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Sample records for 1f7 offutt afb

  1. Bioventing pilot test results at the low point drain area, Offutt AFB, Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Werner, F T; Walters, J E; Keefer, G B

    1997-11-21

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the application of bioventing technology at the LPD site at Offutt AFB, Nebraska and present the results of the 15-month pilot test. The preliminary tests indicated sufficient hydrocarbon contamination was present with the necessary soil characteristics to warrant an extended bioventing pilot test. The six month in situ respiration test indicated that progress was being made in reducing the TVH concentrations and biological activity was still occurring. Laboratory analysis of the final soil samples confirmed the reduction in TRPH and BTEX concentrations indicating that the site is close to complete remediation. However, owing to reduced air flow at greater distances from the VW, more biodegradation is still needed near MPB. The reduced biodegradation at MPB could also be due to the high water tables resulting from heavy rains during the summer and fall of 1993. The local water table was above the VW and MP screens for several months. The operation of the blower will continue until the site is completely remediated. The single VW pilot test at the LPD site at Offutt AFB has proven the effectiveness of bioventing in reducing TRPH and BTEX contamination in the subsurface. The installation, operation and maintenance costs were minimal. The effectiveness of this application has resulted in three additional bioventing applications at Offutt AFB including the first, full-scale system located in the state of Nebraska.

  2. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. Northwest front and southwest end. View to east Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest front and southwest end. View to east - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Traffic Check House, Southeast end of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 2. Southeast side of addition. View to northwest. Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast side of addition. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. General view. View to southwest Offutt Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view. View to southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. HAER NE9A (sheet 1 of 1) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-A (sheet 1 of 1) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. HAER NE9B (sheet 2 of 2) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-B (sheet 2 of 2) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. HAER NE9B (sheet 1 of 2) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-B (sheet 1 of 2) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. Activation of cord T lymphocytes. IV. Analysis of surface expression and functional role of 1F7 (CD26) molecule.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Agea, E; Muscat, C; Ercolani, R; Bistoni, O; Tognellini, R; Mariggió, M A; Spinozzi, F; Bertotto, A

    1994-04-15

    A role for CD26 surface antigen (Ag) in both CD3- and CD2-mediated T cell activation has been previously demonstrated. To analyze the functional role of CD26 in the CD3- and CD2-induced activation pathways of cord T cells, which represent the most reliable source of Ag-unprimed T cells, we employed a newly developed anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody, termed anti-1F7, anti-CD3 and anti-CD2 in activating T lymphocytes. The results showed that CD26 Ag is expressed on the surface of almost all resting cord T cells and that its fluorescence intensity is enhanced by activation. The binding of anti-1F7 induced a decrease in CD26 membrane expression, with no detectable effect on the surface expression of other cord T cell-related molecules. Moreover, the modulation of CD26 resulted in an increase in anti-CD3-mediated cord T cell activation through an enhancement in intracellular calcium levels, IL-2 receptor expression, and IL-2 synthesis, whereas it had no effect on cord T cell activation induced by anti-CD2 or anti-CD2 plus exogenous IL-2. The fact that the selective involvement of CD26 in the activation pathway triggered by anti-CD3, but not anti-CD2, could be reversed by prior stimulation of cord T cells with anti-CD3 suggests that this functional feature, which resembles that of mature thymocytes, may be linked to the Ag-unprimed cell phenotype of cord T lymphocytes. PMID:7909498

  11. Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  12. Expression and functional role of 1F7 (CD26) antigen on peripheral blood and synovial fluid T cells in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Muscat, C; Bertotto, A; Agea, E; Bistoni, O; Ercolani, R; Tognellini, R; Spinozzi, F; Cesarotti, M; Gerli, R

