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Sample records for 1f7 offutt afb

  1. Bioventing pilot test results at the low point drain area, Offutt AFB, Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Werner, F T; Walters, J E; Keefer, G B

    1997-11-21

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the application of bioventing technology at the LPD site at Offutt AFB, Nebraska and present the results of the 15-month pilot test. The preliminary tests indicated sufficient hydrocarbon contamination was present with the necessary soil characteristics to warrant an extended bioventing pilot test. The six month in situ respiration test indicated that progress was being made in reducing the TVH concentrations and biological activity was still occurring. Laboratory analysis of the final soil samples confirmed the reduction in TRPH and BTEX concentrations indicating that the site is close to complete remediation. However, owing to reduced air flow at greater distances from the VW, more biodegradation is still needed near MPB. The reduced biodegradation at MPB could also be due to the high water tables resulting from heavy rains during the summer and fall of 1993. The local water table was above the VW and MP screens for several months. The operation of the blower will continue until the site is completely remediated. The single VW pilot test at the LPD site at Offutt AFB has proven the effectiveness of bioventing in reducing TRPH and BTEX contamination in the subsurface. The installation, operation and maintenance costs were minimal. The effectiveness of this application has resulted in three additional bioventing applications at Offutt AFB including the first, full-scale system located in the state of Nebraska. PMID:9472326

  2. Compliance testing of Consumat and Fairchild Hiller silver-reclamation incinerators, Offutt AFB, Nebraska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    At the request of HQ SAC/SGPB, compliance testing for particulate emissions was conducted on four silver-reclamation incinerators located in Bldg D, Offutt AFB NE. Testing was accomplished on 1-11 Nov 1988. Testing was required by the State of Nebraska Department of Environmental Control. The State of Nebraska requested the evaluation of emissions for hydrogen chloride and heavy metal (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc) even though a standard does not exist for these pollutants. Results indicate that incinerators 1, 2 and 3 are in compliance with applicable state standards. Incinerator 4 failed to meet standard with respect to visible and particulate emissions.

  3. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. Northwest front and southwest end. View to east Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest front and southwest end. View to east - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Traffic Check House, Southeast end of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 2. Southeast side of addition. View to northwest. Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast side of addition. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. General view. View to southwest Offutt Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view. View to southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Southeast end and northeast side. View to northwest Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast end and northeast side. View to northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Water Supply Building, Southwest of West corner of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. Northeast side and northwest end. View to south Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast side and northwest end. View to south - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Water Supply Building, Southwest of West corner of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. Southwest side and northwest end. View to east Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest side and northwest end. View to east - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Water Supply Building, Southwest of West corner of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 2. Northeast front. View to southwest. Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northeast front. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 5. General interior overview. View to northwest. Offutt Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General interior overview. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 4. General interior overview. View to east. Offutt Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General interior overview. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. HAER NE9A (sheet 1 of 1) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-A (sheet 1 of 1) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. HAER NE9B (sheet 1 of 2) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-B (sheet 1 of 2) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. HAER NE9B (sheet 2 of 2) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-B (sheet 2 of 2) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  20. Activation of cord T lymphocytes. IV. Analysis of surface expression and functional role of 1F7 (CD26) molecule.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Agea, E; Muscat, C; Ercolani, R; Bistoni, O; Tognellini, R; Mariggió, M A; Spinozzi, F; Bertotto, A

    1994-04-15

    A role for CD26 surface antigen (Ag) in both CD3- and CD2-mediated T cell activation has been previously demonstrated. To analyze the functional role of CD26 in the CD3- and CD2-induced activation pathways of cord T cells, which represent the most reliable source of Ag-unprimed T cells, we employed a newly developed anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody, termed anti-1F7, anti-CD3 and anti-CD2 in activating T lymphocytes. The results showed that CD26 Ag is expressed on the surface of almost all resting cord T cells and that its fluorescence intensity is enhanced by activation. The binding of anti-1F7 induced a decrease in CD26 membrane expression, with no detectable effect on the surface expression of other cord T cell-related molecules. Moreover, the modulation of CD26 resulted in an increase in anti-CD3-mediated cord T cell activation through an enhancement in intracellular calcium levels, IL-2 receptor expression, and IL-2 synthesis, whereas it had no effect on cord T cell activation induced by anti-CD2 or anti-CD2 plus exogenous IL-2. The fact that the selective involvement of CD26 in the activation pathway triggered by anti-CD3, but not anti-CD2, could be reversed by prior stimulation of cord T cells with anti-CD3 suggests that this functional feature, which resembles that of mature thymocytes, may be linked to the Ag-unprimed cell phenotype of cord T lymphocytes. PMID:7909498

  1. 75 FR 67695 - U.S. Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Officer; the Designated Federal Officer's contact information can be obtained from the GSA's FACA Database..., Nebraska 68113. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Bruce Sudduth, Designated Federal Officer, (402) 294-4102, 901 SAC Blvd, Suite 1F7, Offutt AFB, NE 68113- 6030. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  2. Expression and functional role of 1F7 (CD26) antigen on peripheral blood and synovial fluid T cells in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Muscat, C; Bertotto, A; Agea, E; Bistoni, O; Ercolani, R; Tognellini, R; Spinozzi, F; Cesarotti, M; Gerli, R

    1994-11-01

    The expression and the functional role of the CD26 (1F7) T cell surface molecule, an ectoenzyme which seems to represent a functional collagen receptor of T lymphocytes and to have a role in T cell activation, were analysed in both peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) T cell samples from patients with active and inactive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although patients with active disease displayed higher percentages of PB CD26+ CD4+ T cells than inactive RA and control subjects, CD26 antigen expression on RA SF T lymphocytes was low. The anti-1F7 binding to the T cell surface, that led to CD26 antigen modulation and enhancement of both IL-2 synthesis by, and 3H-TdR incorporation of, anti-CD3- or anti-CD2-triggered PB T cells in RA and control subjects, was unable to affect significantly both expression and functional activity of RA SF T lymphocytes. Since the 1F7 antigen spontaneously reappeared on the surface of unstimulated SF T cells after 2-5 days of culturing, the low 1F7 antigen expression of anti-1F7 in the SF T cell compartment may be the result of in vivo molecule modulation exerted by the natural ligand in the joint, with important implications for T cell activation and lymphokine synthesis. PMID:7955530

  3. Identification of AFB1-interacting proteins and interactions between RPSA and AFB1.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhenhong; Huang, Yaling; Yang, Yanling; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-15

    A method using immobilized affinity chromatography (IAC) was developed to screen for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-binding proteins. AFB1 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) coupled protein (BSA-AFB1) was prepared using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride. The resulting coupled compound was immobilized onto PVDF transfer membranes, which were then incubated with total protein from mouse liver. AFB1-binding proteins were eluted, after non-specific washing, by specific elution, and the eluted proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two candidate AFB1-binding proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as the 40S ribosomal protein SA (RPSA) and a putative uncharacterized protein. RPSA and AFB1 interactions were further analyzed by ELISA in vitro and laser confocal immunofluorescence analysis in vivo. The results from ELISA and immunofluorescence showed that RPSA efficiently bound AFB1 in vitro and in vivo. This study's conclusion laid the foundation for further exploration of the role of AFB1-binding proteins in AFB1 toxicology towards hepatocytes and the entry pathway of AFB1 into hepatocytes. PMID:26372695

  4. The Significance of a Common Idiotype (1F7) on Antibodies against Human Immune Deficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Sybille; Parsons, Matthew S.; Kohler, Heinz; Grant, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we trace the concept and potential functional role of regulatory idiotypes in the immune response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). A major idiotype involved in these viral infections is recognized and defined by a murine monoclonal antibody (1F7). Antibodies expressing the idiotype defined by 1F7 are dominant in HIV-1 infection and are also found on many broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. This regulatory idiotypic axis offers opportunities for exploitation in vaccine development for HIV-1, HCV, and other chronic viral infections. PMID:26904499

  5. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) - Barksdale AFB, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The Shuttle Program is organized to support a Shuttle mishap using the resources of the MIT. The afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale AFB. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO). Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team executed a short-term plan that included search, recovery, and identification including coordination with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Temporary operations was set up at Barksdale Air Force Base for two weeks. During this time, coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, AFIP personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. In addition, the crewmember families and NASA management were updated daily. The medical team also dealt with public reports and questions concerning biological and chemical hazards, which were coordinated with SPACEHAB, Inc., Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Medical Operations and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Medicine office. After operations at Barksdale were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term search, recovery and identification plan was developed.

  6. The Arabidopsis Auxin Receptor F-Box Proteins AFB4 and AFB5 Are Required for Response to the Synthetic Auxin Picloram

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Michael J.; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Santner, Aaron; Castillejo, Cristina; Mutka, Andrew M.; O’Malley, Ronan C.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Kunkel, Barbara N.; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is perceived by a family of F-box proteins called the TIR1/AFBs. Phylogenetic studies reveal that these proteins fall into four clades in flowering plants called TIR1, AFB2, AFB4, and AFB6. Genetic studies indicate that members of the TIR1 and AFB2 groups act as positive regulators of auxin signaling by promoting the degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. In this report, we demonstrate that both AFB4 and AFB5 also function as auxin receptors based on in vitro assays. We also provide genetic evidence that AFB4 and AFB5 are targets of the picloram family of auxinic herbicides in addition to indole-3-acetic acid. In contrast to previous studies we find that null afb4 alleles do not exhibit obvious defects in seedling morphology or auxin hypersensitivity. We conclude that AFB4 and AFB5 act in a similar fashion to other members of the family but exhibit a distinct auxin specificity. PMID:26976444

  7. The Arabidopsis Auxin Receptor F-Box Proteins AFB4 and AFB5 Are Required for Response to the Synthetic Auxin Picloram.

    PubMed

    Prigge, Michael J; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Santner, Aaron; Castillejo, Cristina; Mutka, Andrew M; O'Malley, Ronan C; Ecker, Joseph R; Kunkel, Barbara N; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is perceived by a family of F-box proteins called the TIR1/AFBs. Phylogenetic studies reveal that these proteins fall into four clades in flowering plants called TIR1, AFB2, AFB4, and AFB6. Genetic studies indicate that members of the TIR1 and AFB2 groups act as positive regulators of auxin signaling by promoting the degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. In this report, we demonstrate that both AFB4 and AFB5 also function as auxin receptors based on in vitro assays. We also provide genetic evidence that AFB4 and AFB5 are targets of the picloram family of auxinic herbicides in addition to indole-3-acetic acid. In contrast to previous studies we find that null afb4 alleles do not exhibit obvious defects in seedling morphology or auxin hypersensitivity. We conclude that AFB4 and AFB5 act in a similar fashion to other members of the family but exhibit a distinct auxin specificity. PMID:26976444

  8. Measurement of AFB in B± meson production at D0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoganon, J.; D0 Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in the production of B± mesons, AFB( B±) , using B± → J/ ψ K± decays in 10.4 fb-1 of p bar{{p}} collisions at √{{s}} = 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 experiment during Run II of the Tevatron collider. A nonzero asymmetry would indicate a preference for a particular flavor, i.e., b quark or bar{{b}} antiquark, to be produced in the direction of the proton beam. We extract AFB( B±) from a maximum-likelihood fit to the difference between the numbers of forward- and backward-produced B± mesons. We measure an asymmetry consistent with zero: AFB( B±) = [- 0.24±0.41(stat)±0.19(syst)]%.

  9. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  10. Characterization of Afb, a novel bifunctional protein in Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Dehbashi, Sanaz; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Rahil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns and results in pneumonia and bacteremia in adults. A number of S. agalactiae components are involved in colonization of target cells. Destruction of peptidoglycan and division of covalently linked daughter cells is mediated by autolysins. In this study, autolytic activity and plasma binding ability of AFb novel recombinant protein of S. agalactiae was investigated. Materials and Methods: The gbs1805 gene was cloned and expressed. E. coli strains DH5α and BL21 were used as cloning and expression hosts, respectively. After purification, antigenicity and binding ability to plasma proteins of the recombinant protein was evaluated. Results: AFb, the 18KDa protein was purified successfully. The insoluble mature protein revealed the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This insoluble mature protein revealed that it has the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin plasma proteins. Furthermore, in silico analysis demonstrated the AFb has an autolytic activity. Conclusions: AFb is a novel protein capable of binding to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This findings lay a ground work for further investigation of the role of the bacteria in adhesion and colonization to the host. PMID:27092228

  11. Building Energy Audit Report, for Hickam AFB, HI

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A building energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Hickam AFB, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This documents reports the results of that assessment.

  12. Ground winds and winds aloft for Edwards AFB, California (1978 revision)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    Ground level runway wind statistics for the Edwards AFB, California area are presented. Crosswind, headwind, tailwind, and headwind reversal percentage frequencies are given with respect to month and hour for the two major Edwards AFB runways. Also presented are Edwards AFB bivariate normal wind statistics for a 90 degree flight azimuth for altitudes 0 through 27 km. Wind probability distributions and statistics for any rotation of axes can be computed from the five given parameters.

  13. Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Electric baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  14. Bulk growth of high quality nonlinear optical crystals of L-arginine tetrafluoroborate (L-AFB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, C.; Bhat, K.; Wang, W. S.; Tan, A.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    2001-05-01

    Bulk single crystals of L-arginine tetrafluoroborate (L-AFB) a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material has been successfully grown from solution by the temperature lowering method. Solubility of L-AFB was measured in various solvents such as ethanol, methanol, acetone and water. L-AFB was found to have extremely low solubility in acetone, ethanol and methanol. Therefore, it was not feasible to grow L-AFB single crystals using these solvents. However, high quality crystals of L-AFB were successfully grown from aqueous solution by the temperature lowering method, even though the mother liqueur became viscous. Large single crystals of L-AFB were grown with dimensions 78×50×35 mm3 in eight weeks. Growth rate and effects of seed orientation on morphologies of L-AFB crystals were studied. L-AFB crystals belong to a class of organic-inorganic complexes in which the high optical nonlinearity of a pure organic compound is combined with the favorable mechanical and thermally stable properties of an inorganic compound. Bulk single crystals of L-AFB are potential materials for applications in blue-green wavelength region.

  15. 75 FR 32268 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall AFB, FL.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16331... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall AFB... Federal Register April 1, 2010 that establishes Class E airspace at Tyndall AFB, Panama City, FL....

  16. McClellan AFB Management Action Plan (MAP) submittal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-23

    This Management Action Plan ('Action Plan' or 'MAP') contains a status summary of the McClellan Air Force Base (McAFB) environmental restoration and compliance programs and presents a comprehensive strategy for implementing response actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. This strategy integrates activities under both the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) and the Environmental Compliance Program (ECP). This Action Plan is a dynamic document that will be updated on a regular basis using the change-a-page looseleaf binder concept for day-to-day revisions along with a subsection at the end of each chapter to highlight any modifications or innovations since the previous major annual review/update.

  17. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  18. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH. PMID:21614874

  19. Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Aleisa C

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE Aleisa Bloom, (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA) Robert Lyon (bob.lyon@aecom.com), Laurie Stenberg, and Holly Brown (AECOM, Germantown, Maryland, USA) ABSTRACT: Past disposal practices at Dover Air Force Base (AFB), Delaware, created a large solvent plume called Area 6 (about 1 mile long, 2,000 feet wide, and 345 acres). The main contaminants are PCE, TCE, and their degradation products. The remedy is in-situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB). AAB started in 2006 and is focusing on source areas and downgradient plume cores. Direct-push injections occurred in source areas where contamination is typically between 5 and 20 feet below ground surface. Lower concentration dissolved-phased contamination is present downgradient at 35 and 50 feet below ground surface. Here, permanent injection/extraction wells installed in transects perpendicular to the flow of groundwater are used to apply AAB. The AAB substrate is a mix of sodium lactate, emulsified vegetable oil, and nutrients. After eight years, dissolved contaminant mass within the main 80-acre treatment area has been reduced by over 98 percent. This successful application of AAB has stopped the flux of contaminants to the more distal portions of the plume. While more time is needed for effects to be seen in the distal plume, AAB injections will soon cease, and the remedy will transition to natural attenuation. INTRODUCTION Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Science Division (ORNL) and AECOM (formerly URS Corporation) have successfully implemented in situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB) to remediate chlorinated solvent contamination in a large, multi-sourced groundwater plume at Dover Air Force Base (AFB). AAB has resulted in significant reductions of dissolved phase chlorinated solvent concentrations. This plume, called Area 6, was originally over 1 mile in length and over 2,000 feet wide (Figure 1

  20. AFB as a discovery tool for Z' bosons at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomando, E.; Belyaev, A.; Fiaschi, J.; Mimasu, K.; Moretti, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Forward-Backward Asymmetry (AFB) in Z' physics is commonly only perceived as the observable which possibly allows one to interpret a Z' signal by distinguishing different models of such (heavy) spin-1 bosons. In this article, we examine the potential of AFB in setting bounds on or even discovering a Z' at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and show that it might be a powerful tool for this purpose. We analyze two different scenarios: Z' s with a narrow and wide width, respectively. We find that in both cases AFB can complement the cross section in accessing Z' signals.

  1. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  2. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  3. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  4. Compliance through pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Edwards AFB -- Development, results and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Beutelman, H.P.; Lawrence, A.

    1999-07-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), located in the Mojave Desert of southern California, is required to comply with environmental requirements for air pollution emissions, hazardous waste disposal, and clean water. The resources required to meet these many compliance requirements represents an ever increasing financial burden to the base, and to the Department of Defense. A recognized superior approach to environmental management is to achieve compliance through a proactive pollution prevention (P2) program which mitigates, and when possible, eliminates compliance requirements and costs, while at the same time reducing pollution released to the environment. At Edwards AFB, the Environmental Management Office P2 Branch developed and implemented a strategy that addresses this concept, better known as Compliance Through Pollution Prevention (CTP2). At the 91st AWMA Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Edwards AFB presented a paper on its strategy and implementation of its CTP2 concept. Part of that strategy and implementation included accomplishment of process specific focused P2 opportunity assessments (OAs). Starting in 1998, Edwards AFB initiated a CTP2 OA project where OAs were targeted on those operational processes, identified as compliance sites, that contributed most to the compliance requirements and costs at Edwards AFB. The targeting of these compliance sites was accomplished by developing a compliance matrix that prioritized processes in accordance with an operational risk management approach. The Edwards AFB CTP2 PPOA project is the first of its kind within the Air Force Material Command, and is serving as a benchmark for establishment of the CTP2 OA process.

  5. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  6. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable workhorse, the B-52 mothership, rolls out on the Edwards AFB runway after a test flight in 1996. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  7. Sustainability of TCE Removal in the Mulch Biowalls at Altus AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A permeable mulch biowall was installed in June 2002 at Landfill 3 (LF-03), Operable Unit 1 (OU-1), Altus AFB, Oklahoma. The demonstration was conducted by Parsons for the AFCEE Technology Transfer Outreach Office. The biowall is approximately 455 feet long, by 24 feet deep, by...

  8. 76 FR 55553 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... D airspace in the Eglin AFB, FL area (76 FR 38580) Docket No. FAA-2011-0087. Subsequent to... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  9. 77 FR 4457 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Altus AFB, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class D airspace for Altus AFB, OK (76 FR 66866) Docket No. FAA-2011-0630... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  10. ASCANs Harris, Helms, and McArthur during survival training at Fairchild AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidates (ASCANs) (left to right) Bernard J. Harris, Jr, Susan J. Helms, and William S. McArthur, Jr open dehydrated food packages during wilderness survival training at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) in Spokane, Washington. The training was conducted in the mountain forests of Washington from 08-26-90 through 08-30-90.

  11. 33 CFR 334.748 - Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at...

  12. 33 CFR 334.748 - Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at...

  13. 33 CFR 334.748 - Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at...

  14. Response of a WB-47E Airplane to Runway Roughness at Eielson AFB, Alaska, September 1964

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Garland J.; Hall, Albert W.

    1965-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to measure the response of a WB-47E airplane to the roughness of the runway at Eielson AFB, Alaska. The acceleration level in the pilot's compartment and the pitching oscillation of the airplane were found to be sufficiently high to possibly cause pilot discomfort and have an adverse effect on the precision of take-off.

  15. Astronaut Jack R. Lousma in Water Survival Training near Homestead AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Three views documenting Astronaut Jack R. Lousma in Water Survival Training at the Air Force School at Turkey Point, near Homestead AFB. Views include long range view of Lousma parasailing, with tether attached to unseen craft (34035); view of Lousma in water with floatation devices attached to his arms (34036); close-up view of Lousma during parasailing training (34037).

  16. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with mountain range appearing in the background.

  17. 76 FR 38580 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB,...

  18. Studies on the biological functions of CPS1 in AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Fu, Rao; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-10-10

    Carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as treated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogenesis mycotoxin. In this study, we firstly confirmed that AFB1 down-regulated the expression of CPS1 in a dose-dependent manner. At the meantime, both siRNA knock down of CPS1 and AFB1 treatment inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis. To further analysis the function of CPS1, the interacting proteins of CPS1 were searched by Co-IP, and three interacting proteins including type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT1), albumin (ALB), and ubiquitin C (UBC) were found. Both KRT1 and ALB were new interacting proteins for CPS1. Our further study showed that CPS1 was regulating interacted and colocalized with KRT1 and ALB, and the intensity correlation was changed by AFB1. KRT1, ALB and CPS1 were all reported to play an important role in differentiation and tissue specialization. These results may offer an increasing understand that CPS1 might have a function in differentiation. PMID:27425868

  19. ASCAN Helms sets up tent during survival training at Fairchild AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Susan J. Helms gathers pine branches to create bedding under a tent she has constructed from a parachute. Helms, along with her classmates, is participating in wilderness survival training at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) Spokane, Washington. The training was conducted in the mountain forests of Washington from 08-26-90 through 08-30-90.

  20. Source-emission testing of the Rail Shop Media Blast Booth, Hill AFB, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, R.J.

    1990-10-01

    At the request of HQ Ogden ALC/EM, personnel of the AFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source emission testing for particulates on the Rail Shop Media Blast Booth at Hil AFB. Testing was performed on 29 and 30 Aug 90. The Utah Bureau of Air Quality required testing for approval order compliance. Particulate emissions were above the emission limits allowed by the State of Utah. Action is recommended to bring the media blast booth into compliance.

  1. ASCAN Precourt floats on life raft during Elgin AFB water survival training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Charles J. Precourt, wearing helmet and flight suit, floats in pool using an underarm flotation device and a single person life raft at Elgin Air Force Base (AFB) in Pensacola, Florida, during water survival exercises. The training familiarized the candidates with survival techniques necessary in the event of a water landing. ASCANs participated in the exercises from 08-14-90 through 08-17-90.

  2. Group 13, 1990 ASCAN Ellen Ochoa during Elgin AFB water survival training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Group 13, 1990 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Ellen Ochoa, wearing flight suit and underarm flotation device (life jacket), examines survival equipment (shaped like an anchor) as a training instructor describes its operation. Ochoa and the instructor stand on the poolside of a training facility at Elgin Air Force Base (AFB) in Pensacola, Florida. Ochoa, along with 22 other ASCANs, is participating in water survival training from 08-14-90 through 08-17-90.

  3. Nitrate-responsive miR393/AFB3 regulatory module controls root system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Elena A; Araus, Viviana; Lu, Cheng; Parry, Geraint; Green, Pamela J; Coruzzi, Gloria M; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2010-03-01

    One of the most striking examples of plant developmental plasticity to changing environmental conditions is the modulation of root system architecture (RSA) in response to nitrate supply. Despite the fundamental and applied significance of understanding this process, the molecular mechanisms behind nitrate-regulated changes in developmental programs are still largely unknown. Small RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as master regulators of gene expression in plants and other organisms. To evaluate the role of sRNAs in the nitrate response, we sequenced sRNAs from control and nitrate-treated Arabidopsis seedlings using the 454 sequencing technology. miR393 was induced by nitrate in these experiments. miR393 targets transcripts that code for a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor and for the auxin receptors TIR1, AFB1, AFB2, and AFB3. However, only AFB3 was regulated by nitrate in roots under our experimental conditions. Analysis of the expression of this miR393/AFB3 module, revealed an incoherent feed-forward mechanism that is induced by nitrate and repressed by N metabolites generated by nitrate reduction and assimilation. To understand the functional role of this N-regulatory module for plant development, we analyzed the RSA response to nitrate in AFB3 insertional mutant plants and in miR393 overexpressors. RSA analysis in these plants revealed that both primary and lateral root growth responses to nitrate were altered. Interestingly, regulation of RSA by nitrate was specifically mediated by AFB3, indicating that miR393/AFB3 is a unique N-responsive module that controls root system architecture in response to external and internal N availability in Arabidopsis. PMID:20142497

  4. 78 FR 67131 - Notice of Advisory Committee Closed Meeting; U.S. Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Officer's contact information can be obtained from the GSA's FACA Database-- http://facasms.fido.gov... Conference Center, Building 432, 906 SAC Boulevard, Offutt AFB, Nebraska 68113. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION..., Offutt AFB, NE 68113-6030. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This meeting is being held under the provisions...

  5. Diversity and specificity: auxin perception and signaling through the TIR1/AFB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renhou; Estelle, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Auxin is a versatile plant hormone that plays an essential role in most aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin regulates various growth processes by modulating gene transcription through a SCF(TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA-ARF nuclear signaling module. Recent work has generated clues as to how multiple layers of regulation of the auxin signaling components may result in diverse and specific response outputs. In particular, interaction and structural studies of key auxin signaling proteins have produced novel insights into the molecular basis of auxin-regulated transcription and may lead to a refined auxin signaling model. PMID:25032902

  6. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Rear view captures OV-103 as it glides past photographer to wheel stop showing the tail section (speedbrake/rudder) and three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs). Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with aircraft hangar appearing in the background.

  7. ASCAN Ochoa floats in pool during Elgin AFB water survival training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Ellen Ochoa, wearing helmet and flight suit, climbs into a single person life raft while floating in a pool at Elgin Air Force Base (AFB) in Pensacola, Florida, during water survival exercises. Ochoa's underarm flotation device holds her above the water as she pulls herself into the life raft. The training familiarized the candidates with survival techniques necessary in the event of a water landing. ASCANs participated in the exercises from 08-14-90 through 08-17-90.

  8. Error-prone replication bypass of the primary aflatoxin B1 DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Li, Liang; Makarova, Alena V; Burgers, Peter M; Stone, Michael P; Lloyd, R Stephen

    2014-06-27

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The highest rates of early onset HCCs occur in geographical regions with high aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure, concomitant with hepatitis B infection. Although the carcinogenic basis of AFB1 has been ascribed to its mutagenic effects, the mutagenic property of the primary AFB1-DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua, in mammalian cells has not been studied extensively. Taking advantage of the ability to create vectors containing a site-specific DNA adduct, the mutagenic potential was determined in primate cells. This adduct was highly mutagenic following replication in COS-7 cells, with a mutation frequency of 45%. The spectrum of mutations was predominantly G to T base substitutions, a result that is consistent with previous mutation data derived from aflatoxin-associated HCCs. To assess which DNA polymerases (pol) might contribute to the mutational outcome, in vitro replication studies were performed. Unexpectedly, replicative pol δ and the error-prone translesion synthesis pol ζ were able to accurately bypass AFB1-N7-Gua. In contrast, replication bypass using pol κ was shown to occur with low fidelity and could account for the commonly detected G to T transversions. PMID:24838242

  9. Determination of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Busman, Mark; Liu, Jihong; Zhong, Hongjian; Bobell, John R; Maragos, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionisation coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of a common form of aflatoxin, AFB1, extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument parameter settings were optimised to obtain sensitive and accurate determination of aflatoxin AFB1. 84:16 acetonitrile water extracts of corn were analysed by DART-MS. The lowest calibration level (LCL) for aflatoxin AFB1 was 4 μg kg⁻¹. Quantitative analysis was performed with the use of matrix-matched standards employing the ¹³C-labelled internal standard for AFB1. DART-MS of spiked corn extracts gave linear response in the range 4-1000 μg kg⁻¹. Good recoveries (94-110%) and repeatabilities (RSD = 0.7-6.9%) were obtained at spiking levels of 20 and 100 μg kg⁻¹ with the use of an isotope dilution technique. Trueness of data obtained for AFB1 in maize by DART-MS was demonstrated by analysis of corn certified reference materials. PMID:24588621

  10. Aptamer induced assembly of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots on gold nanoparticles for sensitive detection of AFB1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Yanfen; Wu, Yuanya; Weng, Bo; Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Chang Ming; Yu, Cong

    2016-04-15

    Novel fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N,C-dots) were synthesized and assembled on aptamer modified gold nanoparticles (Aptamer/AuNPs) for the super sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Positively charged N,C-dots were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of pancreatin. The prepared N,C-dots were assembled on aptamer/AuNPs by electrostatic interactions. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots was efficiently quenched. When AFB1 was added to the assay solution, specific interactions between AFB1 and the aptamer caused release of the N,C-dots. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots recovered and the intensity increase could be used to calculate the amount of AFB1 added. The assay exhibits super-high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5 pg/mL (16 pM) and a wide range of linear response of 5 pg/mL to 2.00 ng/mL. A novel aptasensor is thus successfully constructed, it provides an efficient way for sensitive AFB1 sensing as well as a new technique for aptamer based novel sensor construction. PMID:26584079

  11. SCFTIR1/AFB-auxin signalling regulates PIN vacuolar trafficking and auxin fluxes during root gravitropism

    PubMed Central

    Baster, Paweł; Robert, Stéphanie; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Vanneste, Steffen; Kania, Urszula; Grunewald, Wim; De Rybel, Bert; Beeckman, Tom; Friml, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the phytohormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant development including growth response to gravity. Gravitropic root curvature involves coordinated and asymmetric cell elongation between the lower and upper side of the root, mediated by differential cellular auxin levels. The asymmetry in the auxin distribution is established and maintained by a spatio-temporal regulation of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporter activity. We provide novel insights into the complex regulation of PIN abundance and activity during root gravitropism. We show that PIN2 turnover is differentially regulated on the upper and lower side of gravistimulated roots by distinct but partially overlapping auxin feedback mechanisms. In addition to regulating transcription and clathrin-mediated internalization, auxin also controls PIN abundance at the plasma membrane by promoting their vacuolar targeting and degradation. This effect of elevated auxin levels requires the activity of SKP-Cullin-F-boxTIR1/AFB (SCFTIR1/AFB)-dependent pathway. Importantly, also suboptimal auxin levels mediate PIN degradation utilizing the same signalling pathway. These feedback mechanisms are functionally important during gravitropic response and ensure fine-tuning of auxin fluxes for maintaining as well as terminating asymmetric growth. PMID:23211744

  12. SCFTIR1/AFB-Based Auxin Perception: Mechanism and Role in Plant Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Salehin, Mohammad; Bagchi, Rammyani; Estelle, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Auxin regulates a vast array of growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Auxin responses are highly context dependent and can involve changes in cell division, cell expansion, and cell fate. The complexity of the auxin response is illustrated by the recent finding that the auxin-responsive gene set differs significantly between different cell types in the root. Auxin regulation of transcription involves a core pathway consisting of the TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, and the ARF transcription factors. Auxin is perceived by a transient coreceptor complex consisting of a TIR1/AFB protein and an Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the coreceptor results in degradation of the Aux/IAAs and derepression of ARF-based transcription. Although the basic outlines of this pathway are now well established, it remains unclear how specificity of the pathway is conferred. However, recent results, focusing on the ways that these three families of proteins interact, are starting to provide important clues. PMID:25604443

  13. Normal probabilities for Vandenberg AFB wind components - monthly reference periods for all flight azimuths, 0- to 70-km altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falls, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB), California, wind component statistics are presented to be used for aerospace engineering applications that require component wind probabilities for various flight azimuths and selected altitudes. The normal (Gaussian) distribution is presented as a statistical model to represent component winds at Vandenberg AFB. Head tail, and crosswind components are tabulated for all flight azimuths for altitudes from 0 to 70 km by monthly reference periods. Wind components are given for 11 selected percentiles ranging from 0.135 percent to 99.865 percent for each month. The results of statistical goodness-of-fit tests are presented to verify the use of the Gaussian distribution as an adequate model to represent component winds at Vandenberg AFB.

  14. Blytheville AFB, Arkansas. Water quality management survey. Final report 11-14 Apr 83

    SciTech Connect

    New, G.R.; Gibson, D.P. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    The USAF OEHL conducted an on site water quality management survey at Blytheville AFB. Main areas of interest were (1) the wastewater treatment plant effluent fecal coliform count, and residual chlorine content, and (2) the stream sampling protocol. The drinking water plant, landfill and industrial shops were also included in the survey. Results of the survey indicated that the low residual chlorine content caused high fecal coliform counts in the wastewater effluent. The chemical parameters sampled in the stream monitoring program did not coincide with the requirements of the State of Arkansas and required modification. Recommendations were made to increase the residual chlorine content of the wastewater effluent and to increase the mixing of the chlorine contact chamber. A list of the chemical parameters was included in the report for stream monitoring.

  15. Noise assessment of the rocket sled test track operation at Jolloman AFB, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, W.J.

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the results of noise data measurements of the Holloman AFB rocket-sled test-track operations. Impulse and community noise measurements were made to determine the impact of the rocket-sled noise on the surrounding community. A worst case sled run was measured and used to determine that the rocket sled has very little impact on the community for a worst-case rocket-sled run and little or no impact for the majority of the runs. Recommendations were made to limit the number of people exposed to the rocket sled noise and require test-track personnel to wear hearing protection. Sonic-boom measurement equipment should be purchased to document all sonic booms created by the rocket sled.

  16. Characterization of the geothermal resource at Lackland AFB, San Antonio, Texas. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.W.; Malone, C.R.; Allman, D.W.; Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.

