurate in vivo modeling of human iNKT cell responses and will facilitate the preclinical assessment of iNKT cell-targeted antitumor therapies. PMID:23382238

  18. New GNSS velocity field and preliminary velocity model for Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Ludeña, Marco P.; Staller, Alejandra; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; Belén Benito, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a new preliminary velocity model of Ecuador based on the GNSS data of the REGME network (continuous monitoring GNSS network). To date, there is no velocity model available for the country. The only existing model in the zone is the regional model VEMOS2009 for South America and Caribbean (Drewes and Heidbach, 2012). This model was developed from the SIRGAS station positions, the velocities of the SIRGAS-CON stations, and several geodynamics projects performed in the region. Just two continuous GNSS (cGNSS) stations of Ecuador were taking into account in the VEMOS2009 model. The first continuous station of the REGME network was established in 2008. At present, it is composed by 32 continuous GNSS stations, covering the country. All the stations provided data during at least two years. We processed the data of the 32 GNSS stations of REGME for the 2008-2014 period, as well as 20 IGS stations in order to link to the global reference frame IGb08 (ITRF2008). GPS data were processed using Bernese 5.0 software (Dach et al., 2007). We obtained and analyzed the GNSS coordinate time series of the 32 REGME stations and we calculated the GPS-derived horizontal velocity field of the country. Velocities in ITRF2008 were transformed into a South American fixed reference frame, using the Euler pole calculated from 8 cGNSS stations throughout this plate. Our velocity field is consistent with the tectonics of the country and contributes to a better understanding of it. From the horizontal velocity field, we determined a preliminary model using the kriging geostatistical technique. To check the results we use the cross-validation method. The differences between the observed and estimated values range from ± 5 mm. This is a new velocity model obtained from GNSS data for Ecuador.

  19. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical.

  20. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125

  1. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D S

    2000-08-21

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.

  2. Assessing 1D Atmospheric Solar Radiative Transfer Models: Interpretation and Handling of Unresolved Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, H. W.; Stephens, G. L.; Partain, P. T.; Bergman, J. W.; Bonnel, B.; Campana, K.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Clough, S.; Cusack, S.; Delamere, J.; Edwards, J.; Evans, K. F.; Fouquart, Y.; Freidenreich, S.; Galin, V.; Hou, Y.; Kato, S.; Li, J.;  Mlawer, E.;  Morcrette, J.-J.;  O'Hirok, W.;  Räisänen, P.;  Ramaswamy, V.;  Ritter, B.;  Rozanov, E.;  Schlesinger, M.;  Shibata, K.;  Sporyshev, P.;  Sun, Z.;  Wendisch, M.;  Wood, N.;  Yang, F.

    2003-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess the performance of 1D solar radiative transfer codes that are used currently both for research and in weather and climate models. Emphasis is on interpretation and handling of unresolved clouds. Answers are sought to the following questions: (i) How well do 1D solar codes interpret and handle columns of information pertaining to partly cloudy atmospheres? (ii) Regardless of the adequacy of their assumptions about unresolved clouds, do 1D solar codes perform as intended?One clear-sky and two plane-parallel, homogeneous (PPH) overcast cloud cases serve to elucidate 1D model differences due to varying treatments of gaseous transmittances, cloud optical properties, and basic radiative transfer. The remaining four cases involve 3D distributions of cloud water and water vapor as simulated by cloud-resolving models. Results for 25 1D codes, which included two line-by-line (LBL) models (clear and overcast only) and four 3D Monte Carlo (MC) photon transport algorithms, were submitted by 22 groups. Benchmark, domain-averaged irradiance profiles were computed by the MC codes. For the clear and overcast cases, all MC estimates of top-of-atmosphere albedo, atmospheric absorptance, and surface absorptance agree with one of the LBL codes to within ±2%. Most 1D codes underestimate atmospheric absorptance by typically 15-25 W m-2 at overhead sun for the standard tropical atmosphere regardless of clouds.Depending on assumptions about unresolved clouds, the 1D codes were partitioned into four genres: (i) horizontal variability, (ii) exact overlap of PPH clouds, (iii) maximum/random overlap of PPH clouds, and (iv) random overlap of PPH clouds. A single MC code was used to establish conditional benchmarks applicable to each genre, and all MC codes were used to establish the full 3D benchmarks. There is a tendency for 1D codes to cluster near their respective conditional benchmarks, though intragenre variances typically exceed those for

  3. Dynamical Models of SAURON and CALIFA Galaxies: 1D and 2D Rotational Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinova, Veselina; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; van den Bosch, R.

    2013-01-01

    The mass of a galaxy is the most important parameter to understand its structure and evolution. The total mass we can infer by constructing dynamical models that fit the motion of the stars and gas in the galaxy. The dark matter content then follows after subtracting the luminous matter inferred from colors and/or spectra. Here, we present the mass distribution of a sample of 18 late-type spiral (Sb-Sd) galaxies, using two-dimensional stellar kinematics obtained with the integral-field spectrograph SAURON. The observed second order velocity moments of these galaxies are fitted with solutions of the Axisymmetric Jeans equations and give us an accurate estimation of the mass-to-light ratio profiles and rotational curves. The rotation curves of the galaxies are obtained by the Asymmetric Drift Correction (ADC) and Multi-Gaussian Expansion (MGE) methods, corresponding to one- and two-dimensional mass distribution. Their comparison shows that the mass distribution based on the 2D stellar kinematics is much more reliable than 1D one. SAURON integral field of view looks at the inner parts of the galaxies in contrast with CALIFA survey. CALIFA survey provides PMAS/PPAK integral-field spectroscopic data of ~ 600 nearby galaxies as part of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area. We show the first CALIFA dynamical models of different morphological type of galaxies, giving the clue about the mass distribution of galaxies through the whole Hubble sequence and their evolution from the blue cloud to the red sequence.

  4. A Mathematical Model of T1D Acceleration and Delay by Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Moore, James R; Adler, Fred

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often triggered by a viral infection, but the T1D prevalence is rising among populations that have a lower exposure to viral infection. In an animal model of T1D, the NOD mouse, viral infection at different ages may either accelerate or delay disease depending on the age of infection and the type of virus. Viral infection may affect the progression of T1D via multiple mechanisms: triggering inflammation, bystander activation of self-reactive T-cells, inducing a competitive immune response, or inducing a regulatory immune response. In this paper, we create mathematical models of the interaction of viral infection with T1D progression, incorporating each of these four mechanisms. Our goal is to understand how each viral mechanism interacts with the age of infection. The model predicts that each viral mechanism has a unique pattern of interaction with disease progression. Viral inflammation always accelerates disease, but the effect decreases with age of infection. Bystander activation has little effect at younger ages and actually decreases incidence at later ages while accelerating disease in mice that do get the disease. A competitive immune response to infection can decrease incidence at young ages and increase it at older ages, with the effect decreasing over time. Finally, an induced Treg response decreases incidence at any age of infection, but the effect decreases with age. Some of these patterns resemble those seen experimentally. PMID:27030351

  5. Comparison of 1D and 2D modelling with soil erosion model SMODERP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Weyskrabova, Lenka; Zajicek, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The contribution presents a comparison of a runoff simulated by profile method (1D) and spatially distributed method (2D). Simulation model SMODERP is used for calculation and prediction of soil erosion and surface runoff from agricultural land. SMODERP is physically based model that includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. 1D model was developed in past, new 2D model was developed in last two years. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D model was developed as a tool for widespread GIS software ArcGIS. The physical relations were implemented through Python script. This script uses ArcGIS system tools for raster and vectors treatment of the inputs. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm in the preliminary version of 2D model. More advanced multiple flow algorithm is planned in the next version. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Surface runoff is described in the model by kinematic wave equation. Equation uses Manning roughness coefficient for surface runoff. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of forty measurements performed on the laboratory rainfall simulator. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Numerical stability of the model is solved by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamically changed depending on how flow is generated and developed. SMODERP is meant to be used not only for the research purposes, but mainly for the engineering practice. We also present how the input data can be obtained based on available resources (soil maps and data, land use, terrain models, field research, etc.) and how can

  6. Quench dynamics of 1D spin-imbalanced Fermi-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiao; Radzihovsky, Leo

    We study a non-equilibrium dynamics of a 1D spin-imbalanced Fermi-Hubbard model following a quantum quench of on-site interaction, using bosonization and exact analysis. By focusing on the evolution of singlet-, triplet-, density and magnetization correlation functions, we find that the evolution and the final state display a strong dependence on the initial state. Thus, we demonstrate that such quantum quench may be used as a new approach to identify and probe the 1D gapless analogue of the elusive FFLO state. Supported by NSF through DMR-1001240 and by Simons Investigator award from Simons.

  7. Modeling of impurity spectroscopy in the divertor and SOL of DIII-D using the 1D multifluid model NEWT1D

    SciTech Connect

    West, W.P.; Evans, T.E.; Brooks, N.H.

    1996-10-01

    NEWT1D, a one dimensional multifluid model of the scrape-off layer and divertor plasma, has been used to model the plasma including the distribution of carbon ionization states in the SOL and divertor of ELMing H-mode at two injected power levels in DIII-D. Comparison of the code predictions to the measured divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma density and temperature shows good agreement. Comparison of the predicted line emissions to the spectroscopic data suggests that physically sputtered carbon from the strike point is not transported up the flux tube; a distributed source of carbon a few centimeters up the flux tube is required to achieve reasonable agreement.

  8. Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Templeton, Dennise

    2013-10-01

    We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.

  9. A 1D model for the description of mixing-controlled reacting diesel sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Desantesa, J.M.; Pastor, J.V.; Garcia-Oliver, J.M.; Pastor, J.M.

    2009-01-15

    The paper reports an investigation on the transient evolution of diesel flames in terms of fuel-air mixing, spray penetration and combustion rate. A one-dimensional (1D) spray model, which was previously validated for inert diesel sprays, is extended to reacting conditions. The main assumptions of the model are the mixing-controlled hypothesis and the validity of self-similarity for conservative properties. Validation is achieved by comparing model predictions with both CFD gas jet simulations and experimental diesel spray measurements. The 1D model provides valuable insight into the evolution of the flow within the spray (momentum and mass fluxes, tip penetration, etc.) when shifting from inert to reacting conditions. Results show that the transient diesel flame evolution is mainly governed by two combustion-induced effects, namely the reduction in local density and the increase in flame radial width. (author)

  10. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models

  11. Behavioral Responses in Animal Model of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy 1D.

    PubMed

    Comim, Clarissa M; Schactae, Aryadnne L; Soares, Jaime A; Ventura, Letícia; Freiberger, Viviane; Mina, Francielle; Dominguini, Diogo; Vainzof, Mariz; Quevedo, João

    2016-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophies 1D (CMD1D) present a mutation on the LARGE gene and are characterized by an abnormal glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG), strongly implicated as having a causative role in the development of central nervous system abnormalities such as cognitive impairment seen in patients. However, in the animal model of CMD1D, the brain involvement remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the cognitive involvement in the Large(myd) mice. To this aim, we used adult homozygous, heterozygous, and wild-type mice. The mice underwent six behavioral tasks: habituation to an open field, step-down inhibitory avoidance, continuous multiple trials step-down inhibitory avoidance task, object recognition, elevated plus-maze, and forced swimming test. It was observed that Large(myd) individuals presented deficits on the habituation to the open field, step down inhibitory avoidance, continuous multiple-trials step-down inhibitory avoidance, object recognition, and forced swimming. This study shows the first evidence that abnormal glycosylation of α-DG may be affecting memory storage and restoring process in an animal model of CMD1D.

  12. Zero finite-temperature charge stiffness within the half-filled 1D Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Carmelo, J.M.P.; Gu, Shi-Jian; Sacramento, P.D.

    2013-12-15

    Even though the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model is solvable by the Bethe ansatz, at half-filling its finite-temperature T>0 transport properties remain poorly understood. In this paper we combine that solution with symmetry to show that within that prominent T=0 1D insulator the charge stiffness D(T) vanishes for T>0 and finite values of the on-site repulsion U in the thermodynamic limit. This result is exact and clarifies a long-standing open problem. It rules out that at half-filling the model is an ideal conductor in the thermodynamic limit. Whether at finite T and U>0 it is an ideal insulator or a normal resistor remains an open question. That at half-filling the charge stiffness is finite at U=0 and vanishes for U>0 is found to result from a general transition from a conductor to an insulator or resistor occurring at U=U{sub c}=0 for all finite temperatures T>0. (At T=0 such a transition is the quantum metal to Mott–Hubbard-insulator transition.) The interplay of the η-spin SU(2) symmetry with the hidden U(1) symmetry beyond SO(4) is found to play a central role in the unusual finite-temperature charge transport properties of the 1D half-filled Hubbard model. -- Highlights: •The charge stiffness of the half-filled 1D Hubbard model is evaluated. •Its value is controlled by the model symmetry operator algebras. •We find that there is no charge ballistic transport at finite temperatures T>0. •The hidden U(1) symmetry controls the U=0 phase transition for T>0.

  13. Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, A. N.

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids.

  14. Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former.

    PubMed

    Semenov, A N

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids. PMID:26233148

  15. Assessment of improved root growth representation in a 1-D, field scale crop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltin Mboh, Cho; Gaiser, Thomas; Ewert, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Many 1-D, field scale crop models over-simplify root growth. The over-simplification of this "hidden half" of the crop may have significant consequences on simulated root water and nutrient uptake with a corresponding reflection on the simulated crop yields. Poor representation of root growth in crop models may therefore constitute a major source of uncertainty propagation. In this study we assess the effect of an improved representation of root growth in a model solution of the model framework SIMPLACE (Scientific Impact assessment and Modeling PLatform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem management) compared to conventional 1-D approaches. The LINTUL5 crop growth model is coupled to the Hillflow soil water balance model within the SIMPLACE modeling framework (Gaiser et al, 2013). Root water uptake scenarios in the soil hydrological simulator Hillflow (Bronstert, 1995) together with an improved representation of root growth is compared to scenarios for which root growth is simplified. The improvement of root growth is achieved by integrating root growth solutions from R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) into the SIMPLACE model solution. R-SWMS is a three dimensional model for simultaneous modeling of root growth, soil water fluxes and solute transport and uptake. These scenarios are tested by comparing how well the simulated water contents match with the observed soil water dynamics. The impacts of the scenarios on above ground biomass and wheat grain are assessed

  16. Icequake sources location on Triftgletscher (Switzerland) using different velocity models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalban Canassy, P.; Maurer, H.; Husen, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the last 15 years Triftgletscher (Bernese Alps, Switzerland) has substantially retreated and a proglacial lake has been formed in the glacier forefield. Because of the glacier retreat, especially the thinning of the lower flat tongue, the stability of the steep section behind it is affected. As a consequence, the likelihood of large ice avalanches with several millions cubic meters releasing from this dangerous area and reaching the new formed lake will increase. In order to improve the understanding of the mechanisms leading to such instabilities, 8 seismometers were installed in the ice right above the unstable part and a continuous recording of the local seismic activity was carried out from 16th July to 4th August 2010. Considering a set of 214 icequakes, we performed a location of the seismic sources using an homogeneous velocity model where only the ice is considered, a two layers (ice+rock) 1D model, and finally a 3D velocity model including both ice and bedrock precise topographies. The velocity models are implemented in the software NonLinLoc. Results showed surface, shallow and deep icequakes and could precisely describe the associated uncertainties. We discussed the sources locations found and compared the results obtained with the different velocity models. We also analyzed the findings with the help of both surface motion and water pressure measurements and tried to link the icequakes locations to the glacier dynamics.

  17. Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of

  18. Testing a 1-D Analytical Salt Intrusion Model and the Predictive Equation in Malaysian Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisen, Jacqueline Isabella; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the salt intrusion behaviour in Malaysian estuaries. Study on this topic sometimes requires large amounts of data especially if a 2-D or 3-D numerical models are used for analysis. In poor data environments, 1-D analytical models are more appropriate. For this reason, a fully analytical 1-D salt intrusion model, based on the theory of Savenije in 2005, was tested in three Malaysian estuaries (Bernam, Selangor and Muar) because it is simple and requires minimal data. In order to achieve that, site surveys were conducted in these estuaries during the dry season (June-August) at spring tide by moving boat technique. Data of cross-sections, water levels and salinity were collected, and then analysed with the salt intrusion model. This paper demonstrates a good fit between the simulated and observed salinity distribution for all three estuaries. Additionally, the calibrated Van der Burgh's coefficient K, Dispersion coefficient D0, and salt intrusion length L, for the estuaries also displayed a reasonable correlations with those calculated from the predictive equations. This indicates that not only is the salt intrusion model valid for the case studies in Malaysia but also the predictive model. Furthermore, the results from this study describe the current state of the estuaries with which the Malaysian water authority in Malaysia can make decisions on limiting water abstraction or dredging. Keywords: salt intrusion, Malaysian estuaries, discharge, predictive model, dispersion

  19. Optimisation of A 1d-ecosystem Model To Observations In The North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartau, M.; Oschlies, A.

    An optimisation experiment is performed with a vertically resolved, nitrogen based ecosystem model, comprising four state variables (1D-NPZD model): dissolved inor- ganic nitrogen (N), phytoplankton (P), herbivorous zooplankton (Z) and detritus (D). Parameter values of the NPZD-model are optimised while regarding observational data from three locations in the North Atlantic simultaneously: Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), data of the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (NABE) and observations from Ocean Weather Ship-India (OWS-INDIA). The simultaneous opti- misation yields a best parameter set which can be utilized for basin wide simulations in coupled physical-biological (general circulation) models of the North Atlantic. After optimisation of the 1D-NPZD model, systematic discrepancies between 14C-fixation rates and modelled primary production are emphasized. Using the optimal parame- ter estimates for coupled 3D-simulations, the biogeochemical fluxes show substantial differences in contrast to previous model results. For instance, rapid recycling of or- ganic matter enhances primary production rates. This becomes most evident within the oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyre.

  20. Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, J.; Pokorný, J.; Jícha, M.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry) and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry). Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.

  1. Using 1D2D Hydrodynamic Modeling to Inform Restoration Planning in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden-Lesmeister, A.; Remo, J. W.; Piazza, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) in Louisiana is the principal distributary of the Mississippi River (MR), and its basin contains the largest contiguous area of baldcypress-water tupelo swamp forests in North America. After designation of the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB) as a federal floodway following the destructive 1927 MR flood, it was extensively modified to accommodate a substantial portion of the MR flow (~25%) to mitigate flooding in southern Louisiana. These modifications and increased flows resulted in substantial incision along large portions of the AR, altering connectivity between the river and its associated waterbodies. As a result of incision, the hydroperiod has been substantially altered, which has contributed to a decline in ecological health of the ARB's baldcypress-water tupelo forests. While it is recognized that the altered hydroperiod has negatively affected natural baldcypress regeneration, it is unclear whether proposed projects designed to enhance flow connectivity will increase long-term survival of these forests. In this study, we have constructed a 1D2D hydrodynamic model using SOBEK 2.12 to realistically model key physical parameters such as residence times, inundation extent, water-surface elevations (WSELs), and flow velocities to increase our understanding of the ARB's altered hydroperiod and the consequences for baldcypress-water tupelo forests. While the model encompasses a majority of the ARB, our modeling effort is focused on the Flat Lake Water Management Unit located in the southern portion of the ARB, where it will also be used to evaluate flow connectivity enhancement projects within the management unit. We believe our 1D2D hybrid hydraulic modeling approach will provide the flexibility and accuracy needed to guide connectivity enhancement efforts in the ARB and may provide a model framework for guiding similar efforts along other highly-altered river systems.

  2. What causes the large extensions of red supergiant atmospheres?. Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1D hydrostatic, 3D convection, and 1D pulsating model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Scholz, M.; Freytag, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Wood, P. R.; Abellan, F. J.

    2015-03-01

    Aims: This research has two main goals. First, we present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants (RSGs), increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. Methods: We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of the RSGs V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 in the near-infrared K-band (1.92-2.47 μm) with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution (R ~ 1500). To categorize and comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3D convection, and new 1D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Results: Our near-infrared flux spectra of V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict the large observed extensions of molecular layers, most remarkably in the CO bands. Likewise, the 3D convection models and the 1D pulsation models with typical parameters of RSGs lead to compact atmospheric structures as well, which are similar to the structure of the hydrostatic PHOENIX models. They can also not explain the observed decreases in the visibilities and thus the large atmospheric molecular extensions. The full sample of our RSGs indicates increasing observed atmospheric extensions with increasing luminosity and decreasing surface gravity, and no correlation with effective temperature or variability amplitude. Conclusions: The location of our RSG sources in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is confirmed to be consistent with the red limits of recent evolutionary tracks

  3. Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2015-01-01

    Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (spaceborne or airborne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the light detection and ranging (lidar), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30 to 90 m). On the other hand, the lidar technique is able to produce high-resolution DEMs (at around 1 m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of 1-D hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. To test model selection, the outcomes of the 1-D models were also compared, in terms of flood water levels, to the results of 2-D models (LISFLOOD-FP). The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicate that the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. lidar 1 m) to lower resolution is much less than the loss of model accuracy due

  4. 1D-3D hybrid modeling-from multi-compartment models to full resolution models in space and time.

    PubMed

    Grein, Stephan; Stepniewski, Martin; Reiter, Sebastian; Knodel, Markus M; Queisser, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of cellular and network dynamics in the brain by means of modeling and simulation has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field, that uses sophisticated modeling and simulation approaches to understand distinct areas of brain function. Depending on the underlying complexity, these models vary in their level of detail, in order to cope with the attached computational cost. Hence for large network simulations, single neurons are typically reduced to time-dependent signal processors, dismissing the spatial aspect of each cell. For single cell or networks with relatively small numbers of neurons, general purpose simulators allow for space and time-dependent simulations of electrical signal processing, based on the cable equation theory. An emerging field in Computational Neuroscience encompasses a new level of detail by incorporating the full three-dimensional morphology of cells and organelles into three-dimensional, space and time-dependent, simulations. While every approach has its advantages and limitations, such as computational cost, integrated and methods-spanning simulation approaches, depending on the network size could establish new ways to investigate the brain. In this paper we present a hybrid simulation approach, that makes use of reduced 1D-models using e.g., the NEURON simulator-which couples to fully resolved models for simulating cellular and sub-cellular dynamics, including the detailed three-dimensional morphology of neurons and organelles. In order to couple 1D- and 3D-simulations, we present a geometry-, membrane potential- and intracellular concentration mapping framework, with which graph- based morphologies, e.g., in the swc- or hoc-format, are mapped to full surface and volume representations of the neuron and computational data from 1D-simulations can be used as boundary conditions for full 3D simulations and vice versa. Thus, established models and data, based on general purpose 1D-simulators, can be directly coupled to the

  5. Simulations of Edge Effect in 1D Spin Crossover Compounds by Atom-Phonon Coupling Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, J.; Chiruta, D.; Jureschi, C. M.; Alayli, Y.; Turcu, C. O.; Dahoo, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    We used the atom-phonon coupling model to explain and illustrate the behaviour of a linear nano-chain of molecules. The analysis of the system's behaviour was performed using Free Energy method, and by applying Monte Carlo Metropolis (MCM) method which take into account the phonon contribution. In particular we tested both the MCM algorithm and the dynamic-matrix method and we expose how the thermal behaviour of a 1D spin crossover system varies as a function of different factors. Furthermore we blocked the edge atoms of the chain in its high spin state to study the effect on the system's behaviour.

  6. Model Sensitivity to Parameters in the Simple 1-D Land-Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Van Ogtrop, F.; Willem, V.

    2012-04-01

    Large scale effects are generally more important to the regional climate than local effects, such as land cover. However there is rarely any comparison of the two types of effects due to the complexity of the land-atmosphere system and the difficulties in controlling different climate drivers. Here we look into this matter from a model perspective. The modified simple 1-D land-atmosphere model based on D'Andrea (2006) and Baudena (2008) is used to investigate the relative sensitivity of climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) to the external forcing and local forcing. The model has two properties: firstly, it is an equilibrium model and secondly, it requires a small set of parameters. Therefore, this model is suitable for sensitivity analysis in which the effect of change in one factor can be isolated. In this study, we perform sensitivity analysis on the effects of four parameters. External forcing is represented by solar radiation (100 - 800 W m2) and moisture influx (0 - 1 mm hr-1) to the region. Local forcing is represented by the initial leaf area index (LAI, 0 - 10) and the initial soil wetness (0.13 - 0.63). A normalized index is used to access the sensitivity of the model outputs to the parameters. The index is defined as SI = dmax -dmin, Dmean ·r where dmax and dmin represent the local extremes; Dmean is the mean value for the whole domain and r is the proportion of the whole domain from which the local extremes are taken. Precipitation and air temperature output both responded nonlinearly to the tested parameters. Precipitation is resistant to changes when parameters are near to the lower end of value ranges until a threshold is hit. On the other hand, temperature is more sensitive to the low parameter values than the high parameter values. Hence, precipitation is suppressed and temperature remains high due to lack of vegetation cover, or low soil moisture, or negligible moisture influx from outside the region. Both precipitation and

  7. Optimal modeling of 1D azimuth correlations in the context of Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, Michiel B.; Eggers, Hans C.; Trainor, Thomas A.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis and interpretation of spectrum and correlation data from high-energy nuclear collisions is currently controversial because two opposing physics narratives derive contradictory implications from the same data, one narrative claiming collision dynamics is dominated by dijet production and projectile-nucleon fragmentation, the other claiming collision dynamics is dominated by a dense, flowing QCD medium. Opposing interpretations seem to be supported by alternative data models, and current model-comparison schemes are unable to distinguish between them. There is clearly need for a convincing new methodology to break the deadlock. In this study we introduce Bayesian inference (BI) methods applied to angular correlation data as a basis to evaluate competing data models. For simplicity the data considered are projections of two-dimensional (2D) angular correlations onto a 1D azimuth from three centrality classes of 200-GeV Au-Au collisions. We consider several data models typical of current model choices, including Fourier series (FS) and a Gaussian plus various combinations of individual cosine components. We evaluate model performance with BI methods and with power-spectrum analysis. We find that FS-only models are rejected in all cases by Bayesian analysis, which always prefers a Gaussian. A cylindrical quadrupole cos(2 ϕ ) is required in some cases but rejected for 0%-5%-central Au-Au collisions. Given a Gaussian centered at the azimuth origin, "higher harmonics" cos(m ϕ ) for m >2 are rejected. A model consisting of Gaussian +dipole cos(ϕ )+quadrupole cos(2 ϕ ) provides good 1D data descriptions in all cases.

  8. Symmetric extensions of normal discrete velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, A. V.; Vinerean, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we discuss a general problem related to spurious conservation laws for discrete velocity models (DVMs) of the classical (elastic) Boltzmann equation. Models with spurious conservation laws appeared already at the early stage of the development of discrete kinetic theory. The well-known theorem of uniqueness of collision invariants for the continuous velocity space very often does not hold for a set of discrete velocities. In our previous works we considered the general problem of the construction of normal DVMs, we found a general algorithm for the construction of all such models and presented a complete classification of normal DVMs with small number n of velocities (n<11). Even if we have a general method to classify all normal discrete kinetic models (and in particular DVMs), the existing method is relatively slow and the amount of possible cases to check increases rapidly with n. We remarked that many of our normal DVMs appear to be axially symmetric. In this paper we consider a connection between symmetric transformations and normal DVMs. We first develop a new inductive method that, starting with a given normal DVM, leads by symmetric extensions to a new normal DVM. This method can produce very fast many new normal DVMs with larger number of velocities, showing that the class of normal DVMs contains a large subclass of symmetric models. We finally apply the method to several normal DVMs and construct new models that are not only normal, but also symmetric relatively to more and more axes. We hope that such symmetric velocity sets can be used for DSMC methods of solving Boltzmann equation.

  9. Mt Response of a 1d Earth Model Employing the Born Approximation with Variable Background Conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, A.; Chavez, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    The Born approximation method has been commonly employed to study the electromagnetic field response. Other interpretative techniques have benn employed based upon the Born Approximation, like the extended Born approximation (EBA). This method employs the total field, instead of the primary field. Also, the Quasi Linear Approximation method (QLA) is an extension of EVA. In the present work, we propose an alternative technique, which employs the Born Approximation using variable background conductivities (BAVBC). The Green function is represented as a Born perturbation of zero order. Such that, the reference medium conductivity is a parameter selected according the working frequency. A similar procedure has been reported for stratified 1D-earth seismic models. This technique (BAVBC) has been applied to model computational models with reasonable results, as compared with available computational packages in the market. This method permits variations in the conductivity contrast of up to 80%, which provides solutions with 30% error, with respect of the analytical solution.

  10. EFDC1D - A ONE DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL FOR RIVER AND STREAM NETWORKS: MODEL THEORY AND USERS GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical report describes the new one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and sediment transport model EFDC1D. This model that can be applied to stream networks. The model code and two sample data sets are included on the distribution CD. EFDC1D can simulate bi-directional unstea...

  11. Velocity model of the shallow lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangi, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    The travel times of the seismic waves obtained for the Apollo-14 and -16 active seismic experiments and the Apollo-16 grenade launches are shown to be consistent with a powder-layer model of the shallow lunar crust. The velocity variation with depth determined from these data is: V(z) = approximately 110 z to the 1/6 power m/sec for z less than 10 meters and V(z) is nearly = to 250 m/sec for z greater than 10 meters. The velocity values found for the 10 meter depth are similar to those found by Kovach, et al. (1972). The z to the 1/6 power depth dependence for the velocity of the topmost layer is that predicted on the basis of a powder layer (Gangi, 1972). The Amplitude variation of the direct waves as a function of source-to-receiver separation, x, is A(x) = A(o)x to the -n power exp(-ax) where 1.5 n 2.2 and a is nearly = to 0.047 neper/m. Velocity-spectra analyses of the direct, surface-reflected, bottom-reflected and refracted waves give results that are consistent with the velocity model inferred from the traveltime data.

  12. Evaluation of a Revised Interplanetary Shock Prediction Model: 1D CESE-HD-2 Solar-Wind Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Du, A. M.; Du, D.; Sun, W.

    2014-08-01

    We modified the one-dimensional conservation element and solution element (CESE) hydrodynamic (HD) model into a new version [ 1D CESE-HD-2], by considering the direction of the shock propagation. The real-time performance of the 1D CESE-HD-2 model during Solar Cycle 23 (February 1997 - December 2006) is investigated and compared with those of the Shock Time of Arrival Model ( STOA), the Interplanetary-Shock-Propagation Model ( ISPM), and the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 ( HAFv.2). Of the total of 584 flare events, 173 occurred during the rising phase, 166 events during the maximum phase, and 245 events during the declining phase. The statistical results show that the success rates of the predictions by the 1D CESE-HD-2 model for the rising, maximum, declining, and composite periods are 64 %, 62 %, 57 %, and 61 %, respectively, with a hit window of ± 24 hours. The results demonstrate that the 1D CESE-HD-2 model shows the highest success rates when the background solar-wind speed is relatively fast. Thus, when the background solar-wind speed at the time of shock initiation is enhanced, the forecasts will provide potential values to the customers. A high value (27.08) of χ 2 and low p-value (< 0.0001) for the 1D CESE-HD-2 model give considerable confidence for real-time forecasts by using this new model. Furthermore, the effects of various shock characteristics (initial speed, shock duration, background solar wind, longitude, etc.) and background solar wind on the forecast are also investigated statistically.

  13. 1-D and 2-D modeling of U-Ti alloy response in impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, B.; Favorsky, V.; Landau, A.; Shvarts, D.; Zaretsky, E. B.

    2003-09-01

    Dynamie response of a U-0.75wt%Ti alloy bas been studied in planar (disk-on-disk), reverse (disk-on-rod) and symmetric (rod-on-rod) ballistic impact experiments performed with a 25 mm light-gas gun. The impact velocities ranged between 100 and 500 m/see and the samples were softly recovered for further examination, revealing different degrees of spall fracture (planar impact) and of adiabatic shear bands (ballistic experiments). The back (planar experiments) and the lateral (ballistic experiments) surface velocities were continuously monitored by VISAR. The velocity profiles and the damage maps were simulated using a 2-D AUTODYN^TM Lagrangian finite differences code. Simulations of the planar experiments were performed with special attention to the compressive path of the loading cycle in order to calibrate a modified Steinberg-Cochran-Guinan (SCG) constitutive model. The Bauschinger effect and a single-parameter spall model were added to describe the unloading and tensile paths. The calibrated SCG model was then employed to simulate the ballistic experiments. An erosion AUTODYN built-in subroutine with a threshold value of plastic strain was chosen to describe the failure in the ballistic impact experiments. The results of the suggested experimental-numerical technique can be taken into account in estimating the different contributions to the shock-induced plastic deformation and failure.

  14. Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Nishi, Shohei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2016-02-29

    We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity. PMID:26862041

  15. Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Nishi, Shohei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2016-02-29

    We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity.

  16. A world-line framework for 1D topological conformal σ-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baulieu, L.; Holanda, N. L.; Toppan, F.

    2015-11-01

    We use world-line methods for pseudo-supersymmetry to construct sl(2|1)-invariant actions for the (2, 2, 0) chiral and (1, 2, 1) real supermultiplets of the twisted D-module representations of the sl(2|1) superalgebra. The derived one-dimensional topological conformal σ-models are invariant under nilpotent operators. The actions are constructed for both parabolic and hyperbolic/trigonometric realizations (with extra potential terms in the latter case). The scaling dimension λ of the supermultiplets defines a coupling constant, 2λ + 1, the free theories being recovered at λ = - /1 2 . We also present, generalizing previous works, the D-module representations of one-dimensional superconformal algebras induced by N = ( p , q ) pseudo-supersymmetry acting on (k, n, n - k) supermultiplets. Besides sl(2|1), we obtain the superalgebras A(1, 1), D(2, 1; α), D(3, 1), D(4, 1), A(2, 1) from (p, q) = (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 1), at given k, n and critical values of λ.

  17. PROM4: 1D isothermal and isobaric modeler for solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouttebroze, P.; Labrosse, N.

    2013-06-01

    PROM4 computes simple models of solar prominences which consist of plane-parallel slabs standing vertically above the solar surface. Each model is defined by 5 parameters: temperature, density, geometrical thickness, microturbulent velocity and height above the solar surface. PROM4 solves the equations of radiative transfer, statistical equilibrium, ionization and pressure equilibria, and computes electron and hydrogen level populations and hydrogen line profiles. Written in Fortran 90 and with two versions available (one with text in English, one with text in French), the code needs 64-bit arithmetic for real numbers.

  18. Phenomenological 3D and 1D consistent models for shape-memory alloy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Veronica; Marfia, Sonia; Sacco, Elio

    2009-08-01

    The paper deals with the modeling and the development of a numerical procedure for the analysis of shape-memory alloy (SMA) elements in order to predict the main features of SMA devices. A 3D SMA model in the framework of small strain theory is developed starting from the thermo-mechanical model proposed by Souza et al. (Eur J Mech A/Solids 17:789-806, 1998) and modified by Auricchio and Petrini (Int J Numer Methods Eng 55:1255-1284, 2002). The aim of this paper is to propose some more modifications to the original model, to derive its consistent 1D formulation, to clarify the mechanical meaning of the material parameters governing the constitutive model. A robust time integration algorithm is developed in the framework of the finite element method and a new beam finite element is proposed. Some numerical applications and a comparison with experimental data available in literature are carried out in order to assess the ability of the proposed model to describe the SMA behavior.

  19. Metal-dielectric photonic crystal superlattice: 1D and 2D models and empty lattice approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kichin, G.; Weiss, T.; Gao, H.; Henzie, J.; Odom, T. W.; Tikhodeev, S. G.; Giessen, H.

    2012-10-01

    Periodic nanostructures are one of the main building blocks in modern nanooptics. They are used for constructing photonic crystals and metamaterials and provide optical properties that can be changed by adjusting the geometrical parameters of the structures. In this paper the optical properties of a photonic crystal slab with a 2D superlattice are discussed. The structure consists of a gold layer with a finite periodic pattern of air holes that is itself repeated periodically with a larger superperiod. We propose simplified 1D and 2D models to understand the physical nature of Wood's anomalies in the optical spectra of the investigated structure. The latter are attributed to the Rayleigh anomalies, surface plasmon Bragg resonances and the hole-localized plasmons.

  20. Exploring triggers for polar tropospheric ODEs, using a 1-D snow photochemistry model (MISTRA-SNOW).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buys, Z.; Jones, A. E.; von Glasow, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tropospheric Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs) have been known to occur in polar regions for over 20 years. During such events, ozone concentrations can fall from background amounts to below instrumental detection limits within a few minutes and remain suppressed for on the order of hours to days. The chemical destruction of ozone is driven by halogens (especially bromine radicals) that have a source associated with the sea ice zone. Although our knowledge of ODEs has increased greatly since their discovery, some of the key processes involved are not yet fully understood. We now know that heterogeneous reactions lead to the activation of Br2 and BrCI, via uptake of HOBr onto aqueous salt solutions /aerosol/ surface snowpack (Fickert et al., 1999), and it is widely accepted that bromine catalytic reaction cycles (the 'bromine explosion') in the gas phase are responsible for surface ozone destruction (Simpson et al., 2007). There is still much debate over the source of bromine in the atmosphere that drives ODEs, but there is strong evidence to suggest a source associated with the sea ice zone. A 1D Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) chemistry model (MISTRA; von Glasow et al., 2002) has been modified to be representative of Antarctic conditions. The chemistry module includes chemical reactions in the gas phase, in and on aerosol particles and takes into account transfer between the gas and aqueous phase. A new snow-photochemistry module has been developed which includes chemistry which takes place in the quasi-liquid layer on aerosol (Thomas et al., 2011), which is of great importance to our understanding of the chemistry which initiates a bromine explosion. Here we use this newly developed 1-D snow photochemistry model (MISTRA-SNOW) to look at some of the suggested triggers for, and the different meteorological conditions required to produce, tropospheric ODEs in polar regions.

  1. Application of HYDRUS 1D model for assessment of phenol-soil adsorption dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pal, Supriya; Mukherjee, Somnath; Ghosh, Sudipta

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory-scale batch, vertical, and horizontal column experiments were conducted to investigate the attenuative capacity of a fine-grained clayey soil of local origin in the surrounding of a steel plant wastewater discharge site in West Bengal, India, for removal of phenol. Linear, Langmuir, and Freundlich isotherm plots from batch experimental data revealed that Freundlich isotherm model was reasonably fitted (R (2) = 0.94). The breakthrough column experiments were also carried out with different soil bed heights (5, 10, and 15 cm) under uniform flow to study the hydraulic movements of phenol by evaluating time concentration flow behavior using bromide as a tracer. The horizontal migration test was also conducted in the laboratory using adsorptive phenol and nonreactive bromide tracer to explore the movement of solute in a horizontal distance. The hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients (D) in the vertical and horizontal directions in the soil were estimated using nonlinear least-square parameter optimization method in CXTFIT model. In addition, the equilibrium convection dispersion model in HYDRUS 1D was also examined to simulate the fate and transport of phenol in vertical and horizontal directions using Freundlich isotherm constants and estimated hydrodynamic parameters as input in the model. The model efficacy and validation were examined through statistical parameters such as the coefficient of determination (R (2)), root mean square error and design of index (d). PMID:24407784

  2. A 1-D evolutionary model for icy satellites, applied to Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prialnik, Dina; Malamud, Uri

    2015-11-01

    A 1-D long-term evolution code for icy satellites is presented, which couples multiple processes: water migration, geochemical reactions, water and silicate phase transitions, crystallization, compaction by self-gravity, and ablation. The code takes into account various energy sources: tidal heating, radiogenic heating, geochemical energy released by serpentinization or absorbed by mineral dehydration, gravitational energy, and insolation. It includes heat transport by conduction, convection, and advection.The code is applied to Enceladus, by guessing the initial conditions that would render a structure compatible with present-day observations, and adopting a homogeneous initial structure. Assuming that the satellite has been losing water continually along its evolution, it follows that it was formed as a more massive, more ice-rich and more porous object, and gradually transformed into its present day state, due to sustained tidal heating. Several initial compositions and evolution scenarios are considered, and the evolution is simulated for the age of the Solar System. The results corresponding to the present configuration are confronted with the available observational constraints. The present configuration is shown to be differentiated into a pure icy mantle, several tens of km thick, overlying a rocky core, composed of dehydrated rock in the central part and hydrated rock in the outer part. Such a differentiated structure is obtained not only for Enceladus, but for other medium size ice-rich bodies as well.Predictions for Enceladus are a higher rock/ice mass ratio than previously assumed, and a thinner ice mantle, compatible with recent estimates based on gravity field measurements. Although, obviously, the 1-D model cannot be used to explain local phenomena, it sheds light on the internal structure invoked in explanations of localized features and activities.

  3. Assessing the habitability of planets with Earth-like atmospheres with 1D and 3D climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Kitzmann, D.; Kunze, M.; Langematz, U.; Patzer, A. B. C.; Rauer, H.; Stracke, B.

    2016-07-01

    Context. The habitable zone (HZ) describes the range of orbital distances around a star where the existence of liquid water on the surface of an Earth-like planet is in principle possible. The applicability of one-dimensional (1D) climate models for the estimation of the HZ boundaries has been questioned by recent three-dimensional (3D) climate studies. While 3D studies can calculate the water vapor, ice albedo, and cloud feedback self-consistently and therefore allow for a deeper understanding and the identification of relevant climate processes, 1D model studies rely on fewer model assumptions and can be more easily applied to the large parameter space possible for extrasolar planets. Aims: We evaluate the applicability of 1D climate models to estimate the potential habitability of Earth-like extrasolar planets by comparing our 1D model results to those of 3D climate studies in the literature. We vary the two important planetary properties, surface albedo and relative humidity, in the 1D model. These depend on climate feedbacks that are not treated self-consistently in most 1D models. Methods: We applied a cloud-free 1D radiative-convective climate model to calculate the climate of Earth-like planets around different types of main-sequence stars with varying surface albedo and relative humidity profile. We compared the results to those of 3D model calculations available in the literature and investigated to what extent the 1D model can approximate the surface temperatures calculated by the 3D models. Results: The 1D parameter study results in a large range of climates possible for an Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like atmosphere and water reservoir at a certain stellar insolation. At some stellar insolations the full spectrum of climate states could be realized, i.e., uninhabitable conditions due to surface temperatures that are too high or too low as well as habitable surface conditions, depending only on the relative humidity and surface albedo assumed. When

  4. Testing the accuracy of a 1-D volcanic plume model in estimating mass eruption rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.

    2014-01-01

    During volcanic eruptions, empirical relationships are used to estimate mass eruption rate from plume height. Although simple, such relationships can be inaccurate and can underestimate rates in windy conditions. One-dimensional plume models can incorporate atmospheric conditions and give potentially more accurate estimates. Here I present a 1-D model for plumes in crosswind and simulate 25 historical eruptions where plume height Hobs was well observed and mass eruption rate Mobs could be calculated from mapped deposit mass and observed duration. The simulations considered wind, temperature, and phase changes of water. Atmospheric conditions were obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 2.5° model. Simulations calculate the minimum, maximum, and average values (Mmin, Mmax, and Mavg) that fit the plume height. Eruption rates were also estimated from the empirical formula Mempir = 140Hobs4.14 (Mempir is in kilogram per second, Hobs is in kilometer). For these eruptions, the standard error of the residual in log space is about 0.53 for Mavg and 0.50 for Mempir. Thus, for this data set, the model is slightly less accurate at predicting Mobs than the empirical curve. The inability of this model to improve eruption rate estimates may lie in the limited accuracy of even well-observed plume heights, inaccurate model formulation, or the fact that most eruptions examined were not highly influenced by wind. For the low, wind-blown plume of 14–18 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull, where an accurate plume height time series is available, modeled rates do agree better with Mobs than Mempir.

  5. Mathematical modeling of 1D binary photonic tuner and realization of temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, A.; Chakraborty, M.

    2011-10-01

    In recent years photonic crystals have become a favored area of research due to their diversified applications. In this paper we propose a mathematical model for analyzing the photonic band gap of a 1D binary photonic crystal (GaAs and air) which allows us to use it effectively as a photonic tuner which is an integral part of any optical amplifier. As optical parameters like reflection and refraction follows similar pattern from each plane within a photonic crystal, we can take help of characteristic matrix for a single plane and multiply (m) times where the crystal consists of (m) periods. Using the fact that the characteristic matrix comes out to be unimodular and taking help of Cayley-Hamilton theorem and Chebyshev polynomials, we expand the matrix of the entire system to derive the location and width of photonic band gaps. Higher stop bands occur at lower frequency of incoming radiation and central bandgap wavelength decreases with increasing angle of incidence. The power transmitted by the tuning crystal decreases for radiations away from normal. Using a polarizer model, the attenuation is computed to be proportional to log|Cos2θ|, where θ is the angle of incidence. The mathematical modeling developed can also be extended for realization of n-array photonic crystal. We have also considered the refractive index modulation with respect to temperature for using it as a temperature sensor.

  6. The optimization of high resolution topographic data for 1D hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ales, Ronovsky; Michal, Podhoranyi

    2016-06-01

    The main focus of our research presented in this paper is to optimize and use high resolution topographical data (HRTD) for hydrological modelling. Optimization of HRTD is done by generating adaptive mesh by measuring distance of coarse mesh and the surface of the dataset and adapting the mesh from the perspective of keeping the geometry as close to initial resolution as possible. Technique described in this paper enables computation of very accurate 1-D hydrodynamic models. In the paper, we use HEC-RAS software as a solver. For comparison, we have chosen the amount of generated cells/grid elements (in whole discretization domain and selected cross sections) with respect to preservation of the accuracy of the computational domain. Generation of the mesh for hydrodynamic modelling is strongly reliant on domain size and domain resolution. Topographical dataset used in this paper was created using LiDAR method and it captures 5.9km long section of a catchment of the river Olše. We studied crucial changes in topography for generated mesh. Assessment was done by commonly used statistical and visualization methods.

  7. Use of Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) technique for the determination of 1-D shear wave velocity in a landslide area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, S.; Del Gaudio, V.; Venisti, N.; Wasowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of an ongoing study on seismic response of landslide-prone hill-slopes in Central Italy (area of Caramanico Terme), we tested the applicability of the Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) analysis technique (Louie, 2001) to obtain geometrical and physical parameters needed for numerical modelling. In particular, we used this technique to determine one-dimensional shear-wave velocity profiles (Vs) at sites located on and close to a recent landslide that mobilized 30-40 m thick Quaternary colluvium overlying Pliocene mudstones. The use of this technique in unstable slope areas presents difficulties related to rough topography and lateral lithological heterogeneities, which prevent the extension of geophone array up to the minimum lengths (100 - 200 m) commonly adopted in standard applications. Moreover, sites distant from anthropic sources of microtremors can have unfavourable noise conditions in comparison with other well established cases of application. To check the stability of the ReMi data in these operative conditions and the confidence level of the results, three ReMi campaigns were conducted at different times using different acquisition parameters (seismograph channel number, geophone frequency and spacing). We also tested simultaneous noise recording along orthogonal arrays to investigate a possible presence of directional variations of soil properties. The Rayleigh wave velocity dispersion data derived from picking carried out on p (slowness)-f (frequency) matrix showed the presence in noise recordings of different Rayleigh wave vibration modes (fundamental and first two higher modes), which prevail at different frequency intervals. This indicates that it is essential to correctly identify the different vibration modes to avoid erroneous data interpretation (e.g. fictitious identification of velocity decrease with depth). An analysis of the influence of changing environmental conditions and of different acquisition parameters was conducted through

  8. Lattice Models for Granular-Like Velocity Fields: Hydrodynamic Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manacorda, Alessandro; Plata, Carlos A.; Lasanta, Antonio; Puglisi, Andrea; Prados, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    A recently introduced model describing—on a 1d lattice—the velocity field of a granular fluid is discussed in detail. The dynamics of the velocity field occurs through next-neighbours inelastic collisions which conserve momentum but dissipate energy. The dynamics is described through the corresponding Master Equation for the time evolution of the probability distribution. In the continuum limit, equations for the average velocity and temperature fields with fluctuating currents are derived, which are analogous to hydrodynamic equations of granular fluids when restricted to the shear modes. Therefore, the homogeneous cooling state, with its linear instability, and other relevant regimes such as the uniform shear flow and the Couette flow states are described. The evolution in time and space of the single particle probability distribution, in all those regimes, is also discussed, showing that the local equilibrium is not valid in general. The noise for the momentum and energy currents, which are correlated, are white and Gaussian. The same is true for the noise of the energy sink, which is usually negligible.

  9. A 1-D evolutionary model for icy satellites, applied to Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Uri; Prialnik, Dina

    2016-04-01

    We develop a long-term 1-D evolution model for icy satellites that couples multiple processes: water migration and differentiation, geochemical reactions and silicate phase transitions, compaction by self-gravity, and ablation. The model further considers the following energy sources and sinks: tidal heating, radiogenic heating, geochemical energy released by serpentinization or absorbed by mineral dehydration, gravitational energy and insolation, and heat transport by conduction, convection, and advection. We apply the model to Enceladus, by guessing the initial conditions that would render a structure compatible with present-day observations, assuming the initial structure to have been homogeneous. Assuming the satellite has been losing water continually along its evolution, we postulate that it was formed as a more massive, more icy and more porous satellite, and gradually transformed into its present day state due to sustained long-term tidal heating. We consider several initial compositions and evolution scenarios and follow the evolution for the age of the Solar System, testing the present day model results against the available observational constraints. Our model shows the present configuration to be differentiated into a pure icy mantle, several tens of km thick, overlying a rocky core, composed of dehydrated rock at the center and hydrated rock in the outer part. For Enceladus, it predicts a higher rock/ice mass ratio than previously assumed and a thinner ice mantle, compatible with recent estimates based on gravity field measurements. Although, obviously, the model cannot be used to explain local phenomena, it sheds light on the internal structure invoked in explanations of localized features and activities.

  10. Significance of flow clustering and sequencing on sediment transport: 1D sediment transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Kazi; Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers 1D hydraulic model data on the effect of high flow clusters and sequencing on sediment transport. Using observed flow gauge data from the River Caldew, England, a novel stochastic modelling approach was developed in order to create alternative 50 year flow sequences. Whilst the observed probability density of gauge data was preserved in all sequences, the order in which those flows occurred was varied using the output from a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with generalised Pareto distribution (GP). In total, one hundred 50 year synthetic flow series were generated and used as the inflow boundary conditions for individual flow series model runs using the 1D sediment transport model HEC-RAS. The model routed graded sediment through the case study river reach to define the long-term morphological changes. Comparison of individual simulations provided a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of channel capacity to flow sequence. Specifically, each 50 year synthetic flow sequence was analysed using a 3-month, 6-month or 12-month rolling window approach and classified for clusters in peak discharge. As a cluster is described as a temporal grouping of flow events above a specified threshold, the threshold condition used herein is considered as a morphologically active channel forming discharge event. Thus, clusters were identified for peak discharges in excess of 10%, 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of the 1 year Return Period (RP) event. The window of above-peak flows also required cluster definition and was tested for timeframes 1, 2, 10 and 30 days. Subsequently, clusters could be described in terms of the number of events, maximum peak flow discharge, cumulative flow discharge and skewness (i.e. a description of the flow sequence). The model output for each cluster was analysed for the cumulative flow volume and cumulative sediment transport (mass). This was then compared to the total sediment transport of a single flow event of equivalent flow volume

  11. 1D-3D hybrid modeling—from multi-compartment models to full resolution models in space and time

    PubMed Central

    Grein, Stephan; Stepniewski, Martin; Reiter, Sebastian; Knodel, Markus M.; Queisser, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of cellular and network dynamics in the brain by means of modeling and simulation has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field, that uses sophisticated modeling and simulation approaches to understand distinct areas of brain function. Depending on the underlying complexity, these models vary in their level of detail, in order to cope with the attached computational cost. Hence for large network simulations, single neurons are typically reduced to time-dependent signal processors, dismissing the spatial aspect of each cell. For single cell or networks with relatively small numbers of neurons, general purpose simulators allow for space and time-dependent simulations of electrical signal processing, based on the cable equation theory. An emerging field in Computational Neuroscience encompasses a new level of detail by incorporating the full three-dimensional morphology of cells and organelles into three-dimensional, space and time-dependent, simulations. While every approach has its advantages and limitations, such as computational cost, integrated and methods-spanning simulation approaches, depending on the network size could establish new ways to investigate the brain. In this paper we present a hybrid simulation approach, that makes use of reduced 1D-models using e.g., the NEURON simulator—which couples to fully resolved models for simulating cellular and sub-cellular dynamics, including the detailed three-dimensional morphology of neurons and organelles. In order to couple 1D- and 3D-simulations, we present a geometry-, membrane potential- and intracellular concentration mapping framework, with which graph- based morphologies, e.g., in the swc- or hoc-format, are mapped to full surface and volume representations of the neuron and computational data from 1D-simulations can be used as boundary conditions for full 3D simulations and vice versa. Thus, established models and data, based on general purpose 1D-simulators, can be directly coupled to

  12. 1D-coupled photochemical model of neutrals, cations and anions in the atmosphere of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrijevic, M.; Loison, J. C.; Hickson, K. M.; Gronoff, G.