    1994-11-01

    The expression and the functional role of the CD26 (1F7) T cell surface molecule, an ectoenzyme which seems to represent a functional collagen receptor of T lymphocytes and to have a role in T cell activation, were analysed in both peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) T cell samples from patients with active and inactive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although patients with active disease displayed higher percentages of PB CD26+ CD4+ T cells than inactive RA and control subjects, CD26 antigen expression on RA SF T lymphocytes was low. The anti-1F7 binding to the T cell surface, that led to CD26 antigen modulation and enhancement of both IL-2 synthesis by, and 3H-TdR incorporation of, anti-CD3- or anti-CD2-triggered PB T cells in RA and control subjects, was unable to affect significantly both expression and functional activity of RA SF T lymphocytes. Since the 1F7 antigen spontaneously reappeared on the surface of unstimulated SF T cells after 2-5 days of culturing, the low 1F7 antigen expression of anti-1F7 in the SF T cell compartment may be the result of in vivo molecule modulation exerted by the natural ligand in the joint, with important implications for T cell activation and lymphokine synthesis. PMID:7955530

  13. The Significance of a Common Idiotype (1F7) on Antibodies against Human Immune Deficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Sybille; Parsons, Matthew S.; Kohler, Heinz; Grant, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we trace the concept and potential functional role of regulatory idiotypes in the immune response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). A major idiotype involved in these viral infections is recognized and defined by a murine monoclonal antibody (1F7). Antibodies expressing the idiotype defined by 1F7 are dominant in HIV-1 infection and are also found on many broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. This regulatory idiotypic axis offers opportunities for exploitation in vaccine development for HIV-1, HCV, and other chronic viral infections. PMID:26904499

  14. Natural attenuation study at Columbus AFB MS

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.; Libelo, E.; MacIntyre, W.; Boggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    In order to study the geochemical and biochemical processes which contribute to natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in ground water systems, a subsurface residual NAPL hydrocarbon mixture was emplaced in the well characterized and highly instrumented heterogeneous aquifer at the Columbus AFB, MS groundwater test site. 1,147 kg of NAPL composed of decane, naphthalene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene and 2 Kg of KBr tracer was mixed with 30 m{sup 3} of local aquifer material to create a 16% residual phase and emplaced below the water table on November 23rd, 1995. Natural hydraulic gradients are now dissolving the hydrocarbons and transporting the dissolved hydrocarbon and bromide plume. Background sampling of groundwater and aquifer solids was done prior to source emplacement to characterize the site geochemistry and anaerobic and aerobic microbiology. The aquifer was initially oxygenated with DO levels ranging from 0.5 to 6.9 mg/L and generally < 3.5, NO{sub 3}-N ranged from 0.02--0.3 mg/L. Sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 8.6 mg/L. Dissolved Fe{sup 2+} ranged up to 5.0 mg/L. Observed natural attenuation rates will be correlated with microbial and geochemical changes in the aquifer. These correlations will provide a basis for understanding and implementing natural attenuation as a remedial action for hydrocarbons.

  15. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) - Barksdale AFB, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The Shuttle Program is organized to support a Shuttle mishap using the resources of the MIT. The afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale AFB. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO). Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team executed a short-term plan that included search, recovery, and identification including coordination with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Temporary operations was set up at Barksdale Air Force Base for two weeks. During this time, coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, AFIP personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. In addition, the crewmember families and NASA management were updated daily. The medical team also dealt with public reports and questions concerning biological and chemical hazards, which were coordinated with SPACEHAB, Inc., Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Medical Operations and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Medicine office. After operations at Barksdale were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term search, recovery and identification plan was developed.

  16. The Arabidopsis Auxin Receptor F-Box Proteins AFB4 and AFB5 Are Required for Response to the Synthetic Auxin Picloram.

    PubMed

    Prigge, Michael J; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Santner, Aaron; Castillejo, Cristina; Mutka, Andrew M; O'Malley, Ronan C; Ecker, Joseph R; Kunkel, Barbara N; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is perceived by a family of F-box proteins called the TIR1/AFBs. Phylogenetic studies reveal that these proteins fall into four clades in flowering plants called TIR1, AFB2, AFB4, and AFB6. Genetic studies indicate that members of the TIR1 and AFB2 groups act as positive regulators of auxin signaling by promoting the degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. In this report, we demonstrate that both AFB4 and AFB5 also function as auxin receptors based on in vitro assays. We also provide genetic evidence that AFB4 and AFB5 are targets of the picloram family of auxinic herbicides in addition to indole-3-acetic acid. In contrast to previous studies we find that null afb4 alleles do not exhibit obvious defects in seedling morphology or auxin hypersensitivity. We conclude that AFB4 and AFB5 act in a similar fashion to other members of the family but exhibit a distinct auxin specificity. PMID:26976444