    1983-06-01

    The geothermal resource under Lackland Air Force Base (AFB), San Antonio, Texas was studied. It is the conclusion of the investigators that a geothermal well drilled at the site recommended by this study has a high probability of delivering geothermal fluids in sufficient quantity and at adequate temperatures to support a projected space and domestic hot water heating system. An exploratory production well location is recommended in the southwest sector of the base, based upon geologic conditions and the availability of sufficient open space to support the drilling operation. It is projected that a production well drilled at the recommended location would produce geothermal fluid of 130 to 145/sup 0/F at a rate of approximately 1000 gpm with reasonable fluid drawdowns. The Environmental Assessment for the drilling portion of the project has been completed, and no irreversible or irretrievable impacts are anticipated as a result of this drilling program. The permitting process is proceeding smoothly.

  17. Appendix C -- Soil gas analysis of vadose zone monitoring system installation report for McClellan AFB

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-31

    This appendix compiles the data from gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy measurements of gas samples from McClellan AFB soils collected and analyzed in December, 1995. Compounds detected include: vinyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroethanes, chloroethenes, benzene, chlorobenzenes, propylene, trimethylbenzenes, acetone, toluene, xylenes.

  18. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. 334.1130 Section 334.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB... Point Arguello, unless prior permission is obtained from the Commander, Western Space and Missile...

  3. The lithostratigraphy of a marine kame delta-outwash fan complex at Pease AFB, Newington, NH

    SciTech Connect

    Dineen, R.J.; Manning, S.; McGeehan, K. )

    1993-03-01

    The overburden stratigraphy at Pease AFB is based on over 1,200 wells, borings, piezometers, and test pits, and includes five lithologic units: Fill, Upper Sand (US), Marine Clay and Silt (MCS), Lower Sand (LS), and Till (GT). The US is a yellow brown, poorly sorted sand to silty sand and is massive to laminated, and locally has hummocky bedding. The MCS (the Presumpscot Formation) is a dark gray, massive to laminated sandy to silty clay, and is locally interbedded with silty sand. The MCS contains a trace of organic matter, primarily as fine particles of peat. The LS is a gray to brown, poorly sorted, silty sand to gravelly sand that is massive to planar bedded and locally grades down into GT and/or upward into MCS. The GT consists of a massive to crudely bedded dark gray to dark brown, very poorly sorted, sandy silt to gravelly, silty sand. The US, MCS, LS and upper part of the GT were deposited in a marine environment at or near the ice margin. Pease AFB is built on two large fans of gravelly sand (LS plus US) that are bordered to the east by NW-SE till ridges (drumlins ). The northern-most fan is flat-topped with a surface elevation of 30 m ASL. The southern fan is more hummocky, with a surface elevation of 18.5 m ASL. Both fans coarsen towards the NW, and are interbedded with MCS towards the SE. The apices of the fans overlie deeply-scoured troughs in the rock surface. The fans are interpreted to be kame deltas or submarine outwash fans that are deposited along the retreating Wisconsinan ice margin by concentrated meltwater flow. Later, the US may have been deposited by marine shoreface erosion of the emergent fans as the ice front retreated and sea level fell.

  4. Immuno-physiological alterations from AFB1 in rats counteracted by treatments with Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 and montmorillonite clay mixture.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Jebali, Rania; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Oueslati, Ridha; Abbès, Samir

    2016-09-01

    High contamination by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been detected in Beja province (Tunisia) in many dairy products and animal feed, which has resulted in many tons of cereals and cereals being removed from the market, causing economic loss. While removal represents a means of reducing risk, exposures still occur. Studies have increasingly focused on means of AFB1 biodegradation/elimination using lactic acid bacteria and clay mineral. In the study here, Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 (LP) and montmorilonite clay (MT) were used to reduce the physio-/immunotoxicologic disorders that could develop in rats that underwent AFB1 exposures for a total of 7 consecutive days. The results indicated that rats treated with AFB1 (80 μg/kg BW) alone had significant decreases in lymphocytes in their blood (including B-lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte subtypes, and NK cells), immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and pro-inflammatory cytokines; these rats also had altered oxidative stress status. In contrast, in rats treated with LP + MT (2 × 10(9) cfu/ml [∼ 2 mg/kg] + 0.5 mg MT/kg BW) for a total of 7 days before, concurrent with or after AFB1 treatment, there was a significant blockade/mitigation of each AFB1-impacted parameter. Moreover, treatment with the mixture at any point in relation to AFB1 treatment expectedly caused enhanced TNFα and IL-1β expression relative to control values; all other parameters were comparable to values noted in control rats. Alone, the mixture had no impact on host parameters. From the results here it may be concluded the the LP + MT mixture was effective in protecting these hosts against AFB1-induced immunologic/physiologic disorders and that LP + MT could prevent and/or mitigate AFB1 toxicities in vivo. PMID:27294391

  5. Ultra-rapid real-time PCR for the detection of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB).

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Do-Bu; Lee, Dong-Woo; Kim, Eul-Hwan; Yoon, Byoung-Su

    2008-09-01

    A novel micro-PCR-based detection method, termed ultra-rapid real-time PCR, was applied to the development of a rapid detection for Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB). This method was designed to detect the 16S rRNA gene of P. larvae with a micro-scale chip-based real-time PCR system, GenSpector TMC-1000, which has uncommonly fast heating and cooling rates (10 degrees C per second) and small reaction volume (6microl). In the application of ultra-rapid real-time PCR detection to an AFB-infected larva, the minimum detection time was 7 min and 54s total reaction time (30 cycles), including the melting temperature analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this novel detection method is one of the most rapid real-time PCR-based detection tools. PMID:18571197

  6. Wastewater characterization survey, Victor Valley Wastewater Reclamation Authority and hazardous-waste survey at George AFB, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Binovi, R.D.; Ng, E.K.; Tetla, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is a report of a survey of the Victor Wastewater Reclamation Authority Sewerage system, the sewage treatment plant, and effluent from the various operations at George AFB, California. The scope of work included the characterization of the wastewater from George AFB, as well as characterization of effluents from 29 oil/water separators servicing industrial operations on base, flow measurements at three locations on base, a microbiological evaluation of aeration basin foam, bench-scale activated-sludge studies, and a review of results from previous surveys. Recommendations: (1) AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam) should never be discharged to the sewer. (2) Programming for pretreatment should proceed at selected operations. (3) More waste and wastestream analysis be performed. (4) Upgrade waste accumulation points. (5) Implement an aggressive inspection program for oil/water separators. (6) Cut down on nonessential washing.

  7. Installation restoration program. Phase I. Records search for the 5073rd Air Base Group, Shemya AFB, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greiling, R.W.; Abbott, D.W.; O'Flaherty, P.M.; Steiner, G.J.

    1984-09-21

    A search of USAF, state, and federal agency records and interviews with past and present base personnel and agency representatives was conducted to identify past hazardous-waste generation and disposal practices at Shemya AFB, Alaska. The AFB occupies the entirety of Shemya Island, located at the western end of the Aleutian Islands. Twenty-eight sites were identified and inspected as potential hazardous-waste sites. Numerical ranking of 20 sites was warranted based upon potential for contaminant release and environmental degradation. Petroleum storage, waste disposal, and spills account for the most-frequent and severe problems. Follow-on recommendations include site cleanup and closure, confirmation studies in the vicinity of past spill sites, and enhanced protection of the shallow groundwater aquifer.

  8. Vadose zone monitoring system installation report for McClellan AFB

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.; Faybishenko, B.; James, A.; Freifeld, B.; Salve, R.

    1996-10-31

    Two vadose zone monitoring systems (VZMS) have been installed at Site S-7, in Investigation Cluster 34 (IC 34), in Operable Unit A (OU A) of McClellan AFB. The two boreholes, VZMS-A and VZMS-B were instrumented at depths ranging from approximately 6 ft to 113 ft. Instruments were installed in clusters using a custom-made stainless steel cage with a spring-loaded mechanism allowing instruments to be in contact with the well bore wall once in place. Each cluster contains a tensiometer, suction lysimeter, soil gas probe and thermistor for measuring hydraulic potential, liquid- and gas-phase pressure, temperature of the formation and for collecting samples for chemical analyses in both the liquid and gas phases. Neutron probe logging is performed in two separate, smaller borings, VZMS-NP-1 and VZMS-NP-2, to obtain soil moisture content data. Preliminary details of soil gas analyses, laboratory field testing of soil samples, particle size analyses and neutron probe data are presented.

  9. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 2, Appendix A: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  10. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 4, Appendixes E and F: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  11. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 1: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  12. Source-emission testing of classified-waste incinerator, Griffiss AFB, New York. Final report, 19-23 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.T.

    1989-04-01

    At the request of 416 Strategic Hospital/SGPB, personnel of the AFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source-emission testing for particulates, hydrogen chloride, and opacity on the classified-waste incinerator at Griffiss AFB. The New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC) required testing for permit compliance. Particulate emissions were well above the emission limits allowed by the State of New York. Action is recommended to bring the classified waste incinerator into compliance.

  13. Detection of serum AFB1-lysine adduct in Malaysia and its association with liver and kidney functions.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, S; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, A M; Nurul 'Aqilah, A R; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Kang, Min-Su; Zuraini, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (p<0.01). It was noteworthy that subjects with adduct levels greater than average (>6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (p<0.01), GGT (p<0.05) and creatinine (p<0.01). Nevertheless, only the level of total bilirubin, (r=0.347, p-value=0.003) and creatinine (r=0.318, p-value=0.007) showed significant and positive correlation with the level of AFB1-lysine adduct. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to aflatoxin in Malaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in

  14. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Xue, Kathy S.; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A.; Elmore, Sarah E.; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the GI tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer-344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25 or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1/kg b.w. and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1-albumin, urinary AF (AFM1), and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 hr. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging between 45 to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67 and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1-albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  15. 23. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1985 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1985 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevation drawings of nose dock nos. 491, 492, and 493. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 3. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Blast deflector fence plan. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 4. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Blast deflector fence plan, elevations, and details. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 26. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor and ceiling plan, interior elevations, detail sections, dock nos. 491, 492, and 493. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 15. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in STRATCOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in STRATCOM Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of crew members at work in battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 24. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations and sectinos for fabric closure (gasket) for hangar doors. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 16. Photographic copy of photograph, 1973 (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of photograph, 1973 (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view showing Major General Jerry Johnson and crew at work in battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 13. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Looking glass aircraft on runway. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of two crew members operating the data display system in the battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations of entire building exterior. Includes elevation, plan and details of the addition's interior stairs. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan of entire building. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Plan, elevations, sections, and details - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Water Supply Building, Southwest of West corner of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan and section. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Sections and details, both buildings. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1964 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1964 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior isometric with pump equipment, building no. 528. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan, roof plan, and elevations, both buildings. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. Defining Binding Efficiency and Specificity of Auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA Co-receptor Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Structure–activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure–activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding. PMID:24313839

  12. 76 FR 60811 - Notice of Advisory Committee Closed Meeting; U.S. Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    .... SUMMARY: On August 23, 2011 (76 FR 52642), the United States Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group... Center, Building 432, 906 SAC Boulevard, Offutt Air Force Base (AFB), Nebraska 68113. Pursuant to...

  13. Installation-restoration program (IRP) Stage 7, remedial investigation/feasibility study comprehensive CERCLA work plan for McClellan AFB/EM, McClellan AFB, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    In 1979, officials at McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) in California began to suspect that past waste disposal practices may be contaminating the ground water in the area. At least four areas of potential ground water contamination needing further investigation. A comprehensive program was developed to maintain drinking water quality and to remediate the contamination. Through the operation and maintenance of aircraft, McClellan AFB has been engaged in operations that involve the use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials including: industrial solvents, caustic cleaners, electroplating chemicals, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), low-level radioactive wastes, and a variety of fuel oils and lubricants. Hazardous substances have percolated into aquifers. Ground water testing identified the presence of volatile organic compounds in on- and off-base wells. Surface water drainage includes several creeks within the area watersheds. These creeks receive contaminants and toxic hazards from on base drainage and then in turn merge with several tributaries, and exit to the west.

  14. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1. PMID:27529243

  15. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, Zenaida M; Cervancia, Cleofas R; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Tolentino, Mitos M; Abrera, Gina B; Cobar, Ma Lucia C; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Sabino, Noel G; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C; Feliciano, Chitho P

    2011-10-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a ⁶⁰Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D₁₀) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10⁵- 9 × 10³ spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D(min)) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to γ-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. PMID:21683605

  16. Public health assessment for USAF Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home AFB, Elmore County, Idaho, Region 10. CERCLIS Number ID3572124557; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-25

    Mountain Home Air Force Base (Mountain Home AFB) is located approximately 50 miles southeast of Boise and 10 miles southwest of the city of Mountain Home in Elmore County, Idaho. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed Mountain Home AFB on the National Priority List on August 30, 1990, as a result of concerns regarding groundwater contamination throughout the base, and soil contamination at the Fire Training Area and a closed sanitary landfill. Contaminants of potential concern are metals, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum hydrocarbons. On the basis of a review of available information on contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water and sediment, ATSDR concludes that Mountain Home AFB should be assigned to the No Apparent Public Health Hazard category.

  17. 17. Photographic copy of photograph, 1971 (original photograph printed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph, 1971 (original photograph printed in "55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing: A Decade at Offutt AFB, 16 Aug. 1966 to 16 Aug., 1976," by Col. Guy H. Winstead, Jr. and SSGT Jerome E. Schroeder, 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of Lt. General Glen W. Martin "turning the key" during a practice launch of minuteman missiles. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. F. E. Warren AFB, Cheyenne, Wyoming. Revised uniform summary of surface weather observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report is a six-part statistical summary of surface weather observations for F E Warren AFB, Cheyenne, Wyoming. It contains the following parts: (A) Weather Conditions; Atmospheric Phenomena; (B) Precipitation, Snowfall and Snow Depth (daily amounts and extreme values); (C) Surface winds; (D) Ceiling Versus Visibility; Sky Cover; (E) Psychrometric Summaries (daily maximum and minimum temperatures, extreme maximum and minimum temperatures, psychrometric summary of wet-bulb temperature depression versus dry-bulb temperature, means and standard deviations of dry-bulb, wet-bulb and dew-point temperatures and relative humidity); and (F) Pressure Summary (means, standard, deviations, and observation counts of station pressure and sea-level pressure). Data in this report are presented in tabular form, in most cases in percentage frequency of occurrence or cumulative percentage frequency of occurrence tables.

  19. Effect of Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations on the Performance of AFB-MFC Enriched with High-Strength Synthetic Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian-sheng; Yang, Ping; Li, Chong-ming; Guo, Yong; Lai, Bo; Wang, Ye; Feng, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate on the performance of microbial fuel cell, a system combining an anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was employed for high-strength nitrogen-containing synthetic wastewater treatment. Before this study, the AFB-MFC had been used to treat high-strength organic wastewater for about one year in a continuous flow mode. The results showed that when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased from 1700 mg/L to 4045 mg/L and 545 mg/L to 1427 mg/L, respectively, the nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen removal efficiencies were both above 99%; the COD removal efficiency went up from 60.00% to 88.95%; the voltage was about 375 ± 15 mV while the power density was at 70 ± 5 mW/m2. However, when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were above 4045 mg/L and 1427 mg/L, respectively, the removal of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, COD, voltage, and power density were decreased to be 86%, 88%, 77%, 180 mV, and 17 mW/m2 when nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased to 4265 mg/L and 1661 mg/L. In addition, the composition of biogas generated in the anode chamber was analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Nitrogen gas, methane, and carbon dioxide were obtained. The results indicated that denitrification happened in anode chamber. PMID:26495144

  20. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli(AFB) External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Muluken; Jerene, Degu; Alem, Genetu; Seid, Jemal; Belachew, Feleke; Kassie, Yewulsew; Habte, Dereje; Negash, Solomon; Ayana, Gonfa; Girma, Belaineh; Haile, Yared K.; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Suarez, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, external quality assurance (EQA) services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking. Materials and Methods The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP). A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN). The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the readings of microscopic centers. Results We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively. Conclusion Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals’ capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued

  1. Control efficiency determination of sudden expansion incinerator bldg 348, Kelly AFB, Texas. Final report, 19 July 1995-11 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Compliance emissions testing and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) destruction efficiency determination were conducted on the Sudden Expansion (SUE) Incinerator located at the Kelly AFB Fuel Accessory Test Facility, Bldg 348. The purpose of the Kelly AFB SUE Incinerator is to destroy calibration fluid vapors emitted from fuel accessory test stands located in Bldg 348. The incinerator can also be used to destroy liquid waste calibration fluid by burning it as a supplemental fuel. Emissions testing was conducted during combustion of both vapors and liquid calibration fluid. For purposes of determining the incinerator VOC destruction efficiency, monitoring for Total VOC concentration in the inlet air stream was conducted on 19-20 July 1995. Emissions testing of the incinerator exhaust was conducted on 10-11 January 1996 and included monitoring for Total VOC, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and visible emissions.

  2. Source-emission testing of hospital and classified-waste incinerators, Plattsburgh AFB, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Source-emission testing for particulates and hydrogen chloride emissions was conducted on the USAF Hospital pathological incinerator at Plattsburgh AFB. This survey was requested to evaluate emissions with respect to a proposed New York State Standard for medical care facility-waste incinerators. The 380 BMW/MSS classified-waste incinerator was also tested because of concerns that similar emissions could be produced from this unit. Results indicate that the hospital incinerator did not meet the present air-emission standards or proposed standards with the exception of hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions. The classified-waste incinerator met both standards with respect to visible emissions but did not meet the standards for particulate emissions. Although not required by present or proposed regulations, the classified waste incinerator was evaluated for HCl emissions; results indicate that this unit met the proposed HCl emissions standards for infectious waste incinerators. Since only one sample run of the three required by testing methods could be accomplished on the classified-waste unit, results should only be used as an indicator of performance and not as definite evidence of either meeting or failing to meet regulations.

  3. Hazardous-waste technical-assistance survey, McChord AFB, Washington. Final report, 22-26 Oct 90

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, L.B.

    1991-03-01

    A hazardous waste survey was conducted at McChord AFB, Washington, from 22-26 Oct 90 which addressed hazardous waste management and waste disposal practices, explored opportunities for waste minimization, and determined waste-streams. Recommendations include: (1) Shops using aircraft soap should switch to a milder soap; (2) Consider using a siliceous-based absorbant; (3) Use a contractor who accepts wet batteries or neutralize the acid; (4) Accumulation point managers should maintain a log; (5) Conduct frequent refresher training; (6) Upgrade accumulation sites; (7) Analyze used paint filters; (8) Dispose of anti-freeze in the sanitary sewer; (9) Sample NDI chemicals to determine if hazardous; (10) Update the Waste Analysis Plan; (11) Find a method to recover solvent from the washrack; (12) Entomology needs to comply with FIFRA; (13) Triple-rinse pesticide containers; (14) List all accumulation sites and managers in the hazardous waste management plan; (15) Use an off-the-shelf filtration unit in the waterfall paint booths; (16) Label all hazardous waste drums; (17) Dispose of waste latex paint as municiple waste; (18) Disposal of old hazardous waste drums; and (19) Analyze shop rags from CATM to determine toxicity.

  4. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 3, Appendixes B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  5. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  6. Monitoring and data analysis for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS), McClellan AFB. Quarterly status report, May 15, 1997--August 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Salve, R.; Freifeld, B.

    1997-08-01

    This report contains information on field and laboratory work performed between May 15th and August 15th 1997 at site S-7 in IC 34, at McClellan AFB. At this location, a Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is currently being used to collect subsurface data including hydraulic potential, soil gas pressure, moisture content, water chemistry, gas chemistry, and temperature. This report describes: (1) re-calibration of pressure transducers; (2) moisture content changes, based on neutron logging; (3) gas-phase VOC concentrations; (4) aqueous-phase VOC concentrations; (5) temperature profiles; and (6) pressure readings.

  7. Compliance testing of phosphoric acid anodizing line wet scrubber, metal bonding facility, Building 375, Kelly AFB, Texas. Final report, 5 January-10 January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    At the request of HQ-SA-ALC/EM, personnel of the AFOEHL Air-Quality Function conducted source-emission testing of the exhaust from the phosphoric acid anodizing tank line, metal-bonding facility, Bldg 375, Kelly AFB TX. The survey was conducted to satisfy special conditions of Texas Air Control Board (TACB) Permit Exemption X-16361 which required determination of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, total chromium, and hexavalent chromium emissions from the wet scrubber control device on the anodizing-line exhaust system. TACB will analyze the emission results and make the final determination as to whether additional control is needed on the anodizing-line exhaust.

  8. Monitoring and Data Analysis for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS), McClellan AFB. Quarterly Status Report (2/20/98 - 5/20/98)

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Mountford, H.S.Monitoring and Data Analysis; for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System; Mountford, H.S.; Dahlquist, R.; Rodriguez, S.J.

    1998-06-18

    This report contains information on field and laboratory work performed between February 20th, 1998 and May 20th, 1998, at site S-7 in IC 34, at McClellan AFB. At this location, a Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) (LBNL, 1996) is currently being used to collect subsurface data including hydraulic potential, soil gas pressure, moisture content, water chemistry, gas chemistry, and temperature. This report describes: moisture content changes, based on neutron logging; gas-phase VOC concentrations; aqueous-phase VOC concentrations; temperature profiles; and installation of new instrument cluster.

  9. 14. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Detail of funnel-shaped drogue that holds the trailing wire antenna, a component of the aircraft's communication system. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 25. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations, plans,and sections for galvanized-steel wall and roof cladding, dock nos. 491, 492, and 493. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. Structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing properties of heteroglycan isolated from a somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB) of Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sukesh; Maity, Kankan K; Bhunia, Sanjay K; Dey, Biswajit; Mandal, Soumitra; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-09-27

    A water soluble polysaccharide isolated from the hot aqueous extract of the fruit bodies of the somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB), raised through protoplast fusion between the strains of Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea was found to consist of d-glucose, d-galactose, and d-mannose in a molar ratio of nearly 4:1:1 and showed macrophage, splenocyte, and thymocyte activation. On the basis of sugar analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: [structure: see text]. PMID:21742315

  12. Enhanced data analysis for the VZMS: Conceptual model design and initial application for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS), McClellan AFB. 1998 semi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    1998-06-14

    The VZMS project at McClellan AFB involves both vadose zone data collection as well as enhanced data analysis. The purpose of enhanced data analysis is to develop conceptual models to carry out model validation and evaluation, as well as sensitivity and predictive modeling studies. Enhanced data analysis consists primarily of T2VOC forward simulations and ITOUGH2 inverse modeling. The methodology the authors employ in the VZMS project involves developing a conceptual model and iteratively updating it based on the agreement between model results and VZMS data. They demonstrate the development of an initial T2VOC conceptual model for the S-7 site based on data from instrument cluster VZMS-B. Lithologic data from the drilling logs along with empirical relations for estimating permeability and sediment moisture retention characteristics are used to define the layering of four different sediment types. The authors adjusted the layering of the sediments manually until the sediment moisture content profile from the T2VOC simulation of the gravity-capillary equilibrium agreed well with observed neutron probe data. Using this updated conceptual model, they performed inverse modeling using ITOUGH2 to find bet-fit absolute permeability values based on the minimization of differences between simulated and actual soil-gas pressure measurements.

  13. First Airswot Interferometric Radar Water Surface Elevations and Flooded Inundation Extent from the Sacramento River and Edwards AFB Wetland Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Smith, L. C.; Gleason, C. J.; Baney, O. N.; Chu, V. W.; Bennett, M. M.; Pavelsky, T.; Sadowy, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's forthcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission aims to quantify global freshwater fluxes from space using Ka-band interferometric radar. AirSWOT is the airborne calibration/validation instrument for SWOT with first-pass data collected over the Sacramento River in May 2013 and a wetland complex on Edwards AFB (Piute Ponds) in May 2014. Here, AirSWOT elevation and coherence data are compared with high resolution airborne imagery and concurrent in-situ field mappings of inundation area and water surface elevation. For the Sacramento River, AirSWOT water surface elevations are compared with field-surveyed elevations collected using a high precision GPS Lagrangian river drifter escorted down 30 km of river length. Additionally, field mapped river shorelines are compared with shorelines extracted from AirSWOT coherence data. For the Piute Ponds, we use an exhaustive field mapping of inundation extent and flooded vegetation to assess the ability of AirSWOT coherence and backscatter to map shorelines in a complex lake and wetland environment containing varying vegetation and soil moisture conditions.

  14. Measurement of the Inclusive Forward-Backward top quark-antitop quark Production Asymmetry and its Rapidity Dependence dAfb/d(delta y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strycker, Glenn Lloyd

    Early measurements of a large forward-background asymmetry at the CDF [1, 2, 3, 4] and Dempty [5, 6] experiments at Fermilab have generated much recent interest, but were hampered by large uncertainties. We present here a new measurement of the corrected forward-backward asymmetry of pair-produced top quarks, using a high-statistics sample with much improved precision. We study the rapidity, ytop, of the top quark production angle with respect to the incoming parton momentum in both the lab and tt¯ rest frames. We find the corrected forward-backward asymmetries to be Appfb=0.150+/- 0.050stat+/-0.024syst Attfb=0.158+/-0 .072stat+/-0.024syst These results should be compared with the small lab pp¯ frame charge asymmetry expected in QCD at NLO, Afb = 0.050 +/- 0.015 [7, 8, 9, 10]. Additionally, we introduce a measurement of the A fb rapidity dependence dAfbd Dy . We find this to be Attfb Dy<1.0 =0.026+/-0.104stat+/-0.012 syst Attfb Dy>1.0=0.6 11+/-0.210stat+/-0.246syst which we compare with model predictions 0.039 +/- 0.006 and 0.123 +/- 0.018 for the inner and outer rapidities, respectively.

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): American Lake Gardens (McCord AFB - Area D), Pierce County, WA. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-19

    The American Lake Gardens (McChord AFB-Area D) site is an active U.S. Air Force base located at McChord Air Force Base, Pierce County, Washington. The site consists of two areas, Area D and American Lake Garden Tract (ALGT). From the mid-1940's to the present, no known industrial activities have occurred in the ALGT area; however, seven waste disposal sites have operated within the Area D portion of the site. Concurrent with DOD investigations, EPA discovered TCE in ground water monitoring wells installed at the ALGT, and in 1984, concluded that waste disposal sites in Area D were the likely source of ground water contamination. The ROD addresses remediation of the contaminated onsite and offsite ground water plume, as a final remedy. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; other organics; and metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  16. 77 FR 2052 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ...'', dated February 8, 1996 (February 20, 1996, 61 FR 6427). Dated: January 10, 2012. Aaron Siegel, Alternate... leadership, former USSTRATCOM leadership and notable civilians in the local area, state government officials, US government leadership for Nebraska, Offutt AFB (55th Wing). Categories of records in the...

  17. System design study to reduce capital and operating cost of a moving distributor, AFB advanced concept - comparison with an oil-fired boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mah, C.S.; West, L.K.; Anderson, R.E.; Berkheimer, I.L.; Cahill, D.V.

    1985-12-01

    The Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, under contract with the United States Department of Energy, has performed a comparative economic study of the Aerojet Universal Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (UAFBC) system and a coventional atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. The program title, ''System Design Study to Reduce Capital and Operating Cost and Bench Scale Testing of a Moving Distributor, AFB Concept,'' is a good description of the general objective of the program. The specific objective was to compare the UAFBC with the conventional AFBC in terms of normalized steam cost. The boilers were designed for 150,00 lb/hr of steam at 650 psig and 750/sup 0/F. The reference coal used in the analysis was Pittsburgh No. 8 coal with a sulfur content of 4.3% and a higher heating value of 12,919 Bru/lb. The analysis assumed a plant life of 20 years and a discount rate of 15%. The UAFBC systems included the usual elements of the conventional cola-fired AFBC steam plant, but the coal preparation sysbsystem for the UAFBC was considerably simpler because the system can use ''run-of-mine'' coal. The UAFBC boiler itself consisted of a staged-combustion fluidized-bed, superimposed over a static bed, the latter supported by a moving distributor. It incorporated a fines burnup combustor, an entrained reciculating gas cleanup bed, and conventional convection boiler. The key features of the UAFBC design were: High fuel flexibility; low NO/sub x/ emission; and superior turndown capability. 30 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. OsTIR1 and OsAFB2 Downregulation via OsmiR393 Overexpression Leads to More Tillers, Early Flowering and Less Tolerance to Salt and Drought in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaojin; Fang, Zhongming; Tian, Changen; Duan, Jun; Wang, Yaqin; Zhang, Mingyong

    2012-01-01

    The microRNA miR393 has been shown to play a role in plant development and in the stress response by targeting mRNAs that code for the auxin receptors in Arabidopsis. In this study, we verified that two rice auxin receptor gene homologs (OsTIR1 and OsAFB2) could be targeted by OsmiR393 (Os for Oryza sativa). Two new phenotypes (increased tillers and early flowering) and two previously observed phenotypes (reduced tolerance to salt and drought and hyposensitivity to auxin) were observed in the OsmiR393-overexpressing rice plants. The OsmiR393-overexpressing rice demonstrated hyposensitivity to synthetic auxin-analog treatments. These data indicated that the phenotypes of OsmiR393-overexpressing rice may be caused through hyposensitivity to the auxin signal by reduced expression of two auxin receptor genes (OsTIR1 and OsAFB2). The expression of an auxin transporter (OsAUX1) and a tillering inhibitor (OsTB1) were downregulated by overexpression of OsmiR393, which suggested that a gene chain from OsmiR393 to rice tillering may be from OsTIR1 and OsAFB2 to OsAUX1, which affected the transportation of auxin, then to OsTB1, which finally controlled tillering. The positive phenotypes (increased tillers and early flowering) and negative phenotypes (reduced tolerance to salt and hyposensitivity to auxin) of OsmiR393-overexpressing rice present a dilemma for molecular breeding. PMID:22253868

  19. Microbial effects on sorption and transport of actinides in tuff samples from the Nevada Test Site and soils from McGuire AFB, NJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.; Gostic, R.; Gostic, J.; Czerwinski, K.; Moser, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    The sorption and behavior of various actinides were examined for two sets of environmental samples. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) harbors a variety of radionuclides resulting from atomic weapons testing from the 1950s-1990s. Modeling the transport of radionuclides at the NTS is difficult because each detonation cavity is a unique environment with distinct hydrologic characteristics, chemical composition, and microbial community structure. McGuire AFB was the site of an explosion that resulted in the burning of a BOMARC nuclear missile and deposition of particles containing high-fired oxides of Am, Pu, and U in soils on the base. Analysis of the NTS samples focused on sorption/desorption of 233-U and 241-Am in the presence/absence of bacteria, and work on the BOMARC cores addressed the potential role of microorganisms in mediating particle degradation and movement. Batch experiments with various NTS tuff samples and strains of bacteria showed that sorption of actinides may be enhanced by >25% under certain conditions by bacteria. Sorption of 233-U was highly dependent on carbonate concentrations in the liquid matrix, while 241-Am was unaffected. Different bacterial species also affected sorption differently. Sorption kinetics for both actinides were rapid, with maximum sorption usually occurring within 4 hours. Actinides bound tightly to tuff and little desorption occurred in carbonate-free batch experiments. Column experiments showed that bacterial cultures in minimal salts buffer desorbed significantly more 233-U from tuff than low carbonate NTS water, but less than 30 mM bicarbonate buffer. Hot particles in the BOMARC cores were located using CT mapping and were extracted from the soil prior to analysis of core sections by gamma spectroscopy. Subcores for DNA extraction and culturing were collected from soil in direct contact with hot particles. The extracted particles consisted of a mixture of weapons-grade Pu, 241-Am and 235-U and ranged in activity from 5-66 k

  20. Heteroglycan from an alkaline extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB) of Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea: structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing properties.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Sanjoy Kumar; Dey, Biswajit; Maity, Kankan K; Patra, Sukesh; Mandal, Soumitra; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2012-06-01

    A water soluble heteroglycan, isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruit bodies of the somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB), raised through protoplast fusion between the strains of Pleorutus florida and Volverilla volvacea, was found to consist of (1→3)-, (1→6)-, (1→3,4)-linked, and terminal β-D-Glcp along with (1→2,6)-α-D-Galp and terminal α-D-Manp in a relative proportion of approximately 1:1:1:1:1:1. This polysaccharide exhibited strong immunostimulating activity of macrophages as well as splenocytes and thymocytes. Structural investigation was carried out using sugar analysis, methylation analysis; periodate oxidation study, and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of the above mentioned experiments, the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: [formula see text]. PMID:22572124

  1. Compliance testing of Consumat Silver Reclamation Incinerator Number 4, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    At the request of HQ SAC/SGPB compliance testing Consumeat Silver Reclamation Incinerator No. 4 (particulate emissions) was accomplished 26-28 Jan 89. Visible emissions were evaluated by the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control on-site observer. Results indicate the incinerator met the standard for visible emissions. The survey was to determine compliance with the emission standards as defined under Nebraska Air Pollution Control Rules and Regulations. Results indicate the incinerator met particulate standards.

  2. X-31 in Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

  3. ENHANCED REMEDIATION DEMONSTRATIONS AT HILL AFB: INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine enhanced aquifer remediation technologies were demonstrated side-by-side at a Hill Air Force Base Chemical Disposal Pit/Fire Training Area site. The demonstrations were performed inside 3 x 5 m cells isolated from the surrounding shallow aquifer by steel piling. The site w...