    2016-04-01

    Many models with different characteristics have been published so far to study the chemical processes at work in Titan's atmosphere. Some models focus on neutral species in the stratosphere or ionic species in the ionosphere, but few of them couple all the species throughout the whole atmosphere. Very few of these emphasize the importance of uncertainties in the chemical scheme and study their propagation in the model. We have developed a new 1D-photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere coupling neutral species with positive and negative ions from the lower atmosphere up to the ionosphere and have compared our results with observations to have a comprehensive view of the chemical processes driving the composition of the stratosphere and ionosphere of Titan. We have updated the neutral, positive ion and negative ion chemistry and have improved the description of N2 photodissociation by introducing high resolution N2 absorption cross sections. We performed for the first time an uncertainty propagation study in a fully coupled ion-neutral model. We determine how uncertainties on rate constants on both neutral and ionic reactions influence the model results and pinpoint the key reactions responsible for this behavior. We find very good agreement between our model results and observations in both the stratosphere and in the ionosphere for most neutral compounds. Our results are also in good agreement with an average INMS mass spectrum and specific flybys in the dayside suggesting that our chemical model (for both neutral and ions) provides a good approximation of Titan's atmospheric chemistry as a whole. Our uncertainty propagation study highlights the difficulty to interpret the INMS mass spectra for masses 14, 31, 41 and we identified the key reactions responsible for these ambiguities. Despite an overall improvement in the chemical model, disagreement for some specific compounds (HC3N, C2H5CN, C2H4) highlights the role that certain physical processes could play

  13. A Zonal Climate Model for the 1-D Mars Evolution Code: Explaining Meridiani Planum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. V.; McKay, C. P.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2005-12-01

    Recent MER Opportunity observations suggest there existed an extensive body of shallow water in the present Meridiani Planum during the late Noachian [1]. Observations of roughly contemporaneous valley networks show little net erosion [2]. Hypsometric analysis [3] finds that martian drainage basins are similar to terrestrial drainage basins in very arid regions. The immaturity of martian drainage basins suggests they were formed by infrequent fluvial action. If similar fluvial discharges are responsible for the laminations in the salt-bearing outcrops of Meridiani Planum, their explanation may require a climate model based on surface thermal equilibrium with diurnally averaged temperatures greater than freezing. In the context of Mars' chaotic obliquity, invoking a moderately thick atmosphere with seasonal insolation patterns may uncover the conditions under which the outcrops formed. We compounded a 1-D model of the evolution of Mars' inventories of CO2 over its lifetime called the Mars Evolution Code (MEC) [4]. We are assembling a zonal climate model that includes meridional heat transport, heat conduction to/from the regolith, latent heat deposition, and an albedo distribution based on the depositional patterns of ices. Since water vapor is an important greenhouse gas, and whose ice affects the albedo, we must install a full hydrological cycle. This requires a thermal model of the regolith to model diffusion of water vapor to/from a permafrost layer. Our model carries obliquity and eccentricity distributions consistent with Laskar et al. [5], so we will be able to model the movement of the ice cap with changes in obliquity. The climate model will be used to investigate the conditions under which ponded water could have occurred in the late Noachian, thus supplying a constraint on the free inventory of CO2 at that time. Our evolution code can then investigate Hesperian and Amazonian climates. The model could also be used to understand evidence of recent climate

  14. Modelling hydrology of a single bioretention system with HYDRUS-1D.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems.

  15. Spectral functions in the 1D and 2D Bose Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, Robert; Duchon, Eric; Trivedi, Nandini

    2014-03-01

    We use state of the art numerical techniques including quantum Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods to obtain the low energy excitation spectra in the superfluid and Mott-insulator phases of the Bose Hubbard model. These results are checked in 1D against Bethe Ansatz and tDMRG results and extended to 2D where such approaches are impossible. In the superfluid, we find linearly dispersing Bogoliubov sound modes as well as additional gapped modes broadened by interaction effects. In the Mott insulator, we find evidence for a finite gap and well defined quasiparticle excitations. We examine properties such as the excitation lifetime, density of states, and speed of sound as the system is tuned across the quantum phase transition that separates the superfluid and Mott states. These results provide an important theoretical framework for upcoming ultracold atom experiments in one and two dimensions. We acknowledge support from the NSF DMR-0907275 (R.I., E.D. and N.T.).

  16. Modelling Hydrology of a Single Bioretention System with HYDRUS-1D

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240

  17. Modelling hydrology of a single bioretention system with HYDRUS-1D.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240

  18. Investigating the Response of Greenland Outlet Glaciers to Perturbations Using a 1D Flowline Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulos, K.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the behavior of many Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers has been characterized by dramatic acceleration, thinning, and retreat. In some cases this behavior is followed by re-advance, thickening and deceleration. The mechanisms that control glacier stability are not fully understood, and hinder ice sheet mass balance projections. Many studies suggest that accelerations are caused exclusively by processes at the terminus, namely by mechanisms that result in increases in iceberg calving rates. In this study we investigate whether comparable accelerations can initiate at different places along the glacier trunk due to changes in subglacial processes or shear margin evolution. We begin our experiments using a prognostic depth integrated (1-D) flowline model applied to Helheim Glacier, and investigate its flow response to perturbations at the terminus and up-flow. Our work shows that large-scale accelerations could have initiated up-flow far from the terminus. The results of this study will contribute to the long-lasting debate about the role of terminus dynamics, and thus ocean conditions, in modulating ice sheet mass balance.

  19. Self-assembling morphologies in a 1D model of two-inclusion-containing lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Mingfei; Fang, Jinghuai; Peng, Ju

    2016-08-01

    The self-assembling morphologies in a 1D model of two-inclusion-containing lipid membranes are investigated by using self-consistent field theory. It is found that the shape and overall volume fraction of lipids, the hydrophobic strength and the distance of inclusions play important roles in the morphology of lipid membrane. The membrane consisting of cylindrical lipids with a symmetrical head and tail only forms the well-known normal morphology. However, for the membrane consisting of cone-like lipids with a relatively big head, the increase of the hydrophobic strength of inclusions can realize the membrane transition from the normal morphology to the pore morphologies. With increasing distance between two inclusions, two pores, three pores and four pores appear in turn. Conversely, the increase of the overall volume fraction of lipids can make the membrane undergo a reentrant transition from pore morphologies to normal morphologies. The results may be helpful in our understanding of the pore-forming mechanism.

  20. Open boundary conditions for the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmarais, J. L.; Kuerten, J. G. M.

    2014-04-01

    New techniques are developed for solving multi-phase flows in unbounded domains using the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D. They extend two open boundary conditions originally designed for the Navier-Stokes equations. The non-dimensional formulation of the DIM generalizes the approach to any fluid. The equations support a steady state whose analytical approximation close to the critical point depends only on temperature. This feature enables the use of detectors at the boundaries switching between conventional boundary conditions in bulk phases and a multi-phase strategy in interfacial regions. Moreover, the latter takes advantage of the steady state approximation to minimize the interface-boundary interactions. The techniques are applied to fluids experiencing a phase transition and where the interface between the phases travels through one of the boundaries. When the interface crossing the boundary is fully developed, the technique greatly improves results relative to cases where conventional boundary conditions can be used. Limitations appear when the interface crossing the boundary is not a stable equilibrium between the two phases: the terms responsible for creating the true balance between the phases perturb the interior solution. Both boundary conditions present good numerical stability properties: the error remains bounded when the initial conditions or the far field values are perturbed. For the PML, the influence of its main parameters on the global error is investigated to make a compromise between computational costs and maximum error. The approach can be extended to multiple spatial dimensions.

  1. Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. H.; Morrison, S.; Morris, S.; Tigar, A.; Dam, W. L.; Dayvault, J.

    2015-12-01

    At many U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites, 100 year natural flushing was selected as a remedial option for groundwater uranium plumes. However, current data indicate that natural flushing is not occurring as quickly as expected and solid-phase and aqueous uranium concentrations are persistent. At the Grand Junction, Colorado office site, column testing was completed on core collected below an area where uranium mill tailings have been removed. The total uranium concentration in this core was 13.2 mg/kg and the column was flushed with laboratory-created water with no uranium and chemistry similar to the nearby Gunnison River. The core was flushed for a total of 91 pore volumes producing a maximum effluent uranium concentration of 6,110 μg/L at 2.1 pore volumes and a minimum uranium concentration of 36.2 μg/L at the final pore volume. These results indicate complex geochemical reactions at small pore volumes and a long tailing affect at greater pore volumes. Stop flow data indicate the occurrence of non-equilibrium processes that create uranium concentration rebound. These data confirm the potential for plume persistence, which is occurring at the field scale. 1D reactive transport modeling was completed using PHREEQC (geochemical model) and calibrated to the column test data manually and using PEST (inverse modeling calibration routine). Processes of sorption, dual porosity with diffusion, mineral dissolution, dispersion, and cation exchange were evaluated separately and in combination. The calibration results indicate that sorption and dual porosity are major processes in explaining the column test data. These processes are also supported by fission track photographs that show solid-phase uranium residing in less mobile pore spaces. These procedures provide valuable information on plume persistence and secondary source processes that may be used to better inform and evaluate remedial strategies, including natural flushing.

  2. 1-D/3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Henry, M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Steinshouer, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The 3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin comprises 18 stacked intervals from the base of the Devonian Woodbend Group and age equivalent formations to ground surface; it includes an estimated thickness of eroded sediments based on 1-D burial history reconstructions for 33 wells across the study area. Each interval for the construction of the 3-D model was chosen on the basis of whether it is primarily composed of petroleum system elements of reservoir, hydrocarbon source, seal, overburden, or underburden strata, as well as the quality and areal distribution of well and other data. Preliminary results of the modeling support the following interpretations. Long-distance migration of hydrocarbons east of the Rocky Mountains is indicated by oil and gas accumulations in areas within which source rocks are thermally immature for oil and (or) gas. Petroleum systems in the basin are segmented by the northeast-trending Sweetgrass Arch; hydrocarbons west of the arch were from source rocks lying near or beneath the Rocky Mountains, whereas oil and gas east of the arch were sourced from the Williston Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and migration are primarily due to increased burial associated with the Laramide Orogeny. Hydrocarbon sources and migration were also influenced by the Lower Cretaceous sub-Mannville unconformity. In the Peace River Arch area of northern Alberta, Jurassic and older formations exhibit high-angle truncations against the unconformity. Potential Paleozoic though Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rocks are in contact with overlying Mannville Group reservoir facies. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and southern Alberta the contacts are parallel to sub-parallel, with the result that hydrocarbon source rocks are separated from the Mannville Group by seal-forming strata within the Jurassic. Vertical and lateral movement of hydrocarbons along the faults in the Rocky Mountains deformed belt probably also resulted in mixing of oil and gas from numerous

  3. 1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih

    2014-05-01

    Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond

  4. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  5. Anti-TGF-β Antibody, 1D11, Ameliorates Glomerular Fibrosis in Mouse Models after the Onset of Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoyan; Schnaper, H. William; Matsusaka, Taiji; Pastan, Ira; Ledbetter, Steve; Hayashida, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is a final common pathway leading to loss of kidney function, in which the fibrogenic cytokine, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), plays a central role. While previous studies showed that TGF-β antagonism by various means prevents fibrosis in mouse models, clinical approaches based on these findings remain elusive. 1D11 is a neutralizing antibody to all three isoforms of TGF-β. In both adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy and NEP25 podocyte ablation nephropathy, thrice-weekly intraperitoneal administration of 1D11 from the day of disease induction until the mice were sacrificed (day 14 for ADR and day 28 for NEP25), significantly reduced glomerular COL1A2 mRNA accumulation and histological changes. Consistent with our previous findings, proteinuria remained overt in the mice treated with 1D11, suggesting distinct mechanisms for proteinuria and fibrogenesis. Podocyte numbers determined by WT1 staining were significantly reduced in NEP25-model glomeruli as expected, while WT1-positive cells were preserved in mice receiving 1D11. Even when 1D11 was administered after the onset of proteinuria on day 3, 1D11 preserved WT1-positive cell numbers in glomeruli and significantly reduced glomerular scar score (2.5 ± 0.2 [control IgG] vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 [1D11], P < 0.05) and glomerular COL1A2 mRNA expression (19.3 ± 4.4 [control IgG] vs. 8.4 ± 2.4 [1D11] fold increase over the healthy control, P < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of podocytes and denuded glomerular basement membrane in NEP25 mice with disease, whereas podocytes remained attached to the basement membrane, though effaced and swollen, in those receiving 1D11 from day 3. Together, these data suggest that TGF-β neutralization by 1D11 prevents glomerular fibrosis even when started after the onset of proteinuria. While overt proteinuria and podocyte effacement persist, 1D11 prevents total podocytes detachment, which might be a key event activating fibrogenic events in glomeruli

  6. Diesel Engine performance improvement in a 1-D engine model using Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karra, Prashanth

    2015-12-01

    A particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique was implemented to improve the engine development and optimization process to simultaneously reduce emissions and improve the fuel efficiency. The optimization was performed on a 4-stroke 4-cylinder GT-Power based 1-D diesel engine model. To achieve the multi-objective optimization, a merit function was defined which included the parameters to be optimized: Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Nonmethyl hydro carbons (NMHC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). EPA Tier 3 emissions standards for non-road diesel engines between 37 and 75 kW of output were chosen as targets for the optimization. The combustion parameters analyzed in this study include: Start of main Injection, Start of Pilot Injection, Pilot fuel quantity, Swirl, and Tumble. The PSO was found to be very effective in quickly arriving at a solution that met the target criteria as defined in the merit function. The optimization took around 40-50 runs to find the most favourable engine operating condition under the constraints specified in the optimization. In a favourable case with a high merit function values, the NOx+NMHC and CO values were reduced to as low as 2.9 and 0.014 g/kWh, respectively. The operating conditions at this point were: 10 ATDC Main SOI, -25 ATDC Pilot SOI, 0.25 mg of pilot fuel, 0.45 Swirl and 0.85 tumble. These results indicate that late main injections preceded by a close, small pilot injection are most favourable conditions at the operating condition tested.

  7. Testing the early Mars H2-CO2 greenhouse hypothesis with a 1-D photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natasha; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James F.

    2015-09-01

    A recent study by Ramirez et al. (Ramirez, R.M. et al. [2014]. Nat. Geosci. 7(1), 59-63.) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ˜1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere was indeed H2-rich, we might be able to see evidence of this in the rock record. The hypothesis proposed here is consistent with new data from the Curiosity Rover, which show evidence for a long-lived lake in Gale Crater near Mt. Sharp. It is also consistent with measured oxygen fugacities of martian meteorites, which show evidence for progressive mantle oxidation over time.

  8. Locating earthquakes in west Texas oil fields using 3-D anisotropic velocity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Fa; Doser, D.; Baker, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Earthquakes within the War-Wink gas field, Ward County, Texas, that have been located with a 1-D velocity model occur near the edges and top of a naturally occurring overpressured zone. Because the War-Wink field is a structurally controlled anticline with significant velocity anisotropy associated with the overpressured zone and finely layered evaporites, the authors have attempted to re-locate earthquakes using a 3-D anisotropic velocity model. Preliminary results with this model give the unsatisfactory result that many earthquakes previously located at the top of the overpressured zone (3-3.5 km) moved into the evaporites (1-1.5 km) above the field. They believe that this result could be caused by: (1) aliasing the velocity model; or (2) problems in determining the correct location minima when several minima exist. They are currently attempting to determine which of these causes is more likely for the unsatisfactory result observed.

  9. Comparison of 1D and 2D CSR Models with Application to the FERMI@ELETTRA Bunch Compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, G.; Ellison, J.A.; Heinemann, K.

    2011-03-28

    We compare our 2D mean field (Vlasov-Maxwell) treatment of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects with 1D approximations of the CSR force which are commonly implemented in CSR codes. In our model we track particles in 4D phase space and calculate 2D forces [1]. The major cost in our calculation is the computation of the 2D force. To speed up the computation and improve 1D models we also investigate approximations to our exact 2D force. As an application, we present numerical results for the Fermi{at}Elettra first bunch compressor with the configuration described in [1].

  10. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-11-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood

  11. Ultralow-velocity zone geometries resolved by multidimensional waveform modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Rost, S.; Thorne, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs) are thin patches of material with strongly reduced seismic wave speeds situated on top of the core-mantle boundary (CMB). A common phase used to detect ULVZs is SPdKS (SKPdS), an SKS wave with a short diffracted P leg along the CMB. Most previous efforts have examined ULVZ properties using 1-D waveform modelling approaches. We present waveform modelling results using the 2.5-D finite-difference algorithm PSVaxi allowing us better insight into ULVZ structure and location. We characterize ULVZ waveforms based on ULVZ elastic properties, shape and position along the SPdKS ray path. In particular, we vary the ULVZ location (e.g. source or receiver side), ULVZ topographical profiles (e.g. boxcar, trapezoidal or Gaussian) and ULVZ lateral scale along great circle path (2.5°, 5°, 10°). We observe several waveform effects absent in 1-D ULVZ models and show evidence for waveform effects allowing the differentiation between source and receiver side ULVZs. Early inception of the SPdKS/SKPdS phase is difficult to detect for receiver-side ULVZs with maximum shifts in SKPdS initiation of ˜3° in epicentral distance, whereas source-side ULVZs produce maximum shifts of SPdKS initiation of ˜5°, allowing clear separation of source- versus receiver-side structure. We present a case study using data from up to 300 broad-band stations in Turkey recorded between 2005 and 2010. We observe a previously undetected ULVZ in the southern Atlantic Ocean region centred near 45°S, 12.5°W, with a lateral scale of ˜3°, VP reduction of 10 per cent, VS reduction of 30 per cent and density increase of 10 per cent relative to PREM.

  12. Crosswell born inversion for heterogeneous velocity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hegge, R.F.; Herman, G.C.; Sevink, A.G.J.

    1994-12-31

    The application of high-frequency asymptotic Born inverse scattering methods to cross-well imaging is discussed and illustrated with a number of model studies for synthetic data. In particular, attention is given to imaging problems that are associated with typical cross-well geometries. A severe problem is the existence of multiple travel paths between sources and receivers that are particularly apparent if low-velocity layers are present. When this occurs, the high-frequency asymptotic imaging method is no longer valid and large artifacts in the images can result. However, it is concluded that, even in the case of multiple travel paths, good images can be obtained by omitting the singularities in the imaging formula and by combining the results for different source locations.

  13. Comparison of the 1D flux theory with a 2D hydrodynamic secondary settling tank model.

    PubMed

    Ekama, G A; Marais, P

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of the 1D idealized flux theory (1DFT) for design of secondary settling tanks (SSTs) is evaluated by comparing its predicted maximum surface overflow (SOR) and solids loading (SLR) rates with that calculated from the 2D hydrodynamic model SettlerCAD using as a basis 35 full scale SST stress tests conducted on different SSTs with diameters from 30 to 45m and 2.25 to 4.1 m side water depth, with and without Stamford baffles. From the simulations, a relatively consistent pattern appeared, i.e. that the 1DFT can be used for design but its predicted maximum SLR needs to be reduced by an appropriate flux rating, the magnitude of which depends mainly on SST depth and hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Simulations of the sloping bottom shallow (1.5-2.5 m SWD) Dutch SSTs tested by STOWa and the Watts et al. SST, all with doubled SWDs, and the Darvill new (4.1 m) and old (2.5 m) SSTs with interchanged depths, were run to confirm the sensitivity of the flux rating to depth and HLR. Simulations with and without a Stamford baffle were also done. While the design of the internal features of the SST, such as baffling, have a marked influence on the effluent SS concentration for underloaded SSTs, these features appeared to have only a small influence on the flux rating, i.e. capacity, of the SST, In the meantime until more information is obtained, it would appear that from the simulations so far that the flux rating of 0.80 of the 1DFT maximum SLR recommended by Ekama and Marais remains a reasonable value to apply in the design of full scale SSTs--for deep SSTs (4 m SWD) the flux rating could be increased to 0.85 and for shallow SSTs (2.5 m SWD) decreased to 0.75. It is recommended that (i) while the apparent interrelationship between SST flux rating and depth suggests some optimization of the volume of the SST, that this be avoided and that (ii) the depth of the SST be designed independently of the surface area as is usually the practice and once selected, the

  14. 1D Runoff-runon stochastic model in the light of queueing theory : heterogeneity and connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, M.-A.; Mouche, E.; Ledoux, E.

    2012-04-01

    Runoff production on a hillslope during a rainfall event may be simplified as follows. Given a soil of constant infiltrability I, which is the maximum amount of water that the soil can infiltrate, and a constant rainfall intensity R, runoff is observed where R is greater than I. The infiltration rate equals the infiltrability when runoff is produced, R otherwise. When ponding time, topography, and overall spatial and temporal variations of physical parameters, such as R and I, are neglected, the runoff equation remains simple. In this study, we consider soils of spatially variable infiltrability. As runoff can re-infiltrate on down-slope areas of higher infiltrabilities (runon), the resulting process is highly non-linear. The stationary runoff equation is: Qn+1 = max(Qn + (R - In)*Δx , 0) where Qn is the runoff arriving on pixel n of size Δx [L2/T], R and In the rainfall intensity and infiltrability on that same pixel [L/T]. The non-linearity is due to the dependence of infiltration on R and Qn, that is runon. This re-infiltration process generates patterns of runoff along the slope, patterns that organise and connect to each other differently depending on the rainfall intensity and the nature of the soil heterogeneity. The runoff connectivity, assessed using the connectivity function of Allard (1993), affects greatly the dynamics of the runoff hillslope. Our aim is to assess, in a stochastic framework, the runoff organization on 1D slopes with random infiltrabilities (log-normal, exponential, bimodal and uniform distributions) by means of theoretical developments and numerical simulations. This means linking the nature of soil heterogeneity with the resulting runoff organisation. In term of connectivity, we investigate the relations between structural (infiltrability) and functional (runoff) connectivity. A theoretical framework based on the queueing theory is developed. We implement the idea of Jones et al. (2009), who remarked that the above formulation is

  15. INFIL1D: a quasi-analytical model for simulating one-dimensional, constant flux infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.S.; McKeon, T.J.

    1984-04-01

    The program INFIL1D is designed to calculate approximate wetting-front advance into an unsaturated, uniformly moist, homogeneous soil profile, under constant surface-flux conditions. The code is based on a quasi-analytical method, which utilizes an assumed invariant functional relationship between reduced (normalized) flux and water content. The code uses general hydraulic property data in tabular form to simulate constant surface-flux infiltration. 10 references, 4 figures.

  16. Comparison between a 1D and a 2D numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R. H.; Elmegaard, Brian; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders

    2008-05-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration system represents an environmentally attractive alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration. This paper compares the results of two numerical AMR models: (1) a 1D finite difference model and (2) a 2D finite element model. Both models simulate a reciprocating AMR and can determine the cyclical steady-state temperature profile of the system as well as performance parameters such as the refrigeration capacity, the work input and the coefficient of performance (COP). The models are used to analyse an AMR with a regenerator made of flat parallel plates of gadolinium operating in the presence of a 1 T magnetic field. The results are used to discuss under which circumstances a 1D model is insufficient and a 2D model is necessary. The results indicate that when the temperature gradients in the AMR perpendicular to the flow are small a 1D model obtains accurate results of overall results such as the refrigeration capacity but that a 2D model is required for a detailed analysis of the phenomena occurring inside the AMR.

  17. The anisotropy1 D604N mutation in the Arabidopsis cellulose synthase1 catalytic domain reduces cell wall crystallinity and the velocity of cellulose synthase complexes.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Ward, Juliet; Whittington, Angela; Hasenbein, Nortrud; Liu, Christine; Truong, Thy T; Galway, Moira E; Mansfield, Shawn D; Hocart, Charles H; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2013-05-01

    Multiple cellulose synthase (CesA) subunits assemble into plasma membrane complexes responsible for cellulose production. In the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) model system, we identified a novel D604N missense mutation, designated anisotropy1 (any1), in the essential primary cell wall CesA1. Most previously identified CesA1 mutants show severe constitutive or conditional phenotypes such as embryo lethality or arrest of cellulose production but any1 plants are viable and produce seeds, thus permitting the study of CesA1 function. The dwarf mutants have reduced anisotropic growth of roots, aerial organs, and trichomes. Interestingly, cellulose microfibrils were disordered only in the epidermal cells of the any1 inflorescence stem, whereas they were transverse to the growth axis in other tissues of the stem and in all elongated cell types of roots and dark-grown hypocotyls. Overall cellulose content was not altered but both cell wall crystallinity and the velocity of cellulose synthase complexes were reduced in any1. We crossed any1 with the temperature-sensitive radial swelling1-1 (rsw1-1) CesA1 mutant and observed partial complementation of the any1 phenotype in the transheterozygotes at rsw1-1's permissive temperature (21°C) and full complementation by any1 of the conditional rsw1-1 root swelling phenotype at the restrictive temperature (29°C). In rsw1-1 homozygotes at restrictive temperature, a striking dissociation of cellulose synthase complexes from the plasma membrane was accompanied by greatly diminished motility of intracellular cellulose synthase-containing compartments. Neither phenomenon was observed in the any1 rsw1-1 transheterozygotes, suggesting that the proteins encoded by the any1 allele replace those encoded by rsw1-1 at restrictive temperature. PMID:23532584

  18. Velocity Structure Determination Through Seismic Waveform Modeling and Time Deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, B.; Zhu, L.; Tan, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2001-12-01

    Through the use of seismic waveforms recorded by TriNet, a dataset of earthquake focal mechanisms and deviations (time shifts) relative to a standard model facilitates the investigation of the crust and uppermost mantle of southern California. The CAP method of focal mechanism determination, in use by TriNet on a routine basis, provides time shifts for surface waves and Pnl arrivals independently relative to the reference model. These shifts serve as initial data for calibration of local and regional seismic paths. Time shifts from the CAP method are derived by splitting the Pnl section of the waveform, the first arriving Pn to just before the arrival of the S wave, from the much slower surface waves then cross-correlating the data with synthetic waveforms computed from a standard model. Surface waves interact with the entire crust, but the upper crust causes the greatest effect. Whereas, Pnl arrivals sample the deeper crust, upper mantle, and source region. This natural division separates the upper from lower crust for regional calibration and structural modeling and allows 3-D velocity maps to be created using the resulting time shifts. Further examination of Pnl and other arrivals which interact with the Moho illuminate the complex nature of this boundary. Initial attempts at using the first 10 seconds of the Pnl section to determine upper most mantle structure have proven insightful. Two large earthquakes north of southern California in Nevada and Mammoth Lakes, CA allow the creation of record sections from 200 to 600 km. As the paths swing from east to west across southern California, simple 1-D models turn into complex structure, dramatically changing the waveform character. Using finite difference models to explain the structure, we determine that a low velocity zone is present at the base of the crust and extends to 100 km in depth. Velocity variations of 5 percent of the mantle in combination with steeply sloping edges produces complex waveform variations

  19. Glut1 deficiency (G1D): Epilepsy and metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of the most common human phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B.; Ma, Qian; Duarte, Joao; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Sinton, Christopher M.; Heilig, Charles W.; Pascual, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain glucose supplies most of the carbon required for acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) generation (an important step for myelin synthesis) and for neurotransmitter production via further metabolism of acetyl-CoA in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, it is not known whether reduced brain glucose transporter type I (GLUT-1) activity, the hallmark of the GLUT-1 deficiency (G1D) syndrome, leads to acetyl-CoA, TCA or neurotransmitter depletion. This question is relevant because, in its most common form in man, G1D is associated with cerebral hypomyelination (manifested as microcephaly) and epilepsy, suggestive of acetyl-CoA depletion and neurotransmitter dysfunction, respectively. Yet, brain metabolism in G1D remains underexplored both theoretically and experimentally, partly because computational models of limited brain glucose transport are subordinate to metabolic assumptions and partly because current hemizygous G1D mouse models manifest a mild phenotype not easily amenable to investigation. In contrast, adult antisense G1D mice replicate the human phenotype of spontaneous epilepsy associated with robust thalamocortical electrical oscillations. Additionally, and in consonance with human metabolic imaging observations, thalamus and cerebral cortex display the lowest GLUT-1 expression and glucose uptake in the mutant mouse. This depletion of brain glucose is associated with diminished plasma fatty acids and elevated ketone body levels, and with decreased brain acetyl-CoA and fatty acid contents, consistent with brain ketone body consumption and with stimulation of brain beta-oxidation and/or diminished cerebral lipid synthesis. In contrast with other epilepsies, astrocyte glutamine synthetase expression, cerebral TCA cycle intermediates, amino acid and amine neurotransmitter contents are also intact in G1D. The data suggest that the TCA cycle is preserved in G1D because reduced glycolysis and acetyl-CoA formation can be balanced by enhanced ketone body

  20. A crustal seismic velocity model for the UK, Ireland and surrounding seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, A.; England, R.W.; Maguire, Peter K.H.

    2007-01-01

    A regional model of the 3-D variation in seismic P-wave velocity structure in the crust of NW Europe has been compiled from wide-angle reflection/refraction profiles. Along each 2-D profile a velocity-depth function has been digitised at 5 km intervals. These 1-D velocity functions were mapped into three dimensions using ordinary kriging with weights determined to minimise the difference between digitised and interpolated values. An analysis of variograms of the digitised data suggested a radial isotropic weighting scheme was most appropriate. Horizontal dimensions of the model cells are optimised at 40 ?? 40 km and the vertical dimension at 1 km. The resulting model provides a higher resolution image of the 3-D variation in seismic velocity structure of the UK, Ireland and surrounding areas than existing models. The construction of the model through kriging allows the uncertainty in the velocity structure to be assessed. This uncertainty indicates the high density of data required to confidently interpolate the crustal velocity structure, and shows that for this region the velocity is poorly constrained for large areas away from the input data. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  1. An evaluation of 1D loss model collections for the off-design performance prediction of automotive turbocharger compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, P.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.; Dietrich, M.

    2013-12-01

    Single-zone modelling is used to assess different collections of impeller 1D loss models. Three collections of loss models have been identified in literature, and the background to each of these collections is discussed. Each collection is evaluated using three modern automotive turbocharger style centrifugal compressors; comparisons of performance for each of the collections are made. An empirical data set taken from standard hot gas stand tests for each turbocharger is used as a baseline for comparison. Compressor range is predicted in this study; impeller diffusion ratio is shown to be a useful method of predicting compressor surge in 1D, and choke is predicted using basic compressible flow theory. The compressor designer can use this as a guide to identify the most compatible collection of losses for turbocharger compressor design applications. The analysis indicates the most appropriate collection for the design of automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressors.

  2. Revisiting the Anderson Model with Power-Law Correlated Disorder in 1D and 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Greg; Sandler, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The dimensionality of a disordered system directly affects the critical energy where a localization/delocalization transition occurs. In non-interacting systems with uncorrelated disorder, it is widely known that all states in one-dimension are localized. However, for some correlations there exist transition energies similar to mobility edges or small subsets of extended states that are robust against disorder. In this talk, we will present results on the diffusion of a wavepacket in a power-law correlated random potential of the form < V (r) V (0) > =1/(a + r)α . We also report results for the participation ratio Pr =1/N 2 < |ai |4 > . Preliminary results for 1D chains support the existence of a mobility edge near the band center. Square and graphene lattices will also be discussed. This work has been supported by the NSF-PIRE mwn/ciam and NSF Grant DMR-0710581.

  3. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun-Fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Gao, Zi-You

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink-antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model.

  4. Simple method for exact calculation of thermodynamic properties of the 1D Hubbard model with infinite repulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov, K. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Tikhonov, N. V.

    2013-02-15

    It is shown that the canonical partition function in the 1D Hubbard model with U = {infinity} in the nearest neighbor approximation is determined by the product of canonical partition functions of spinons and holons. In this approximation, the concentration and temperature dependences of the free and internal energies, as well as of the chemical potential, entropy, and heat capacity, are calculated for electron concentrations of 0 {<=} n{sub e} < 1.

  5. Velocity statistics of the Nagel-Schreckenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Nicolas; Emig, Thorsten; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The statistics of velocities in the cellular automaton model of Nagel and Schreckenberg for traffic are studied. From numerical simulations, we obtain the probability distribution function (PDF) for vehicle velocities and the velocity-velocity (vv) covariance function. We identify the probability to find a standing vehicle as a potential order parameter that signals nicely the transition between free congested flow for a sufficiently large number of velocity states. Our results for the vv covariance function resemble features of a second-order phase transition. We develop a 3-body approximation that allows us to relate the PDFs for velocities and headways. Using this relation, an approximation to the velocity PDF is obtained from the headway PDF observed in simulations. We find a remarkable agreement between this approximation and the velocity PDF obtained from simulations.

  6. Lattice models for granular-like velocity fields: finite-size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, C. A.; Manacorda, A.; Lasanta, A.; Puglisi, A.; Prados, A.

    2016-09-01

    Long-range spatial correlations in the velocity and energy fields of a granular fluid are discussed in the framework of a 1d lattice model. The dynamics of the velocity field occurs through nearest-neighbour inelastic collisions that conserve momentum but dissipate energy. A set of equations for the fluctuating hydrodynamics of the velocity and energy mesoscopic fields give a first approximation for (i) the velocity structure factor and (ii) the finite-size correction to the Haff law, both in the homogeneous cooling regime. At a more refined level, we have derived the equations for the two-site velocity correlations and the total energy fluctuations. First, we seek a perturbative solution thereof, in powers of the inverse of system size. On the one hand, when scaled with the granular temperature, the velocity correlations tend to a stationary value in the long time limit. On the other hand, the scaled standard deviation of the total energy diverges, that is, the system shows multiscaling. Second, we find an exact solution for the velocity correlations in terms of the spectrum of eigenvalues of a certain matrix. The results of numerical simulations of the microscopic model confirm our theoretical results, including the above described multiscaling phenomenon.

  7. A modified full velocity difference model with the consideration of velocity deviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a modified full velocity difference model (FVDM) based on car-following theory is proposed with the consideration of velocity deviation which represents the inexact judgement of velocity. The stability condition is obtained by the use of linear stability analysis. It is shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with the deviation extent of velocity. The Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified K-dV (MKdV) equations are derived to describe the triangular shock waves, soliton waves and kink-antikink waves in the stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The numerical simulations show a good agreement with the analytical results, such as density wave, hysteresis loop, acceleration, deceleration and so on. The results show that traffic congestion can be suppressed by taking the positive effect of velocity deviation into account. By taking the positive effect of high estimate of velocity into account, the unrealistic high deceleration and negative velocity which occur in FVDM will be eliminated in the proposed model.

  8. Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. I. Theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Zheng, Yi; Jing, Yipeng

    2015-02-01

    Cosmology based on large scale peculiar velocity prefers volume weighted velocity statistics. However, measuring the volume weighted velocity statistics from inhomogeneously distributed galaxies (simulation particles/halos) suffers from an inevitable and significant sampling artifact. We study this sampling artifact in the velocity power spectrum measured by the nearest particle velocity assignment method by Zheng et al., [Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013).]. We derive the analytical expression of leading and higher order terms. We find that the sampling artifact suppresses the z =0 E -mode velocity power spectrum by ˜10 % at k =0.1 h /Mpc , for samples with number density 10-3 (Mpc /h )-3 . This suppression becomes larger for larger k and for sparser samples. We argue that this source of systematic errors in peculiar velocity cosmology, albeit severe, can be self-calibrated in the framework of our theoretical modelling. We also work out the sampling artifact in the density-velocity cross power spectrum measurement. A more robust evaluation of related statistics through simulations will be presented in a companion paper by Zheng et al., [Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. II. Detection in simulations and comparison with theoretical modelling, arXiv:1409.6809.]. We also argue that similar sampling artifact exists in other velocity assignment methods and hence must be carefully corrected to avoid systematic bias in peculiar velocity cosmology.

  9. An improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-07-01

    To explore and evaluate the impacts of relative velocity fluctuation on the dynamic characteristics and fuel consumptions of traffic flow, we present an improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation based on the full velocity difference model, then we carry out several numerical simulations to determine the optimal time window length and to explore how relative velocity fluctuation affects cars' velocity and its fluctuation as well as fuel consumptions. It can be found that the improved car-following model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion, and that taking relative velocity fluctuation into account in designing the advanced adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  10. Transport of Solid Material in Dynamically Evolving 1d Disk Models with Pressure Maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarczay-Nehéz, Dóra; Regály, Zsolt; Sándor, Zsolt

    2013-07-01

    Planet formation theory based on the core-accretion scenario suffers from the very fast loss of dust particles, the building blocks of planetesimals. Thus, the available material to build planets is consumed before a significant mass of dust are able to stick together. An effective solution to this problem might be a pressure trap. The radial drift of the dust particles are caused by the difference in the orbital velocity of the gas and the dust particles. At the edges of the accretionally dead zone in a protoplanetary disk (Gammie, 1996), the gradient of the gas pressure vanishes serving a trap for dust particles under inward drift. The increased density of dust particles there may accelerate the formation of planetesimals, and by subsequent collisions even the formation of planets and planetary cores. In the present work we investigate the mass growth due to the dust particle accumulation in pressure maxima. Our results support the idea of rapid planet formation via core-accretion, but we find that the efficiency of dust accumulation depends on the disk physical parameters.

  11. 1-D and 2-D resonances in an Alpine valley identified from ambient noise measurements and 3-D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Olivier; Cornou, Cécile; Jongmans, Denis; Schwartz, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    H/V spectral ratios are regularly used for estimating the bedrock depth in 1-D like basins exhibiting smooth lateral variations. In the case of 2-D or 3-D pronounced geometries, observational and numerical studies have shown that H/V curves exhibit peculiar shapes and that the H/V frequency generally overestimates 1-D theoretical resonance frequency. To investigate the capabilities of the H/V method in complex structures, a detailed comparison between measured and 3-D-simulated ambient vibrations was performed in the small-size lower Romanche valley (French Alps), which shows significant variations in geometry, downstream and upstream the Séchilienne basin. Analysing the H/V curve characteristics, two different wave propagation modes were identified along the valley. Relying on previous geophysical investigation, a power-law relationship was derived between the bedrock depth and the H/V peak frequency, which was used for building a 3-D model of the valley geometry. Simulated and experimental H/V curves were found to exhibit quite similar features in terms of curve shape and peak frequency values, validating the 3-D structure. This good agreement also evidenced two different propagation modes in the valley: 2-D resonance in the Séchilienne basin and 1-D resonance in the external parts. This study underlines the interest of H/V curves for investigating complex basin structures.

  12. An assessment of a new settling velocity parameterisation for cohesive sediment transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, John V.; Manning, Andrew J.

    2007-07-01

    An important element within the Defra funded Estuary Process Research project "EstProc" was the implementation of the new or refined algorithms, produced under EstProc, into cohesive sediment numerical models. The implementation stage was important as any extension in the understanding of estuarine processes from EstProc was required to be suitable for dissemination into the wider research community with a level of robustness for general applications demonstrated. This report describes work undertaken to implement the new Manning Floc Settling Velocity Model, developed during EstProc. All Manning component algorithms could be combined to provide estimates of mass settling flux. The algorithms are initially assessed in a number of 1-D scenarios, where the Manning model output is compared against both real observations and the output from alternative settling parameterisations. The Manning model is then implemented into a fully 3-D computational model (TELEMAC3D) of estuarine hydraulics and sediment transport of the Lower Thames estuary. The 3-D model results with the Manning algorithm included were compared to runs with a constant settling velocity of 0.5 mm s -1 and settling velocity based on a simple linear multiplier of concentration and with the above mentioned observations of suspended concentration. The findings of the 1-D case studies found the Manning empirical settling model could reproduce 93% of the total mass settling flux observed over a spring tidal cycle. The floc model fit was even better within the turbidity maximum (TM) zone. A constant 0.5 mm s -1 only estimated 15% of the TM mass flux, whereas the fixed 5 mm s -1 settling rate over-predicted the TM mass flux by 47%. Both settling velocity as a simple linear function of concentration, and van Leussen's method, did not fare much better estimating less than half the observed flux during the various tidal and sub-tidal cycle periods. When the Manning-settling model was applied to a layer with

  13. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  14. Interaction of a single mode field cavity with the 1D XY model: Energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, H.; Donkov, A. A.; Chamati, H.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we use the fundamental in quantum optics Jaynes-Cummings model to study the response of spin 1/2chain to a single mode of a laser light falling on one of the spins, a focused interaction model between the light and the spin chain. For the spin-spin interaction along the chain we use the XY model. We report here the exact analytical results, obtained with the help of a computer algebra system, for the energy spectrum in this model for chains of up to 4 spins with nearest neighbors interactions, either for open or cyclic chain configurations. Varying the sign and magnitude of the spin exchange coupling relative to the light-spin interaction we have investigated both cases of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin chains.

  15. Spacing distribution functions for 1D point island model with irreversible attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Diego; Einstein, Theodore; Pimpinelli, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    We study the configurational structure of the point island model for epitaxial growth in one dimension. In particular, we calculate the island gap and capture zone distributions. Our model is based on an approximate description of nucleation inside the gaps. Nucleation is described by the joint probability density p xy n (x,y), which represents the probability density to have nucleation at position x within a gap of size y. Our proposed functional form for p xy n (x,y) describes excellently the statistical behavior of the system. We compare our analytical model with extensive numerical simulations. Our model retains the most relevant physical properties of the system. This work was supported by the NSF-MRSEC at the University of Maryland, Grant No. DMR 05-20471, with ancillary support from the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials (CNAM).

  16. Analysis, simulation and visualization of 1D tapping via reduced dynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, Denis; Rosato, Anthony; Tricoche, Xavier; Urban, Kevin; Zou, Luo

    2014-04-01

    A low-dimensional center-of-mass dynamical model is devised as a simplified means of approximately predicting some important aspects of the motion of a vertical column comprised of a large number of particles subjected to gravity and periodic vertical tapping. This model is investigated first as a continuous dynamical system using analytical, simulation and visualization techniques. Then, by employing an approach analogous to that used to approximate the dynamics of a bouncing ball on an oscillating flat plate, it is modeled as a discrete dynamical system and analyzed to determine bifurcations and transitions to chaotic motion along with other properties. The predictions of the analysis are then compared-primarily qualitatively-with visualization and simulation results of the reduced continuous model, and ultimately with simulations of the complete system dynamics.

  17. A 1D coupled Schroedinger drift-diffusion model including collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Baro, M. . E-mail: baro@wias-berlin.de; Abdallah, N. Ben . E-mail: naoufel@mip.ups-tlse.fr; Degond, P. . E-mail: degond@mip.ups-tlse.fr; El Ayyadi, A. . E-mail: elayyadi@mathematik.uni-mainz.de

    2005-02-10

    We consider a one-dimensional coupled stationary Schroedinger drift-diffusion model for quantum semiconductor device simulations. The device domain is decomposed into a part with large quantum effects (quantum zone) and a part where quantum effects are negligible (classical zone). We give boundary conditions at the classic-quantum interface which are current preserving. Collisions within the quantum zone are introduced via a Pauli master equation. To illustrate the validity we apply the model to three resonant tunneling diodes.

  18. Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2014-07-01

    Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (space-borne or air-borne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30-90 m). On the other hand, LiDAR technique is able to produce a high resolution DEMs (around 1m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicates the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. LiDAR 1 m) to lower resolution are much less compared to the loss of model accuracy due to the use of low-cost DEM that have not only a lower resolution, but also a lower quality. Lastly, to better explore the sensitivity of the hydraulic models

  19. Space-based Observational Constraints for 1-D Plume Rise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Maria Val; Kahn, Ralph A.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Paguam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We use a space-based plume height climatology derived from observations made by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard the NASA Terra satellite to evaluate the ability of a plume-rise model currently embedded in several atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) to produce accurate smoke injection heights. We initialize the plume-rise model with assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System and estimated fuel moisture content at the location and time of the MISR measurements. Fire properties that drive the plume-rise model are difficult to estimate and we test the model with four estimates for active fire area and four for total heat flux, obtained using empirical data and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) re radiative power (FRP) thermal anomalies available for each MISR plume. We show that the model is not able to reproduce the plume heights observed by MISR over the range of conditions studied (maximum r2 obtained in all configurations is 0.3). The model also fails to determine which plumes are in the free troposphere (according to MISR), key information needed for atmospheric models to simulate properly smoke dispersion. We conclude that embedding a plume-rise model using currently available re constraints in large-scale atmospheric studies remains a difficult proposition. However, we demonstrate the degree to which the fire dynamical heat flux (related to active fire area and sensible heat flux), and atmospheric stability structure influence plume rise, although other factors less well constrained (e.g., entrainment) may also be significant. Using atmospheric stability conditions, MODIS FRP, and MISR plume heights, we offer some constraints on the main physical factors that drive smoke plume rise. We find that smoke plumes reaching high altitudes are characterized by higher FRP and weaker atmospheric stability conditions than those at low altitude, which tend to remain confined

  20. Model calculations of O2(1D) production in microcathode sustained discharges in argon/oxygen mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Serrano, E.; Hagelaar, G.; Boeuf, J. P.; Pitchford, L. C.

    2006-10-01

    It is now well established that non-thermal, high-pressure plasmas can be initiated and sustained between a microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) acting as a plasma cathode and a third electrode placed some distance away. To investigate the properties of the plasma created in such a microcathode sustaind (MCS) discharge configuration, we have developed a 2D quasi-neutral model of a radially expanding ``positive-column'' in which the current crossing the exit plane of the MHCD is input as a boundary condition. We are particularly interested in determining operating conditions leading to high yields of singlet delta (metastable) oxygen molecules O2(1D), and thus the model includes a kinetic scheme to describe the plasma chemistry in pure O2 and in Ar/O2 mixtures. For 10% O2 in a 50 torr Ar/O2 mixture, a discharge current of 1 mA, a 200 micron MHCD hole diameter and 0.6 cm gap spacing, we find that the reduced electric field, E/N, on-axis at the mid-plane is about 15 Td. The calculated O2(1D) yield on-axis near the exit of the MHCD is 10%. For higher O2 partial pressures, quenching of O2(1D) in 3-body collisions with O2 and O atoms leads to a decrease in the predicted yield, but the optimum pressure depends on the assumed values for the 3-body quenching rates. Details of the model and results of species density profiles for a range of conditions will be presented.

  1. Modeling 1-D deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) in porous explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.

    1985-04-04

    A one-dimensional Lagrange hydrodynamic computer model is presented that describes gas flow, compaction, ignition, and deflagration processes in deformable porous beds. The model makes use of a consumable finite element cell that allows gas to flow through a compacting matrix. The model can be regarded as structural in the sense that the initial cell dimension is directly related to mean particle size. Experimental investigation of the DDT phenomenon are typically carried out using long thick-walled tubes filled with a granular porous bed of reactive material. In this configuration, much of the process can be described by flow in one dimension. We present calculations that simulate both squib initiated and piston initiated experiments on porous HMX to point out various observed features. Our purpose is to establish a basis for setting bounds on the physical parameters that describe such transient reaction processes. 16 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 2D MHD and 1D HD Models of a Solar Flare—a Comprehensive Comparison of the Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falewicz, R.; Rudawy, P.; Murawski, K.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Without any doubt, solar flaring loops possess a multithread internal structure that is poorly resolved, and there are no means to observe heating episodes and thermodynamic evolution of the individual threads. These limitations cause fundamental problems in numerical modeling of flaring loops, such as selection of a structure and a number of threads, and an implementation of a proper model of the energy deposition process. A set of one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic models of a flaring loop are developed to compare energy redistribution and plasma dynamics in the course of a prototypical solar flare. Basic parameters of the modeled loop are set according to the progenitor M1.8 flare recorded in AR 10126 on 2002 September 20 between 09:21 UT and 09:50 UT. The nonideal 1D models include thermal conduction and radiative losses of the optically thin plasma as energy-loss mechanisms, while the nonideal 2D models take into account viscosity and thermal conduction as energy-loss mechanisms only. The 2D models have a continuous distribution of the parameters of the plasma across the loop and are powered by varying in time and space along and across the loop heating flux. We show that such 2D models are an extreme borderline case of a multithread internal structure of the flaring loop, with a filling factor equal to 1. Nevertheless, these simple models ensure the general correctness of the obtained results and can be adopted as a correct approximation of the real flaring structures.

  3. 2D MHD AND 1D HD MODELS OF A SOLAR FLARE—A COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Falewicz, R.; Rudawy, P.; Murawski, K.; Srivastava, A. K. E-mail: rudawy@astro.uni.wroc.pl E-mail: asrivastava.app@iitbhu.ac.in

    2015-11-01

    Without any doubt, solar flaring loops possess a multithread internal structure that is poorly resolved, and there are no means to observe heating episodes and thermodynamic evolution of the individual threads. These limitations cause fundamental problems in numerical modeling of flaring loops, such as selection of a structure and a number of threads, and an implementation of a proper model of the energy deposition process. A set of one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic models of a flaring loop are developed to compare energy redistribution and plasma dynamics in the course of a prototypical solar flare. Basic parameters of the modeled loop are set according to the progenitor M1.8 flare recorded in AR 10126 on 2002 September 20 between 09:21 UT and 09:50 UT. The nonideal 1D models include thermal conduction and radiative losses of the optically thin plasma as energy-loss mechanisms, while the nonideal 2D models take into account viscosity and thermal conduction as energy-loss mechanisms only. The 2D models have a continuous distribution of the parameters of the plasma across the loop and are powered by varying in time and space along and across the loop heating flux. We show that such 2D models are an extreme borderline case of a multithread internal structure of the flaring loop, with a filling factor equal to 1. Nevertheless, these simple models ensure the general correctness of the obtained results and can be adopted as a correct approximation of the real flaring structures.

  4. Coupling 1D Navier Stokes equation with autoregulation lumped parameter networks for accurate cerebral blood flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jaiyoung; Hu, Xiao; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2014-11-01

    The cerebral circulation is unique in its ability to maintain blood flow to the brain under widely varying physiologic conditions. Incorporating this autoregulatory response is critical to cerebral blood flow modeling, as well as investigations into pathological conditions. We discuss a one-dimensional nonlinear model of blood flow in the cerebral arteries that includes coupling of autoregulatory lumped parameter networks. The model is tested to reproduce a common clinical test to assess autoregulatory function - the carotid artery compression test. The change in the flow velocity at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during carotid compression and release demonstrated strong agreement with published measurements. The model is then used to investigate vasospasm of the MCA, a common clinical concern following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm was modeled by prescribing vessel area reduction in the middle portion of the MCA. Our model showed similar increases in velocity for moderate vasospasms, however, for serious vasospasm (~ 90% area reduction), the blood flow velocity demonstrated decrease due to blood flow rerouting. This demonstrates a potentially important phenomenon, which otherwise would lead to false-negative decisions on clinical vasospasm if not properly anticipated.

  5. Uncertainty assessment of 3D instantaneous velocity model from stack velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuele Maesano, Francesco; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    3D modelling is a powerful tool that is experiencing increasing applications in data analysis and dissemination. At the same time the need of quantitative uncertainty evaluation is strongly requested in many aspects of the geological sciences and by the stakeholders. In many cases the starting point for 3D model building is the interpretation of seismic profiles that provide indirect information about the geology of the subsurface in the domain of time. The most problematic step in the 3D modelling construction is the conversion of the horizons and faults interpreted in time domain to the depth domain. In this step the dominant variable that could lead to significantly different results is the velocity. The knowledge of the subsurface velocities is related mainly to punctual data (sonic logs) that are often sparsely distributed in the areas covered by the seismic interpretation. The extrapolation of velocity information to wide extended horizons is thus a critical step to obtain a 3D model in depth that can be used for predictive purpose. In the EU-funded GeoMol Project, the availability of a dense network of seismic lines (confidentially provided by ENI S.p.A.) in the Central Po Plain, is paired with the presence of 136 well logs, but few of them have sonic logs and in some portion of the area the wells are very widely spaced. The depth conversion of the 3D model in time domain has been performed testing different strategies for the use and the interpolation of velocity data. The final model has been obtained using a 4 layer cake 3D instantaneous velocity model that considers both the initial velocity (v0) in every reference horizon and the gradient of velocity variation with depth (k). Using this method it is possible to consider the geological constraint given by the geometries of the horizons and the geo-statistical approach to the interpolation of velocities and gradient. Here we present an experiment based on the use of set of pseudo-wells obtained from the

  6. Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbially-Mediated Chromate Reduction in 1-D Soil Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, H.; Viamajala, S.; Alam, M. M.; Peyton, B. M.; Petersen, J. N.; Yonge, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    Cr(VI) reduction tests were performed with the well known metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in liquid phase batch reactors and continuous flow soil columns under anaerobic conditions. In the batch tests, the cultures were grown with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor and lactate as the electron donor in a simulated groundwater medium to determine yield coefficients and specific growth rates. The bench-scale soil column experiments were carried out with MR-1 to test the hypothesis that the kinetic parameters obtained in batch studies, combined with microbial attachment /detachment processes, will accurately predict reactive transport of Cr(VI) during bacterial Cr(VI) reduction in a soil matrix. Cr(VI)-free simulated groundwater media containing fumarate as the limiting substrate and lactate was supplied to a 2.1cm (ID) x 15 cm soil column inoculated with MR-1 for a duration of 9 residence times to allow for biomass to build-up in the column. Thereafter the column was supplied with both Cr(VI) and substrate. The concentrations of effluent substrate, biomass and Cr(VI) were monitored on a periodic basis and attached biomass in the column was measured in the termination of each column test. A reactive transport model was developed in which 6 governing equations deal with Cr(VI) bioreaction, fumarate (as electron donor) consumption, aqueous biomass growth and transport, solid biomass detachment and attachment kinetics, aqueous and solid phase enzyme reaction and transport, respectively. The model incorporating the enzyme reaction kinetics for Cr(VI) reduction, Monod kinetic expressions for substrate depletion, nonlinear attachment and detachment kinetics for aqueous and solid phase microorganism concentration, was solved by a fully implicit, finite-difference procedure using RT3D (A Modular Computer Code for Reactive Multi-species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems) platform in one dimension. Cr(VI)-free column data was used to

  7. Stochastic Heat Equation Limit of a (2 + 1)d Growth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Alexei; Corwin, Ivan; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2016-07-01

    We determine a {q to 1} limit of the two-dimensional q-Whittaker driven particle system on the torus studied previously in Corwin and Toninelli (Electron. Commun. Probab. 21(44):1-12, 2016). This has an interpretation as a (2 + 1)-dimensional stochastic interface growth model, which is believed to belong to the so-called anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class. This limit falls into a general class of two-dimensional systems of driven linear SDEs which have stationary measures on gradients. Taking the number of particles to infinity we demonstrate Gaussian free field type fluctuations for the stationary measure. Considering the temporal evolution of the stationary measure, we determine that along characteristics, correlations are asymptotically given by those of the (2 + 1)-dimensional additive stochastic heat equation. This confirms (for this model) the prediction that the non-linearity for the anisotropic KPZ equation in (2 + 1)-dimension is irrelevant.

  8. A 1-D Model of the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Developments to improve system efficiency and reliability for water and carbon dioxide separation systems on crewed vehicles combine sub-scale systems testing and multi-physics simulations. This paper describes the development of COMSOL simulations in support of the Life Support Systems (LSS) project within NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Specifically, we model the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) operating on the International Space Station (ISS).