  17. The Arabidopsis Auxin Receptor F-Box Proteins AFB4 and AFB5 Are Required for Response to the Synthetic Auxin Picloram

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Michael J.; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Santner, Aaron; Castillejo, Cristina; Mutka, Andrew M.; O’Malley, Ronan C.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Kunkel, Barbara N.; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is perceived by a family of F-box proteins called the TIR1/AFBs. Phylogenetic studies reveal that these proteins fall into four clades in flowering plants called TIR1, AFB2, AFB4, and AFB6. Genetic studies indicate that members of the TIR1 and AFB2 groups act as positive regulators of auxin signaling by promoting the degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. In this report, we demonstrate that both AFB4 and AFB5 also function as auxin receptors based on in vitro assays. We also provide genetic evidence that AFB4 and AFB5 are targets of the picloram family of auxinic herbicides in addition to indole-3-acetic acid. In contrast to previous studies we find that null afb4 alleles do not exhibit obvious defects in seedling morphology or auxin hypersensitivity. We conclude that AFB4 and AFB5 act in a similar fashion to other members of the family but exhibit a distinct auxin specificity. PMID:26976444

  18. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  19. Characterization of Afb, a novel bifunctional protein in Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Dehbashi, Sanaz; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Rahil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns and results in pneumonia and bacteremia in adults. A number of S. agalactiae components are involved in colonization of target cells. Destruction of peptidoglycan and division of covalently linked daughter cells is mediated by autolysins. In this study, autolytic activity and plasma binding ability of AFb novel recombinant protein of S. agalactiae was investigated. Materials and Methods: The gbs1805 gene was cloned and expressed. E. coli strains DH5α and BL21 were used as cloning and expression hosts, respectively. After purification, antigenicity and binding ability to plasma proteins of the recombinant protein was evaluated. Results: AFb, the 18KDa protein was purified successfully. The insoluble mature protein revealed the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This insoluble mature protein revealed that it has the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin plasma proteins. Furthermore, in silico analysis demonstrated the AFb has an autolytic activity. Conclusions: AFb is a novel protein capable of binding to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This findings lay a ground work for further investigation of the role of the bacteria in adhesion and colonization to the host. PMID:27092228

  20. SOLVENT CHEMICAL INVENTORY OF THE NEWARK AFB BUILDING 4 FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solvent chemical inventory was performed at Newark AFB to develop a chemical usage profile of the Building 4 facility, and identify primary sources of solvent emissions. This survey was performed in two parts. Part 1 consisted of a chemical inventory survey which defined solv...

  1. 76 FR 55553 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Airspace in the Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), FL airspace area. The Destin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has... airport. This action also corrects the geographic coordinates of Eglin AFB, Duke Field, and Hulbert Field... D airspace in the Eglin AFB, FL area (76 FR 38580) Docket No. FAA-2011-0087. Subsequent...

  2. Building Energy Audit Report, for Hickam AFB, HI

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A building energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Hickam AFB, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This documents reports the results of that assessment.

  3. Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Electric baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  4. Endeavour lands at Edwards AFB, ending mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA/Edwards AFB, Calif. -- With its drag chute deployed, Endeavour lands on runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., at 12:10:42 p.m. EDT after a mission of 11 days, 12 hours, 54 minutes to the International Space Station on mission STS-100. The orbiter and its crew of seven logged about 4.9 million statute miles in 186 orbits. Due to unfavorable weather conditions, landing at KSC was waved off. The landing marked the third consecutive landing at EAFB.