  4. System design study to reduce capital and operating costs and bench-scale testing of a circulating-bed AFB [atmospheric pressure fluidized bed] advanced concept: Phase 1, Design, cost estimate, and cost comparison for MWK circulating fluid bed combustor and oil-fired boilers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, P.; Lin, Y.Y.; Hsiao, K.H.; Richards, S.R.; Wagner, C.; Settle, W.H.; Bryant, J.; Gorman, W.A.; Newlin, T.; Shires, P.J.; James, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued an RFP for a "System Design Study to Reduce Capital and Operating Cost and Bench Scale Testing of a Circulating-Bed AFB Advanced Concept." The design and cost study of a 150,000 pounds per hour steam boiler comprised Phase-I of the RFP. The objective was to produce a design with improved performance and reduced capital and operating costs compared with conventional atmospheric pressure fluidized bed (AFB) boilers. The final result was a significant reduction of capital cost - 36% below the lowest AFB plant cost. The steam cost was 24% below the corresponding cost for the AFB process. In June 1985, DOE issued a Change Order (C001) to the Phase-I study in order for MWK to design and estimate the cost for a scaled-down coal-fired (Illinois No. 6, 3% S) CFBC plant producing low pressure and low temperature steam (75,000lbs/hr, 200 psig, 387{degree}F), and to compare the costs -capital and steam costs -with those for a packaged high sulfur (3%) fuel oil-fired boiler, which is of the same capacity and requires SO{sub 2} removal. An additional objective was to estimate the cost for a No. 2 fuel oil-fired boiler that does not need any SO{sub 2} scrubber. An evaluation of the sensitivity of the steam cost to the oil-fired boiler capital cost and to fuel prices was also to be undertaken. The cost of steam produced by the No. 6 fuel oil boiler is 52% higher than the cost for CFBC, and the corresponding cost for the No. 2 fuel oil plant is 43% higher. Again, a large advantage for the CFBC comes from the low price of coal relative to that of oil. The large cost advantage of steam calculated for the MWK CFBC using coal as a fuel over the oil-fired boilers would remain even in the worst case scenario of a declining oil price accompanied by a steady coal price. 7 refs., 25 figs., 34 tabs.

  5. TRANSECT STUDY OF THE INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION TEST PLOT: DOVER AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work described in this report is part of a project undertaken by the Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Action Team of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum, a joint U.S. Federal agency-industry collaboration, to study the natural attenuation of chlorinated ethen...

  6. X-31 in Banked Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

  7. X-31 #1 in Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584) flies over Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1993. Aircraft 584 completed 292 flights during the Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) program before being lost on January 19, 1995 when icing in the nose probe caused the flight control computer to receive bad data. German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang ejected after the aircraft became uncontrollable. The program continued, using the second aircraft (Bu. No. 164585). The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

  8. STREAM INJECTION INTO FRACTURE BEDROCK AT LORING AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine, was used for the disposal of drums containing spent chlorinated solvents, mainly tetrachloroethene (PCE). After closure of the base, surface geophysics were used to locate the drums, and they were removed. Subs...

  9. First Apollo 11 sample return containers arrive at Ellington AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The first Apollo 11 sample return container, containing lunar surface material, arrives at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. Happily posing for photographs with the rock box are (left to right) George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC); U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA HQ.; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director (almost obscured); Eugene G. Edmonds, MSC Photographic Technology Laboratory; RIchard S. Johnston (in back), Special Assistant to the MSC Director; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director.

  10. Dog Guide Training: AFB Directory of Services Listings

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nypl.org/locations/tid/55/node/36647 New York State Education Department: Adult Career and Continuing Education Services 99 Washington Avenue One Commerce Plaza Albany, NY 12234 (518) 474-1711 (Local) ( ...

  11. PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF THE PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER AT DOVER AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on column tests conducted between February and June 1997, NERL recommended that in terms of effectiveness in achieving cleanup standards and kinetics, a pyrite-iron combination ranked as the best reactive medium (EPA, 1997). Based on this recommendation, in December 1997 B...

  12. AFB's Computerized Travel Aid: Two Years of Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Progress on the computerized travel aid, an electronic device, using elements of the Polaroid Sonar Camera and a microprocessor, for visually handicapped persons is reviewed, and research on the effectiveness of various models noted. Recommended modifications touch on aspects of mounting, beam shape, and audible outputs. (CL)

  13. Ground winds and winds aloft Edwards AFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    Ground level runway wind statistics cover crosswind, tailwind, and headwind reversal percentage frequencies with respect to month and hour for the two major runways. Also presented are bivariate normal wind statistics for a 90 degree flight azimuth for altitudes 0 through 27 km. Wind probability distributions, synthetic vector wind profiles, and statistics for any rotation of axes are computed from five given parameters.

  14. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  15. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Outside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., a crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite is lowered to the ground before being moved inside. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite is moved inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. NOAA-L is part of the Polar- Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the uncrating of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite arrives at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. Perseus B over Edwards AFB on a Development Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely-piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in April1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  16. Perseus B Heads for Landing on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft nears touchdown at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  1. Perseus B Heads for Landing on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft approaches the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center in April 1998. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  2. Critique and Summary of the Chanute AFB CBE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himwich, H. A., Ed.

    Chanute Air Force Base was the first military training center to undertake an extensive investigation of the use of the PLATO IV system in technical training. The service test was to compare a conventionally taught course in general vehicle maintenance with a course taught with computer-based instructional materials. Part I of this document is the…

  3. Astronaut Virgil Grissom and family at Patrick AFB airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom and his family are shown at the airport at Patrick Air Force Base facing a crowd of news media representatives. Grissom is speaking into microphones for the news media.

  4. 9. Photograph copy of construction drawing, 1964 (original drawing in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph copy of construction drawing, 1964 (original drawing in Building No. 301, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska). Site plan of project looking glass historic district and Offutt Air Force Base. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. Treatability study for Hill AFB`s Operable Unit-1: Enhanced microaerobic dechlorination using various electron donors. MasMajor report

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, P.G.

    1999-05-13

    A treatability study of the microaerobic biodegradation of cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) was completed using a series of eight continuously operated columns filled with contaminated soils from Hill Air Force Base`s Operable Unit 1. Columns were supplied groundwater from the site, vitamins and yeast, and an electron donor solution containing one of the following donors: n-butyric acid, benzoic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, n-propanol, or toluene. Concentrations of c-DCE varied over six months and ranged from 2736 micrograms/L to 30 micrograms/L. Though attempted as an anaerobic study, the ability to continuously eliminate oxygen from an active system proved difficult and columns operated as microaerobic systems. In all columns the degradation of c-DCE was observed, however, the removal efficiencies determined by comparing the influent and effluent concentrations were highly inconsistent throughout the experiment. By comparing the background columns to the columns supplied electron donors, it does not appear the addition of vitamins or electron donors enhance the indigenous microorganism`s ability to remove c-DCE. While c-DCE removal within the background column averaged 17%, the vitamin amended control column averaged only 7% c-DCE removal within the column and the electron donor supplied columns averaged between 7% removal and 5% apparent production. Of the electron donors supporting c-DCE removal, benzoic acid demonstrated 7% removal followed closely by propionic acid and n-propanol, both showing 5% c-DCE removal.

  6. 6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study analysis asphalt storage area, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska. The site is located approximately 2000 feet from the east end of the east/west runway and includes approximately 25 acres. The site was used for asphalt storage and preparation activities during the 1940s and 1950s. Approximately 4,500 drums of asphalt and 29 drums of unknown materials have been abandoned at the site. The drums are located in 32 areas throughout the 25-acre site. Following several decades of exposure to the elements, many of the drums have corroded and leaked to the ground surface. Several acres of soil are inundated with liquid asphalt that has leaked from the drums. Depths of the asphalt range from 6 to 10 inches in areas where surface anomalies have created depressions, and thus a collection point for the asphalt. A 14-x 18-x 4 foot wood frame pit used to support previous asphalt operations is located at the north end of the site. The pit contains approximately 2300 gallons of asphalt. There are also locations where the soil appears to be contaminated by petroleum products other than asphalt.

  8. Pilot-scale in situ vitrification at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold AFB, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Lominac, J.K.; Edwards, R.C. ); Timmerman, C.L. )

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Defense has the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to identify and permanently remediate hazardous material disposal sites at its military bases across the United States. Pursuant to this guidance, Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) selected In Situ Vitrification (ISV) to remediate an old fire training area, Fire Protection Training Area (FPTA) No. 2. The ISV technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA, for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and will allow for the destruction and encapsulation of the petroleum-oil-lubricants (POL) and heavy metal-constituents found at the FPTA and adjacent overflow pond. ISV operates by passing a measured current of electricity into the ground through a set of electrodes. The resulting heat causes the soil to melt and form a solid vitreous (glass) mass similar to naturally occurring obsidian or basalt. In the process, organic constituents will be pyrolyzed (changed by heat) by the ensuing heat whereas the non-organic material will be incorporated into the glass matrix. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  9. 78 FR 17085 - Amendment of Multiple Restricted Areas; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... promulgated, will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the... follows: PART 73--SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE 0 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to read...

  10. 75 FR 16331 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall...

  11. Views of STS-4 crew and families at Ellington AFB departing for KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Views of STS-4 crew and families at Ellington Air Force Base departing for Kennedy Space Center. Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, II., right, and Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr. on the Ellington Air Force Base runway. Behind them are the T-38's they will be flying to the Kennedy Space Center (32917,32924); Mattingly climbs aboard NASA aircraft 918, a T-38 jet, as he prepares to leave Ellington for KSC (32918); Mattingly seating in T-38 with canopy up preparing to leave (32919,32925); Hartsfield prepares to board NASA aircraft 919, a T-38 jet, at Ellington (32920); Hartsfield seated in T-38 with canopy up preparing to leave Ellington (32921,32923); The family of Astronuat Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr. stands near the NASA Gulfstream aircraft priot to boarding it for Florida. Astronaut Bryan D. O'Conner talks with the family - from the left, daughters Judy Lynn, Keely Warren and wife Judy Frances Hartsfield (32922).

  12. EPA EVALUATION OF BAHCO INDUSTRIAL BOILER SCRUBBER SYSTEM AT RICKENBACKER AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive test program which characterized the particulate removal, sulfur dioxide removal, operating costs, maintenance costs, waste product properties operating experience and capacity of a size 50 R-C/Bahco scrubbing system installed to treat flue gas from coal fired boi...

  13. STS-48 Discovery, OV-103, lands at night on lit Edwards AFB runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Spotlights illuminate the approach of STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, above concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) during its night landing sequence. With nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) deployed, OV-103 nears touchdown which occurred at 12:38:38 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). Runway marker '2' is visible in the foreground. OV-103's starboard side glows in the runway lights while the rest of the orbiter blends into the shadowy darkness.

  14. 76 FR 66866 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Altus AFB, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... implemented to enhance safety for aircraft operating in the vicinity of Altus/Quartz Mountain Regional...

  15. Compliance testing of hot-water and steam boilers, Shaw Afb, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    At the request of HQ TAC/DEEV, personnel of the USAFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source testing of eighteen small hot water and steam boilers to determine stack-gas moisture content and velocity. The data obtained during the survey was necessary for boiler operating application.

  16. NOAA-L satellite is mated to Apogee Kick Motor at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (below) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite above. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. OPTIMIZATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL REMEDIATION: THE LORING AFB STEAM INJECTION PROJECT EXAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental remediation programs require that adequate planning be done before field work for characterization or remediation is undertaken. However, the heterogeneous nature of the subsurface can often thwart our best planning efforts. More recently, dynamic work plans which...

  17. Characterization of AFB sapphire single crystal composites for infrared window application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.-C.; Meissner, H. E.

    2007-04-01

    Next generation weapons platforms may require 30" x 30" sapphire windows. Since these sizes exceed what can be manufactured directly, a concept is proposed and experimental data are furnished in this report on the viability of increasing the window dimensions by Adhesive-Free-Bonding (AFB®) of smaller starting components by their edges. The bonding scheme has been evaluated for single crystal sapphire but is expected to also work equally well for other IR window materials. The bonding mechanism is explained with Van der Waals theory of attractive forces and confirmed experimentally by applying the bending plate theory. The gap at the interface between two components is deduced from the measured roughness of the polished surfaces that are brought into optical contact and subsequently heat-treated, and is estimated to be about 2 Å rms. Stress relief at AFB® interfaces has been established. Experimental data of flexural strength determined by four-point bending at room temperature is reported. The data indicates that AFB® composite specimens and equivalently prepared blank samples fracture at statistically same loads under standardized testing conditions. Failure of composites has not been observed at the interface and only at random flaws that are a result of sample preparation.

  18. 78 FR 33016 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... presented are particularly helpful in developing reasoned regulatory decisions on the proposal. Comments are... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  19. ARAC dispersion modeling support for January-March 1995 Vandenberg AFB launches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskett, R. L.; Pace, J. C.

    1995-05-01

    The Glory Trip (GT) 17-PA Peacekeeper launch originally scheduled at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) between 15 and 20 November 1994 was cancelled based on modeled toxic exhaust cloud calculations. The Missile Flight Control Branch, 30th Space Wing Safety Office (30 SW/SEY), made several successive 'No Go' decisions using Version 7.05 Rocket Exhaust Effluent Dispersion Model (REEDM) with forecasted meteorological conditions. REEDM runs made from T-14 hours to T-30 minutes predicted that ground-level concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas from the catastrophic abort case would exceed 5 ppM, the 'instantaneous' ambient air concentration 'Tier 2' limit at that time, modeled as a peak 1-minute cloud centerline concentration. Depending on the forecasted wind direction and speed at launch time, this limit was predicted to be exceeded sometimes at Base Housing, approximately 10 km southeast of the launch, and during other launch windows at the town of Casmalia, about 5 km east- southeast. In late December 1994, the LLNL Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) program modeled the aborted November 1994 Peacekeeper launch and compared its results with REEDM. This initial comparison showed that the ARAC model predicted values about 1/3 as large as REEDM for the limiting case at Base Housing. Subsequently ARAC was asked to provide real-time modeling support to 30 SW/SEY during the rescheduled Peacekeeper GT 17-PA launch in January 1995 and two Minuteman launches in February and March. This report first briefly discusses the model differences and then summarizes the results of the three supported launches.

  1. Soil Flushing Through a Thick Vadose Zone: Perchlorate Removal Documented at Edwards AFB, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battey, T. F.; Shepard, A. J.; Tait, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    There are currently few viable alternatives for perchlorate remediation in the vadose zone, particularly for the relatively thick vadose zones that are typical in the arid southwest where many perchlorate sites occur. Perchlorate in the vadose zone occurs in the form of highly soluble salts that may represent a risk to human or ecological receptors, and may also represent a threat to the underlying groundwater. A soil flushing treatability study was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in the Mojave Desert of southern California at a site with a 129-foot thick vadose zone consisting primarily of clayey sand. This study utilized an infiltration gallery in conjunction with extraction, treatment, and re-injection of groundwater at the site, which contained perchlorate-contaminated soil and groundwater. The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the infiltration gallery to 1) introduce treated groundwater back into the aquifer and 2) wash the perchlorate from the vadose zone soils to the aquifer. The infiltration gallery consisted of slotted PVC pipes within a highly permeable engineered bed of washed gravel. The initial water introduced into the gallery was amended with potassium bromide tracer. A downhole neutron probe was used to track the movement of the wetting front downward and outward from the gallery. Successive neutron measurements in vertical access tubes revealed that the introduced water reached the 125-foot bottom of the access tubes 14 weeks after the water was introduced into the gallery. The bromide tracer was detected in groundwater immediately below the gallery approximately 1 week later. The infiltration gallery was able to sustain an average flow rate of 2.3 gallons per minute. Prior to infiltration, the perchlorate concentration in groundwater below the gallery was 4,500 µg/L. Approximately 18 weeks after the start of infiltration, a perchlorate spike of 72,400 µg/L was detected below the gallery. The increase in perchlorate groundwater concentrations indicates the transfer of perchlorate from the vadose zone to the saturated zone, where it was readily captured by an adjacent groundwater extraction well. Continued flushing of treated water through the vadose and saturated zones resulted in a rapid decline in perchlorate groundwater concentrations. Confirmation soil boreholes documented the effectiveness of the soil treatment after perchlorate groundwater concentrations returned to their pre-soil flushing levels. This treatability study demonstrates that perchlorate can be removed from a thick sandy vadose zone by controlled infiltration with associated hydraulic control of groundwater to capture the leached perchlorate. The treatability study results also indicates that an infiltration gallery may provide 1) a cost-effective alternative to injection wells for reintroducing treated groundwater to the aquifer and 2) an effective mechanism for the delivery of amendments to the vadose zone and aquifer for promoting enhanced biodegradation of perchlorate in soil and groundwater.

  2. Experimental plan and construction guidance for Hanford Protective Barrier Test at Hill AFB, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    Permanent isolation surface barriers are needed to fully isolate buried waste materials for long periods of time from the general environment. Multi-layer surface barriers that use natural earthen materials overlying bio-intrusion layers of rock and/or asphalt are expected to reduce infiltration or deep percolation to less than 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) of water. The layering also reduces root penetration, preventing uptake and translocation of hazardous materials to the surface vegetation. The opportunity exists to test the Hanford Barrier in a wetter, colder climate at an existing lysimeter facility located at Hill Air Force Base near Salt Lake, Utah. The use of an existing lysimeter facility simplifies the construction effort and allows comparison of the Hanford Protective Barrier with an existing US Environmental Protection Agency-Resource Conservation and Recovery Act clay cap already undergoing tests at the lysimeter site. This document presents the experimental plan for testing the Hanford Protective Barrier in a wetter, colder climate.

  3. 8. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska). Looking glass crew celebrating the mission's twentieth anniversary. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at Thule AFB (76.5 N) from January 28 - February 15, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, G. H.; Sanders, R. W.; Jakoubek, R. O.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.; Solomon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet and visible spectrographs identical to those employed at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (77.8 S) during the austral spring seasons of 1986 and 1987 were used to study the stratosphere above Thule, Greenland (76.5 N) during early spring, 1988. Observations were carried out both at night using the direct moon as a light source, and during the day by collecting the scattered light from the zenith sky when solar zenith angles were less than about 94.5 degrees. Excellent meteorological conditions prevailed in the troposphere and stratosphere at Thule. Surface weather was extremely clear over most of the period, facilitating measurements of the direct light from the moon. The lower stratospheric arctic polar vortex was located very near Thule throughout the observing period, and temperature at the 30 mbar level were typically below -80 C above Thule, according to the National Meteorological Center daily analyses. Thus conditions were favorable for polar stratospheric cloud formation above Thule. Total column ozone abundances were about 350 to 400 Dobson units, and did not suggest a clear temporal trend over the observing period. Stratospheric nitrogen dioxide measurements were complicated by the presence of a large component of tropospheric pollution on many occasions. Stratospheric nitrogen dioxide could be identified on most days using the absorption in the scattered light from the zenith sky, which greatly enhances the stratospheric airmass while suppressing the tropospheric contribution. These measurements suggest that the total vertical column abundance of nitrogen dioxide present over Thule in February was extremely low, sometimes as low as 3 x 10 to the 14th per sq cm. The abundance of nitrogen dioxide increased systemically from about 3 x 10 to the 14th in late January to 1.0 x 10 to the 15th per sq cm in mid-February, perhaps because of photolysis of N2O5 in the upper part of the stratosphere, near 25 to 35 km.

  5. The second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted for mating at the launch tower, Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the launch tower, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted to vertical. The Titan will power the launch of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Batuk, Olga N; Conradson, Steven D; Aleksandrova, Olga N; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Burakov, Boris E; Clark, David L; Czerwinski, Ken R; Felmy, Andrew R; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Moore, Dean A; Myasoedov, Boris F; Reed, Donald T; Reilly, Dallas D; Roback, Robert C; Vlasova, Irina E; Webb, Samuel M; Wilkerson, Marianne P

    2015-06-01

    The speciation of U and Pu in soil and concrete from Rocky Flats and in particles from soils from Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, and McGuire Air Force Base and bottom sediments from Mayak was determined by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) element maps. These experiments identify four types of speciation that sometimes may and other times do not exhibit an association with the source terms and histories of these samples: relatively well ordered PuO2+x and UO2+x that had equilibrated with O2 and H2O under both ambient conditions and in fires or explosions; instances of small, isolated particles of U as UO2+x, U3O8, and U(VI) species coexisting in close proximity after decades in the environment; alteration phases of uranyl with other elements including ones that would not have come from soils; and mononuclear Pu-O species and novel PuO2+x-type compounds incorporating additional elements that may have occurred because the Pu was exposed to extreme chemical conditions such as acidic solutions released directly into soil or concrete. Our results therefore directly demonstrate instances of novel complexity in the Å and μm-scale chemical speciation and reactivity of U and Pu in their initial formation and after environmental exposure as well as occasions of unexpected behavior in the reaction pathways over short geological but significant sociological times. They also show that incorporating the actual disposal and site conditions and resultant novel materials such as those reported here may be necessary to develop the most accurate predictive models for Pu and U in the environment. PMID:25815708

  6. Analysis of wind bias change with respect to time at Cape Kennedy, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the temporal variability of wind vectors at 1 km altitude intervals from 0 to 27 km altitude after applying a digital filter to the original wind profile data sample.

  7. AFB Directory of Services for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons in the United States and Canada. 26th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    This directory is a broad-based compilation of schools, agencies, organizations, and programs in the governmental and private, non-profit sectors that provide a wide variety of direct and indirect services, information, and other assistance to individuals with blindness or visual impairments. Organized information on producers and distributors of…

  8. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of programmed…

  9. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for a Mutagenic Mode of Action for Cancer: AFB1 and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AOPs provide a framework to describe a sequence of measureable key events (KEs), beginning with a molecular initiating event (MIE), followed by a series of identified KEs linked to one another by KE Relationships (KERs), all anchored by a specific adverse outcome (AO). Each KE/KE...

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): USAF Homestead AFB, Operable Unit 3, Site SS-13, FL, September 16, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the PCB Spill Area (Site SS-13) Operable Unit No. 3 at Homestead Air Force Base in Homestead, Florida. The State of Florida, US EPA, and the US Air Force concur with the selected remedy of 'no action'.

  11. 7. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska). Aerial view of project looking glass historic district. Large rectangular form closet to top of photograph is the district's centerpiece, the operational apron. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 4. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 3. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 5. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 2. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 1. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) EVALUATION OF WATER PLANT LIME SLUDGE IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) SYSTEM AT RICKENBACKER AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a September 1978-February 1979 test program to evaluate lime water softening waste sludge as an alternate reagent for a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on an industrial boiler at Rickenbacker Air Force Base, Ohio. The study also included assessin...

  18. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United States.

  19. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Lay Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-04

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report to present the results of RI/FS activities at four sites located at the Point Lay radar installation. The remedial investigation (RI) field activities were conducted at the Point Lay radar installation during the summer of 1993. The four sites at Point Lay were investigated because they were suspected of being contaminated with hazardous substances. RI activities were conducted using methods and procedures specified in the RI/FS Work Plan, Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), and Health and Safety Plan.

  1. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Bullen Point Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Bullen Point Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) (U.S. Air Force 1996). The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the five sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  2. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment Point Lonely Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-04-01

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Point Lonely Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Twelve sites at the Point Lonely radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The Vehicle Storage Area (SS14) was combined with the Inactive Landfill because the two sites were essentially co-located and were sampled during the RI as a single unit. Therefore, 11 sites are discussed in this risk assessment. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Point Lonely Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the 11 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks, chlorinated solvents, and manganese. The 11 sites investigated and the types of samples collected at each site are presented.

  3. Effect of acid deposition on potentially sensitive soil-plant systems at Vandenberg AFB, California. Final report, 1 September 1984-1 September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Zedler, P.H.; Marion, G.

    1988-04-30

    The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of the acid deposition expected from rocket launches on natural coastal vegetation and soils. Interest was directed primarily toward the longer-term and more-subtle effects of acidity, and the degree of sensitivity of different soil-plant systems. A study area was established along a topographic chronosequence that ranged from stabilized dunes to residual soils over bedrock. Soils and plants were collected from this region and used in three main studies. A leaching study measured the changes in chemical properties of four soils subjected to repeated acid additions. A second study treated seeds of wide variety of native or spontaneous species with HC1 on the four soils to establish the sensitivity of the vegetation to deposition events during the fall to winter germination pulse characteristic of California coastal ecosystems. A third study examined the effect of acid treatments on the growth of and competition between two common woody plants -- Artemisia californica and Pinus muricata. A fourth study partially supported by this grant studied the invasion of an exotic species in a recently burned site on one of the four study soils. The studies collectively show that, although the soil-plant systems are well buffered against moderate and low inputs of acidity, the effect of acid additions differed among soil types and from species to species. Overall the hypothesis that acidic deposition could affect plant-plant and soil-plant interactions was supported, but some of these effects are subtle and not all appear to be deleterious.

  4. Site S-7 Representative Model and Application for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) McClellan AFB - 1998 Semi-Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    1998-12-01

    Vadose zone data collection and enhanced data analysis are continuing for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) installed at site S-7 in IC 34 at McClellan MB. Data from core samples from boreholes drilled in 1998 and from VZMS continuous monitoring are evaluated and compared to previously collected data and analyses. The suite of data collected to date is used to develop and constrain a spatially averaged, one-dimensional site S-7 representative model that is implemented into T2VOC. Testing of the conceptual model under conditions of recharge of 100 mm/yr produces plausible moisture contents relative to data from several sources. Further scoping calculations involving gas-phase TCE transport in the representative model were undertaken. We investigate the role of recharge on TCE transport as well as the role of ion- and gas-phase flow driven by density and barometric pumping effects. This report provides the first example of the application of the site S-7 representative model in th e investigation of subsurface VOC movement.

  5. Biological control of AFB1-producing Aspergillus section Flavi strains isolated from brewer's grains, alternative feed intended for swine production in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Asurmendi, Paula; García, María J; Ruíz, Francisco; Dalcero, Ana; Pascual, Liliana; Barberis, Lucila

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from brewer's grains on Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin B1 production. The Aspergillus strains tested were inhibited by all the LAB strains assayed. The isolates Lactobacillus brevis B20, P. pentosaceus B86, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis B87, L. brevis B131, and Lactobacillus sp. B144 completely suppressed the fungal growth and reduced aflatoxin B1 production. In conclusion, LAB isolated from brewer's grains show a high inhibitory activity on fungal growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Further studies must be conducted to evaluate the success of in vitro assays under food environment conditions and to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of these strains. PMID:27070819

  6. FIELD STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF A GASOHOL SPILL ON NATURAL ATTENUATION OF PRE-EXISTING BTEX/MTBE CONTAMINATION (VANDENBERG AFB, CALIFORNIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    (1) Measure the seepage velocity of the ground water using travel time of tracers to monitoring wells.
    (2) Measure the concentration of benzene, the other BTEX compounds, and ethanol in monitoring wells along the flow path of the tracer plume.
    (3) Calculate and compare ...

  7. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 2. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    ;Contents: Field Parameters for Water Samples (1992-3); Organic Analyses for Water and Soil Samples (1992-4); Inorganic Analyses for Water and Soil Samples (1992-4); Organic Analyses for Soil Samples (DRM, BLM-1993); and Inorganic Analyses for Soil Samples (DRM-1993).

  8. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska installation restoration program, remedial investigation/feasibility study, Galena Airport, Alaska. Treatability study report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-27

    The USAF contracted Radian Corporation to perform treatability studies to evaluate soil vacuum extraction (SVE) and biodegradation technologies for remediating soil contaminated with motor and jet fuel at the Petroleum, Oils, and Lubricants (POL) Tank Farm, Galena Airport, Alaska. This technical report describes the experimental methods and interprets the analytical and operational results from the bench-scale biotreatment tests and pilot-scale SVE tests conducted between July 1992 and February 1994.

  9. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis: Petroleum, oil, and lubricants area, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action for the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST005, otherwise known as the POL Tank Farm, at Galena Airport, Alaska. This decision is based on the administrative record for this site, specifically the draft Remedial Investigation Report (March 1995) and the Treatability Study Report (January 1995) (PB95-225314). The information from these documents is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  10. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has conducted a Remedial Investigation (RI) at the Galena Airport (formerly Galena Air Force Station) and Campion Air Station (AS), Alaska. The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities and findings of the investigation and, on the basis of this information, make recommendations on future activities at the Galena Airport and Campion AS sites. Information from the RI at these sites was also used to support a baseline risk assessment.

  11. Waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey, Mather AFB California. Final report, 28 November-9 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.P.; Hedgecock, N.S.

    1989-10-01

    Personnel from the AFOEHL conducted a waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey at MAFB from 28 Nov to 9 Dec 1988. The scope of this survey was to characterize the waste-water, address hazardous-waste-management practices, and explore opportunities for hazardous waste minimization. The waste water survey team analyzed the base's industrial effluent, effluent from oil/water separators, and storm water. The team performed a shop-by-shop evaluation of chemical-waste-management practices. Survey results showed that MAFB needs to improve its hazardous-waste-management program. Recommendations for improvement include: (1) Collecting two additional grab samples on separate days from the hospital discharge. Analyze for EPA Method 601 to determine if the grab sample from the survey gives a true indication of what is being discharged. (2) Locate the source and prevent mercury from the hospital from discharging into the sanitary sewer. (3) Dilute the soaps used for cleaning at the Fuels Lab, Building 7060. (4) Investigate the source of chromium from the Photo Lab. (5) Clean out the sewer system manhole directly downgradient from the Photo Lab. (6) Locate the source of contamination in the West Ditch Outfall. (7) Reconnect the two oil/water separators that discharge into the storm sewerage system. (8) Investigate the source of methylene chloride coming on the base. (9) Investigate the source of mercury at Fuel Cell Repair, building 7005.

  12. 77 FR 62249 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    .../out compromising nat'l security Reasons: Secured Area New Mexico 3 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland AFB... access w/out comprising nat'l security Reasons: Secured Area Bldg. 30116 5801 Manzano St SE Kirtland AFB... nat'l security Reasons: Secured Area 6 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland AFB NM 87117 Landholding...

  13. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  14. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  15. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  16. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  17. 7 CFR 354.2 - Administrative instructions prescribing commuted traveltime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Angeles 4 March AFB Ontario 3 Martinez San Francisco 3 Mather Field AFB Travis AFB 3 Mather...

  18. 1. General view of Boeing EC135 looking aircraft. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Boeing EC-135 looking aircraft. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View to north - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 11. Northeast front, dock no. 493. View to west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Northeast front, dock no. 493. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 5. Southwest front, dock no. 492. View to east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Southwest front, dock no. 492. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 5. Headon view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Head-on view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 5. General interior overview of addition. View to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General interior overview of addition. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 6. General interior overview of addition. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General interior overview of addition. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 1. Southeast side and southwest end. View to north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southeast side and southwest end. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 2. Northeast end and southeast side. View to west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northeast end and southeast side. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 3. Northwest side and southwest end. View to east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side and southwest end. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 60. SAC emblem on side of missile, front lawn, building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. SAC emblem on side of missile, front lawn, building 500, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 21. Threequarter view of northeast corner of Hwing, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Three-quarter view of northeast corner of H-wing, looking southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 10. Threequarter view of southwest corner of building 500 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Three-quarter view of southwest corner of building 500 and G-wing, looking northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 7. General view of command center, building 501, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General view of command center, building 501, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 23. View of Jwing left, at Mercury Avenue, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of J-wing left, at Mercury Avenue, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 22. Threequarter view of rear of Jwing, looking southwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Three-quarter view of rear of J-wing, looking southwest from Mercury Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 6. Threequarter view of Awing, building 500, from Minuteman Circle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Three-quarter view of A-wing, building 500, from Minuteman Circle looking northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 11. Threequarter view of southwest corner of building 500 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Three-quarter view of southwest corner of building 500 and G-wing, looking northeast, from Apollo Drive - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. Three quarter view of traffic check house, looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Three quarter view of traffic check house, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Traffic Check House, Mercury Avenue between D-Wing & E-Wing, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 6. General view of command center, building 501, looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General view of command center, building 501, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 19. View of main entrance and front (east) facade of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of main entrance and front (east) facade of H-wing from Comstat Drive, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 32. View from roof of Hwing, with Ewing on left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. View from roof of H-wing, with E-wing on left, looking southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 3. Threequarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 27. Threequarter view of building 500, and Awing, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Three-quarter view of building 500, and A-wing, looking southeast from Minuteman Circle - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 17. View of Mercury Avenue from Apollo Drive, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of Mercury Avenue from Apollo Drive, looking north at E-wing - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 5. View of front walkway to building 500 looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of front walkway to building 500 looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 18. Threequarter view of southeast corner of Hwing, looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Three-quarter view of southeast corner of H-wing, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 33. View from roof of Hwing, with Gwing in background, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View from roof of H-wing, with G-wing in background, looking southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 4. View of drainage ditch and front walkway to building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of drainage ditch and front walkway to building 500 looking east from SAC Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 15. Threequarter view of Gwing from intersection of Apollo Drive ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Three-quarter view of G-wing from intersection of Apollo Drive and Mercury Avenue, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 30. View from roof of Fwing of front entry to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View from roof of F-wing of front entry to building 500, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 77 FR 34056 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... access w/out comprising nat'l security Reasons: Secured Area New Mexico 3 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland... St SE Kirtland AFB NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property Number: 18201220012 Status.../out comprising nat'l security. Reasons: Secured Area 6 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland AFB NM...

  2. Vaccination of Lactating Dairy Cows for the Prevention of Aflatoxin B1 Carry Over in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Polonelli, Luciano; Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Sforza, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Casoli, Claudio; Ronzi, Paola; Grilli, Ester; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Piva, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The potential of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a vaccine (AnAFB1-KLH) in controlling the carry over of the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in cow milk is reported. AFB1 is the most carcinogenic compound in food and foodstuffs amongst aflatoxins (AFs). AnAFB1 is AFB1 chemically modified as AFB1-1(O-carboxymethyl) oxime. In comparison to AFB1, AnAFB1 has proven to be non-toxic in vitro to human hepatocarcinoma cells and non mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains. AnAFB1-KLH was used for immunization of cows proving to induce a long lasting titer of anti-AFB1 IgG antibodies (Abs) which were cross reactive with AFB1, AFG1, and AFG2. The elicited anti-AFB1 Abs were able to hinder the secretion of AFM1 into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. Vaccination of lactating animals with conjugated AnAFB1 may represent a solution to the public hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with AFs. PMID:22053212

  3. Assessing the Feasibility of In-Situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Solvents by a Single-Well Push-Pull and Natural Gradient Drift Tests in McClellan AFB, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Istok, J. D.; Semprini, L.