  9. A Simplified 1-D Model for Calculating CO2 Leakage through Conduits

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-02-15

    In geological CO{sub 2} storage projects, a cap rock is generally needed to prevent CO{sub 2} from leaking out of the storage formation. However, the injected CO{sub 2} may still encounter some discrete flow paths such as a conductive well or fault (here referred to as conduits) through the cap rock allowing escape of CO{sub 2} from the storage formation. As CO{sub 2} migrates upward, it may migrate into the surrounding formations. The amount of mass that is lost to the formation is called attenuation. This report describes a simplified model to calculate the CO{sub 2} mass flux at different locations of the conduit and the amount of attenuation to the surrounding formations. From the comparison among the three model results, we can conclude that the steady-state conduit model (SSCM) provides a more accurate solution than the PMC at a given discretization. When there is not a large difference between the permeability of the surrounding formation and the permeability of the conduits, and there is leak-off at the bottom formation (the formation immediately above the CO{sub 2} plume), a fine discretization is needed for an accurate solution. Based on this comparison, we propose to use the SSCM in the rapid prototype for now given it does not produce spurious oscillations, and is already in FORTRAN and therefore can be easily made into a dll for use in GoldSim.

  10. On nonminimal N=4 supermultiplets in 1D and their associated {sigma}-models

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, Marcelo; Khodaee, Sadi; Toppan, Francesco

    2011-01-15

    We construct the nonminimal linear representations of the N=4 extended supersymmetry in one-dimension. They act on eight bosonic and eight fermionic fields. Inequivalent representations are specified by the mass-dimension of the fields and the connectivity of the associated graphs. The oxidation to minimal N=5 linear representations is given. Two types of N=4{sigma}-models based on nonminimal representations are obtained: the resulting off-shell actions are either manifestly invariant or depend on a constrained prepotential. The connectivity properties of the graphs play a decisive role in discriminating inequivalent actions. These results find application in partial breaking of supersymmetric theories.

  11. Dynamical correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas (Lieb Liniger model)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, Jean-Sebastien; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2007-03-01

    The momentum- and frequency-dependent correlation functions (one-body and density-density) of the one-dimensional interacting Bose gas (Lieb-Liniger model) are obtained for any value (repulsive or attractive) of the interaction parameter. In the repulsive regime, we use the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz and the ABACUS method to reconstruct the correlators to high accuracy for systems with finite but large numbers of particles. For attractive interactions, the correlations are computed analytically. Our results are discussed, with particular emphasis on their applications to quasi-one-dimensional atomic gases.

  12. A 1-D Size Specific Numerical Model for Gravel Transport That Includes Sediment Exchange with a Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Wesley; Viparelli, Enrica; Piegay, Herve

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary deposits adjacent to rivers can represent important sources and sinks for bed material sediment, particularly on decadal and longer timescales. The Morphodynamics and Sediment Tracers in 1-D model (MAST-1D) is a size-specific sediment transport model that allows for active exchange between channel and floodplain sediment on river reaches of tens to hundreds of kilometers in length. The model is intended to provide a mechanism for performing a first-order assessment of the likely importance of off-channel sediment exchange in controlling decadal-scale geomorphic trends, thereby helping plan and/or prioritize field data collection and higher resolution modeling work. The model develops a sediment budget for short segments of an alluvial valley. Each segment encompasses several active river bends. In each segment, a sediment transport capacity computation is performed to determine the downstream flux of bed material sediment, following the approach of most other 1-D sediment transport models. However, the model differs from most other bed evolution models in that sediment can be exchanged with the floodplain in each segment, and mass conservation is applied to both the active layer and floodplain sediment storage reservoirs. The potential for net imbalances in overall exchange as well as the size specific nature of the computations allows the model to simulate reach-scale aggradation/degradation and/or changes in bed texture. The inclusion of fine sediment in the model allows it to track geochemical tracer material and also provides a mechanism to simulate, to first order, the effects of changes in the supply of silt and clay on overall channel hydraulic capacity. The model is applied to a ~40 km reach of the Ain River, a tributary of the Rhône River in eastern France that has experienced a significant sediment deficit as a result of the construction of several dams between 1920 and 1970. MAST-1D simulations result in both incision and the formation of a

  13. Using overlapping sonobuoy data from the Ross Sea to construct a 2D deep crustal velocity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvans, M. M.; Clayton, R. W.; Stock, J. M.; Granot, R.

    2012-03-01

    Sonobuoys provide an alternative to using long streamers while conducting multi-channel seismic (MCS) studies, in order to provide deeper velocity control. We present analysis and modeling techniques for interpreting the sonobuoy data and illustrate the method with ten overlapping sonobuoys collected in the Ross Sea, offshore from Antarctica. We demonstrate the importance of using the MCS data to correct for ocean currents and changes in ship navigation, which is required before using standard methods for obtaining a 1D velocity profile from each sonobuoy. We verify our 1D velocity models using acoustic finite-difference (FD) modeling and by performing depth migration on the data, and demonstrate the usefulness of FD modeling for tying interval velocities to the shallow crust imaged using MCS data. Finally, we show how overlapping sonobuoys along an MCS line can be used to construct a 2D velocity model of the crust. The velocity model reveals a thin crust (5.5 ± 0.4 km) at the boundary between the Adare and Northern Basins, and implies that the crustal structure of the Northern Basin may be more similar to that of the oceanic crust in the Adare Basin than to the stretched continental crust further south in the Ross Sea.

  14. Broken Symmetry Bond Order Phase Transitions in 1D Generalized Ionic Hubbard Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkens, Tim; Martin, Richard M.

    2000-03-01

    An ionic Hubbard model at half filling is expected to undergo a transition from a band insulator (BI) at U=0 to a Mott insulator (MI) like the usual Hubbard model at large U. In previous numerical work this was found to occur at a metallic point with an abrupt change of 1/2 in the electronic polarization(R.Resta and S.Sorella, PRL 74) 4738 (1995); G.Ortiz et al, PRB 54 13515 (1996).; however, this left open questions about the transition since a topological variable cannot be a valid order parameter for a true phase transition. Recent theoretical work has predicted the existence of a Bond Ordered (BO) phase between the BI and MI phases(M.Fabrizio et al, PRL 83) 2014 (1999) . We report the results of Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations that determine the spontaneous BO order parameter and polarization showing a second order quantum phase transition at a critical U. Studies at large U and/or small ionicity lead to our conclusion that the MI is unstable to the BO phase at any non-zero ionicity. These results further suggest interesting conclusions about quantized charge transport in these correlated systems.

  15. 1-D transient numerical model of a regenerator in a novel sub Kelvin Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Miller, Franklin K.

    2016-03-01

    A sub Kelvin Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigerator (AMRR) is being developed at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. This AMRR consists of two circulators, two regenerators, one superleak, one cold heat exchanger, and two warm heat exchangers. The circulators are novel non-moving part pumps that reciprocate a superfluid mixture of 4He-3He in the system. Heat from the mixture is removed within the two regenerators of this tandem system. An accurate model of the regenerators in this AMRR is necessary in order to predict the performance of these components, which in turn helps predicting the overall performance of the AMRR system. This work presents modeling methodology along with results from a 1-D transient numerical model of the regenerators of an AMRR capable of removing 2.5 mW at 850 mK at cyclic steady state.

  16. Modeling of the Plasma Electrode Bias in the Negative Ion Sources with 1D PIC Method

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, D.; Kuppel, S.; Hatayama, A.; Fukano, A.; Bacal, M.

    2009-03-12

    The effect of the plasma electrode bias voltage in the negative ion sources is modeled and investigated with one-dimensional plasma simulation. A particle-in-cell (PIC) method is applied to simulate the motion of charged particles in their self-consistent electric field. In the simulation, the electron current density is fixed to produce the bias voltage. The tendency of current-voltage characteristics obtained in the simulation show agreement with the one obtained from a simple probe theory. In addition, the H{sup -} ion density peak appears at the bias voltage close to the plasma potential as observed in the experiment. The physical mechanism of this peak H{sup -} ion density is discussed.

  17. Hyperbolic reformulation of a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model and ADER finite volume schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Montecinos, Gino I.; Müller, Lucas O.; Toro, Eleuterio F.

    2014-06-01

    The applicability of ADER finite volume methods to solve hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms in the context of well-balanced and non-conservative schemes is extended to solve a one-dimensional blood flow model for viscoelastic vessels, reformulated as a hyperbolic system, via a relaxation time. A criterion for selecting relaxation times is found and an empirical convergence rate assessment is carried out to support this result. The proposed methodology is validated by applying it to a network of viscoelastic vessels for which experimental and numerical results are available. The agreement between the results obtained in the present paper and those available in the literature is satisfactory. Key features of the present formulation and numerical methodologies, such as accuracy, efficiency and robustness, are fully discussed in the paper.

  18. Existence of a metallic phase in a 1D Holstein Hubbard model at half filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Phani Murali; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2007-06-01

    The one-dimensional half-filled Holstein-Hubbard model is studied using a series of canonical transformations including phonon coherence effect that partly depends on the electron density and is partly independent and also incorporating the on-site and the nearest-neighbour phonon correlations and the exact Bethe-ansatz solution of Lieb and Wu. It is shown that choosing a better variational phonon state makes the polarons more mobile and widens the intermediate metallic region at the charge-density-wave-spin-density-wave crossover recently predicted by Takada and Chatterjee. The presence of this metallic phase is indeed a favourable situation from the point of view of high temperature superconductivity.

  19. Development of a 3D to 1D Particle Transport Model to Predict Deposition in the Lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, Jessica M.; Grandmont, Celine; Shadden, Shawn C.; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosolized particles are commonly used for therapeutic drug delivery as they can be delivered to the body systemically or be used to treat lung diseases. Recent advances in computational resources have allowed for sophisticated pulmonary simulations, however it is currently impossible to solve for airflow and particle transport for all length and time scales of the lung. Instead, multi-scale methods must be used. In our recent work, where computational methods were employed to solve for airflow and particle transport in the rat airways (Oakes et al. (2014), Annals of Biomedical Engineering 42, 899), the number of particles to exit downstream of the 3D domain was determined. In this current work, the time-dependent Lagrangian description of particles was used to numerically solve a 1D convection-diffusion model (trumpet model, Taulbee and Yu (1975), Journal of Applied Physiology, 38, 77) parameterized specifically for the lung. The expansion of the airway dimensions was determined based on data collected from our aerosol exposure experiments (Oakes et al. (2014), Journal of Applied Physiology, 116, 1561). This 3D-1D framework enables us to predict the fate of particles in the whole lung. This work was supported by the Whitaker Foundation at the IIE, a INRIA Associated Team Postdoc Grant, and a UC Presidential Fellowship.

  20. A Vs30-derived Near-surface Seismic Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, G. P.; Jordan, T. H.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Shallow material properties, S-wave velocity in particular, strongly influence ground motions, so must be accurately characterized for ground-motion simulations. Available near-surface velocity information generally exceeds that which is accommodated by crustal velocity models, such as current versions of the SCEC Community Velocity Model (CVM-S4) or the Harvard model (CVM-H6). The elevation-referenced CVM-H voxel model introduces rasterization artifacts in the near-surface due to course sample spacing, and sample depth dependence on local topographic elevation. To address these issues, we propose a method to supplement crustal velocity models, in the upper few hundred meters, with a model derived from available maps of Vs30 (the average S-wave velocity down to 30 meters). The method is universally applicable to regions without direct measures of Vs30 by using Vs30 estimates from topographic slope (Wald, et al. 2007). In our current implementation for Southern California, the geology-based Vs30 map of Wills and Clahan (2006) is used within California, and topography-estimated Vs30 is used outside of California. Various formulations for S-wave velocity depth dependence, such as linear spline and polynomial interpolation, are evaluated against the following priorities: (a) capability to represent a wide range of soil and rock velocity profile types; (b) smooth transition to the crustal velocity model; (c) ability to reasonably handle poor spatial correlation of Vs30 and crustal velocity data; (d) simplicity and minimal parameterization; and (e) computational efficiency. The favored model includes cubic and square-root depth dependence, with the model extending to a depth of 350 meters. Model parameters are fit to Boore and Joyner's (1997) generic rock profile as well as CVM-4 soil profiles for the NEHRP soil classification types. P-wave velocity and density are derived from S-wave velocity by the scaling laws of Brocher (2005). Preliminary assessment of the new model

  1. Tuning a physically-based model of the air-sea gas transfer velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. D.; Robinson, I. S.; Woolf, D. K.

    Air-sea gas transfer velocities are estimated for one year using a 1-D upper-ocean model (GOTM) and a modified version of the NOAA-COARE transfer velocity parameterization. Tuning parameters are evaluated with the aim of bringing the physically based NOAA-COARE parameterization in line with current estimates, based on simple wind-speed dependent models derived from bomb-radiocarbon inventories and deliberate tracer release experiments. We suggest that A = 1.3 and B = 1.0, for the sub-layer scaling parameter and the bubble mediated exchange, respectively, are consistent with the global average CO 2 transfer velocity k. Using these parameters and a simple 2nd order polynomial approximation, with respect to wind speed, we estimate a global annual average k for CO 2 of 16.4 ± 5.6 cm h -1 when using global mean winds of 6.89 m s -1 from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 1954-2000. The tuned model can be used to predict the transfer velocity of any gas, with appropriate treatment of the dependence on molecular properties including the strong solubility dependence of bubble-mediated transfer. For example, an initial estimate of the global average transfer velocity of DMS (a relatively soluble gas) is only 11.9 cm h -1 whilst for less soluble methane the estimate is 18.0 cm h -1.

  2. Determinants of modelling choices for 1-D free-surface flow and erosion issues in hydrology: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheviron, B.; Moussa, R.

    2015-09-01

    This review paper investigates the determinants of modelling choices, for numerous applications of 1-D free-surface flow and erosion equations, across multiple spatiotemporal scales. We aim to characterize each case study by its signature composed of model refinement (Navier-Stokes: NS, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes: RANS, Saint-Venant: SV or Approximations of Saint-Venant: ASV), spatiotemporal scales (domain length: L from 1 cm to 1000 km; temporal scale: T from 1 second to 1 year; flow depth: H from 1 mm to 10 m), flow typology (Overland: O, High gradient: Hg, Bedforms: B, Fluvial: F) and dimensionless numbers (Dimensionless time period T*, Reynolds number Re, Froude number Fr, Slope S, Inundation ratio Λz, Shields number θ). The determinants of modelling choices are therefore sought in the interplay between flow characteristics, cross-scale and scale-independent views. The influence of spatiotemporal scales on modelling choices is first quantified through the expected correlation between increasing scales and decreasing model refinements, identifying then flow typology a secondary but mattering determinant in the choice of model refinement. This finding is confirmed by the discriminating values of several dimensionless numbers, that prove preferential associations between model refinements and flow typologies. This review is intended to help each modeller positioning his (her) choices with respect to the most frequent practices, within a generic, normative procedure possibly enriched by the community for a larger, comprehensive and updated image of modelling strategies.

  3. Modeling Low Velocity Impacts: Predicting Crater Depth on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, V. J.; Schenk, P.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons mission is due to fly-by the Pluto system in Summer 2015 and provides the first opportunity to image the Pluto surface in detail, allowing both the appearance and number of its crater population to be studied for the first time. Bray and Schenk (2014) combined previous cratering studies and numerical modeling of the impact process to predict crater morphology on Pluto based on current understanding of Pluto's composition, structure and surrounding impactor population. Predictions of how the low mean impact velocity (~2km/s) of the Pluto system will influence crater formation is a complex issue. Observations of secondary cratering (low velocity, high angle) and laboratory experiments of impact at low velocity are at odds regarding how velocity controls depth-diameter ratios: Observations of secondary craters show that these low velocity craters are shallower than would be expected for a hyper-velocity primary. Conversely, gas gun work has shown that relative crater depth increases as impact velocity decreases. We have investigated the influence of impact velocity further with iSALE hydrocode modeling of comet impact into Pluto. With increasing impact velocity, a projectile will produce wider and deeper craters. The depth-diameter ratio (d/D) however has a more complex progression with increasing impact velocity: impacts faster than 2km/s lead to smaller d/D ratios as impact velocity increases, in agreement with gas-gun studies. However, decreasing impact velocity from 2km/s to 300 m/s produced smaller d/D as impact velocity was decreased. This suggests that on Pluto the deepest craters would be produced by ~ 2km/s impacts, with shallower craters produced by velocities either side of this critical point. Further simulations to investigate whether this effect is connected to the sound speed of the target material are ongoing. The complex relationship between impact velocity and crater depth for impacts occurring between 300m/s and 10 km/s suggests

  4. Assessment of phenol infiltration resilience in soil media by HYDRUS-1D transport model for a waste discharge site.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, K; Pal, S; Chakraborty, B; Mukherjee, S N; Gangopadhyay, A

    2014-10-01

    The movement of contaminants through soil imparts a variety of geo-environmental problem inclusive of lithospheric pollution. Near-surface aquifers are often vulnerable to contamination from surface source if overlying soil possesses poor resilience or contaminant attenuation capacity. The prediction of contaminant transport through soil is urged to protect groundwater from sources of pollutants. Using field simulation through column experiments and mathematical modeling like HYDRUS-1D, assessment of soil resilience and movement of contaminants through the subsurface to reach aquifers can be predicted. An outfall site of effluents of a coke oven plant comprising of alarming concentration of phenol (4-12.2 mg/L) have been considered for studying groundwater condition and quality, in situ soil characterization, and effluent characterization. Hydrogeological feature suggests the presence of near-surface aquifers at the effluent discharge site. Analysis of groundwater of nearby locality reveals the phenol concentration (0.11-0.75 mg/L) exceeded the prescribed limit of WHO specification (0.002 mg/L). The in situ soil, used in column experiment, possess higher saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS  = 5.25 × 10(-4) cm/s). The soil containing 47 % silt, 11 % clay, and 1.54% organic carbon content was found to be a poor absorber of phenol (24 mg/kg). The linear phenol adsorption isotherm model showed the best fit (R(2) = 0.977, RMSE = 1.057) to the test results. Column experiments revealed that the phenol removal percent and the length of the mass transfer zone increased with increasing bed heights. The overall phenol adsorption efficiency was found to be 42-49%. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) predicted by HYDRUS-1D model appears to be close fitting with the BTCs derived from the column experiments. The phenol BTC predicted by the HYDRUS-1D model for 1.2 m depth subsurface soil, i.e., up to the depth of groundwater in the study area, showed that the exhaustion

  5. Assessment of phenol infiltration resilience in soil media by HYDRUS-1D transport model for a waste discharge site.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, K; Pal, S; Chakraborty, B; Mukherjee, S N; Gangopadhyay, A

    2014-10-01

    The movement of contaminants through soil imparts a variety of geo-environmental problem inclusive of lithospheric pollution. Near-surface aquifers are often vulnerable to contamination from surface source if overlying soil possesses poor resilience or contaminant attenuation capacity. The prediction of contaminant transport through soil is urged to protect groundwater from sources of pollutants. Using field simulation through column experiments and mathematical modeling like HYDRUS-1D, assessment of soil resilience and movement of contaminants through the subsurface to reach aquifers can be predicted. An outfall site of effluents of a coke oven plant comprising of alarming concentration of phenol (4-12.2 mg/L) have been considered for studying groundwater condition and quality, in situ soil characterization, and effluent characterization. Hydrogeological feature suggests the presence of near-surface aquifers at the effluent discharge site. Analysis of groundwater of nearby locality reveals the phenol concentration (0.11-0.75 mg/L) exceeded the prescribed limit of WHO specification (0.002 mg/L). The in situ soil, used in column experiment, possess higher saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS  = 5.25 × 10(-4) cm/s). The soil containing 47 % silt, 11 % clay, and 1.54% organic carbon content was found to be a poor absorber of phenol (24 mg/kg). The linear phenol adsorption isotherm model showed the best fit (R(2) = 0.977, RMSE = 1.057) to the test results. Column experiments revealed that the phenol removal percent and the length of the mass transfer zone increased with increasing bed heights. The overall phenol adsorption efficiency was found to be 42-49%. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) predicted by HYDRUS-1D model appears to be close fitting with the BTCs derived from the column experiments. The phenol BTC predicted by the HYDRUS-1D model for 1.2 m depth subsurface soil, i.e., up to the depth of groundwater in the study area, showed that the exhaustion

  6. Entanglement Entropy and Mutual Information of Circular Entangling Surfaces in 2+1d Quantum Lifshitz Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianci; Chen, Xiao; Fradkin, Eduardo

    We investigate the entanglement entropy(EE) of circular entangling surfaces in the 2+1d quantum Lifshitz model, where the spatially conformal invariant ground state is a Rokhsar-Kivelson state with Gibbs weight of 2d free Boson. We use cut-off independent mutual information regulator to define and calculate the subleading correction in the EE. The subtlety due to the Boson compactification in the replica trick is carefully taken care of. Our results show that for circular entangling surface, the subleading term is a constant on both the sphere of arbitrary radius and infinite plane. For the latter case, it parallels the constancy of disk EE in 2+1d conformal field theory, despite the lack of full space time conformal invariance. In the end, we present the mutual information of two disjoint disks and compare its scaling function in the small parameter regime (radii much smaller than their separation) with Cardy's general CFT results. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation Grants NSF-DMR-13-06011(TZ) and DMR-1408713 (XC, EF).

  7. Geometric and frequency EMI sounding of estuarine earthen flood defence embankments in Ireland using 1D inversion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganotti, Matteo; Jackson, Ruth; Krahn, Hartmut; Dyer, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Earthen flood defence embankments are linear structures, raised above the flood plain, that are commonly used as flood defences in rural settings; these are often relatively old structures constructed using locally garnered material and of which little is known in terms of design and construction. Alarmingly, it is generally reported that a number of urban developments have expanded to previously rural areas; hence, acquiring knowledge about the flood defences protecting these areas has risen significantly in the agendas of basin and asset managers. This paper focusses, by reporting two case studies, on electromagnetic induction (EMI) methods that would efficiently complement routine visual inspections and would represent a first step to more detailed investigations. Evaluation of the results is presented by comparison with ERT profiles and intrusive investigation data. The EM data, acquired using a GEM-2 apparatus for frequency sounding and an EM-31 apparatus for geometrical sounding, has been handled using the prototype eGMS software tool, being developed by the eGMS international research consortium; the depth sounding data interpretation was assisted by 1D inversions obtained with the EM1DFM software developed by the University of British Columbia. Although both sounding methods showed some limitations, the models obtained were consistent with ERT models and the techniques were useful screening methods for the identification of areas of interest, such as material interfaces or potential seepage areas, within the embankment structure: 1D modelling improved the rapid assessment of earthen flood defence embankments in an estuarine environment; evidence that EMI sounding could play an important role as a monitoring tool or as a first step towards more detailed investigations.

  8. Modeling non-Fickian dispersion by use of the velocity PDF on the pore scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooshapur, Sheema; Manhart, Michael

    2015-04-01

    combining the Taylor expansion of velocity increments, du, and the Langevin equation for point particles we obtained the components of velocity fluxes which point to a drift and diffusion behavior in the velocity space. Thus a partial differential equation for the velocity PDF has been formulated that constitutes an advection-diffusion equation in velocity space (a Fokker-Planck equation) in which the drift and diffusion coefficients are obtained using the velocity conditioned statistics of the derivatives of the pore scale velocity field. This has been solved by both a Random Walk (RW) model and a Finite Volume method. We conclude that both, these methods are able to simulate the velocity PDF obtained by DNS. References [1] D. W. Meyer, P. Jenny, H.A.Tschelepi, A joint velocity-concentration PDF method for traqcer flow in heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 46, W12522, (2010). [2] Nowak, W., R. L. Schwede, O. A. Cirpka, and I. Neuweiler, Probability density functions of hydraulic head and velocity in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour.Res., 44, W08452, (2008) [3] D. W. Meyer, H. A. Tchelepi, Particle-based transport model with Markovian velocity processes for tracer dispersion in highly heterogeneous porous media, Water Resour. Res., 46, W11552, (2010)

  9. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations in the

  10. Determinants of modelling choices for 1-D free-surface flow and morphodynamics in hydrology and hydraulics: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheviron, Bruno; Moussa, Roger

    2016-09-01

    This review paper investigates the determinants of modelling choices, for numerous applications of 1-D free-surface flow and morphodynamic equations in hydrology and hydraulics, across multiple spatiotemporal scales. We aim to characterize each case study by its signature composed of model refinement (Navier-Stokes: NS; Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes: RANS; Saint-Venant: SV; or approximations to Saint-Venant: ASV), spatiotemporal scales and subscales (domain length: L from 1 cm to 1000 km; temporal scale: T from 1 s to 1 year; flow depth: H from 1 mm to 10 m; spatial step for modelling: δL; temporal step: δT), flow typology (Overland: O; High gradient: Hg; Bedforms: B; Fluvial: F), and dimensionless numbers (dimensionless time period T*, Reynolds number Re, Froude number Fr, slope S, inundation ratio Λz, Shields number θ). The determinants of modelling choices are therefore sought in the interplay between flow characteristics and cross-scale and scale-independent views. The influence of spatiotemporal scales on modelling choices is first quantified through the expected correlation between increasing scales and decreasing model refinements (though modelling objectives also show through the chosen spatial and temporal subscales). Then flow typology appears a secondary but important determinant in the choice of model refinement. This finding is confirmed by the discriminating values of several dimensionless numbers, which prove preferential associations between model refinements and flow typologies. This review is intended to help modellers in positioning their choices with respect to the most frequent practices, within a generic, normative procedure possibly enriched by the community for a larger, comprehensive and updated image of modelling strategies.

  11. A turbulent inflow model based on velocity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyer, Stephen A.; Beal, David

    2007-11-01

    This article presents a novel turbulent inflow model based on modulation of the velocity field for use with time-domain propulsor calculations. Given an experimental mean and rms turbulent inflow, a model can be constructed by modulating the velocity field over a range of frequencies. Assuming the turbulence is homogeneous, the inflow can be constructed as a Fourier series where the frequencies can also be modulated to smooth the broadband output. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the model, experimental inflow velocity data were acquired for an upstream stator, downstream rotor configuration mounted on an undersea vehicle afterbody. Two main sources of turbulence originated from the vorticity shed from the stator wakes and the boundary layer vorticity produced on the hull body. Three-dimensional, unsteady velocity data were acquired using hot-wire anemometry and reduced to provide mean and rms velocity values. Time-series data were processed to provide velocity power spectra used to calibrate the model. Simulations were performed using a modified version of the propulsor unsteady flow code capable of computing fully turbulent inflows. This solver models the propulsor blade as a vortex lattice and sheds the vorticity into the wake to solve the unsteady potential flow. The no-flux boundary conditions are satisfied at the lattice control points and the resulting unsteady circulation is a function of the instantaneous inflow velocity field over the blade. Vorticity is shed into the wake to account for the full time history of the inflow velocity field. To demonstrate the full effectiveness of the model, computed surface pressure data were exported to a code to compute the far-field radiated noise (both tonal and broadband). Simulated data were compared with experimentally obtained noise data with favorable results. Applications of this methodology in the incompressible flow domain include broadband analysis of propulsor-radiated noise on undersea vehicles and

  12. Giant Fluctuations of Local Magnetoresistance of Organic Spin Valves and the Non-Hermitian 1D Anderson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, R. C.; Nemirovsky, D.; Kagalovsky, V.; Raikh, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, where the tunnel magnetoresitance (TMR) of a spin valve was measured locally, we theoretically study the distribution of TMR along the surface of magnetized electrodes. We show that, even in the absence of interfacial effects (like hybridization due to donor and acceptor molecules), this distribution is very broad, and the portion of area with negative TMR is appreciable even if on average the TMR is positive. The origin of the local sign reversal is quantum interference of subsequent spin-rotation amplitudes in the course of incoherent transport of carriers between the source and the drain. We find the distribution of local TMR exactly by drawing upon formal similarity between evolution of spinors in time and of the reflection coefficient along a 1D chain in the Anderson model. The results obtained are confirmed by the numerical simulations.

  13. Giant fluctuations of local magnetoresistance of organic spin valves and the non-Hermitian 1D Anderson model.

    PubMed

    Roundy, R C; Nemirovsky, D; Kagalovsky, V; Raikh, M E

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, where the tunnel magnetoresitance (TMR) of a spin valve was measured locally, we theoretically study the distribution of TMR along the surface of magnetized electrodes. We show that, even in the absence of interfacial effects (like hybridization due to donor and acceptor molecules), this distribution is very broad, and the portion of area with negative TMR is appreciable even if on average the TMR is positive. The origin of the local sign reversal is quantum interference of subsequent spin-rotation amplitudes in the course of incoherent transport of carriers between the source and the drain. We find the distribution of local TMR exactly by drawing upon formal similarity between evolution of spinors in time and of the reflection coefficient along a 1D chain in the Anderson model. The results obtained are confirmed by the numerical simulations. PMID:24949781

  14. The galaxy velocity field and CDM models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tormen, Giuseppe; Moscardini, Lauro; Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino

    1993-01-01

    It is generally accepted that some kind of non-baryonic dark matter accounts for most of the mass density of the universe. Considering such a component has become, in the last decade, a key ingredient in current theories of structure formation. In particular, the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) scenario has proven to be quite successful in explaining most of the observed properties of galaxies and of their large-scale distribution. The standard CDM model is characterized by a primordial Zel'dovich spectrum, of random-phase adiabatic perturbations in a universe with density parameter omega sub 0 = 1 and vanishing cosmological constant. This poster paper presents an analysis of observational data on peculiar motion of optical galaxies in comparison to the predictions of CDM models where the assumptions of the standard scenario: omega sub 0 = 1, n = 1, and bias parameter b = 1 are relaxed. In particular, CDM models with 0 less than n less than 1 and 0.4 less than omega sub 0 less than 1 are considered.

  15. Model of local velocity in the primary visual cortical cells.

    PubMed

    Sherman, I; Spitzer, H

    1995-06-01

    A motion model for the early stages of motion processing in the visual cortex that focuses on velocity properties is presented. The model presents analytically the correlation between the velocity tuning curve and various cell parameters. The building block for this model is the rebound response, which makes possible the detection of spatial and temporal edges. The model suggests that adjacent subunits in the primary cortical cells display different strengths in their rebound responses, and thus a synergistic response is evoked in the preferred direction. The analysis deals separately with the two cutoff points of the velocity tuning curves. The model predicts a linear relation between the low cutoff point and the receptive-field size and an inverse correlation with the integration time. The high cutoff point is inversely correlated with the cell threshold. PMID:7769506

  16. Asymmetric optimal-velocity car-following model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xihua; Pang, John; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Taking the asymmetric characteristic of the velocity differences of vehicles into account, we present an asymmetric optimal velocity model for a car-following theory. The asymmetry between the acceleration and the deceleration is represented by the exponential function with an asymmetrical factor, which agrees with the published experiment. This model avoids the disadvantage of the unrealistically high acceleration appearing in previous models when the velocity difference becomes large. This model is simple and only has two independent parameters. The linear stability condition is derived and the phase transition of the traffic flow appears beyond the critical density. The strength of interaction between clusters is shown to increase with the asymmetry factor in our model.

  17. Velocity Structure in the West Bohemia Seismic Zone: Velocity Models Retrieved from different Earthquake Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Löberich, E.; Kieslich, A.; Calo, M.; Vavrycuk, V.; Buske, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake swarms, fluid migration and gas springs are indications of the ongoing geodynamic processes within the West Bohemia seismic zone located at the Czech-German border. The possible relationship between the fluids, gas and seismicity is of particular interest and has motivated numerous past, ongoing and future studies, including a multidisciplinary monitoring proposal through the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The most seismically active area within the West Bohemia seismic zone is located at the Czech town Nový Kostel. The Nový Kostel zone experiences frequent swarms of several hundreds to thousands of earthquakes over a period of weeks to several months. The seismicity is always located in the same area and depth range (~5-15 km), however the activated fault segments and planes differ. For example, the 2008 swarm activated faults along the southern end of the seismic zone, the 2011 swarm activated the northern segment, and the recent 2014 swarm activated the middle of the seismic zone. This indicates changes to the local stress field, and may relate to fluid migration and/or the complicated tectonic situation. The West Bohemia Seismic Network (WEBNET) is ideally located for studying the Nový Kostel swarm area and provides good azimuthal coverage. Here, we use the high quality P- and S-wave arrival picks recorded by WEBNET to calculate swarm-dependent velocity models for the 2008 and 2011 swarms, and an averaged (swarm independent) model using earthquakes recorded between 1991 and 2011. To this end, we use double-difference tomography to calculate P- and S-wave velocity models. The models are compared and examined in terms of swarm-dependent velocities and structures. Since the P-to-S velocity ratio is particularly sensitive to the presence of pore fluids, we derive ratio models directly from the inverted P- and S-wave models in order to investigate the potential influence of fluids on the seismicity. Finally, clustering

  18. Measurement of the differential cross section of the photoinitiated reactive collision of O((1)D)+D(2) using only one molecular beam: A study by three dimensional velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Kauczok, S; Maul, C; Chichinin, A I; Gericke, K-H

    2010-06-28

    velocities. Using the benchmark system O((1)D)+D(2) with N(2)O as the precursor, we demonstrate that the technique is also applicable in a very general sense (i.e., also with a large spread in reactant velocities, products much faster than reactants) and therefore can be used also if such unfortunate conditions cannot be avoided. Since the resulting distribution of velocities in the laboratory frame is not cylindrically symmetric, three dimensional velocity mapping is the method of choice for the detection of the ionized products. For the reconstruction, the distance between the two laser beams is an important parameter. We have measured this distance using the photodissociation of HBr at 193 nm, detecting the H atoms near 243 nm. The collision energy resulting from the 193 nm photodissociation of N(2)O is 5.2+/-1.9 kcal/mol. Our results show a preference for backward scattered D atoms with the OH partner fragment in the high vibrational states (v=4-6), in accord with previously published results claiming the growing importance of a linear abstraction mechanism for collision energies higher than 2.4 kcal/mol.

  19. Measurement of the differential cross section of the photoinitiated reactive collision of O(1D)+D2 using only one molecular beam: A study by three dimensional velocity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauczok, S.; Maul, C.; Chichinin, A. I.; Gericke, K.-H.

    2010-06-01

    velocities. Using the benchmark system O(D1)+D2 with N2O as the precursor, we demonstrate that the technique is also applicable in a very general sense (i.e., also with a large spread in reactant velocities, products much faster than reactants) and therefore can be used also if such unfortunate conditions cannot be avoided. Since the resulting distribution of velocities in the laboratory frame is not cylindrically symmetric, three dimensional velocity mapping is the method of choice for the detection of the ionized products. For the reconstruction, the distance between the two laser beams is an important parameter. We have measured this distance using the photodissociation of HBr at 193 nm, detecting the H atoms near 243 nm. The collision energy resulting from the 193 nm photodissociation of N2O is 5.2±1.9 kcal/mol. Our results show a preference for backward scattered D atoms with the OH partner fragment in the high vibrational states (v =4-6), in accord with previously published results claiming the growing importance of a linear abstraction mechanism for collision energies higher than 2.4 kcal/mol.

  20. A Generic 1D Forward Modeling and Inversion Algorithm for TEM Sounding with an Arbitrary Horizontal Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanhui; Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Xingbing; Tang, Xingong; Chang, Liao

    2016-08-01

    We present a generic 1D forward modeling and inversion algorithm for transient electromagnetic (TEM) data with an arbitrary horizontal transmitting loop and receivers at any depth in a layered earth. Both the Hankel and sine transforms required in the forward algorithm are calculated using the filter method. The adjoint-equation method is used to derive the formulation of data sensitivity at any depth in non-permeable media. The inversion algorithm based on this forward modeling algorithm and sensitivity formulation is developed using the Gauss-Newton iteration method combined with the Tikhonov regularization. We propose a new data-weighting method to minimize the initial model dependence that enhances the convergence stability. On a laptop with a CPU of i7-5700HQ@3.5 GHz, the inversion iteration of a 200 layered input model with a single receiver takes only 0.34 s, while it increases to only 0.53 s for the data from four receivers at a same depth. For the case of four receivers at different depths, the inversion iteration runtime increases to 1.3 s. Modeling the data with an irregular loop and an equal-area square loop indicates that the effect of the loop geometry is significant at early times and vanishes gradually along the diffusion of TEM field. For a stratified earth, inversion of data from more than one receiver is useful in noise reducing to get a more credible layered earth. However, for a resistive layer shielded below a conductive layer, increasing the number of receivers on the ground does not have significant improvement in recovering the resistive layer. Even with a down-hole TEM sounding, the shielded resistive layer cannot be recovered if all receivers are above the shielded resistive layer. However, our modeling demonstrates remarkable improvement in detecting the resistive layer with receivers in or under this layer.

  1. SCEC CVM-Toolkit (CVM-T) -- High Performance Meshing Tools for SCEC Community Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Ely, G. P.; Olsen, K. B.; Withers, K.; Graves, R. W.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    The SCEC Community Velocity Model Toolkit (CVM-T) enables earthquake modelers to quickly build, visualize, and validate large-scale 3D velocity meshes using SCEC CVM-H or CVM-4. CVM-T is comprised of three main components: (1) a current SCEC community velocity model for Southern California, (2) tools for extracting meshes from this model and visualizing them, and (3) an automated test framework for evaluating new releases of CVMs using SCEC’s AWP-ODC forward wave propagation software and one, or more, ground motion goodness of fit (GoF) algorithms. CVM-T is designed to help SCEC modelers build large-scale velocity meshes by extracting material properties from the most current version of Community Velocity Model H (CVM-H) and to provide a consistent interface as new CVM-H versions are developed. The CVM-T software provides a highly-scalable interface to CVM-H 6.2 (and later) voxets. Along with an improved interface to CVM-H material properties, the CVM-T software adds a geotechnical layer (GTL) to CVM-H 6.2+ based on Ely’s Vs30-derived GTL. The initial release of CVM-T also extends the coverage region for CVM-H 6.2 with a Hadley-Kanamori 1D background. Smoothing is performed within the transition boundary between the core model and the 1D background. The user interface now includes a C API that allows applications to query the model either by elevation or depth. The Extraction and Visualization Tools (EVT) include a parallelized 3D mesh generator which can quickly generate meshes (consisting of Vp, Vs, and density) from either CVM-H or CVM-4 with over 100 billion points. Python plotting scripts can be employed to plot horizontal or profile slices from existing meshes or directly from either CVM. The Automated Test Framework (ATF) is a system for quantitatively evaluating new versions of CVM-H and ensuring that the model improves against prior versions. The ATF employs the CruiseControl build and test framework to run an AWP-ODC simulation for the 2008 Chino

  2. Scale up tools in reactive extrusion and compounding processes. Could 1D-computer modeling be helpful?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradel, J.-L.; David, C.; Quinebèche, S.; Blondel, P.

    2014-05-01

    Industrial scale-up (or scale down) in Compounding and Reactive Extrusion processes is one of the most critical R&D challenges. Indeed, most of High Performances Polymers are obtained within a reactive compounding involving chemistry: free radical grafting, in situ compatibilization, rheology control... but also side reactions: oxidation, branching, chain scission... As described by basic Arrhenius and kinetics laws, the competition between all chemical reactions depends on residence time distribution and temperature. Then, to ensure the best possible scale up methodology, we need tools to match thermal history of the formulation along the screws from a lab scale twin screw extruder to an industrial one. This paper proposes a comparison between standard scale-up laws and the use of Computer modeling Software such as Ludovic® applied and compared to experimental data. Scaling data from a compounding line to another one, applying general rules (for example at constant specific mechanical energy), shows differences between experimental and computed data, and error depends on the screw speed range. For more accurate prediction, 1D-Computer Modeling could be used to optimize the process conditions to ensure the best scale-up product, especially in temperature sensitive reactive extrusion processes. When the product temperature along the screws is the key, Ludovic® software could help to compute the temperature profile along the screws and extrapolate conditions, even screw profile, on industrial extruders.

  3. Non-linear gravitational clustering of cold matter in an expanding universe: indications from 1D toy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Michael; Sicard, François

    2011-05-01

    Studies of a class of infinite 1D self-gravitating systems have highlighted that, on one hand, the spatial clustering which develops may have scale-invariant (fractal) properties and, on the other hand, they display ‘self-similar’ properties in their temporal evolution. The relevance of these results to 3D cosmological simulations has remained unclear. We show here that the measured exponents characterizing the scale-invariant non-linear clustering are in excellent agreement with those derived from an appropriately generalized ‘stable-clustering’ hypothesis. Further an analysis in terms of ‘haloes’ selected with a friend-of-friend algorithm reveals that such structures are, statistically, virialized across the range of scales corresponding to scale invariance. Thus the strongly non-linear clustering in these models is accurately described as a virialized fractal structure, very much in line with the ‘clustering hierarchy’ which Peebles originally envisaged qualitatively as associated with stable clustering. If transposed to 3Ds these results would imply, notably, that cold dark matter haloes (or even subhaloes) are (1) not well modelled as smooth objects and (2) that the supposed ‘universality’ of their profiles is, like apparent smoothness, an artefact of poor numerical resolution.

  4. Interpretation of MSL REMS data using 1D coupled heat and water vapor transport model of Mars subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloesener, Elodie; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) performed high-resolution measurements of temperature and relative humidity during more than one Martian year. In this work, a 1D subsurface model is used to study water vapor exchange between the atmosphere and the subsurface at Gale crater using REMS data. The thermal model used includes several layers of varying thickness with depth and properties that can be changed to correspond to those of Martian rocks at locations studied. It also includes the transport of water vapor through porous Martian regolith and the different phases considered are vapor, ice and adsorbed H2O. The total mass flux is given by the sum of diffusive and advective transport. The role of an adsorbing regolith on water transfer as well as the range of parameters with significant effect on water transport in Martian conditions are investigated. In addition, kinetics of the adsorption process is considered to examine its influence on the water vapor exchange between the subsurface and the atmosphere.

  5. Thermal characterization of large size lithium-ion pouch cell based on 1d electro-thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertiz, G.; Oyarbide, M.; Macicior, H.; Miguel, O.; Cantero, I.; Fernandez de Arroiabe, P.; Ulacia, I.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management is one of the key factors to keep lithium-ion cells in optimum electrical performance, under safe working conditions and into a reasonably low ageing process. This issue is becoming particularly relevant due to the heterogeneous heat generation along the cell. Cell working temperature is determined by ambient temperature, heat generation and evacuation capacity. Therefore, thermal management is established by: i) the intrinsic thermal properties (heat capacity & thermal conductivity) and ii) the heat generation electro-thermal parameters (internal resistance, open circuit voltage & entropic factor). In this research, different methods - calculated and experimental - are used to characterize the main heat properties of a 14Ah -LiFePO4/graphite-commercial large sizes pouch cell. In order to evaluate the accuracy of methods, two comparisons were performed. First, Newman heat generation estimations were compared with experimental heat measurements. Secondly, empirical thermal cell behaviour was match with 1D electro-thermal model response. Finally, considering the results, the most adequate methodology to evaluate the key thermal parameters of a large size Lithium-ion pouch cell are proposed to be: i) pulse method for internal resistance, ii)heat loss method for entropic factor; and iii)experimental measurement (ARC calorimeter and C-177-97 standard method) for heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

  6. Wave-induced velocities inside a model seagrass bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhar, Mitul; Coutu, Sylvain; Infantes, Eduardo; Fox, Samantha; Nepf, Heidi

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory measurements reveal the flow structure within and above a model seagrass meadow (dynamically similar to Zostera marina) forced by progressive waves. Despite being driven by purely oscillatory flow, a mean current in the direction of wave propagation is generated within the meadow. This mean current is forced by a nonzero wave stress, similar to the streaming observed in wave boundary layers. The measured mean current is roughly four times that predicted by laminar boundary layer theory, with magnitudes as high as 38% of the near-bed orbital velocity. A simple theoretical model is developed to predict the magnitude of this mean current based on the energy dissipated within the meadow. Unlike unidirectional flow, which can be significantly damped within a meadow, the in-canopy orbital velocity is not significantly damped. Consistent with previous studies, the reduction of in-canopy velocity is a function of the ratio of orbital excursion and blade spacing.

  7. Disparate effects of depletion of CD1d-reactive T cells during early versus late stages of disease in a genetically susceptible model of lupus.

    PubMed

    Jacinto, J; Kim, P J; Singh, R R

    2012-04-01

    Some T cells react with lipid antigens bound to antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. Numbers and functions of a subset of such lipid-reactive T cells are reduced in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their relatives, as well as in genetically susceptible and chemically induced animal models of lupus-like disease. We have reported that the germline deletion of CD1d exacerbates lupus, suggesting a protective role of these cells in the development of lupus. The use of a knockout mouse model in this study, however, did not allow examination of the role of these cells at different stages of disease. Here, we describe an approach to deplete CD1d-dependent T cells, which allowed us to investigate the role of these cells at different stages of disease in genetically lupus-prone NZB/NZW F1 (BWF1) mice. Repeated intravenous injections of large numbers of CD1d-transfected cells resulted in ∼50-75% reduction in these cells, as defined by the expression of CD4, NK1.1 and CD122, and lack of expression of CD62 ligand. TCR γδ (+)NK1.1(+) cells were also reduced in the recipients of CD1d-transfected cells as compared with control recipients. Such depletion of CD1d-reactive T cells in preclinical BWF1 mice resulted in disease acceleration with a significant increase in proteinuria and mortality. In older BWF1 mice having advanced nephritis, however, such depletion of CD1d-reactive T cells resulted in some disease improvement. Taken together, these data as well as our published studies suggest that CD1d-reactive T cells protect against the development of lupus in animal models. However, these cells appear to be unable to suppress established lupus nephritis in these animals, and might even play a disease aggravating role in late stages of disease.

  8. Ray tracing in discontinuous velocity model with implicit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianxing; Yang, Qin; Meng, Xianhai; Li, Jigang

    2016-07-01

    Ray tracing in the velocity model containing complex discontinuities is still facing many challenges. The main difficulty arises from the detection of the spatial relationship between the rays and the interfaces that are usually described in non-linear parametric forms. We propose a novel model representation method that can facilitate the implementation of classical shooting-ray methods. In the representation scheme, each interface is expressed as the zero contour of a signed distance field. A multi-copy strategy is adopted to describe the volumetric properties within blocks. The implicit description of the interface makes it easier to detect the ray-interface intersection. The direct calculation of the intersection point is converted into the problem of judging the signs of a ray segment's endpoints. More importantly, the normal to the interface at the intersection point can be easily acquired according to the signed distance field of the interface. The multiple storage of the velocity property in the proximity of the interface can provide accurate and unambiguous velocity information of the intersection point. Thus, the departing ray path can be determined easily and robustly. In addition, the new representation method can describe velocity models containing very complex geological structures, such as faults, salt domes, intrusions, and pinches, without any simplification. The examples on synthetic and real models validate the robustness and accuracy of the ray tracing based on the proposed model representation scheme.

  9. Finite-Source Inversion for the 2004 Parkfield Earthquake using 3D Velocity Model Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A.; Dreger, D.; Larsen, S.

    2008-12-01

    We determine finite fault models of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake using 3D Green's functions. Because of the dense station coverage and detailed 3D velocity structure model in this region, this earthquake provides an excellent opportunity to examine how the 3D velocity structure affects the finite fault inverse solutions. Various studies (e.g. Michaels and Eberhart-Phillips, 1991; Thurber et al., 2006) indicate that there is a pronounced velocity contrast across the San Andreas Fault along the Parkfield segment. Also the fault zone at Parkfield is wide as evidenced by mapped surface faults and where surface slip and creep occurred in the 1966 and the 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. For high resolution images of the rupture process"Ait is necessary to include the accurate 3D velocity structure for the finite source inversion. Liu and Aurchuleta (2004) performed finite fault inversions using both 1D and 3D Green's functions for 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake using the same source paramerization and data but different Green's functions and found that the models were quite different. This indicates that the choice of the velocity model significantly affects the waveform modeling at near-fault stations. In this study, we used the P-wave velocity model developed by Thurber et al (2006) to construct the 3D Green's functions. P-wave speeds are converted to S-wave speeds and density using by the empirical relationships of Brocher (2005). Using a finite difference method, E3D (Larsen and Schultz, 1995), we computed the 3D Green's functions numerically by inserting body forces at each station. Using reciprocity, these Green's functions are recombined to represent the ground motion at each station due to the slip on the fault plane. First we modeled the waveforms of small earthquakes to validate the 3D velocity model and the reciprocity of the Green"fs function. In the numerical tests we found that the 3D velocity model predicted the individual phases well at frequencies lower than 0

  10. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the

  11. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya S; Yde, Lars; Binning, Philip J; Rasmussen, Michael R; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-12-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full-scale measurements. Finally, it was shown that the representation of compression settling in the CFD model can significantly influence the prediction of sludge distribution in the SSTs under dry- and wet-weather flow conditions.

  12. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya S; Yde, Lars; Binning, Philip J; Rasmussen, Michael R; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-12-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full-scale measurements. Finally, it was shown that the representation of compression settling in the CFD model can significantly influence the prediction of sludge distribution in the SSTs under dry- and wet-weather flow conditions. PMID:25243657

  13. 1D-Var multilayer assimilation of X-band SAR data into a detailed snowpack model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, X. V.; Ferro-Famil, L.; Gay, M.; Durand, Y.; Dumont, M.; Morin, S.; Allain, S.; D'Urso, G.; Girard, A.

    2014-10-01

    The structure and physical properties of a snowpack and their temporal evolution may be simulated using meteorological data and a snow metamorphism model. Such an approach may meet limitations related to potential divergences and accumulated errors, to a limited spatial resolution, to wind or topography-induced local modulations of the physical properties of a snow cover, etc. Exogenous data are then required in order to constrain the simulator and improve its performance over time. Synthetic-aperture radars (SARs) and, in particular, recent sensors provide reflectivity maps of snow-covered environments with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The radiometric properties of a snowpack measured at sufficiently high carrier frequencies are known to be tightly related to some of its main physical parameters, like its depth, snow grain size and density. SAR acquisitions may then be used, together with an electromagnetic backscattering model (EBM) able to simulate the reflectivity of a snowpack from a set of physical descriptors, in order to constrain a physical snowpack model. In this study, we introduce a variational data assimilation scheme coupling TerraSAR-X radiometric data into the snowpack evolution model Crocus. The physical properties of a snowpack, such as snow density and optical diameter of each layer, are simulated by Crocus, fed by the local reanalysis of meteorological data (SAFRAN) at a French Alpine location. These snowpack properties are used as inputs of an EBM based on dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) theory, which simulates the total backscattering coefficient of a dry snow medium at X and higher frequency bands. After evaluating the sensitivity of the EBM to snowpack parameters, a 1D-Var data assimilation scheme is implemented in order to minimize the discrepancies between EBM simulations and observations obtained from TerraSAR-X acquisitions by modifying the physical parameters of the Crocus-simulated snowpack. The algorithm then re

  14. Volcano inflation prior to an eruption: Numerical simulations based on a 1-D magma flow model in an open conduit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Ryohei; Nishimura, Takeshi; Sato, Haruo

    2013-12-01

    We numerically simulate volcanic inflation caused by magma ascent in a shallow conduit at volcanoes which repeatedly erupt, in order to understand the effect of volatile behavior on magma from geodetic data. Considering magma in which the relative velocities between melt and gas bubbles are negligible, we model magma flow in a one-dimensional open conduit with diffusive gas bubble growth. We calculate the ground displacements and tilts caused by spatio-temporal changes of magma pressure in the conduit. Our simulations show that magma without volatiles causes decelerated changes in volcanic inflation. Magma with gas bubble growth inflates the volcano with a constant, or accelerated, rate. Temporal changes of volcanic deformation are also affected by the magma pressure at the bottom of the conduit. When the pressure is small, the displacements and tilts increase in proportion to the 1.5th power of time. This time rate is similar to that predicted from a basic gas bubble growth model. When the pressure equals the lithostatic pressure, the effects of gas bubble growth relatively decrease and the displacements and tilts increase linearly with time.

  15. Floodplain mapping via 1D and quasi-2D numerical models in the valley of Thessaly, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Athanasios; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Tegos, Aristoteles; Pagana, Vasiliki; Panagopoulos, Panayiotis-Dionisios; Mamassis, Nikolaos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    The European Union Floods Directive defines a flood as 'a covering by water of land not normally covered by water'. Human activities, such as agriculture, urban development, industry and tourism, contribute to an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events. The study of the hydraulic behaviour of a river is important in flood risk management. Here, we investigate the behaviour of three hydraulic models, with different theoretical frameworks, in a real case scenario. The area is located in the Penios river basin, in the plain of Thessaly (Greece). The three models used are the one-dimensional HEC-RAS and the quasi two-dimensional LISFLOOD-FP and FLO-2D which are compared to each other, in terms of simulated maximum water depth as well as maximum flow velocity, and to a real flood event. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed to determine how each simulation is affected by the river and floodplain roughness coefficient, in terms of flood inundation.

  16. Composite memory variable velocity-stress viscoelastic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestholm, Stig

    2002-01-01

    The full 3-D viscoelastic wave equations have been reformulated,using the velocity-stress formulation for a curved grid, to include a set of memory variables for each particle velocity component. The earlier standard formulation includes a set of memory variables for each stress component. In 3-D this reduces the number of memory variables by three for each extra relaxation parameter above 1. This reformulation requires transforming the usual first order differential equation for velocity-stress modelling to a second order differential equation which again requires storage of two consecutive time step values of the particle velocities. No memory saving therefore is achieved using just one relaxation mechanism. However, the memory saved by the new formulation increases with increasing number of included relaxation mechanisms, and is around 30 per cent for 5-7 relaxation mechanisms, which is often required for accurate Q modelling. Incidentally, for media of heterogeneous Q , the new formulation is two to three times slower in simulations than the old formulation, so the new formulation should be used in memory critical applications and/or for heterogeneous media with layers/blocks of homogeneous Q , for which also CPU will be saved.

  17. Intraglottal velocity and pressure measurements in a hemilarynx model.

    PubMed

    Oren, Liran; Gutmark, Ephraim; Khosla, Sid

    2015-02-01

    Determining the mechanisms of self-sustained oscillation of the vocal folds requires characterization of the pressures produced by intraglottal aerodynamics. Because most of the intraglottal aerodynamic forces cannot be measured in a tissue model of the larynx, current understanding of vocal fold vibration mechanism is derived from mechanical, analytical, and computational models. Previous studies have computed intraglottal pressures from measured intraglottal velocity fields and intraglottal geometry; however, this technique for determining pressures is not yet validated. In this study, intraglottal pressure measurements taken in a hemilarynx model are compared with pressure values that are computed from simultaneous velocity measurements. The results showed that significant negative pressure formed near the superior aspect of the folds during closing, which agrees with previous measurements in other hemilarynx models. Intraglottal velocity measurements show that the flow near the superior aspect separates from the glottal wall during closing and may develop into a vortex, which further augments the magnitude of negative pressure. Intraglottal pressure distributions, computed by solving the pressure Poisson equation, showed good agreement with pressure measurements. The match between the pressure computations and its measurements validates the current technique, which was previously used to estimate intraglottal pressure distribution in a full larynx model. PMID:25698025

  18. Block modeling of Crustal Velocity in Italy and Surrounding Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpelloni, E.; Battaglia, M.; Murray, M. H.; Burgmann, R.