  5. Spectra analysis of coating antigen: A possible explanation for difference in anti-AFB1 polyclonal antibody sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yang; Liu, Aiping; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-10-01

    For the detection of small hapten molecules, indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) is a preferred method. However, diverse coating antigen might bring different antiserum titer and sensitivity for the identical antiserum. In the present study, four AFB1-protein (aflatoxin B1-carrier protein) conjugates were prepared by activated ester method (AFB1O-BSA/AFB1O-OVA) and mannich method (AFB1-cBSA/AFB1-cOVA), and then applied as coating antigen for titer and sensitivity detection of the identical antiserum obtained from rabbit immunized by AFB1-KLH. Afterwards, the ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence and far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (far-UV CD) spectra were recorded for understanding the difference in titer and sensitivity obtained. Results revealed that AFB1O-BSA/AFB1O-OVA showed a strong intrinsic fluorescence band centered at 450 nm that originated from the emission of AFB1, which differed from AFB1-cBSA/AFB1-cOVA, while the decrease of α-helical and increase of β-sheet in AFB1-cBSA was the most remarkable. This indicated that the better sensitivity obtained by using AFB1O-BSA as coating antigen might be caused by its extended structure, because such structure affect the binding between AFB1 and antibody. The study might offer structural information for understanding the titer and sensitivity difference caused by coating antigen.

  6. Endeavour lands at Edwards AFB, ending mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA/Edwards AFB, Calif. -- After landing at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., the STS-100 crew poses for a photograph in front of orbiter Endeavour, which successfully launched them to the International Space Station and returned them to Earth. They are (left to right) Mission Specialists John Phillips, Umberto Guidoni and Chris Hadfield; Pilot Jeffrey Ashby; Commander Kent Rominger; and Mission Specialists Yuri Lonchakov and Scott Parazynski. Guidoni is with the European Space Agency, Hadfield with the Canadian Space Agency and Lonchakov with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The orbiter and crew logged about 4.9 million statute miles in 186 orbits. Due to unfavorable weather conditions, landing at KSC was waved off. The landing marked the third consecutive landing at EAFB.

  7. McClellan AFB Management Action Plan (MAP) submittal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-23

    This Management Action Plan ('Action Plan' or 'MAP') contains a status summary of the McClellan Air Force Base (McAFB) environmental restoration and compliance programs and presents a comprehensive strategy for implementing response actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. This strategy integrates activities under both the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) and the Environmental Compliance Program (ECP). This Action Plan is a dynamic document that will be updated on a regular basis using the change-a-page looseleaf binder concept for day-to-day revisions along with a subsection at the end of each chapter to highlight any modifications or innovations since the previous major annual review/update.

  8. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  9. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH.

  10. Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Aleisa C

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE Aleisa Bloom, (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA) Robert Lyon (bob.lyon@aecom.com), Laurie Stenberg, and Holly Brown (AECOM, Germantown, Maryland, USA) ABSTRACT: Past disposal practices at Dover Air Force Base (AFB), Delaware, created a large solvent plume called Area 6 (about 1 mile long, 2,000 feet wide, and 345 acres). The main contaminants are PCE, TCE, and their degradation products. The remedy is in-situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB). AAB started in 2006 and is focusing on source areas and downgradient plume cores. Direct-push injections occurred in source areas where contamination is typically between 5 and 20 feet below ground surface. Lower concentration dissolved-phased contamination is present downgradient at 35 and 50 feet below ground surface. Here, permanent injection/extraction wells installed in transects perpendicular to the flow of groundwater are used to apply AAB. The AAB substrate is a mix of sodium lactate, emulsified vegetable oil, and nutrients. After eight years, dissolved contaminant mass within the main 80-acre treatment area has been reduced by over 98 percent. This successful application of AAB has stopped the flux of contaminants to the more distal portions of the plume. While more time is needed for effects to be seen in the distal plume, AAB injections will soon cease, and the remedy will transition to natural attenuation. INTRODUCTION Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Science Division (ORNL) and AECOM (formerly URS Corporation) have successfully implemented in situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB) to remediate chlorinated solvent contamination in a large, multi-sourced groundwater plume at Dover Air Force Base (AFB). AAB has resulted in significant reductions of dissolved phase chlorinated solvent concentrations. This plume, called Area 6, was originally over 1 mile in length and over 2,000 feet wide (Figure 1

  11. AFB as a discovery tool for Z' bosons at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomando, E.; Belyaev, A.; Fiaschi, J.; Mimasu, K.; Moretti, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Forward-Backward Asymmetry (AFB) in Z' physics is commonly only perceived as the observable which possibly allows one to interpret a Z' signal by distinguishing different models of such (heavy) spin-1 bosons. In this article, we examine the potential of AFB in setting bounds on or even discovering a Z' at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and show that it might be a powerful tool for this purpose. We analyze two different scenarios: Z' s with a narrow and wide width, respectively. We find that in both cases AFB can complement the cross section in accessing Z' signals.