    2001-12-01

    A single-well push-pull test has been developed to evaluate in-situ aerobic cometabolic treatment of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE). A series of single-well natural gradient drift and push-pull tests were conducted in two monitoring wells at the McClellan Air Force Base, CA, where aquifer is contaminated mainly with c-DCE and TCE. Transport characteristics of dissolved solutes [bromide (tracer), propane (growth substrate), ethylene, propylene (nontoxic surrogates to probe for CAH transformation activity), DO and nitrate (nutrient)] were evaluated in push-pull transport tests by injecting 200-L of groundwater containing the solutes into the aquifer (Push), providing a rest period of 18 hours (Reaction), and then extracting 400-L of the test solution/groundwater mixtures (Pull). Mass balances showed over 95% of the injected bromide was recovered, and the recoveries of the other solutes were comparable with bromide. The dispersion of all the solutes was similar indicating sorption or other partitioning processes were minimal. These results indicate that bromide could be used as a conservative tracer for biological activity tests and that little loss of the dissolved gaseous substrates occurred prior to biostimulation of the aquifer. A series of biostimulation tests were performed by injecting 500 L-groundwater containing propane (6 mg/L), DO (25 mg/L), nitrate (9 mg/L as N) and bromide (100 mg/L) into the aquifer. Temporal groundwater samples were obtained from the injection well under natural gradient drift conditions. With repeating biostimulation tests the rates of both propane and DO utilization were increased significantly. The results demonstrated that the progress of biostimulation could be assessed by injecting and monitoring under natural gradient drift conditions. Successive push-pull activity tests were performed after biostimulation was achieved using the same procedures as the transport tests. Propane utilization, DO consumption, and ethylene and propylene cometabolism were well demonstrated in successive push-pull tests. The stimulated propane-utilizers cometabolized ethylene and propylene to produce ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, cometabolic by-products. Zero-order rates were estimated and ranked from the highest to the lowest as follows: propane > ethylene > propylene. Previous microcosm laboratory tests showed c-DCE was cometabolized more rapidly than TCE. Thus, if CAH cometabolism is occurring, the concentration ratios of c-DCE/TCE should reflect this rate difference. A greater decrease in the ratio was observed during the propane activity tests than during the ethylene and propylene activity tests, as expected since propane was rapidly removed and served as an energy source to enhance cometabolism, while ethylene and propylene likely inhibited cometabolism. The result indicates that c-DCE cometabolism was likely occurring.

  4. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned Oliktok Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-06-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for four sites located at the Oliktok Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the eight sites located at the Oliktok Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, four sites are recommended for no further action.

  5. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-08

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  6. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-05-24

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for two sites located at the Bullen Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the five sites located at the Bullen Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, two sites are recommended for no further action. Sites at the Bullen Point radar installation recommended for no further action are: Old Landfill/Dump Site East (LF06) and Drum Storage Area (SS10).

  7. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study: Oliktok Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Volume 1. (Includes appendices a - b)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-15

    This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Oliktok Point radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

  8. From the utilization point of view, the two approaches seem to United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Barrow Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-02-19

    This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Point Barrow radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

  9. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, December 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-05-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for nine sites located at the Barter Island radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the 14 sites located at the Barter Island installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, nine sites are recommended for no further action.

  10. Evaluation of pilot-scale pulse-corona-induced plasma device to remove NO{sub x} from combustion exhausts from a subscale combustor and from a hush house at Nellis AFB, Nevada. Final report, August 1994--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Haythornthwaite, S.M.; Durham, M.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Rugg, D.E.

    1997-05-01

    Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are used to test-fire new, installed, and reworked jet engines. Because JETCs have been classified as stationary sources of pollutant emissions, they are subject to possible regulation under Title 1 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990. In Phase 1 of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, a novel NOx-control approach utilizing pulsed-corona-induced plasma successfully showed 90% removal of NOx in the laboratory. The objective of Phase 2 was to reproduce the laboratory-scale results in a pilot-scale system. The technology was successfully demonstrated at pilot scale in the field, on a slipstream of JETC flue gas at Nellis Air Force Base. Based on the field data, cost projections were made for a system to treat the full JETC exhaust. The technology efficiently converted NO into ONO, and a wet scrubber was required to achieve the treatment goal of 50-percent removal and destruction of NOx. The plasma simultaneously removes hydrocarbons from the flue gas stream. This project demonstrated that pulse-corona-induced plasma technology is scalable to practical industrial dimensions.

  11. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf, AFB, Alaska. Final baseline risk assessment for the southeast runway fuel spill site and the control tower drum storage area, south

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The addendum (Volume 4) presents an assessment of the current and possible future risks to human health and the environment potentially attributable to two additional IRP sites at Galena Airport: (1) The Southeast Runway Fuel Spill; and (2) The Control Tower Drum Storage Area, South (CTDSA).

  12. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 6. Appendix C-G

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    ;Contents: Appendix C-Regulatory Discussion of Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirement; Appendix D-Statistical Discussion; Appendix E-Field Documents, including Drilling Logs (1992-3), Monitoring Well Construction Diagrams (1992-3), Well Development Forms (1992-3), Ground Water Sampling Forms (1992-4), Water Level Survey Results, and Survey Data (1992-3); Appendix F-Hydrocarbon Recovery Testing at Galena Airport; and Appendix G-Geophysics and Soil Gas Reports.

  13. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final baseline risk assessment for the Fire Protection Training Area, Pol Area, and the west unit source areas of Galena Airport, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF), under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP), has conducted a remedial investigation (RI) at Galena Airport (formerly Galena Air Force Station). Within the framework of the IRP, the objective of the RI is to evaluate past hazardous waste disposal and spill sites at Galena Airport. The RI determines the nature and extent of possible contamination, identifies site physical characteristics that may affect contaminant distribution, and defines possible migration pathways.

  14. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 3. Appendix B, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    ;Contents: 1992, 1993, and 1994 Quality Assurance/Quality Control Summary Reports; Detailed Listing of Blank Results (1992 Water and Soil Samples); Detailed Listing of Solid Spikes (1992 Soil Samples); Detailed Listing of Dupilcate Results (1992 Soil Samples); and Data and Batch Summary (1992 Soil Samples).

  15. United States Air Force 611th air support group 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Eareckson Air Station, Alaska Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report, final. Volume 2. Report for July 1994-September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-30

    The Volume II has been prepared to present the findings of the environmental investigation activities conducted at Eareckson Air Station. The RI/FS report has been divided into four primary volumes. This volume, Volume II, discusses 13 source areas that are recommended to be proposed for no further action.

  16. United States Air Force 611th air support group 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Eareckson Air Station, Alaska. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report, final. Volume 1. Report for July 1994-September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-25

    The Report, has been prepared to present the findings of the environmental investigation activities conducted at Eareckson Air Station. The RI/FS report has been divided into four primary volumes. This volume, Volume I, provides general information about environmental activities conducted at Eareckson AS to date (Section 1.0), summarizes 1993 and 1994 investigation activities (Section 2.0), outlines the decision process (Section 3.0), and presents basewide findings (Section 4.0).

  17. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf, AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis, million gallon hill source area of the West Unit, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action for the Million Gallon Hill source area of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information from the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  18. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis potential tce impact to the drinking water supply, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action to address potential trichloroethene (TCE) impact to drinking water supply wells, located in the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit, at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information fron the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives, in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  19. NetView technical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  20. Portable visual quantitative detection of aflatoxin B1 using a target-responsive hydrogel and a distance-readout microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanli; Mao, Yu; Huang, Di; He, Zhe; Yan, Jinmao; Tian, Tian; Shi, Yuanzhi; Song, Yanling; Li, Xingrui; Zhu, Zhi; Zhou, Leiji; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), as the secondary metabolite of molds, is the most predominant and toxic mycotoxin that seriously threatens the health of humans and animals. In this work, an AFB1-responsive hydrogel was synthesized for highly sensitive and portable detection of AFB1. The AFB1-responsive hydrogel was prepared using an AFB1 aptamer and its two short complementary DNA strands as cross-linkers. For visual detection of AFB1, the hydrogel is preloaded with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Upon introduction of AFB1, the AFB1 aptamer binds with AFB1, leading to the disruption of the hydrogel and release of the AuNPs with a distinct color change of the supernatant from colorless to red. In order to lower the detection limit and extend the method to quantitative analysis, a distance-readout volumetric bar chart chip (V-chip) was combined with an AFB1-responsive hydrogel preloaded with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs). In the presence of AFB1, the hydrogel collapses and releases PtNPs which can catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to generate O2. The increasing gas pressure moves a red ink bar in the V-chip and provides a quantitative relationship between the distance and the concentration of AFB1. The method was applied for detection of AFB1 in beer, with a detection limit of 1.77 nM (0.55 ppb) where an immunoaffinity column (IAC) of AFB1 was used to cleanup and pre-concentrate the sample, which satisfies the testing requirement of 2.0 ppb set by the European Union. The combination of an AFB1-responsive hydrogel with a distance-based readout V-chip offers a user-friendly POCT device, which has great potential for rapid, portable, selective, and quantitative detection of AFB1 in real samples to ensure food safety and avoid subsequent economic losses. PMID:27302553

  1. Hazardous-waste-characterization survey of unknown drums at the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing, Elmendorf and Shemya Air Force Bases, and Galena and King Salmon Airports, Alaska. Final report 2-13 Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    At the request of the USAF Regional Hospital Elmendorf/SGPB (PACAF), the Armstrong Laboratory, Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate, conducted a hazardous waste characterization survey of unknown drums at Elmendorf AFB from 2 Aug - 13 Aug 91. The scope of the survey was to sample and characterize drums of unknown material stored at Elmendorf AFB, Shemya AFB, and Galena and King Salmon Airports. Several waste streams were sampled at Elmendorf AFB to revalidate sample results from a previous survey.

  2. Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Occurrence and Expression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carcinogen, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus, is a major food safety concern in crops. However, information on AFB1 occurrence in soil and crop residue is scarce. A series of experiments investigated the occurrence of AFB1 in soil and corn residues, and ascertained the ecology ...

  3. Potential for aflatoxin B1 and B2 production by Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from rice samples

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xianwen; Zhang, He; Liu, Ruicen; Liu, Chenglan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and B2 (AFB2) production in rice grain by 127 strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from rice grains collected from China. These strains were inoculated onto rice grains and incubated at 28 °C for 21 days. AFB1 and AFB2 were extracted and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. Among the tested strains, 37% produced AFB1 and AFB2 with levels ranging from 175 to 124 101 μg kg−1 for AFB1 and from not detected to 10 329 μg kg−1 for AFB2. The mean yields of these isolates were 5884 μg kg−1 for AFB1 and 1968 μg kg−1 for AFB2. Overall, most of the aflatoxigenic strains produced higher levels of AFB1 than AFB2 in rice. The obtained information is useful for assessing the risk of aflatoxin contamination in rice samples. PMID:25737649

  4. Human health implications from co-exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize-based foods in Latin America: Guatemala as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-occurence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in maize has been demonstrated in many surveys. Combined-exposure to FB1 and AFB1 was of concern to the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives because of the known genotoxicity of AFB1 and the ability of FB1 to induce regenerative...

  5. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detec...

  6. 78 FR 19278 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Area New Mexico 3 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland AFB NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property...: Secured Area Bldg. 30116 5801 Manzano St SE Kirtland AFB NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property... alternative method to gain access w/out comprising nat'l security. Reasons: Secured Area 6 Buildings...

  7. 75 FR 14612 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...: 88200940004 Status: Unutilized Reasons: Extensive deterioration New Mexico Bldg. 1016 Kirtland AFB Bernalillo...: Underutilized Reasons: Secured Area Bldgs. 436, 437 Kirtland AFB Bernalillo NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air... flammable or explosive material Bldgs. 20612, 29071, 37505 Kirtland AFB Bernalillo NM 87117...

  8. Carcinogenic effects of aflatoxin B1 among wheat handlers

    PubMed Central

    Saad-Hussein, Amal; Taha, Mona M; Beshir, Safia; Shahy, Eman M; Shaheen, Weam; Elhamshary, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that serum aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin and contributor to the high rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of liver cancer in Egypt is particularly worrisome. In a registry-based analysis of occupational risk for HCC, significant excesses were observed especially for grain mill workers. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the hepatic carcinogenicity of AFB1 in wheat handlers. Methods: Serum AFB1/albumin (AFB1/Alb), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-l-fucosidase (AFU), and arginase were estimated in exposed wheat handlers including millers and bakers. The control group was composed of non-occupationally exposed workers. Results: AFB1/Alb and AFU were significantly higher among workers employed as bakers compared to mill workers and controls. Mill workers had higher levels of AFB1/Alb than the controls. AFB1/Alb, AFP, and AFU were all significantly higher and arginase was significantly lower among HCC cases compared to the other groups. There was a significant correlation between AFU and AFB1/Alb in bakers and between AFP and AFB1/Alb in HCC cases. Arginase was inversely correlated with AFB1/Alb in HCC cases. AFB1/Alb was significantly correlated with the duration of exposure in bakers. Conclusion: Wheat handlers exposed to Aspergillus flavus have a high risk of elevated serum AFB1/Alb levels and AFU. PMID:25000109

  9. 12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 16. General interior overview, dock no. 493. View to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. General interior overview, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead door, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 2. Looking glass aircraft with open main entry door and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Looking glass aircraft with open main entry door and cockpit hatch. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ladder. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 4. Southwest fronts, dock nos. 491 and 492. Southeast end, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Southwest fronts, dock nos. 491 and 492. Southeast end, dock no. 492. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. View to west - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, dock no. 491. Detail of canvas gasket allowing doors to close tightly around fuselage. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 21. General interior overview, dock no. 492. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General interior overview, dock no. 492. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 17. General interior overview, dock no. 491. View to east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. General interior overview, dock no. 491. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 14. General interior overview, dock no. 492. View to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. General interior overview, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 15. Interior view of hangar doors, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of hangar doors, dock no. 492. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 18. General interior overview, dock no. 491. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. General interior overview, dock no. 491. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access road in foreground. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access road in foreground. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 10. Detail of center hangar doors and canvas gasket, dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of center hangar doors and canvas gasket, dock no. 493. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of the operational apron. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 22. Detail of interior corner showing truss system, dock no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail of interior corner showing truss system, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 9. Southeast end, dock no. 492. Dock no. 493 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Southeast end, dock no. 492. Dock no. 493 in background. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer seat with instrument panel. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View shows exposed tail of aircraft being serviced inside the hangar. Operational apron in background. View to southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of the operational apron. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through gasket in center hangar doors. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and copilot seats with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and co-pilot seats with console and overhead instrument panels. View to northeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 20. General interior overview, dock no. 493. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. General interior overview, dock no. 493. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 77 FR 37006 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Individuals'', dated February 8, 1996 (February 20, 1996, 61 FR 6427). Dated: June 15, 2012. Aaron Siegel... Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Management Enterprise (JSME). System location: Primary servers: Global... servers: U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), Building 500, Suite BB30, 901 SAC Boulevard, Offutt...

  20. COMPARISON OF TWO FIELD SAMPLING PROCEDURES (EN CORE AND FIELD METHANOL EXTRACTION) FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ Lasagna technology was recently evaluated at a contaminated site at Offutt Air Force Base. The site was contaminated with low levels (< 30 mg/kg) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Originally, researchers planned to use field methanol extraction for both pre- and pos...

  1. 15. View looking up Dramp from middle floor level showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View looking up D-ramp from middle floor level showing lighting conduits and manometer panel on wall of decontamination area. Building 501, October 2, 1956 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. DETAIL VIEW ON THE LOWER MANUFACTURING LEVEL LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW ON THE LOWER MANUFACTURING LEVEL LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM COLUMN LINE W-24 SHOWING THE STAIRS, TOILET ROOMS AND LOCATION OF FORMER WASH BASINS AND DRINKING FOUNTAINS. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW A THE LOWER MANUFACTURING LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW A THE LOWER MANUFACTURING LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM COLUMN LINE F-11 SHOWING CONFIGURATION OF CONCRETE COLUMNS, FLUORESCENT LIGHT FIXTURES, AND WOOD BLOCK FLOORING. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 1. Northeast front and southeast side of original section. Addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northeast front and southeast side of original section. Addition to rear view to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 4. Northeast front and northwest side of original section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast front and northwest side of original section and addition. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST OF THE ROLL OUT OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST OF THE ROLL OUT OF THE FIRST B-29 SUPERFORTRESS ON MAY 24, 1944, SHOWING THE NOSE RAISED TO ALLOW THE TAIL TO PASS UNDER THE CANOPY DOORS. WHO, 1944 - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 9. Threequarter view of building 500 looking northeast from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Three-quarter view of building 500 looking northeast from the corner of Apollo Drive and SAC Boulevard at the outbound gate - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 31. View from roof of courtyard from Hwing, with Dwing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. View from roof of courtyard from H-wing, with D-wing on left, and C-wing on right, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 12. Threequarter view of southwest corner of building 500, Gwing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Three-quarter view of southwest corner of building 500, G-wing, and loading dock looking northeast, from Apollo Drive - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 1. Southwest front and southeast end, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southwest front and southeast end, building no. 528. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 4. Southwest front and southeast end, building no. 529. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Southwest front and southeast end, building no. 529. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. GENERAL VIEW OF THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING LOOKING SOUTH FROM "HOSPITAL HILL" SHOWING THE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION OF THE LOWER MANUFACTURING LEVEL WITH RAIL TRACKS IN THE FOREGROUND AND FORT CROOK IN THE BACKGROUND. Peter Kiewit Sons, Inc. (PKS), 1941. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. The effect of aflatoxin-B1 on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and assessment of dietary supplementation of NovaSil for the prevention of aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Zychowski, Katherine E; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Ly, Hoai J; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Romoser, Amelia; Gatlin, Delbert M; Phillips, Timothy D

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum. PMID:24064717

  17. Temporary modulation of responses to common vaccines and serum cation status in broilers during exposure to low doses of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Yunus, A W; Böhm, J

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of low doses of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on responses to common vaccines and levels of serum cations in broilers. Male broilers at 7 d of age were fed control (no AFB1), a 75 µg of AFB1/kg (75 ppb of AFB1) diet, or a 750 µg of AFB1/kg (750 ppb of AFB1) diet. The 750 ppb of AFB1 diet resulted in a temporary increase in ELISA titers against Newcastle disease virus (P = 0.014) and infectious bursal disease virus (P = 0.005) during wk 2 and 4 of exposure, respectively, compared with the control diet. Conversely, lower (P ≤ 0.01) serum protein concentrations were found in broilers under the 750 ppb AFB1 diet during wk 2 and 4. During wk 2 of exposure, lower serum levels of potassium were noted in birds under both the 75 (P = 0.037) and 750 ppb (P = 0.000) AFB1 diets compared with those under the control diet. During wk 5, higher serum magnesium (P = 0.004), and sodium (P = 0.000) under the 750 ppb AFB1 diet were found compared with the control diet. These data indicate that low dietary levels of AFB1 can temporarily increase or decrease the studied serological variables in broilers depending upon the stage of exposure. PMID:24135593

  18. Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on Polythionine/Gold Nanoparticles for the Determination of Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Owino, Joseph H.O.; Arotiba, Omotayo A.; Hendricks, Nicolette; Songa, Everlyne A.; Jahed, Nazeem; Waryo, Tesfaye T.; Ngece, Rachel F.; Baker, Priscilla G.L.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2008-01-01

    An aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) electrochemical immunosensor was developed by the immobilisation of aflatoxin B1-bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA) conjugate on a polythionine (PTH)/gold nanoparticles (AuNP)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The surface of the AFB1-BSA conjugate was covered with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), in order to prevent non-specific binding of the immunosensors with ions in the test solution. The AFB1 immunosensor exhibited a quasi-reversible electrochemistry as indicated by a cyclic voltammetric (CV) peak separation (ΔEp) value of 62 mV. The experimental procedure for the detection of AFB1 involved the setting up of a competition between free AFB1 and the immobilised AFB1-BSA conjugate for the binding sites of free anti-aflatoxin B1 (anti-AFB1) antibody. The immunosensor's differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) responses (peak currents) decreased as the concentration of free AFB1 increased within a dynamic linear range (DLR) of 0.6 - 2.4 ng/mL AFB1 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.07 ng/mL AFB1. This immunosensing procedure eliminates the need for enzyme-labeled secondary antibodies normally used in conventional ELISA–based immunosensors.

  19. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25526081

  20. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366 nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432 nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475 nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509 nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources. PMID:26874107

  1. Perturbation of polysome - membrane interaction by aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Erki, L.; Patterson, W.J. Jr.; delRosario, R.; Devlin, T.M.; Ch'ih, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    In this study AFB/sup 1/ was used to assess the interaction between polysomes and the membrane. Hepatocytes treated with 50 ..mu..M AFB/sub 1/ showed no significant quantitative changes in phospholipid, protein, and RNA as compared with untreated cells. Mitochondrial and microsomal fractions isolated from AFB/sub 1/ treated cells showed 10-20% increases in protein and phospholipid. Determinations of membrane components of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and RER isolated from AFB/sub 1/ treated S-10 reaction gave similar results. To study AFB/sub 1/ activation and modification along with polysome and membrane interactions, SER or RER was incubated in the presence or absence of polysomes. In the presence of 0.25, 1 and 3 mg polysomes, (/sup 3/H)AFB/sub 1/ activation was inhibited by 28, 38, and 59%, respectively. When SER was incubated with (/sup 3/H)AFB/sub 1/ for 20 min in the absence of polysomes, the subsequent addition of varying amounts of polysomes resulted in a concentration dependent modification of polysomes. This concentration dependent modification and inhibition of AFB/sub 1/ activation by polysomes and the lack of changes in membrane components by AFB/sub 1/ indicated that the membrane sites for AFB/sub 1/ activation and polysome attachment are in close proximity.

  2. Occupational Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in a Portuguese Poultry Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luísa; Almeida, Ana; dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and is the most potent hepatocarcinogen known in mammals and has been classified by the International Agency of Research on Cancer as Group 1 carcinogen. Although dietary exposure to AFB1 has been extensively documented, there are still few studies dedicated to the problem of occupational exposure. Considering recent findings regarding AFB1 occupational exposure in poultry production, it was considered relevant to clarify if there is also exposure in poultry slaughterhouses. Occupational exposure assessment to AFB1 was done with a biomarker of internal dose that measures AFB1 in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty workers from a slaughterhouse were enrolled in this study. A control group (n = 30) was also considered in order to know AFB1 background levels for Portuguese population. Fourteen workers (47.0%) showed detectable levels of AFB1 with values from 1.06 to 4.03ng ml(-1), with a mean value of 1.73ng ml(-1). No AFB1 was detected in serum of individuals used as controls. Despite uncertainties regarding the exposure route that is contributing more to exposure (inhalation or dermal) is possible to state that exposure to AFB1 is occurring in the slaughterhouse studied. It seems that reducing AFB1 contamination in poultry production can have a positive result in this occupational setting. PMID:26568583

  3. Glycine N-methyltransferase affects the metabolism of aflatoxin B{sub 1} and blocks its carcinogenic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, C.-H.; Hung, J.-H.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chen, S.-Y.; Liu, H.-H.; Chou, T.-Y.; Tsai, T.-F.; Darbha, Ramalakshmi; Hsieh, L.-L.; Chen, Y.-M.A

    2009-03-15

    Previously, we reported that glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) knockout mice develop chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) spontaneously. For this study we used a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter to establish a GNMT transgenic (TG) mouse model. Animals were intraperitoneally inoculated with aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) and monitored for 11 months, during which neither male nor female GNMT-TG mice developed HCC. In contrast, 4 of 6 (67%) male wild-type mice developed HCC. Immunofluorescent antibody test showed that GNMT was translocated into nuclei after AFB{sub 1} treatment. Competitive enzyme immunoassays indicated that after AFB{sub 1} treatment, the AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts formed in stable clones expressing GNMT reduced 51.4% compared to the vector control clones. Experiments using recombinant adenoviruses carrying GNMT cDNA (Ad-GNMT) further demonstrated that the GNMT-related inhibition of AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts formation is dose-dependent. HPLC analysis of the metabolites of AFB{sub 1} in the cultural supernatants of cells exposed to AFB{sub 1} showed that the AFM{sub 1} level in the GNMT group was significantly higher than the control group, indicating the presence of GNMT can enhance the detoxification pathway of AFB{sub 1}. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the GNMT group had higher survival rate than the control group after they were treated with AFB{sub 1}. Automated docking experiments showed that AFB{sub 1} binds to the S-adenosylmethionine binding domain of GNMT. Affinity sensor assay demonstrated that the dissociation constant for GNMT-AFB{sub 1} interaction is 44.9 {mu}M. Therefore, GNMT is a tumor suppressor for HCC and it exerts protective effects in hepatocytes via direct interaction with AFB{sub 1}, resulting in reduced AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts formation and cell death.

  4. Genome-Wide and Differential Proteomic Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus and Aflatoxin B1 Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhao-Hong; Bai, Tao; Xiang, Bang-De; Qin, Xiao; Xiao, Kai-Yin; Peng, Min-Hao; Liu, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Tang-Wei; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan; Han, Ze-Guang; Mo, Zeng-Nan; Santella, Regina M.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Peng, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure can cause liver damage as well as increase the probability of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To investigate the underlying genetic changes that may influence development of HCC associated with HBV infection and AFB1 exposure, HCC patients were subdivided into 4 groups depending upon HBV and AFB1 exposure status: (HBV(+)/AFB1(+), HBV(+)/AFB1(-), HBV(-)/AFB1(+), HBV(-)/AFB1(-)). Genetic abnormalities and protein expression profiles were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and isobaric tagging for quantitation. A total of 573 chromosomal aberrations (CNAs) including 184 increased and 389 decreased were detected in our study population. Twenty-five recurrently altered regions (RARs; chromosomal alterations observed in ≥10 patients) in chromosomes were identified. Loss of 4q13.3-q35.2, 13q12.1-q21.2 and gain of 7q11.2-q35 were observed with a higher frequency in the HBV(+)/AFB1(+), HBV(+)/AFB1(-) and HBV(-)/AFB1(+) groups compared to the HBV(-)/AFB(-) group. Loss of 8p12-p23.2 was associated with high TNM stage tumors (P = 0.038) and was an unfavorable prognostic factor for tumor-free survival (P =0.045). A total of 133 differentially expressed proteins were identified in iTRAQ proteomics analysis, 69 (51.8%) of which mapped within identified RARs. The most common biological processes affected by HBV and AFB1 status in HCC tumorigenesis were detoxification and drug metabolism pathways, antigen processing and anti-apoptosis pathways. Expression of AKR1B10 was increased significantly in the HBV(+)/AFB1(+) and HBV(-)/AFB1(+) groups. A significant correlation between the expression of AKR1B10 mRNA and protein levels as well as AKR1B10 copy number was observered, which suggest that AKR1B10 may play a role in AFB1-related hepatocarcinogenesis. In summary, a number of genetic and gene expression alterations were found to be associated with HBV and AFB1- related HCC. The possible synergistic

  5. Up-regulation of nucleotide excision repair in mouse lung and liver following chronic exposure to aflatoxin B{sub 1} and its dependence on p53 genotype

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, Jeanne E.; Bondy, Genevieve S.; Mehta, Rekha; Massey, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is biotransformed in vivo into an epoxide metabolite that forms DNA adducts that may induce cancer if not repaired. p53 is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in the regulation of global nucleotide excision repair (NER). Male heterozygous p53 knockout (B6.129-Trp53{sup tm1Brd}N5, Taconic) and wild-type mice were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} for 26 weeks. NER activity was assessed with an in vitro assay, using AFB{sub 1}-epoxide adducted plasmid DNA as a substrate. For wild-type mice, repair of AFB{sub 1}–N7-Gua adducts was 124% and 96% greater in lung extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm and 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} respectively, and 224% greater in liver extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm AFB{sub 1} (p < 0.05). In heterozygous p53 knockout mice, repair of AFB{sub 1}–N7-Gua was only 45% greater in lung extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm AFB{sub 1} (p < 0.05), and no effect was observed in lung extracts from mice treated with 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} or in liver extracts from mice treated with either AFB{sub 1} concentration. p53 genotype did not affect basal levels of repair. AFB{sub 1} exposure did not alter repair of AFB{sub 1}-derived formamidopyrimidine adducts in lung or liver extracts of either mouse genotype nor did it affect XPA or XPB protein levels. In summary, chronic exposure to AFB{sub 1} increased NER activity in wild-type mice, and this response was diminished in heterozygous p53 knockout mice, indicating that loss of one allele of p53 limits the ability of NER to be up-regulated in response to DNA damage. - Highlights: • Mice are chronically exposed to low doses of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}). • The effects of AFB{sub 1} and p53 status on nucleotide excision repair are investigated. • AFB{sub 1} increases nucleotide excision repair in wild type mouse lung and liver. • This increase is attenuated in p53 heterozygous mouse lung and liver. • Results portray the role of p53 in

  6. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from central China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Chen, Lei; Qi, Desheng; Zhang, Niya

    2016-06-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 2528 feed ingredient and complete feed samples were collected from central China. Numbers of 2083, 255 and 190 samples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV or fluorescence detection. The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 33.9%, 90.2% and 77.4%, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for AFB1 ranged from 13.1% to 97.1%. Cottonseed meal presented the most serious contamination by AFB1. ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 50% to 100%, indicating serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. This study demonstrates that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feeds in central China is serious and differs over the years. Feeds are mostly contaminated with ZEN, followed by DON and AFB1. PMID:26771914

  7. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in volunteer asymptomatic smokers.

    PubMed

    Stringer, M R; Moghissi, K; Dixon, K

    2008-06-01

    We assess the sensitivity of autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) compared to that of white light bronchoscopy (WLB) for identification of pre-invasive neoplastic changes of bronchial mucosa in asymptomatic heavy smokers. WLB was performed using a standard flexible fibre-optic bronchoscope, and AFB carried out using the Xillix LIFE Lung((R)) system. Positive AFB images were indicated in the bronchial tree from 51 of the 93 subjects in the study. Biopsies showed epithelial abnormalities in 27 (15 metaplasia, 12 inflammatory changes) of these. WLB showed abnormality in 1 subject but with no pathological changes revealed by cyto-histology. Therefore, the sensitivity of AFB to metaplasia was 75% compared to zero for WLB. AFB yields positive predictive values for metaplastic and overall mucosal changes of 29.4% and 52.9%, respectively. In summary, over 16% of asymptomatic smokers had metaplastic changes in their bronchial mucosa, and AFB proved more sensitive in revealing early changes than WLB. PMID:19356646

  8. Utilization of geothermal resources at United States Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Grogger, P.K.

    1980-09-01

    The Air Force installations on the continental United States as well as Alaska and Hawaii, were evaluated as to the possibility of utilizing geothermal energy to develop electricity, produce process steam, or heat and/or cool buildings. Twenty-five bases have suspected geothermal resources available. Because of either need or available technology seven installations were rated priority I, six were rated priority II and priority III and IV totaled ten. Geological and geophysical data indicated further investigation of the priority I installations, Saylor Creek Range, Idaho, Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota, Charleston AFB, South Carolina, Kirkland AFB, New Mexico, Vandenberg AFB, California, Luke AFB, Arizona, and Williams AFB, Arizona, should be accomplished as soon as possible. The use of geothermal energy will decrease the need for fossil fuels by the USAF and during times of short supply allow such fuels to be used for the Air Force's primary mission, military defense.

  9. Spectral characteristics of fluorescence and circular dichroism of aflatoxin B1 reaction with its anti-idiotypic antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiping; Yang, Hongxiu; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic secondary metabolite and sensitive methods for its analysis have been developed. In our lab, a number of works have been carried out, including exploitation of detection methods and production of anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) against Fab fragment of anti-AFB1 antibody (Ab1). In this paper, Ab2 was generated upon the immunization of mice with F(ab')2 fragment, which was specific to AFB1 and obtained by pepsin digestion of Ab1. The characteristics of Ab2 was primarily investigated by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), which indicated that Ab2, might bear an internal image of antigen AFB1 and was able to combine to F(ab')2 in competition with AFB1, and the concentration of Ab2 to cause 50% inhibition of binding (IC50) was 131.8 μg/mL. In addition, fluorescence and circular dichroism studies were designed to explore the mutual relationship among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2. The fluorescence spectroscopy implied that both AFB1 and Ab2 act as a quencher upon F(ab')2, and the Ab2 could compete with AFB1 when both of Ab2 and AFB1 reacted with F(ab')2. The circular dichroism (CD) spectrum suggested that both the binding of Ab2 and AFB1 on F(ab')2 brought secondary conformation change of F(ab')2, especially in the changes of α helix and β sheet. The research performed would provide unique insight into the comprehension of interaction among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2 as well as offer structural information for substitution researches of toxic antigen like AFB1.