    2004-12-01

    We use GPS measurements and block modeling to investigate the present-day deformation of the Italian peninsula and surrounding regions. The central Mediterranean displays an assemblage of lithospheric blocks with different structural and kinematics features and a variety of geodynamic processes, including subduction, back-arc spreading, rifting, thrusting, normal and strike-slip faulting, trapped between the relatively rigid African and Eurasian plates, for which global plate motion models predict a NW-SE convergence at about 7 mm/yr. The block model incorporates secular velocity and fault geometry estimates, as well as elastic strain accumulation. With this model we can assess whether different hypotheses are compatible with geodetic data, estimates of fault slip rates and locking depths, areas of rigid block rotation, and regions of anomalous strain accumulation. We present a geodetic velocity solution for Italy and surrounding areas, obtained from the analysis of continuous and survey-mode Global Positioning System observations collected between 1991 and 2002. The velocities are relative to a stable Eurasian frame. The block model shows extension in the Apennines, shortening in the central Alps, Dinarides and Ionian Island (Epiro coast), and right-lateral slip along the Kefallinia fault zone. The predicted faults slip rates are in good agreement with geodetic and geologic observations. The deformation pattern observed in the Adriatic domain suggests that the Adriatic is a microplate (Adria) and that the southern boundary with the Nubia plate and the Aegean domain may be located along the Apulia Escarpment and the Kefallinia fault.

  19. Intraglottal velocity and pressure measurements in a hemilarynx model

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Liran; Gutmark, Ephraim; Khosla, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Determining the mechanisms of self-sustained oscillation of the vocal folds requires characterization of the pressures produced by intraglottal aerodynamics. Because most of the intraglottal aerodynamic forces cannot be measured in a tissue model of the larynx, current understanding of vocal fold vibration mechanism is derived from mechanical, analytical, and computational models. Previous studies have computed intraglottal pressures from measured intraglottal velocity fields and intraglottal geometry; however, this technique for determining pressures is not yet validated. In this study, intraglottal pressure measurements taken in a hemilarynx model are compared with pressure values that are computed from simultaneous velocity measurements. The results showed that significant negative pressure formed near the superior aspect of the folds during closing, which agrees with previous measurements in other hemilarynx models. Intraglottal velocity measurements show that the flow near the superior aspect separates from the glottal wall during closing and may develop into a vortex, which further augments the magnitude of negative pressure. Intraglottal pressure distributions, computed by solving the pressure Poisson equation, showed good agreement with pressure measurements. The match between the pressure computations and its measurements validates the current technique, which was previously used to estimate intraglottal pressure distribution in a full larynx model. PMID:25698025

  20. Code package MAG c user tool for numerical modeling of 1D shock wave and dynamic processes in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Vladimir; Shaburov, Michail

    1999-06-01

    Design and theoretical and numerical preparation of shock wave experiments require, as a rule, conduction of a large amount of calculations. Usually preparation of a problem for numerical solution, calculation and processing of the results is done be programmers c mathematicians. The appearance of powerful personal computers and interface tools allows to develop such user-oriented programs that a researcher can handle them without the help of a mathematician, even if he does not have special programming background. Code package MAG for numerical solution of 1D system of equations of hydrodynamics, elastoplastics, heat conduction and magnetic hydrodynamic. A number of modern models of elastoplastics and kinetics of power materials is implemented in it. The package includes libraries of equations of state, thermal physical and electromagnetic properties of substances. The code package is an interactive visual medium providing a user with the following capabilities: ? Input and edit initial data for a problem; ? Calculate separate problems, as well as series of problems with a possibility of automatic variation of parameters; ? View the modeled phenomena dynamically using the means of visualization; ? Control the process of calculation: terminate the calculation, change parameters, make express-processing of the results, continue the calculation etc.; ? Process the numerical results producing final plots and tables; ? Record and store numerical results in databases, including the formats supported by Microsoft Word, Acces, Exel; ? Make dynamic visual comparison of the results of several simultaneous calculations; ? Carry out automatic numerical optimization of a selected experimental scheme. The package is easy in use, allows prompt input and convenient information processing. The validity of numerical results obtained with the package MAG has been proved by numerous hydrodynamic experiments and comparisons with numerical results from similar programs. The package was

  1. Analytic solutions for seismic travel time and ray path geometry through simple velocity models.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sanford

    2007-12-01

    The geometry of ray paths through realistic Earth models can be extremely complex due to the vertical and lateral heterogeneity of the velocity distribution within the models. Calculation of high fidelity ray paths and travel times through these models generally involves sophisticated algorithms that require significant assumptions and approximations. To test such algorithms it is desirable to have available analytic solutions for the geometry and travel time of rays through simpler velocity distributions against which the more complex algorithms can be compared. Also, in situations where computational performance requirements prohibit implementation of full 3D algorithms, it may be necessary to accept the accuracy limitations of analytic solutions in order to compute solutions that satisfy those requirements. Analytic solutions are described for the geometry and travel time of infinite frequency rays through radially symmetric 1D Earth models characterized by an inner sphere where the velocity distribution is given by the function V (r) = A-Br{sup 2}, optionally surrounded by some number of spherical shells of constant velocity. The mathematical basis of the calculations is described, sample calculations are presented, and results are compared to the Taup Toolkit of Crotwell et al. (1999). These solutions are useful for evaluating the fidelity of sophisticated 3D travel time calculators and in situations where performance requirements preclude the use of more computationally intensive calculators. It should be noted that most of the solutions presented are only quasi-analytic. Exact, closed form equations are derived but computation of solutions to specific problems generally require application of numerical integration or root finding techniques, which, while approximations, can be calculated to very high accuracy. Tolerances are set in the numerical algorithms such that computed travel time accuracies are better than 1 microsecond.

  2. A simple model for flyer velocity from laser-induced forward transfer with a dynamic release layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw-Stewart, James; Lippert, Thomas; Nagel, Matthias; Nüesch, Frank; Wokaun, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    A simple 1-D model has been developed for the velocity of flyers in vacuum generated by laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) with a dynamic release layer (DRL). It is an extension of a laser ablation model for metal flyer plates based on the Gurney model of explosive output for driving metal fragments. The model has been extended to the bilayer system of a DRL overlain with a transfer layer. The suitability of the model has been checked with experimental velocity data obtained from shadowgraphy. The experiments used bilayer samples of triazene polymer/aluminium, ablated from the backside through the substrate at reduced pressure (5 × 10-2 mbar). The results suggest that the Gurney energy approach provides the basis of a viable, physically relevant, algebraic model for LIFT, but other loss mechanisms still need be incorporated, particularly thermal loss into the fused silica substrate.

  3. A Goldilocks principle for modelling radial velocity noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, F.; Tuomi, M.; Jones, H. R. A.; Butler, R. P.; Vogt, S.

    2016-09-01

    The Doppler measurements of stars are diluted and distorted by stellar activity noise. Different choices of noise models and statistical methods have led to much controversy in the confirmation of exoplanet candidates obtained through analysing radial velocity data. To quantify the limitation of various models and methods, we compare different noise models and signal detection criteria for various simulated and real data sets in the Bayesian framework. According to our analyses, the white noise model tend to interpret noise as signal, leading to false positives. On the other hand, the red noise models are likely to interpret signal as noise, resulting in false negatives. We find that the Bayesian information criterion combined with a Bayes factor threshold of 150 can efficiently rule out false positives and confirm true detections. We further propose a Goldilocks principle aimed at modelling radial velocity noise to avoid too many false positives and too many false negatives. We propose that the noise model with RHK-dependent jitter is used in combination with the moving average model to detect planetary signals for M dwarfs. Our work may also shed light on the noise modelling for hotter stars, and provide a valid approach for finding similar principles in other disciplines.

  4. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: from macroscopic multiscale models to a 1D rheological description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2016-07-01

    One of the critical points of the thermomechanical fatigue design process is the correct description of the cyclic behavior of the material. This work focuses on the material of automotive brake discs, namely flake graphite cast iron. The specificity of this material is its asymmetric behavior under tensile and compressive loadings, which is due to the shape of graphite that acts as small cracks. Multiscale models inspired from the literature are first presented. They lead to a good description of the material behavior under cyclic loadings. An elastoviscoplastic constitutive model is then proposed in a one-dimensional setting in order to accurately describe cyclic tests from room temperature up to {600^{circ}{C}}.

  5. Model-Based Least Squares Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs: Integrating the ORNL HFIR CG1D Source Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Gregor, Jens; Bingham, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    At the present, neutron sources cannot be fabricated small and powerful enough in order to achieve high resolution radiography while maintaining an adequate flux. One solution is to employ computational imaging techniques such as a Magnified Coded Source Imaging (CSI) system. A coded-mask is placed between the neutron source and the object. The system resolution is increased by reducing the size of the mask holes and the flux is increased by increasing the size of the coded-mask and/or the number of holes. One limitation of such system is that the resolution of current state-of-the-art scintillator-based detectors caps around 50um. To overcome this challenge, the coded-mask and object are magnified by making the distance from the coded-mask to the object much smaller than the distance from object to detector. In previous work, we have shown via synthetic experiments that our least squares method outperforms other methods in image quality and reconstruction precision because of the modeling of the CSI system components. However, the validation experiments were limited to simplistic neutron sources. In this work, we aim to model the flux distribution of a real neutron source and incorporate such a model in our least squares computational system. We provide a full description of the methodology used to characterize the neutron source and validate the method with synthetic experiments.

  6. Joint analysis of the seismic data and velocity gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, A. S.; Lavrov, V. S.; Muchamedov, V. A.; Nikolaev, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    We performed joint analysis of the seismic noises recorded at the Japanese Ogasawara station located on Titijima Island in the Philippine Sea using the STS-2 seismograph at the OSW station in the winter period of January 1-15, 2015, over the background of a velocity gravity model. The graphs prove the existence of a cause-and-effect relation between the seismic noise and gravity and allow us to consider it as a desired signal.

  7. The Roles of RNA Polymerase I and III Subunits Polr1c and Polr1d in Craniofacial Development and in Zebrafish Models of Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noack Watt, Kristin E; Achilleos, Annita; Neben, Cynthia L; Merrill, Amy E; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a global process required for growth and proliferation of all cells, yet perturbation of ribosome biogenesis during human development often leads to tissue-specific defects termed ribosomopathies. Transcription of the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) by RNA polymerases (Pol) I and III, is considered a rate limiting step of ribosome biogenesis and mutations in the genes coding for RNA Pol I and III subunits, POLR1C and POLR1D cause Treacher Collins syndrome, a rare congenital craniofacial disorder. Our understanding of the functions of individual RNA polymerase subunits, however, remains poor. We discovered that polr1c and polr1d are dynamically expressed during zebrafish embryonic development, particularly in craniofacial tissues. Consistent with this pattern of activity, polr1c and polr1d homozygous mutant zebrafish exhibit cartilage hypoplasia and cranioskeletal anomalies characteristic of humans with Treacher Collins syndrome. Mechanistically, we discovered that polr1c and polr1d loss-of-function results in deficient ribosome biogenesis, Tp53-dependent neuroepithelial cell death and a deficiency of migrating neural crest cells, which are the primary progenitors of the craniofacial skeleton. More importantly, we show that genetic inhibition of tp53 can suppress neuroepithelial cell death and ameliorate the skeletal anomalies in polr1c and polr1d mutants, providing a potential avenue to prevent the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Our work therefore has uncovered tissue-specific roles for polr1c and polr1d in rRNA transcription, ribosome biogenesis, and neural crest and craniofacial development during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we have established polr1c and polr1d mutant zebrafish as models of Treacher Collins syndrome together with a unifying mechanism underlying its pathogenesis and possible prevention. PMID:27448281

  8. The Roles of RNA Polymerase I and III Subunits Polr1c and Polr1d in Craniofacial Development and in Zebrafish Models of Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noack Watt, Kristin E; Achilleos, Annita; Neben, Cynthia L; Merrill, Amy E; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a global process required for growth and proliferation of all cells, yet perturbation of ribosome biogenesis during human development often leads to tissue-specific defects termed ribosomopathies. Transcription of the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) by RNA polymerases (Pol) I and III, is considered a rate limiting step of ribosome biogenesis and mutations in the genes coding for RNA Pol I and III subunits, POLR1C and POLR1D cause Treacher Collins syndrome, a rare congenital craniofacial disorder. Our understanding of the functions of individual RNA polymerase subunits, however, remains poor. We discovered that polr1c and polr1d are dynamically expressed during zebrafish embryonic development, particularly in craniofacial tissues. Consistent with this pattern of activity, polr1c and polr1d homozygous mutant zebrafish exhibit cartilage hypoplasia and cranioskeletal anomalies characteristic of humans with Treacher Collins syndrome. Mechanistically, we discovered that polr1c and polr1d loss-of-function results in deficient ribosome biogenesis, Tp53-dependent neuroepithelial cell death and a deficiency of migrating neural crest cells, which are the primary progenitors of the craniofacial skeleton. More importantly, we show that genetic inhibition of tp53 can suppress neuroepithelial cell death and ameliorate the skeletal anomalies in polr1c and polr1d mutants, providing a potential avenue to prevent the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Our work therefore has uncovered tissue-specific roles for polr1c and polr1d in rRNA transcription, ribosome biogenesis, and neural crest and craniofacial development during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we have established polr1c and polr1d mutant zebrafish as models of Treacher Collins syndrome together with a unifying mechanism underlying its pathogenesis and possible prevention.

  9. The Roles of RNA Polymerase I and III Subunits Polr1c and Polr1d in Craniofacial Development and in Zebrafish Models of Treacher Collins Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Achilleos, Annita; Neben, Cynthia L.; Merrill, Amy E.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a global process required for growth and proliferation of all cells, yet perturbation of ribosome biogenesis during human development often leads to tissue-specific defects termed ribosomopathies. Transcription of the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) by RNA polymerases (Pol) I and III, is considered a rate limiting step of ribosome biogenesis and mutations in the genes coding for RNA Pol I and III subunits, POLR1C and POLR1D cause Treacher Collins syndrome, a rare congenital craniofacial disorder. Our understanding of the functions of individual RNA polymerase subunits, however, remains poor. We discovered that polr1c and polr1d are dynamically expressed during zebrafish embryonic development, particularly in craniofacial tissues. Consistent with this pattern of activity, polr1c and polr1d homozygous mutant zebrafish exhibit cartilage hypoplasia and cranioskeletal anomalies characteristic of humans with Treacher Collins syndrome. Mechanistically, we discovered that polr1c and polr1d loss-of-function results in deficient ribosome biogenesis, Tp53-dependent neuroepithelial cell death and a deficiency of migrating neural crest cells, which are the primary progenitors of the craniofacial skeleton. More importantly, we show that genetic inhibition of tp53 can suppress neuroepithelial cell death and ameliorate the skeletal anomalies in polr1c and polr1d mutants, providing a potential avenue to prevent the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Our work therefore has uncovered tissue-specific roles for polr1c and polr1d in rRNA transcription, ribosome biogenesis, and neural crest and craniofacial development during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we have established polr1c and polr1d mutant zebrafish as models of Treacher Collins syndrome together with a unifying mechanism underlying its pathogenesis and possible prevention. PMID:27448281

  10. Systematic comparison of initial velocities for neutron stars in different models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taani, Ali

    2016-07-01

    I have studied the initial velocity (Maxwellian and exponential distributions) and the scale height of isolated old (aged ≥ 109 yr) neutron stars (NSs) at different Galactocentric distances R in three population models. The smooth time-independent 3-D axisymmetric gravitational potentials (Miyamoto-Nagai and Paczyński models) were also used. The correlation between these quantities significantly affects the shapes of the profiles and distributions of the simulated sample, because the differences in the initial kick can arise from differences in the formation and evolution of NSs with other physical parameters. The scale height of the density distribution increases systematically with R. I have also shown that the distribution of old NSs in these population models agrees with the observed structure of the Galaxy in terms of initial velocities (1-D and 3-D), as well as the scale height distributions. These distributions tend to have an asymptotic behavior at the point R = 2.75 kpc. This means that the quality of the models can be described in terms of a mean of the fitted Gaussian, and this could also give an overall perspective of the phase space properties of nearby old NSs on a given gravitational potential.

  11. Mapping fractures using 1D anisotropic modelling of magnetotelluric data: a case study from the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, A.; Heinson, G.; Holford, S.; Thiel, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present 1D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data as a potential tool for mapping structural permeability in sedimentary basins. Using 1D inversions of a 171 site, broadband MT data set from the Koroit region of the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia, we have delineated an electrically anisotropic layer at approximately 2.5 to 3.5 km depth. The anisotropy strike is consistent between stations at approximately 160° east of north. The depth of anisotropy corresponds to the top depth of the Lower Cretaceous Crayfish Group, and the anisotropy factor increases from west to east. We interpret the anisotropy as resulting from north-northwest oriented, fluid-filled fractures resulting in enhanced electrical and hydraulic conductivity. This interpretation is consistent with permeability data from well formation tests. It is also consistent with the orientation of mapped faults in the area, which are optimally oriented for reactivation in the current stress field.

  12. Sleipner CCS site: velocity and attenuation model from seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, G.; Chadwick, R. A.; Williams, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The results of the travel-time and frequency shift tomographic inversion of the seismic data from one of the high-resolution lines acquired in 2006 on the Sleipner CO2 geological storage site are here presented. The work has been performed within the European project CO2ReMoVe, to produce an accurate model in-depth, of both seismic velocities and attenuation, to constrain better the quantification studies of the project's partners. Tomographic techniques have the advantage of not assuming horizontal layering or uniform lateral velocities, and of enabling an easy comparison of models, even if resulting from seismic data acquired with different geometries, unavoidable in a time-lapse data set. Through an iterative process, the differences in travel-times between observed direct, reflected or refracted arrivals and the same, calculated on a discrete model, with a ray-tracing based on the Fermat's principle, are minimized. Other minimization procedures provide the reflector/refractor geometries in -depth. Analogously, in attenuation tomography, the minimization process takes into account the observed and calculated spectral-centroid frequency-shift, due to the loss of the highest frequency of the seismic wave, while crossing an attenuating medium. The result is a seismic quality factor (Q) model in-depth, and hence of the attenuation that is known to be more sensitive to subtle changes in physical properties than seismic velocity. The model is across the center of the CO2 plume, on the in-line 1838, and is constituted by nine layers, four resulting by a preliminary analysis of the pre-injection 1994 data set, i.e. seabed, a strong reflection in the overburden and the top and bottom of the Utsira Sand, plus additional five horizons, four of which within Utsira Sands, and one just above the top of it. The layers within the reservoir are very close to each other and in some cases they merge together laterally. The accumulation of CO2 in the uppermost layer of the

  13. Earthquake locations and seismic velocity models for Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoqing

    Earthquake locations are fundamental to studies of earthquake physics, fault orientations and Earth's deformation. Improving earthquake location accuracy has been an important goal branch in seismology for the past few decades. In this dissertation, I consider several methods to improve both relative and absolute earthquake locations. Chapter 2 is devoted to the comparison of different relative earthquake location techniques based on synthetic data, including the double-difference and source-specific station term (SSST) method. The shrinking box SSST algorithm not only provides similar improvements in relative earthquake locations compared to other techniques, but also improves absolute location accuracy compared to the simple SSST method. Chapter 4 describes and documents the COMPLOC software package for implementing the shrinking box SSST algorithm. Chapter 3 shows how absolute locations for quarry seismicity can be obtained by using remote sensing data, which is useful in providing absolute reference locations for three-dimensional velocity inversions and to constrain the shallow crustal structure in simultaneous earthquake location and velocity inversions. Chapter 5 presents and tests a method to estimate local Vp/Vs ratios for compact similar earthquake clusters using the precise P- and S-differential times obtained using waveform cross-correlation. Chapter 6 describes a new three-dimensional seismic velocity model for southern California obtained using the "composite event method" applied to the SIMULPS tomographic inversion algorithm. Based on this velocity model and waveform cross-correlation, Chapter 7 describes how a new earthquake location catalog is obtained for about 450,000 southern California earthquakes between 1981 and 2005.

  14. Air-snowpack exchange of bromine, ozone and mercury in the springtime Arctic simulated by the 1-D model PHANTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, K.; Dastoor, A. P.; Staebler, R. M.; McConnell, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    of measured surface sensible heat fluxes, reference-height wind speed and static stability in the free troposphere. The model yields a shallower boundary layer depth with decreasing wind speed, leading to more rapid ODEs and AMDEs. On the other hand, the amount of Hg(II) deposition is simulated to increase with increasing wind speed. Ozone and GEM are actively destroyed in the snowpack interstitial air via bromine radical chemistry. However, apparent dry deposition velocities for ozone (and GEM where efficient Hg(II) reduction is not included in the model) reached only up to the order of 10-3 cm/s. The gas-particle partitioning of oxidized mercury in the air is strongly connected to bromine chemistry in that particulate mercury starts to build up mainly as HgBr42- in sulfate aerosols after ozone is significantly depleted. In the saline snowpack above the sea ice, mixed-halide complexes like HgCl3Br2- and HgCl2Br22-, as well as HgCl42-, are simulated to comprise a major component of inorganic Hg(II). A predominant fraction of Hg(II) entering from the atmosphere is captured in the top millimeter of the snowpack, whereas molecular diffusion in the brine and re-emission of GEM followed by re-oxidation in the interstitial air contribute to the downward migration of some of the Hg(II).

  15. Predicting abnormal pressure from 2-D seismic velocity modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Grauls, D.; Dunand, J.P.; Beaufort, D.

    1995-12-01

    Seismic velocities are the only data available, before drilling, on which to base a quantitative, present-day estimate of abnormal pressure. Recent advances in seismic velocity processing have enabled them to obtain, using an in-house approach, an optimized 2-D interval velocity field and consequently to better define the lateral extension of pressure regimes. The methodology, interpretation and quantification of overpressure-related anomalies are supported by case studies, selected in sand-shale dominated Tertiary basins, offshore West Africa. Another advantage of this approach is that it can also account for the presence of reservoir-potential intervals at great depth and thus provide significant insight, from a prospective standpoint, into very poorly explored areas. Although at the outset the 2-D seismic tool legitimately merits being favored, optimization of the final predictive pressure model, prior to drilling, will depend upon the success of its combined use with other concepts and approaches, pertaining to structural geology, sedimentology, rock mechanics and fluid dynamics.

  16. Bed-load transport modelling by coupling an empirical routing scheme and a hydrological-1-D-hydrodynamic model - case study application for a large alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gems, B.; Achleitner, S.; Plörer, M.; Schöberl, F.; Huttenlau, M.; Aufleger, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport in mountain rivers and torrents is a substantial process within the assessment of flood related hazard potential and vulnerability in alpine catchments. Focusing on fluvial transport processes, river bed erosion and deposition considerably affects the extent of inundation. The present work deals with scenario-specific bed-load transport modelling in a large alpine valley in the Austrian Alps. A routing scheme founding on empirical equations for the calculation of transport capacities, incipient motion conditions and drag forces is set up and applied to the case study area for two historic flood events. The required hydraulic data result from a distributed hydrological-1-D-hydraulic model. Hydraulics and bed-load transport are simulated sequentially providing a technically well-founded and feasible methodology for the estimation of bed-load transport rates during flood events.

  17. Nondissipative Velocity and Pressure Regularizations for the ICON Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restelli, M.; Giorgetta, M.; Hundertmark, T.; Korn, P.; Reich, S.

    2009-04-01

    A challenging aspect in the numerical simulation of atmospheric and oceanic flows is the multiscale character of the problem both in space and time. The small spacial scales are generated by the turbulent energy and enstrophy cascades, and are usually dealt with by means of turbulence parametrizations, while the small temporal scales are governed by the propagation of acoustic and gravity waves, which are of little importance for the large scale dynamics and are often eliminated by means of a semi-implicit time discretization. We propose to treat both phenomena of subgrid turbulence and temporal scale separation in a unified way by means of nondissipative regularizations of the underlying model equations. More precisely, we discuss the use of two regularized equation sets: the velocity regularization, also know as Lagrangian averaged Navier-Stokes system, and the pressure regularization. Both regularizations are nondissipative since they do not enhance the dissipation of energy and enstrophy of the flow. The velocity regularization models the effects of the subgrid velocity fluctuations on the mean flow, it has thus been proposed as a turbulence parametrization and it has been found to yield promising results in ocean modeling [HHPW08]. In particular, the velocity regularization results in a higher variability of the numerical solution. The pressure regularization, discussed in [RWS07], modifies the propagation of acoustic and gravity waves so that the resulting system can be discretized explicitly in time with time steps analogous to those allowed by a semi-implicit method. Compared to semi-implicit time integrators, however, the pressure regularization takes fully into account the geostrophic balance of the flow. We discuss here the implementation of the velocity and pressure regularizations within the numerical framework of the ICON general circulation model (GCM) [BR05] for the case of the rotating shallow water system, showing how the original numerical

  18. Mean velocity and moments of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the wake of a model ship propulsor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pêgo, J. P.; Lienhart, H.; Durst, F.

    2007-08-01

    Pod drives are modern outboard ship propulsion systems with a motor encapsulated in a watertight pod, whose shaft is connected directly to one or two propellers. The whole unit hangs from the stern of the ship and rotates azimuthally, thus providing thrust and steering without the need of a rudder. Force/momentum and phase-resolved laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were performed for in line co-rotating and contra-rotating propellers pod drive models. The measurements permitted to characterize these ship propulsion systems in terms of their hydrodynamic characteristics. The torque delivered to the propellers and the thrust of the system were measured for different operation conditions of the propellers. These measurements lead to the hydrodynamic optimization of the ship propulsion system. The parameters under focus revealed the influence of distance between propeller planes, propeller frequency of rotation ratio and type of propellers (co- or contra-rotating) on the overall efficiency of the system. Two of the ship propulsion systems under consideration were chosen, based on their hydrodynamic characteristics, for a detailed study of the swirling wake flow by means of laser Doppler anemometry. A two-component laser Doppler system was employed for the velocity measurements. A light barrier mounted on the axle of the rear propeller motor supplied a TTL signal to mark the beginning of each period, thus providing angle information for the LDA measurements. Measurements were conducted for four axial positions in the slipstream of the pod drive models. The results show that the wake of contra-rotating propeller is more homogeneous than when they co-rotate. In agreement with the results of the force/momentum measurements and with hypotheses put forward in the literature (see e.g. Poehls in Entwurfsgrundlagen für Schraubenpropeller, 1984; Schneekluth in Hydromechanik zum Schiffsentwurf, 1988; Breslin and Andersen in Hydrodynamics of ship propellers, 1996

  19. A model for ductile metal friction at high velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerberg, J. E.; Ravelo, R. J.; Germann, T. C.

    We describe a meso-macro scale model for the frictional force at ductile metal interfaces for high velocities and large compressions. The model incorporates the micro-mesoscopic growth and refinement of material microstructure in a highly strained region at the sliding interface and incorporates both rate dependent plasticity and thermal conduction. The model compares favorably with recent large scale (1.8 billion atom) simulations to 50 ns of 3-dimensional polycrystalline 13-50 nm grain size Al-Al interfaces at pressures of 15 GPa using the SPaSM NonEquilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulation code. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. The support of the LANL ASC-PEM program is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Analytical model of solutions of (2+1)-D heat convection equations in a shape memory alloy device immersed in a blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher Abourabia, Aly; Hassan, Kawsar Mohammad; Abo-Elghar, Eman Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a bio-system composed of a shape memory alloy (SMA) immersed and subjected to heat convection in a blood vessel, affected by heart beats that create a wave motion of long wavelength. The tackled model in (2+1)-D is based on the continuity and momentum equations for the fluid phase, besides; the state of the SMA are described via previous works in the form of statistical distributions of energy for both Martensite and Austenite phases. The solution based on the reductive perturbation technique gives a thermal diffusion-like equation as a key for expressing the temperature and velocity components of the blood. In terms of two cases concerning the difference between the wave numbers in the perpendicular directions, it is found that the system's temperature increases nonlinearly from a minimum initial temperature 293 K (20 °C) up to a maximum value about 316.68 K (43.68 °C), then tends to decrease along the blood flow (anisotropy of K and L) direction. In both cases it is observed that the SMA acquires most of this temperature raising not the blood because of its conventional biological limits (37-40 °C). The range of the heart beats wave numbers characteristic for each person plays an important role in realizing phase changes in the anisotropic case leading to the formation of the hysteresis loops Martensite-Austenite-Martensite or vice versa, according to the energy variation. The entropy generation σ is investigated for the system (Blood + SMA), it predicts that along the flow direction the system gains energy convectively up to a maximum value, then reverses his tendency to gradually loosing energy passing by the equilibrium state, then the system looses energy to the surroundings by the same amount which was gained beforehand. The loss diminishes but stops before arriving to equilibrium again. For certain differences in wave numbers the system starts to store energy again after it passes by the state of equilibrium for the second time. In the

  1. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic.

    PubMed

    Berg, P; Woods, A

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137]. PMID:11308709

  2. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic.

    PubMed

    Berg, P; Woods, A

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  3. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  4. Near-infrared spectro-interferometry of Mira variables and comparisons to 1D dynamic model atmospheres and 3D convection simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Freytag, B.; Scholz, M.; Höfner, S.; Karovicova, I.; Whitelock, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We aim at comparing spectro-interferometric observations of Mira variable asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with the latest 1D dynamic model atmospheres based on self-excited pulsation models (CODEX models) and with 3D dynamic model atmospheres including pulsation and convection (CO5BOLD models) to better understand the processes that extend the molecular atmosphere to radii where dust can form. Methods: We obtained a total of 20 near-infrared K-band spectro-interferometric snapshot observations of the Mira variables o Cet, R Leo, R Aqr, X Hya, W Vel, and R Cnc with a spectral resolution of about 1500. We compared observed flux and visibility spectra with predictions by CODEX 1D dynamic model atmospheres and with azimuthally averaged intensities based on CO5BOLD 3D dynamic model atmospheres. Results: Our visibility data confirm the presence of spatially extended molecular atmospheres located above the continuum radii with large-scale inhomogeneities or clumps that contribute a few percent of the total flux. The detailed structure of the inhomogeneities or clumps show a variability on time scales of 3 months and above. Both modeling attempts provided satisfactory fits to our data. In particular, they are both consistent with the observed decrease in the visibility function at molecular bands of water vapor and CO, indicating a spatially extended molecular atmosphere. Observational variability phases are mostly consistent with those of the best-fit CODEX models, except for near-maximum phases, where data are better described by near-minimum models. Rosseland angular diameters derived from the model fits are broadly consistent between those based on the 1D and the 3D models and with earlier observations. We derived fundamental parameters including absolute radii, effective temperatures, and luminosities for our sources. Conclusions: Our results provide a first observational support for theoretical results that shocks induced by convection and pulsation in the

  5. Velocity models and Hypocenter Relocations for the Charlevoix Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. A.; Langston, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present 3-D P- and S-wave velocity (Vp and Vs) models and new hypocenter locations for the Charlevoix seismic zone (CSZ) based upon local travel time tomography. Prominent velocity anomalies and the distribution of earthquakes are discussed in relation to known structural features produced by Iapetan rifting and a large Devonian meteor impact. The CSZ is located along the St. Lawrence River about 100 km downstream from Quebec City, Canada. A 7 station permanent network, augmented by temporary stations, records more than 200 earthquakes annually. The inversion dataset consists of 1,329 earthquakes providing 8,540 P-wave and 8,304 S-wave arrival times. Velocity model resolution is adequate to a depth of at least16 km as indicated by recovery of synthetic checkerboard models. Low Vp and Vs are associated with the impact structure to a depth of 12 km. A prominent high Vp feature is present north of the impact structure and high Vp and Vs extend below the impact at depths exceeding 12 km. Following inversion, hypocenter location errors are less than 0.2 km horizontally and 0.4 km vertically. Hypocenters form a semicircle delineating the eastern margin of the impact structure. Northeast of the impact, hypocenters cluster into planes in several locations, suggesting the presence of distinct, seismogenic faults. The planes trend NE, in the same direction as the Iapitan rift faults, and dip to the SE. One steeply dipping plane is located below the north shore of the St. Lawrence River and extends to a depth of at least 30 km. Two other planes with shallower dips are located below the river and extend to depths of 12 and 15 km. All three planes are disrupted when they encounter the impact but the north shore plane appears to continue through and below the impact zone. The presence of through-going Iapetan faults within the impact structure is an important constraint for 3-D stress models developed to explain the spatial distribution of seismicity in the CSZ. We identify

  6. Self-consistent one dimension in space and three dimension in velocity kinetic trajectory simulation model of magnetized plasma-wall transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chalise, Roshan Khanal, Raju

    2015-11-15

    We have developed a self-consistent 1d3v (one dimension in space and three dimension in velocity) Kinetic Trajectory Simulation (KTS) model, which can be used for modeling various situations of interest and yields results of high accuracy. Exact ion trajectories are followed, to calculate along them the ion distribution function, assuming an arbitrary injection ion distribution. The electrons, on the other hand, are assumed to have a cut-off Maxwellian velocity distribution at injection and their density distribution is obtained analytically. Starting from an initial guess, the potential profile is iterated towards the final time-independent self-consistent state. We have used it to study plasma sheath region formed in presence of an oblique magnetic field. Our results agree well with previous works from other models, and hence, we expect our 1d3v KTS model to provide a basis for the studying of all types of magnetized plasmas, yielding more accurate results.

  7. Velocity field measurements in the wake of a propeller model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, R.; Kumar, A. Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Turboprop configurations are being revisited for the modern-day regional transport aircrafts for their fuel efficiency. The use of laminar flow wings is an effort in this direction. One way to further improve their efficiency is by optimizing the flow over the wing in the propeller wake. Previous studies have focused on improving the gross aerodynamic characteristics of the wing. It is known that the propeller slipstream causes early transition of the boundary layer on the wing. However, an optimized design of the propeller and wing combination could delay this transition and decrease the skin friction drag. Such a wing design would require the detailed knowledge of the development of the slipstream in isolated conditions. There are very few studies in the literature addressing the requirements of transport aircraft having six-bladed propeller and cruising at a high propeller advance ratio. Low-speed wind tunnel experiments have been conducted on a powered propeller model in isolated conditions, measuring the velocity field in the vertical plane behind the propeller using two-component hot-wire anemometry. The data obtained clearly resolved the mean velocity, the turbulence, the ensemble phase averages and the structure and development of the tip vortex. The turbulence in the slipstream showed that transition could be close to the leading edge of the wing, making it a fine case for optimization. The development of the wake with distance shows some interesting flow features, and the data are valuable for flow computation and optimization.

  8. Velocity response curves demonstrate the complexity of modeling entrainable clocks.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephanie R; Cheever, Allyson; Harmon, Sarah M

    2014-12-21

    Circadian clocks are biological oscillators that regulate daily behaviors in organisms across the kingdoms of life. Their rhythms are generated by complex systems, generally involving interlocked regulatory feedback loops. These rhythms are entrained by the daily light/dark cycle, ensuring that the internal clock time is coordinated with the environment. Mathematical models play an important role in understanding how the components work together to function as a clock which can be entrained by light. For a clock to entrain, it must be possible for it to be sped up or slowed down at appropriate times. To understand how biophysical processes affect the speed of the clock, one can compute velocity response curves (VRCs). Here, in a case study involving the fruit fly clock, we demonstrate that VRC analysis provides insight into a clock׳s response to light. We also show that biochemical mechanisms and parameters together determine a model׳s ability to respond realistically to light. The implication is that, if one is developing a model and its current form has an unrealistic response to light, then one must reexamine one׳s model structure, because searching for better parameter values is unlikely to lead to a realistic response to light. PMID:25193284

  9. A novel 1D/2D model for simulating conjugate heat transfer applied to flow boiling in tubes with external fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Łopata, Stanisław; Nowak, Marzena

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.

  10. A novel 1D/2D model for simulating conjugate heat transfer applied to flow boiling in tubes with external fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Łopata, Stanisław; Nowak, Marzena

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.

  11. Spring phytoplankton bloom and associated lower trophic level food web dynamics on Georges Bank: 1-D and 2-D model studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Rubao; Chen, Changsheng; Franks, Peter J. S.; Townsend, David W.; Durbin, Edward G.; Beardsley, Robert C.; Gregory Lough, R.; Houghton, Robert W.

    2006-11-01

    A coupled biological-physical model was developed and tested in one-dimensional (1-D, vertical) and two-dimensional (2-D, cross-sectional) domains to examine the spring phytoplankton bloom and associated lower trophic level food web dynamics on Georges Bank (GB). The biological model consists of nine compartments: dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and silicate), phytoplankton (large and small size classes), zooplankton (large and small size classes), and detrital organic nitrogen and biogenic silica. The 1-D model results showed that in the shallow central bank, the timing and duration of spring blooms are closely linked to the light intensity and its downward penetration, while the intensity of blooms is regulated by initial nutrient concentrations and zooplankton grazing pressure. In the deeper flank area, the bloom dynamics is directly controlled by the seasonal development of stratification. The interactions between the shallow and deep regions of the bank were examined by a 2-D model, which showed that the cross-sectional gradients of biological quantities were caused mainly by the shallow-deep topographic transition and tidal mixing. Between the shallow and deep regions, a possible phytoplankton maximum concentration area was seen in the model at the time before the formation of the tidal-mixing front. Once the tidal-mixing front was established during late spring, the model showed a relatively high concentration of phytoplankton near the front as the result of the tidally driven up-front nutrient flux. Both the 1-D and 2-D models captured the basic seasonal cycles of the nutrients and phytoplankton in the central bank, but failed to reproduce those patterns in the deep flank regions, where horizontal advection might play a significant role.

  12. Unsteady velocity measurements in a realistic intracranial aneurysm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugron, Ádám; Farinas, Marie-Isabelle; Kiss, László; Paál, György

    2012-01-01

    The initiation, growth and rupture of intracranial aneurysms are intensively studied by computational fluid dynamics. To gain confidence in the results of numerical simulations, validation of the results is necessary. To this end the unsteady flow was measured in a silicone phantom of a realistic intracranial aneurysm. A flow circuit was built with a novel unsteady flow rate generating method, used to model the idealised shape of the heartbeat. This allowed the measurement of the complex three-dimensional velocity distribution by means of laser-optical methods such as laser doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV measurements, available with high temporal and spatial distribution, were found to have good agreement with the control LDA measurements. Furthermore, excellent agreement was found with the numerical results.

  13. Testing the SH1D Assumption for Geotechnical Site and Basin Response Using 3D Finite Difference Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current state-of-practice of geotechnical site response and soil-structure analyses generally assume a vertically propagating horizontally polarized plane wave is incident on a plane-layered (one-dimensional) soil column. Ground motions representing the wavefield incident to the bedrock base of the soil column are developed from observed and sometimes scaled time-histories or synthesized by various methods. The site-specific ground motion at the surface is then computed from the response of the soil column to the bedrock incident wavefield, possibly including non-linear response of the geotechnical near-surface. This is the so-called SH1D assumption. While this approach is widely used, it ignores important complexities of the incident wavefield. Specifically, the standard approach assumes: 1) the incident wavefield is only composed of vertically propagating body waves; 2) ignores oblique incidence; and 3) neglects the three-component nature of the wavefield that includes surface waves and rotational motions. Surface waves often carry much of the seismic energy and can excite all three components of motion. Therefore, it seems most appropriate to include the most representative characterization of the incident wavefield in site-specific analyses. We are performing parametric studies with three-dimensional (3D) elastic finite difference simulations to compare the near-surface response of sedimentary basins to horizontally polarized planes (arbitrary incident) and point source (double couple) earthquakes. Simulations involve simple, parametric representations of basin geometries and layered material properties of the sedimentary basin and surrounding hard rock. We compare the frequency-dependent site response for different excitations and attempt to quantify the differences between the plane-wave and fully 3D basin response.

  14. Developing Sediment Transport and Dredging Prediction Model of Ohio River at Olmsted Locks and Dams Area using HEC-RAS (1D/2D)By Ganesh Raj Ghimire1 and Bruce A. Devantier 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment deposition is a serious issue in the construction and operation of large reservoir and inland navigation projects in the United States and around the world. Olmsted Locks and Dams in the Ohio River navigation system is facing similar challenges of huge sediment deposition during the ongoing in-wet construction methodology since 1993. HEC-RAS 5.0 integrated with ArcGIS, will be used to yield unsteady 2D hydrodynamic model of Ohio River at Olmsted area. Velocity, suspended sediment, bed sediment and hydrographic survey data acquired from public archives of USGS and USACE Louisville District will be input into the model. Calibration and validation of model will be performed against the measured stage, flow and velocity data. It will be subjected to completely unsteady 1D sediment transport modeling new to HEC-RAS 5.0 which incorporates sediment load and bed gradation via a DSS file, commercial dredging and BSTEM model. Sediment model will be calibrated to replicate the historical bed volume changes. Excavated cross-sections at Olmsted area will also be used to predict the sediment volume trapped inside the ditch over the period between excavations and placement of dam shells at site. Model will attempt to replicate historical dredging volume data and compare with the deposition volume from simulation model to formulate the dredging prediction model. Hence, the results of this research will generate a model that can form a basis for scheduling the dredging event prior to the placement of off-shore cast shells replacing the current as and when required approach of dredging plan. 1 Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Carbondale, Illinois, 62901-6603 2 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Carbondale, Illinois, 62901-6603

  15. Pulse wave propagation in a model human arterial network: Assessment of 1-D visco-elastic simulations against in vitro measurements.

    PubMed

    Alastruey, Jordi; Khir, Ashraf W; Matthys, Koen S; Segers, Patrick; Sherwin, Spencer J; Verdonck, Pascal R; Parker, Kim H; Peiró, Joaquim

    2011-08-11

    The accuracy of the nonlinear one-dimensional (1-D) equations of pressure and flow wave propagation in Voigt-type visco-elastic arteries was tested against measurements in a well-defined experimental 1:1 replica of the 37 largest conduit arteries in the human systemic circulation. The parameters required by the numerical algorithm were directly measured in the in vitro setup and no data fitting was involved. The inclusion of wall visco-elasticity in the numerical model reduced the underdamped high-frequency oscillations obtained using a purely elastic tube law, especially in peripheral vessels, which was previously reported in this paper [Matthys et al., 2007. Pulse wave propagation in a model human arterial network: Assessment of 1-D numerical simulations against in vitro measurements. J. Biomech. 40, 3476-3486]. In comparison to the purely elastic model, visco-elasticity significantly reduced the average relative root-mean-square errors between numerical and experimental waveforms over the 70 locations measured in the in vitro model: from 3.0% to 2.5% (p<0.012) for pressure and from 15.7% to 10.8% (p<0.002) for the flow rate. In the frequency domain, average relative errors between numerical and experimental amplitudes from the 5th to the 20th harmonic decreased from 0.7% to 0.5% (p<0.107) for pressure and from 7.0% to 3.3% (p<10(-6)) for the flow rate. These results provide additional support for the use of 1-D reduced modelling to accurately simulate clinically relevant problems at a reasonable computational cost.

  16. Authentication Based on Pole-zero Models of Signature Velocity.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Saeid; Fallah, Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2013-10-01

    With the increase of communication and financial transaction through internet, on-line signature verification is an accepted biometric technology for access control and plays a significant role in authenticity and authorization in modernized society. Therefore, fast and precise algorithms for the signature verification are very attractive. The goal of this paper is modeling of velocity signal that pattern and properties is stable for persons. With using pole-zero models based on discrete cosine transform, precise method is proposed for modeling and then features is founded from strokes. With using linear, parzen window and support vector machine classifiers, the signature verification technique was tested with a large number of authentic and forgery signatures and has demonstrated the good potential of this technique. The signatures are collected from three different database include a proprietary database, the SVC2004 and the Sabanci University signature database benchmark databases. Experimental results based on Persian, SVC2004 and SUSIG databases show that our method achieves an equal error rate of 5.91%, 5.62% and 3.91% in the skilled forgeries, respectively. PMID:24696797

  17. Modeling Normal Shock Velocity Curvature Relation for Heterogeneous Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sunhee; Crochet, Michael; Pemberton, Steve

    2015-06-01

    The normal shock velocity and curvature, Dn(κ) , relation on a detonation shock surface has been an important functional quantity to measure to understand the shock strength exerted against the material interface between a main explosive charge and the case of an explosive munition. The Dn(κ) relation is considered an intrinsic property of an explosive, and can be experimentally deduced by rate stick tests at various charge diameters. However, experimental measurements of the Dn(κ) relation for heterogeneous explosives such as PBXN-111 are challenging due to the non-smoothness and asymmetry usually observed in the experimental streak records of explosion fronts. Out of the many possibilities, the asymmetric character may be attributed to the heterogeneity of the explosives, a hypothesis which begs two questions: (1) is there any simple hydrodynamic model that can explain such an asymmetric shock evolution, and (2) what statistics can be derived for the asymmetry using simulations with defined structural heterogeneity in the unreacted explosive? Saenz, Taylor and Stewart studied constitutive models for derivation of the Dn(κ) relation on porous `homogeneous' explosives and carried out simulations in a spherical coordinate frame. In this paper, we extend their model to account for `heterogeneity' and present shock evolutions in heterogeneous explosives using 2-D hydrodynamic simulations with some statistical examination. (96TW-2015-0004)

  18. Modelling nonstationary Doppler noise in exoplanetary radial velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2015-08-01

    We construct a new class of analytic nonstationary noise models for exoplanetary Doppler data. The observable correlated noise is represented as a convolution of a parent activity process with a given memory function. The model honours the casuality principle, meaning that only past values of the activity may affect the observable value. This model does not approximate detailedly any real stellar activity phenomena, but it becomes mathematically simple, simultaneously satisfying the basic natural principles of physical sensibility and self-consistency.Additionally, we develop a new type of periodograms that can be used to detect periodic modulations in the Doppler noise characteristics, rather than in the observed radial velocity curve itself. We present first results of applying this technique to public Doppler time series available for a set of planet-hosting stars.This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 14-02-92615 KO_a), the UK Royal Society International Exchange grant IE140055, by the President of Russia grant for young scientists (No. MK-733.2014.2), by the programme of the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences P21, and by the Saint Petersburg State University research grant 6.37.341.2015.

  19. A new time-dependent analytic model for radiation-induced photocurrent in finite 1D epitaxial diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Verley, Jason C.; Axness, Carl L.; Hembree, Charles Edward; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert

    2012-04-01

    Photocurrent generated by ionizing radiation represents a threat to microelectronics in radiation environments. Circuit simulation tools such as SPICE [1] can be used to analyze these threats, and typically rely on compact models for individual electrical components such as transistors and diodes. Compact models consist of a handful of differential and/or algebraic equations, and are derived by making simplifying assumptions to any of the many semiconductor transport equations. Historically, many photocurrent compact models have suffered from accuracy issues due to the use of qualitative approximation, rather than mathematically correct solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation. A practical consequence of this inaccuracy is that a given model calibration is trustworthy over only a narrow range of operating conditions. This report describes work to produce improved compact models for photocurrent. Specifically, an analytic model is developed for epitaxial diode structures that have a highly doped subcollector. The analytic model is compared with both numerical TCAD calculations, as well as the compact model described in reference [2]. The new analytic model compares well against TCAD over a wide range of operating conditions, and is shown to be superior to the compact model from reference [2].

  20. Comparing and contrasting 2D versus 1D performance modeling in NV-IPM v1.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, Jonathan G.; Teaney, Brian P.

    2016-05-01

    Version 1.6 of the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) introduced two-dimensional Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and noise signals within the model architecture. These two-dimensional signals enable the model to more accurately treat systems with non-separable MTF components. These non-separable MTF components may be introduced by optical elements, electronic post-processing, or atmospheric effects. In this paper we discuss the differences between the new two-dimensional signal architecture and the one-dimensional separable representation used in earlier versions of the model and highlight some cases which demonstrate the utility of the two-dimensional signals.

  1. Coupling WEPP and 3ST1D models for improved prediction of flow and sediment transport at watershed scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed modeling is a key component of watershed management that involves the simulation of hydrological and fluvial processes for predicting flow and sediment transport within a watershed. For practical purposes, most numerical models have been developed to simulate either runoff and soil erosion...

  2. The anisotropy1 D604N Mutation in the Arabidopsis Cellulose Synthase1 Catalytic Domain Reduces Cell Wall Crystallinity and the Velocity of Cellulose Synthase Complexes1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Ward, Juliet; Whittington, Angela; Hasenbein, Nortrud; Liu, Christine; Truong, Thy T.; Galway, Moira E.; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Hocart, Charles H.; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple cellulose synthase (CesA) subunits assemble into plasma membrane complexes responsible for cellulose production. In the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) model system, we identified a novel D604N missense mutation, designated anisotropy1 (any1), in the essential primary cell wall CesA1. Most previously identified CesA1 mutants show severe constitutive or conditional phenotypes such as embryo lethality or arrest of cellulose production but any1 plants are viable and produce seeds, thus permitting the study of CesA1 function. The dwarf mutants have reduced anisotropic growth of roots, aerial organs, and trichomes. Interestingly, cellulose microfibrils were disordered only in the epidermal cells of the any1 inflorescence stem, whereas they were transverse to the growth axis in other tissues of the stem and in all elongated cell types of roots and dark-grown hypocotyls. Overall cellulose content was not altered but both cell wall crystallinity and the velocity of cellulose synthase complexes were reduced in any1. We crossed any1 with the temperature-sensitive radial swelling1-1 (rsw1-1) CesA1 mutant and observed partial complementation of the any1 phenotype in the transheterozygotes at rsw1-1’s permissive temperature (21°C) and full complementation by any1 of the conditional rsw1-1 root swelling phenotype at the restrictive temperature (29°C). In rsw1-1 homozygotes at restrictive temperature, a striking dissociation of cellulose synthase complexes from the plasma membrane was accompanied by greatly diminished motility of intracellular cellulose synthase-containing compartments. Neither phenomenon was observed in the any1 rsw1-1 transheterozygotes, suggesting that the proteins encoded by the any1 allele replace those encoded by rsw1-1 at restrictive temperature. PMID:23532584

  3. Discrete Velocity Models for Mixtures Without Nonphysical Collision Invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhoff, Niclas; Vinerean, Mirela

    2016-09-01

    An important aspect of constructing discrete velocity models (DVMs) for the Boltzmann equation is to obtain the right number of collision invariants. It is a well-known fact that DVMs can also have extra collision invariants, so called spurious collision invariants, in plus to the physical ones. A DVM with only physical collision invariants, and so without spurious ones, is called normal. For binary mixtures also the concept of supernormal DVMs was introduced, meaning that in addition to the DVM being normal, the restriction of the DVM to any single species also is normal. Here we introduce generalizations of this concept to DVMs for multicomponent mixtures. We also present some general algorithms for constructing such models and give some concrete examples of such constructions. One of our main results is that for any given number of species, and any given rational mass ratios we can construct a supernormal DVM. The DVMs are constructed in such a way that for half-space problems, as the Milne and Kramers problems, but also nonlinear ones, we obtain similar structures as for the classical discrete Boltzmann equation for one species, and therefore we can apply obtained results for the classical Boltzmann equation.

  4. Discrete Velocity Models for Mixtures Without Nonphysical Collision Invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhoff, Niclas; Vinerean, Mirela

    2016-10-01

    An important aspect of constructing discrete velocity models (DVMs) for the Boltzmann equation is to obtain the right number of collision invariants. It is a well-known fact that DVMs can also have extra collision invariants, so called spurious collision invariants, in plus to the physical ones. A DVM with only physical collision invariants, and so without spurious ones, is called normal. For binary mixtures also the concept of supernormal DVMs was introduced, meaning that in addition to the DVM being normal, the restriction of the DVM to any single species also is normal. Here we introduce generalizations of this concept to DVMs for multicomponent mixtures. We also present some general algorithms for constructing such models and give some concrete examples of such constructions. One of our main results is that for any given number of species, and any given rational mass ratios we can construct a supernormal DVM. The DVMs are constructed in such a way that for half-space problems, as the Milne and Kramers problems, but also nonlinear ones, we obtain similar structures as for the classical discrete Boltzmann equation for one species, and therefore we can apply obtained results for the classical Boltzmann equation.

  5. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  6. Differences in Water Vapor Radiative Transfer among 1D Models Can Significantly Affect the Inner Edge of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Leconte, Jérémy; Wolf, Eric T.; Goldblatt, Colin; Feldl, Nicole; Merlis, Timothy; Wang, Yuwei; Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Forget, François; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4_Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μm) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μm. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10-20 W m-2 differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m-2, especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m-2 in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  7. Status of the solar and infrared radiation submodels in the LLNL 1-D and 2-D chemical-transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, K.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have implemented a series of state of the art radiation transport submodels in previously developed one dimensional and two dimensional chemical transport models of the troposphere and stratosphere. These submodels provide the capability of calculating accurate solar and infrared heating rates. They are a firm basis for further radiation submodel development as well as for studying interactions between radiation and model dynamics under varying conditions of clear sky, clouds, and aerosols. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Differences in Water Vapor Radiative Transfer among 1D Models Can Significantly Affect the Inner Edge of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Leconte, Jérémy; Wolf, Eric T.; Goldblatt, Colin; Feldl, Nicole; Merlis, Timothy; Wang, Yuwei; Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Forget, François; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4_Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μm) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μm. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10–20 W m‑2 differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m‑2, especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m‑2 in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  9. Effects of a space modulation on the behavior of a 1D alternating Heisenberg spin-1/2 model.