  12. AFB1-induced mutagenesis of the gpt gene in AS52 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wattanawaraporn, Roongtiwa; Kim, Min Young; Adams, Jillian; Trudel, Laura J.; Woo, Leslie L.; Croy, Robert G.; Essigmann, John M.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent mutagen and an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. Transgenic mouse strains and cells in culture have been used to detect different types of mutations caused by AFB1 and investigate the molecular determinants of their location and frequency. The AFB1 mutational spectrum in the gpt gene was markedly different in AS52 cells compared to the liver in gpt delta B6C3F1 transgenic mice. The results demonstrate the importance of metabolism, chromosomal location, transcription and selection conditions on mutational spectra. PMID:22733615

  13. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  14. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  15. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  16. Dover AFB characterization/hazardous-waste management survey, Dover AFB, Delaware. Final report, 25 February-31 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Binovi, R.D.; Ng, E.K.; Slavich, F.E.

    1986-07-01

    The USAFOEHL conducted an on-site wastewater-characterization survey at Dover AFB, DE from 25 Feb to 7 Mar 86. The survey was designed to establish pretreatment requirements by determining quantities and concentrations of pollutants expected from the industrial operations or develop and evaluate alternate solutions to decrease the discharge of wastewater contaminants. Effluents from industrial and domestic wastewater were analyzed. Kent County DE has imposed stringent pretreatment standards by changing the sampling location from a point where industrial wastewater is combined with considerably more domestic wastewater to a point where only industrial wastewater combines. Effluent limitations of cadmium were exceeded during each of the seven days sampling. Sources of cadmium were found to be metal fabrication, corrosion control, and vehicle-maintenance operations. Recommendations: 1) Clean lift station sumps. 2) Change method of stripping. 3) Install pretreatment operation to remove chromium and cadium from the wastewater prior to discharge into the sanitary sewer. 4) Perform periodic EP Toxicity testing on neutralized battery acid. 5) Repipe vats in building 719 to provide piping dedicated to each vat. 6) Negotiate with a solvent-recovery representative to provide a system for a trial period.

  17. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable workhorse, the B-52 mothership, rolls out on the Edwards AFB runway after a test flight in 1996. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  18. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  19. In vitro study of AFB1 and AFM1 effects on human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell model.

    PubMed

    Luongo, D; Russo, R; Balestrieri, A; Marzocco, S; Bergamo, P; Severino, L

    2014-10-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus spp. that can occur as a natural contaminant in foods and feeds of vegetable origin. Post-ingestion, AFB(1) can be metabolized in the liver of mammals into hydroxylated aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) that is excreted with milk. Although several studies have been carried out to evaluate effects of AFB(1) on the immune system, studies regarding AFM(1) are moreover lacking. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of AFB(1) and AFM(1) on immune function using a lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line as an experimental model. Both AFB(1) and AFM(1) produced significant decreases in Jurkat cell proliferation, whereas only minor effects were noted on interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ cytokines mRNA expression in stimulated cells that had been pre-incubated with AFB(1) and AFM(1). Particularly, AFB(1), but not AFM(1), at the highest concentration (50 µM) induced a marked increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. The results of the current study suggested the existence of a concentration threshold for AFB(1) and AFM(1) needed to exert biological activity on cell viability and innate immunity.

  20. 76 FR 38580 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB,...