  10. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance for Geothermal Resource Evaluation Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Thomas R. Wood; Joel Renner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to report on the evaluation of geothermal resource potential on and around three different United States (U. S.) Air Force Bases (AFBs): Nellis AFB and Air Force Range (AFR) in the State of Nevada (see maps 1 and 5), Holloman AFB in the State of New Mexico (see map 2), and Mountain Home AFB in the State of Idaho (see map 3). All three sites are located in semi-arid parts of the western U. S. The U. S. Air Force, through its Air Combat Command (ACC) located at Langley AFB in the State of Virginia, asked the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for technical assistance to conduct technical and feasibility evaluations for the potential to identify viable geothermal resources on or around three different AFBs. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is supporting FEMP in providing technical assistance to a number of different Federal Agencies. For this report, the three different AFBs are considered one project because they all deal with potential geothermal resource evaluations. The three AFBs will be evaluated primarily for their opportunity to develop a geothermal resource of high enough quality grade (i.e., temperature, productivity, depth, etc.) to consider the possibility for generation of electricity through a power plant. Secondarily, if the resource for the three AFBs is found to be not sufficient enough for electricity generation, then they will be described in enough detail to allow the base energy managers to evaluate if the resource is suitable for direct heating or cooling. Site visits and meetings by INL personnel with the staff at each AFB were held in late FY-2009 and FY-2010. This report provides a technical evaluation of the opportunities and challenges for developing geothermal resources on and around the AFBs. An extensive amount of literature and geographic information was evaluated as a part of this assessment. Resource potential maps were developed for each of the AFBs.

  11. Analysis of aflatoxin b1 in Iranian foods using HPLC and a monolithic column and estimation of its dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean up on an immunoaffinity column. The method was validated for analysis of AFB1 in rice, bread, puffed corn snack, wheat flour and peanut samples. The average recoveries for AFB1 in different foods ranged from 94.4 to 102.5% with the coefficient of variation lower than 10% for all foods. Limit of detection was 0.01 ng/g. A survey of AFB1 was performed on 90 samples collected from Tehran retail market in June 2005. The results showed that none of the bread and wheat flour samples were contaminated with AFB1. The mean AFB1 levels in rice, puffed corn snack and peanut samples were 4.17, 0.11, and 1.97 ng/g, respectively. The level of contamination of 3 samples (one rice sample and two peanuts samples) to AFB1 was found to be higher than 5 ng/g. Although all food samples had mean concentration of AFB1 below the maximum tolerated level in Iran, the mean intake of AFB1 from rice was estimated 3.49 times higher than the guidance value of 1 ng AFB1/Kg body weight/day. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to monitor AFB1 in foods, especially in rice, in Iran. This is the first study on exposure assessment of Iranian population to AFB1. PMID:24250676

  12. Analysis of Aflatoxin B1 in Iranian Foods Using HPLC and a Monolithic Column and Estimation of its Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean up on an immunoaffinity column. The method was validated for analysis of AFB1 in rice, bread, puffed corn snack, wheat flour and peanut samples. The average recoveries for AFB1 in different foods ranged from 94.4 to 102.5% with the coefficient of variation lower than 10% for all foods. Limit of detection was 0.01 ng/g. A survey of AFB1 was performed on 90 samples collected from Tehran retail market in June 2005. The results showed that none of the bread and wheat flour samples were contaminated with AFB1. The mean AFB1 levels in rice, puffed corn snack and peanut samples were 4.17, 0.11, and 1.97 ng/g, respectively. The level of contamination of 3 samples (one rice sample and two peanuts samples) to AFB1 was found to be higher than 5 ng/g. Although all food samples had mean concentration of AFB1 below the maximum tolerated level in Iran, the mean intake of AFB1 from rice was estimated 3.49 times higher than the guidance value of 1 ng AFB1/Kg body weight/day. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to monitor AFB1 in foods, especially in rice, in Iran. This is the first study on exposure assessment of Iranian population to AFB1. PMID:24250676

  13. Effect of Sodium Selenite on Pathological Changes and Renal Functions in Broilers Fed a Diet Containing Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Na; Wang, Fengyuan; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Chen, Zhengli; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi; Geng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the renal toxicity of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ameliorating effects of added dietary sodium selenite in broiler, renal histopathological changes, ultrastructural changes, and renal function parameters were monitored at 7, 14, and 21 days of age. Two hundred one-day-old healthy male Avian broilers were divided into four groups, namely control group, AFB1 group (0.3 mg/kg AFB1), +Se group (0.4 mg/kg Se), and AFB1+Se group (0.3 mg/kg AFB1+0.4 mg/kg Se). Compared with that of the control group, the relative weight of kidney was increased in the AFB1 group. There were no significant differences between the AFB1+Se group and the control group. By histopathological observation, the renal epithelia were swelling and necrosis at 7 and 21 days of age. Ultrastructurally, the lipid droplets and expanded endoplasmic reticulum appeared in the plasma of epithelia cells in the AFB1 group. Enlarged mitochondria with degenerated cristae were observed in the +Se group. Compared with the control group, the contents of serum creatinine and serum uric acid in the AFB1 group were increased, while the activity of renal Na+-K+ ATPase was decreased. When 0.4 mg/kg selenium was added into the diet containing 0.3 mg/kg AFB1, there were no obvious histological changes in the AFB1+Se group, and the contents of the serum creatinine and serum uric acid contents and the activity of renal Na+-K+ ATPase were close to those in the control group. In conclusion, sodium selenite exhibited protective effects on AFB1-induced kidney toxicity in broilers. PMID:26371027

  14. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Volume 1 (includes appendices a through c). Revision 1. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-05

    This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Barter Island radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

  15. Work plan and sampling and analysis plan for interim remedial actions for Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Addendum to RI/FS work plan (July 1994) and sampling and analysis plan (July 1994). Final report, 1 May-13 July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-13

    The purpose of the report is to describe and detail the activities to be conducted as part of the Interim Remedial Action at Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Section 1.0 provides introduction and background information, and states the objectives for the work. Section 2.0 describes the interim remedial action, including construction specifications. Section 3.0 details the description and construction of the containment cell. Additional characterization of Source Areas SS02, SS10, OT08, SS11 and SS09 is described in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides information regarding decontamination and waste management procedures. Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 provide information on project organization and schedule, reporting, and references, respectively.

  16. Aflatoxicol-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the synergistic effects of cyclopropenoid fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schoenhard, G L; Hendricks, J D; Nixon, J E; Lee, D J; Wales, J H; Sinnhuber, R O; Pawlowski, N E

    1981-03-01

    Aflatoxicol (AFL), a major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the Mt. Shasta rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), was found to produce hepatocellular carcinoma in trout. It was administered in a casein diet to duplicate groups of 120 fingering trout. In the same manner, additional duplicate groups received one of the following: no toxicant; AFB1; the diastereomer of AFL (AFL'); cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPFA); and CPFA plus AFB1, AFL, and AFL'. Eight months after the initiation of the study, the following incidences of carcinoma were observed: control (0%); 20 ppb AFB1 (56%); 29 ppb AFL (26%); 61 ppb AFL' (0%); 50 ppm CPFA (3%); 20 ppb AFB1 plus 50 ppm CPFA (96%); 29 ppb AFL plus 50 ppm CPFA (94%); and 61 ppb AFL' plus 50 ppm CPFA (55%), showing both the carcinogenicity of AFL and the synergistic effects of CPFA. Twelve-month incidences were correspondingly higher in all cases. Aflatoxin M1, another metabolite of AFB1 in rainbow trout, was reported previously to be carcinogenic in trout. These results support the hypothesis that metabolism in rainbow trout does not effectively detoxify AFB1, but rather the formation of AFL extends the carcinogenicity of AFB1 and may contribute to the high sensitivity of rainbow trout to AFB. PMID:7459848

  17. Sulforaphane, a cancer chemopreventive agent, induces pathways associated with membrane biosynthesis in response to tissue damage by aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Nirachara; Fiala, Jeannette L. A.; Navasumrit, Panida; Croy, Robert G.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Essigmann, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the major risk factors for liver cancer globally. A recent study showed that sulforaphane (SF), a potent inducer of phase II enzymes that occurs naturally in widely consumed vegetables, effectively induces hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and reduces levels of hepatic AFB1-DNA adducts in AFB1-exposed Sprague Dawley rats. The present study characterized the effects of SF pre-treatment on global gene expression in the livers of similarly treated male rats. Combined treatment with AFB1 and SF caused reprogramming of a network of genes involved in signal transduction and transcription. Changes in gene regulation were observable 4 h after AFB1 administration in SF-pretreated animals and may reflect regeneration of cells in the wake of AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity. At 24 h after AFB1 administration, significant induction of genes that play roles in cellular lipid metabolism and acetyl-CoA biosynthesis was detected in SF-pretreated AFB1-dosed rats. Induction of this group of genes may indicate a metabolic shift toward glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis to generate and maintain pools of intermediate molecules required for tissue repair, cell growth and compensatory hepatic cell proliferation. Collectively, gene expression data from this study provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SF against AFB1 hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenicity, in addition to the chemopreventive activity of this compound as a GST inducer. PMID:25450479

  18. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin

    2012-03-27

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  19. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration. PMID:23812408

  20. Dynamic representation of spectral edges in guinea pig primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Montejo, Noelia

    2015-01-01

    The central representation of a given acoustic motif is thought to be strongly context dependent, i.e., to rely on the spectrotemporal past and present of the acoustic mixture in which it is embedded. The present study investigated the cortical representation of spectral edges (i.e., where stimulus energy changes abruptly over frequency) and its dependence on stimulus duration and depth of the spectral contrast in guinea pig. We devised a stimulus ensemble composed of random tone pips with or without an attenuated frequency band (AFB) of variable depth. Additionally, the multitone ensemble with AFB was interleaved with periods of silence or with multitone ensembles without AFB. We have shown that the representation of the frequencies near but outside the AFB is greatly enhanced, whereas the representation of frequencies near and inside the AFB is strongly suppressed. These cortical changes depend on the depth of the AFB: although they are maximal for the largest depth of the AFB, they are also statistically significant for depths as small as 10 dB. Finally, the cortical changes are quick, occurring within a few seconds of stimulus ensemble presentation with AFB, and are very labile, disappearing within a few seconds after the presentation without AFB. Overall, this study demonstrates that the representation of spectral edges is dynamically enhanced in the auditory centers. These central changes may have important functional implications, particularly in noisy environments where they could contribute to preserving the central representation of spectral edges. PMID:25744885

  1. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 during the fermentation of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-07-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration. PMID:23812408

  2. Novel regulation of aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by piperonal.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Sil; Bae, In Kyung; Kim, Ho Jin; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated its inhibitory role in aflatoxin (AF) biosynthesis. Treating only AFB1- and B2-producing Aspergillus flavus with piperonal completely inhibited AFB1 production with high sclerotial formation, resulting in 20-fold higher AFG2 production. On the other hand, benzodioxole and eugenol suppressed AFB1 production without AFG formation, while methyleugenol showed potent inhibition of AFB1 production with slight production of AFG1. These results indicate that natural products may change aflatoxin biosynthesis, and highlight a novel regulation of AFG2 production by piperonal. It is the first report for chemical regulation on AFG2 production in non-AFG producing-aspergilli. PMID:26273991

  3. Effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Del Bianchi, M; Oliveira, C A F; Albuquerque, R; Guerra, J L; Correa, B

    2005-12-01

    The effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxins were evaluated in broiler chickens from 21 to 42 d of age. A total of 192 birds were housed in experimental batteries and assigned to 32 cages, 6 birds per cage. The following treatments were applied: 1) 0 mycotoxins (control), 2) 10 mg of FB1, 3) 50 microg of AFB1, 4) 50 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 5) 350 microg of AFB1, 6) 350 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 7) 2,450 microg of AFB1, 8) 2,450 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1/kg of feed. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 6 birds each. At the end of the trial, blood samples from 12 birds per treatment were collected, and the birds were necropsied. Compared with controls, the percentage of heterophils was lower (P < 0.05) in birds from groups receiving 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg and 2450 microg of AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. A higher percentage of lymphocytes (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg, 350 microg of AFB1/kg, and 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg. A decrease in plasma albumin was observed only in birds fed 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/kg. The liver of AFB1-treated birds had focal areas of necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. In birds fed rations containing only 10 mg of FB1/kg, bile duct hyperplasia with fibrosis and a mononuclear infiltrate accompanied by trabecular derangement were observed. In contrast, in treatments in which FB1 was administered in combination, hepatic vacuolar degeneration was observed, and renal tissue presented corpuscles with increased cellular agglomeration, characterizing glomerulonephritis, and a clearly visible tubular epithelium with areas of degeneration and necrosis. The FB1 residues were detected in liver and in excreta of all FB1-treated groups, at levels that ranged from 0.013 to 0.051 mg/kg and from 1.19 to 2.79 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated that FB1 and AFB1, singly or in combination

  4. The Relationship between Age at First Birth and Mother's Lifetime Earnings: Evidence from Danish Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Having children creates career interruptions and reductions in labor income for women. This study documents the relation between the age at first birth (AFB) and women’s labor income. We study these dynamics in the short run (i.e. ratio between labor income at AFB and two years prior to AFB) and long run (i.e., positive/negative differences in total lifetime labor income). Methods Using unique Danish administrative register data for the entire Danish population, we estimate the age-income profiles separately for college and non-college women conditional on marital status, and mothers’ age at first birth (AFB). We compute the lifetime labor income differentials by taking the differences between the labor income of women with and without children at each AFB. Results The short-run loss in labor income, defined as the difference in percentages between the income earned two years prior to AFB and income earned at AFB, ranges from 37% to 65% for college women and from 40% to 53% for non-college women. These losses decrease monotonically with respect to AFB for both education groups. Our results on the lifetime labor income differentials between mothers and women without children also show a net effect that is monotonic (from negative to positive) in AFB. With AFB<25, the lifetime labor income loss for college women is -204% of their average annual labor income and this figure is -252% for non-college women. There are lifetime labor income gains with AFB>31. The largest gains for college women are 13% of their average annual income and this figure is 50% for non-college women. Conclusion Women have a large and unambiguous short-run reduction in labor income at their AFB. In terms of lifetime labor income, both college and non-college women, compared to childless women, are associated with lower income of more than twice their respective average annual income when bearing a child at AFB<25. In other words, women with AFB<25 are associated with a lower

  5. Study of Protective Effect of Date and Nigella Sativa on Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghasham, Abdalla; Ata, Hesham Saad; El-Deep, Said; Meki, Abdel-Raheim; Shehada, Salah

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many medicinal plants and their purified constituents have been shown beneficial therapeutic potentials. Seeds of Nigella sativa, a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been utilized for thousands of years as a spice and food preservative. Methods: the toxic effect of aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) and the possible cytoprotective effect of Nigella sativa (NS) oil and aqueous extract of date were studied on 40 male rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups (10 rats each) and treated daily for two weeks. Group 1 received normal saline as controls. Group 2 treated via intraperitoneal (IP) route with AFB1 (50μg/kg BW). Group 3 treated with AFB1 and NS oil via IP. Group 4 treated with AFB1 and received orally aqueous extract of date (15mg/15ml). The liver and kidneys of each animal were histological examined and biochemical evaluation of the liver and kidney functions was performed. Results: Group 2 showed severe degenerative and necrotic changes in the liver and kidney. The plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine and urea in AFB1 group were significantly higher than the control group. Livers and kidneys of rats, treated with AFB1 and NS showed less histopathological changes in comparison with the AFB1 treated group. Livers and kidneys of rats treated with AFB1 and date group showed only mild histopathological changes in comparison with AFB1 treated group. These histopathological changes seen in animals treated with AFB1 and dates were associated with a significant reduction in levels of ALT, AST, creatinine and urea. Likewise, histopathological changes in the AFB1 and NS group were associated with significant reduction in the levels of beforementioned indices. Moreover, AFB1 and date group showed significant improvement in liver function comparing with AFB1 and NS group. Conclusion: our study revealed that treatment with AFB1 induced histopathological changes in the tissues of liver and kidney associated with

  6. Failure of catalase to protect against aflatoxin B{sub 1}-induced mouse lung tumorigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Guindon, Katherine A.; Foley, Julie F.; Maronpot, Robert R.; Massey, Thomas E.

    2008-03-01

    The carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) induces 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation in mouse lung, an effect that can be prevented by treatment with polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-CAT). G {yields} T transversion mutation in K-ras, an early event in AFB{sub 1}-induced mouse lung carcinogenesis, is thought to result from AFB{sub 1}-8,9-exo-epoxide binding to DNA to form AFB{sub 1}-N{sup 7}-guanine, but may also result from formation of 8-OHdG. Therefore, oxidative DNA damage may be important in AFB{sub 1} carcinogenicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether PEG-CAT would prevent AFB{sub 1} tumorigenicity. Mouse lung tumorigenesis was assessed following treatment of female A/J mice with 300 kU/kg PEG-CAT ip and/or 50 mg/kg AFB{sub 1}. Mice were killed 7 months post-treatment and tumors greater than 1 mm in diameter were excised. Unexpectedly, the mean number of tumors per mouse in the PEG-CAT + AFB{sub 1} group (8.81 {+-} 3.64, n = 47) was greater than that of the group treated with AFB{sub 1} alone (7.05 {+-} 3.45, n = 42) (P < 0.05). The tumors obtained from mice treated with PEG-CAT + AFB{sub 1} were larger than those from mice treated with AFB{sub 1} alone (P < 0.05). There was no difference in K-ras exon 1 mutation spectrum or in the histological diagnosis of tumors between AFB{sub 1} and PEG-CAT + AFB{sub 1} groups (P > 0.05). In vitro incubation with mouse liver catalase (CAT) resulted in conversion of [{sup 3}H]AFB{sub 1} into a DNA-binding species, a possible explanation for the results observed in vivo. These results demonstrate that PEG-CAT is not protective against AFB{sub 1} carcinogenicity in mouse lung despite preventing DNA oxidation.

  7. Efficacy of sodium bentonite as a detoxifier of broiler feed contaminated with aflatoxin and fumonisin.

    PubMed

    Miazzo, R; Peralta, M F; Magnoli, C; Salvano, M; Ferrero, S; Chiacchiera, S M; Carvalho, E C Q; Rosa, C A R; Dalcero, A

    2005-01-01

    Sodium bentonite (SB) was evaluated for its ability to reduce the deleterious effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler diets. It was incorporated into the diets (0.3%) containing 2.5 mg/kg AFB1, 200 mg/kg FB1, or a combination of 2.5 mg/kg AFB1 and 200 mg/kg FB1. Aflatoxin B1 significantly diminished body weight gain, whereas FB1 or the combination of FB1 and SB had no effect. Addition of SB in the diets significantly diminished the inhibitory effects of dietary AFB1. Feeding AFB1 alone caused significant increases in the relative weights of most observed organs. Feeding FB1 alone did not alter relative weights of any organs. In the combined diet (AFB1 plus FB1) relative weights of the liver, kidney, gizzard, and spleen were increased. Addition of SB to the diet containing AFB1 diminished the relative weights of liver, kidney, and spleen. Addition of SB to diets containing AFB1 and FB1 only decreased liver weights. In relation to the control, lower serum levels of total protein, albumin, and globulins were observed for all AFB, containing diets without SB addition, whereas all other treatments were not altered. Livers of birds fed diets containing AFB1 and a combination of AFB1 and FB1 were enlarged, yellowish, friable, and had rounded borders. The histopathology of them, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, showed multifocal and varied cytoplasmatic vacuolization with perilobular location. Incorporation of SB reduced the incidence and severity of the hepatic histopathology changes associated with aflatoxicosis. PMID:15685935

  8. Effect of 8-oxoguanine glycosylase deficiency on aflatoxin B1 tumourigenicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Jeanne E.; Turner, Patricia V.; Massey, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) may initiate cancer by causing oxidatively damaged DNA, specifically by causing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) lesions. Base excision repair removes these lesions, with 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1) being the rate-limiting enzyme. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ogg1 deficiency on AFB1-induced oxidatively damaged DNA and tumourigenesis. Female wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous ogg1 null mice were given a single dose of 50mg/kg AFB1 or 40 µl dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ip. Neither ogg1 genotype nor AFB1 treatment affected levels of oxidised guanine in lung or liver 2h post-treatment. AFB1-treated ogg1 null mice showed exacerbated weight loss and mortality relative to DMSO-treated ogg1 null mice, but AFB1 treatment did not significantly increase lung or liver tumour incidence compared with controls, regardless of ogg1 genotype. Suspect lung masses from three of the AFB1-treated mice were adenomas, and masses from two of the mice were osteosarcomas. No osteosarcomas were observed in DMSO-treated mice. All liver masses from AFB1-treated mice were adenomas, and one also contained a hepatocellular carcinoma. In DNA from the lung tumours, the K-ras mutation pattern was inconsistent with initiation by AFB1. In conclusion, ogg1 status did not have a significant effect on AFB1-induced oxidatively damaged DNA or tumourigenesis, but deletion of one or both alleles of ogg1 did increase susceptibility to other aspects of AFB1 toxicity. PMID:25583175

  9. Protection of salvia miltiorrhiza against aflatoxin-B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Fischer 344 rats dual mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Yang, C F; Wasser, S; Shen, H M; Tan, C E; Ong, C N

    2001-06-01

    Extract of Salvia Miltiorrhiza (SM) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver diseases. Recent experimental evidence indicates that it has anti-tumor potential. In this study, the effect of SM on alfatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis was investigated in male Fischer 344 rats. AFB1 (40 microg/100 g body wt, by gavage) was administered once a week for 24 weeks. In SM treatment group, rats were given SM (0.25g/100g body wt, 5 days/week by gavage) for a total of 28 weeks, including 4 weeks before and 24 weeks during AFB1 exposure. Results showed that the elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities due to AFB1 dosing was almost completely abolished by the treatment of SM, indicating that SM could prevent AFB1-induced liver cell injury. It was further observed that SM substantially reduced glutathione S-transferase placenta form (GST-P) positive foci formation and GST-P mRNA expression caused by AFB1, which clearly suggests that SM is effective in preventing AFB1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, the inhibition on AFB1 hepatocarcinigenesis was associated with a corresponding decrease in AFB1-DNA adducts formation as well as AFB1-induced oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) in rat liver. Our results also indicate that the protective effect of SM might be mediated through dual mechanisms: (i) the enhancement of AFB1 detoxification pathway, especially the induction of GST-Yc2 mRNA expression, and (ii) the antioxidant property of SM. PMID:11441922

  10. Inhibition of ebselen on aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, C F; Liu, J; Wasser, S; Shen, H M; Tan, C E; Ong, C N

    2000-12-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a potent hepatocarcinogen, enhances ROS formation and causes oxidative DNA damage, which may play a role in its carcinogenicity. We have demonstrated recently that ebselen, an organic selenium compound, protects against the cytotoxicity of AFB(1) through its antioxidant capability. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ebselen on AFB(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in an animal model. Fischer 344 rats were first treated with either deionized water or ebselen (5 mg/kg, 5 days/week) via gavage for 4 weeks, then given AFB(1) (0.4 mg/kg, gavage, once a week) or AFB(1) plus ebselen (5 mg/kg, 5 days/week) for another 24 weeks. The results showed that the hepatocarcinogenicity of AFB(1) in rats was significantly reduced by ebselen treatment as indicated by a decrease in: (i) serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity; (ii) expression of mRNAs of liver alpha-fetoprotein and the placental form of glutathione S-transferase (GST-P); and (iii) the area and mean density of staining of liver GST-P foci. Ebselen treatment significantly reduced the formation of hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adducts and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine caused by AFB(1) exposure. These findings suggest that ebselen can inhibit the carcinogenicity of AFB(1). In addition to the reduction of AFB(1)-DNA adduct formation, the protective effect of ebselen against AFB(1)-induced oxidative DNA damage may also, at least in part, contribute to its anticarcinogenic property. PMID:11133813

  11. Stimulation of Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Mutation by Aflatoxin B1-DNA Adducts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Requires MEC1 (ATR), RAD53, and DUN1

    PubMed Central

    Fasullo, Michael; Sun, Mingzeng; Egner, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent recombinagen but weak mutagen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AFB1 exposure induces DNA damage-inducible genes, such as RAD51 and those encoding ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), through a MEC1 (ATR homolog)-dependent pathway. Previous studies have indicated that MEC1 is required for both AFB1-associated recombination and mutation, and suggested that AFB1-DNA adducts are common substrates for recombination and mutagenesis. However, little is known about the downstream effectors of MEC1 required for genotoxic events associated with AFB1 exposure. Here we show that AFB1 exposure increases frequencies of RAD51-dependent unequal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and activates Rad53 (CHK2). We found that MEC1, RAD53, and DUN1 are required for both AFB1-associated mutation and SCE. Deletion of SML1, which encodes an inhibitor of RNR, did not suppress the DUN1-dependent requirement for AFB1-associated genetic events, indicating that higher dNTP levels could not suppress the dun1 phenotype. We identified AFB1-DNA adducts and show that approximately the same number of adducts are obtained in both wild type and rad53 mutants. Since DUN1 is not required for UV-associated mutation and recombination, these studies define a distinct role for DUN1 in AFB1-associated mutagenesis and recombination. We speculate that AFB1-associated DNA adducts stall DNA replication, a consequence of which can either be mutation or recombination. PMID:18228255

  12. Modulation of aflatoxin toxicity and biomarkers by lycopene in F344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Lili; Guan Hongxia; Ding Xiaolin; Wang Jiasheng . E-mail: js.wang@ttu.edu

    2007-02-15

    Modulation by lycopene of aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-induced toxic effects, metabolism, and metabolic activations was studied in young F344 rats. Animals were pretreated orally with either corn oil (control group) or lycopene [100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intervention group] 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Control animals were then treated daily with AFB{sub 1} (250 {mu}g/kg b.w) alone. Intervention animals were administered lycopene (100 mg/kg b.w.) at 1 h following a daily treatment with AFB{sub 1} (250 {mu}g/kg b.w.). Pretreatment and intervention with lycopene significantly reduced the toxic effect caused by AFB{sub 1} and greatly modulated AFB{sub 1} metabolism and metabolic activation. Urinary excretion of AFB{sub 1} phase 1 metabolites, AFM{sub 1}, AFQ{sub 1}, and AFP{sub 1}, was significantly decreased in lycopene-treated animals. Formation of serum AFB{sub 1}-albumin adducts was also significantly reduced. The rate of reduction was from approximately 30% on day 1 (p < 0.05) to 67.7% on day 15 (p < 0.001). Lycopene intervention also significantly reduced formation of AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts in liver compared to control animals, with the highest reduction (52.7%) occurring on day 3 (p < 0.05). Levels of AFB{sub 1}-N {sup 7}-guanine excreted in urine were also significantly decreased. Urinary excretion of the phase 2 detoxification metabolite, AFB{sub 1}-mecapturic acid, was significantly increased in lycopene-intervened animals. AFB{sub 1}-induced urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was also reduced to 50% on day 7 after lycopene intervention. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of phase 1 metabolism and metabolic activation, as well as induction of phase 2 detoxification enzyme activity are the potential mechanisms for the chemopreventive effects of lycopene.

  13. Interactions between hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B(1): effects on p53 induction in HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Lereau, Myriam; Gouas, Doriane; Villar, Stéphanie; Besaratinia, Ahmad; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Berthillon, Pascale; Martel-Planche, Ghislaine; Nogueira da Costa, André; Ortiz-Cuaran, Sandra; Hantz, Olivier; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Hainaut, Pierre; Chemin, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and dietary exposure to aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) are the main risk factors for the development of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). How these factors cooperate is still largely unknown. AFB(1) activation leads to DNA adduction and mutagenesis, with a specific mutation at codon 249 in TP53 (p.R249S). So far, only limited studies have addressed the effects of AFB(1) on HBV replication. We have analysed the effects of both risk factors on p53 induction during HBV infection in HepaRG, a cell line with hepatocyte-like morphology that metabolizes AFB(1) and supports HBV infection. Exposure to AFB(1) up to 5 µM induced a downregulation of HBV replication after 48 h, as measured by a decrease in viral antigens in the culture medium (HBsAg, HBeAg and large envelope protein) and in intracellular levels of HBV transcripts, DNA and HBsAg. Conversely, HBV infection did not significantly modify AFB(1)-DNA adduct formation or repair as assessed by immunodot-blot assay, and the induction of p53 in response to AFB(1) was similar in infected and non-infected HepaRG cells. Overall, our results suggest that AFB(1) exposure decreases HBV replication, whereas DNA damage by AFB(1) and subsequent p53 induction is not affected by the presence of the virus. Thus, in HepaRG cell line, AFB(1) and HBV do not cooperate to increase DNA damage by AFB(1). Further studies on the effects of both factors in a context of chronicity are needed to better understand synergistic effects. PMID:22113009

  14. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Long, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Kui; Han, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yuan; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW) AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interferon γ (IFN-γ). Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four proinflammatory factors to different degrees and inhibit the inflammatory reaction of mice. The results suggest that GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced oxidative stress and significantly improves the immune injury of mice induced by AFB1. PMID:27070584

  15. Investigations into the mechanisms of aflatoxin B sub 1 genotoxicity and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) was used as a model carcinogen for investigations into the initiation, promotion and progression phases of chemically induced carcinogenesis. In initial experiments {sup 3}H-AFB{sub 1} was evaluated for its rate of tritium exchange in vitro and in vivo. Tritium exchange form {sup 3}H-AFB{sub 1} to water in vitro (pH 7.4, 37{degree}C) and in-vivo from covalently bound AFB{sub 1} had a half-life of {approx}1 week. The physical interaction of AFB{sub 1} with DNA was examined to further characterize the steps involved in initiation. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy it was established that AFB{sub 1} binds to the outside of the DNA double helix and does not intercalate between the base pairs in spite of its relatively planar structure. In contrast to results obtained from NMR experiments, AFB{sub 1} and AFM{sub 1} were found to be direct acting mutagens in the Ames test and strain sensitivity indicated the direct mutagenicity was a result of a frameshift mutation suggesting intercalation. To determine if a free radical mechanism was converting the parent compound to a mutagenic derivative, the effect of the free radical inhibitor, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), on the mutagenicity of AFB{sub 1} to Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was determined. DNA sequences believed responsible for reversion of different Salmonella typhimurium strains were compared to the direct mutagenicity of AFB{sub 1} in these strains and with the rules reported in the literature for the sequence specific covalent binding of AFB{sub 1}. An alternative mechanism for the metabolic activation of AFB{sub 1} and AFM{sub 1} to genotoxic metabolites was investigated.

  16. Sulforaphane, a cancer chemopreventive agent, induces pathways associated with membrane biosynthesis in response to tissue damage by aflatoxin B{sub 1}

    SciTech Connect

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Nirachara; Fiala, Jeannette L.A.; Navasumrit, Panida; Croy, Robert G.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Essigmann, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is one of the major risk factors for liver cancer globally. A recent study showed that sulforaphane (SF), a potent inducer of phase II enzymes that occurs naturally in widely consumed vegetables, effectively induces hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and reduces levels of hepatic AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts in AFB{sub 1}-exposed Sprague Dawley rats. The present study characterized the effects of SF pre-treatment on global gene expression in the livers of similarly treated male rats. Combined treatment with AFB{sub 1} and SF caused reprogramming of a network of genes involved in signal transduction and transcription. Changes in gene regulation were observable 4 h after AFB{sub 1} administration in SF-pretreated animals and may reflect regeneration of cells in the wake of AFB{sub 1}-induced hepatotoxicity. At 24 h after AFB{sub 1} administration, significant induction of genes that play roles in cellular lipid metabolism and acetyl-CoA biosynthesis was detected in SF-pretreated AFB{sub 1}-dosed rats. Induction of this group of genes may indicate a metabolic shift toward glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis to generate and maintain pools of intermediate molecules required for tissue repair, cell growth and compensatory hepatic cell proliferation. Collectively, gene expression data from this study provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SF against AFB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenicity, in addition to the chemopreventive activity of this compound as a GST inducer. - Highlights: • This study revealed sulforaphane (SF)-deregulated gene sets in aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-treated rat livers. • SF redirects biochemical networks toward lipid biosynthesis in AFB{sub 1}-dosed rats. • SF enhanced gene sets that would be expected to favor cell repair and regeneration.