    PubMed

    Mahdavifar, Saeed; Abouie, Jahanfar

    2011-06-22

    The effects of a magnetic field (h) and a space modulation (δ) on the magnetic properties of a one-dimensional antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-1/2 model have been studied by means of numerical exact diagonalization of finite size systems, the nonlinear σ model, and a bosonization approach. The space modulation is considered on the antiferromagnetic couplings. At δ = 0, the model is mapped to a gapless Lüttinger liquid phase by increasing the magnetic field. However, the space modulation induces a new gap in the spectrum of the system and the system experiences different quantum phases which are separated by four critical fields. By opening the new gap, a magnetization plateau appears at ½M(sat). The effects of the space modulation are reflected in the emergence of a plateau in other physical functions such as the F-dimer and the bond-dimer order parameters, and the pair-wise entanglement. PMID:21613724

  10. A matrix projection method for on line stable estimation of 1D and 3D shear building models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel García-Illescas, Miguel; Alvarez-Icaza, Luis

    2016-12-01

    An estimation method is presented that combines the use of recursive least squares, a matrix parameterized model, Gershgorin circles and tridiagonal matrices properties to allow the identification of stable shear building models in the presence of low excitation or low damping. The resultant scheme yields a significant reduction on the number of calculations involved, when compared with the standard vector parameterization based schemes. As real buildings are always open loop stable, the use of an stable shear building model for vibration control purposes allows the design of more robust control laws. Extensive simulation results are presented for cases of low excitation comparing the results of using or not this matrix projection method with different sets of initial conditions. Results indicate that the use of this projection method does not have an influence in the recovery of natural frequencies, however, it significantly improves the recovery of mode shapes.

  11. Improved Large-Scale Inundation Modelling by 1D-2D Coupling and Consideration of Hydrologic and Hydrodynamic Processes - a Case Study in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, J. M.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, R.; Winsemius, H.; Haag, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of fluvial floods is paramount to accurate flood hazard and risk modeling. Currently, economic losses due to flooding constitute about one third of all damage resulting from natural hazards. Given future projections of climate change, the anticipated increase in the World's population and the associated implications, sound knowledge of flood hazard and related risk is crucial. Fluvial floods are cross-border phenomena that need to be addressed accordingly. Yet, only few studies model floods at the large-scale which is preferable to tiling the output of small-scale models. Most models cannot realistically model flood wave propagation due to a lack of either detailed channel and floodplain geometry or the absence of hydrologic processes. This study aims to develop a large-scale modeling tool that accounts for both hydrologic and hydrodynamic processes, to find and understand possible sources of errors and improvements and to assess how the added hydrodynamics affect flood wave propagation. Flood wave propagation is simulated by DELFT3D-FM (FM), a hydrodynamic model using a flexible mesh to schematize the study area. It is coupled to PCR-GLOBWB (PCR), a macro-scale hydrological model, that has its own simpler 1D routing scheme (DynRout) which has already been used for global inundation modeling and flood risk assessments (GLOFRIS; Winsemius et al., 2013). A number of model set-ups are compared and benchmarked for the simulation period 1986-1996: (0) PCR with DynRout; (1) using a FM 2D flexible mesh forced with PCR output and (2) as in (1) but discriminating between 1D channels and 2D floodplains, and, for comparison, (3) and (4) the same set-ups as (1) and (2) but forced with observed GRDC discharge values. Outputs are subsequently validated against observed GRDC data at Óbidos and flood extent maps from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The present research constitutes a first step into a globally applicable approach to fully couple

  12. Establishing the Capability of a 1D SVAT Modelling Scheme in Predicting Key Biophysical Vegetation Characterisation Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Gareth; Petropoulos, George P.; Carlson, Toby N.; Purdy, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) consists of an integral and important validatory check of a computer simulation model before it is used to perform any kind of analysis. In the present work, we present the results from a SA performed on the SimSphere Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model utilising a cutting edge and robust Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach, based on the use of the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) tool. The sensitivity of the following model outputs was evaluated: the ambient CO2 concentration and the rate of CO2 uptake by the plant, the ambient O3 concentration, the flux of O3 from the air to the plant/soil boundary, and the flux of O3 taken up by the plant alone. The most sensitive model inputs for the majority of model outputs were related to the structural properties of vegetation, namely, the Leaf Area Index, Fractional Vegetation Cover, Cuticle Resistance and Vegetation Height. External CO2 in the leaf and the O3 concentration in the air input parameters also exhibited significant influence on model outputs. This work presents a very important step towards an all-inclusive evaluation of SimSphere. Indeed, results from this study contribute decisively towards establishing its capability as a useful teaching and research tool in modelling Earth's land surface interactions. This is of considerable importance in the light of the rapidly expanding use of this model worldwide, which also includes research conducted by various Space Agencies examining its synergistic use with Earth Observation data towards the development of operational products at a global scale. This research was supported by the European Commission Marie Curie Re-Integration Grant "TRANSFORM-EO". SimSphere is currently maintained and freely distributed by the Department of Geography and Earth Sciences at Aberystwyth University (http://www.aber.ac.uk/simsphere). Keywords: CO2 flux, ambient CO2, O3 flux, SimSphere, Gaussian process emulators

  13. Study of the mixed layer depth variations within the north Indian Ocean using a 1-D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. N.; Sharma, Rashmi; Agarwal, Neeraj; Agarwal, Vijay K.; Weller, R. A.

    2004-08-01

    Mixed layer depth (MLD) over the north Indian Ocean (30°S to 30°N and 40°E to 110°E) is computed using the simple one-dimensional model of [1986] forced by satellite-derived parameters (winds and chlorophyll). Seasonal chlorophyll observations obtained from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner allow us to examine how biology interacts with physics in the upper ocean by changing the absorption of light and thus the heating by penetrative solar radiation, an effect we refer to as biological heating. Our analysis focus mainly on two aspects: the importance of varying biology in the model simulations relative to runs with constant biology and secondly, the contribution of biology to the seasonal variability of the MLD. The model results are compared with observations from a surface mooring deployed for 1 year (October 1994 to October 1995) in the central Arabian Sea and also with available conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations from the Arabian Sea during the period 1994-1995. The effect of biological heating on the upper ocean thermal structure in central Arabian Sea is found to be greatest in August. In other months it is either the wind, which is the controlling factor in mixed layer variations, or the density variations due to winter cooling and internal dynamics. A large number of CTD observations collected under the Joint Global Ocean Flux study and World Ocean Circulation Experiment have been used to validate model results. We find an overall improvement by approximately 2-3 m in root-mean-square error in MLD estimates when seasonally varying chlorophyll observations are used in the model.

  14. Integrating models to simulate emergent behaviour: effects of organic matter on soil hydraulics in the ICZ-1D soil-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valstar, Johan; Rowe, Ed; Konstantina, Moirogiorgou; Giannakis, Giorgos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    explore the complex interactions involved in soil development and change. We were unable to identify appropriately-detailed existing models for plant productivity and for the dynamics of soil aggregation and porosity, and so developed the PROSUM and CAST models, respectively, to simulate these subsystems. Moreover, we applied the BRNS generator to obtain a chemical equilibrium model. These were combined with HYDRUS-1D (water and solute transport), a weathering model (derived from the SAFE model) and a simple bioturbation model. The model includes several feedbacks, such as the effect of soil organic matter on water retention and hydraulic conductivity. We encountered several important challenges when building the integrated model. First, a mechanism was developed that initiates the execution of a single time step for an individual sub-model and accounts for the relevant mass transfers between sub-models. This allows for different and sometimes variable time step duration in the submodels. Secondly, we removed duplicated processes and identified and included relevant solute production terms that had been neglected. The model is being tested against datasets obtained from several Soil Critical Zone Observatories in Europe. This contribution focuses on the design strategy for the model.

  15. Solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding in the Au-In system: experimental study and 1D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deillon, Léa; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Hessler, Thierry; Rappaz, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Au-In bonds with a nominal composition of about 60 at.% In were fabricated for use in wafer-level packaging of MEMS. The microstructure of the bonds was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The bond hermeticity was then assessed using oxidation of Cu thin discs predeposited within the sealed packages. The three intermetallic compounds AuIn2, AuIn and Au7In3 were observed. Their thickness evolution during bonding and after subsequent heat treatment was successfully modelled using a finite difference model of diffusion, thermodynamic data and diffusion coefficients calibrated from isothermal diffusion couples. 17% of the packages were hermetic and, although the origin of the leaks could not be clearly identified, it appeared that hermeticity was correlated with the unevenness of the metallisation and/or wafer and the fact that the bonds shrink due to density differences as the relative fractions of the various phases gradually evolve.

  16. The 1D parabolic-parabolic Patlak-Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis: The particular integrable case and soliton solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, Maria

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the one-dimensional parabolic-parabolic Patlak-Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis. For the case when the diffusion coefficient of chemical substance is equal to two, in terms of travelling wave variables the reduced system appears integrable and allows the analytical solution. We obtain the exact soliton solutions, one of which is exactly the one-soliton solution of the Korteweg-de Vries equation.

  17. 1-D Transient Thermal Modeling of an Ablative Material (MCC-1) Exposed to a Simulated Convective Titan 4 Launch Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinarts, Thomas R.; Crain, William K.; Stuckey, C. Irvin; Palko, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the work is to demonstrate that the flat test panel substrate temperatures are consistent with analysis predictions for MCC-1 applied to a aluminum substrate. The testing was performed in an aerothermal facility on samples of three different thicknesses of MCC-1 on an aluminum substrate. The results of the test were compared with a Transient Thermal model. The key assumptions of the Transient Thermal model were: (1) a one-dimensional heat transfer; (2) a constant ablation recession rate (determined from pre and post-test measurements); (3) ablation temperature of 540 degrees F; (4) Char left behind the ablation front; and (5) temperature jump correction for incident heat transfer coefficient. Two methods were used to model the heating of bare MCC-1: (1) Directly input surface temperature as a function of time; and (2) Aerothermal heating using calibration plate data and subtracting the radiation losses to tunnel walls. The results are presented as graphs. This article is presented in Viewgraph format.

  18. The (O1D) 630.0 nm thermospheric dayglow measured by WINDII and modeled by TRANSCAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culot, F.; Lathuillère, C.; Lilensten, J.; Witasse, O.

    2003-04-01

    A key problem in aeronomic research is the study of airglow emissions. They are observed by a large range of techniques such as rockets, ground-based and space instruments. They provide a better understanding of the processes controling the state of the upper mesosphere and thermosphere. The modeling of those emissions is a complementary approach. It involves a wide variety of quantities : EUV &UV solar fluxes, photoelectron fluxes, neutral, ion, and electron densities and temperatures, and also chemical reactions rates. In this work we focus on the 630.0 nm emission (red line), using all of the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) available data from February 1992 to June 1995, in order to obtain the Volume Emission Rate profiles. Thus, we analyse the links between the altitude and intensity of the measured profiles peaks and various geophysical parameters, among them the Solar Zenith Angle and the solar activity. Finally, we compare our results with those given by the TRANSCAR model which allows us to adjust our modeling of the upper atmosphere and gives rise to a better understanding of the dayglow emissions.

  19. Creating Flood Inundation Maps Using 1D Hydrologic Model and GIS for Lower Meric River Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonmez, O.; Dogan, E.; Demir, I.

    2012-12-01

    In Turkey, one of the areas facing the danger of flooding is Lower Meric River basin, the part between Edirne and Enos, Turkey. Despite being in the flood zone, the region is used widely as an agricultural and settlement land. The State Hydraulic Works (DSI) has built levees to prevent flood damages on the Lower Evros River Basin. However, having floods in the region reaching areas behind levees, clearly showed the need for reviewing and updating the cross-sections of the critical areas in the river bed. In this study, determination of floodplains for various stream-flow values in any cross sections of the river is aimed. The study area is divided into two sections (Study Area 1 & Study Area 2). Available stream flow gauging station data, which is located in study areas, are used in model. Model created using HEC-RAS, is calibrated with 2006 flood which occurred in the study area. After calibration, floodplain maps are created for 1000 m3/s flows from 1000 to6000 m3/s flows for Study Area1. For Study Area 2, floodplain maps are created for 2, 5, 10, 50, 100 years return periods. The models can illustrate the extent of flooding under different conditions allowing residents in the area to see how predicted flood levels could affect their property, and help them make informed decisions.

  20. The Candy Wrapper Velocity Model for the Earth's Inner Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattesini, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent global expansion of seismic data motivated a number of seismological studies of the Earth's inner core that proposed the existence of increasingly complex structure and anisotropy. In the meantime, new hypotheses of dynamic mechanisms have been put forward to interpret seismological results. Here, the nature of hemispherical dichotomy and anisotropy is re-investigated by bridging the observations of PKP(bc-df) differential travel-times with the iron bcc/hcp elastic properties computed from first-principles methods.The Candy Wrapper velocity model introduced here accounts for a dynamic picture of the inner core (i.e., the eastward drift of material), where different iron crystal shapes can be stabilized at the two hemispheres. We show that seismological data are best explained by a rather complicated, mosaic-like, structure of the inner core, where well-separated patches of different iron crystals compose the anisotropic western hemispherical region, and a conglomerate of almost indistinguishable iron phases builds-up the weakly anisotropic eastern side.

  1. Numerical modeling of probe velocity effects for electromagnetic NDE methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y. K.; Lord, W.

    The present discussion of magnetic flux (MLF) leakage inspection introduces the behavior of motion-induced currents. The results obtained indicate that velocity effects exist at even low probe speeds for magnetic materials, compelling the inclusion of velocity effects in MLF testing of oil pipelines, where the excitation level and pig speed are much higher than those used in the present work. Probe velocity effect studies should influence probe design, defining suitable probe speed limits and establishing training guidelines for defect-characterization schemes.

  2. Study of fog characteristics by using the 1-D COBEL model at the airport of Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolaki, S.; Pytharoulis, I.; Karacostas, T.

    2010-07-01

    An attempt is made to couple the one dimensional COBEL - ISBA (COuche Brouillard Eau Liquide - Interactions Soil Biosphere Atmosphere) model with the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) numerical weather prediction model. This accomplishment will improve the accuracy on the short-term forecasting of fog events, which is of paramount importance -mainly to the airway companies, the airports functioning and the community as well- and will provide the means for the implementation of extensive studies of fog events formed at the "Macedonia" airport of Thessaloniki. Numerical experiments have been performed to study in depth the thermodynamic structure and the microphysical characteristics of the fog event that was formed on 06/01/2010. Moreover, the meteorological conditions -under the influence of which- the fog event was formed are also investigated. Sensitivity tests with respect to the initial conditions of temperature, relative humidity and geostrophic wind speed profiles have been performed to illustrate the model’s performance. Dew deposition rates have also been examined in order to test the importance of it on controlling the fog formation. The numerical results have been compared with actual measurements and the findings have been evaluated and discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  4. A time series generalized functional model based method for vibration-based damage precise localization in structures consisting of 1D, 2D, and 3D elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaris, C. S.; Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the problem of vibration-based damage precise localization via data-based, time series type, methods for structures consisting of 1D, 2D, or 3D elements. A Generalized Functional Model Based method is postulated based on an expanded Vector-dependent Functionally Pooled ARX (VFP-ARX) model form, capable of accounting for an arbitrary structural topology. The FP model's operating parameter vector elements are properly constrained to reflect any given topology. Damage localization is based on operating parameter vector estimation within the specified topology, so that the location estimate and its uncertainty bounds are statistically optimal. The method's effectiveness is experimentally demonstrated through damage precise localization on a laboratory spatial truss structure using various damage scenarios and a single pair of random excitation - vibration response signals in a low and limited frequency bandwidth.

  5. Combining flow routing modelling and direct velocity measurement for optimal discharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corato, G.; Moramarco, T.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2011-03-01

    A new procedure is proposed for estimating river discharge hydrographs during flood events, using only water level data measured at a gauged site, as well as 1-D shallow water modelling and sporadic maximum surface flow velocity measurements. During flood, the piezometric level is surmised constant in the vertical plane of the river section, where the top of the banks is always above the river level, and is well represented by the recorded stage hydrograph. The river is modelled along the reach directly located downstream the upstream gauged section, where discharge hydrograph is sought after. For the stability with respect to the topographic error, as well as for the simplicity of the data required to satisfy the boundary conditions, a diffusive hydraulic model is adopted for flow routing. Assigned boundary conditions are: (1) the recorded stage hydrograph at the upstream river site and (2) the zero diffusion condition at the downstream end of the reach. The MAST algorithm is used for the numerical solution of the flow routing problem, which is embedded in the Brent algorithm used for the computation of the optimum Manning coefficient. Based on synthetic tests concerning a broad prismatic channel, the optimal reach length is chosen so that the approximated downstream boundary condition effects on discharge hydrograph assessment at upstream end are negligible. The roughness Manning coefficient is calibrated by using sporadic instantaneous surface velocity measurements during the rising limb of flood that are turned into instantaneous discharges through the solid of velocity estimated by a two-dimensional entropic model. Several historical events, occurring in three gauged sites along the upper Tiber River wherein a reliable rating curve is available, have been used for the validation. The analysis outcomes can be so summarized: (1) criteria adopted for selecting the optimal channel length and based on synthetic tests have been proved reliable by using field data of

  6. Nodal-line pairing with 1D-3D coupled Fermi surfaces: A model motivated by Cr-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachtel, Gideon; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of a new family of chromium-based superconductors, we consider a two-band model, where a band of electrons dispersing only in one direction interacts with a band of electrons dispersing in all three directions. Strong 2 kf density fluctuations in the one-dimensional band induces attractive interactions between the three-dimensional electrons, which, in turn, makes the system superconducting. Solving the associated Eliashberg equations, we obtain a gap function which is peaked at the "poles" of the three-dimensional Fermi sphere, and decreases towards the "equator." When strong enough local repulsion is included, the gap actually changes sign around the equator and nodal rings are formed. These nodal rings manifest themselves in several experimentally observable quantities, some of which resemble unconventional observations in the newly discovered superconductors which motivated this work.

  7. Basin infilling of a schematic 1D estuary using two different approaches: an aggregate diffusive type model and a processed based model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laginha Silva, Patricia; Martins, Flávio A.; Boski, Tomász; Sampath, Dissanayake M. R.

    2010-05-01

    processes. In this viewpoint the system is broken down into its fundamental components and processes and the model is build up by selecting the important processes regardless of its time and space scale. This viewpoint was only possible to pursue in the recent years due to improvement in system knowledge and computer power (Paola, 2000). The primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed, traditionally studied with synthetic models, with a process-based hydrodynamic, sediment transport and morphodynamic model, solving explicitly the mass and momentum conservation equations. With this objective, a comparison between two mathematical models for alluvial rivers is made to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed of a conceptual 1D embayment for periods in the order of a thousand years: the traditional synthetic basin infilling aggregate diffusive type model based on the diffusion equation (Paola, 2000), used in the "synthesist" viewpoint and the process-based model MOHID (Miranda et al., 2000). The simulation of the sediment river bed evolution achieved by the process-based model MOHID is very similar to those obtained by the diffusive type model, but more complete due to the complexity of the process-based model. In the MOHID results it is possible to observe a more comprehensive and realistic results because this type of model include processes that is impossible to a synthetic model to describe. At last the combined effect of tide, sea level rise and river discharges was investigated in the process based model. These effects cannot be simulated using the diffusive type model. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using process based models to perform studies in scales of 10000 years. This is an advance relative to the use of synthetic models, enabling the use of variable forcing. REFERENCES • Briggs, L.I. and Pollack, H.N., 1967. Digital model of evaporate sedimentation. Science, 155, 453

  8. A mathematical model of turbulence in flows with uniform stationary velocity gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Certain cases of turbulence as a postinstability state of a fluid in motion modeled by the introduction of multivalued velocity fields are examined. The turbulence is regarded as occurring in the form of random pulsations which grow until the external energy input in the average flow is balanced by the dissipated energy of pulsations by means of turbulent friction. Closed form analytic solutions are shown to be possible when the considered velocity fields, the pulsation velocity and the fluid velocity, are decoupled.

  9. A comparison of 1D analytical model and 3D finite element analysis with experiments for a rosen-type piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Boukazouha, F; Poulin-Vittrant, G; Tran-Huu-Hue, L P; Bavencoffe, M; Boubenider, F; Rguiti, M; Lethiecq, M

    2015-07-01

    This article is dedicated to the study of Piezoelectric Transformers (PTs), which offer promising solutions to the increasing need for integrated power electronics modules within autonomous systems. The advantages offered by such transformers include: immunity to electromagnetic disturbances; ease of miniaturisation for example, using conventional micro fabrication processes; and enhanced performance in terms of voltage gain and power efficiency. Central to the adequate description of such transformers is the need for complex analytical modeling tools, especially if one is attempting to include combined contributions due to (i) mechanical phenomena owing to the different propagation modes which differ at the primary and secondary sides of the PT; and (ii) electrical phenomena such as the voltage gain and power efficiency, which depend on the electrical load. The present work demonstrates an original one-dimensional (1D) analytical model, dedicated to a Rosen-type PT and simulation results are successively compared against that of a three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Analysis (COMSOL Multiphysics software) and experimental results. The Rosen-type PT studied here is based on a single layer soft PZT (P191) with corresponding dimensions 18 mm × 3 mm × 1.5 mm, which operated at the second harmonic of 176 kHz. Detailed simulational and experimental results show that the presented 1D model predicts experimental measurements to within less than 10% error of the voltage gain at the second and third resonance frequency modes. Adjustment of the analytical model parameters is found to decrease errors relative to experimental voltage gain to within 1%, whilst a 2.5% error on the output admittance magnitude at the second resonance mode were obtained. Relying on the unique assumption of one-dimensionality, the present analytical model appears as a useful tool for Rosen-type PT design and behavior understanding.

  10. The LAPS Project : A live 1D Radiative-Convective Model to explore the possible climates of terrestrial planets and exoplanets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbet, Martin; Forget, Francois; Schott, Cédric

    2016-10-01

    The LAPS (Live Atmospheres-of-Planets Simulator) is a live 1D version of the LMD Global Climate Model that provides an accelerated and interactive simulation of the climate of terrestrial planets and exoplanets.This tool was designed for students to explore the «Classical Habitable Zone», defined as the range of orbital distances within which a planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. The model faithfully reproduces both the inner edge and the outer edge limits of the Habitable Zone, and their dependencies to the type of star and the gas composition.Furthermore, it provides a "hands on" experiment by showing how the surface and atmospheric temperatures as well as the profile of water vapor evolve through time when the external forcing (insolation, star spectrum, ...) or the planet (quantity of CO2, initial amount of water reservoir, ...) is modified.The tool is available at http://laps.lmd.jussieu.fr/ .

  11. An empirical model to forecast solar wind velocity through statistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Ridley, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The accurate prediction of the solar wind velocity has been a major challenge in the space weather community. Previous studies proposed many empirical and semi-empirical models to forecast the solar wind velocity based on either the historical observations, e.g. the persistence model, or the instantaneous observations of the sun, e.g. the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model. In this study, we use the one-minute WIND data from January 1995 to August 2012 to investigate and compare the performances of 4 models often used in literature, here referred to as the null model, the persistence model, the one-solar-rotation-ago model, and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model. It is found that, measured by root mean square error, the persistence model gives the most accurate predictions within two days. Beyond two days, the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model serves as the best model, though it only slightly outperforms the null model and the one-solar-rotation-ago model. Finally, we apply the least-square regression to linearly combine the null model, the persistence model, and the one-solar-rotation-ago model to propose a 'general persistence model'. By comparing its performance against the 4 aforementioned models, it is found that the accuracy of the general persistence model outperforms the other 4 models within five days. Due to its great simplicity and superb performance, we believe that the general persistence model can serve as a benchmark in the forecast of solar wind velocity and has the potential to be modified to arrive at better models.

  12. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  13. Key elements of regional seismic velocity models for long period ground motion simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Regional 3-D seismic velocity models used for broadband strong motion simulations must include compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs), and density. Vs and Qs are the most important of these parameters because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear- and surface-wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, many researchers first develop a Vp model and convert it to a Vs model. I describe recent empirical relations between Vs, Vp, Qs, Qp, and density that allow velocity models to be rapidly and accurately calculated. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  14. Shuttle data book: SRM fragment velocity model. Presented to the SRB Fragment Model Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the velocity of fragments generated by the range safety destruction (RSD) or random failure of a Space Transportation System (STS) Solid Rocket Motor (SRM). The specific requirement was to provide a fragment model for use in those Galileo and Ulysses RTG safety analyses concerned with possible fragment impact on the spacecraft radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGS). Good agreement was obtained between predictions and observations for fragment velocity, velocity distributions, azimuths, and rotation rates. Based on this agreement with the entire data base, the model was used to predict the probable fragment environments which would occur in the event of an STS-SRM RSD or randon failure at 10, 74, 84 and 110 seconds. The results of these predictions are the basis of the fragment environments presented in the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116). The information presented here is in viewgraph form.

  15. Sub-grid Parameterization of Cumulus Vertical Velocities for Climate and Numerical Weather Prediction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, William; Donner, Leo

    2015-04-01

    Microphysical and aerosol processes determine the magnitude of climate forcing by aerosol-cloud interactions, are central aspects of cloud-climate feedback, and are important elements in weather systems for which accurate forecasting is a major goal of numerical weather prediction. Realistic simulation of these processes demands not only accurate microphysical and aerosol process representations but also realistic simulation of the vertical motions in which the aerosols and microphysics act. Aerosol activation, for example, is a strong function of vertical velocity. Cumulus parameterizations for climate and numerical weather prediction models have recently begun to include vertical velocities among the statistics they predict. These vertical velocities have been subject to only limited evaluation using observed vertical velocities. Deployments of multi-Doppler radars and dual-frequency profilers in recent field campaigns have substantially increased the observational base of cumulus vertical velocities, which for decades had been restricted mostly to GATE observations. Observations from TWP-ICE (Darwin, Australia) and MC3E (central United States) provide previously unavailable information on the vertical structure of cumulus vertical velocities and observations in differing synoptic contexts from those available in the past. They also provide an opportunity to independently evaluate cumulus parameterizations with vertical velocities tuned to earlier GATE observations. This presentation will compare vertical velocities observed in TWP-ICE and MC3E with cumulus vertical velocities using the parameterization in the GFDL CM3 climate model. Single-column results indicate parameterized vertical velocities are frequently greater than observed. Errors in parameterized vertical velocities exhibit similarities to vertical velocities explicitly simulated by cloud-system resolving models, and underlying issues in the treatment of microphysics may be important for both. The

  16. Bridging the gap between global models and full fluid models: a fast 1D semi-analytical fluid model for electronegative plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlbatt, A.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.

    2016-08-01

    Analytical and numerical models allow investigation of complicated discharge phenomena and the interplay that makes plasmas such a complex environment. Global models are quick to implement and can have almost negligible computation cost, but provide only bulk or spatially averaged values. Full fluid models take longer to develop, and can take days to solve, but provide accurate spatio-temporal profiles of the whole plasma. The work presented here details a different type of model, analytically similar to fluid models, but computationally closer to a global model, and able to give spatially resolved solutions for the challenging environment of electronegative plasmas. Included are non-isothermal electrons, gas heating, and coupled neutral dynamics. Solutions are reached in seconds to minutes, and spatial profiles are given for densities, fluxes, and temperatures. This allows the semi-analytical model to fill the gap that exists between global and full fluid models, extending the tools available to researchers. The semi-analytical model can perform broad parameter sweeps that are not practical with more computationally expensive models, as well as exposing non-trivial trends that global models cannot capture. Examples are given for a low pressure oxygen CCP. Excellent agreement is shown with a full fluid model, and comparisons are drawn with the corresponding global model.

  17. Analytical representation of the fault slip velocity from spontaneous dynamic earthquake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    We have analyzed the most relevant features of three different analytical representations of the time evolution of the cosesimic slip velocity derived from theoretical basis; the so-called modified Yoffe function (MY), which pertains to a singular crack solution, the solution for a nonspontaneous crack obeying a position-weakening governing equation (PR) and the solution for a 1-D fault model subject to a linear slip-weakening friction law (B). By considering the same input parameters, we quantitatively compare these slip velocity functions (SVF) and we found that the time evolutions of the velocity and the correspondent slip predicted by the MY and B functions are very similar, while the PR predicts a very sharp peak. Correspondingly, the PR SVF is richer in high frequency and the fall off of its spectrum at high frequencies goes roughly as ω-1.5, while those of MY and B more closely follow ω-2. Then we select two spontaneous, 3-D, dynamic, subshear models, representing a crack-like or a pulse-like rupture and we account for both homogeneous and heterogeneous configurations. We then compare the three SVF in order to see how they are able to reproduce the 3-D solutions; we also show how the input parameters of the SVF can be constrained from the results of the dynamic models. In the homogeneous cases our results indicate that the MY and the PR SVF reproduce adequately well the main features of a dynamic solution in the case of a crack-like rupture. The PR function overestimates vpeak and the MY SVF predicts a too rapid deceleration. In the case of a pulse-like rupture both the MY and the B SVF tend to underestimate vpeak , but all of them capture very well the final cumulated fault slip. Moreover, the B function fits better that the MY the overall behavior of the fault slip. The considered SVF are able to reproduce the spectral fall off of a 3-D solution at intermediate frequencies (for ω < 20 Hz), the MY and the PR for a crack-like rupture and the MY and the B

  18. Impacts of Leads on the Wintertime Sea-ice Environment Using 1D and 3D Models Validated with In-Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, O. P.; Solomon, A.

    2013-12-01

    Though leads only represent a small portion of the Arctic sea-ice area, their contribution to the surface turbulent energy and momentum fluxes can be significant. Numerous modeling studies presented in the literature have been conducted examining these effects. The results of such studies have indicated the importance of the environmental large-scale stability, the environmental humidity, the lead width, the ice (lead) concentration, the lead size distribution, the character of the leads (open water, refrozen), etc. Because global climate models (GCMs) show significant sensitivity to the large-scale net energy flux from the heterogeneous sea-ice surface, and because thinner ice in the projected future Arctic climate will likely result in increasing lead fractions, the appropriate GCM representation of this complex system is important. This study presents modeling results based on observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment, for which the mid-winter sea-ice was greatly heterogeneous. In mid-January, the 100x100 km region surrounding the SHEBA ice camp consisted of a lead fraction of ~16-33% as revealed by SAR data. This included primarily older refrozen lead areas that were generated at least a month earlier (~16-25% areal coverage), with a smaller fraction of newly opened leads (~4-9% areal coverage). Utilizing the sequence of SAR images, the atmospheric observations at the SHEBA site, and a 1-D snow and ice model, the spatial distribution of sea-ice thickness, snow depth, and surface temperatures within this domain were estimated over a 6-week period, revealing the significant impact of leads in all stages on GCM-scale temperatures and fluxes. This combined observational/model data series is used to evaluate a variety of one-dimensional turbulent flux aggregation techniques (e.g., mosaic) that use different assumptions. Furthermore, by using the spatial distribution of these surface characteristics, three-dimensional large eddy

  19. A Velocity Distribution Model for Steady State Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Eric B.

    1996-01-01

    Consider a box that is filled with an ideal gas and that is aligned along Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) having until length in the 'y' direction and unspecified length in the 'x' and 'z' directions. Heat is applied uniformly over the 'hot' end of the box (y = 1) and is removed uniformly over the 'cold' end (y = O) at a constant rate such that the ends of the box are maintained at temperatures T(sub 0) at y = O and T(sub 1) at y = 1. Let U, V, and W denote the respective velocity components of a molecule inside the box selected at some random time and at some location (x, y, z). If T(sub 0) = T(sub 1), then U, Y, and W are mutually independent and Gaussian, each with mean zero and variance RT(sub 0), where R is the gas constant. When T(sub 0) does not equal T(sub 1) the velocity components are not independent and are not Gaussian. Our objective is to characterize the joint distribution of the velocity components U, Y, and W as a function of y, and, in particular, to characterize the distribution of V given y. It is hoped that this research will lead to an increased physical understanding of the nature of turbulence.

  20. Outstanding Phenotypic Differences in the Profile of Amyloid-β between Tg2576 and APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Allué, José Antonio; Sarasa, Leticia; Izco, María; Pérez-Grijalba, Virginia; Fandos, Noelia; Pascual-Lucas, María; Ogueta, Samuel; Pesini, Pedro; Sarasa, Manuel

    2016-05-30

    APPswe/PS1dE9 and Tg2576 are very common transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), used in many laboratories as tools to research the mechanistic process leading to the disease. In order to augment our knowledge about the amyloid-β (Aβ) isoforms present in both transgenic mouse models, we have developed two chromatographic methods, one acidic and the other basic, for the characterization of the Aβ species produced in the brains of the two transgenic mouse models. After immunoprecipitation and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, 10 species of Aβ, surprisingly all of human origin, were detected in the brain of Tg2576 mouse, whereas 39 species, of both murine and human origin, were detected in the brain of the APP/PS1 mouse. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the identification of such a high number of Aβ species in the brain of the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse, whereas, in contrast, a much lower number of Aβ species were identified in the Tg2576 mouse. Therefore, this study brings to light a relevant phenotypic difference between these two popular mice models of AD. PMID:27258422

  1. Kinematic and diabatic vertical velocity climatologies from a chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinke Hoppe, Charlotte; Ploeger, Felix; Konopka, Paul; Müller, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    The representation of vertical velocity in chemistry climate models is a key element for the representation of the large-scale Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere. Here, we diagnose and compare the kinematic and diabatic vertical velocities in the ECHAM/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The calculation of kinematic vertical velocity is based on the continuity equation, whereas diabatic vertical velocity is computed using diabatic heating rates. Annual and monthly zonal mean climatologies of vertical velocity from a 10-year simulation are provided for both kinematic and diabatic vertical velocity representations. In general, both vertical velocity patterns show the main features of the stratospheric circulation, namely, upwelling at low latitudes and downwelling at high latitudes. The main difference in the vertical velocity pattern is a more uniform structure for diabatic and a noisier structure for kinematic vertical velocity. Diabatic vertical velocities show higher absolute values both in the upwelling branch in the inner tropics and in the downwelling regions in the polar vortices. Further, there is a latitudinal shift of the tropical upwelling branch in boreal summer between the two vertical velocity representations with the tropical upwelling region in the diabatic representation shifted southward compared to the kinematic case. Furthermore, we present mean age of air climatologies from two transport schemes in EMAC using these different vertical velocities and analyze the impact of residual circulation and mixing processes on the age of air. The age of air distributions show a hemispheric difference pattern in the stratosphere with younger air in the Southern Hemisphere and older air in the Northern Hemisphere using the transport scheme with diabatic vertical velocities. Further, the age of air climatology from the transport scheme using diabatic vertical velocities shows a younger mean age of air in the

  2. Modelling the maximum voluntary joint torque/angular velocity relationship in human movement.

    PubMed

    Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; Wilson, Cassie

    2006-01-01

    The force exerted by a muscle is a function of the activation level and the maximum (tetanic) muscle force. In "maximum" voluntary knee extensions muscle activation is lower for eccentric muscle velocities than for concentric velocities. The aim of this study was to model this "differential activation" in order to calculate the maximum voluntary knee extensor torque as a function of knee angular velocity. Torque data were collected on two subjects during maximal eccentric-concentric knee extensions using an isovelocity dynamometer with crank angular velocities ranging from 50 to 450 degrees s(-1). The theoretical tetanic torque/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a four parameter function comprising two rectangular hyperbolas while the activation/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a three parameter function that rose from submaximal activation for eccentric velocities to full activation for high concentric velocities. The product of these two functions gave a seven parameter function which was fitted to the joint torque/angular velocity data, giving unbiased root mean square differences of 1.9% and 3.3% of the maximum torques achieved. Differential activation accounts for the non-hyperbolic behaviour of the torque/angular velocity data for low concentric velocities. The maximum voluntary knee extensor torque that can be exerted may be modelled accurately as the product of functions defining the maximum torque and the maximum voluntary activation level. Failure to include differential activation considerations when modelling maximal movements will lead to errors in the estimation of joint torque in the eccentric phase and low velocity concentric phase.

  3. Modeling Large Water Infiltration Events in Small Plots Using the 1-D Finite Water-content Method and Numerical Solutions to the Richards' Equation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of soil to infiltrate large volumes of water is fundamental to managed aquifer recharge (MAR) when using infiltration basins or agricultural fields. In order to investigate the feasibility of using agricultural fields for MAR we conducted a field experiment designed to not only assess the resilience of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to large (300 mm), short duration (1.5 hour), repeated irrigation events during the winter but also how crop resilience was influenced by soil water movement. We hypothesized that large irrigation amounts designed for groundwater recharge could cause prolonged saturated conditions in the root-zone and yield loss. Tensiometers were installed at two depths (60 and 150 cm) in a loam soil to monitor the changes in soil matric potential within and below the root-zone following irrigation events in each of five experimental plots (8 x 16 m2). To simulate the individual infiltration events we employed the HYDRUS-1D computational module (Simunek et al., 2005) and compared the finite-water content vadose zone flow method (Ogden et al. 2015) with numerical solutions to the Richards' equation. For both models we assumed a homogenous and isotropic root zone that is initially unsaturated with no water flow. Here we assess the ability of these two models to account for the control volume applied to the plots and to capture sharp changes in matric potential that were observed in the early time after an irrigation pulse. The goodness-of-fit of the models was evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) for observed and predicted values of cumulative infiltration over time, wetting front depth over time and water content at observation nodes. For the finite-water content method, the RMSE values and output for observation nodes were similar to that from the HYDRUS-1D solution. This indicates that the finite-water content method may be useful for predicting the fate of large volumes of water applied for MAR. Moreover, both models suggest a

  4. Effect of the band structure in a rigorous two-body model with long-range interactions in 1D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Tom; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    We compute scattering and bound state properties for two ultracold molecules in a pure 1D optical lattice. We introduce reference functions with complex quasi-momentum that naturally account for the effect of excited energy bands. Our exact results for a short-range interaction are first compared with the simplest version of the standard Bose-Hubbard (BH) model. Such comparison allows us to highlight the effect of the excited bands, of the non-on-site interaction and of tunneling with distant neighbor, that are not taken into account in the BH model. The effective interaction can depend strongly on the particle quasi-momenta and can present a resonant behavior even in a deep lattice. As a second step, we study scattering of two polar particles in the optical lattice. Peculiar Wigner threshold laws stem from the interplay of the long range dipolar interaction and the presence of the energy bands. We finally assess the validity of an extended Bose-Hubbard model for dipolar gases based on our exact two-body calculations. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).

  5. Behavioral abnormalities in APPSwe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD-like pathology: comparative analysis across multiple behavioral domains.

    PubMed

    Janus, Christopher; Flores, Abigail Y; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognitive and noncognitive domains with clinical diagnosis based on multiple neuropsychological tests. Here, we evaluated cognitive and noncognitive behaviors in 2 age cohorts (8 and 14 months at the start of the study) of APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice that model AD-like amyloidosis. We used a battery of tests that included fear-conditioned context and tone memories, swimming activity, and orientation to a proximal cue in a visible platform water maze test and burrowing and nest building activity. To compare the performance of mice across all tests, we used z-score normalization of data. The analyses revealed that the behavior of the transgenic mice was significantly compromised in cognitive as well as in noncognitive domains. Combining scores across multiple behavioral tests produced an integrated index characterizing the overall phenotypic abnormality in this model of AD-like amyloidosis. Assessing multiple behavioral domains provides a broader view of the breadth of impairments in multiple behavioral systems. Greater implementation of such approaches could enable reliable and clinically predictive evaluation of therapeutics in mouse models of amyloidosis.

  6. Recent Advances in the Modeling of the Transport of Two-Plasmon-Decay Electrons in the 1-D Hydrodynamic Code LILAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delettrez, J. A.; Myatt, J. F.; Yaakobi, B.

    2015-11-01

    The modeling of the fast-electron transport in the 1-D hydrodynamic code LILAC was modified because of the addition of cross-beam-energy-transfer (CBET) in implosion simulations. Using the old fast-electron with source model CBET results in a shift of the peak of the hard x-ray (HXR) production from the end of the laser pulse, as observed in experiments, to earlier in the pulse. This is caused by a drop in the laser intensity of the quarter-critical surface from CBET interaction at lower densities. Data from simulations with the laser plasma simulation environment (LPSE) code will be used to modify the source algorithm in LILAC. In addition, the transport model in LILAC has been modified to include deviations from the straight-line algorithm and non-specular reflection at the sheath to take into account the scattering from collisions and magnetic fields in the corona. Simulation results will be compared with HXR emissions from both room-temperature plastic and cryogenic target experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. Velocity mapping and models of the elliptical galaxies NGC 720, NGC 1052, and NGC 4697

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binney, J. J.; Davies, Roger L.; Illingworth, Garth D.

    1990-01-01

    CCD surface photometry and extensive long-slit spectroscopy are used to construct detailed models of the flattened ellipticals NGC 720, 1052, and 4697. The models are combined with the Jeans equations to yield predicted fields of line-of-sight velocity dispersion and streaming velocity. By comparing these fields with observed velocities, it is concluded that none of these systems can have isotropic velocity dispersion tensors, and diminishing the assumed inclination of any given galaxy tends to decrease the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and, counterintuitively, to increase the line-of-sight rotation speeds. The ratio of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion along the minor axis to that along the major axis is found to be a sensitive diagnostic of the importance of a third integral for the galaxy's structure.

  8. Velocity mapping and models of the elliptical galaxies NGC 720, NGC 1052, and NGC 4697

    SciTech Connect

    Binney, J.J.; Davies, R.L.; Illingworth, G.D. Oxford Univ. National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ California Univ., Santa Cruz )

    1990-09-01

    CCD surface photometry and extensive long-slit spectroscopy are used to construct detailed models of the flattened ellipticals NGC 720, 1052, and 4697. The models are combined with the Jeans equations to yield predicted fields of line-of-sight velocity dispersion and streaming velocity. By comparing these fields with observed velocities, it is concluded that none of these systems can have isotropic velocity dispersion tensors, and diminishing the assumed inclination of any given galaxy tends to decrease the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and, counterintuitively, to increase the line-of-sight rotation speeds. The ratio of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion along the minor axis to that along the major axis is found to be a sensitive diagnostic of the importance of a third integral for the galaxy's structure. 48 refs.

  9. Hard-sphere interactions in velocity-jump models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Benjamin; Taylor-King, Jake P.; Yates, Christian; Erban, Radek

    2016-07-01

    Group-level behavior of particles undergoing a velocity-jump process with hard-sphere interactions is investigated. We derive N -particle transport equations that include the possibility of collisions between particles and apply different approximation techniques to get expressions for the dependence of the collective diffusion coefficient on the number of particles and their diameter. The derived approximations are compared with numerical results obtained from individual-based simulations. The theoretical results compare well with Monte Carlo simulations providing the excluded-volume fraction is small.

  10. Hard-sphere interactions in velocity-jump models.

    PubMed

    Franz, Benjamin; Taylor-King, Jake P; Yates, Christian; Erban, Radek

    2016-07-01

    Group-level behavior of particles undergoing a velocity-jump process with hard-sphere interactions is investigated. We derive N-particle transport equations that include the possibility of collisions between particles and apply different approximation techniques to get expressions for the dependence of the collective diffusion coefficient on the number of particles and their diameter. The derived approximations are compared with numerical results obtained from individual-based simulations. The theoretical results compare well with Monte Carlo simulations providing the excluded-volume fraction is small. PMID:27575098

  11. An improved car-following model considering the immediately ahead car's velocity difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Zhao, Xiangmo; Xu, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-11-01

    The field car-following data at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China are collected for data mining. An improved car-following model considering the immediately ahead car's velocity difference on a single-lane road was proposed, calibrated and verified based on full velocity difference model. The results of some numerical simulations indicate that the immediately ahead car's velocity difference has significant effects on the following car's motion, that the improved car-following model fits the measured data well and can qualitatively describe the impacts of the immediately ahead car's velocity difference on traffic flow, and that modeling the car-following behavior considering the immediately ahead car's velocity difference can improve the stability of the simulated traffic flow.

  12. A 3-D velocity model for earthquake location from combined geological and geophysical data: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Diana; Lupattelli, Andrea; Mirabella, Francesco; Trippetta, Fabio; Valoroso, Luisa; Lomax, Anthony; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Collettini, Cristiano; Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2014-05-01

    model, we located a selected dataset of the 2010-2013 TABOO catalogue, which is composed of about 30,000 micro-earthquakes (see Valoroso et al., same session). Earthquake location was performed by applying the global-search earthquake location method NonLinLoc, which is able to manage strong velocity contrasts as that observed in the study area. The model volume is 65km x 55km x 20km and is parameterized by constant velocity, cubic cells of side 100 m. For comparison, we applied the same inversion code by using the best 1D model of the area obtained with earthquake data. The results show a significant quality improvement with the 3D model both in terms of location parameters and correlation between seismicity distribution and known geological structures.

  13. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady S.; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, Allison L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)-important precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols-vary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typically represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height variation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homogeneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting foliage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  14. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)dimportant precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosolsdvary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typi-cally represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height vari-ation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homo-geneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting fo-liage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  15. Ultradiscrete optimal velocity model: A cellular-automaton model for traffic flow and linear instability of high-flux traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Masahiro; Isojima, Shin; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Tokihiro, Tetsuji

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the ultradiscrete optimal velocity model, a cellular-automaton model for traffic flow, by applying the ultradiscrete method for the optimal velocity model. The optimal velocity model, defined by a differential equation, is one of the most important models; in particular, it successfully reproduces the instability of high-flux traffic. It is often pointed out that there is a close relation between the optimal velocity model and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mkdV) equation, a soliton equation. Meanwhile, the ultradiscrete method enables one to reduce soliton equations to cellular automata which inherit the solitonic nature, such as an infinite number of conservation laws, and soliton solutions. We find that the theory of soliton equations is available for generic differential equations and the simulation results reveal that the model obtained reproduces both absolutely unstable and convectively unstable flows as well as the optimal velocity model.

  16. A global 3D P-velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle for improved event location.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sanford; Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Young, Christopher John; Chang, Marcus C.; Hipp, James Richard

    2010-04-01

    is assessed using a variation of the standard checkerboard method, as well as by directly estimating the diagonal of the model resolution matrix based on the technique developed by Bekas, et al. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of this model over standard 1D models. We perform location tests on a global, geographically-distributed event set with ground truth levels of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P phases from which we can generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and proportions of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over standard 1D ak135, especially with increasing azimuthal gap. The 3D model appears to perform better for locations based solely or dominantly on regional arrivals, which is not unexpected given that ak135 represents a global average and cannot therefore capture local and regional variations.

  17. Velocity models inferred from inversion of H/V spectral ratio of ambient noise and its first application to a volcanic environment: the Ijen Caldera, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spica, Zack J.; Caudron, Corentin; Piña-Flores, José; Perton, Mathieu; Thomas, Lecocq; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Legrand, Denis

    2015-04-01

    It is now well accepted that the average autocorrelation of seismic noise at a single station is proportional to the imaginary part of the Green's function when both source and receiver are the same. More recently, it has been established that the horizontal and vertical imaginary parts of the Green's function, i.e. the horizontal and vertical transfer functions, should be used to calculate the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio of ambient noise (HVSR). The HVSR is a popular technique that only requires a short-term (20 minutes) 3 components recording of seismic noise. Assuming an unbounded multi-layer model for the computation of the Green function, one can conduct the HVSR inversions to assess the 1D velocity structure of the subsurface. This approach was used to constrain several 1D velocity models (certain up to 3 km deep) of the Ijen caldera (Java, Indonesia) already established by the inversion of dispersion curves. Additionally, 84 HVSR measurements were also performed on Kawah Ijen volcano and allowed to provide a map of the local site effects. The velocity models obtained and the great outcrop of the crater rim allow robust and direct interpretation of the underground geology. Using a first order approximation, some mechanical proprieties of the shallower layers can be derived and the depth of an important lithological interface can be followed all around the Kawah Ijen crater.

  18. Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics.

  19. Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics. PMID:26660740

  20. DNS evaluation of Reynolds stress models and Generalized Langevin models using velocity-acceleration correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Mathioudakis, Alexandros

    2015-11-01

    Velocity-acceleration correlation is used to evaluate the pressure-rate-of-strain term for Reynolds-stress based models and the drift coefficient in the generalized Langevin model. The direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a non-premixed temporally-evolving slot jet flame and a premixed temporally-evolving slot jet flame are used. Both flames feature moderate Reynolds numbers, as well as highly anisotropic and inhomogeneous flow environment. Good agreement is achieved between turbulent statistics obtained from velocity-acceleration correlation and those obtained directly from DNS. Different filter sizes are then applied to the DNS database to further test the feasibility of representing pressure-rate-of-strain term and the drift coefficient using velocity-acceleration correlation in experiments or large eddy simulations. Behaviors of turbulent statistics obtained from the premixed flame and those from the nonpremixed flame are analyzed. Finally, the applicability of existing generalized Langevin model coefficients to flame simulations is discussed. The authors acknowledge Dr. Jacqueline Chen for providing access to the DNS database and computing resources.

  1. Hypocenter relocation using a fast grid search method and a 3-D seismic velocity model for the Sumatra region

    SciTech Connect

    Nugroho, Hendro; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2013-09-09

    Determination of earthquake hypocenter in Indonesia conducted by the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) has still used a 1-D seismic velocity model. In this research, we have applied a Fast Grid Search (FGM) method and a 3-D velocity model resulting from tomographic imaging to relocate earthquakes in the Sumatran region. The data were taken from the MCGA data catalog from 2009 to 2011 comprising of subduction zone and on land fault earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 Mw. Our preliminary results show some significant changes in the depths of the relocated earthquakes which are in general deeper than the depths of hypocenters from the MCGA data catalog. The residual times resulting from the relocation process are smaller than those prior to the relocation. Encouraged by these results, we will continue to conduct hypocenter relocation for all events from the MCGA data catalog periodically in order to produce a new data catalog with good quality. We hope that the new data catalog will be useful for further studies.

  2. Self-healing slip pulses in dynamic rupture models due to velocity-dependent strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Seismological observations of short slip duration on faults (short rise time on seismograms) during earthquakes are not consistent with conventional crack models of dynamic rupture and fault slip. In these models, the leading edge of rupture stops only when a strong region is encountered, and slip at an interior point ceases only when waves from the stopped edge of slip propagate back to that point. In contrast, some seismological evidence suggests that the duration of slip is too short for waves to propagate from the nearest edge of the ruptured surface, perhaps even if the distance used is an asperity size instead of the entire rupture dimension. What controls slip duration, if not dimensions of the fault or of asperities? In this study, dynamic earthquake rupture and slip are represented by a propagating shear crack. For all propagating shear cracks, slip velocity is highest near the rupture front, and at a small distance behind the rupture front, the slip velocity decreases. As pointed out by Heaton (1990), if the crack obeys a negative slip-rate-dependent strength relation, the lower slip velocity behind the rupture front will lead to strengthening that further reduces the velocity, and under certain circumstances, healing of slip can occur. The boundary element method of Hamano (1974) is used in a program adapted from Andrews (1985) for numerical simulations of mode II rupture with two different velocity-dependent strength functions. For the first function, after a slip-weakening displacement, the crack follows an exponential velocity-weakening relation. The characteristic velocity V0 of the exponential determines the magnitude of the velocity-dependence at dynamic velocities. The velocity-dependence at high velocity is essentially zero when V0 is small and the resulting slip velocity distribution is similar to slip weakening. If V0 is larger, rupture propagation initially resembles slip-weakening, but spontaneous healing occurs behind the rupture front. The

  3. Sensitivity testing of a 1-D calving criterion numerical model constrained by observations of post-LIA fluctuations of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia, SW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, J. M.; Mair, D.; Nick, F. M.; Rea, B. R.; Schofield, E.; Nienow, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to successfully model the behaviour of Greenlandic tidewater glaciers is pivotal for the prediction of future behaviour and potential impact on global sea level. However, to have confidence in the results of numerical models, they must be capable of replicating the full range of observed glacier behaviour (i.e. both advance and retreat) when realistic forcings are applied. Due to the paucity of observational records recording this behaviour, it is therefore necessary to verify calving models against reconstructions of glacier dynamics. The dynamics of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) can be reconstructed with a high degree of detail using a combination of sedimentological and geomorphological evidence, photographs, historical sources and satellite imagery. Since the LIA-maximum KNS has retreated a total of 21 km with multiple phases of rapid retreat evident between topographic pinning points. A readvance attaining a position 9 km from the current terminus associated with the '1920 stade' is also identified. KNS therefore represents an ideal test location for calving models since it has both advanced and retreated over known timescales, while the scale of fluctuations implies KNS is sensitive to parameter(s) controlling terminus stability. Using the known stable positions for verification, we present the results of an array of sensitivity tests conducted on KNS using the 1-D flowband calving model of Nick et al (2009). The model is initially tuned to an historically stable position where the glacier configuration is accurately known (in this case 1985), and forced by varying surface mass balance, crevasse water depth, submarine melt rate at the calving front, in addition to the strength and pervasiveness of sikussak in the fjord. Successive series of experiments were run using each parameter to test model sensitivity to the initial conditions of each variable. Results indicate that the model is capable of stabilising at locations that are in agreement with

  4. Electron Density and Two-Channel Neutron Emission Measurements in Steady-State Spherical Inertial-Electrostatically Confined Plasmas, with Review of the 1-D Kinetic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Hrbud, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Electron density measurements have been made in steady-state plasmas in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge using microwave interferometry. Plasma cores interior to two cathodes, having diameters of 15 and 23 cm, respectively, were probed over a transverse range of 10 cm with a spatial resolution of about 1.4 cm for buffer gas pressures from 0.2 to 6 Pa in argon and deuterium. The transverse profiles are generally flat, in some cases with eccentric symmetric minima, and give mean densities of from approx. = 0.4 to 7x 10(exp 10)/cu cm, the density generally increasing with the neutral gas pressure. Numerical solutions of the 1-D Poisson equation for EC plasmas are reviewed and energy distribution functions are identified which give flat transverse profiles. These functions are used with the plasma approximation to obtain solutions which also give densities consistent with the measurements, and a double potential well solution is obtained which has minima qualitatively similar to those observed. Explicit consideration is given to the compatibility of the solutions interior and exterior to the cathode, and to grid transparency. Deuterium fusion neutron emission rates were also measured and found to be isotropic, to within the measurement error, over two simultaneous directions. Anisotropy was observed in residual emissions during operation with non-fusing hydrogen-1. The deuterium rates are consistent with predictions from the model.