  1. Studies on the biological functions of CPS1 in AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Fu, Rao; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-10-10

    Carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as treated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogenesis mycotoxin. In this study, we firstly confirmed that AFB1 down-regulated the expression of CPS1 in a dose-dependent manner. At the meantime, both siRNA knock down of CPS1 and AFB1 treatment inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis. To further analysis the function of CPS1, the interacting proteins of CPS1 were searched by Co-IP, and three interacting proteins including type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT1), albumin (ALB), and ubiquitin C (UBC) were found. Both KRT1 and ALB were new interacting proteins for CPS1. Our further study showed that CPS1 was regulating interacted and colocalized with KRT1 and ALB, and the intensity correlation was changed by AFB1. KRT1, ALB and CPS1 were all reported to play an important role in differentiation and tissue specialization. These results may offer an increasing understand that CPS1 might have a function in differentiation. PMID:27425868

  2. Response of a WB-47E Airplane to Runway Roughness at Eielson AFB, Alaska, September 1964

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Garland J.; Hall, Albert W.

    1965-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to measure the response of a WB-47E airplane to the roughness of the runway at Eielson AFB, Alaska. The acceleration level in the pilot's compartment and the pitching oscillation of the airplane were found to be sufficiently high to possibly cause pilot discomfort and have an adverse effect on the precision of take-off.

  3. 78 FR 33016 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB,...

  4. 33 CFR 334.748 - Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at...

  5. 33 CFR 334.748 - Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at...

  6. 33 CFR 334.748 - Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the area bounded by a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at...

  7. Solvent-emissions reduction study at Newark AFB, Ohio. Final report, Aug 88-Apr 89

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J.; Wolbach, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    The objective of this effort was to collect baseline Freon emissions data, and subsequently recommend potential emission control alternatives to minimize Freon emissions that result from routine maintenance and repair operations conducted at Newark AFB, Ohio. Newark AFB, Ohio, uses a number of solvents to clean and maintain electronic guidance devices. The solvent most often used in this application is 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, a solvent commonly known by the DuPont Company trademark Freon 113TM (hereafter referred to as Freon). Newark AFB purchases large quantities of Freon (nearly 600,000 pounds annually), and in previous years, lost nearly all of it (555,000 pounds) as unrecovered Freon vapor. Freon is one of a general class of chemicals known as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Scientific evidence strongly suggests that CFC emissions are responsible for the depletion of the protective ozone layer surrounding the earth's atmosphere. For this reason, the U.S. air Force must reduce and eventually eliminate CFC emissions from Air Force facilities. Several steps have been taken to reduce the quantity of Freon emitted from the more than 100 emission point sources at Newark AFB. For example, the recovery of solvent vapors emitted from more than half of the point sources at the facility is achieved with limited success by the use of two carbon adsorption (CA) systems.

  8. Astronaut Jack R. Lousma in Water Survival Training near Homestead AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Three views documenting Astronaut Jack R. Lousma in Water Survival Training at the Air Force School at Turkey Point, near Homestead AFB. Views include long range view of Lousma parasailing, with tether attached to unseen craft (34035); view of Lousma in water with floatation devices attached to his arms (34036); close-up view of Lousma during parasailing training (34037).

  9. Sustainability of TCE Removal in the Mulch Biowalls at Altus AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A permeable mulch biowall was installed in June 2002 at Landfill 3 (LF-03), Operable Unit 1 (OU-1), Altus AFB, Oklahoma. The demonstration was conducted by Parsons for the AFCEE Technology Transfer Outreach Office. The biowall is approximately 455 feet long, by 24 feet deep, by...

  10. 77 FR 4457 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Altus AFB, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On October 28, 2011, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class D airspace for Altus AFB, OK (76 FR 66866) Docket No....

  11. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with mountain range appearing in the background.

  12. 76 FR 66866 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Altus AFB, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Altus AFB,...

  13. ASCAN Precourt floats on life raft during Elgin AFB water survival training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Charles J. Precourt, wearing helmet and flight suit, floats in pool using an underarm flotation device and a single person life raft at Elgin Air Force Base (AFB) in Pensacola, Florida, during water survival exercises. The training familiarized the candidates with survival techniques necessary in the event of a water landing. ASCANs participated in the exercises from 08-14-90 through 08-17-90.