  17. CD26 surface molecule involvement in T cell activation and lymphokine synthesis in rheumatoid and other inflammatory synovitis.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Muscat, C; Bertotto, A; Bistoni, O; Agea, E; Tognellini, R; Fiorucci, G; Cesarotti, M; Bombardieri, S

    1996-07-01

    T cell surface expression and the functional role of CD26 antigen (Ag), a surface ectoenzyme involved in T cell activation and migration across the extracellular matrix, were analyzed in the peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) from patients with inflammatory arthritides. CD26 membrane expression on T cells was detected by cytofluorometry using two different monoclonal antibodies, anti-Ta1 and anti-1F7, while cell proliferation and both IL-2 and IFN-gamma production were evaluated in anti-CD3- or anti-CD2-stimulated cell cultures after Ag surface modulation with anti-1F7. The results showed that Ta1 and 1F7 Ag expression were increased on T cells from PB of patients with active, but not inactive, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most SF T cells from RA or other inflammatory arthritides displayed the memory marker CD45R0 and the Ta1 Ag, but lacked the 1F7 molecule. In addition, in vitro 1F7 modulation, which enhanced RA PB T cell proliferation and both IL-2 and IFN-gamma synthesis, did not synergize with anti-CD3 or anti-CD2 in inducing IL-2-dependent activation of SF T cells, but reduced IFN-gamma production. A spontaneous reappearance of 1F7 Ag on the SF T cell surface was seen after 2-5 days in culture. Phorbol myristate acetate, able to accelerate its reexpression, also restored a normal response of SF T cells to anti-1F7 comitogenic effects. These data confirm a role of the CD26 surface molecule in regulating T cell activation and lymphokine synthesis. This observation may have important implications in the regulation of T cell activity at the joint level during chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:8674237

  18. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of borax against aflatoxin B1-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Dirican, Ebubekir; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2012-12-01

    A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with AFB1 (3.12 ppm) as compared to controls. However, co-application of BX (1, 2 and 5 ppm) and AFB1 resulted in decreases of SCE and MN rates as compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone. Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:22526492

  19. Application of magnetic solid phase extraction for separation and determination of aflatoxins B ₁ and B₂ in cereal products by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Taherimaslak, Zohreh; Rashidi, Somayeh

    2014-06-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on the magnetic solid phase extraction with modified magnetic nanoparticles followed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed for extraction and determination of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and B2 (AFB2) in cereal products. Magnetic nanoparticle coated with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanthiol (TMSPT) and modified with 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AMT) was used as an antibody-free adsorbent. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves for AFB1 and AFB2 were linear in the ranges of 0.2-15 μg L(-1) and 0.04-3 μg L(-1), respectively. Detection limit was 0.041 μg L(-1) for AFB1 and 0.013 μg L(-1) for AFB2. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of AFB1 and AFB2 in spiked corn and rice samples with an average recovery of 93.5%. The results demonstrated that the developed method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, accurate and remarkably free from interference effects. PMID:24814005

  20. An aptamer-based dipstick assay for the rapid and simple detection of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Min Jin; Mun, Hyoyoung; Kim, Min-Gon

    2014-12-15

    A rapid and simple dipstick assay based on an aptamer has been developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The dipstick assay format was based on a competitive reaction of the biotin-modified aptamer specific to AFB1 between target and cy5-modified DNA probes. Streptavidin and anti-cy5 antibody as capture reagents were immobilized at test and control lines on a membrane of the dipstick assay. After optimization, the limit of detection for the dipstick assay was 0.1 ng/ml AFB1 in buffer. The method was confirmed to be specific to AFB1, and the entire process of the assay can be completed within 30 min. Aqueous methanol (20%) provided a good extraction efficiency, and the matrix influence from corn extracts was successfully reduced through 2-fold dilution. The results of AFB1 analysis for corn samples spiked with known concentration of AFB1 by the dipstick assay and ELISA showed good agreement. The cut-off value of the dipstick assay for corn samples was 0.3 ng/g AFB1. Therefore, the dipstick assay is first reported and considered as a rapid, simple, on-site and inexpensive screening tool for AFB1 determination in grains as well as a corn. PMID:25032679

  1. DNA BINDING AND ADDUCT FORMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN CULTURED HUMAN AND ANIMAL TRACHEOBRONCHIAL AND BLADDER TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA binding and adduct formation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was studied in cultured bladder and tracheobronchial explants from human, monkey, dog, hamster and rat. Explants were exposed to (3H)AFB1 (1 micrometer final concentration) in PFHR-4 medium (pH 7.4) without serum for 24 h, a...

  2. Comparing Levels of Anti-Fat Bias between American and Mexican Athletes and Undergraduate Physical Education and Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda, Miriam Wood; Whitehead, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatization consequent to anti-fat bias (AFB) may affect the services people who are obese receive from health professionals, including physical education and exercise science (PEX) professionals. In this study, we compared AFB levels of American and Mexican PEX students and Mexican athletes. We also investigated if socially desirable (SD)…

  3. Toxic effect of aflatoxin B1 and the role of recovery on the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bahey, Noha Gamal; Abd Elaziz, Hekmat Osman; Gadalla, Kamal Kamal El Sayed

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic and well-known mycotoxin that exists in many food stuff. Exposure to AFB1 has been reported to produce serious biochemical and structural alterations in human and animal organs, however, its effect on the brain is not well studied. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the possible histopathological effect of AFB1 and its withdrawal on the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Fifteen adult female Wistar rats were divided into 3 equal groups: control, AFB1 (15.75 μg/kg/orally, once weekly, for 8 weeks) and recovery groups. Brain sections were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as for NeuN and GFAP immunostaining. AFB1 administration resulted in several histopathological alterations including; cellular degeneration, dilatation of the blood vessels and significant decrease in the thickness of the frontal cortex and the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell layer. In the frontal cortex, there was a significant reduction in the percentage of astrocyte distribution without changes in neuronal numbers. On the other hand, in the hippocampal CA1 region, there was a significant reduction of neuronal number and a significant increase in the percentage of astrocyte distribution. Importantly, AFB1-induced structural alterations were rescued following AFB1 withdrawal. In conclusion, AFB1 induce histological alterations in the rat brain which are potentially reversible upon withdrawal. PMID:26380901

  4. Reflections of a Lifetime Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augusto, Carl R.

    Carl Augusto, currently president and executive director of the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB), describes his personal and professional experience with the National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped and the talking books program. Topics discussed include AFB's history with its own talking book program founded…

  5. Aflatoxin B1 binding by dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, K; el-Nezami, H; Haskard, C; Ahokas, J; Salminen, S

    2001-10-01

    Various food commodities including dairy products may be contaminated with aflatoxins, which, even in small quantities, have detrimental effects on human and animal health. Several microorganisms have been reported to bind or degrade aflatoxins in foods and feeds. This study assessed the binding of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from contaminated solution by 20 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. The selected strains are used in the food industry and comprised 12 Lactobacillus, five Bifidobacterium, and three Lactococcus strains. Bacteria and AFB1 were incubated (24 h, +37 degrees C) and the amount of unbound AFB1 was quantitated by HPLC. Between 5.6 and 59.7% AFB1 was bound from solution by these strains. Two Lactobacillus amylovorus strains and one Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain removed more than 50% AFB1 and were selected for further study. Bacterial binding of AFB1 by these strains was rapid, and more than 50% AFB1 was bound throughout a 72-h incubation period. Binding was reversible, and AFB1 was released by repeated aqueous washes. These findings further support the ability of specific strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind selected dietary contaminants. PMID:11699445

  6. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors in honeybee larval infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae se...

  7. Uncommon occurrence ratios of aflatoxin B1, B 2, G 1, and G 2 in maize and groundnuts from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Matumba, Limbikani; Sulyok, Michael; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Van Poucke, Christof; De Saeger, Sarah; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    We report an unusual aflatoxin profile in maize and groundnuts from Malawi, with aflatoxin G1 found routinely at equal or even higher levels than aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ratio in a contaminated sample is generally greater than 50% of total aflatoxin (sum of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2). In Malawi, the aflatoxin occurrence ratios were determined by examining LC-MS/MS and HPLC fluorescence detection (FLD) data of 156 naturally contaminated raw maize and 80 groundnut samples collected in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that natural aflatoxin occurrence ratio differed. In 47% of the samples, the concentration of AFG1 was higher than that of AFB1. The mean concentration percentages of AFB1/AFB2/AFG1/AFG2 in reference to total aflatoxins were found to be 47:5:43:5%, respectively. The AFG1 and AFB1 50/50 trend was observed in maize and groundnuts and was consistent for samples collected in both years. If the AFB1 measurement was used to check compliance of total aflatoxin regulatory limit set at 10, 20, 100, and 200 μg/kg with an assumption that AFB1≥50% of the total aflatoxin content, 8, 13, 24, and 26% false negative rates would have occurred respectively. It is therefore important for legislation to consider total aflatoxins rather than AFB1 alone. PMID:25194830

  8. A novel strain of Cellulosimicrobium funkei can biologically detoxify aflatoxin B1 in ducklings

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lv-Hui; Zhang, Ni-Ya; Sun, Ran-Ran; Gao, Xin; Gu, Changqin; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Qi, De-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to screen microorganisms with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) removal potential from soils and to evaluate their ability in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1 in ducklings. In experiment 1, we screened 11 isolates that showed the AFB1 biodegradation ability, and the one exhibited the highest AFB1 removal ability (97%) was characterized and identified as Cellulosimicrobium funkei (C. funkei). In experiment 2, 80 day-old Cherry Valley ducklings were divided into four groups with four replicates of five birds each and were used in a 2 by 2 factorial trial design, in which the main factors included administration of AFB1 versus solvent and C. funkei versus solvent for 2 weeks. The AFB1 treatment significantly decreased the body weight gain, feed intake and impaired feed conversion ratio. AFB1 also decreased serum albumin and total protein concentration, while it increased activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and liver damage in the ducklings. Supplementation of C. funkei alleviated the adverse effects of AFB1 on growth performance, and provided protective effects on the serum biochemical indicators, and decreased hepatic injury in the ducklings. Conclusively, our results suggest that the novel isolated C. funkei strain could be used to mitigate the negative effects of aflatoxicosis in ducklings. PMID:25616109

  9. Preparation and characterization of an immunoaffinity column for the selective extraction of aflatoxin B1 in 13 kinds of foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; He, Jian-Li; Shao, Yu; Fan, Chun-Lin; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Wen-Xiao; Chen, Min; Wang, Qi; Pei, Xing-Yao; Ding, Shuang-Yang; Jiang, Hai-Yang

    2015-08-15

    A rapid and reliable immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up based ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in cereals, peanuts, vegetable oils and Chinese traditional food products like sufu and lobster sauce. The immunoaffinity column of AFB1 (AFB1-IAC) was prepared by coupling CNBr-activated Sepharose-4B with the anti-AFB1 monoclonal antibody. The column capacity of IAC was over 260ng/mL gel. Samples were extracted with methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the extracts were then purified on an AFB1-IAC before UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The average recoveries of AFB1 in spiked samples at levels of 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0μg/kg ranged from 72% to 98%, with the relative standard deviations of 1.2-9.3% (n=6). The limits of qualification ranged from 0.07 to 0.23μg/kg, which were below the MRLs of AFB1 in the matrices evaluated. In this work, the developed method was suitable for the determination of trace AFB1 residues in 13 kinds of foodstuffs. PMID:26160471

  10. Co-occurence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize: guatemala as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are found in maize. AFB1 is a genotoxic carcinogen (IARC Group 1) and FB1 a liver cancer promoter in rodents and trout (IARC Group 2B). Therefore, the possibility of co-exposure is a health concern, most notably in areas where maize serves as a dietary st...

  11. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ~29% reduction of AFB1. According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB1 kg-1bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB1 from the irradiated raisins.

  12. Protective Effects of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Broiler Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengyuan; Shu, Gang; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Chen, Kejie; Cui, Hengmin; Chen, Zhengli; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Geng, Yi; Lai, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite on aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen of broilers. Two hundred one-day-old male broilers, divided into five groups, were fed with basal diet (control group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1 group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.2 mg/kg Se (+Se group I), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg Se (+Se group II) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.6 mg/kg Se (+Se group III), respectively. According to biochemical assays, AFB1 significantly decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, total superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase and the level of glutathione hormone, while it increased the level of malondialdehyde. Moreover, AFB1 increased the percentage of apoptosis cells by flow cytometry and the occurrence of apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay. Simultaneous supplementation with sodium selenite restored these parameters to be close to those in control group. In conclusion, sodium selenite exhibited protective effects on AFB1-induced splenic toxicity in broilers by inhibiting oxidative stress and excessive apoptosis. PMID:23839060

  13. 75 FR 4789 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

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  14. 76 FR 5142 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

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  15. 76 FR 10610 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

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  16. Comparison of nixtamalization and extrusion processes for a reduction in aflatoxin content.

    PubMed

    Elias-Orozco, R; Castellanos-Nava, A; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Figueroa-Cárdenas, J D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2002-09-01

    Traditional nixtamalization and an extrusion method for making the dough (masa) for corn tortillas that requires using lime and hydrogen peroxide were evaluated for the detoxification of aflatoxins. The traditional nixtamalization process reduced levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) by 94%, aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) by 90% and aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-dihydrodiol (AFB(1)-dihydrodiol) by 93%. The extrusion process reduced levels of AFB(1) by 46%, AFM(1) by 20% and AFB(1)-dihydrodiol by 53%. Extrusion treatments with 0, 0.3 and 0.5% lime reduced AFB(1) levels by 46, 74 and 85%, respectively. The inactivation of AFB(1), AFM(1) and AFB(1)-dihydrodiol in the extrusion process using lime together with hydrogen peroxide showed higher elimination of AFB(1) than treatments with lime or hydrogen peroxide alone. The extrusion process with 0.3% lime and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide was the most effective process to detoxify aflatoxins in corn tortillas, but a high level of those reagents negatively affected the taste and aroma of the corn tortilla as compared with tortillas elaborated by the traditional nixtamalization process. PMID:12396399

  17. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... WGS84 datum for its imagery base and imagery dated January 1, 2012. (2) The areas described in... at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted Areas AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD... establishing six new restricted areas along the Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) facility shoreline. Tyndall AFB...

  18. Aflatoxin B1 in sesame seeds and sesame products from the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Kollia, Eleni; Tsourouflis, Kyriakos; Markaki, Panagiota

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most potent liver carcinogen for humans. A method for determination in sesame seeds was developed. AFB1 was extracted by methanol-water, cleaned by immunoaffinity columns and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The recovery factor and the limit of detection (LOD) of AFB1 in sesame seeds were 111.5% and 0.02 ng g(-1), respectively. Thirty samples of sesame products were examined for the presence of AFB1. After analysis, 77.6% of samples were found to be contaminated. Eight samples exceeded the European Union (EU) limit (2 µg AFB1 kg(-1)). In 15 samples, AFB1 was below the EU limit. Seven samples remained below the LOD. The most contaminated (14.49 ng AFB1 g(-1)) sample was unpeeled packaged sesame seeds. In all samples, aflatoxigenic Aspergilli fungi as well as the risk for AFB1 presence in sesame seed was investigated. PMID:27088795

  19. Evaluation of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ mutagenesis: addition of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase to the Salmonella mutagenicity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, K.V.; Clayton, J.W.; Price, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of glutathione (GSH) and the combination of GSH and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) mutagenesis in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were tested. Ten concentrations of AFB/sub 1/ (0-1.0 ..mu..g/plate) were added to a liver microsomal homogenate (S9 mix) or to S9 mix containing GSH or S9 mix containing the combination of GSH + GST. One third of the samples were plated directly. Two-thirds were incubated for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C prior to plating, and of those, half included bacteria. The results show that the addition of GSH and GSH + GST affected AFB/sub 1/ mutagenesis by forming the AFB/sub 1/-GSH conjugate and decreasing the availability of AFB/sub 1/-8,9-epoxide. The effect of GST on GSH activity varied with the strain because of the different amounts of S9 mix used. The formation of the AFB/sub 1/-GSH conjugate was verified by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for quantitation of AFB/sub 1/ and detection of AFB/sub 1/-GSH.

  20. Conversion of 11-hydroxy-O-methylsterigmatocystin to aflatoxin G1 in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In aflatoxin biosynthesis, aflatoxins G1 (AFG1) and B1 (AFB1) are independently produced from a common precursor, O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST). Recently, 11-hydroxy-O-methylsterigmatocystin (HOMST) was identified as a later precursor involved in the conversion of OMST to AFB1. However, the invo...

  1. Acute effects of aflatoxins on guinea pig isolated ileum.

    PubMed

    Luzi, A; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies on the aflatoxins have focused mainly on their chronic toxic effects. In this study we investigated the acute gastrointestinal effects of four common aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum. AFB(1) (EC(50) 4.6+/-0.4 microM) and AFB(2) (EC(50)17+/-4.4 microM) contracted isolated guinea pig ileum in a dose-dependent manner, whereas AFG(1) and AFG(2) evoked no contractions. Atropine (5.9 nM 11.8 and 23.6 nM) antagonized AFB(1)-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the nicotinic ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (up to 55 microM), left AFB(1)-induced contractions unchanged. In contrast, tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM), blocked AFB(1) contractile activity. The two inhibitors of ACh release, morphine (0.3 microM) and clonidine (0.4 microM), antagonized EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractions, and apamin, a drug that increases neuronal excitability, facilitated the EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractile effect. The choline uptake blocker, hemicholinium (17.4 microM) markedly reduced AFB(1)-induced contractions. These results suggest that aflatoxins induce their contractile effect indirectly through the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine release from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings. The acute actions of aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum could explain their acute gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals. PMID:12206819

  2. Embryotoxicity assay of aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999.

    PubMed

    Celik, I; Oğuz, H; Demet, O; Boydak, M; Dönmez, H H; Sur, E; Nizamlioğlu, F

    2000-09-01

    1. The embryotoxicity of mixed aflatoxins (AF) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were evaluated by a modified chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST). Adverse effects on the early embryonic development of thymus and bursa of Fabricius were also investigated by light microscopy. AF consisted of 83.06% AFB1, 12.98% AFB2, 2.84% AFG1 and 1.12% AFG2. 2. A total of 448 fertilised laying hens' eggs were used. AF and AFB1 were injected into the eggs at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 ng/egg. Embryonic developmental stages were evaluated according to the Hamburger-Hamilton scale (HH-scale). 3. The results showed that AFB1 given at 10 ng/egg had a significantly (P<0.05) greater embryotoxic effect than AF given at a similar dose. The higher doses of both AF and AFB1 caused higher embryonic mortality and also an increase in early deaths. 4. In the groups receiving 100 ng/egg AF and AFB1 an abnormal development was seen, with a protruded central region, corresponding to the area pellucida of the blastoderm. No other developmental abnormality attributable to AF or AFB1 was found. PMID:11128380

  3. Response of the Hepatic Transcriptome to Aflatoxin B1 in Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Melissa S.; Settlage, Robert E.; McMahon, Kevin W.; Mendoza, Kristelle M.; Rawal, Sumit; El-Nezami, Hani S.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. AFB1 is especially hepatotoxic in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), since these birds are unable to detoxify AFB1 by glutathione-conjugation. The impacts of AFB1 on the turkey hepatic transcriptome and the potential protection from pretreatment with a Lactobacillus-based probiotic mixture were investigated through RNA-sequencing. Animals were divided into four treatment groups and RNA was subsequently recovered from liver samples. Four pooled RNA-seq libraries were sequenced to produce over 322 M reads totaling 13.8 Gb of sequence. Approximately 170,000 predicted transcripts were de novo assembled, of which 803 had significant differential expression in at least one pair-wise comparison between treatment groups. Functional analysis linked many of the transcripts significantly affected by AFB1 exposure to cancer, apoptosis, the cell cycle or lipid regulation. Most notable were transcripts from the genes encoding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2, osteopontin, S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2, and lipoprotein lipase. Expression was modulated by the probiotics, but treatment did not completely mitigate the effects of AFB1. Genes identified through transcriptome analysis provide candidates for further study of AFB1 toxicity and targets for efforts to improve the health of domestic turkeys exposed to AFB1. PMID:24979717

  4. Production of Group Specific Monoclonal Antibody to Aflatoxins and its Application to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Cha, Sang-Ho; Karyn, Bischoff; Park, Sung-Won; Son, Seong-Wan; Kang, Hwan-Goo

    2011-06-01

    Through the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using AFB1- carboxymethoxylamine BSA conjugates. One clone showing high binding ability was selected and it was applied to develop a direct competitive ELISA system. The epitope densities of AFB1-CMO against BSA and KLH were about 1 : 6 and 1 : 545, respectively. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) from cloned hybridoma cell was the IgG1 subclass with λ-type light chains. The IC50s of the monoclonal antibody developed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 4.36, 7.22, 6.61 and 29.41 ng/ml, respectively, based on the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA system and 15.28, 26.62, 32.75 and 56.67 ng/ml, respectively, based on the mAb coated ELISA. Cross-relativities of mAb to AFB1 for AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 60.47, 65.97 and 14.83% in the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA, and 59.41, 46.66 and 26.97% in the mAb coated ELISA, respectively. Quantitative calculations for AFB1 from the AFB1-Ab ELISA and AFB1-Ag ELISA ranged from 0.25 to 25 ng/ml (R(2) > 0.99) and from 1 to 100 ng/ml (R(2) > 0.99), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precision CVs were < 10% in both ELISA assay, representing good reproducibility of developed assay. Recoveries ranged from 79.18 to 91.27%, CVs ranged from 3.21 to 7.97% after spiking AFB1 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 ng/ml and following by extraction with 70% methanol solution in the Ab-coated ELISA. In conclusion, we produced a group specific mAb against aflatoxins and developed two direct competitive ELISAs for the detection of AFB1 in feeds based on a monoclonal antibody developed. PMID:24278561

  5. Metabolomics of the Bio-Degradation Process of Aflatoxin B1 by Actinomycetes at an Initial pH of 6.0

    PubMed Central

    Eshelli, Manal; Harvey, Linda; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; McNeil, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a cause of serious economic and health problems. Different processes have been used to degrade AFB1. In this study, biological degradation of AFB1 was carried out using three Actinomycete species, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, and S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762, in liquid cultures. Biodegradation of AFB1 was optimised under a range of temperatures from 25 to 40 °C and pH values of 4.0 to 8.0. An initial concentration of 20 µg/mL of AFB1 was used in this study. The amount of AFB1 remaining was measured against time by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with UV and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). All species were able to degrade the AFB1, and no significant difference was found between them. AFB1 remained in the liquid culture for R. erythropolis, S. lividans and S. aureofaciens were 0.81 µg/mL, 2.41 µg/mL and 2.78 µg/mL respectively, at the end of the first 24 h. Degradation occurred at all incubation temperatures and the pH with the optimal conditions for R. erythropolis was achieved at 30 °C and pH 6, whereas for S. lividans and S. aureofaciens the optimum conditions for degradation were 30 °C and pH 5. Analysis of the degradative route indicated that each microorganism has a different way of degrading AFB1. The metabolites produced by R. erythropolis were significantly different from the other two microorganisms. Products of degradation were identified through metabolomic studies by utilizing high-resolution mass spectral data. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that the degradation of AFB1 was associated with the appearance of a range of lower molecular weight compounds. The pathway of degradation or chemical alteration of AFB1 was followed by means of high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HR-FTMS) analysis as well as through the MS2 fragmentation to unravel the degradative pathway for AFB1. AFB1 bio

  6. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B1 in broiler model

    PubMed Central

    Amiridumari, Halimeh; Sarir, Hadi; Afzali, Nazar; FaniMakki, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS), as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB1. Materials and Methods: The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design) was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1), 250 ppb AFB1 (T2), 500 ppb AFB1 (T3), 0.5% MTS (T4), 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T5), 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6), 1.0% MTS (T7), 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T8), and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T9). The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid), lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), and High density lipoprotein (HDL)) and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT) in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010) were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Results: Consumption of 500 ppb AFB1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65), Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13), and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42) compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively), (P < 0.05). In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011) and AST (244.51 ± 4.91). Using MTS together with AFB1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB1 on the above parameters. Conclusion: MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on broiler chicks. PMID:24381623

  7. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2013-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  8. Production of Group Specific Monoclonal Antibody to Aflatoxins and its Application to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Cha, Sang-Ho; Karyn, Bischoff; Park, Sung-Won; Son, Seong-Wan

    2011-01-01

    Through the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using AFB1- carboxymethoxylamine BSA conjugates. One clone showing high binding ability was selected and it was applied to develop a direct competitive ELISA system. The epitope densities of AFB1-CMO against BSA and KLH were about 1 : 6 and 1 : 545, respectively. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) from cloned hybridoma cell was the IgG1 subclass with λ-type light chains. The IC50s of the monoclonal antibody developed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 4.36, 7.22, 6.61 and 29.41 ng/ml, respectively, based on the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA system and 15.28, 26.62, 32.75 and 56.67 ng/ml, respectively, based on the mAb coated ELISA. Cross-relativities of mAb to AFB1 for AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 60.47, 65.97 and 14.83% in the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA, and 59.41, 46.66 and 26.97% in the mAb coated ELISA, respectively. Quantitative calculations for AFB1 from the AFB1-Ab ELISA and AFB1-Ag ELISA ranged from 0.25 to 25 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99) and from 1 to 100 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precision CVs were < 10% in both ELISA assay, representing good reproducibility of developed assay. Recoveries ranged from 79.18 to 91.27%, CVs ranged from 3.21 to 7.97% after spiking AFB1 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 ng/ml and following by extraction with 70% methanol solution in the Ab-coated ELISA. In conclusion, we produced a group specific mAb against aflatoxins and developed two direct competitive ELISAs for the detection of AFB1 in feeds based on a monoclonal antibody developed. PMID:24278561

  9. Clay-based affinity probes for selective cleanup and determination of aflatoxin B1 using nanostructured montmorillonite on quartz.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Henry J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the selective cleanup and determination of aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) from contaminated media. Composite adsorbents were formulated from calcium montmorillonite clay, which possesses a high affinity and enthalpy of adsorption for AfB1. Nanostructuring techniques were used to construct various formulations of the clay-based composite media. In AfB1 adsorption studies with prototypical affinity columns, these composites offered narrowly defined, reproducible capacity ranges. Composite recoveries of AfB1 from spiked grains exhibited linear trends that correlated well with the range of spike levels. Composite columns provided lower recoveries of AfB1 from naturally contaminated corn than did immunoaffinity columns; however, recoveries were consistent and purified extracts were free of interfering compounds, as determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. PMID:12852572

  10. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jatulan, Eduardo O.; Rabajante, Jomar F.; Banaay, Charina Gracia B.; Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Jose, Editha C.

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework) model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic. PMID:26674357

  11. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Jatulan, Eduardo O; Rabajante, Jomar F; Banaay, Charina Gracia B; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Jose, Editha C

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework) model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic. PMID:26674357

  12. Zinc inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuan; Lv, Yangjun; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has strong carcinogenicity. Consumption of AFB1-contaminated agricultural products and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma have received widespread attention. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplementation could inhibit AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of this inhibition. Our data suggest that zinc sources can relieve a certain degree of AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by protecting against apoptotic body formation and DNA strand breaks, affecting S phase cell cycle arrest, reducing 8-OHdG formation, inhibiting global DNA hypomethylation and regulating gene expression in antioxidation, zinc-association and apoptosis processes. Consequently, zinc stabilizes the integrity of DNA and improves cell survival. These data provides new insights into the protective role of zinc in alleviating AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and mediating epigenetic changes in hepatocytes, demonstrating that zinc sources have detoxification properties in mycotoxin-induced toxicity. PMID:27017951

  13. Monoclonal antibody-quantum dots CdTe conjugate-based fluoroimmunoassay for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Xiaofeng; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2014-03-01

    A fluoroimmunoassay towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was presented using quantum dots as the fluorescent label. The CdTe QDs were successfully linked to the monoclonal antibody against AFB1. Based on the conjugated complexes, a novel direct competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (cFLISA) was developed for AFB1 detection. The 50% inhibition value (IC50) of the cFLISA was 0.149ng/mL in peanuts matrix. The method performance included the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.016ng/mL and considerable recoveries of 85-117% at three fortification levels (0.075, 0.15, and 0.3ng/g) from spiked AFB1 blank peanuts samples, along with coefficients of variation (CVs) below 10%. The cFLISA provided an alternative of rapid and sensitive detection for AFB1 and, moreover provided great potential for multiplexed mycotoxins determination simultaneously. PMID:24176348

  14. Association between aflatoxin B1 occupational airway exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hao; Mo, Xianwei; Yang, Yang; He, Ke; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the airway exposure of sugar and papermaking factory workers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and to explore the potential association between AFB1 airway exposure and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a case-control study. Dust samples were collected from the sugarcane bagasse warehouse, and presser and paper production workshops. Blood samples were collected from 181 workshop employees and 203 controls who worked outside the workshop. AFB1 albumin adducts were detected using a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To explore the association between AFB1 airway exposure and the risk of HCC, the medical records of 68 HCC patients who worked in a sugar and papermaking factory between January 1994 and December 2013 were analyzed. A questionnaire was used to collect information from 150 healthy controls who worked for the same company and lived near the factory. AFB1 was detected in the dust samples, but could not be detected in any of the rice samples. An analysis of serum samples revealed serum AFB1 albumin adducts in 102 (56.35 %) of the study participants. However, in the control group, only 12 (5.9 %) individuals had detectable levels of AFB1 albumin adducts. Those with airway exposure to Aspergillus flavus-contaminated dust had an elevated risk of HCC compared to those without exposure (odds ratio, 5.24; 95 % confidence interval, 2.77-9.88; P = 0.00). The findings of this study indicate that occupational AFB1 airway exposure might be associated with the risk of AFB1-related HCC among the population that was used in this study. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to inhalational AFB1 are needed urgently. Additional suitably designed, multicenter, prospective studies using large samples are needed to further confirm the results. PMID:24961349

  15. Vaccination of Heifers with Anaflatoxin Improves the Reduction of Aflatoxin B1 Carry Over in Milk of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Giovati, Laura; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Cerioli, Carla; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    It was previously reported that injection of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), together with Freund's adjuvant, was effective in inducing in cows a long lasting titer of anti-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) antibodies (Abs), cross-reacting with other aflatoxins, which were able to hinder, proportionally to their titer, the secretion of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. According to anti-AFB1 Ab titer, 50% of the vaccinated cows were recognized as high responder animals. In an attempt to prepare a more effective formulation for vaccination of cows, it was compared the immunogenicity, in Holstein Friesian heifers, of AnAFB1 covalently conjugated to KLH or to recombinant diphtheria toxin (CRM197) molecules, and injected together with various adjuvants. This study demonstrated that injection of AnAFB1 conjugated to KLH and mixed with complete (priming) and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (boosters), as in the previous schedule of immunization, was the most effective regimen for inducing Ab responses against AFB1, although pre-calving administration could increase the effectiveness of vaccination, resulting in 100% high responder animals. After one booster dose at the beginning of the milk production cycle, anti-AFB1 Ab titers were comparable to those recorded at the end of the immunization schedule, and proved to be effective in reducing significantly AFB1 carry over, as AFM1, from feed to milk. Pre-calving vaccination of dairy heifers with conjugated AnAFB1, adjuvated with complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant, may represent the most effective tool for preventing the public health hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:24714096

  16. Effect of selenium supplementation on aflatoxin B₁-induced histopathological lesions and apoptosis in bursa of Fabricius in broilers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kejie; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Cui, Hengmin; Chen, Jin; Wang, Fengyuan; Chen, Zhengli; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1 (AFB 1), 200 male Avian broilers, divided into five groups, were fed with basal diet (control group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1 group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.2 mg/kg Se (+Se group I), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg Se (+Se group II) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.6 mg/kg Se (+Se group III), respectively. Compared with the control group, decreased relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and contents of serum immunoglobulin, more vacuoles and debris in the bursal lymphoid follicle, and increased percentage of apoptotic bursal cells were observed in the AFB1 group. Sodium selenite, however, could increase the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and contents of serum immunoglobulin, and ameliorate histopathological lesions. The percentages of apoptotic bursal cells, through flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method, in the three +Se groups were lower than those in the AFB 1 group. Compared with the AFB 1 group, moreover, the mRNA expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 by qRT-PCR in the three +Se groups were decreased, while the expression of Bcl-2 was increased. The results indicate that sodium selenite in diet can protect chicken from AFB 1-induced impairment of humoral immune function by reducing bursal histopathological lesions and percentages of apoptotic bursal cells. PMID:25261862

  17. Vaccination of heifers with anaflatoxin improves the reduction of aflatoxin b1 carry over in milk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giovati, Laura; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Cerioli, Carla; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    It was previously reported that injection of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), together with Freund's adjuvant, was effective in inducing in cows a long lasting titer of anti-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) antibodies (Abs), cross-reacting with other aflatoxins, which were able to hinder, proportionally to their titer, the secretion of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. According to anti-AFB1 Ab titer, 50% of the vaccinated cows were recognized as high responder animals. In an attempt to prepare a more effective formulation for vaccination of cows, it was compared the immunogenicity, in Holstein Friesian heifers, of AnAFB1 covalently conjugated to KLH or to recombinant diphtheria toxin (CRM197) molecules, and injected together with various adjuvants. This study demonstrated that injection of AnAFB1 conjugated to KLH and mixed with complete (priming) and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (boosters), as in the previous schedule of immunization, was the most effective regimen for inducing Ab responses against AFB1, although pre-calving administration could increase the effectiveness of vaccination, resulting in 100% high responder animals. After one booster dose at the beginning of the milk production cycle, anti-AFB1 Ab titers were comparable to those recorded at the end of the immunization schedule, and proved to be effective in reducing significantly AFB1 carry over, as AFM1, from feed to milk. Pre-calving vaccination of dairy heifers with conjugated AnAFB1, adjuvated with complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant, may represent the most effective tool for preventing the public health hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:24714096

  18. Ability of Lactobacillus plantarum MON03 to mitigate aflatoxins (B1 and M1) immunotoxicities in mice.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Rania; Abbès, Samir; Salah-Abbès, Jalila Ben; Younes, Ridha Ben; Haous, Zohra; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and M1 (AFM1) are mycotoxins produced by numerous Aspergillus species in pre- or post-harvest cereals and milk. AFB1 and AFM1 display a potent economic loss in livestock and also cause severe immunological problems. The aims of this study were to: evaluate a new AFB1 and AFM1-binding/degrading micro-organism for biological detoxification; examine its ability to degrade AFB1 and AFM1 in liquid medium; and evaluate its potential for in vivo preventative effects against AFB1- and AFM1-induced immunomodulation in mice. Lactobacillus plantarum MON03 (LP) isolated from Tunisian artisanal butter was found to display significant binding ability to AFB1 and AFM1 in PBS (i.e. 82% and 89%, respectively) within 24 h of incubation and able to tolerate gastric acidity, have strongly hydrophilic cells surface properties, and adhere efficacy to Caco-3 cells in vitro. The in vivo study was conducted using Balb/c mice that received by oral gavage vehicle (control), LP only (2 × 10(9) CFU/L, ~2 g/kg BW), AFB1 or AFM1 alone (0.25 and 0.27 mg/kg, respectively), or AFB1 + LP or AFM1 + LP daily for 15 days. Compared to in control mice, treatments with AFB1 and AFM1 led to significantly decreased body weight gains, histopathological changes, and decrements in all hematologic and immune parameters assessed. Co-treatment with LP strongly reduced the adverse effects of each mycotoxin. In fact, the mice receiving AFB1 + LP or AFM1 + LP co-treatment displayed no significant differences in the assayed parameters as compared to the control mice. By itself, the bacteria alone had no adverse effects in the mice. From these data, it is concluded that the tested bacteria could be beneficial in biotechnology detoxification of contaminated food and feed for humans and animals. PMID:25441623