  5. Modeling water flow and bacterial transport in undisturbed lysimeters under irrigations of dairy shed effluent and water using HYDRUS-1D.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Pang, Liping; Buchan, Graeme D; Simůnek, Jirí; Noonan, Mike J; Close, Murray E

    2010-02-01

    HYDRUS-1D was used to simulate water flow and leaching of fecal coliforms and bromide (Br) through six undisturbed soil lysimeters (70 cm depth by 50 cm diameter) under field conditions. Dairy shed effluent (DSE) spiked with Br was applied to the lysimeters, which contained fine sandy loam layers. This application was followed by fortnightly spray or flood water irrigation. Soil water contents were measured at four soil depths over 171 days, and leachate was collected from the bottom. The post-DSE period simulations yielded a generally decreased saturated water content compared to the pre-DSE period, and an increased saturated hydraulic conductivity and air-entry index, suggesting that changes in soil hydraulic properties (e.g. via changes in structure) can be induced by irrigation and seasonal effects. The single-porosity flow model was successful in simulating water flow under natural climatic conditions and spray irrigation. However, for lysimeters under flood irrigation, when the effect of preferential flow paths becomes more significant, the good agreement between predicted and observed water contents could only be achieved by using a dual-porosity flow model. Results derived from a mobile-immobile transport model suggest that compared to Br, bacteria were transported through a narrower pore-network with less mass exchange between mobile and immobile water zones. Our study suggests that soils with higher topsoil clay content and soils under flood irrigation are at a high risk of bacteria leaching through preferential flow paths. Irrigation management strategies must minimize the effect of preferential flow to reduce bacterial leaching from land applications of effluent.

  6. Modeling water flow and bacterial transport in undisturbed lysimeters under irrigations of dairy shed effluent and water using HYDRUS-1D.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Pang, Liping; Buchan, Graeme D; Simůnek, Jirí; Noonan, Mike J; Close, Murray E

    2010-02-01

    HYDRUS-1D was used to simulate water flow and leaching of fecal coliforms and bromide (Br) through six undisturbed soil lysimeters (70 cm depth by 50 cm diameter) under field conditions. Dairy shed effluent (DSE) spiked with Br was applied to the lysimeters, which contained fine sandy loam layers. This application was followed by fortnightly spray or flood water irrigation. Soil water contents were measured at four soil depths over 171 days, and leachate was collected from the bottom. The post-DSE period simulations yielded a generally decreased saturated water content compared to the pre-DSE period, and an increased saturated hydraulic conductivity and air-entry index, suggesting that changes in soil hydraulic properties (e.g. via changes in structure) can be induced by irrigation and seasonal effects. The single-porosity flow model was successful in simulating water flow under natural climatic conditions and spray irrigation. However, for lysimeters under flood irrigation, when the effect of preferential flow paths becomes more significant, the good agreement between predicted and observed water contents could only be achieved by using a dual-porosity flow model. Results derived from a mobile-immobile transport model suggest that compared to Br, bacteria were transported through a narrower pore-network with less mass exchange between mobile and immobile water zones. Our study suggests that soils with higher topsoil clay content and soils under flood irrigation are at a high risk of bacteria leaching through preferential flow paths. Irrigation management strategies must minimize the effect of preferential flow to reduce bacterial leaching from land applications of effluent. PMID:19775719

  7. A 1D radiative-convective model of H2O-CO2 atmospheres around young telluric planets: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcq, Emmanuel; Salvador, Arnaud; Massol, Hélène; Chassefière, Éric

    2016-04-01

    The study of the early phases of the evolution of terrestrial planets has recently known significant progress [1,2]. It appears that their cooling phase during the magma ocean stage is first dominated by a radiative cooling stage through its atmosphere. If the planet is able to reach radiative balance during this stage, then its further evolution is dominated by the escape flux, and no large scale condensation of water occurs (Hamano-type II planets). On the other hand, if the planet is far enough from the sun, then radiative equilibrium cannot be reached until the outgoing flux has fallen below the runaway greenhouse limit, implying the condensation of most atmospheric water vapor into a global water ocean, thus sheltering most water from atmospheric escape (Hamano-type I planet). In the solar system, Earth is clearly a type-I planet, whereas Venus was most likely a type-II planet from quite early on in its history [1,2]. In this presentation, we will deal with the atmospheric radiative model used by [2] and first described in [3]. After describing its recent improvements since [3] (pressure grid enabling an arbitrary total volatile amount, correction of the k-correlated radiative transfer in the thermal radiation, improvement of the numerical stability and integration scheme) and their consequences on the detectability of extrasolar type-I or type-II planets, we will deal with the possible improvements and extensions to such models, such as but not limited to: (1) adopting a 1D-spherical geometry suited for larger atmospheres around smaller planets, (2) improvement of the visible albedo parameterization based on recent 3D-modelling GCM [4]. [1] : K. Hamano et al., Nature (2013) [2] : T. Lebrun et al. JGR (2013) [3] : E. Marcq, JGR (2012) [4] : J. Leconte et al. (2015)

  8. Effect of a low-velocity sedimentary cover on the 3-D velocity models derived from inversion of local arrival times. An example from the New Madrid seismic zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, J. M.; Chiu, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    When applying seismic tomography to local arrival times from an area with a low-velocity sedimentary cover, the effect of the sediments on travel times should be taken into account. If that is not done, the resulting velocity model(s) cannot be assumed to be correct. This fairly obvious statement has been challenged recently by Powell et al. (JGR, 2010), who claimed that the sediments that cover the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ, central United States) can be ignored. This claim is examined here and shown to be incorrect. The NMSZ is covered by low-velocity, poorly consolidated sediments (Vp=1.8 km/s, Vs=3), which are underlain by Paleozoic rocks of much higher velocity. In the central NMSZ the sediment thickness varies between about 0.1 and 0.7 km. The JHD analysis of the data collected in that area by a portable network (PANDA) showed that the P- and S-wave station corrections spanned large ranges (0.35 and 0.63 s, respectively, Pujol et al., Eng. Geol., 1997). This study also showed that a Vp/Vs of 3 for the sediments would be too high if the lateral velocity variations were confined to the sedimentary cover. Here we generate synthetic traveltimes for a model with a sedimentary cover having variable depth (as determined from boreholes) underlain by the high-velocity layers in the 1-D model used for the JHD analysis. The synthetic data were generated for the station and event distributions corresponding to the Panda data. The tomographic inversion of the synthetic times produces spurious anomalies in Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs, from the surface to a depth of 10 km. In addition, the events are mislocated in depth, with errors between 0 and 1 km for most of them. These results should dispel the notion that the effect of the unconsolidated sediments can be ignored. On the other hand, the inversion of the actual Panda data results in velocity anomalies similar to the synthetic anomalies, although larger, which is consistent with the conclusions of Pujol et al. (1997

  9. Potential of high resolution satellite imagery, remote weather data and 1D hydraulic modeling to evaluate flood areas in Gonaives, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, Andrea; Durand, Arnaud; Allenbach, Bernard; Confortola, Gabriele; Bocchiola, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    We present a feasibility study to explore potential of high-resolution imagery, coupled with hydraulic flood modeling to predict flooding risks, applied to the case study of Gonaives basins (585 km²), Haiti. We propose a methodology working at different scales, providing accurate results and a faster intervention during extreme flood events. The 'Hispaniola' island, in the Caribbean tropical zone, is often affected by extreme floods events. Floods are caused by tropical springs and hurricanes, and may lead to several damages, including cholera epidemics, as recently occurred, in the wake of the earthquake upon January 12th 2010 (magnitude 7.0). Floods studies based upon hydrological and hydraulic modeling are hampered by almost complete lack of ground data. Thenceforth, and given the noticeable cost involved in the organization of field measurement campaigns, the need for exploitation of remote sensing images data. HEC-RAS 1D modeling is carried out under different scenarios of available Digital Elevation Models. The DEMs are generated using optical remote sensing satellite (WorldView-1) and SRTM, combined with information from an open source database (Open Street Map). We study two recent flood episodes, where flood maps from remote sensing were available. Flood extent and land use have been assessed by way of data from SPOT-5 satellite, after hurricane Jeanne in 2004 and hurricane Hanna in 2008. A semi-distributed, DEM based hydrological model is used to simulate flood flows during the hurricanes. Precipitation input is taken from daily rainfall data derived from TRMM satellite, plus proper downscaling. The hydraulic model is calibrated using floodplain friction as tuning parameters against the observed flooded area. We compare different scenarios of flood simulation, and the predictive power of model calibration. The method provide acceptable results in depicting flooded areas, especially considering the tremendous lack of ground data, and show the potential of

  10. Applicability of artificial neural networks for obtaining velocity models from synthetic seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronian, C.; Riahi, M. A.; Lucas, C.

    2009-07-01

    Seismic velocity analysis is a crucial part of seismic data processing and interpretation which has been practiced using different methods. In contrast to time consuming and complicated numerical methods, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are found to be of potential applicability. ANN ability to establish a relationship between an input and output space is considered to be appropriate for mapping seismic velocity corresponding to travel times picked from seismograms. Accordingly a preliminary attempt is made to evaluate the applicability of ANNs to determine velocity and dips of dipping layered earth models corresponding to travel time data. The study is based on synthetic data generated using inverse modeling approach for three earth models. The models include a three-layer structure with same dips and same directions, a three-layer model with different dips and same directions, as well as a two-layer model with different dips and directions. An ANN structure is designed in three layers, namely, input, output, and hidden ones. The training and testing process of the ANN is successfully accomplished using the synthetic data. The evaluation of the applicability of the trained ANN to unknown data sets indicates that the ANN can satisfactorily compute velocity and dips corresponding to travel times. The error intervals between the desired and calculated velocity and dips are shown to be acceptably small in all cases. The applicability of the trained ANN in extrapolating is also evaluated using a number of data outside of the range already known to ANN. The results indicate that the trained ANN acceptably approximates the velocity and dips. Furthermore, the trained ANN is also evaluated in terms of capability of handling deficiency in input data where acceptable results were also achieved in velocity and dip calculations. Generally, this study shows that velocity analysis using ANNs can promisingly tackle the challenge of retrieving an initial velocity model from the

  11. Near-surface ocean velocity from infrared images: Global Optimal Solution to an inverse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Mied, Richard P.; Shen, Colin Y.

    2008-10-01

    We address the problem of obtaining ocean surface velocities from sequences of thermal (AVHRR) space-borne images by inverting the heat conservation equation (including sources of surface heat fluxes and vertical entrainment). We demonstrate the utility of the technique by deriving surface velocities from (1) The motion of a synthetic surface tracer in a numerical model and (2) a sequence of five actual AVHRR images from 1 day. Typical formulations of this tracer inversion problem yield too few equations at each pixel, which is often remedied by imposing additional constraints (e.g., horizontal divergence, vorticity, and energy). In contrast, we propose an alternate strategy to convert the underdetermined equation set to an overdetermined one. We divide the image scene into many subarrays and define velocities and sources within each subarray using bilinear expressions in terms of the corner points (called knots). In turn, all velocities and sources on the knots can be determined by seeking an optimum solution to these linear equations over the large scale, which we call the Global Optimal Solution (GOS). We test the accuracy of the GOS by contaminating the model output with up to 10% white noise but find that filtering the data with a Gaussian convolution filter yields velocities nearly indistinguishable from those without the added noise. We compare the GOS velocity fields with those from the numerical model and from the Maximum Cross Correlation (MCC) technique. A histogram of the difference between GOS and numerical model velocities is narrower and more peaked than the similar comparison with MCC, irrespective of the time interval (Δt = 2 or 4 h) between images. The calculation of the root mean square error difference between the GOS (and MCC) results and the model velocities indicates that the GOS/model error is only half that of the MCC/model error irrespective of the time interval (Δt = 2 or 4 h) between images. Finally, the application of the technique to

  12. 1D Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Reactive transport modeling for deep geothermal systems: A case study of Groß Schönebeck reservoir, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driba, D. L.; De Lucia, M.; Peiffer, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid-rock interactions in geothermal reservoirs are driven by the state of disequilibrium that persists among solid and solutes due to changing temperature and pressure. During operation of enhanced geothermal systems, injection of cooled water back into the reservoir disturbs the initial thermodynamic equilibrium between the reservoir and its geothermal fluid, which may induce modifications in permeability through changes in porosity and pore space geometry, consequently bringing about several impairments to the overall system.Modeling of fluid-rock interactions induced by injection of cold brine into Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir system situated in the Rotliegend sandstone at 4200m depth have been done by coupling geochemical modeling Code Phreeqc with OpenGeoSys. Through batch modeling the re-evaluation of the measured hydrochemical composition of the brine has been done using Quintessa databases, the results from the calculation indicate that a mineral phases comprising of K-feldspar, hematite, Barite, Calcite and Dolomite was found to match the hypothesis of equilibrium with the formation fluid, Reducing conditions are presumed in the model (pe = -3.5) in order to match the amount of observed dissolved Fe and thus considered as initial state for the reactive transport modeling. based on a measured composition of formation fluids and the predominant mineralogical assemblage of the host rock, a preliminary 1D Reactive transport modeling (RTM) was run with total time set to 30 years; results obtained for the initial simulation revealed that during this period, no significant change is evident for K-feldspar. Furthermore, the precipitation of calcite along the flow path in the brine results in a drop of pH from 6.2 to a value of 5.2 noticed over the simulated period. The circulation of cooled fluid in the reservoir is predicted to affect the temperature of the reservoir within the first 100 -150m from the injection well. Examination of porosity change in

  13. Quantifying Uncertainty in Velocity Models using Bayesian Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, R.; Caiado, C.; Majdański, M.

    2008-12-01

    Quanitifying uncertainty in models derived from observed data is a major issue. Public and political understanding of uncertainty is poor and for industry inadequate assessment of risk costs money. In this talk we will examine the geological structure of the subsurface, however our principal exploration tool, controlled source seismology, gives its data in time. Inversion tools exist to map these data into a depth model but a full exploration of the uncertainty of the model is rarely done because robust strategies do not exist for large non-linear complex systems. There are two principal sources of uncertainty: the first comes from the input data which is noisy and bandlimited; the second, and more sinister, is from the model parameterisation and forward algorithms themselves, which approximate to the physics to make the problem tractable. To address these issues we propose a Bayesian approach. One philosophy is to estimate the uncertainty in a possible model derived using standard inversion tools. During the inversion stage we can use our geological prejudice to derive an acceptable model. Then we use a local random walk using the Metropolis- Hastings algorithm to explore the model space immediately around a possible solution. For models with a limited number of parameters we can use the forward modeling step from the inversion code. However as the number of parameters increase and/or the cost of the forward modeling step becomes significant, we need to use fast emulators to act as proxies so a sufficient number of iterations can be performed on which to base our statistical measures of uncertainty. In this presentation we show examples of uncertainty estimation using both pre- and post-critical seismic data. In particular, we will demonstrate uncertainty introduced by the approximation of the physics by using a tomographic inversion of bandlimited data and show that uncertainty increases as the central frequency of the data decreases. This is consistent with the

  14. A discrete velocity direction model for the Boltzmann equation and applications to micro gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Xu, Jianzhong; Qi, Zhiguo; Xi, Guang

    2008-05-01

    A discrete velocity direction model for the Boltzmann equation is proposed in this paper, which provides an alternative technique to the rarefied gas flows. In this model, the directions of molecular velocities are discrete, which are restricted in eight fixed directions, while the molecular speed rate is still continuous. By this approximation, the Boltzmann equation in the six-dimensional phase space is replaced by eight differential-integral equations in three-dimensional space. Thus, the computational cost is reduced greatly by reduction of three dimensions. The number of discrete velocities is not fixed in the present model because the speed rate can be truncated arbitrarily. This is distinguished from the conventional discrete velocity models (DVM). To test this technique, it was applied to the Couette flow and Poiseuille flow. The computed results agree well with those by the linearized Boltzmann equation and the DSMC method.

  15. Estimating V̄s(30) (or NEHRP site classes) from shallow velocity models (depths < 30 m)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The average velocity to 30 m [V??s(30)] is a widely used parameter for classifying sites to predict their potential to amplify seismic shaking. In many cases, however, models of shallow shear-wave velocities, from which V??s(30) can be computed, do not extend to 30 m. If the data for these cases are to be used, some method of extrapolating the velocities must be devised. Four methods for doing this are described here and are illustrated using data from 135 boreholes in California for which the velocity model extends to at least 30 m. Methods using correlations between shallow velocity and V??s(30) result in significantly less bias for shallow models than the simplest method of assuming that the lowermost velocity extends to 30 m. In addition, for all methods the percent of sites misclassified is generally less than 10% and falls to negligible values for velocity models extending to at least 25 m. Although the methods using correlations do a better job on average of estimating V??s(30), the simplest method will generally result in a lower value of V??s(30) and thus yield a more conservative estimate of ground motion [which generally increases as V??s(30) decreases].

  16. From Anti-greenhouse Effect of Solar Absorbers to Cooling Effect of Greenhouse Gases: A 1-D Radiative Convective Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shia, R.

    2012-12-01

    The haze layer in Titan's upper atmosphere absorbs 90% of the solar radiation, but is inefficient for trapping infrared radiation generated by the surface. Its existence partially compensates for the greenhouse warming and keeps the surface approximately 9°C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone. This is the so called anti-greenhouse effect (McKay et al., 1991). This effect can be used to alleviate the warming caused by the increasing level of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. A one-dimensional radiative convective model (Kasting et al., 2009 and references listed there) is used to investigate the anti-greenhouse effect in the Earth atmosphere. Increasing of solar absorbers, e.g. aerosols and ozone, in the stratosphere reduces the surface solar flux and cool the surface. However, the absorption of the solar flux also increases the temperature in the upper atmosphere, while reduces the temperature at the surface. Thus, the temperature profile of the atmosphere changes and the regions with positive vertical temperature gradient are expanded. According to Shia (2010) the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases is directly related to the vertical temperature gradient. Under the new temperature profile increases of greenhouse gases should have less warming effect. When the solar absorbers keep increasing, eventually most of the atmosphere has positive temperature gradient and increasing greenhouse gases would cool the surface (Shia, 2011). The doubling CO2 scenario in the Earth atmosphere is simulated for different levels of solar absorbers using the 1-D RC model. The model results show that if the solar absorber increases to a certain level that less than 50% solar flux reaching the surface, doubling CO2 cools the surface by about 2 C. This means if the snowball Earth is generated by solar absorbers in the stratosphere, increasing greenhouse gases would make it freeze even more (Shia, 2011). References: Kasting, J. et al

  17. Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots incorporating the NUVEL-1 global plate motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Gripp, A.E.; Gordon, R.G. )

    1990-07-01

    NUVEL-1 is a new global model of current relative plate velocities which differ significantly from those of prior models. Here the authors incorporate NUVEL-1 into HS2-NUVEL1, a new global model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. HS2-NUVEL1 was determined from the hotspot data and errors used by Minster and Jordan (1978) to determine AM1-2, which is their model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. AM1-2 is consistent with Minster and Jordan's relative plate velocity model RM2. Here the authors compare HS2-NUVEL1 with AM1-2 and examine how their differences relate to differences between NUVEL-1 and RM2. HS2-NUVEL1 plate velocities relative to the hotspots are mainly similar to those of AM1-2. Minor differences between the two models include the following: (1) in HS2-NUVEL1 the speed of the partly continental, apparently non-subducting Indian plate is greater than that of the purely oceanic, subducting Nazca plate; (2) in places the direction of motion of the African, Antarctic, Arabian, Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasian, North American, and South American plates differs between models by more than 10{degree}; (3) in places the speed of the Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Indian, and Nazca plates differs between models by more than 8 mm/yr. Although 27 of the 30 RM2 Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of NUVEL-1, only the AM1-2 Arabia-hotspot and India-hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of HS2-NUVEL1. Thus, substituting NUVEL-1 for RM2 in the inversion for plate velocities relative to the hotspots changes few Euler vectors significantly, presumably because the uncertainty in the velocity of a plate relative to the hotspots is much greater than the uncertainty in its velocity relative to other plates.

  18. Reduction of the uncertainties in the water level-discharge relation of a 1D hydraulic model in the context of operational flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habert, J.; Ricci, S.; Le Pape, E.; Thual, O.; Piacentini, A.; Goutal, N.; Jonville, G.; Rochoux, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a data-driven hydrodynamic simulator based on the 1-D hydraulic solver dedicated to flood forecasting with lead time of an hour up to 24 h. The goal of the study is to reduce uncertainties in the hydraulic model and thus provide more reliable simulations and forecasts in real time for operational use by the national hydrometeorological flood forecasting center in France. Previous studies have shown that sequential assimilation of water level or discharge data allows to adjust the inflows to the hydraulic network resulting in a significant improvement of the discharge while leaving the water level state imperfect. Two strategies are proposed here to improve the water level-discharge relation in the model. At first, a modeling strategy consists in improving the description of the river bed geometry using topographic and bathymetric measurements. Secondly, an inverse modeling strategy proposes to locally correct friction coefficients in the river bed and the flood plain through the assimilation of in situ water level measurements. This approach is based on an Extended Kalman filter algorithm that sequentially assimilates data to infer the upstream and lateral inflows at first and then the friction coefficients. It provides a time varying correction of the hydrological boundary conditions and hydraulic parameters. The merits of both strategies are demonstrated on the Marne catchment in France for eight validation flood events and the January 2004 flood event is used as an illustrative example throughout the paper. The Nash-Sutcliffe criterion for water level is improved from 0.135 to 0.832 for a 12-h forecast lead time with the data assimilation strategy. These developments have been implemented at the SAMA SPC (local flood forecasting service in the Haute-Marne French department) and used for operational forecast since 2013. They were shown to provide an efficient tool for evaluating flood risk and to improve the flood early warning system

  19. Modeling coiled-tubing velocity strings for gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J.; Martinez, A.

    1998-02-01

    Because of its ability to prolong well life, its relatively low expense, and the relative ease with which it is installed, coiled tubing has become a preferred remedial method of tubular completion for gas wells. Of course, the difficulty in procuring wireline-test data is a drawback to verifying the accuracy of the assumptions and predictions used for coiled-tubing selection. This increases the importance of the prediction-making process, and, as a result, places great emphasis on the modeling methods that are used. This paper focuses on the processes and methods for achieving sound multiphase-flow predictions by looking at the steps necessary to arrive at coiled-tubing selection. Furthermore, this paper examines the variables that serve as indicators of the viability of each tubing size, especially liquid holdup. This means that in addition to methodology, emphasis is placed on the use of a good wellbore model. The computer model discussed is in use industry wide.

  20. A comprehensive dispersion model of surface wave phase and group velocity for the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhitu; Masters, Guy; Laske, Gabi; Pasyanos, Michael

    2014-10-01

    A new method is developed to measure Rayleigh- and Love-wave phase velocities globally using a cluster analysis technique. This method clusters similar waveforms recorded at different stations from a single event and allows users to make measurements on hundreds of waveforms, which are filtered at a series of frequency ranges, at the same time. It also requires minimal amount of user interaction and allows easy assessment of the data quality. This method produces a large amount of phase delay measurements in a manageable time frame. Because there is a strong trade-off between the isotropic part of the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy, we include the effect of azimuthal anisotropy in our inversions in order to obtain reliable isotropic phase velocity. We use b-splines to combine these isotropic phase velocity maps with our previous group velocity maps to produce an internally consistent global surface wave dispersion model.

  1. Parameterized isoprene and monoterpene emissions from the boreal forest floor: Implementation into a 1D chemistry-transport model and investigation of the influence on atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, Ditte; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Gierens, Rosa; Smolander, Sampo; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from the biosphere and can work as precursor gases for aerosol particles that can affect the climate (e.g. Makkonen et al., ACP, 2012). VOC emissions from needles and leaves have gained the most attention, however other parts of the ecosystem also have the ability to emit a vast amount of VOCs. This, often neglected, source can be important e.g. at periods where leaves are absent. Both sources and drivers related to forest floor emission of VOCs are currently limited. It is thought that the sources are mainly due to degradation of organic matter (Isidorov and Jdanova, Chemosphere, 2002), living roots (Asensio et al., Soil Biol. Biochem., 2008) and ground vegetation. The drivers are biotic (e.g. microbes) and abiotic (e.g. temperature and moisture). However, the relative importance of the sources and the drivers individually are currently poorly understood. Further, the relative importance of these factors is highly dependent on the tree species occupying the area of interest. The emission of isoprene and monoterpenes where measured from the boreal forest floor at the SMEAR II station in Southern Finland (Hari and Kulmala, Boreal Env. Res., 2005) during the snow-free period in 2010-2012. We used a dynamic method with 3 automated chambers analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometer (Aaltonen et al., Plant Soil, 2013). Using this data, we have developed empirical parameterizations for the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from the forest floor. These parameterizations depends on abiotic factors, however, since the parameterizations are based on field measurements, biotic features are captured. Further, we have used the 1D chemistry-transport model SOSAA (Boy et al., ACP, 2011) to test the seasonal relative importance of inclusion of these parameterizations of the forest floor compared to the canopy crown emissions, on the atmospheric reactivity throughout the canopy.

  2. A three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the Charlevoix seismic zone, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahovic, Gordana; Powell, Christine; Lamontagne, Maurice

    2003-09-01

    A three-dimensional P wave velocity model has been developed for the Charlevoix seismic zone (CSZ). The CSZ is located along the St. Lawrence River ˜100 km northeast of Quebec City, Canada, and is one of the most active seismic zones in eastern North America. Five earthquakes with magnitudes equal to or exceeding 6.0 have occurred in the CSZ in historic time, and around 200 earthquakes occur annually. Hypocenters are located in Precambrian basement rocks. Basement rocks have been affected by numerous tectonic events including Grenvillian collision, Iapetan rifting, and meteor impact. We performed a sequential, tomographic inversion for P wave velocity structure based upon 3093 P wave arrivals from 489 earthquakes recorded by 12 stations. High velocity is associated with the center of the impact crater. The region of high velocity is surrounded by low velocities interpreted to be highly disrupted rocks. An elongated, high-velocity region is present at midcrustal depths that trends parallel to the St. Lawrence River. Earthquakes avoid the high-velocity body and separate into two bands, one on either side of the feature. Larger earthquakes (magnitude ≥ 4) have occurred along the northern edges of the high-velocity region.

  3. Detailed p- and s-wave velocity models along the LARSE II transect, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, J.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W.J.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural details of the crust determined from P-wave velocity models can be improved with S-wave velocity models, and S-wave velocities are needed for model-based predictions of strong ground motion in southern California. We picked P- and S-wave travel times for refracted phases from explosive-source shots of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II); we developed refraction velocity models from these picks using two different inversion algorithms. For each inversion technique, we calculated ratios of P- to S-wave velocities (VP/VS) where there is coincident P- and S-wave ray coverage.We compare the two VP inverse velocity models to each other and to results from forward modeling, and we compare the VS inverse models. The VS and VP/VS models differ in structural details from the VP models. In particular, dipping, tabular zones of low VS, or high VP/VS, appear to define two fault zones in the central Transverse Ranges that could be parts of a positive flower structure to the San Andreas fault. These two zones are marginally resolved, but their presence in two independent models lends them some credibility. A plot of VS versus VP differs from recently published plots that are based on direct laboratory or down-hole sonic measurements. The difference in plots is most prominent in the range of VP = 3 to 5 km=s (or VS ~ 1:25 to 2:9 km/s), where our refraction VS is lower by a few tenths of a kilometer per second from VS based on direct measurements. Our new VS - VP curve may be useful for modeling the lower limit of VS from a VP model in calculating strong motions from scenario earthquakes.

  4. An improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Huang, Mengxing; Ren, Jia; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-05-01

    To better describe car-following behaviors in the adaptive cruise control strategy and further increase roadway traffic mobility and reduce fuel consumptions, the linkage between velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car and the following car's acceleration or deceleration is explored with respect to the measured car-following data by employing the gray correlation analysis theory and then an improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on basis of the full velocity difference model is proposed. Numerical simulations are carried out and the effects of velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on each car's velocity, acceleration, vehicular gap, fuel consumptions and the total fuel consumptions of the whole car-following system with different time window lengths are investigated in detail. The results show that velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car has significant effects on car-following behaviors and fuel consumptions, and that considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car in designing the adaptive cruise control system can improve traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  5. Velocity field measurements in oblique static divergent vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron

    2005-11-01

    During normal phonation, the vocal fold cycle is characterized by the glottal opening transitioning from a convergent to a divergent passage and then closing before the cycle is repeated. Under ordinary phonatory conditions, both vocal folds, which form the glottal passage, move in phase with each other, creating a time-varying symmetric opening. However, abnormal pathological conditions, such as unilateral paralysis, and polyps, can result in geometrical asymmetries between the vocal folds throughout the phonatory cycle. This study investigates pulsatile flow fields through 7.5 times life-size vocal fold models with included divergence angles of 5 to 30 degrees, and obliquities between the vocal folds of up to 15 degrees. Flow conditions were scaled to match physiological parameters. Data were taken at the anterior posterior mid-plane using phase-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Viscous flow phenomena including the Coanda effect, flow separation points, and jet "flapping" were investigated. The results are compared to previously reported work of flow through symmetric divergent vocal fold models.

  6. Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine model

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S; Hill, Craig; Chamorro, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Wake recovery constrains the downstream spacing and density of turbines that can be deployed in turbine farms and limits the amount of energy that can be produced at a hydrokinetic energy site. This study investigates the wake recovery at the downstream of a 1:10 axial flow turbine model using a pulse-to-pulse coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP). In addition, turbine inflow and outflow velocities were measured for calculating the thrust on the turbine. The result shows that the depth-averaged longitudinal velocity recovers to 97% of the inflow velocity at 35 turbine diameter (D) downstream of the turbine.

  7. A method for overcoming the velocity space filamentation problem in collisionless plasma model solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimas, Alexander J.

    1987-01-01

    The solution of filtered Vlasov-Maxwell equations, rather than the Vlasov-Maxwell equations themselves, is shown to ameliorate the velocity space filamentation problem in collisionless plasma models. Exact field solutions and filtered velocity distribution functions are obtained without introducing errors. Proper selection of the filter width is demonstrated to inhibit development of velocity space filamentation and, it is conjectured, position space filamentation. The results of sample calculations of both filtered and nonfiltered field solutions illustrate a high degree of agreement between both solutions, with significant savings in computational time and memory requirements with the filtered solutions.

  8. Modeling the effect of varying swim speeds on fish passage through velocity barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, T.

    2006-01-01

    The distance fish can swim through zones of high-velocity flow is an important factor limiting the distribution and conservation of riverine and diadromous fishes. Often, these barriers are characterized by nonuniform flow conditions, and it is likely that fish will swim at varying speeds to traverse them. Existing models used to predict passage success, however, typically include the unrealistic assumption that fish swim at a constant speed regardless of the speed of flow. This paper demonstrates how the maximum distance of ascent through velocity barriers can be estimated from the swim speed-fatigue time relationship, allowing for variation in both swim speed and water velocity.

  9. Dynamics of ozone and nitrogen oxides at Summit, Greenland. II. Simulating snowpack chemistry during a spring high ozone event with a 1-D process-scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Keenan A.; Kramer, Louisa J.; Doskey, Paul V.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Seok, Brian; Van Dam, Brie; Helmig, Detlev

    2015-09-01

    Observed depth profiles of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in snowpack interstitial air at Summit, Greenland were best replicated by a 1-D process-scale model, which included (1) geometrical representation of snow grains as spheres, (2) aqueous-phase chemistry confined to a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) on the surface of snow grains, and (3) initialization of the species concentrations in the QLL through equilibrium partitioning with mixing ratios in snowpack interstitial air. A comprehensive suite of measurements in and above snowpack during a high O3 event facilitated analysis of the relationship between the chemistry of snowpack and the overlying atmosphere. The model successfully reproduced 2 maxima (i.e., a peak near the surface of the snowpack at solar noon and a larger peak occurring in the evening that extended down from 0.5 to 2 m) in the diurnal profile of NO2 within snowpack interstitial air. The maximum production rate of NO2 by photolysis of nitrate (NO3-) was approximately 108 molec cm-3 s-1, which explained daily observations of maxima in NO2 mixing ratios near solar noon. Mixing ratios of NO2 in snowpack interstitial air were greatest in the deepest layers of the snowpack at night and were attributed to thermal decomposition of peroxynitric acid, which produced up to 106 molec NO2 cm-3 s-1. Highest levels of NO in snowpack interstitial air were confined to upper layers of the snowpack and observed profiles were consistent with photolysis of NO2. Production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from NO3- photolysis was estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than NO production and supports the hypothesis that NO3- photolysis is the primary source of NOx within sunlit snowpack in the Arctic. Aqueous-phase oxidation of formic acid by O3 resulted in a maximum consumption rate of ∼106-107 molec cm-3 s-1 and was the primary removal mechanism for O3.

  10. Site-Specific Velocity and Density Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-06-27

    This report documents the work conducted under the SBP to develop a shear wave and compressional wave velocity and density model specific to the WTP site. Section 2 provides detailed background information on the WTP site and its underlying geology as well as on the Seismic Boreholes Project activities leading up to the Vs and Vp measurements. In Section 3, methods employed and results obtained are documented for measurements of Vs and Vp velocities in basalts and interbeds. Section 4 provides details on velocity measurements in the sediments underlying the WTP. Borehole gravity measurements of density of the subsurface basalt and sediments are described in Section 5. Section 6 describes the analysis of data presented in section 3-5, and presents the overall velocity and density model for the WTP site.

  11. Modeling velocity in gradient flows with coupled-map lattices with advection.

    PubMed

    Lind, Pedro G; Corte-Real, João; Gallas, Jason A C

    2002-07-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate large scale behavior of gradient flows based on a lattice of coupled maps which, in addition to the usual diffusive term, incorporates advection, as an asymmetry in the coupling between nearest neighbors. This diffusive-advective model predicts traveling patterns to have velocities obeying the same scaling as wind velocities in the atmosphere, regarding the advective parameter as a sort of geostrophic wind. In addition, the velocity and wavelength of traveling wave solutions are studied. In general, due to the presence of advection, two regimes are identified: for strong diffusion the velocity varies linearly with advection, while for weak diffusion a power law is found with a characteristic exponent proportional to the diffusion.

  12. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  13. A one-dimensional numerical model for predicting pressure and velocity oscillations of a compressed air-pocket in a vertical shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Leon, A.; Apte, S.

    2015-12-01

    The presence of pressurized air pockets in combined sewer systems is argued to produce geyser flows, which is an oscillating jetting of a mixture of gas-liquid flows through vertical shafts. A 1D numerical model is developed for predicting pressure and velocity oscillations of a compressed air-pocket in a vertical shaft which in turn attempts to simulate geyser like flows. The vertical shaft is closed at the bottom and open to ambient pressure at the top. Initially, the lower section of the vertical shaft is filled with compressed air and the upper section with water. The interaction between the pressurized air pocket and the water column in the vertical shaft exhibits an oscillatory motion of the water column that decays over time. The model accounts for steady and unsteady friction to estimate the energy dissipation. The model also includes the falling flow of water around the external perimeter of the pressurized air pocket by assuming that any expansion in the pressurized air pocket would result in the falling volume of water. The acceleration of air-water interface is predicted through a force balance between the pressurized air pocket and the water column combined with the Method of Characteristics that resolves pressure and velocity within the water column. The expansion and compression of the pressurized air pocket is assumed to follow either isothermal process or adiabatic process. Results for both assumptions; isothermal and adiabatic processes, are presented. The performance of the developed 1D numerical model is compared with that of a commercial 3D CFD model. Overall, a good agreement between both models is obtained for pressure and velocity oscillations. The paper will also present a sensitivity analysis of the 3D CFD model.

  14. A distributed, dynamic, parallel computational model: the role of noise in velocity storage

    PubMed Central

    Merfeld, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Networks of neurons perform complex calculations using distributed, parallel computation, including dynamic “real-time” calculations required for motion control. The brain must combine sensory signals to estimate the motion of body parts using imperfect information from noisy neurons. Models and experiments suggest that the brain sometimes optimally minimizes the influence of noise, although it remains unclear when and precisely how neurons perform such optimal computations. To investigate, we created a model of velocity storage based on a relatively new technique–“particle filtering”–that is both distributed and parallel. It extends existing observer and Kalman filter models of vestibular processing by simulating the observer model many times in parallel with noise added. During simulation, the variance of the particles defining the estimator state is used to compute the particle filter gain. We applied our model to estimate one-dimensional angular velocity during yaw rotation, which yielded estimates for the velocity storage time constant, afferent noise, and perceptual noise that matched experimental data. We also found that the velocity storage time constant was Bayesian optimal by comparing the estimate of our particle filter with the estimate of the Kalman filter, which is optimal. The particle filter demonstrated a reduced velocity storage time constant when afferent noise increased, which mimics what is known about aminoglycoside ablation of semicircular canal hair cells. This model helps bridge the gap between parallel distributed neural computation and systems-level behavioral responses like the vestibuloocular response and perception. PMID:22514288

  15. Focal mechanisms of earthquake multiplets in the western part of the Corinth Rift (Greece): influence of the velocity model and constraints on the geometry of the active faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Deschamps, Anne; Lambotte, Sophie; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Bernard, Pascal; Pacchiani, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    The composite fault plane solutions for 24 large multiplets recorded in the western part of the Corinth Rift between 2000 and 2007 are computed by jointly inverting P polarities and Sv/P, Sh/P, Sv/Sh amplitude ratios of the direct waves. The fault plane solutions are determined using 1-D and 3-D velocity models. Solutions computed with the 3-D velocity model are preferred to the ones computed with the 1-D model because overall, 3-D solutions have a better score function. They correspond essentially to E-NE/W-SW and W-NW/E-SE striking normal faults, which is consistent with the N-S extensional/vertical shortening tectonic regime of the area. For 15 multiplets, one of the nodal planes is similar to the plane delineated by the earthquakes. It is then possible to determine which nodal plane is the fault plane. The analysis of the fault plane solutions highlights a clear decrease of their dip with depth and towards the north. Several multiplets with steeply dipping fault planes (50°-60°) located at depths of 7-8 km are clearly located at the base of onshore and offshore faults that crop out close to the south border of the Corinth Gulf, indicating that these faults are steep down to 7-8 km depth. To the north, multiplets underline a low angle north-dipping structure (20°-30°) on which steep north-dipping faults could take root.

  16. The impact of Bdnf gene deficiency to the memory impairment and brain pathology of APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rantamäki, Tomi; Kemppainen, Susanna; Autio, Henri; Stavén, Saara; Koivisto, Hennariikka; Kojima, Masami; Antila, Hanna; Miettinen, Pasi O; Kärkkäinen, Elisa; Karpova, Nina; Vesa, Liisa; Lindemann, Lothar; Hoener, Marius C; Tanila, Heikki; Castrén, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) importantly regulates learning and memory and supports the survival of injured neurons. Reduced BDNF levels have been detected in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients but the exact role of BDNF in the pathophysiology of the disorder remains obscure. We have recently shown that reduced signaling of BDNF receptor TrkB aggravates memory impairment in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APdE9) mice, a model of AD. The present study examined the influence of Bdnf gene deficiency (heterozygous knockout) on spatial learning, spontaneous exploratory activity and motor coordination/balance in middle-aged male and female APdE9 mice. We also studied brain BDNF protein levels in APdE9 mice in different ages showing progressive amyloid pathology. Both APdE9 and Bdnf mutations impaired spatial learning in males and showed a similar trend in females. Importantly, the effect was additive, so that double mutant mice performed the worst. However, APdE9 and Bdnf mutations influenced spontaneous locomotion in contrasting ways, such that locomotor hyperactivity observed in APdE9 mice was normalized by Bdnf deficiency. Obesity associated with Bdnf deficiency did not account for the reduced hyperactivity in double mutant mice. Bdnf deficiency did not alter amyloid plaque formation in APdE9 mice. Before plaque formation (3 months), BDNF protein levels where either reduced (female) or unaltered (male) in the APdE9 mouse cortex. Unexpectedly, this was followed by an age-dependent increase in mature BDNF protein. Bdnf mRNA and phospho-TrkB levels remained unaltered in the cortical tissue samples of middle-aged APdE9 mice. Immunohistological studies revealed increased BDNF immunoreactivity around amyloid plaques indicating that the plaques may sequester BDNF protein and prevent it from activating TrkB. If similar BDNF accumulation happens in human AD brains, it would suggest that functional BDNF levels in the AD brains are even lower than reported, which could

  17. Visuo-spatial learning and memory deficits on the Barnes maze in the 16-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Timothy P; Brown, Richard E

    2009-07-19

    The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse is a double transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease, which harbors mutant mouse/human amyloid precursor protein (Swedish K594N/M595L) and presenilin-1 genes (PS1-dE9). These mice develop beta-amyloid plaques and exhibit visuo-spatial learning and memory impairment in the Morris water maze (MWM) at 8-12 and 16-18 months of age. To extend these findings, we tested visuo-spatial learning and memory of male and female APPswe/PS1dE9 mice at 16 months of age on the Barnes maze. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice showed impaired acquisition learning using measures of latency, distance traveled, errors and hole deviation scores, and were less likely to use the spatial search strategy to locate the escape hole than wild-type mice. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice also showed a deficit in memory in probe tests on the Barnes maze relative to wild-type mice. Learning and memory deficits, however, were not found during reversal training and reversal probe tests. Sex differences were observed, as male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice had smaller reversal effects than male wild-type mice, but females of each genotype did not differ. Overall, these results replicate previous findings using the MWM, and indicate that APPswe/PS1dE9 mice have impaired visuo-spatial learning and memory at 16 months of age. PMID:19428625

  18. A math model for high velocity sensoring with a focal plane shuttered camera.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.

    1971-01-01

    A new mathematical model is presented which describes the image produced by a focal plane shutter-equipped camera. The model is based upon the well-known collinearity condition equations and incorporates both the translational and rotational motion of the camera during the exposure interval. The first differentials of the model with respect to exposure interval, delta t, yield the general matrix expressions for image velocities which may be simplified to known cases. The exposure interval, delta t, may be replaced under certain circumstances with a function incorporating blind velocity and image position if desired. The model is tested using simulated Lunar Orbiter data and found to be computationally stable as well as providing excellent results, provided that some external information is available on the velocity parameters.

  19. Reflection tomography based on a velocity model with implicitly described structure information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianxing; Yang, Qin; Meng, Xianhai; Li, Jigang

    2016-10-01

    Seismic reflection tomography is a poorly conditioned inverse problem. A standard tomography scheme is generally performed by adding a sparse parameterization of the model and/or regularization criteria to improve the morbidity. However, isotropic features are prone to creation in the obtained velocity model, which is often considered as geologically unrealistic. We improve the tomographic effect from two aspects: model parameterization and constraints incorporation. As for model parameters, a novel model representation method is proposed. In the model, velocity discontinuity is implicitly described as a zero-value contour of a signed distance field. All the velocity interfaces constitute a division of the entire model space and thus create a natural spatial framework for tomography. Under the constraint of this structural framework, common Tikhonov-type regularization items and other geological information are imposed easily and flexibly. Different model regions (blocks) are independent and can be inverted without mutual interference. The incorporated geological information functions locally and pertinently, and makes the inverted model be more geologically reasonable. The results from 2D field data are shown. The obtained velocity can improve the focusing of the migrated image.

  20. Waveform Simulations For TAIGER Data Sets From Taiwan 3D Reference Velocity And Moho Boundary Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, M.; Chen, H.; Zhao, L.

    2008-12-01

    Studying seismic waveform variations in space and time is an important issue to investigate structural heterogeneities and ground motion responses for seismic hazard mitigation. The available 3D reference velocity models from transmission tomography studies are mainly limited by depth resolution, refraction arrival picks without explicit considering later phases and the spatial distribution of earthquakes and stations. Seismic data collected from the TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamics Research) project can provide a valuable opportunity for studying deep crust structures. Evaluation of 3D reference models and update their shallow velocity structure is presented through travel-time and waveforms studies. Even though a well-defined multi-scaled reference velocity model of Taiwan is being debated, existing models are still important to study the structural heterogeneities and path effects through parallel computation of 4th-order staggered grid FD 3D waveform simulation. Simulation utilizes both far-field point and finite-dimensional moment tensor sources to investigate effects on Moho reflections and lateral velocity variations. Constraints on Moho reference boundary obtained from receiver function studies is discussed and compared with data collected from TAIGER project. For controlled source experiments, synthetic simulations show clear and focused Moho reflections in the 3-C data. Simultaneous 3D simulation of all available seismic records provides unique constraints on reference velocity model known so far. The waveform simulation will provide a fundamental research platform for future full 3D waveform inversion.

  1. One-dimensional velocity model of the Middle Kura Depresion from local earthquakes data of Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetirmishli, G. C.; Kazimova, S. E.; Kazimov, I. E.

    2011-09-01

    We present the method for determining the velocity model of the Earth's crust and the parameters of earthquakes in the Middle Kura Depression from the data of network telemetry in Azerbaijan. Application of this method allowed us to recalculate the main parameters of the hypocenters of the earthquake, to compute the corrections to the arrival times of P and S waves at the observation station, and to significantly improve the accuracy in determining the coordinates of the earthquakes. The model was constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates one-dimensional minimal velocity models from the travel times of seismic waves.

  2. Developing a Crustal and Upper Mantle Velocity Model for the Brazilian Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julia, J.; Nascimento, R.

    2013-05-01

    Development of 3D models for the earth's crust and upper mantle is important for accurately predicting travel times for regional phases and to improve seismic event location. The Brazilian Northeast is a tectonically active area within stable South America and displays one of the highest levels of seismicity in Brazil, with earthquake swarms containing events up to mb 5.2. Since 2011, seismic activity is routinely monitored through the Rede Sismográfica do Nordeste (RSisNE), a permanent network supported by the national oil company PETROBRAS and consisting of 15 broadband stations with an average spacing of ~200 km. Accurate event locations are required to correctly characterize and identify seismogenic areas in the region and assess seismic hazard. Yet, no 3D model of crustal thickness and crustal and upper mantle velocity variation exists. The first step in developing such models is to refine crustal thickness and depths to major seismic velocity boundaries in the crust and improve on seismic velocity estimates for the upper mantle and crustal layers. We present recent results in crustal and uppermost mantle structure in NE Brazil that will contribute to the development of a 3D model of velocity variation. Our approach has consisted of: (i) computing receiver functions to obtain point estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio and (ii) jointly inverting receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion velocities from an independent tomography study to obtain S-velocity profiles at each station. This approach has been used at all the broadband stations of the monitoring network plus 15 temporary, short-period stations that reduced the inter-station spacing to ~100 km. We expect our contributions will provide the basis to produce full 3D velocity models for the Brazilian Northeast and help determine accurate locations for seismic events in the region.

  3. UCVM: An Open Source Framework for 3D Velocity Model Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Small, P.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide fundamental input data to ground motion simulations, in the form of structured or unstructured meshes or grids. Numerous models are available for California, as well as for other parts of the United States and Europe, but models do not share a common interface. Being able to interact with these models in a standardized way is critical in order to configure and run 3D ground motion simulations. The Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software, developed by researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an open source framework designed to provide a cohesive way to interact with seismic velocity models. We describe the several ways in which we have improved the UCVM software over the last year. We have simplified the UCVM installation process by automating the installation of various community codebases, improving the ease of use.. We discuss how UCVM software was used to build velocity meshes for high-frequency (4Hz) deterministic 3D wave propagation simulations, and how the UCVM framework interacts with other open source resources, such as NetCDF file formats for visualization. The UCVM software uses a layered software architecture that transparently converts geographic coordinates to the coordinate systems used by the underlying velocity models and supports inclusion of a configurable near-surface geotechnical layer, while interacting with the velocity model codes through their existing software interfaces. No changes to the velocity model codes are required. Our recent UCVM installation improvements bundle UCVM with a setup script, written in Python, which guides users through the process that installs the UCVM software along with all the user-selectable velocity models. Each velocity model is converted into a standardized (configure, make, make install) format that is easily downloaded and installed via the script. UCVM is often run in specialized high performance computing (HPC

  4. A global 3D P-velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle for improved event location : SALSA3D.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Christopher John; Steck, Lee K.; Phillips, William Scott; Ballard, Sanford; Chang, Marcus C.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A.; Hipp, James Richard

    2010-07-01

    using a variation of the standard checkerboard method. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of SALSA3D to standard 1D models via location tests on a global event set with GT of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P picks from which we generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and ratios of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over standard 1D ak135 regardless of Pn to P ratio, with the improvement being most pronounced at higher azimuthal gaps.

  5. SALSA3D : a global 3D p-velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle for improved event location.

    SciTech Connect

    Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Young, Christopher John; Chang, Marcus C.; Ballard, Sally C.; Hipp, James Richard

    2010-06-01

    using a variation of the standard checkerboard method. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of SALSA3D to standard 1D models via location tests on a global event set with GT of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P picks from which we generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and ratios of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over standard 1D ak135 regardless of Pn to P ratio, with the improvement being most pronounced at higher azimuthal gaps.

  6. Traffic stability of a car-following model considering driver’s desired velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ning; Liu, Hui

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering driver’s desired velocity according to Transportation Cyber Physical Systems. The effect of driver’s desired velocity on traffic flow has been investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear stability condition shows that driver’s desired velocity effect can enlarge the stable region of traffic flow. From nonlinear analysis, the Burgers equation and mKdV equation are derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves in the stable and unstable regions respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to verify the analytical results, which reveals that traffic congestion can be suppressed efficiently by taking driver’s desired velocity effect into account.

  7. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurement of static temperature and velocity for ASTOVL model tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourous, Helen E.; Seacholtz, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrally resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering diagnostic was developed to measure temperature and wing-spanwise velocity in the vicinity of an ASTOVL aircraft model in the Lewis 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The spectrum of argon-ion laser light scattered by the air molecules and particles in the flow was resolved with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Temperature was extracted from the spectral width of the Rayleigh scattering component, and spanwise gas velocity from the gross spectral shift. Nozzle temperature approached 800 K, and the velocity component approached 30 m/s. The measurement uncertainty was about 5 percent for the gas temperature, and about 10 m/s for the velocity. The large difference in the spectral width of the Mie scattering from particles and the Rayleigh scattering from gas molecules allowed the gas temperature to be measured in flow containing both naturally occurring dust and LDV seed (both were present).

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R; Gok, R; Sandvol, E

    2007-07-10

    The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Crustal and upper mantle velocities show great heterogeneity in this region and regional phases display variations in both amplitudes and travel time. Furthermore, due to a lack of quality data, the region has largely been unexplored in terms of the detailed lithospheric seismic structure. A unified high-resolution 3D velocity and attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle will be developed and calibrated. This model will use new data from 23 new broadband stations in the region analyzed with a comprehensive set of techniques. Velocity models of the crust and upper mantle will be developed using a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface waves. The surface wave modeling will use both event-based methods and ambient noise tomography. Regional phase (Pg, Pn, Sn, and Lg) Q model(s) will be constructed using the new data in combination with existing data sets. The results of the analysis (both attenuation and velocity modeling) will be validated using modeling of regional phases, calibration with selected events, and comparison with previous work. Preliminary analyses of receiver functions show considerable variability across the region. All results will be integrated into the KnowledgeBase.

  9. A simple way to model the pressure dependency of rock velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tongcheng

    2016-04-01

    Modeling the pressure dependency of rock velocity is important for interpreting and comparing the seismic and earthquake data from different depths. This study develops a multicomponent differential effective medium model for the elastic properties of porous rocks with two types of pores in the grain background without mixing order. The developed model is applied to modeling the pressure dependent elastic velocity of porous rocks by incorporating the variation of stiff and compliant porosity as a function of pressure. The pressure dependent stiff and compliant porosity were inverted from the measured total porosity under pressure using a dual porosity model, and the unknown constant stiff and compliant pore aspect ratios were inverted by best fitting the modeled velocity to the measured data. Application of the approach to a low porosity granite and a medium porosity sandstone sample showed that the pressure dependency of rock velocity can be satisfactorily modeled by the developed model using the pressure dependent stiff and compliant porosity and carefully estimated stiff and compliant pore aspect ratio values.

  10. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed.

  11. Investigation of the radiation brightness of gases around a burning model moving at supersonic velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baulin, N. N.; Kuvalkin, D. G.; Piliugin, N. N.; Taganov, O. K.; Tikhomirov, S. G.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the ablation and shape change of burning models made of a pyrotechnic composition moving in air at supersonic velocity. A radiometer was used to measure the radiation brightness at a wavelength of 0.63 micron in the shock layer and wake of the burning models. The glow characteristics are determined as a function of the initial air pressure in the path of motion; and a theoretical model for the motion and ablation of burning bodies flying at supersonic velocity is developed which satisfactorily describes the experimental results. The present study is of interest in connection with the aerodynamic heating of vehicles flying at hypersonic velocity in planetary atmospheres.

  12. Quasilinear model for energetic particle diffusion in radial and velocity space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Bass, E. M.; Staebler, G. M.

    2013-04-01

    A quasilinear model for passive energetic particle (EP) turbulent diffusion in radial and velocity space is fitted and tested against nonlinear gyrokinetic tokamak simulations with the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 045001 (2003)]. Off diagonal elements of a symmetric positive definite 2×2 EP diffusion matrix account for fluxes up radial (energy) gradients driven by energy (radial) gradients of the EP velocity space distribution function. The quasilinear ratio kernel of the model is provided by a simple analytic formula for the EP radial and velocity space EP diffusivity relative to radial thermal ion energy diffusivity at each linear mode of the turbulence driven by the thermal plasma. The TGLF [G. M. Staebler, J. E. Kinsey, and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Plasmas 14, 0055909 (2007); ibid. 15, 0055908 (2008)] tokamak transport model provides the linear mode frequency and growth rates to the kernel as well as the nonlinear spectral weight for each mode.

  13. Quasilinear model for energetic particle diffusion in radial and velocity space

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Bass, E. M.

    2013-04-15

    A quasilinear model for passive energetic particle (EP) turbulent diffusion in radial and velocity space is fitted and tested against nonlinear gyrokinetic tokamak simulations with the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 045001 (2003)]. Off diagonal elements of a symmetric positive definite 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 EP diffusion matrix account for fluxes up radial (energy) gradients driven by energy (radial) gradients of the EP velocity space distribution function. The quasilinear ratio kernel of the model is provided by a simple analytic formula for the EP radial and velocity space EP diffusivity relative to radial thermal ion energy diffusivity at each linear mode of the turbulence driven by the thermal plasma. The TGLF [G. M. Staebler, J. E. Kinsey, and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Plasmas 14, 0055909 (2007); ibid. 15, 0055908 (2008)] tokamak transport model provides the linear mode frequency and growth rates to the kernel as well as the nonlinear spectral weight for each mode.

  14. Improving the modelling of redshift-space distortions - II. A pairwise velocity model covering large and small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Davide; Percival, Will J.; Bel, Julien

    2016-09-01

    We develop a model for the redshift-space correlation function, valid for both dark matter particles and halos on scales >5 h-1Mpc. In its simplest formulation, the model requires the knowledge of the first three moments of the line-of-sight pairwise velocity distribution plus two well-defined dimensionless parameters. The model is obtained by extending the Gaussian-Gaussianity prescription for the velocity distribution, developed in a previous paper, to a more general concept allowing for local skewness, which is required to match simulations. We compare the model with the well known Gaussian streaming model and the more recent Edgeworth streaming model. Using N-body simulations as a reference, we show that our model gives a precise description of the redshift-space clustering over a wider range of scales. We do not discuss the theoretical prescription for the evaluation of the velocity moments, leaving this topic to further investigation.

  15. Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. II. Detection in simulations and comparison with theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Pengjie; Jing, Yipeng

    2015-02-01

    Measuring the volume weighted velocity power spectrum suffers from a severe systematic error due to imperfect sampling of the velocity field from the inhomogeneous distribution of dark matter particles/halos in simulations or galaxies with velocity measurement. This "sampling artifact" depends on both the mean particle number density n¯P and the intrinsic large scale structure (LSS) fluctuation in the particle distribution. (1) We report robust detection of this sampling artifact in N -body simulations. It causes ˜12 % underestimation of the velocity power spectrum at k =0.1 h /Mpc for samples with n¯ P=6 ×10-3 (Mpc /h )-3 . This systematic underestimation increases with decreasing n¯P and increasing k . Its dependence on the intrinsic LSS fluctuations is also robustly detected. (2) All of these findings are expected based upon our theoretical modeling in paper I [P. Zhang, Y. Zheng, and Y. Jing, Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. I. Theoretical modeling, arXiv:1405.7125.]. In particular, the leading order theoretical approximation agrees quantitatively well with the simulation result for n¯ P≳6 ×10-4 (Mpc /h )-3 . Furthermore, we provide an ansatz to take high order terms into account. It improves the model accuracy to ≲1 % at k ≲0.1 h /Mpc over 3 orders of magnitude in n¯P and over typical LSS clustering from z =0 to z =2 . (3) The sampling artifact is determined by the deflection D field, which is straightforwardly available in both simulations and data of galaxy velocity. Hence the sampling artifact in the velocity power spectrum measurement can be self-calibrated within our framework. By applying such self-calibration in simulations, it is promising to determine the real large scale velocity bias of 1013M⊙ halos with ˜1 % accuracy, and that of lower mass halos with better accuracy. (4) In contrast to suppressing the velocity power spectrum at large scale, the sampling artifact causes an overestimation of the velocity

  16. Pilot model expansion tunnel test flow properties obtained from velocity, pressure, and probe measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friesen, W. J.; Moore, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Velocity-profile, pitot-pressure, and supplemental probe measurements were made at the nozzle exist of an expansion tunnel (a modification to the Langley pilot model expansion tube) for a nozzle net condition of a nitrogen test sample with a velocity of 4.5 km/sec and a density 0.005 times the density of nitrogen at standard conditions, both with the nozzle initially immersed in a helium atmosphere and with the nozzle initially evacuated. The purpose of the report is to present the results of these measurements and some of the physical properties of the nitrogen test sample which can be inferred from the measured results. The main conclusions reached are that: the velocity profiles differ for two nozzle conditions; regions of the flow field can be found where the velocity is uniform to within 5 percent and constant for several hundred microseconds; the velocity of the nitrogen test sample is reduced due to passage through the nozzle; and the velocity profiles do not significantly reflect the large variations which occur in the inferred density profiles.

  17. Seismic velocity models for the Denali fault zone along the Richardson Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Lutter, W.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Ratchkovski, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    Crustal-scale seismic-velocity models across the Denali fault zone along the Richardson Highway show a 50-km-thick crust, a near vertical fault trace, and a 5-km-wide damage zone associated with the fault near Trans-Alaska Pipeline Pump Station 10, which provided the closest strong ground motion recordings of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake. We compare models, derived from seismic reflection and refraction surveys acquired in 1986 and 1987, to laboratory measurements of seismic velocities for typical metamorphic rocks exposed along the profiles. Our model for the 1986 seismic reflection profile indicates a 5-km-wide low-velocity zone in the upper 1 km of the Denali fault zone, which we interpret as fault gouge. Deeper refractions from our 1987 line image a 40-km wide, 5-km-deep low-velocity zone along the Denali fault and nearby associated fault strands, which we attribute to a composite damage zone along several strands of the Denali fault zone and to the obliquity of the seismic line to the fault zone. Our velocity model and other geophysical data indicate a nearly vertical Denali fault zone to a depth of 30 km. After-shocks of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake and our velocity model provide evidence for a flower structure along the fault zone consisting of faults dipping toward and truncated by the Denali fault. Wide-angle reflections indicate that the crustal thickness beneath the Denali fault is transitional between the 60-km-thick crust beneath the Alaska Range to the south, and the extended, 30-km-thick crust of the Yukon-Tanana terrane to the north.

  18. Shallow-velocity models at the Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, determined from array analyses of tremor wavefields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saccorotti, G.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.

    2003-01-01

    The properties of the surface wavefield at Kilauea Volcano are analysed using data from small-aperture arrays of short-period seismometers deployed in and around the Kilauea caldera. Tremor recordings were obtained during two Japan-US cooperative experiments conducted in 1996 and 1997. The seismometers were deployed in three semi-circular arrays with apertures of 300, 300 and 400 m, and a linear array with length of 1680 m. Data are analysed using a spatio-temporal correlation technique well suited for the study of the stationary stochastic wavefields of Rayleigh and Love waves associated with volcanic activity and scattering sources distributed in and around the summit caldera. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients are obtained as a function of frequency and are inverted for the dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves using a grid search that seeks phase velocities for which the L-2 norm between data and forward modelling operators is minimized. Within the caldera, the phase velocities of Rayleigh waves range from 1400 to 1800 m s-1 at 1 Hz down to 300-400 m s-1 at 10 Hz, and the phase velocities of Love waves range from 2600 to 400 m s-1 within the same frequency band. Outside the caldera, Rayleigh wave velocities range from 1800 to 1600 m s-1 at 1 Hz down to 260-360 m s-1 at 10 Hz, and Love wave velocities range from 600 to 150 m s-1 within the same frequency band. The dispersion curves are inverted for velocity structure beneath each array, assuming these dispersions represent the fundamental modes of Rayleigh and Love waves. The velocity structures observed at different array sites are consistent with results from a recent 3-D traveltime tomography of the caldera region, and point to a marked velocity discontinuity associated with the southern caldera boundary.

  19. A California statewide three-dimensional seismic velocity model from both absolute and differential times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, G.; Thurber, C.H.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.M.; Waldhauser, F.; Brocher, T.M.; Hardebeck, J.

    2010-01-01

    We obtain a seismic velocity model of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin by using absolute arrival-time picks to solve for a coarse three-dimensional (3D) P velocity (VP) model with a uniform 30 km horizontal node spacing, which we then use as the starting model for a finer-scale inversion using double-difference tomography applied to absolute and differential pick times. For computational reasons, we split the state into 5 subregions with a grid spacing of 10 to 20 km and assemble our final statewide VP model by stitching together these local models. We also solve for a statewide S-wave model using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model based on the VP results and a VP=VS ratio of 1.732. Our new model has improved areal coverage compared with previous models, extending 570 km in the SW-NE directionand 1320 km in the NW-SE direction. It also extends to greater depth due to the inclusion of substantial data at large epicentral distances. Our VP model generally agrees with previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, but we also observe some new features, such as high-velocity anomalies at shallow depths in the Klamath Mountains and Mount Shasta area, somewhat slow velocities in the northern Coast Ranges, and slow anomalies beneath the Sierra Nevada at midcrustal and greater depths. This model can be applied to a variety of regional-scale studies in California, such as developing a unified statewide earthquake location catalog and performing regional waveform modeling.

  20. a Multiple Data Set Joint Inversion Global 3d P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Seismic Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Hipp, J. R.; Chael, E. P.; Encarnacao, A.; Maceira, M.; Yang, X.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W.

    2013-12-01

    SALSA3D is a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle developed specifically to provide seismic event locations that are more accurate and more precise than are locations from 1D and 2.5D models. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, for the first time jointly derived from multiple types of data: body wave travel times, surface wave group velocities, and gravity. The latter two are added to provide information in areas with poor body wave coverage, and are down-weighted in areas where body wave coverage is good. To constrain the inversions, we invoked empirical relations among the density, S velocity, and P velocity. We demonstrate the ability of the new SALSA3D model to reduce mislocations and generate statistically robust uncertainty estimates for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. We obtain path-dependent travel time prediction uncertainties for our model by computing the full 3D model covariance matrix of our tomographic system and integrating the model slowness variance and covariance along paths of interest. This approach yields very low travel time prediction uncertainties for well-sampled paths through the Earth and higher uncertainties for paths that are poorly represented in the data set used to develop the model. While the calculation of path-dependent prediction uncertainties with this approach is computationally expensive, uncertainties can be pre-computed for a network of stations and stored in 3D lookup tables that can be quickly and efficiently interrogated using GeoTess software.

  1. A Reference Crustal and Plate-Boundary Velocity Model of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishise, M.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.

    2007-12-01

    The study of velocity structure using earthquake data has been remarkably progressed by development of seismic observation networks, improvement of the methodology, and increase in processing power. Recent studies on 3D velocity structures have produced tomographic images with resolution of a few kilometers (e.g., Matsubara et al., 2005; Nakamichi et al., 2007). In addition to these traveltime analyses, waveform studies such as receiver function analyses have been developed to image the configuration of continental Moho and oceanic plate boundaries (e.g., Yamauchi et al., 2003; Shiomi et al., 2004). Reflection and refraction surveys with controled sources have also been providing information on 2D and 3D velocity structures (e.g., Sato et al., 2005; Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas). Thus, plenty of structural property models exist over the Japan islands, but the validity of an individual model is confined to its study area. Therefore, it is essential to build a reference crustal and plate-boundary velocity model for the whole Japan by combining them all together. If this sort of reference velocity model over the Japan islands is available under a unified criterion, it will be valuable for many fields of seismology and Earth sciences. We here construct a reference crustal and plate-boundary velocity model of Japan by integrating 2D models from seismic profiling and receiver functions, 3D models of seismic tomography, and other geophysical data such as gravity anomalies. The goal of this study is to construct a 3D laterally heterogeneous seismic velocity structure model, which clarifies the topography of the Conrad and Moho discontinuities and shapes of the oceanic plates, like the SCEC Unified Velocity Model (e.g., Magistrale et al., 1996). We first make a preliminary Japan model by compiling information on the topography of the Conrad and Moho discontinuities and subducting plates. To this end, we collect 2D seismic velocity models

  2. Soluble Aβ levels correlate with cognitive deficits in the 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Zhuo; Lei, Gesheng; Su, Changjun; Miao, Jianting; Li, Zhuyi

    2011-09-23

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) is believed to be central in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterized by cognitive deficits. However, it remains uncertain which form(s) of Aβ pathology is responsible for the cognitive deficits in AD. In the present study, the cognitive deficits and the profiles of Aβ pathology were characterized in the 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice, and their correlations were examined. Compared with non-transgenic littermates, the middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the water maze test and long-term contextual memory deficits in the step-down passive avoidance test. Among the middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were highly correlated with spatial learning deficits and long-term contextual memory deficits, as well as cortical and hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were strongly correlated with spatial memory deficits. By contrast, no significant correlations were observed between three measures of cognitive functions and amyloid plaque burden (total Aβ plaque load and fibrillar Aβ plaque load), total Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42), as well as insoluble Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified hippocampal soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels as independent factors for predicting the spatial learning deficits and the long-term contextual memory deficits, as well as hippocampal and cortical soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels as independent factors for predicting the spatial memory deficits in transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that cognitive deficits are highly related to the levels of soluble Aβ in middle-aged APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, in which soluble Aβ levels are only a tiny fraction of the amount of total Aβ levels. Consequently, our findings provide further evidence that soluble Aβ might primarily contribute to cognitive deficits in AD, suggesting that reducing

  3. Modeling continuous seismic velocity changes due to ground shaking in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassenmeier, Martina; Richter, Tom; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Korn, Michael; Tilmann, Frederik

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate temporal seismic velocity changes due to earthquake related processes and environmental forcing, we analyze 8 years of ambient seismic noise recorded by the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) network in northern Chile between 18° and 25° S. The Mw 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake in 2007 and the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake in 2014 as well as numerous smaller events occurred in this area. By autocorrelation of the ambient seismic noise field, approximations of the Green's functions are retrieved. The recovered function represents backscattered or multiply scattered energy from the immediate neighborhood of the station. To detect relative changes of the seismic velocities we apply the stretching method, which compares individual autocorrelation functions to stretched or compressed versions of a long term averaged reference autocorrelation function. We use time windows in the coda of the autocorrelations, that contain scattered waves which are highly sensitive to minute changes in the velocity. At station PATCX we observe seasonal changes in seismic velocity as well as temporary velocity reductions in the frequency range of 4-6 Hz. The seasonal changes can be attributed to thermal stress changes in the subsurface related to variations of the atmospheric temperature. This effect can be modeled well by a sine curve and is subtracted for further analysis of short term variations. Temporary velocity reductions occur at the time of ground shaking usually caused by earthquakes and are followed by a recovery. We present an empirical model that describes the seismic velocity variations based on continuous observations of the local ground acceleration. Our hypothesis is that not only the shaking of earthquakes provokes velocity drops, but any small vibrations continuously induce minor velocity variations that are immediately compensated by healing in the steady state. We show that the shaking effect is accumulated over time and best described by

  4. Isotropic and anisotropic shear velocity model of the NA upper mantle using EarthScope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, J.; Clouzet, P.; French, S. W.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage across the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous work, we present a new 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic shear wave model of the North American (NA) lithospheric mantle, using full waveform tomography and shorter-period (40 s) waveform data. Our isotropic velocity model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between major tectonic localities of the eastern NA continent, as evidenced in the geology, and seismic anomalies, suggesting recurring episodes of tectonic events not only are well exposed at the surface, but also leave persistent scars in the continental lithosphere mantle, marked by isotropic and radially anisotropic velocity anomalies that reach as deep as 100-150 km. In eastern North America, our Vs images distinguish the fast velocity cratonic NA from the deep rooted large volume high velocity blocks which are east of the continent rift margin and extend 200-300 km offshore into Atlantic. In between is a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the south and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. The lithosphere associated with this low velocity band is thinned likely due to combined effects of repeated rifting processes along the rift margin and northward extension of the Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. Deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin are proposed to represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia formation but left behind during the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The anisotropy model takes advantage of the up-to-date SKS compilation in the continent and new splitting results from Greenland. The new joint waveform and SKS splitting data inversion is carried out with a 2

  5. Upper mantle P velocity structure beneath the Baikal Rift from modeling regional seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2003-02-01

    Uppermost mantle P wave velocity structure beneath the Baikal rift and southern margin of the Siberian Platform has been investigated by using a grid search method to model Pnl waveforms from two moderate earthquakes recorded by station TLY at the southwestern end of Lake Baikal. The results yielded a limited number of successful models which indicate the presence of upper mantle P wave velocities beneath the rift axis and the margin of the platform that are 2-5% lower than expected. The magnitude of the velocity anomalies and their location support the presence of a thermal anomaly that extends laterally beyond the rift proper, possibly created by small-scale convection or a plume-like, thermal upwelling.

  6. An empirical model of human aspiration in low-velocity air using CFD investigations.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T Renée; Anderson, Kimberly R

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to investigate the aspiration efficiency of the human head in low velocities to examine whether the current inhaled particulate mass (IPM) sampling criterion matches the aspiration efficiency of an inhaling human in airflows common to worker exposures. Data from both mouth and nose inhalation, averaged to assess omnidirectional aspiration efficiencies, were compiled and used to generate a unifying model to relate particle size to aspiration efficiency of the human head. Multiple linear regression was used to generate an empirical model to estimate human aspiration efficiency and included particle size as well as breathing and freestream velocities as dependent variables. A new set of simulated mouth and nose breathing aspiration efficiencies was generated and used to test the fit of empirical models. Further, empirical relationships between test conditions and CFD estimates of aspiration were compared to experimental data from mannequin studies, including both calm-air and ultra-low velocity experiments. While a linear relationship between particle size and aspiration is reported in calm air studies, the CFD simulations identified a more reasonable fit using the square of particle aerodynamic diameter, which better addressed the shape of the efficiency curve's decline toward zero for large particles. The ultimate goal of this work was to develop an empirical model that incorporates real-world variations in critical factors associated with particle aspiration to inform low-velocity modifications to the inhalable particle sampling criterion.

  7. Crustal velocities near Coalinga, California, modeled from a combined earthquake/explosion refraction profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macgregor-Scott, N.; Walter, A.

    1988-01-01

    Crustal velocity structure for the region near Coalinga, California, has been derived from both earthquake and explosion seismic phase data recorded along a NW-SE seismic-refraction profile on the western flank of the Great Valley east of the Diablo Range. Comparison of the two data sets reveals P-wave phases in common which can be correlated with changes in the velocity structure below the earthquake hypocenters. In addition, the earthquake records reveal secondary phases at station ranges of less than 20 km that could be the result of S- to P-wave conversions at velocity interfaces above the earthquake hypocenters. Two-dimensional ray-trace modeling of the P-wave travel times resulted in a P-wave velocity model for the western flank of the Great Valley comprised of: 1) a 7- to 9-km thick section of sedimentary strata with velocities similar to those found elsewhere in the Great Valley (1.6 to 5.2 km s-1); 2) a middle crust extending to about 14 km depth with velocities comparable to those reported for the Franciscan assemblage in the Diablo Range (5.6 to 5.9 km s-1); and 3) a 13- to 14-km thick lower crust with velocities similar to those reported beneath the Diablo Range and the Great Valley (6.5 to 7.30 km s-1). This lower crust may have been derived from subducted oceanic crust that was thickened by accretionary underplating or crustal shortening. -Authors

  8. Forearc structure beneath southwestern British Columbia: A three-dimensional tomographic velocity model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional compressional wave velocity model of the forearc crust and upper mantle and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath southwestern British Columbia and the adjoining straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. The velocity model was constructed through joint tomographic inversion of 50,000 first-arrival times from earthquakes and active seismic sources. Wrangellia rocks of the accreted Paleozoic and Mesozoic island arc assemblage underlying southern Vancouver Island in the Cascadia forearc are imaged at some locations with higher than average lower crustal velocities of 6.5-7.2 km/s, similar to observations at other island arc terranes. The mafic Eocene Crescent terrane, thrust landward beneath southern Vancouver Island, exhibits crustal velocities in the range of 6.0-6.7 km/s and is inferred to extend to a depth of more than 20 km. The Cenozoic Olympic Subduction Complex, an accretionary prism thrust beneath the Crescent terrane in the Olympic Peninsula, is imaged as a low-velocity wedge to depths of at least 20 km. Three zones with velocities of 7.0-7.5 km/s, inferred to be mafic and/or ultramafic units, lie above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate at depths of 25-35 km. The forearc upper mantle wedge beneath southeastern Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia exhibits low velocities of 7.2-7.5 km/s, inferred to correspond to ???20% serpentinization of mantle peridotites, and consistent with similar observations in other warm subduction zones. Estimated dip of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Vancouver Island is ???11??, 16??, and 27?? at depths of 30, 40, and 50 km, respectively. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    PubMed

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  10. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    PubMed

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  11. A velocity-dependent anomalous radial transport model for (2-D, 2-V) kinetic transport codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodi, Kowsik; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Cohen, Ron; Rognlien, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Plasma turbulence constitutes a significant part of radial plasma transport in magnetically confined plasmas. This turbulent transport is modeled in the form of anomalous convection and diffusion coefficients in fluid transport codes. There is a need to model the same in continuum kinetic edge codes [such as the (2-D, 2-V) transport version of TEMPEST, NEO, and the code being developed by the Edge Simulation Laboratory] with non-Maxwellian distributions. We present an anomalous transport model with velocity-dependent convection and diffusion coefficients leading to a diagonal transport matrix similar to that used in contemporary fluid transport models (e.g., UEDGE). Also presented are results of simulations corresponding to radial transport due to long-wavelength ExB turbulence using a velocity-independent diffusion coefficient. A BGK collision model is used to enable comparison with fluid transport codes.

  12. Jovian Auroral Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (J-AITM): Part 2. Benchmarks of the Ion Velocity Model (IVM) and the Electric Field Model (EFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egert, A.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Bell, J. M.; Goldstein, J.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Jupiter Auroral Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (J-AITM) construction in support of the Juno mission, we present benchmarks of the Electric Field Model (EFM) and the Ion Velocity Model (IVM). IVM uses the published results from Krupp et al., 2001, to constrain estimated velocities, and it is found that a modified Gaussian distribution gives a first-order approximation to the velocity flow profile. EFM calculates the magnetospheric electric fields using IVM and a magnetic field model, and then assumes magnetic flux conservation to map the electric fields into the ionosphere. These ionospheric electric fields are then used to estimate ionospheric drift velocities.

  13. USING METEOROLOGICAL MODEL OUTPUT AS A SURROGATE FOR ON-SITE OBSERVATIONS TO PREDICT DEPOSITION VELOCITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Multi-Layer Model (NOAA-MLM) is used by several operational dry deposition networks for estimating the deposition velocity of O , SO , HNO , and particles. The NOAA-MLM requires hourly values of meteorological variables and...

  14. Models for Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments Inferred from Hydraulic Permeability and Elastic Velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2008-01-01

    Elastic velocities and hydraulic permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sediments strongly depend on how gas hydrate accumulates in pore spaces and various gas hydrate accumulation models are proposed to predict physical property changes due to gas hydrate concentrations. Elastic velocities and permeability predicted from a cementation model differ noticeably from those from a pore-filling model. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log provides in-situ water-filled porosity and hydraulic permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. To test the two competing models, the NMR log along with conventional logs such as velocity and resistivity logs acquired at the Mallik 5L-38 well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada, were analyzed. When the clay content is less than about 12 percent, the NMR porosity is 'accurate' and the gas hydrate concentrations from the NMR log are comparable to those estimated from an electrical resistivity log. The variation of elastic velocities and relative permeability with respect to the gas hydrate concentration indicates that the dominant effect of gas hydrate in the pore space is the pore-filling characteristic.

  15. Evaluation of an Imputed Pitch Velocity Model of the Auditory Kappa Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Molly J.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments evaluated an imputed pitch velocity model of the auditory kappa effect. Listeners heard 3-tone sequences and judged the timing of the middle (target) tone relative to the timing of the 1st and 3rd (bounding) tones. Experiment 1 held pitch constant but varied the time (T) interval between bounding tones (T = 728, 1,000, or 1,600…

  16. Modeling the spatiotemporal organization of velocity storage in the vestibuloocular reflex by optokinetic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphan, T.; Sturm, D.; Cohen, B. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    1. A generalized three-dimensional state space model of visual vestibular interaction was developed. Matrix and dynamical system operators associated with inputs from the semicircular canals, otolith velocity estimator, and the visual system have been incorporated into the model, which focus on their relationship to the velocity storage integrator. 2. A relationship was postulated between the eigenvalues and the direction of the eigenvectors of the system matrix and the orientation of the spatial vertical. It was assumed that the system matrix for a tilted position was a composition of two linear transformations of the system matrix for the upright position. One transformation modifies the eigenvalues of the system matrix, whereas another rotates the eigenvectors of the system matrix. The pitch and roll eigenvectors rotate with the head, whereas the yaw axis eigenvector remains approximately spatially invariant. 3. Based on the three-dimensional model, a computational procedure was formulated to identify the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system matrix with the use of a modification of the marquardt algorithm. With the use of data obtained from a monkey, it was shown that the three-dimensional behavior of velocity storage cannot be predicted solely in terms of its time constants, i.e., the inverse of its eigenvalues. With the use of the same eigenvalues the data could either be fit or not fit, depending on the eigenvector directions. Therefore, it is necessary to specify eigenvector directions when characterizing velocity storage in three dimensions. 4. Parameters found with the use of the Marquardt algorithm were incorporated into the model. Diagonal matrices in a head coordinate frame were introduced for coupling the visual system to the integrator and to the direct optokinetic pathway. Simulations of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN) were run. The model predicted the behavior of yaw and pitch OKN and OKAN when the animal is

  17. Path-specific, dispersion-based velocity models and moment tensors of moderate events recorded at few distant stations: Examples from Brazil and Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Fabio; Zahradník, Jiří; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    Centroid moment tensor (CMT) determination in intraplate regions like Brazil can be very difficult, because earthquakes are often recorded just at few and distant stations. This paper introduces a methodology for datasets like that. The methodology is based on waveform inversion in which each source-station path has its own velocity model. The 1-D path-specific velocity models are derived from the Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves. The waveform inversion is accompanied by posterior check of numerous P-wave first-motion polarities. An important innovation is the use of so-called frequency range test. The test basically consists in calculating CMT's for many different frequency ranges to assess the stability and uncertainty of the solution. The method is validated on two Brazilian earthquakes and a well-known Greek event. An offshore event (mb 5.2) in SE Brazil is inverted with four stations, at epicentral distances 300-400 km. The other Brazilian earthquake (mb 4.8 in Central Brazil) is even more challenging - only two broadband stations at 800-1300 km are at disposal for waveform inversion. The paper unambiguously demonstrates that the path-specific velocity models significantly increase the reliability of the CMT's. While standard models (e.g. IASP91) typically allow waveform modeling up to epicentral distances of the order of a few (∼10) minimum shear wavelengths (MSW), using the path-specific velocity models we successfully inverted waveforms up to > 20 MSW. Single-station waveform inversions are thoroughly tested, but multi-station joint inversions are shown to be preferable. The new methodology of this paper, providing a reasonable estimate of focal mechanisms and their uncertainties in case of highly limited waveform data, may find broad applicability in Brazil and elsewhere.

  18. Relationship between Elastic wave Velocity and Permeability of Rock Model with penny-shaped cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, H.; Tsuji, T.; Matsuoka, T.

    2011-12-01

    Estimating underground fluid-flow is of great importance in petroleum engineering and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Permeability is one of the most important parameters which show how easily fluid passes through rock mass. It could be acquired just by measuring rock samples near borehole in lab-experiments. It means that permeability except near borehole should be estimated, considering other information. In this research, elastic wave velocity is focused as a tool of estimating permeability, because it is one of the most popular parameter which has underground information. The relationship between permeability and elastic wave velocities should be revealed, in order to establish a methodology to estimate rock permeability from elastic wave velocity. These two parameters are controlled by pore geometry of rock. Therefore, we focused on pore geometry as connecting bridge between the two parameters: permeability, elastic wave velocity. We modeled the considering rock as a solid mass containing a lot of same-sized penny-shaped cracks randomly. LBM (Lattice Boltzmann Method), which is one of the computational fluid dynamics methods, is adopted for calculating permeability in our study. This method has a storing point especially under complicated fluid-solid boundary condition. Elastic wave velocities are derived from effective elastic moduli (i.e., bulk modulus, stiffness). They are estimated by self-consistent approximation, which needs porosity of rock model, aspect ratio of penny-shaped cracks and volume fraction of each phase. In this research, we assume that solid phase is composed only by quartz and rock's pore space is filled with water. The simulated results demonstrate that aspect ratio of crack can be estimated by P- and S-wave velocity, and aspect ratio and P-wave velocity can determine porosity. Whereas, the relationship between porosity and permeability is dependent on aspect ratio, which means permeability can be estimated by aspect ratio and porosity

  19. UCVM: An Open Source Software Package for Querying and Visualizing 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide foundational data for ground motion simulations that calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) package for both Linux and OS X. This unique framework provides a cohesive way for querying and visualizing 3D models. UCVM v14.3.0, supports many Southern California velocity models including CVM-S4, CVM-H 11.9.1, and CVM-S4.26. The last model was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations on CVM-S4. Recently, UCVM has been used to deliver a prototype of a new 3D model of central California (CCA) also based on full-3D tomographic inversions. UCVM was used to provide initial plots of this model and will be used to deliver CCA to users when the model is publicly released. Visualizing models is also possible with UCVM. Integrated within the platform are plotting utilities that can generate 2D cross-sections, horizontal slices, and basin depth maps. UCVM can also export models in NetCDF format for easy import into IDV and ParaView. UCVM has also been prototyped to export models that are compatible with IRIS' new Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) visualization utility. This capability allows for user-specified horizontal slices and cross-sections to be plotted in the same 3D Earth space. UCVM was designed to help a wide variety of researchers. It is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. It is also used to provide the initial input to SCEC's CyberShake platform. For those interested in specific data points, the software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Also included in the last release was the ability to add small

  20. A critical examination of the maximum velocity of shortening used in simulation models of human movement.

    PubMed

    Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H

    2010-12-01

    The maximum velocity of shortening of a muscle is an important parameter in musculoskeletal models. The most commonly used values are derived from animal studies; however, these values are well above the values that have been reported for human muscle. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity of simulations of maximum vertical jumping performance to the parameters describing the force-velocity properties of muscle. Simulations performed with parameters derived from animal studies were similar to measured jump heights from previous experimental studies. While simulations performed with parameters derived from human muscle were much lower than previously measured jump heights. If current measurements of maximum shortening velocity in human muscle are correct, a compensating error must exist. Of the possible compensating errors that could produce this discrepancy, it was concluded that reduced muscle fibre excursion is the most likely candidate.

  1. Modeling and simulation of continuous wave velocity radar based on third-order DPLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Yan; Zhu, Chen; Hong, Ma

    2015-02-01

    Second-order digital phase-locked-loop (DPLL) is widely used in traditional Continuous wave (CW) velocity radar with poor performance in high dynamic conditions. Using the third-order DPLL can improve the performance. Firstly, the echo signal model of CW radar is given. Secondly, theoretical derivations of the tracking performance in different velocity conditions are given. Finally, simulation model of CW radar is established based on Simulink tool. Tracking performance of the two kinds of DPLL in different acceleration and jerk conditions is studied by this model. The results show that third-order PLL has better performance in high dynamic conditions. This model provides a platform for further research of CW radar.

  2. Elastic-wave velocity in marine sediments with gas hydrates: Effective medium modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgerud, M.B.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A.; Sakai, A.; Collett, T.

    1999-01-01

    We offer a first-principle-based effective medium model for elastic-wave velocity in unconsolidated, high porosity, ocean bottom sediments containing gas hydrate. The dry sediment frame elastic constants depend on porosity, elastic moduli of the solid phase, and effective pressure. Elastic moduli of saturated sediment are calculated from those of the dry frame using Gassmann's equation. To model the effect of gas hydrate on sediment elastic moduli we use two separate assumptions: (a) hydrate modifies the pore fluid elastic properties without affecting the frame; (b) hydrate becomes a component of the solid phase, modifying the elasticity of the frame. The goal of the modeling is to predict the amount of hydrate in sediments from sonic or seismic velocity data. We apply the model to sonic and VSP data from ODP Hole 995 and obtain hydrate concentration estimates from assumption (b) consistent with estimates obtained from resistivity, chlorinity and evolved gas data. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Velocity Measurements Near the Empennage of a SmallScale Helicopter Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Meyers, James F.; Berry, John D.

    1996-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to measure the flow near the empennage of a small-scale powered helicopter model with an operating tail fan. Three-component velocity profiles were measured with Laser Velocimetry (LV) one chord forward of the horizontal tail for four advance ratios to evaluate the effect of the rotor wake impingement on the horizontal tail angle of attack. These velocity data indicate the horizontal tail can experience unsteady downwash angle variations of over 30 degrees due to the rotor wake influence. The horizontal tail is most affected by the rotor wake above advance ratios of 0.10. Velocity measurements of the flow on the inlet side of the fan were made for a low-speed flight condition using both conventional LV techniques and a promising, non-intrusive, global, three-component velocity measurement technique called Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The velocity data show an accelerated flow near the fan duct, and vorticity calculations track the passage of main rotor wake vortices through the measurement plane. DGV shows promise as an evolving tool for rotor flowfield diagnostics.

  4. Dynamics of velocity gradient invariants in turbulence: Restricted Euler and linear diffusion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Jesús; Dopazo, César; Valiño, Luis

    1998-08-01

    A complete system of dynamical equations for the invariants of the velocity gradient, the strain rate, and the rate-of-rotation tensors is deduced for an incompressible flow. The equations for the velocity gradient invariants R and Q were first deduced by Cantwell [Phys. Fluids A 4, 782 (1992)] in terms of Hij, the tensor containing the anisotropic part of the pressure Hessian and the viscous diffusion term in the velocity gradient equation. These equations are extended here for the strain rate tensor invariants, RS and QS, and for the rate-of-rotation tensor invariant, QW, using HijS and HijW, the symmetric and the skew-symmetric parts of Hij, respectively. In order to obtain a complete system, an equation for the square of the vortex stretching vector, Vi≡Sijωj, is required. The resulting dynamical system of invariants is closed using a simple model for the velocity gradient evolution: an isotropic approximation for the pressure term and a linear model for the viscous diffusion term. The local topology and the resulting statistics implied by this model reproduce a number of trends similar to known results from numerical experiments for the small scales of turbulence.

  5. Three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurber, C.H.; Brocher, T.M.; Zhang, H.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    A new three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay region has been derived using the double-difference seismic tomography method, using data from about 5,500 chemical explosions or air gun blasts and approximately 6,000 earthquakes. The model region covers 140 km NE-SW by 240 km NW-SE, extending from 20 km south of Monterey to Santa Rosa and reaching from the Pacific coast to the edge of the Great Valley. Our model provides the first regional view of a number of basement highs that are imaged in the uppermost few kilometers of the model, and images a number of velocity anomaly lows associated with known Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the study area. High velocity (Vp > 6.5 km/s) features at ???15-km depth beneath part of the edge of the Great Valley and along the San Francisco peninsula are interpreted as ophiolite bodies. The relocated earthquakes provide a clear picture of the geometry of the major faults in the region, illuminating fault dips that are generally consistent with previous studies. Ninety-five percent of the earthquakes have depths between 2.3 and 15.2 km, and the corresponding seismic velocities at the hypocenters range from 4.8 km/s (presumably corresponding to Franciscan basement or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Sequence) to 6.8 km/s. The top of the seismogenic zone is thus largely controlled by basement depth, but the base of the seismogenic zone is not restricted to seismic velocities of ???6.3 km/s in this region, as had been previously proposed. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Comparison of solar wind velocity measurements with a theoretical acceleration model

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, W.A. ); Esser, R. ); Loevhaug, U.P. ); Markkanen, J. )

    1991-08-01

    Interplanetary radio scintillation (IPS) measurements of the solar wind velocity were made using the receiving antennas of the European Incoherent Scatter Facility (EISCAT) radar system in northern Scandinavia from June through October 1990. The observations, which cover the distance range from 11 to 90 R{sub s} from Sun center, were taken with sufficient density to measure the same stream at two (or more) different distances. The deduced velocities are in the range 100 {approx lt} U {approx lt} 540 km s{sup {minus}1}. The authors selected from 192 observations, 16 examples of streams observed with good radial alignment, of which 12 were observed unchanged for several days. The measured velocities are compared with calculations based on a two-fluid solar wind model with Alfven waves. In eight cases the measurements are in good agreement with the model when a moderate amount of wave energy is added to the flow. In four cases the observed streams show low or moderate velocities below, say, 20 R{sub s} but then accelerate fast at larger distances from the Sun. This delayed acceleration is much steeper than the acceleration in the model at these distances. In the remaining four cases the streams seem to reach their final velocities much closer to the base than in other cases, and they are not observed to accelerate much between 10 and 90 R{sub s}. At these distances all related solar wind models they have seen give the same results; they all fit half the data, and none can fit the other half.

  7. Development of a State-Wide 3-D Seismic Tomography Velocity Model for California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, C. H.; Lin, G.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.; Waldhauser, F.; Hardebeck, J.; Brocher, T.

    2007-12-01

    We report on progress towards the development of a state-wide tomographic model of the P-wave velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle of California. The dataset combines first arrival times from earthquakes and quarry blasts recorded on regional network stations and travel times of first arrivals from explosions and airguns recorded on profile receivers and network stations. The principal active-source datasets are Geysers-San Pablo Bay, Imperial Valley, Livermore, W. Mojave, Gilroy-Coyote Lake, Shasta region, Great Valley, Morro Bay, Mono Craters-Long Valley, PACE, S. Sierras, LARSE 1 and 2, Loma Prieta, BASIX, San Francisco Peninsula and Parkfield. Our beta-version model is coarse (uniform 30 km horizontal and variable vertical gridding) but is able to image the principal features in previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, such as the high-velocity subducting Gorda Plate, upper to middle crustal velocity highs beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Coast Ranges, the deep low-velocity basins of the Great Valley, Ventura, and Los Angeles, and a high- velocity body in the lower crust underlying the Great Valley. The new state-wide model has improved areal coverage compared to the previous models, and extends to greater depth due to the data at large epicentral distances. We plan a series of steps to improve the model. We are enlarging and calibrating the active-source dataset as we obtain additional picks from investigators and perform quality control analyses on the existing and new picks. We will also be adding data from more quarry blasts, mainly in northern California, following an identification and calibration procedure similar to Lin et al. (2006). Composite event construction (Lin et al., in press) will be carried out for northern California for use in conventional tomography. A major contribution of the state-wide model is the identification of earthquakes yielding arrival times at both the Northern California Seismic

  8. Crustal Velocity Model of Watusi Data Integrated With Legacy Data, Clark County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza, S. A.; Snelson, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Las Vegas Valley, Nevada is located in the central Basin and Range Province, about 100 km southeast of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Las Vegas sits atop a basin up to 5 km deep (Langenheim et al., 2001) that has been shown to amplify energy from strong ground motion (Su et al., 1998). Rapid population growth has led to concerns that future nuclear testing at NTS may pose a hazard from strong ground motion. Studies performed when nuclear testing was ongoing were limited to the central basin and were insufficient to adequately assess ground motion hazard for the entire Valley. In September 2002, 400 single-channel seismic recorders were deployed to record a chemical blast (Watusi) at NTS. Forward modeling of these data as well as Legacy data from the 1960s (Prodehl, 1979) produced a 268 km two-dimensional crustal velocity model from Kingman, Arizona to NTS with higher resolution than the previous model. Crustal velocities range from 3.5 to 6.2 km/s. Velocities at the Moho range from 7.9-8.0 km/s. Crustal depth ranges from 28-29 km near Kingman to 33-34 km near NTS. A structural feature in model space at 12-15 km underneath Indian Springs, Nevada appears to focus seismic energy into the Las Vegas basin, and may pose a significant seismic hazard. The feature has a dip in model space of 45º toward the southeast. A density model was also produced and tied to the velocity model. The density model is consistent with the velocity model, confirming crustal depth ranges from 28-29 km near Kingman to 33-34 km near NTS. The density model also confirms the 45º southeast-dipping structural feature and indicates the location of a mafic body in model space at a depth of 5-12 km beneath the Las Vegas Basin. Possible interpretations of the dipping structure include a relict thrust or metamorphic core complex. However, these interpretations are difficult due to the steep dip angle of the feature, and more evidence would be needed to verify one of these conclusions. A more likely

  9. Comparative Experimental and Modeling Study of Fluid Velocities in Heterogeneous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingerl, F.; Romanenko, K.; Pini, R.; Balcom, B.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of fluid velocities and effective porosities in rocks is crucial for predicting kinetic reaction rates and fluid-rock interactions in a plethora of geo-engineering applications, ranging from geothermal systems, Enhanced Oil Recovery to Carbon Capture and Storage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging can be used to measure spatially resolved porosities and fluid velocities in porous media. Large internal field gradients and short spin relaxation times, however, constrain the usability of the conventional MRI technique in natural rock samples. The combination of three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) and the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme - a method developed at the UNB MRI Center - is able to compensate for those challenges and quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities can be obtained. In this study we measured velocities and porosities using MRI in a sandstone rock sample showing meso-scale heterogeneities. Then we generated permeabilities using three independent approaches, employed them to model single-phase fluid flow in the measured rock sample and compared the generated velocity maps with the respective MRI measurements. For the first modeling approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to create a permeability map based on porosities measured using MRI. For the second approach we used permeabilities derived from CO2-H2O multi-phase experiments performed in the same rock sample assuming the validity of the J-Leverett function. The permeabilities in the third approach were generated by applying a new inverse iterative-updating technique. The resulting three permeability maps were then used as input for a CFD simulation - using the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to create a respective velocity map, which in turn was then compared to the measured velocity map. The results of the different independent methods for generating

  10. Cluster statistics and quasisoliton dynamics in microscopic optimal-velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Xu, Xihua; Pang, John Z. F.; Monterola, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Using the non-linear optimal velocity models as an example, we show that there exists an emergent intrinsic scale that characterizes the interaction strength between multiple clusters appearing in the solutions of such models. The interaction characterizes the dynamics of the localized quasisoliton structures given by the time derivative of the headways, and the intrinsic scale is analogous to the "charge" of the quasisolitons, leading to non-trivial cluster statistics from the random perturbations to the initial steady states of uniform headways. The cluster statistics depend both on the quasisoliton charge and the density of the traffic. The intrinsic scale is also related to an emergent quantity that gives the extremum headways in the cluster formation, as well as the coexistence curve separating the absolute stable phase from the metastable phase. The relationship is qualitatively universal for general optimal velocity models.

  11. The isolated head model of the plasma bullet/streamer propagation: electric field-velocity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sretenović, Goran B.; Krstić, Ivan B.; Kovačević, Vesna V.; Obradović, Bratislav M.; Kuraica, Milorad M.

    2014-09-01

    A model of the isolated streamer head based on Meek's criterion of the avalanche to streamer transition is applied for description of the plasma bullet propagation in a helium/air admixture. According to the model previously proposed by Kulikovsky for streamers in air, along with the knowledge of one of three parameters: electric field, ionization integral or the width of the space charge layer, the other two parameters could be determined. Furthermore, using the streamer current or radius, it is possible to determine the electric field-streamer velocity functional dependence. Obtained results showed satisfactory agreement with both the results of the fluid model from the literature and the experimental results of plasma jet studies. Finally, for the sake of comparison, streamer velocity dependence on the electric field strength range of 10-250 kV cm-1 is determined for helium, argon and air.

  12. Regional three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle of northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurber, C.; Zhang, H.; Brocher, T.; Langenheim, V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic model of the P wave velocity (Vp) structure of northern California. We employed a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm that incorporates a finite-difference travel time calculator and spatial smoothing constraints. Arrival times from earthquakes and travel times from controlled-source explosions, recorded at network and/or temporary stations, were inverted for Vp on a 3D grid with horizontal node spacing of 10 to 20 km and vertical node spacing of 3 to 8 km. Our model provides an unprecedented, comprehensive view of the regional-scale structure of northern California, putting many previously identified features into a broader regional context and improving the resolution of a number of them and revealing a number of new features, especially in the middle and lower crust, that have never before been reported. Examples of the former include the complex subducting Gorda slab, a steep, deeply penetrating fault beneath the Sacramento River Delta, crustal low-velocity zones beneath Geysers-Clear Lake and Long Valley, and the high-velocity ophiolite body underlying the Great Valley. Examples of the latter include mid-crustal low-velocity zones beneath Mount Shasta and north of Lake Tahoe. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Regional three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle of northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Clifford; Zhang, Haijiang; Brocher, Thomas; Langenheim, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic model of the P wave velocity (Vp) structure of northern California. We employed a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm that incorporates a finite-difference travel time calculator and spatial smoothing constraints. Arrival times from earthquakes and travel times from controlled-source explosions, recorded at network and/or temporary stations, were inverted for Vp on a 3D grid with horizontal node spacing of 10 to 20 km and vertical node spacing of 3 to 8 km. Our model provides an unprecedented, comprehensive view of the regional-scale structure of northern California, putting many previously identified features into a broader regional context and improving the resolution of a number of them and revealing a number of new features, especially in the middle and lower crust, that have never before been reported. Examples of the former include the complex subducting Gorda slab, a steep, deeply penetrating fault beneath the Sacramento River Delta, crustal low-velocity zones beneath Geysers-Clear Lake and Long Valley, and the high-velocity ophiolite body underlying the Great Valley. Examples of the latter include mid-crustal low-velocity zones beneath Mount Shasta and north of Lake Tahoe.

  14. A comparison of measured and modeled velocity fields for a laminar flow in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. D.; Apte, S. V.; Liburdy, J. A.; Ziazi, R. M.; He, X.; Finn, J. R.; Patil, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Obtaining highly-resolved velocity data from experimental measurements in porous media is a significant challenge. The goal of this work is to compare the velocity fields measured in a randomly-packed porous medium obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) with corresponding fields predicted from direct numerical simulation (DNS). Experimentally, the porous medium was comprised of 15 mm diameter spherical beads made of optical glass placed in a glass flow cell to create the packed bed. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate was refractive-index matched to the glass creating a medium that could be illuminated with a laser sheet without distortion. The bead center locations were quantified using the imaging system so that the geometry of the porous medium was known very accurately. Two-dimensional PIV data were collected and processed to provide high-resolution velocity fields at a single plane within the porous medium. A Cartesian-grid-based fictitious domain approach was adopted for the direct numerical simulation of flow through the same geometry as the experimental measurements and without any adjustable parameters. The uncertainties associated with characterization of the pore geometry, PIV measurements, and DNS predictions were all systematically quantified. Although uncertainties in bead position measurements led to minor discrepancies in the comparison of the velocity fields, the axial and normal velocity deviations exhibited normalized root mean squared deviations (NRMSD) of only 11.32% and 4.74%, respectively. The high fidelity of both the experimental and numerical methods have significant implications for understanding and even for engineering the micro-macro relationship in porous materials. The ability to measure and model sub-pore-scale flow features also has relevance to the development of upscaled models for flow in porous media, where physically reasonable closure models must be developed at the sub-pore scale. These results provide valuable data

  15. Validating 3D Seismic Velocity Models Using the Spectral Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceira, M.; Rowe, C. A.; Allen, R. M.; Obrebski, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    As seismic instrumentation, data storage and dissemination and computational power improve, seismic velocity models attempt to resolve smaller structures and cover larger areas. However, it is unclear how accurate these velocity models are and, while the best models available are used for event determination, it is difficult to put uncertainties on seismic event parameters. Model validation is typically done using resolution tests that assume the imaging theory used is accurate and thus only considers the impact of the data coverage on resolution. We present the results of a more rigorous approach to model validation via full three-dimensional waveform propagation using Spectral Element Methods (SEM). This approach makes no assumptions about the theory used to generate the models but require substantial computational resources. We first validate 3D tomographic models for the Western USA generated using both ray-theoretical and finite-frequency methods. The Dynamic North America (DNA) Models of P- and S- velocity structure (DNA09-P and DNA09-S) use teleseismic body-wave traveltime residuals recorded at over 800 seismic stations provided by the Earthscope USArray and regional seismic networks. We performed systematic computations of synthetics for the dataset used to generate the DNA models. Direct comparison of these synthetic seismograms to the actual observations allows us to accurately assess and validate the models. Implementation of the method for a densely instrumented region such as that covered by the DNA model provides a useful testbed for the validation methods that we will subsequently apply to other, more challenging study areas.

  16. Three-dimensional models of P wave velocity and P-to-S velocity ratio in the southern central Andes by simultaneous inversion of local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeber, Frank M.; Asch, Günter

    1999-09-01

    The PISCO'94 (Proyecto de Investigatión Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental, 1994) seismological network of 31 digital broad band and short-period three-component seismometers was deployed in northern Chile between the Coastal Cordillera and the Western Cordillera. More than 5300 local seismic events were observed in a 100 day period. A subset of high-quality P and S arrival time data was used to invert simultaneously for hypocenters and velocity structure. Additional data from two other networks in the region could be included. The velocity models show a number of prominent anomalies, outlining an extremely thickened crust (about 70 km) beneath the forearc region, an anomalous crustal structure beneath the recent magmatic arc (Western Cordillera) characterized by very low velocities, and a high-velocity slab. A region of an increased Vp/Vs ratio has been found directly above the Wadati-Benioff zone, which might be caused by hydration processes. A zone of lower than average velocities and a high Vp/Vs ratio might correspond to the asthenospheric wedge. The upper edge of the Wadati-Benioff zone is sharply defined by intermediate depth hypocenters, while evidence for a double seismic zone can hardly be seen. Crustal events between the Precordillera and the Western Cordillera have been observed for the first time and are mainly located in the vicinity of the Salar de Atacama down to depths of about 40 km.

  17. Detailed Velocity and Density models of the Cascadia Subduction Zone from Prestack Full-Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Mallick, S.; Everson, E. D.; Tobin, H. J.; Keranen, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the geologic composition of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) is critically important in assessing seismic hazards in the Pacific Northwest. Despite being a potential earthquake and tsunami threat to millions of people, key details of the structure and fault mechanisms remain poorly understood in the CSZ. In particular, the position and character of the subduction interface remains elusive due to its relative aseismicity and low seismic reflectivity, making imaging difficult for both passive and active source methods. Modern active-source reflection seismic data acquired as part of the COAST project in 2012 provide an opportunity to study the transition from the Cascadia basin, across the deformation front, and into the accretionary prism. Coupled with advances in seismic inversion methods, this new data allow us to produce detailed velocity models of the CSZ and accurate pre-stack depth migrations for studying geologic structure. While still computationally expensive, current computing clusters can perform seismic inversions at resolutions that match that of the seismic image itself. Here we present pre-stack full waveform inversions of the central seismic line of the COAST survey offshore Washington state. The resultant velocity model is produced by inversion at every CMP location, 6.25 m laterally, with vertical resolution of 0.2 times the dominant seismic frequency. We report a good average correlation value above 0.8 across the entire seismic line, determined by comparing synthetic gathers to the real pre-stack gathers. These detailed velocity models, both Vp and Vs, along with the density model, are a necessary step toward a detailed porosity cross section to be used to determine the role of fluids in the CSZ. Additionally, the P-velocity model is used to produce a pre-stack depth migration image of the CSZ.

  18. Complete regional waveform modeling to estimate seismic velocity structure and source parameters for CTBT monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bredbeck, T; Rodgers, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    The velocity structures and source parameters estimated by waveform modeling provide valuable information for CTBT monitoring. The inferred crustal and uppermost mantle structures advance understanding of tectonics and guides regionalization for event location and identification efforts. Estimation of source parameters such as seismic moment, depth and mechanism (whether earthquake, explosion or collapse) is crucial to event identification. In this paper we briefly outline some of the waveform modeling research for CTBT monitoring performed in the last year. In the future we will estimate structure for new regions by modeling waveforms of large well-observed events along additional paths. Of particular interest will be the estimation of velocity structure in aseismic regions such as most of Africa and the Former Soviet Union. Our previous work on aseismic regions in the Middle East, north Africa and south Asia give us confidence to proceed with our current methods. Using the inferred velocity models we plan to estimate source parameters for smaller events. It is especially important to obtain seismic moments of earthquakes for use in applying the Magnitude-Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC; Taylor et al., 1999) to regional body-wave amplitudes for discrimination and calibrating the coda-based magnitude scales.

  19. Towards a Rational Model for the Triple Velocity Correlations of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younis, B. A.; Gatski, T. B.; Speziale, C. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a rational approach to modelling the triple velocity correlations that appear in the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. All existing models of these correlations have largely been formulated on phenomenological grounds and are defective in one important aspect: they all neglect to allow for the dependence of these correlations on the local gradients of mean velocity. The mathematical necessity for this dependence will be demonstrated in the paper. The present contribution lies in the novel use of Group Representation Theory to determine the most general tensorial form of these correlations in terms of all the second- and third-order tensor quantities that appear in the exact equations that govern their evolution. The requisite representation did not exist in the literature and therefore had to be developed specifically for this purpose by Professor G. F. Smith. The outcome of this work is a mathematical framework for the construction of algebraic, explicit, and rational models for the triple velocity correlations that are theoretically consistent and include all the correct dependencies. Previous models are reviewed, and all are shown to be an incomplete subset of this new representation, even to lowest order.

  20. Engineering model for low-velocity impacts of multi-material cylinder on a rigid boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchely, M. F.; Maranon, A.; Delvare, F.

    2012-08-01

    Modern ballistic problems involve the impact of multi-material projectiles. In order to model the impact phenomenon, different levels of analysis can be developed: empirical, engineering and simulation models. Engineering models are important because they allow the understanding of the physical phenomenon of the impact materials. However, some simplifications can be assumed to reduce the number of variables. For example, some engineering models have been developed to approximate the behavior of single cylinders when impacts a rigid surface. However, the cylinder deformation depends of its instantaneous velocity. At this work, an analytical model is proposed for modeling the behavior of a unique cylinder composed of two different metals cylinders over a rigid surface. Material models are assumed as rigid-perfectly plastic. Differential equation systems are solved using a numerical Runge-Kutta method. Results are compared with computational simulations using AUTODYN 2D hydrocode. It was found a good agreement between engineering model and simulation results. Model is limited by the impact velocity which is transition at the interface point given by the hydro dynamical pressure proposed by Tate.

  1. Assessing waveform predictions of recent three-dimensional velocity models of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xueyang; Shen, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate velocity models are essential for both the determination of earthquake locations and source moments and the interpretation of Earth structures. With the increasing number of three-dimensional velocity models, it has become necessary to assess the models for accuracy in predicting seismic observations. Six models of the crustal and uppermost mantle structures in Tibet and surrounding regions are investigated in this study. Regional Rayleigh and Pn (or Pnl) waveforms from two ground truth events, including one nuclear explosion and one natural earthquake located in the study area, are simulated by using a three-dimensional finite-difference method. Synthetics are compared to observed waveforms in multiple period bands of 20-75 s for Rayleigh waves and 1-20 s for Pn/Pnl waves. The models are evaluated based on the phase delays and cross-correlation coefficients between synthetic and observed waveforms. A model generated from full-wave ambient noise tomography best predicts Rayleigh waves throughout the data set, as well as Pn/Pnl waves traveling from the Tarim Basin to the stations located in central Tibet. In general, the models constructed from P wave tomography are not well suited to predict Rayleigh waves, and vice versa. Possible causes of the differences between observed and synthetic waveforms, and frequency-dependent variations of the "best matching" models with the smallest prediction errors are discussed. This study suggests that simultaneous prediction for body and surface waves requires an integrated velocity model constructed with multiple seismic waveforms and consideration of other important properties, such as anisotropy.