  19. Dietary modulation of the biotransformation and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B(1).

    PubMed

    Gross-Steinmeyer, Kerstin; Eaton, David L

    2012-09-28

    Diet and its various components are consistently identified as among the most important 'risk factors' for cancer worldwide, yet great uncertainty remains regarding the relative contribution of nutritive (e.g., vitamins, calories) vs. non-nutritive (e.g., phytochemicals, fiber, contaminants) factors in both cancer induction and cancer prevention. Among the most potent known human dietary carcinogens is the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB). AFB and related aflatoxins are produced as secondary metabolites by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that commonly infect poorly stored foods including peanuts, pistachios, corn, and rice. AFB is a potent hepatocarcinogenic agent in numerous animal species, and has been implicated in the etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent research has shown that many diet-derived factors have great potential to influence AFB biotransformation, and some efficiently protect from AFB-induced genotoxicity. One key mode of action for reducing AFB-induced carcinogenesis in experimental animals was shown to be the induction of detoxification enzymes such as certain glutathione-S-transferases that are regulated through the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Although initial studies utilized the dithiolthione drug, oltipraz, as a prototypical inducer of antioxidant response, dietary components such as suforaphane (SFN) are also effective inducers of this pathway in rodent models. However, human GSTs in general do not appear to be extensively induced by SFN, and GSTM1 - the only human GST with measurable catalytic activity toward aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide (AFBO; the genotoxic metabolite of AFB), does not appear to be induced by SFN, at least in human hepatocytes, even though its expression in human liver cells does appear to offer considerable protection against AFB-DNA damage. Although induction of detoxification pathways has served as the primary mechanistic focus of chemoprevention studies, protective effects of

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of PCR for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is one of the most prominent health problems in the world, causing 1.75 million deaths each year. Rapid clinical diagnosis is important in patients who have co-morbidities such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Direct microscopy has low sensitivity and culture takes 3 to 6 weeks [1-3]. Therefore, new tools for TB diagnosis are necessary, especially in health settings with a high prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection. Methods In a public reference TB/HIV hospital in Brazil, we compared the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for diagnosis of pulmonary TB: Acid fast bacilli smear microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen staining (AFB smear) plus culture and AFB smear plus colorimetric test (PCR dot-blot). From May 2003 to May 2004, sputum was collected consecutively from PTB suspects attending the Parthenon Reference Hospital. Sputum samples were examined by AFB smear, culture, and PCR dot-blot. The gold standard was a positive culture combined with the definition of clinical PTB. Cost analysis included health services and patient costs. Results The AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot require the lowest laboratory investment for equipment (US$ 20,000). The total screening costs are 3.8 times for AFB smear plus culture versus for AFB smear plus PCR dot blot costs (US$ 5,635,760 versus US$ 1,498, 660). Costs per correctly diagnosed case were US$ 50,773 and US$ 13,749 for AFB smear plus culture and AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot, respectively. AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot was more cost-effective than AFB smear plus culture, when the cost of treating all correctly diagnosed cases was considered. The cost of returning patients, which are not treated due to a negative result, to the health service, was higher in AFB smear plus culture than for AFB smear plus PCR dot-blot, US$ 374,778,045 and US$ 110,849,055, respectively. Conclusion AFB smear associated with PCR dot-blot associated has the potential to be a cost-effective tool in the fight against PTB for

  1. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Naehrer, K; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and dietary protein concentration on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 crude protein (CP) concentrations (16, 22, and 26%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from zero to 20 d of age. Endogenous N and amino acid loss were estimated from birds fed a N-free diet with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 A significant interaction between AFB1 and CP concentration was observed for growth performance, where reduction of BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight by AFB1 were most profound in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, and were completely eliminated when birds were fed the 26%-CP diet (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.023). Similarly, AFB1 reduced serum albumin, total protein, and globulin concentrations in birds fed 16 and 22% CP diets, but not in those fed the 26%-CP (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.071). Gut permeability was increased in birds fed AFB1-contamiated diets as measured by serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (main effect; P = 0.04). Additionally, AFB1 tended to increase endogenous N loss (P = 0.09), and significantly reduced apparent ileal digestible energy and standardized ileal N and amino acid digestibility in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, while birds fed higher dietary CP were not affected (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Further, AFB1 increased the translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP1), claudin1, and multiple jejunal amino acid transporters expression (main effect; P ≤ 0.04). Results from this study indicate that a 1.5 mg AFB1/kg diet significantly impairs growth, major serum biochemistry measures, gut barrier, endogenous loss, and energy and amino acid digestibility. Aflatoxicosis can be augmented by low dietary CP, while higher dietary CP completely eliminated the impairment of

  2. Efficacy of beer fermentation residue containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for ameliorating aflatoxicosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Bovo, F; Franco, L T; Kobashigawa, E; Rottinghaus, G E; Ledoux, D R; Oliveira, C A F

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) binding capacity of a beer fermentation residue (BFR) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and the efficacy of BFR to ameliorate the toxic effects of AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, and histology of broilers. The BFR was collected from a microbrewery, and the yeast cells were counted, dried, and milled before it was used in the study. In vitro evaluation of the BFR was conducted using different concentrations of AFB1 (2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, and 32.0 μg AFB1/mL) and 100 mg/10 mL of BFR at pH 3.0 or 6.0. Two hundred 1-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to chick batteries and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A completely randomized design was used with 5 replicate pens of 5 chicks assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments from hatch to 21 d, which included: 1) basal diet (BD), with no BFR or AFB1; 2) BD supplemented with 1% BFR; 3) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg of feed; and 4) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg feed and 1% BFR. Performance variables were determined weekly, while serum analyses were performed on d 14 and 21. At the end of the study, chicks were anesthetized with carbon dioxide, euthanized by cervical dislocation, and the kidney, liver, and bursa of Fabricius were removed for determination of relative weights, and for histological evaluation. In vitro assays showed that the higher the initial AFB1 concentration in solution, the greater the AFB1 amount adsorbed by BFR at both pHs tested. Feed intake, BW gain, and concentrations of albumin, total protein, and globulin increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed BFR+AFB1 (Diet 4), when compared to the birds receiving only AFB1 (Diet 2). Although BFR was not able to reduce or prevent the effects of AFB1 on relative weights of kidneys and liver, it reduced the severity of histological changes in the liver and kidney caused by AFB1. PMID:25743420

  3. Estimated exposure to zearalenone, ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 through the consume of bakery products and pasta considering effects of food processing.

    PubMed

    Bol, Emilli Keller; Araujo, Letícia; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the processing effect on mycotoxins levels and the exposure to zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) through the consumption of pasta and bakery products. The higher reduction percentage of mycotoxins was observed in cake production (95, 90 and 70% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). Bread and biscuit showed similar reduction in mycotoxins levels (89 and 90% for ZEA; 80 and 85% for OTA; 36 and 40% for AFB1, respectively). The lower reduction in the levels of mycotoxins has been observed for pasta (75, 65 and 10% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). The consumption of these products could represent 12.6% of the maximum tolerable daily intake of ZEA and 30.5% of the tolerable weekly intake of OTA. The margin of exposure value related to the exposure to AFB1 was 24.6. The exposure to ZEA and OTA through the consumption of bakery products and pasta would not represent risk for consumer health, (although conjugated forms were not determined). However, the exposure to AFB1 represents a risk (even without considering the AFB1-conjugated forms). PMID:26807886

  4. Cobalt-Porphyrin-Platinum-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanostructures: A Novel Peroxidase Mimetic System For Improved Electrochemical Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian; Qiu, Zhenli; Wei, Qiaohua; Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianping

    2015-01-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine cobalt flat stacking on the reduced graphene oxide with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO) were first synthesized and functionalized with monoclonal rabbit anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody (anti-AFB1) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and spectral techniques were employed to characterize the PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO hybrids. Using anti-AFB1-conjugated PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO as the signal-transduction tag, a novel non-enzymatic electrochemical immunosensing system was designed for detection of target AFB1 on the AFB1-bovine serum albumin-functionalized sensing interface. Experimental results revealed that the designed immunoassay could exhibit good electrochemical responses for target analyte and allowed the detection of AFB1 at a concentration as low as 5.0 pg mL(-1) (5.0 ppt). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for analyzing naturally contaminated or spiked blank peanut samples with consistent results obtained by AFB1 ELISA kit, thus providing a promising approach for quantitative monitoring of organic pollutants. PMID:26462136

  5. Distinct response of the hepatic transcriptome to Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis and resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiejun; He, Jiangtu; Lin, Jing; Sun, Xin; Sun, Fenyong; Ou, Chao; Jiang, Cizhong

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a natural potent carcinogen and a major cause of liver cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinogenesis remain largely unexplored. In this study, we profiled global gene expression in liver tissues of rats that developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) administration and those that were AFB1-resistant, as well as rats without AFB1 exposure as a control. AFB1 exposure resulted in extensive perturbation in gene expression with different functions in HCC and AFB1 resistance (AR) samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HCC sample were enriched for cell proliferation, cell adhesion and vasculature development that largely contribute to carcinogenesis. Anti-apoptosis genes were up-regulated in HCC sample whereas apoptosis-induction genes were up-regulated in AR sample. AFB1 exposure also caused extensive alteration in expression level of lncRNAs. Among all the 4511 annotated lncRNAs, half of them were highly expressed only in HCC sample and up-regulated a group of protein-coding genes with cancer-related functions: apoptosis regulation, DNA repair, and cell cycle. Intriguingly, these genes were down-regulated by lncRNAs highly expressed in AR sample. Collectively, apoptosis is the critical biological process for carcinogenesis in response to AFB1 exposure through changes in expression level of both protein-coding and lncRNA genes. PMID:27545718

  6. Effect of oral supplementation of Lactobacillus reuteri in reduction of intestinal absorption of aflatoxin B(1) in rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Mendoza, Adrián; González-Córdova, Aarón Fernando; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; Garcia, Hugo Sergio

    2011-06-01

    The goals of this work were to assess the ability of Lactobacillus reuteri to bind aflatoxin B(1) in the intestinal tract and determine its effect on intestinal absorption of the toxin dispensed in either single or multiple doses in a murine model. Male Wistar rats were used, and two experiments were conducted after bacteria were implanted. Experiment one involved a single-oral dose of toxin, and the subsequent flow cytometric analysis of bacteria isolated from the small intestine and treated with specific FITC-labeled AFB(1) antibodies. The second experiment was carried out supplying the toxin in 7 oral sub-doses, and the later quantification of AFB(1)-Lys adducts in blood samples by ELISA assay. The results demonstrated that L. reuteri was able to bind AFB(1) in the intestinal tract, mostly in the duodenum. Furthermore, the AFB(1)-Lys adducts were present at significantly lower levels in those animals receiving AFB(1) plus bacteria than in those receiving only AFB(1). Our findings confirm that probiotic bacteria could act as biological barriers in normal intestinal conditions thereby reducing the bioavailability of AFB(1) ingested orally in a single or multiple doses, thus avoiding its toxic effects. PMID:21298677

  7. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on Blood Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tessari, Eliana N. C.; Kobashigawa, Estela; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia S. P.; Ledoux, David R.; Rottinghaus, George E.; Oliveira, Carlos A. F.

    2010-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on liver pathology, serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and plasma total protein (TP) of broilers were evaluated from 8 to 41 days of age. Dietary treatments included a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of AFB1 (0, 50 and 200 μg AFB1/kg), and three levels of FB1 (0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg). At 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed 50 mg FB1 only, concentrations of AST were higher (p < 0.05) in all other treatment groups when compared with controls. Plasma TP was lower (p < 0.05) at six days post feeding in groups fed 200 μg AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. At day 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed the highest combination of AFB1 and FB1 which had higher plasma TP than control birds, plasma TP of birds fed other dietary treatments were similar to controls. Broilers receiving the highest levels of AFB1 and FB1 had bile duct proliferation and trabecular disorder in liver samples. AFB1 singly or in combination with FB at the levels studied, caused liver damage and an increase in serum levels of AST. PMID:22069595

  8. Incidence and Level of Aflatoxins Contamination in Medicinal Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Deuk; Yu, In Sil; Jung, Kweon

    2014-01-01

    During 2011~2013, a total of 729 samples for 19 types of medicinal plant were collected from Seoulyekryungsi in Seoul, Korea, and investigated for the presence of aflatoxins. The samples were analyzed using immunoaffinity column cleanup and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector after post-column derivatization. Aflatoxins were found in 124 out of the 729 analyzed samples: 65 containing aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 24 with aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), 15 with aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), and 20 samples with aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). The ranges for positive samples were 0.1~404.7 µg/kg for AFB1, 0.1~10.0 µg/kg for AFB2, 0.1~635.3 µg/kg for AFG1, 0.1~182.5 µg/kg for AFG2, and 0.1~1,043.9 µg/kg for total aflatoxins. Most of the medicinal plant samples (721, 98.9%) were below legal limits, but 8 samples exceeded the legal limits of 10 and 15 µg/kg established by the Korean standard for AFB1 and total aflatoxins (the sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), respectively. PMID:25606005

  9. Distinct response of the hepatic transcriptome to Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis and resistance in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiejun; He, Jiangtu; Lin, Jing; Sun, Xin; Sun, Fenyong; Ou, Chao; Jiang, Cizhong

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a natural potent carcinogen and a major cause of liver cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinogenesis remain largely unexplored. In this study, we profiled global gene expression in liver tissues of rats that developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) administration and those that were AFB1-resistant, as well as rats without AFB1 exposure as a control. AFB1 exposure resulted in extensive perturbation in gene expression with different functions in HCC and AFB1 resistance (AR) samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HCC sample were enriched for cell proliferation, cell adhesion and vasculature development that largely contribute to carcinogenesis. Anti-apoptosis genes were up-regulated in HCC sample whereas apoptosis-induction genes were up-regulated in AR sample. AFB1 exposure also caused extensive alteration in expression level of lncRNAs. Among all the 4511 annotated lncRNAs, half of them were highly expressed only in HCC sample and up-regulated a group of protein-coding genes with cancer-related functions: apoptosis regulation, DNA repair, and cell cycle. Intriguingly, these genes were down-regulated by lncRNAs highly expressed in AR sample. Collectively, apoptosis is the critical biological process for carcinogenesis in response to AFB1 exposure through changes in expression level of both protein-coding and lncRNA genes. PMID:27545718

  10. Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats after oral administration of aflatoxin b1 alone and together with nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Mogilnaya, Oa; Puzyr, Ap; Baron, Av; Bondar, Vs

    2010-01-01

    Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats were examined in vivo after the animals received aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) alone and together with modified nanodiamonds (MND) synthesized by detonation. The rats that had received the MND hydrosol had elevated leukocyte levels, mainly due to higher granulocyte counts and somewhat increased monocyte counts compared to control rats. Hematological parameters of the rats that had received AfB1 alone differed from those of the control rats in another way: total white blood cell counts were significantly lower due to the decreased lymphocyte counts. In rats that had consumed AfB1 with the MND hydrosol, changes in hematological parameters were less pronounced than in rats that had consumed either AfB1 or MND. Electron microscopy showed that hepatocytes of the rats that had received the MND hydrosol or AfB1 with the MND hydrosol contained elevated levels of lipid inclusions and lysosomes. Hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (EPR) was revealed in liver specimens of the rats that had received AfB1. Results of the study suggest the conclusion about mutual mitigation of the effects of nanoparticles and the mycotoxin on rats blood and liver cells after AfB1 has adsorbed on MND. PMID:20672086

  11. Hematological Parameters and the State of Liver Cells of Rats After Oral Administration of Aflatoxin B1 Alone and Together with Nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilnaya, O. A.; Puzyr, A. P.; Baron, A. V.; Bondar, V. S.

    2010-05-01

    Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats were examined in vivo after the animals received aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) alone and together with modified nanodiamonds (MND) synthesized by detonation. The rats that had received the MND hydrosol had elevated leukocyte levels, mainly due to higher granulocyte counts and somewhat increased monocyte counts compared to control rats. Hematological parameters of the rats that had received AfB1 alone differed from those of the control rats in another way: total white blood cell counts were significantly lower due to the decreased lymphocyte counts. In rats that had consumed AfB1 with the MND hydrosol, changes in hematological parameters were less pronounced than in rats that had consumed either AfB1 or MND. Electron microscopy showed that hepatocytes of the rats that had received the MND hydrosol or AfB1 with the MND hydrosol contained elevated levels of lipid inclusions and lysosomes. Hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (EPR) was revealed in liver specimens of the rats that had received AfB1. Results of the study suggest the conclusion about mutual mitigation of the effects of nanoparticles and the mycotoxin on rats blood and liver cells after AfB1 has adsorbed on MND.

  12. Aflatoxin B1-induced Hprt mutations in splenic lymphocytes of Fischer 344 rats. Results of an intermittent feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Morris, S M; Aidoo, A; Chen, J J; Chou, M W; Casciano, D A

    1999-01-25

    In a previous study, we found an increase in the mutant frequency at the Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus in the splenic lymphocytes of Fischer 344 rats acutely exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Because an acute exposure may not reflect the exposure pattern of individuals whose diet may contain AFB1-contaminated foodstuffs, we sought to determine if the feeding regimen affected the induction of Hprt mutations in the rat splenic lymphocyte. Thus, Fischer 344 rats were fed either (A) a control diet, (B) various doses of AFB1 for three four-week periods interspersed with two four-week periods of the control diet, or (C) continuously fed 1.6 ppm of AFB1. Not only was a significant increase in the mutant frequency detected in the lymphocytes of rats fed a dose as low as 0. 01 ppm of AFB1, but the increase in the mutant frequency at the end of the 20-week experimental period was consistent with an accumulation of damage induced by AFB1. These results indicate that the rat lymphocyte/Hprt assay is useful for detecting chronic low level exposures. Further, these data suggest that an intermittent, low-level exposure to AFB1 may present a human health risk. PMID:10029671

  13. A simple aptamer-based fluorescent assay for the detection of Aflatoxin B1 in infant rice cereal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Wen, Fang; Li, Ming; Guo, Xiaodong; Li, Songli; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-01-15

    A fluorescent assay for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed in this study. Initially, a DNA/DNA duplex was formed between a fluorescein-labeled AFB1 aptamer and its partially complementary DNA strand containing a quencher moiety, resulting in fluorescence quenching due to the close proximity of fluorophore and quencher. Upon the addition of AFB1, an aptamer/AFB1 complex was generated to release the quencher-modified DNA strand, thus recovered the fluorescence of fluorescein and enabled quantitative detection for AFB1 by monitoring fluorescence enhancement. Under optimized conditions, this assay exhibited a linear response to AFB1 in the range of 5-100ng/mL with a detection limit down to 1.6ng/mL. Trials of this assay in infant rice cereal with satisfactory recovery in the range of 93.0%-106.8%, demonstrate that the new assay could be a potential sensing platform for AFB1 determination in food. PMID:27542489

  14. Effects of aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1) on blood biochemical parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Eliana N C; Kobashigawa, Estela; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia S P; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, George E; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2010-04-01

    The individual and combined effects of dietary aflatoxin B(1 )(AFB(1)) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) on liver pathology, serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and plasma total protein (TP) of broilers were evaluated from 8 to 41 days of age. Dietary treatments included a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of AFB(1 )(0, 50 and 200 μg AFB(1)/kg), and three levels of FB(1 )(0, 50 and 200 mg FB(1)/kg). At 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed 50 mg FB(1 )only, concentrations of AST were higher (p < 0.05) in all other treatment groups when compared with controls. Plasma TP was lower (p < 0.05) at six days post feeding in groups fed 200 μg AFB(1)/kg alone or in combination with FB(1). At day 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed the highest combination of AFB(1 )and FB(1 )which had higher plasma TP than control birds(, )plasma TP of birds fed other dietary treatments were similar to controls. Broilers receiving the highest levels of AFB(1) and FB(1) had bile duct proliferation and trabecular disorder in liver samples. AFB(1) singly or in combination with FB at the levels studied, caused liver damage and an increase in serum levels of AST. PMID:22069595

  15. Cobalt-Porphyrin-Platinum-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanostructures: A Novel Peroxidase Mimetic System For Improved Electrochemical Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jian; Qiu, Zhenli; Wei, Qiaohua; Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianping

    2015-01-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine cobalt flat stacking on the reduced graphene oxide with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO) were first synthesized and functionalized with monoclonal rabbit anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody (anti-AFB1) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and spectral techniques were employed to characterize the PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO hybrids. Using anti-AFB1-conjugated PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO as the signal-transduction tag, a novel non-enzymatic electrochemical immunosensing system was designed for detection of target AFB1 on the AFB1-bovine serum albumin-functionalized sensing interface. Experimental results revealed that the designed immunoassay could exhibit good electrochemical responses for target analyte and allowed the detection of AFB1 at a concentration as low as 5.0 pg mL−1 (5.0 ppt). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for analyzing naturally contaminated or spiked blank peanut samples with consistent results obtained by AFB1 ELISA kit, thus providing a promising approach for quantitative monitoring of organic pollutants. PMID:26462136

  16. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Immune Function, the Antioxidant Defense System, and Inflammation-Related Genes Expression of Broiler Chickens Fed Aflatoxin Contaminated Diets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  17. Aflatoxin B1 in eggs and chicken livers by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Amirkhizi, Behzad; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, low-cost and simple technique has been developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in eggs and livers using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. In this study, the presence of AFB1 was investigated in 150 eggs and 50 chicken livers from the local market of Tabriz, Iran. AFB1 was extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (80:20) and cleaned up by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction which is a very economical, fast and sensitive method. AFB1 was quantified by HPLC-UV without need for any complex derivatisation in samples to enhance the detection. The results showed that 72% of the liver and 58% of the egg samples were contaminated with AFB1 ranging from 0.30 to 16.36 µg kg (̶1). limit of detection and limit of quantification for AFB1 were 0.08 and 0.28 µg kg (̶ 1), respectively. The proposed method is suitable for fast analysing of AFB1 in egg and liver samples. PMID:26160230

  18. Sequential dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in F344 rats increases liver preneoplastic changes indicative of a synergistic interaction.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guoqing; Tang, Lili; Lin, Shuhan; Xue, Kathy S; Mitchell, Nicole J; Su, Jianjia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C; Riley, Ronald T; Phillips, Timothy D; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Dietary co-exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) and their interaction on hepatocellular carcinogenesis is of particular concern in toxicology and public health. In this study we evaluated the liver preneoplastic effects of single and sequential dietary exposure to AFB1 and FB1 in the F344 rat carcinogenesis model. Serum biochemical alterations, liver histopathological changes, and the formation of liver glutathione S transferase positive (GST-P+) foci were the major outcome parameters examined. Compared to the AFB1-only treatment, the FB1-only treatment induced less dysplasia, and more apoptosis and mitoses. Sequential AFB1 and FB1 treatment lead to increased numbers of dysplasia, apoptosis and foci of altered hepatocytes, as compared to either mycotoxin treatment alone. More importantly, sequential exposure to AFB1 and FB1 synergistically increased the numbers of liver GTP-P+ foci by approximately 7.3-and 12.9-fold and increased the mean sizes of GST-P+ foci by 6- and 7.5-fold, respectively, as compared to AFB1- or FB1-only treatment groups. In addition, liver ALT and AST levels were significantly increased after sequential treatment as compared to single treatment groups. The results demonstrate the interactive effect of dietary AFB1 and FB1 in inducing liver GST-P+ foci formation and provide information to model future intervention studies. PMID:27430420

  19. Response of the hepatic transcriptome to aflatoxin B1 in ducklings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ni-Ya; Qi, Ming; Gao, Xin; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Jie; Gu, Chang-Qin; Song, Wen-Jing; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Sun, Lv-Hui; Qi, De-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the hepatic transcriptome in ducklings through RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Twenty four, 1-day-old ducklings were divided into 4 treatment groups. Each group received an oral dose of AFB1 at 0, 10, 20, 40 μg/kg BW per day for 2 weeks. Administration of 20 and 40 μg/kg BW of AFB1 significantly decreased body weight, feed intake, serum total protein and albumin, while increasing serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, and hepatic histopathological lesions. Furthermore, RNA was extracted from the liver of ducklings administrated 0 and 40 μg/kg BW of AFB1. Two RNA-Seq libraries were created from pooled samples and produced over 149 M reads, totaling 14.9 Gb of sequence. Approximately 96,953 predicted transcripts were assembled, 749 of which had significant differential expressions (≥ 2-fold) between the control and AFB1 treatment. GO and KEGG pathway analysis results showed that many genes involved in phase I metabolism, phase II detoxification, oxidation-reduction process, carcinogenesis, apoptosis and cell cycle, and fatty acid metabolism were affected by AFB1 exposure. Conclusion, this study determined the hepatic transcriptome responded to AFB1 exposure, and provide candidate genes can be targeted to prevent and/or reduce aflatoxicosis in ducklings. PMID:26763128

  20. Cobalt-Porphyrin-Platinum-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanostructures: A Novel Peroxidase Mimetic System For Improved Electrochemical Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Jian; Qiu, Zhenli; Wei, Qiaohua; Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianping

    2015-10-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine cobalt flat stacking on the reduced graphene oxide with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO) were first synthesized and functionalized with monoclonal rabbit anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody (anti-AFB1) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and spectral techniques were employed to characterize the PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO hybrids. Using anti-AFB1-conjugated PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO as the signal-transduction tag, a novel non-enzymatic electrochemical immunosensing system was designed for detection of target AFB1 on the AFB1-bovine serum albumin-functionalized sensing interface. Experimental results revealed that the designed immunoassay could exhibit good electrochemical responses for target analyte and allowed the detection of AFB1 at a concentration as low as 5.0 pg mL-1 (5.0 ppt). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for analyzing naturally contaminated or spiked blank peanut samples with consistent results obtained by AFB1 ELISA kit, thus providing a promising approach for quantitative monitoring of organic pollutants.

  1. Aflatoxin B1 binding capacity of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Mohammad R; Hajimohammadali, M; Moshkani, Azamossadat; Samadi, Nasrin; Jamalifar, Hossein; Khoshayand, Mohammad R; Vaghari, Elham; Pouragahi, Samieh

    2009-01-01

    Some foods are prone to contamination with aflatoxins, with detrimental effect on human health. Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to bind aflatoxins and remove them from foods and feeds. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from the liquid media by the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus fermentum) isolated from traditional Iranian sourdough and dairy products is reported in the current study. The effect of incubation time on the binding capacity of the strains to AFB1 was also investigated. Duplicates of individual bacteria with population equivalent to 2 X 10(10) CFU/ml were incubated in the presence of AFB1 at 37 degrees C for a period of 72 h, and the amounts of unbound AFB1 were quantitated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. All the strains were capable of removal of AFB1, and the reduction of AFB1 ranged from 25 to 61% throughout the incubation period. Removal of AFB1 was a rapid process, with approximately 61 and 56% of the toxin taken instantly by L. fermentum and L. plantarum, respectively. Binding was of a reversible nature, and some of the bound AFB1 was released into the media by the repeated centrifugation and resuspension of the cell pellets. The stability of the bacteria-toxin complex was strain dependent, and L. casei was a stronger binder of AFB1 compared with the other bacteria. No toxin release was observed after 24 h. These findings tend to suggest that certain novel probiotic bacteria with high aflatoxin binding capacity could be selected for detoxification of foods. PMID:19205485

  2. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions. PMID:25990012

  3. Phytohormone levels in germinating seeds of Zea mays L. exposed to selenium and aflatoxines.

    PubMed

    Ağar, Güleray; Türker, Musa; Battal, Peyami; Emre, Erez M

    2006-07-01

    Seeds of Zea mays L. were exposed to aflatoxine B1 (AFB1), aflatoxine G1 (AFG1) and selenium (Se) alone and in combination and allowed to germinate. Phytohormone levels of GA-like substances (GAs), trans-Zeatin (t-Z) and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) when the roots of the germinating seeds reach 1.5-3.0 cm in length. The levels of endogenous hormones decreased in seeds treated with AFB1 and AFG1 compared to control; however an increase was noted in seeds exposed to AFG1 and Se together. AFB1 and Se treatment caused reduced hormone levels in most of the treatments. When plants were exposed to Se alone, the highest levels of GAs, t-Z and IAA were observed in the application of 800 ppm Se. The highest levels of GAs, t-Z and IAA were observed when seeds were treated with 0.2 ppm AFG1 + 8 ppm Se, 0.2 ppm AFG1 + 8 ppm Se and 0.2 ppm AFG1 + 0.08 ppm Se, respectively, whereas the lowest levels of the hormones were observed in 0.2 ppm AFB1 + 8 ppm Se, 0.2 ppm AFB1 + 0.08 ppm Se and 0.1 ppm AFB1, respectively. In conclusion, the levels of phytohormones were reduced by the treatment of AFB1 and AFG1 alone. However Se removed the negative effect of AFB1 on phytohormones, but not AFB1. PMID:16636889

  4. Transfer of aflatoxin B1 from feed to milk and from milk to curd and whey in dairy sheep fed artificially contaminated concentrates.

    PubMed

    Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Pascale, M; Nicolussi, P; Pulina, G

    2005-09-01

    An experiment was carried out using dairy ewes to study the transfer of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from feed to milk and from milk to cheese. The effects of AFB1 on liver function and hematological parameters were also investigated. Fifteen ewes were assigned to treatments in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares. The experimental groups received 32, 64, or 128 microg/d of pure AFB1 for 7 d followed by 5 d of clearance. On the sixth day of the first period, the total daily milk produced by each ewe was collected separately and processed into cheese. The results indicate that the level of AFB1 used did not adversely affect animal health and milk production traits. The aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk approached a steady-state condition in all treated groups between 2 and 7 d after the start of treatment. The mean AFM1 concentrations of treated groups in steady-state condition (184.4, 324.7, and 596.9 ng/kg in ewes fed 32, 64, or 128 microg of AFB1, respectively) were significantly affected by the AFB1 doses. The AFM1 concentration was linearly related to the AFB1 intake/kg of BW. The carry-over values of AFB1 from feed into AFM1 in milk (0.26 to 0.33%) were not influenced by the AFB1 doses. The AFM1 concentrations in curd and whey were linearly related to the AFM1 concentrations in the unprocessed milk. PMID:16107394

  5. Efficiency of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of graded levels of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to ameliorate the adverse effects of 0.5 to 2 mg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg in broiler chicks. The study consisted of 8 dietary treatments, including 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with or without HSCAS (0.5%) fed to 8 replicate cages per diet (6 males chicks per cage) from 0 to 21 d of age. Cumulative feed intake, BW gain (P < 0.0001), and G:F (P = 0.004) of birds fed the 2 mg of AFB1/kg of diet were significantly lower in comparison with birds fed 0 to 1 mg of AFB1/kg. Relative liver weight was increased in the 2 mg of AFB1/kg group (P < 0.0001). Dietary HSCAS improved cumulative BW gain (main effect P = 0.06), particularly from 14 to 21 d of age (P = 0.037). Dietary HSCAS also reversed the increase in relative liver weight for birds fed AFB1 (P = 0.019). Dietary AFB1 negatively affected major serum parameters (albumin, total protein, globulin, phosphorus, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine phosphokinase), whereas supplementation with HSCAS partially alleviated the affected serum biochemistry. In addition, serum complement activity and liver gene expression were negatively affected by 2 mg of AFB1/kg. The HSCAS supplement increased the liver expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). Results from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with HSCAS can effectively improve BW gain and partially ameliorate aflatoxicosis for broiler chicks fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. PMID:24894529

  6. Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B1 pharmacokinetics in human volunteers: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Jubert, C; Mata, J; Bench, G; Dashwood, R; Pereira, C; Tracewell, W; Turteltaub, K; Williams, D; Bailey, G

    2009-04-20

    Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 14601-14606 (2001)), where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB{sub 1}. However, neither AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetics nor Chla effects were examined. We conducted a small unblinded crossover study to establish AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters in human volunteers, and to explore possible effects of CHL or Chla co-treatment on those parameters. For protocol 1, fasted subjects received an IRB-approved dose of 14C-AFB{sub 1} (30 ng, 5 nCi) by capsule with 100 ml water, followed by normal eating and drinking after hr 2. Blood and cumulative urine samples were collected over 72 hr, and {sup 14}C-AFB{sub 1} equivalents were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Protocols 2 and 3 were similar except capsules also contained 150 mg of purified Chla, or CHL, respectively. All protocols were repeated 3 times for each of three volunteers. The study revealed rapid human AFB{sub 1} uptake (plasma ka 5.05 {+-} 1.10 hr-1, Tmax 1.0 hr) and urinary elimination (95% complete by 24 hr) kinetics. Chla and CHL treatment each significantly impeded AFB{sub 1} absorption and reduced Cmax and AUC's (plasma and urine) in one or more subjects. These initial results provide AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters previously unavailable for humans, and suggest that Chla or CHL co-consumption may limit the bioavailability of ingested aflatoxin in humans, as they do in animal models.