  2. Numerical Modelling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Laminates Subjected to a Low Velocity Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J. Y.; Guana, Z. W.; Cantwell, W. J.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a series of numerical predictions of the perforation behaviour of glass fibre laminates subjected to quasi-static and low-velocity impact loading. Both shear and tensile failure criteria were used in the finite element models to simulate the post-failure processes via an automatic element removal procedure. The appropriate material properties, obtained through a series of uniaxial tension and bending tests on the composites, were used in the numerical models. Four, eight and sixteen ply glass fibre laminates panels were perforated at quasi-static rates and under low-velocity impact loading. Reasonably good correlation was obtained between the numerical simulations and the experimental results, both in terms of the failure modes and the load-deflection relationships before and during the penetration phase. The predicted impact energies of the GFRP panels were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was observed.

  3. Analytical modeling of helicopter static and dynamic induced velocity in GRASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Donald L.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    1988-01-01

    The methodology used by the General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP) to model the characteristics of the flow through a helicopter rotor in hovering or axial flight is described. Since the induced flow plays a significant role in determining the aeroelastic properties of rotorcraft, the computation of the induced flow is an important aspect of the program. Because of the combined finite-element/multibody methodology used as the basis for GRASP, the implementation of induced velocity calculations presented an unusual challenge to the developers. To preserve the modelling flexibility and generality of the code, it was necessary to depart from the traditional methods of computing the induced velocity. This is accomplished by calculating the actuator disk contributions to the rotor loads in a separate element called the air mass element, and then performing the calculations of the aerodynamic forces on individual blade elements within the aeroelastic beam element.

  4. Analytical modeling of helicopter static and dynamic induced velocity in GRASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Donald L.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    1987-01-01

    The methodology used by the General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP) to model the characteristics of the flow through a helicopter rotor in hovering or axial flight is described. Since the induced flow plays a significant role in determining the aeroelastic properties of rotorcraft, the computation of the induced flow is an important aspect of the program. Because of the combined finite-element/multibody methodology used as the basis for GRASP, the implementation of induced velocity calculations presented an unusual challenge to the developers. To preserve the modelling flexibility and generality of the code, it was necessary to depart from the traditional methods of computing the induced velocity. This is accomplished by calculating the actuator disc contributions to the rotor loads in a separate element called the air mass element, and then performing the calculations of the aerodynamic forces on individual blade elements within the aeroelastic beam element.

  5. Numerical Modelling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Laminates Subjected to a Low Velocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. Y.; Guana, Z. W.; Cantwell, W. J.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a series of numerical predictions of the perforation behaviour of glass fibre laminates subjected to quasi-static and low-velocity impact loading. Both shear and tensile failure criteria were used in the finite element models to simulate the post-failure processes via an automatic element removal procedure. The appropriate material properties, obtained through a series of uniaxial tension and bending tests on the composites, were used in the numerical models. Four, eight and sixteen ply glass fibre laminates panels were perforated at quasi-static rates and under low-velocity impact loading. Reasonably good correlation was obtained between the numerical simulations and the experimental results, both in terms of the failure modes and the load-deflection relationships before and during the penetration phase. The predicted impact energies of the GFRP panels were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was observed.

  6. A Microscopic “Social Norm” Model to Obtain Realistic Macroscopic Velocity and Density Pedestrian Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Kanda, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    We propose a way to introduce in microscopic pedestrian models a “social norm” in collision avoiding and overtaking, i.e. the tendency, shared by pedestrians belonging to the same culture, to avoid collisions and perform overtaking in a preferred direction. The “social norm” is implemented, regardless of the specific collision avoiding model, as a rotation in the perceived velocity vector of the opponent at the moment of computation of the collision avoiding strategy, and justified as an expectation that the opponent will follow the same “social norm” (for example a tendency to avoid on the left and overtake on the right, as proposed in this work for Japanese pedestrians). By comparing with real world data, we show that the introduction of this norm allows for a better reproduction of macroscopic pedestrian density and velocity patterns. PMID:23227202

  7. Quantitative explanation of circuit experiments and real traffic using the optimal velocity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Macoto; Shibata, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Yukawa, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    We have experimentally confirmed that the occurrence of a traffic jam is a dynamical phase transition (Tadaki et al 2013 New J. Phys. 15 103034, Sugiyama et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 033001). In this study, we investigate whether the optimal velocity (OV) model can quantitatively explain the results of experiments. The occurrence and non-occurrence of jammed flow in our experiments agree with the predictions of the OV model. We also propose a scaling rule for the parameters of the model. Using this rule, we obtain critical density as a function of a single parameter. The obtained critical density is consistent with the observed values for highway traffic.

  8. Velocity and pressure characteristics of a model SSME high pressure fuel turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, D. G-N.; Sabnis, J. S.; Mcdonald, H.

    1991-01-01

    Under the present effort an experiment rig has been constructed, an instrumentation package developed and a series of mean and rms velocity and pressure measurements made in a turbopump which modelled the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. The rig was designed so as to allow initial experiments with a single configuration consisting of a bell-mouth inlet, a flight impeller, a vaneless diffuser and a volute. Allowance was made for components such as inlet guide vanes, exit guide vanes, downstream pumps, etc. to be added in future experiments. This flexibility will provide a clear baseline set of experiments and allow evaluation in later experiments of the effect of adding specific components upon the pump performance properties. The rotational speed of the impeller was varied between 4260 and 7680 rpm which covered the range of scaled SSME rotation speeds when due allowance is made for the differing stagnation temperature, model to full scale. The results at the inlet obtained with rotational speeds of 4260, 6084 and 7680 rpm showed that the axial velocity at the bell-mouth inlet remained roughly constant at 2.2 of the bulk velocity at the exit of the turbopump near the center of the inlet, but it decreased rapidly with increasing radius at all three speeds. Reverse flow occurred at a radius greater than 0.9 R for all three speeds and the maximum negative velocity reduced from 1.3 of the bulk velocity at the exit of the turbopump at 4260 rpm to 0.35 at 7680 rpm, suggesting that operating at a speed closer to the design condition of 8700 rpm improved the inlet characteristics. The reverse flow caused positive prerotation at the impeller inlet which was negligibly small near the center but reached 0.7 of the impeller speed at the outer annulus. The results in the diffuser and the volute obtained at 7680 rpm show that the hub and shroud walls of the diffuser were characterized by regions of transient reverse flow with

  9. Unsteady Velocity Measurements Taken Behind a Model Helicopter Rotor Hub in Forward Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Drag caused by separated flow behind the hub of a helicopter has an adverse effect on aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. To determine the effect of separated flow on a configuration used extensively for helicopter aerodynamic investigations, an experiment was conducted using a laser velocimeter to measure velocities in the wake of a model helicopter hub operating at Mach-scaled conditions in forward flight. Velocity measurements were taken using a laser velocimeter with components in the vertical and downstream directions. Measurements were taken at 13 stations downstream from the rotor hub. At each station, measurements were taken in both a horizontal and vertical row of locations. These measurements were analyzed for harmonic content based on the rotor period of revolution. After accounting for these periodic velocities, the remaining unsteady velocities were treated as turbulence. Turbulence intensity distributions are presented. Average turbulent intensities ranged from approximately 2 percent of free stream to over 15 percent of free stream at specific locations and azimuths. The maximum average value of turbulence was located near the rear-facing region of the fuselage.

  10. A dynamic model for the turbulent burning velocity for large eddy simulation of premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, E.; Pitsch, H.

    2008-09-15

    Turbulent premixed combustion is particularly difficult to describe using large eddy simulation (LES). In LES, premixed flame structures typically exist on subfilter length scales. Consequently, premixed LES models must be capable of describing how completely unresolved flame structures propagate under the influence of completely unresolved eddies. This description is usually accomplished through the implementation of a model for the turbulent burning velocity. Here, a dynamic model for describing the turbulent burning velocity in the context of LES is presented. This model uses a new surface filtering procedure that is consistent with standard LES filtering. Additionally, it only uses information that comes directly from the flame front. This latter attribute is important for two reasons. First, it guarantees that the model can be consistently applied when level set methods, where arbitrary constraints can be imposed on field variables away from fronts, are used to track the flame. Second, it forces the model to recognize that the physics governing flame front propagation are only valid locally at the front. Results showing model validation in the context of direct numerical simulation (DNS), and model application in the context of LES, are presented. (author)

  11. The influence of bus stop on traffic flow with velocity-difference-separation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei; Ge, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    Based on velocity-difference-separation model, the mixed traffic flow on two-lane road is investigated. For a fixed road length, the influence of bus and bus stops on traffic flow is studied with the increasing traffic density. Compared with the result without bus stops given by Li et al., a new traffic state is found, which is valuable for studying the impacts of public transport on urban traffic flow.

  12. Modeling of integrated sunlight velocity measurements: The effect of surface darkening by magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Henney, C. J.; Schimpf, S.; Fossat, E.; Gelly, B.; Grec, G.; Loudagh, S.; Schmider, F.-X; Palle, P.; Regulo, C.

    1993-01-01

    It has been known since the work by Claverie et al. (1982) that integrated-sunlight velocities measured with the resonance scattering technique show variations with time scales of weeks to months. The cause can be understood in terms of the effects of solar activity as was pointed out by Edmunds & Gough (1983) and Andersen & Maltby (1983). The latter authors included a model calculation based on sunspot areas which showed good promise of being able to quantitatively reproduce the observed velocity shifts. We discuss in this paper a new modeling effort based on daily magnetograms obtained at the 150-ft tower on Mt. Wilson. This type of database is more quantitative than sunspot area. Similar maps of magnetically sensitive quantities will be measured on a continuous time base as part of several planned helioseismology experiments (from space with the Solar Oscillations Imagery/Michelson Doppler Imager (SOI/MDI) experiment on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), see Scherrer et al. (1991) or with ground-based networks, see Hill & Leibacher (1991)). We discuss the correlations between various magnetically sensitive quantities and develop a new model for the effects of magnetic field on line profiles and surface brightness. From these correlations we integrate the line profile changes over the solar surface using observed magnetic field strengths measured at lambda 5250.2. The final output is a new model for the effects of magnetic fields on integrated sunlight velocities which we compare with daily offset velocities derived from the International Research on the Interior of the Sun (IRIS)-T instrument at the Observatorio del Teide.

  13. Uncertainty estimation of the velocity model for stations of the TrigNet GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackl, M.; Malservisi, R.; Hugentobler, U.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite based geodetic techniques - above all GPS - provide an outstanding tool to measure crustal motions. They are widely used to derive geodetic velocity models that are applied in geodynamics to determine rotations of tectonic blocks, to localize active geological features, and to estimate rheological properties of the crust and the underlying asthenosphere. However, it is not a trivial task to derive GPS velocities and their uncertainties from positioning time series. In general time series are assumed to be represented by linear models (sometimes offsets, annual, and semi-annual signals are included) and noise. It has been shown that error models accounting only for white noise tend to underestimate the uncertainties of rates derived from long time series and that different colored noise components (flicker noise, random walk, etc.) need to be considered. However, a thorough error analysis including power spectra analyses and maximum likelihood estimates is computationally expensive and is usually not carried out for every site, but the uncertainties are scaled by latitude dependent factors. Analyses of the South Africa continuous GPS network TrigNet indicate that the scaled uncertainties overestimate the velocity errors. So we applied a method similar to the Allan Variance that is commonly used in the estimation of clock uncertainties and is able to account for time dependent probability density functions (colored noise) to the TrigNet time series. Comparisons with synthetic data show that the noise can be represented quite well by a power law model in combination with a seasonal signal in agreement with previous studies, which allows for a reliable estimation of the velocity error. Finally, we compared these estimates to the results obtained by spectral analyses using CATS. Small differences may originate from non-normal distribution of the noise.

  14. HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R; Gok, R; Pasyanos, M; Skobeltsyn, G; Teoman, U; Godoladze, T; Sandvol, E

    2008-07-01

    The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Using data from 25 broadband stations located in the region, new estimates of crustal and upper mantle thickness, velocity structure, and attenuation are being developed. Receiver functions have been determined for all stations. Depth to Moho is estimated using slant stacking of the receiver functions, forward modeling, and inversion. Moho depths along the Caspian and in the Kura Depression are in general poorly constrained using only receiver functions due to thick sedimentary basin sediments. The best fitting models suggest a low velocity upper crust with Moho depths ranging from 30 to 40 km. Crustal thicknesses increase in the Greater Caucasus with Moho depths of 40 to 50 km. Pronounced variations with azimuth of source are observed indicating 3D structural complexity and upper crustal velocities are higher than in the Kura Depression to the south. In the Lesser Caucasus, south and west of the Kura Depression, the crust is thicker (40 to 50 km) and upper crustal velocities are higher. Work is underway to refine these models with the event based surface wave dispersion and ambient noise correlation measurements from continuous data. Regional phase (Lg and Pg) attenuation models as well as blockage maps for Pn and Sn are being developed. Two methods are used to estimate Q: the two-station method to estimate inter-station Q and the reversed, two-station, two event method. The results are then inverted to create Lg and Pg Q maps. Initial results suggest substantial variations in both Pg and Lg Q in the region. A zone of higher Pg Q extends west from the Caspian between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus and a narrow area of higher Lg Q is observed.

  15. Hindrance Velocity Model for Phase Segregation in Suspensions of Poly-dispersed Randomly Oriented Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faroughi, S. A.; Huber, C.

    2015-12-01

    Crystal settling and bubbles migration in magmas have significant effects on the physical and chemical evolution of magmas. The rate of phase segregation is controlled by the force balance that governs the migration of particles suspended in the melt. The relative velocity of a single particle or bubble in a quiescent infinite fluid (melt) is well characterized; however, the interplay between particles or bubbles in suspensions and emulsions and its effect on their settling/rising velocity remains poorly quantified. We propose a theoretical model for the hindered velocity of non-Brownian emulsions of nondeformable droplets, and suspensions of spherical solid particles in the creeping flow regime. The model is based on three sets of hydrodynamic corrections: two on the drag coefficient experienced by each particle to account for both return flow and Smoluchowski effects and a correction on the mixture rheology to account for nonlocal interactions between particles. The model is then extended for mono-disperse non-spherical solid particles that are randomly oriented. The non-spherical particles are idealized as spheroids and characterized by their aspect ratio. The poly-disperse nature of natural suspensions is then taken into consideration by introducing an effective volume fraction of particles for each class of mono-disperse particles sizes. Our model is tested against new and published experimental data over a wide range of particle volume fraction and viscosity ratios between the constituents of dispersions. We find an excellent agreement between our model and experiments. We also show two significant applications for our model: (1) We demonstrate that hindered settling can increase mineral residence time by up to an order of magnitude in convecting magma chambers. (2) We provide a model to correct for particle interactions in the conventional hydrometer test to estimate the particle size distribution in soils. Our model offers a greatly improved agreement with

  16. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY An Extended Optimal Velocity Model with Consideration of Honk Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Chuan-Yao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2010-12-01

    Based on the OV (optimal velocity) model, we in this paper present an extended OV model with the consideration of the honk effect. The analytical and numerical results illustrate that the honk effect can improve the velocity and flow of uniform flow but that the increments are relevant to the density.

  17. Model Resolution, Model Covariance, and Travel Time Prediction Uncertainty for a Global Tomographic P-Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Encarnacao, A.; Chang, M.; Begnaud, M. L.; Phillips, W. S.; Anderson, D.

    2011-12-01

    Global 3D models of the compression wave speed in the Earth can provide superior travel time predictions at both regional and teleseismic distances. However, given the variable data quality and highly uneven data sampling associated with this type of model, the uncertainty of predicted travel times computed through these models will vary significantly with position in the Earth. Seismic event location codes require good estimates of the prediction uncertainty in order to apply appropriate weights to the various observations used to compute the locations and to calculate reliable estimates of the uncertainty of the resulting locations. The approach that we are adopting is to calculate prediction uncertainties from the tomographic matrices. Quantities that are computed along the way include the model resolution matrix, the model covariance matrix and, finally, the travel time uncertainties. We have found it necessary to include a previously ignored term in the determination of the model covariance matrix that we call the 'a priory covariance of the change in slowness', which we will describe in detail. We will also show results of all of these quantities obtained by applying the calculations to our SALSA3D model, a global P-velocity model of the Earth's mantle. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Block modeling of crustal deformation in Tierra del Fuego from GNSS velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Fritsche, M.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Dietrich, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Tierra del Fuego (TDF) main island is divided by a major transform boundary between the South America and Scotia tectonic plates. Using a block model, we infer slip rates, locking depths and inclinations of active faults in TDF from inversion of site velocities derived from Global Navigation Satellite System observations. We use interseismic velocities from 48 sites, obtained from field measurements spanning 20 years. Euler vectors consistent with a simple seismic cycle are estimated for each block. In addition, we introduce far-field information into the modeling by applying constraints on Euler vectors of major tectonic plates. The difference between model and observed surface deformation near the Magallanes Fagnano Fault System (MFS) is reduced by considering finite dip in the forward model. For this tectonic boundary global plate circuits models predict relative movements between 7 and 9 mm yr- 1, while our regional model indicates that a strike-slip rate of 5.9 ± 0.2 mm yr- 1 is accommodated across the MFS. Our results indicate faults dipping 66- 4+ 6° southward, locked to a depth of 11- 5+ 5 km, which are consistent with geological models for the MFS. However, normal slip also dominates the fault perpendicular motion throughout the eastern MFS, with a maximum rate along the Fagnano Lake.

  19. Influence of overriding plate velocity changes on slab dip and deformation: insights from laboratory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Benjamin; Hertgen, Solenn; Martinod, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Over geological times, plate reorganization associated with mantle convection led to changes in absolute plate velocities, which may in turn have impacted the geometry of the subducting plate as well as the overriding plate regime of deformation. Indeed, previous studies have shown a very good correlation between the absolute motion of the overriding plate on one hand and slab dip and overriding plate deformation on the other hand: extension and steep slab are associated with an overriding plate moving away from the trench while shortening and shallow slab occur if the upper plate goes the other way. However, these correlations are established when subduction has reached a steady-state regime and for a constant motion of the overriding plate over the subducting plate, which may not always be the case on Earth. The response of the subduction system to changes in absolute overriding plate velocity still remain an open question. In this study, we conducted a set of 3-D mantle-scale laboratory models of subduction in which we incrementally changed the velocity of the overriding plate to reproduce changes of velocities that may arise from variations of far-field boundary conditions in Nature. We first show that strain rates in the overriding plate are correlated with overriding plate absolute velocity but also that the regime of deformation adjusts rapidly to changes of velocity. This may explain for instance why despite the subduction has been continuous beneath South America since at least the middle Jurassic, shortening along its active margin is only recorded episodically, the main phases of Andean orogeny roughly corresponding to periods of South American plate westward acceleration. We also show that slab dip adjusts to changes of overriding plate velocity but it requires several Myr before it stabilizes. It may explain why the correlation between absolute overriding plate motion and slab dip from the analysis of present-day subduction zones is only moderate, part

  20. Numerical modeling of 1D heterogeneous combustion in porous media under free convection taking into account dependence of permeability on porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsenko, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Using numerical experiment the one-dimensional unsteady process of heterogeneous combustion in porous object under free convection is considered when the dependence of permeability on porosity is taken into account. The combustion is due to exothermic reaction between the fuel in the solid porous medium and oxidizer contained in the gas flowing through the porous object. In the present work the process is considered under natural convection, i.e. when the flow rate and velocity of the gas at the inlet to the porous objects are unknown, but the gas pressure at object boundaries is known. The influence of changing of permeability due to the changing of porosity on the solution is investigated using original numerical method, which is based on a combination of explicit and implicit finite-difference schemes. It was shown that taking into account the dependence of permeability on porosity, which is described by some known equations, can significantly change the solution in one-dimensional case. The changing of permeability due to the changing of porosity leads to the speed increasing of both cocurrent and the countercurrent combustion waves, and to the temperature increasing in the combustion zone of countercurrent combustion wave.

  1. Evaluation of the southern California seismic velocity models through simulation of recorded events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Khoshnevis, Naeem; Cheng, Keli

    2016-06-01

    Significant effort has been devoted over the last two decades to the development of various seismic velocity models for the region of southern California, United States. These models are mostly used in forward wave propagation simulation studies, but also as base models for tomographic and source inversions. Two of these models, the community velocity models CVM-S and CVM-H, are among the most commonly used for this region. This includes two alternative variations to the original models, the recently released CVM-S4.26 which incorporates results from a sequence of tomographic inversions into CVM-S, and the user-controlled option of CVM-H to replace the near-surface profiles with a VS30-based geotechnical model. Although either one of these models is regarded as acceptable by the modeling community, it is known that they have differences in their representation of the crustal structure and sedimentary deposits in the region, and thus can lead to different results in forward and inverse problems. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of these models when used to predict the ground motion in the greater Los Angeles region by means of an assessment of a collection of simulations of recent events. In total, we consider 30 moderate-magnitude earthquakes (3.5 < Mw < 5.5) between 1998 and 2014, and compare synthetics with data recorded by seismic networks during these events. The simulations are done using a finite-element parallel code, with numerical models that satisfy a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear wave velocity of 200 m s-1. The comparisons between data and synthetics are ranked quantitatively by means of a goodness-of-fit (GOF) criteria. We analyse the regional distribution of the GOF results for all events and all models, and draw conclusions from the results and how these correlate to the models. We find that, in light of our comparisons, the model CVM-S4.26 consistently yields better results.

  2. Validating Velocities in the GeoClaw Tsunami Model Using Observations near Hawaii from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, M. E. M.; LeVeque, Randall J.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to measure, predict, and compute tsunami flow velocities is of importance in risk assessment and hazard mitigation. Substantial damage can be done by high velocity flows, particularly in harbors and bays, even when the wave height is small. Moreover, advancing the study of sediment transport and tsunami deposits depends on the accurate interpretation and modeling of tsunami flow velocities and accelerations. Until recently, few direct measurements of tsunami velocities existed to compare with model results. During the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, 328 current meters were in place around the Hawaiian Islands, USA, that captured time series of water velocity in 18 locations, in both harbors and deep channels, at a series of depths. We compare several of these velocity records against numerical simulations performed using the GeoClaw numerical tsunami model, based on solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with adaptive mesh refinement, to confirm that this model can accurately predict velocities at nearshore locations. Model results demonstrate tsunami current velocity is more spatially variable than waveform or height and, therefore, may be a more sensitive variable for model validation.

  3. Mass loading and velocity diffusion models for heavy pickup ions at comet Grigg-Skjellerup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Coates, A. J.; Johnstone, A. D.; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1993-01-01

    We compare model predictions of cometary water group ion densities and the solar wind slow down with measurements made by the Giotto Johnstone plasma analyzer implanted ion sensor at the encounter with comet Grigg-Skjellerup (G-S) on July 10, 1992. The observed slope of the ion density profile on approach to the comet is unexpectedly steep. Possible explanations for this are discussed. We present also a preliminary investigation of the quasilinear velocity-space diffusion of the implanted heavy ion population at G-S using a transport equation including souce, convection, adiabatic compression, and velocity diffusion terms. Resulting distributions are anisotropic, in agreement with observations. We consider theoretically the waves that may be generated by the diffusion process for the observed solar wind conditions. At initial ion injections, waves are generated at omega approximately Omega(sub i) the ion gyrofrequency, and lower frequencies are predicted for diffusion toward a bispherical shell.

  4. Ultrasonic transit-time flowmeters modelled with theoretical velocity profiles: methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Pamela I.; Brown, Gregor J.; Stimpson, Brian P.

    2000-12-01

    Fully developed flow is well defined for most values of Reynolds number but distorted flow is not. Velocity profile is the definition given to the distribution of velocity in the axial direction over the cross-section of the pipe. This distribution is not usually uniform and can vary dramatically depending on the properties of the fluid and the configuration of the pipe in which it flows. Ultrasonic flowmeters are affected by such distortions in the flow profile, often resulting in erroneous measurements. Transit-time ultrasonic flowmeters are widely used in industry in distorted fluid flows, therefore correction to or prediction of distorted profiles has sparked great interest in the design and application of ultrasonic flowmeters. This document describes a method for modelling and analysing the effect of theoretical asymmetric flow profiles on ultrasonic flowmeters of the transit-time type, thus allowing an understanding of installation effects.

  5. The Radial Velocity Signature and Line Diagnostics Arising from Realistic, Rotating Stellar Plage Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Steven; Dumusque, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The radial velocity (RV) signature of starspots has been well-studied and methods to mitigate for them have been developed. The RV signature of magnetic plage is smaller, but more complex (since plage differs from its surroundings more by velocity than intensity) and less well understood. There are reasons however to expect that RV jitter from plage may be important, especially in low to moderate activity stars. We explore the RV effects of stellar plage by taking spatially resolved solar line bisectors in and out of plage at various limb angles to construct semi-empirical stellar intensity profiles profiles of different strengths. These lines are placed on model stars with various plage configurations, rotated, and disk-integrated. The resulting spectra are analyzed to yield the RV and various line and cross-correlation profile diagnostics as a function of rotational phase. We discuss the results and some ideas for mitigating the inferred RV signatures.

  6. Velocity and Density Models Incorporating the Cascadia Subduction Zone for 3D Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies in the Pacific Northwest, three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (3D Vp and Vs) and density (3D rho) models incorporating the Cascadia subduction zone have been developed for the region encompassed from about 40.2?N to 50?N latitude, and from about -122?W to -129?W longitude. The model volume includes elevations from 0 km to 60 km (elevation is opposite of depth in model coordinates). Stephenson and Frankel (2003) presented preliminary ground motion simulations valid up to 0.1 Hz using an earlier version of these models. The version of the model volume described here includes more structural and geophysical detail, particularly in the Puget Lowland as required for scenario earthquake simulations in the development of the Seattle Urban Hazards Maps (Frankel and others, 2007). Olsen and others (in press) used the model volume discussed here to perform a Cascadia simulation up to 0.5 Hz using a Sumatra-Andaman Islands rupture history. As research from the EarthScope Program (http://www.earthscope.org) is published, a wealth of important detail can be added to these model volumes, particularly to depths of the upper-mantle. However, at the time of development for this model version, no EarthScope-specific results were incorporated. This report is intended to be a reference for colleagues and associates who have used or are planning to use this preliminary model in their research. To this end, it is intended that these models will be considered a beginning template for a community velocity model of the Cascadia region as more data and results become available.

  7. Development of the EUREF Velocity Model - Status and Roadmap for Future Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidberg, Martin; Steffen, Holger; Altamimi, Zuheir; Bruyninx, Carine; Caporali, Alessandro; Dousa, Jan; Habrich, Heinz; Kenyeres, Ambrus; da Silva Fernandes, Rui Manuel; Stangl, Günter

    2013-04-01

    Interplate and intraplate deformations are present all over Europe. They can be subdivided by their spatial or temporal nature as well as their magnitude. For example, different, partly overlapping processes are related to several geodynamic zones such as plate boundaries, micro-plates, volcanoes, (formerly) glaciated areas, hydrological basins etc. On the other side, there are long-term processes such as the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound, episodic events such as earthquakes and many temporarily intermediate deformations from e.g. volcanic swelling or anthropogenic influences due to oil or gas extraction or CO2 sequestration. The corresponding deformations of different scales are measured as three-dimensional crustal velocities by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reference stations with meanwhile sufficient detail and accuracy. The IAG Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Europe (EUREF) working group on "Deformation models" aims at obtaining velocity models for Europe and adjacent areas and significantly improving the prediction of the time evolution of coordinates, thus overcoming the limitations in the use of the European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89). A general understanding of the physics behind such a velocity field is also a major goal. In particular, the working group will model and correct for interplate and intraplate deformations, while using the reference frame, and thus extend the useful lifetime of a realisation of the ETRS89. Hence, the purpose of this working group are twofold; first, pure scientific interests in improved knowledge of the surface deformations of Eurasia and adjacent areas, and second, providing a valuable tool in the management and use of the national realisations of the ETRS89. The work will strongly benefit from sophisticated infrastructures such as the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). Key information for improved knowledge of crustal deformations is observed motions at stations. This includes

  8. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Wardaya, P. D. Noh, K. A. B. M. Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.

    2014-09-25

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave

  9. Application of multivariate Maxwellian mixture model to plasma velocity distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Genta; Nakamura, Nagatomo; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Machida, Shinobu; Araki, Tohru; Saito, Yoshifumi; Mukai, Toshifumi

    2001-11-01

    Recent space plasma observations have provided us with three-dimensional velocity distributions having multiple peaks. We propose a method for analyzing such velocity distributions via a multivariate Maxwellian mixture model where each component of the model represents each of the multiple peaks. The parameters of the model are determined through an iterative nonlinear optimization technique, specifically the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. For the automatic judgment of the preferable number of components in the mixture model, we introduce a method of examining the number of extrema of a resulting mixture model. We show applications of our method to ion observations in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and in the central plasma sheet (CPS) of the Earth's magnetotail. From an analysis of the PSBL and CPS, low-energy ions that have properties similar to those of lobe ions were detected also in the PSBL and CPS. In the PSBL, middle-energy ion component which is flowing dawnward and directed the neutral sheet was extracted. We suggested that magnetic field fluctuations in the PSBL can be explained only when the two ion components were properly treated.

  10. Application of multivariate Maxwellian mixture model to plasma velocity distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, G.; Nakamura, N.; Higuchi, T.; Tsuchiya, T.; Machida, S.; Araki, T.; Saito, Y.; Mukai, T.

    2001-12-01

    Recent space plasma observations have provided us with three-di\\-men\\-sion\\-al velocity distributions having multiple peaks. We propose a method for analyzing such velocity distributions via a multivariate Max\\-wellian mixture model where each component of the model represents each of the multiple peaks. The parameters of the model are determined through an iterative nonlinear optimization technique, specifically the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. For the automatic judgment of the preferable number of components in the mixture model, we introduce a method of examining the number of extrema of a resulting mixture model. We show applications of our method to ion observations in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and in the central plasma sheet (CPS) of the Earth's magnetotail. From an analysis of the PSBL and CPS, low-energy ions that have properties similar to those of lobe ions were detected also in the PSBL and CPS. In the PSBL, middle-energy ion component which is flowing dawnward and directed the neutral sheet was extracted. We suggested that magnetic field fluctuations in the PSBL can be explained only when the two ion components were properly treated.

  11. Development and validation of P-MODTRAN7 and P-MCScene, 1D and 3D polarimetric radiative transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawes, Frederick T.; Berk, Alexander; Richtsmeier, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    A validated, polarimetric 3-dimensional simulation capability, P-MCScene, is being developed by generalizing Spectral Sciences' Monte Carlo-based synthetic scene simulation model, MCScene, to include calculation of all 4 Stokes components. P-MCScene polarimetric optical databases will be generated by a new version (MODTRAN7) of the government-standard MODTRAN radiative transfer algorithm. The conversion of MODTRAN6 to a polarimetric model is being accomplished by (1) introducing polarimetric data, by (2) vectorizing the MODTRAN radiation calculations and by (3) integrating the newly revised and validated vector discrete ordinate model VDISORT3. Early results, presented here, demonstrate a clear pathway to the long-term goal of fully validated polarimetric models.

  12. Uncertainty estimation of the velocity model for the TrigNet GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackl, Matthias; Malservisi, Rocco; Hugentobler, Urs; Wonnacott, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Satellite based geodetic techniques - above all GPS - provide an outstanding tool to measure crustal motions. They are widely used to derive geodetic velocity models that are applied in geodynamics to determine rotations of tectonic blocks, to localize active geological features, and to estimate rheological properties of the crust and the underlying asthenosphere. However, it is not a trivial task to derive GPS velocities and their uncertainties from positioning time series. In general time series are assumed to be represented by linear models (sometimes offsets, annual, and semi-annual signals are included) and noise. It has been shown that models accounting only for white noise tend to underestimate the uncertainties of rates derived from long time series and that different colored noise components (flicker noise, random walk, etc.) need to be considered. However, a thorough error analysis including power spectra analyses and maximum likelihood estimates is quite demanding and are usually not carried out for every site, but the uncertainties are scaled by latitude dependent factors. Analyses of the South Africa continuous GPS network TrigNet indicate that the scaled uncertainties overestimate the velocity errors. So we applied a method similar to the Allan Variance that is commonly used in the estimation of clock uncertainties and is able to account for time dependent probability density functions (colored noise) to the TrigNet time series. Finally, we compared these estimates to the results obtained by spectral analyses using CATS. Comparisons with synthetic data show that the noise can be represented quite well by a power law model in combination with a seasonal signal in agreement with previous studies.

  13. A GLOBAL MODEL OF THE LIGHT CURVES AND EXPANSION VELOCITIES OF TYPE II-PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Prieto, Jose L.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new self-consistent and versatile method that derives photospheric radius and temperature variations of Type II-Plateau supernovae based on their expansion velocities and photometric measurements. We apply the method to a sample of 26 well-observed, nearby supernovae with published light curves and velocities. We simultaneously fit ∼230 velocity and ∼6800 mag measurements distributed over 21 photometric passbands spanning wavelengths from 0.19 to 2.2 μm. The light-curve differences among the Type II-Plateau supernovae are well modeled by assuming different rates of photospheric radius expansion, which we explain as different density profiles of the ejecta, and we argue that steeper density profiles result in flatter plateaus, if everything else remains unchanged. The steep luminosity decline of Type II-Linear supernovae is due to fast evolution of the photospheric temperature, which we verify with a successful fit of SN 1980K. Eliminating the need for theoretical supernova atmosphere models, we obtain self-consistent relative distances, reddenings, and nickel masses fully accounting for all internal model uncertainties and covariances. We use our global fit to estimate the time evolution of any missing band tailored specifically for each supernova, and we construct spectral energy distributions and bolometric light curves. We produce bolometric corrections for all filter combinations in our sample. We compare our model to the theoretical dilution factors and find good agreement for the B and V filters. Our results differ from the theory when the I, J, H, or K bands are included. We investigate the reddening law toward our supernovae and find reasonable agreement with standard R{sub V}∼3.1 reddening law in UBVRI bands. Results for other bands are inconclusive. We make our fitting code publicly available.

  14. Assessing waveform predictions of recent three-dimensional velocity models of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.; Shen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution tomographic models are essential for understanding the physical and compositional properties in the lithosphere and obtaining accurate earthquake source locations and moment tensors. Yet, there are significant disagreements in recent three-dimensional velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle in Tibet. Question also remains as to whether models constructed from one type of seismic waves (body or surface waves) can be used to predict travel times and waveforms of another. In this study, six global or regional models are selected for Tibet, most of which became publically available in the past five years. A three-dimensional finite-difference method in the spherical coordinates is applied to simulate full-wave propagation of regional Pn (with periods longer than 1 second) and Rayleigh waves (20-75 s period) for ground-truth events located at regional distances. The models are evaluated based on the phase delays and cross-correlation coefficients between synthetic and observed waveforms. A model generated from full-wave ambient noise tomography by Shen and Zhang (2012) consistently produces the best predictions for Rayleigh waves throughout the dataset and the Pn waves for the paths from the Tarim Basin to central Tibet. LITHO1.0, inverted from surface wave dispersions, shows a relatively stable but intermediate performance in predicting Pn and Rayleigh waves. None of the models provide the best matches to both waves throughout the region. Furthermore, the models constructed from surface waves are not well suited to predict Pn, and vice versa. We attribute this mainly to lack of accurate constraints on radial anisotropy and Vp/Vs ratios in the upper mantle, and Moho topography. We conclude that simultaneous prediction for P, S, and surface waves requires an integrated velocity model constructed with multiple seismic waveforms and consideration of other important properties, such as anisotropy and attenuation.

  15. Validating a 1-D SVAT model in a range of USA and Australian ecosystems: evidence towards its use as a tool to study Earth's system interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, G. P.; North, M. R.; Ireland, G.; Srivastava, P. K.; Rendall, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the validation of the SimSphere SVAT model conducted at different ecosystem types in the USA and Australia. Specific focus was given to examining the models' ability in predicting Shortwave Incoming Solar Radiation (Rg), Net Radiation (Rnet), Latent Heat (LE), Sensible Heat (H), Air Temperature at 1.3 m (Tair 1.3 m) and Air Temperature at 50 m (Tair 50 m). Model predictions were compared against corresponding in situ measurements acquired for a total of 72 selected days of the year 2011 obtained from 8 sites belonging to the AmeriFlux (USA) and OzFlux (Australia) monitoring networks. Selected sites were representative of a variety of environmental, biome and climatic conditions, to allow for the inclusion of contrasting conditions in the model evaluation. The application of the model confirmed its high capability in representing the multifarious and complex interactions of the Earth system. Comparisons showed a good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the days with smoothed daily flux trends. A good to excellent agreement between the model predictions and the in situ measurements was reported, particularly so for the LE, H, T1.3 m and T 50 m parameters (RMSD = 39.47, 55.06 W m-2, 3.23, 3.77 °C respectively). A systematic underestimation of Rg and Rnet (RMSD = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2, MBE = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2 respectively) was also found. Highest simulation accuracies were obtained for the open woodland savannah and mulga woodland sites for most of the compared parameters. Very high values of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index were also reported for all parameters ranging from 0.720 to 0.998, suggesting a very good model representation of the observations. To our knowledge, this study presents the first comprehensive validation of SimSphere, particularly so in USA and Australian ecosystem types. Findings are important and timely, given the rapidly expanding use of this model worldwide both as an educational and research

  16. A global 3D P-Velocity model of the Earth%3CU%2B2019%3Es crust and mantle for improved event location.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sanford; Encarnacao, Andre Villanova; Begnaud, Michael A.; Rowe, Charlotte A.; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Young, Christopher John; Chang, Marcus C.; Hipp, James Richard

    2010-05-01

    is assessed using a variation of the standard checkerboard method, as well as by directly estimating the diagonal of the model resolution matrix based on the technique developed by Bekas, et al. We compare the travel-time prediction and location capabilities of this model over standard 1D models. We perform location tests on a global, geographically-distributed event set with ground truth levels of 5 km or better. These events generally possess hundreds of Pn and P phases from which we can generate different realizations of station distributions, yielding a range of azimuthal coverage and proportions of teleseismic to regional arrivals, with which we test the robustness and quality of relocation. The SALSA3D model reduces mislocation over standard 1D ak135, especially with increasing azimuthal gap. The 3D model appears to perform better for locations based solely or dominantly on regional arrivals, which is not unexpected given that ak135 represents a global average and cannot therefore capture local and regional variations.

  17. Rupture Velocity of the 2001 Kunlun, China, Event Estimated From SEM Waveform Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjörleifsdóttir, V.; Kanamori, H.; Tromp, J.

    2003-12-01

    The rupture speed during an earthquake is controlled by the energy dissipated mechanically during faulting. Rupture velocities close to the limiting speed imply that very little energy is going into the fracture and thus has implications for whether the rupture will continue to grow or stop. The Mw~7.9, November~14, 2001, Kunlun, China, strike-slip event ruptured unilaterally over 400 km along the Kunlun fault. The long rupture combined with worldwide broad-band instrumentation provides us with a unique opportunity to estimate the rupture speed. Unfortunately, the strike-slip nature of the faulting causes the body waves recorded at teleseismic distances to be nearly nodal, making body-wave modeling very difficult. We use the spectral-element method (SEM) and a 3D Earth model to accurately compute waveforms at periods of 18 seconds and longer for this event. We compute synthetics for two source models. We use (a) a body-wave model with an average rupture speed of 3.5 km/s, similar to the model reported by Kikuchi and Yamanaka (2001) and (b) a surface-wave model proposed by Bouchon and Vallée (2003) with an average rupture speed of 4.3 km/s and a slip distribution constrained by measured surface offsets. Both models show similar fits to the surface-wave radiation pattern at periods above 100 seconds and thus we turn to long-period body waves to discriminate between the two. The event comprised several smaller subevents, with the largest subevent occurring about 60 seconds after the initiation of rupture. The azimuthal variation in arrival time of this phase depends on the rupture velocity. Using the Bouchon and Vallée model we find that shear waves from the large subevent arrive about 10 seconds earlier than observed in the direction of rupture, whereas they arrive on time in the anti-rupture direction. A similar phase shift is observed in the short period surface waves. As this azimuthal variation is not evident for the Kikuchi and Yamanaka model, we conclude that

  18. An error covariance model for sea surface topography and velocity derived from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsaoussi, Lucia S.; Koblinsky, Chester J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to facilitate the use of satellite-derived sea surface topography and velocity oceanographic models, methodology is presented for deriving the total error covariance and its geographic distribution from TOPEX/POSEIDON measurements. The model is formulated using a parametric model fit to the altimeter range observations. The topography and velocity modeled with spherical harmonic expansions whose coefficients are found through optimal adjustment to the altimeter range residuals using Bayesian statistics. All other parameters, including the orbit, geoid, surface models, and range corrections are provided as unadjusted parameters. The maximum likelihood estimates and errors are derived from the probability density function of the altimeter range residuals conditioned with a priori information. Estimates of model errors for the unadjusted parameters are obtained from the TOPEX/POSEIDON postlaunch verification results and the error covariances for the orbit and the geoid, except for the ocean tides. The error in the ocean tides is modeled, first, as the difference between two global tide models and, second, as the correction to the present tide model, the correction derived from the TOPEX/POSEIDON data. A formal error covariance propagation scheme is used to derive the total error. Our global total error estimate for the TOPEX/POSEIDON topography relative to the geoid for one 10-day period is found tio be 11 cm RMS. When the error in the geoid is removed, thereby providing an estimate of the time dependent error, the uncertainty in the topography is 3.5 cm root mean square (RMS). This level of accuracy is consistent with direct comparisons of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter heights with tide gauge measurements at 28 stations. In addition, the error correlation length scales are derived globally in both east-west and north-south directions, which should prove useful for data assimilation. The largest error correlation length scales are found in the tropics. Errors in

  19. Applying the critical velocity model for an off-season interval training program.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ida E; West, Brianne M; Reynolds, Sheila K; Murray, Steven R; Pettitt, Robert W

    2013-12-01

    The critical velocity (CV) model offers an opportunity to prescribe and to test empirically different velocity-time (V-t) configurations of high-intensity interval training (HIIT); however, such experiments are lacking. We evaluated a group of competitive, female soccer players (age = 19 ± 1 years, height = 168 ± 6 cm, mass = 61 ± 6 kg) completing 1 of 2 different HIIT regimes: a short group (n = 6) completing higher V and shorter t configurations, and a long group (n = 10) completing lower V, longer t configurations. Both groups trained 2 d·wk for 4 weeks. For each workout, both groups ran at velocities exceeding CV and designed to deplete identical fractional percentages of the finite work capacity above CV (D'). The metrics of CV and D' were evaluated at pretraining and posttraining using the 3-minute all-out exercise test on an indoor track using video digitizing of displacement relative to time. Despite differences in the V-t configurations, both groups increased their CV (+0.22 m·s, +6%) and decreased their D' (-24 m, -13%; p < 0.05). We conclude that 2- to 5-minute HIIT bouts are suitable for increasing CV, in previously trained athletes, but they result in a decline of D'. To increase D', we suggest examining HIIT of intensities that are <2 minutes and >130% of maximum oxygen uptake.

  20. Maximum group velocity in a one-dimensional model with a sinusoidally varying staggered potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Tanay; Sen, Diptiman; Dutta, Amit

    2015-06-01

    We use Floquet theory to study the maximum value of the stroboscopic group velocity in a one-dimensional tight-binding model subjected to an on-site staggered potential varying sinusoidally in time. The results obtained by numerically diagonalizing the Floquet operator are analyzed using a variety of analytical schemes. In the low-frequency limit we use adiabatic theory, while in the high-frequency limit the Magnus expansion of the Floquet Hamiltonian turns out to be appropriate. When the magnitude of the staggered potential is much greater or much less than the hopping, we use degenerate Floquet perturbation theory; we find that dynamical localization occurs in the former case when the maximum group velocity vanishes. Finally, starting from an "engineered" initial state where the particles (taken to be hard-core bosons) are localized in one part of the chain, we demonstrate that the existence of a maximum stroboscopic group velocity manifests in a light-cone-like spreading of the particles in real space.

  1. a computational modeling for image motion velocity on focal plane of aerial & aerospace frame camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Jin, G.; Li, Z. Y.

    As the resolving power and geometric accuracy of aerial aerospace imaging is demanded to be higher the researches in technology of IMC become very important In order to compensate the image motion on focal plane the rule of FPIMV Focal Plane Image Motion Velocity should be grasped while the posture of aircraft and the modes of imaging are under changing In this paper a reasonable computational modeling scheme to the problem is introduced Coordinates transformation method is utilized for calculation of forward FPIMV under different condition of vertical and sloped imaging meanwhile integrated with three axes posture and angle velocity of aircraft Forward FPIMV combine with pitch roll and yaw FPIMV is considered simultaneously and the derivation calculating expressions of frame camera FPIMV under different conditions is presented in detail The solution is applied to computational simulation and has been confirmed to be effective based on the calculation result and it lays the foundation for our farther researches on frame camera IMC technology Key words IMC FPIMV Focal Plane Image Motion Velocity Coordinates transformation method

  2. Simulation of High Velocity Impact on Composite Structures - Model Implementation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Dominik; Toso-Pentecôte, Nathalie; Voggenreiter, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    High velocity impact on composite aircraft structures leads to the formation of flexural waves that can cause severe damage to the structure. Damage and failure can occur within the plies and/or in the resin rich interface layers between adjacent plies. In the present paper a modelling methodology is documented that captures intra- and inter-laminar damage and their interrelations by use of shell element layers representing sub-laminates that are connected with cohesive interface layers to simulate delamination. This approach allows the simulation of large structures while still capturing the governing damage mechanisms and their interactions. The paper describes numerical algorithms for the implementation of a Ladevèze continuum damage model for the ply and methods to derive input parameters for the cohesive zone model. By comparison with experimental results from gas gun impact tests the potential and limitations of the modelling approach are discussed.

  3. Comparative evaluation of 1D and quasi-2D hydraulic models based on benchmark and real-world applications for uncertainty assessment in flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Tegos, Aristoteles; Oikonomou, Athanasios; Pagana, Vassiliki; Koukouvinos, Antonios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional hydraulic freeware models (HEC-RAS, LISFLOOD-FP and FLO-2d) are widely used for flood inundation mapping. These models are tested on a benchmark test with a mixed rectangular-triangular channel cross section. Using a Monte-Carlo approach, we employ extended sensitivity analysis by simultaneously varying the input discharge, longitudinal and lateral gradients and roughness coefficients, as well as the grid cell size. Based on statistical analysis of three output variables of interest, i.e. water depths at the inflow and outflow locations and total flood volume, we investigate the uncertainty enclosed in different model configurations and flow conditions, without the influence of errors and other assumptions on topography, channel geometry and boundary conditions. Moreover, we estimate the uncertainty associated to each input variable and we compare it to the overall one. The outcomes of the benchmark analysis are further highlighted by applying the three models to real-world flood propagation problems, in the context of two challenging case studies in Greece.

  4. The coupling of WEPP and 3ST1D numerical models for improved estimation of runoff and sediment yield at watershed scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major problems in watershed hydrology is to accurately simulate the transport of water and sediment from their sources to the watershed outlet. Current numerical models have been extensively used to determine upland erosion, but their application is primarily limited to the field/hillslop...

  5. Modeling of the D1/D2 proteins and cofactors of the photosystem II reaction center: implications for herbicide and bicarbonate binding.

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, J.; Subramaniam, S.; Govindjee

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was generated based on homology with the anoxygenic purple bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis, for which the X-ray crystallographic structures are available. The model was constructed with an alignment of D1 and D2 sequences with the L and M subunits of the bacterial reaction center, respectively, and by using as a scaffold the structurally conserved regions (SCRs) from bacterial templates. The structurally variant regions were built using a novel sequence-specific approach of searching for the best-matched protein segments in the Protein Data Bank with the "basic local alignment search tool" (Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ, 1990, J Mol Biol 215:403-410), and imposing the matching conformational preference on the corresponding D1 and D2 regions. The structure thus obtained was refined by energy minimization. The modeled D1 and D2 proteins contain five transmembrane alpha-helices each, with cofactors (4 chlorophylls, 2 pheophytins, 2 plastoquinones, and a non-heme iron) essential for PSII primary photochemistry embedded in them. A beta-carotene, considered important for PSII photoprotection, was also included in the model. Four different possible conformations of the primary electron donor P680 chlorophylls were proposed, one based on the homology with the bacterial template and the other three on existing experimental suggestions in literature. The P680 conformation based on homology was preferred because it has the lowest energy. Redox active tyrosine residues important for P680+ reduction as well as residues important for PSII cofactor binding were analyzed. Residues involved in interprotein interactions in the model were also identified. Herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) was also modeled in the plastoquinone QB binding niche using the

  6. Preliminary result of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes in the Molucca collision zone with a 3D velocity model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash E-mail: h.a.shiddiqi@gmail.com; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro

    2015-04-24

    We have relocated hypocenters of earthquakes occurring in the Molucca collision zone and surrounding region taken from the BMKG catalog using teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD). We used P-wave arrival times of local, regional, and teleseismic events recorded at 304 recording stations. Over 7,000 earthquakes were recorded by the BMKG seismographicnetworkin the study region from April, 2009 toJune, 2014. We used a 3D regional-global nested velocity modelresulting fromprevious global tomographystudy. In this study, the3D seismic velocity model was appliedto theIndonesian region, whilethe1D seismicvelocity model (ak135)wasused for regions outside of Indonesia. Our relocation results show a better improvement in travel-time RMS residuals comparedto those of the BMKG catalog.Ourresultsalso show that relocation shifts were dominated intheeast-west direction, whichmaybeinfluenced by theexistingvelocity anomaly related to the reversed V-shaped slabbeneaththestudy region. Our eventrelocation results refine the geometry of slabs beneath the Halmahera and Sangihe arcs.

  7. 1D modelling of nanosecond laser ablation of copper samples in argon at P = 1 atm with a wavelength of 532 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clair, Guillaume; L'Hermite, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    A one-dimensional model is developed for nanosecond laser ablation of a metal target (Cu) in a background gas (Ar) at any pressure. Simulations are performed with a 6 ns FWHM Gaussian laser pulse at 532 nm with a fluence of 11.3 J.cm-2. Heating, melting, evaporation, and condensation are considered to model the laser-target interaction. Expansion of the plume is investigated solving the Euler equations in a lagrangian formalism. Plasma formation is taken into account by computing the ionic species densities up to the second order of ionization in both the ablated material and the background gas. Such formation implies a strong laser-plasma interaction, assuming that the absorption phenomena are photoionization, electron-atom, and electron-ion inverse Bremsstrahlung. Radiative losses are supposed to be only described by electron-ion Bremsstrahlung. Preliminary results are presented and discussed.

  8. Effects of Spinal and Peripheral Injection of α1A or α1D Adrenoceptor Antagonists on Bladder Activity in Rat Models with or without Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Heon; Shim, Ji Sung; Kang, Seung Chul; Shim, Kang Soo; Park, Jae Young; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong Gu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Antagonists of α1-adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) relax prostate smooth muscle and relieve voiding and storage symptoms. Recently, increased expression of α1ARs with change of its subtype expression has been proved in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). To search for the evidence of changes in α1ARs subtype expression and activity in the peripheral and spinal routes, the effects of spinal and peripheral administration of tamsulosin (an α1A/D-selective AR), naftopidil (an α1A/D-selective AR), and doxazosin (non-selective AR) on bladder activity were investigated in a rat model with or without BOO. Methods A total of 65 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the BOO surgery group (n=47) and the sham surgery group (n=18). After 6 weeks, cystometry was assessed before and after intrathecal and intra-arterial administrations of tamsulosin, naftopidil, and doxazosin. Results After intra-arterial administrations of all three drugs, bladder capacity (BC) was increased and maximal intravesical pressure (Pmax) was decreased in both BOO and the sham rat models (P<0.05). After intrathecal administration of all three drugs, BC was increased and Pmax was decreased in only the BOO group. The episodes of involuntary contraction in the BOO rat models were decreased by intra-arterial administration (P=0.031). The increase of BC after intrathercal and intra-arterial administrations of α1ARs was significantly greater in the BOO group than in the sham group (P=0.023, P=0.041). In the BOO group, the increase of BC and decrease in Pmax were greater by intra-arterial administration than by intrathecal administration (P=0.035). There were no significant differences of the degrees of changes in the cystometric parameters among the three different α1ARs. Conclusions Up-regulations of the α1ARs in BOO were observed by the greater increases of BC after α1AR antagonist administrations in the BOO group than in the sham group. However, there were no subtype differences of the

  9. Stochastic microswimming model for the average translational velocity of the ribosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, José S.; Delgado, Joaquín

    2013-07-01

    The motion of the ribosome is modeled here, assuming that its two subunits are subject to stochastic rearrangements, thus producing different conformations constituting its deformation cycle, or swimming stroke. Using a general statistical mechanical formulation, the mean propulsion velocity of the ribosome is obtained as a function of the transition rates among the different conformations and of the relevant deformation variables. A calculation with reasonable parameter estimations shows that the ribosome can match the average protein synthesis speed with deformations of a size comparable to its radius.

  10. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected.

  11. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J R; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune's symmetry axis - that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected. PMID:26572966

  12. A self-organising neural network model of image velocity encoding.

    PubMed

    Gurney, K N; Wright, M J

    1992-01-01

    A self-organising neural network has been developed which maps the image velocities of rigid objects, moving in the fronto-parallel plane, topologically over a neural layer. The input is information in the Fourier domain about the spatial components of the image. The computation performed by the network may be viewed as a neural instantiation of the Intersection of Constraints solution to the aperture problem. The model has biological plausibility in that the connectivity develops simply as a result of exposure to inputs derived from rigid translation of textures and its overall organisation is consistent with psychophysical evidence.

  13. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected. PMID:26572966

  14. Velocity-gradient probability distribution functions in a lagrangian model of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriconi, L.; Pereira, R. M.; Grigorio, L. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Recent Fluid Deformation Closure (RFDC) model of lagrangian turbulence is recast in path-integral language within the framework of the Martin-Siggia-Rose functional formalism. In order to derive analytical expressions for the velocity-gradient probability distribution functions (vgPDFs), we carry out noise renormalization in the low-frequency regime and find approximate extrema for the Martin-Siggia-Rose effective action. We verify, with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, that the vgPDFs so obtained yield a close description of the single-point statistical features implied by the original RFDC stochastic differential equations.

  15. An experimental investigation of velocity fields in divergent glottal models of the human vocal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2005-09-01

    In speech, sound production arises from fluid-structure interactions within the larynx as well as viscous flow phenomena that is most likely to occur during the divergent orientation of the vocal folds. Of particular interest are the flow mechanisms that influence the location of flow separation points on the vocal folds walls. Physiologically scaled pulsatile flow fields in 7.5 times real size static divergent glottal models were investigated. Three divergence angle