  7. In Vitro Efficacy of Myxococcus fulvus ANSM068 to Biotransform Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Shu; Zhao, Lihong; Ma, Qiugang; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xinxu; Ji, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is commonly found in cereals and animal feeds and causes a significant threat to the food industry and animal production. Several microbial isolates with high AFB1 transformation ability have been identified in our previous studies. The aim of this research was to characterize one of those isolates, Myxococcus fulvus ANSM068, and to explore its biotransformation mechanism. The bacterial isolate of M. fulvus ANSM068, isolated from deer feces, was able to transform AFB1 by 80.7% in liquid VY/2 medium after incubation at 30 °C for 72 h. The supernatant of the bacterial culture was more effective in transforming AFB1 as compared to the cells alone and the cell extract. The transformation activity was significantly reduced and eradicated after the culture supernatant was treated with proteinase K, proteinase K plus SDS and heating. Culture conditions, including nitrogen source, initial pH and incubation temperature were evaluated for an optimal AFB1 transformation. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) analyses showed that AFB1 was transformed to a structurally different compound. Infrared analysis (IR) indicated that the lactone ring on the AFB1 molecule was modified by the culture supernatant. Chromatographies on DEAE-Ion exchange and Sephadex-Molecular sieve and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis were used to determine active components from the culture supernatant, indicating that enzyme(s) were responsible for the AFB1 biotransformation. This is the first report on AFB1 transformation by a strain of myxobacteria through enzymatic reaction(s). PMID:21152320

  8. Suppression of aflatoxin B1- or methyl methanesulfonate-induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells after treatment with S-methyl methanethiosulfonate.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Nakamura, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1997-10-24

    The suppressive effect of S-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)- or methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced chromosome aberrations (CA) in rat bone marrow cells was studied. MMTS significantly suppressed CA induced by both AFB1 (an indirect-acting carcinogen) and MMS (a direct-acting carcinogen). Suppression was observed at all periods (6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h) after AFB1 or MMS treatment and in all doses of AFB1 (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) or MMS (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) investigated. AFB1-induced CA was potently suppressed by MMTS given between 2 h before and 6 h after the AFB1 injection. The suppression of AFB1-induced CA by MMTS paralleled the dose of MMTS when MMTS was given in a dose range of 1-20 mg/kg body weight. MMS-induced CA was potently suppressed by MMTS given between 2 h before and 2 h after the MMS injection. The suppressive effect of MMTS on MMS-induced CA paralleled the dose of MMTS when MMTS was given in a dose range of 1-15 mg/kg body weight. Diphenyl disulfide, which modifies -SH groups in proteins like MMTS, also significantly suppressed both AFB1- and MMS-induced CA. Although other mechanisms are not excluded, the suppression of carcinogen-induced CA by MMTS may result from the ability of MMTS to modify -SH groups in proteins. The juices of cabbage and onion, which contain considerable amounts of MMTS and S-methyl-L-cysteinesulfoxide (the precursor of MMTS), also significantly suppressed AFB1- or MMS-induced CA. These results suggest that MMTS is a possible chemopreventive agent against cancer. PMID:9393623

  9. Impact of dietary branched chain amino acids concentration on broiler chicks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gene expression of the mTOR pathway in broiler chicks when exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 BCAA concentrations (1.16, 1.94, and 2.73%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 (1.77 mg/kg analyzed). Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from 6 to 20 d of age. Exposure to AFB1 significantly reduced gain:feed ratio and breast muscle weight (P < 0.05), and tended to decrease cumulative BW gain (P = 0.087), while increasing dietary BCAA improved all performance measures (P ≤ 0.0002), except relative breast muscle weight. Apparent ileal digestibility of N and 9 amino acids were increased by AFB1 (P ≤ 0.05), but were reduced by higher dietary BCAA (P ≤ 0.023). Jejunum histology was not affected by AFB1, while higher dietary BCAA tended to increase villus height (P = 0.08). Additionally, the gene expression of mTOR pathway (mTOR, 4EBP1, and S6K1) from liver and jejunum were not affected by dietary treatments, while muscle expression of S6K1 tended to be increased by AFB1 (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between AFB1 and dietary BCAA were observed for any measures in the current study. Results from this study suggested that feed AFB1 contamination can significantly reduce growth performance and breast muscle growth in broiler chicks at 20 d. Higher BCAA supply may have beneficial impact on bird performance, but this effect is independent of AFB1 exposure. PMID:26957625

  10. Forward-backward asymmetry of Drell-Yan lepton pairs in pp collisions at √{s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mohammed, Y.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.

    2016-06-01

    A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry {A}_{FB} of oppositely charged lepton pairs (μ μ and ee) produced via Z/γ ^* boson exchange in pp collisions at √{s} = 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb^{-1} collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement of {A}_{FB} is performed for dilepton masses between 40 {GeV} and 2 TeV and for dilepton rapidity up to 5. The {A}_{FB} measurements as a function of dilepton mass and rapidity are compared with the standard model predictions.

  11. Enhanced Flight Termination System Flight Demonstration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David; Arce, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodology, requirements, tests, and implementation plan for the live demonstration of the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) using a missile program at two locations in Florida: Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) and Tyndall AFB. The demonstration included the integration of EFTS Flight Termination Receivers (FTRs) onto the missile and the integration of EFTS-program-developed transmitter assets with the mission control system at Eglin and Tyndall AFBs. The initial test stages included ground testing and captive-carry flights, followed by a launch in which EFTS was designated as the primary flight termination system for the launch.

  12. On the nonlinear steady-state response of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings-Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jon S.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2015-06-01

    The demand for oil-free turbo compressors is increasing. Current trends are divided between active magnetic bearings and air foil bearings (AFB), the latter being important due to mechanical simplicity. AFB supported rotors are sensitive to unbalance due to low damping and nonlinear characteristics, hence accurate prediction of their response is important. This paper gives theoretical and experimental contributions by implementing and validating a new method to simulate the nonlinear steady-state response of a rotor supported by three pads segmented AFBs. The fluid film pressures, foil deflections and rotor movements are simultaneously solved, considering foil stiffness and damping coefficients estimated using a structural model, previously described and validated against experiments.

  13. Effect of dietary resveratrol in ameliorating aflatoxin B1-induced changes in broiler birds.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M; Suganthi, R U; Thammiaha, V

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated feed by poultry affects the health of broiler birds causing severe economic losses. The use of phytochemicals is a safe, effective, alternative and practical approach to combat the toxic effect of AF in broilers. Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from red grapes, berries and peanuts, exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Our study was aimed at evaluating the possible protective effects of resveratrol against the adverse effects of AFB1 in broiler birds. A feeding trial of 42 days of duration was undertaken in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments: G1-AFB1(1.0 ppm); G2-CTR (basal diet alone); G3-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 0.5%; G4-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 1%; and G5-Resv 1%. Gain in body weight (BWG) and feed intake (FI) was observed to be highest (p < 0.05) in the AFB1 birds followed by the control group. Feed conversion ratio was lowest in G2-CTR birds and failed to record any significant variation (p > 0.05) between groups as well as within groups. Birds fed resveratrol at both 0.5% and 1.0% levels in combination with AFB1 as well as alone along with basal diet had lower BWG and FI between the fourth and fifth week and also at the fifth week (p < 0.05). No variation (p > 0.05) was obtained in the FCR of AFB1 and resveratrol group of broiler birds. AFB1 feeding significantly increased the activities of aspartate-(AST) and alanine-(ALT) amino transferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities (p < 0.05) but lowered glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum. Supplementation of resveratrol helped in increasing the activities of the oxidative enzymes and in improving the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and total protein (TP) significantly (p < 0.05) and protein values. The livers of AFB1 group showed degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and microgranuloma formation. In resveratrol supplemented birds, the severity and degree of the

  14. Survey of aflatoxins in watermelon seeds from Iran using immunoaffinity column cleanup and HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Feizy, J; Beheshti, H R; Fakoor Janati, S S; Khoshbakht Fahim, N

    2011-01-01

    This survey was undertaken to determine the levels of aflatoxins in melon seeds. Among 65 samples analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC), the results showed that aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the major toxins in melon seeds, detected in 58 samples (89.2% of the total) at an average concentration of 8.5 ng g(-1). The level of AFB1 in 12 samples exceeded the maximum tolerated level for AFB1 in Iranian (5 ng g(-1)) regulations; in other words, 18.5% of samples were unfit for human consumption. PMID:24785721

  15. KSC-04PD-1078

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Mobile Service Tower rolls back to the Delta II carrying the Gravity Probe B spacecraft at Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg AFB after first launch attempt was scrubbed.

  16. CSF Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lactate , Protein Electrophoresis , AFB Testing , Blood Culture , Herpes , Lyme Disease , Rubella , Syphilis , West Nile Virus , Toxoplasmosis , EBV Antibodies , ... or may be slow to develop, indicating a chronic disease, such as multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer disease . Depending ...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 222 - Addressing MDR Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Command. HQ NORAD/CSO, 250 Vandenberg St. Ste B016, Peterson AFB, CO 80914. (18) U.S. Africa Command. US Africa Command, Unit 29951, ATTN: COS-FOIA, APO AE 09751. (19) U.S. Central Command....

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 222 - Addressing MDR Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Defense Command. HQ NORAD/CSO, 250 Vandenberg St. Ste B016, Peterson AFB, CO 80914. (18) U.S. Africa Command. US Africa Command, Unit 29951, ATTN: COS-FOIA, APO AE 09751. (19) U.S. Central Command....

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 222 - Addressing MDR Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Defense Command. HQ NORAD/CSO, 250 Vandenberg St. Ste B016, Peterson AFB, CO 80914. (18) U.S. Africa Command. US Africa Command, Unit 29951, ATTN: COS-FOIA, APO AE 09751. (19) U.S. Central Command....

  20. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for ...

  1. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES; EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for a...

  2. Federal Aviation Administration - Graphic TFR's

    Science.gov Websites

    AFB, CA, Sunday, June 05, 2016 through Thursday, June 16, 2016 Local zoom to 65070 06022016 65068 ZAB AZ HAZARDS 15 MILES SOUTH OF YOUNG, AZ, Friday, June 03, 2016 through ...

  3. Use and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative acid-fast bacilli and fungal cultures in assessing infection of joint arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Wadey, Veronica M; Huddleston, James I; Goodman, Stuart B; Schurman, David J; Maloney, William J; Baron, Ellen J

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine a protocol for collecting acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and fungal intraoperative cultures during orthopedic procedures. An observational study was undertaken. Four hundred forty-six AFB cultures and 486 fungal cultures were processed over a 2-year period. The number of positive cultures was determined. A protocol specific to handling these types of specimens was developed. Cost analysis was completed to determine both the time and money saved if the new protocol was implemented. The infrequency of positive AFB and fungal cultures in this study suggests that it is only necessary to routinely request AFB and fungal cultures on 1 of 5 samples. Implementation of this protocol has potential to lead to substantial cost reduction and resource savings without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:19879728

  4. 75 FR 75487 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., 220I, 140, 203, 220, 273 Reasons: Extensive deterioration New Mexico Bldg. 880 ] 1241 Moroni Holloman...: Secured Area Bldg. 825 Holloman AFB Holloman NM 88330 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property...

  5. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... important job. Â Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  6. KSC-04PD-1079

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- This photo of the Delta II rocket carrying the Gravity Probe B spacecraft was taken minutes before launch from Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg AFB, Calif., at 9:57:24 a.m. PDT.

  7. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  8. Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron in T-38A cockpit at Ellington Field near JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron seated in the forward cockpit of a T-38A conducts preflight checkout procedures at Ellington Field near JSC. Cameron is preparing for a flight to Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) in Spokane, Washington.

  9. 33 CFR 334.744 - Eglin Poquito Housing at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329... the Commander, 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  10. 33 CFR 334.742 - Eglin Camp Pinchot, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR... enforced by the Commander, 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida and such agencies as he/she may...

  11. 33 CFR 334.742 - Eglin Camp Pinchot, Fla., at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR... enforced by the Commander, 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida and such agencies as he/she may...

  12. 33 CFR 334.744 - Eglin Poquito Housing at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329... the Commander, 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  13. 76 FR 55933 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    .... 525 and 730 Kirtland AFB Kirtland NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property Number: 18201130002... Air Guard Dr. SE Kirtland NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property Number: 18201130039...

  14. 75 FR 75461 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... provision by the nonprofit agencies listed: ] Services Service Type/Location: Base Supply Center, Kirtland... Air Force, FA9401 377 CONS CC, Kirtland AFB, NM. Service Type/Location: Landscaping &...

  15. FIELD ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE DNAPL REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five DNAPL remediation technologies were evaluated in constructed test cells at the Dover National Test Site, Dover AFB, Delaware. The technologies were cosolvent solubilization, cosolvent mobilization, surfactant solubilization, complex sugar flushing and air sparging/soil vapor...

  16. FIELD EVALUATION OF DNAPL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES: PROJECT OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five DNAPL remediation technologies were evaluated at the Dover National Test Site, Dover AFB, Delaware. The technologies were cosolvent solubilization, cosolvent mobilization, surfactant solubilization, complex sugar flushing and air sparging/soil vapor extraction. The effectiv...

  17. STS-8 postal Stamp envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    STS-8 postal Stamp envelope with Challenger insignia, USA eagle stamp, 25th NASA anniversary stamp. The envelope is stamped with various postmarks, one saying Kennedy Space Center, Fl., another saying 'Returned to earth, Edwards AFB, CA'.

  18. KSC-04PD-1080

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A remote camera captures ignition of the Delta II rocket carrying the Gravity Probe B spacecraft from Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg AFB, Calif., at 9:57:24 a.m. PDT.

  19. KSC-04PD-1083

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A remote camera captures liftoff of the Delta II rocket carrying the Gravity Probe B spacecraft from Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg AFB, Calif., at 9:57:24 a.m. PDT.

  20. 78 FR 48862 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Gulf Regional Airspace Strategic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...) and Tate's Hell State Forest (THSF) for establishing helicopter landing and drop zones, airstrips, and..., Eglin AFB, FL 32542-5499, (850) 882-2836 spaitsm@eglin.af.mil September 9, 2013. Henry Williams Jr,...

  1. 75 FR 30847 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...., presence of asbestos/lead paint, off-site use only Belmont Cty Memorial USAR Ctr 5305 Guernsey St. Bellaire... presence of asbestos Land Missouri Annex No. 3 Whiteman AFB Knob Noster MO 65336 Landholding Agency:...

  2. Comparative study of in vitro prooxidative properties and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 and its laccase-mediated detoxification products.

    PubMed

    Zeinvand-Lorestani, Hamed; Sabzevari, Omid; Setayesh, Neda; Amini, Mohsen; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Amir; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the enzymatic detoxification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by laccase was studied, and the prooxidant properties and mutagenicity of the detoxification products were compared with those of AFB1. The optimal enzymatic reaction occurred in 0.1M of citrate buffer containing 20% DMSO at 35 °C, a pH of 4.5, and a laccase activity of 30 U mL(-1). After 2 d, sixty-seven percent of the toxic substrate was removed. The prooxidative properties of the detoxified products (27% versus 86%) and the mutagenicity were significantly decreased in comparison with the parent toxin. Unlike AFB1, which promoted metabolism-dependent genetic mutations by base-pair substitution, the detoxified products did not induce genotoxicity. Comparison of the Km values for AFB1 and riboflavin, a valuable food nutrient, indicated that laccase showed greater affinity for the toxin than for riboflavin. PMID:25876029

  3. Hepatitis B virus infection contributes to oxidative stress in a population exposed to aflatoxin B1 and high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Ming; Li, Le-Qun; Peng, Min-Hao; Liu, Tang-Wei; Qin, Zhong; Guo, Ya; Xiao, Kai-Yin; Ye, Xin-Ping; Mo, Xin-Shao; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan; Yan, Lu-Nan; Shen, Han-Ming; Wang, LianWen; Wang, Qiao; Wang, Kai-bo; Liang, Ren-xiang; Wei, Zong-liang; Ong, Choon Nam; Santella, Regina M.; Peng, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and oxidative stress were detected in 71 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and 694 controls from southern China. Plasma level of AFB1-Albumin-Adducts (AAA) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were significantly higher in the 71 HCC cases than in any age/gender matched HBV sero-status groups (P<0.001). HCC patients positive for the p53-249 G-T mutation had a marginally higher level of PCC than those negative for the mutation (p=0.077). HBV infection had a prominent influence on the association between AFB1 exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers in the controls. Our study indicates a significant contribution from HBV infection to oxidative stress in a population with AFB1 exposure which might substantially increase risk for HCC in this region. PMID:18280645

  4. Metabolism and DNA binding of aflatoxicol and aflatoxin B1 in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed

    Loveland, P M; Wilcox, J S; Pawlowski, N E; Bailey, G S

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the metabolism and DNA binding of aflatoxicol (AFL) with that of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes from Mt Shasta strain rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Maximum total binding of [3H]AFL to liver DNA from trout exposed by intraperitoneal injection was 38-47% of that of [3H]AFB1 over a 1-7 day period. The average AFL/AFB1 DNA binding ratio in 1-h incubations with isolated hepatocytes was 0.67 +/- 0.36 (n = 13). In freshly isolated hepatocytes, substantial interconversion between AFB1 and AFL via reductase and dehydrogenase enzymes was observed. Total in vivo excretion of conjugates in bile over 4 days was greater for [3H]AFL substrate than for [3H]AFB1. To determine if AFL binding was due to direct activation or to prior metabolism to AFB1 followed by activation, AFL with a tritium atom on the carbon containing the cyclopentenol function [1-3H]AFL, was synthesized and incubated with hepatocytes. Binding of [1-3H]AFL was 3% that of [3H]AFB1 and represents only direct binding of the intact cyclopentenol epoxide molecule before transformation to AFB1 and consequent loss of 3H. H.p.l.c. analysis of DNA hydrolyzed after incubation with [1-3H]AFL resulted primarily in production of non-radioactive 8,9-dihydro-8-(N7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB1-N7-guanine). A radioactive peak estimated to be 1% as abundant as the AFB1-N7-guanine was also observed. The overall binding of generally labeled [3H]AFL to trout liver DNA in vivo and in freshly prepared hepatocytes correlates well with available tumor incidence and mutagenicity data. Conclusions from these findings are that direct interaction of AFL-8,9-epoxide with DNA is of relatively minor quantitative importance in rainbow trout hepatocytes and that the major adduct results from conversion of AFL to AFB1 prior to epoxide formation. PMID:3111740

  5. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE) on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g) male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w) for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i) a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii) an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii) restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which decreased as well as its

  6. Removal of aflatoxin B1 and inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth by the use of Lactobacillus plantarum on olives.

    PubMed

    Kachouri, Faten; Ksontini, Hamida; Hamdi, Moktar

    2014-10-01

    Olives can be contaminated with a wide variety of molds (Aspergillus and/or Penicillium) that can be occurring naturally on fresh and processed olives and could support mycotoxin production. The aim of this work was to investigate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by fungi and its bioaccumulation in olives during storage and to study the impact of the application of Lactobacillus plantarum on the inhibition of mold development and production of AFB1. Two different treatments were applied: (i) olives with natural microflora and (ii) olives inoculated with Aspergillus flavus after elimination of natural microflora. AFB1 has been extracted from olives and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. Results showed the absence of this metabolite in the olives for the season 2008 to 2009. In 2009 to 2010, AFB1 was detected at the level of 11 μg/kg. The application of L. plantarum during the storage of olives favors the reduction of the level of AFB1 to 5.9 μg/kg correlated with a decrease in the amount of molds (86.3%). The images obtained by environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that L. plantarum was able to adhere to the olive surface and probably produce a biofilm that inhibits the multiplication of yeast and fungi by oxygen competition. Results showed an increase of antioxidant activity and amount of total phenolic compounds of olives, respectively, by 24 and 8.6%. In many olives contaminated with A. flavus, AFB1 was present at an initial level of 5.15 μg/kg and increased to 6.55 μg/kg after 8 days of storage. The biological detoxification of AFB1 in olives by L. plantarum is confirmed by the reduction of the level of AFB1 to 2.12 μg/kg on day 0 and its absence after 4 days of storage. PMID:25285494

  7. Pott's Disease? AIDS-Associated Mycobacterium heckeshornense Spinal Osteomyelitis and Diskitis

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Paul C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) spinal osteomyelitis in a patient with AIDS is often presumed to be caused by reactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, other AFB pathogens can mimic M. tuberculosis and, to ensure appropriate and adequate therapy, should be considered by clinicians. We present a case of aggressive spinal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in an AIDS patient; a review of the literature is also included. PMID:25428153

  8. Spatial Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Buruli Ulcer Lesions: Implications for Laboratory Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bolz, Miriam; Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Bratschi, Martin W.; Sopho, Ghislain Emmanuel; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Um Boock, Alphonse; Junghanss, Thomas; Pluschke, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Background Current laboratory diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (BU) is based on microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), histopathology or cultivation. Insertion sequence (IS) 2404 qPCR, the most sensitive method, is usually only available at reference laboratories. The only currently available point-of-care test, microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB), has limited sensitivity and specificity. Methodology/ Principal Findings Here we analyzed AFB positive tissue samples (n = 83) for the presence, distribution and amount of AFB. AFB were nearly exclusively present in the subcutis with large extracellular clusters being most frequently (67%) found in plaque lesions. In ulcerative lesions small clusters and dispersed AFB were more common. Beside this, 151 swab samples from 37 BU patients were analyzed by IS2404 qPCR and ZN staining in parallel. The amount of M. ulcerans DNA in extracts from swabs correlated well with the probability of finding AFB in direct smear microscopy, with 56.1% of the samples being positive in both methods and 43.9% being positive only in qPCR. By analyzing three swabs per patient instead of one, the probability to have at least one positive swab increased from 80.2% to 97.1% for qPCR and from 45% to 66.1% for AFB smear examination. Conclusion / Significance Our data show that M. ulcerans bacteria are primarily located in the subcutis of BU lesions, making the retrieval of the deep subcutis mandatory for examination of tissue samples for AFB. When laboratory diagnosis is based on the recommended less invasive collection of swab samples, analysis of three swabs from different areas of ulcerative lesions instead of one increases the sensitivity of both qPCR and of smear microscopy substantially. PMID:27253422

  9. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 on T-Cell Subsets and mRNA Expression of Cytokines in the Intestine of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Yu, Zhengqiang; Chen, Zhengli

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on T-cell subsets and mRNA expression of cytokines in the small intestine of broilers. One hundred and fifty-six one-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly divided into control group (0 mg/kg AFB1) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg/kg AFB1) with three replicates per group and 26 birds per replicate for 21 days, respectively. At 7, 14, and 21 days of age, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled for analyzing T cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+) by flow cytometry as well as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. The percentages of T-cells in the intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the AFB1 group showed a decreased tendency in comparison to the control group. The mRNA expression of cytokines in the three intestinal segments in the AFB1 group presented a general decline compared with the control groups. Our data demonstrated that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 in the broilers diet could reduce the percentages of T-cell subsets and the expression level of cytokine mRNA in the small intestine, implying that the immune function of the intestinal mucosa might be affected. The reduction of cytokines mRNA expression may be closely associated with the decreased proportions of T cells subsets induced by AFB1. PMID:25826527

  10. Modified Hydra Bioassay to Evaluate the Toxicity of Multiple Mycotoxins and Predict the Detoxification Efficacy of a Clay-Based Sorbent

    PubMed Central

    Brown, KA; Mays, T; Romoser, A; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Mitchell, NJ; Elmore, SE; Phillips, TD

    2013-01-01

    Food shortages and lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay (i.e. UPSN) has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present work were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB1 and FB1at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB1 and FB1 toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB1 binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB1 bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9-7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB1, AFB1 and FB1/AFB1 combinations with and without UPSN. Toxic response over 92 hours was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 μg/mLfor AFB1, while the MEC for FB1 was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 μg/mL FB1 + 10 μg/mL AFB1. This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin binding agents. PMID:23047854

  11. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetries in the production of Ξ and Ω baryons in p p ¯ collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brochmann, M.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cuth, J.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franc, J.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schott, M.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the forward-backward asymmetries AFB of charged Ξ and Ω baryons produced in p p ¯ collisions recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at √{s }=1.96 TeV as a function of the baryon rapidity y . We find that the asymmetries AFB for charged Ξ and Ω baryons are consistent with zero within statistical uncertainties.

  12. Effects of dietary protein concentration on performance and nutrient digestibility in Pekin ducks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Murdoch, R; Zhang, Q; Shafer, D J; Applegate, T J

    2016-04-01

    A 14-d study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary crude protein concentration on performance, serum biochemistry, and nutrient digestive functions in Pekin ducklings during aflatoxicosis. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments arranged in a 2×2 factorial with 2 crude protein (CP) (20 and 24% on an analyzed basis) with or without 0.2 mg/kg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (0.21 mg/kg analyzed). The AFB1 reduced BW gain, feed intake, and breast muscle weight by 33 to 43% (P<0.0001). Serum concentration of protein, glucose, and Ca were also decreased by AFB1 (P≤0.0015), while pancreatic activities of amylase and lipase were increased by AFB1 (P<0.005). Apparent N digestibility was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas apparent ileal digestible energy was reduced 7.6% by AFB1 (P=0.0003). Higher dietary CP improved BW gain, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight (P≤0.021), and tended to improve feed intake (P=0.094), but did not improve serum measures, digestive enzyme activity, or nutrient digestibility. No statistical interaction of AFB1 by CP was observed for any measures. Results from the current study suggest that AFB1 at low concentration can significantly impair performance of Pekin ducklings primarily through inhibited feed intake, as well as influence nutrient digestion processes (jejunum morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and apparent energy digestibility). Higher dietary CP can improve growth performance of ducklings regardless of AF exposure, but did not interact with dietary AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, or nutrient digestion in Pekin ducklings from hatch to 14 d. PMID:26740138

  13. β-1,3-Glucan reverses aflatoxin B1-mediated suppression of immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Bakheet, Saleh A; Attia, Sabry M; Alwetaid, Mohammad Y; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz

    2016-05-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is immunotoxic to animals and is a suspected immunosuppressant in humans. β-1,3-Glucan (BG) consists of glucose polymers and has a variety of stimulatory effects on the immune system. In this study, we investigated the role of BG on the expression of phenotypic markers and cytokine secretion in mice exposed to AFB1. We treated animals with BG (150mg/kg, p.o., once daily) for 7days beginning at the onset of AFB1 exposure. Exposure of animals to AFB1 alone (1250μg/kg, p.o, once daily) for 7days resulted in a decrease in the percentages of lymphocyte subsets (CD4(+), GITR(+), CD8(+), TCR β(+), CD3(+), Foxp3(+), CD4(+)Foxp3(+), and CD127(+)) as compared to an normal control (NC). However, both BG alone and BG given in conjunction with exposure to AFB1 significantly increased the percentages of these lymphocyte subsets in blood. We also observed that mice exposed to AFB1 showed reduced IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17, and IFN-γ production in the spleen and serum. In contrast, oral administration of BG alone and in conjunction with AFB1 exposure augmented the levels of these cytokines. Moreover, this finding was confirmed through RT-PCR and western blot analysis of mRNA and protein expression in the spleen. Altogether, it can be concluded from these studies that BG enhances the responses of lymphocyte subsets, including cytokine production, even when given following exposure to AFB1 immunotoxin. These data demonstrate that BG carries out its immunomodulating activity by regulating cytokine production. Our findings also provide a direction for development of specific immunomodulating therapy. PMID:26997472

  14. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in Thailand by consumption of brown and color rice.

    PubMed

    Panrapee, Iamtaweejaroen; Phakpoom, Kooprasertying; Thanapoom, Maneeboon; Nampeung, Anukul; Warapa, Mahakarnchanakul

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) intake of the Thai population through consumption of contaminated brown and color rice. A total of 240 rice samples from two harvesting periods were collected in June/July 2012 (period I) and in December 2012/January 2013 (period II) and analyzed for AFB1 by HPLC with fluorescence detection (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.093 ng/g). Exposure assessment was based on AFB1 levels in rice and food intake data for rice according to Thai National Consumption. Frequency and levels of AFB1 were higher in period I (59%, AFB1 of 2 μg kg(-1). The data showed that the quality and safety of Thai rice largely comply with the requirement for both exports and domestic consumption. According to the Thai National Consumption data, the estimated AFB1 intake via rice consumption in period I and period II was 0.80 and 0.12 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. The potential risk for cancer, based on the recommendation of the JECFA, was estimated to be 0.011 person/year/100,000 people at a mean consumption. Although the risk via consumption of Thai rice seems to be low, the maximum levels of AFB1 in this staple food suggest that careful monitoring and surveillance of AFB1 contamination in rice is essential to ensure the safety of rice. PMID:26686516

  15. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: Impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression

    SciTech Connect

    Meissonnier, Guylaine M.; Pinton, Philippe; Laffitte, Joelle; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Gong, Yun Yun; Wild, Christopher P.; Bertin, Gerard; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2008-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus, is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. This toxin is hepatotoxic and immunotoxic. The present study analyzed in pigs the influence of AFB1 on humoral and cellular responses, and investigated whether the immunomodulation observed is produced through interference with cytokine expression. For 28 days, pigs were fed a control diet or a diet contaminated with 385, 867 or 1807 {mu}g pure AFB1/kg feed. At days 4 and 15, pigs were vaccinated with ovalbumin. AFB1 exposure, confirmed by an observed dose-response in blood aflatoxin-albumin adduct, had no major effect on humoral immunity as measured by plasma concentrations of total IgA, IgG and IgM and of anti-ovalbumin IgG. Toxin exposure did not impair the mitogenic response of lymphocytes but delayed and decreased their specific proliferation in response to the vaccine antigen, suggesting impaired lymphocyte activation in pigs exposed to AFB1. The expression level of pro-inflammatory (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-6, IFN-{gamma}) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR in spleen. A significant up-regulation of all 5 cytokines was observed in spleen from pigs exposed to the highest dose of AFB1. In pigs exposed to the medium dose, IL-6 expression was increased and a trend towards increased IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 was observed. In addition we demonstrate that IL-6 impaired in vitro the antigenic- but not the mitogenic-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from control pigs vaccinated with ovalbumin. These results indicate that AFB1 dietary exposure decreases cell-mediated immunity while inducing an inflammatory response. These impairments in the immune response could participate in failure of vaccination protocols and increased susceptibility to infections described in pigs exposed to AFB1.

  16. Removal of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and in vitro transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts C3H/10T1 1/2

    SciTech Connect

    Amstad, P.A.; Wang, T.V.; Cerutti, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of in vitro transformation of the mouse embryo fibroblast C3H/10T 1/2 clone 8 by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was studied in confluent holding (CH) experiments. Confluent cultures of C3H/10T 1/2 cells were treated with AFB1 for 16 hours, and the DNA adduct composition and concentration were determined by chromatographic procedures after 0, 8, 16, and 40 hours of CH when the cells were replated at low density for the expression of their colony-forming ability and the formation of transformed foci. Total adduct concentration and the concentration of the major primary adduct 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB1-N7-Gua) decreased continuously during CH due to spontaneous decomposition and probably also due to enzymatic repair processes. In contrast, the more chemically stable secondary product 2,3-dihydro-2-(N5-formyl-2',5',6'-triamino-4'-oxo-N5-pyrimidyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB1-triamino-Py) accumulated in the DNA and reached its maximum concentration after 16 hours of CH. While the loss of total AFB1-DNA adducts during CH was reflected in recovery of viability, the potential to form transformed foci reached a maximum after 16 hours of CH and then decreased with continued CH below the initial value. Therefore, no simple relationship exists between the concentration of the total adducts AFB1-N7-Gua and AFB1-triamino-Py at the time of release from CH and the potential to form transformed foci. However, DNA lesions or abnormal DNA configurations formed during CH as a consequence of the cellular processing of AFB1-DNA adducts may play a role in the transformation process.

  17. Modified hydra bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of multiple mycotoxins and predict the detoxification efficacy of a clay-based sorbent.

    PubMed

    Brown, K A; Mays, T; Romoser, A; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Mitchell, N J; Elmore, S E; Phillips, T D

    2014-01-01

    Food shortages and a lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay [i.e. uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN)] has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present study were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB(1) and FB(1) at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB(1) and FB(1) toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB(1) binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB(1) bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9-7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB(1), AFB(1) and FB(1) /AFB(1) combinations with and without UPSN. A toxic response over 92 h was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg ml(-1) for AFB(1), whereas the MEC for FB(1) was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 µg ml(-1) FB(1) + 10 µg ml(-1) AFB(1). This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin-binding agents. PMID:23047854

  18. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetries in the production of Ξ and Ω baryons in $$p\\overline{p}$$ collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-06-01

    Here, we measure the forward-backward asymmetries AFB of charged Ξ and Ω baryons produced in pp¯ collisions recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at √s = 1.96 TeV as a function of the baryon rapidity y. We find that the asymmetries AFB for charged Ξ and Ω baryons are consistent with zero within statistical uncertainties.

  19. Protective Efficacy of Alpha-lipoic Acid against AflatoxinB1-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Ma, Q. G.; Zhao, L. H.; Guo, Y. Q.; Duan, G. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Ji, C.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is not only involved in energy metabolism, but is also a powerful antioxidant that can protect against hepatic oxidative stress induced by some drugs, toxins, or under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of α-LA against liver oxidative damage in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Birds were randomly divided into four groups and assigned different diets: basal diet, 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, for 3 weeks. The results revealed that the addition of 300 mg/kg α-LA protected against the liver function damage of broilers induced by chronic low dose of AFB1 as estimated by a significant (p<0.05) change in levels of plasma total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and the activities of liver glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The histopathological analysis also showed that liver tissues were injured in the AFB1 diet, but this effect was alleviated by the addition of 300 mg/kg α-LA. Additionally, AFB1 induced a profound elevation of oxidative stress in birds, as indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde level, a decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity and a depletion of the glutathione content in the liver. All of these negative effects were inhibited by treatment with α-LA. Our results suggest that the inhibition of AFB1-induced excess production of lipid peroxides and the maintenance of intracellular antioxidant status may play important roles in the protective effects of α-LA against AFB1-induced oxidative damage in the liver. PMID:25050030

  20. Geothermal exploration program, Hill Air Force Base, Davis and Weber Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, W.E.; Chapman, D.S.; Foley, D.; Capuano, R.M.; Cole, D.; Sibbett, B.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-03-01

    Results obtained from a program designed to locate a low- or moderate-temperature geothermal resource that might exist beneath Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Ogden, Utah are discussed. A phased exploration program was conducted at Hill AFB. Published geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports on the area were examined, regional exploration was conducted, and two thermal gradient holes were drilled. This program demonstrated that thermal waters are not present in the shallow subsurface at this site. (MHR)