  14. Group 13, 1990 ASCAN Cockrell in ejection seat trainer at Vance AFB, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Group 13, 1990 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Kenneth D. Cockrell, wearing flight suit and helmet, anticipates the activation of the ejection seat on which he is sitting. He is participating in one of many sessions conducted during a survival training course at Vance Air Force Base (AFB) in Enid, Oklahoma. This portion of the survival training course is designed to familiarize the trainee with the 'feel' of emergency ejection from a jet aircraft. Cockrell, along with 22 other ASCANs, began a year's training and evaluation in July. This session was conducted from 07-29-90 through 07-31-90.

  15. ASCAN Ochoa floats in pool during Elgin AFB water survival training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Ellen Ochoa, wearing helmet and flight suit, climbs into a single person life raft while floating in a pool at Elgin Air Force Base (AFB) in Pensacola, Florida, during water survival exercises. Ochoa's underarm flotation device holds her above the water as she pulls herself into the life raft. The training familiarized the candidates with survival techniques necessary in the event of a water landing. ASCANs participated in the exercises from 08-14-90 through 08-17-90.

  16. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Rear view captures OV-103 as it glides past photographer to wheel stop showing the tail section (speedbrake/rudder) and three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs). Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with aircraft hangar appearing in the background.

  17. Error-prone Replication Bypass of the Primary Aflatoxin B1 DNA Adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Li, Liang; Makarova, Alena V.; Burgers, Peter M.; Stone, Michael P.; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The highest rates of early onset HCCs occur in geographical regions with high aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure, concomitant with hepatitis B infection. Although the carcinogenic basis of AFB1 has been ascribed to its mutagenic effects, the mutagenic property of the primary AFB1-DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua, in mammalian cells has not been studied extensively. Taking advantage of the ability to create vectors containing a site-specific DNA adduct, the mutagenic potential was determined in primate cells. This adduct was highly mutagenic following replication in COS-7 cells, with a mutation frequency of 45%. The spectrum of mutations was predominantly G to T base substitutions, a result that is consistent with previous mutation data derived from aflatoxin-associated HCCs. To assess which DNA polymerases (pol) might contribute to the mutational outcome, in vitro replication studies were performed. Unexpectedly, replicative pol δ and the error-prone translesion synthesis pol ζ were able to accurately bypass AFB1-N7-Gua. In contrast, replication bypass using pol κ was shown to occur with low fidelity and could account for the commonly detected G to T transversions. PMID:24838242

  18. Aptamer induced assembly of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots on gold nanoparticles for sensitive detection of AFB1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Yanfen; Wu, Yuanya; Weng, Bo; Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Chang Ming; Yu, Cong

    2016-04-15

    Novel fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N,C-dots) were synthesized and assembled on aptamer modified gold nanoparticles (Aptamer/AuNPs) for the super sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Positively charged N,C-dots were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of pancreatin. The prepared N,C-dots were assembled on aptamer/AuNPs by electrostatic interactions. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots was efficiently quenched. When AFB1 was added to the assay solution, specific interactions between AFB1 and the aptamer caused release of the N,C-dots. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots recovered and the intensity increase could be used to calculate the amount of AFB1 added. The assay exhibits super-high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5 pg/mL (16 pM) and a wide range of linear response of 5 pg/mL to 2.00 ng/mL. A novel aptasensor is thus successfully constructed, it provides an efficient way for sensitive AFB1 sensing as well as a new technique for aptamer based novel sensor construction. PMID:26584079

  19. Determination of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Busman, Mark; Liu, Jihong; Zhong, Hongjian; Bobell, John R; Maragos, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionisation coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of a common form of aflatoxin, AFB1, extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument parameter settings were optimised to obtain sensitive and accurate determination of aflatoxin AFB1. 84:16 acetonitrile water extracts of corn were analysed by DART-MS. The lowest calibration level (LCL) for aflatoxin AFB1 was 4 μg kg⁻¹. Quantitative analysis was performed with the use of matrix-matched standards employing the ¹³C-labelled internal standard for AFB1. DART-MS of spiked corn extracts gave linear response in the range 4-1000 μg kg⁻¹. Good recoveries (94-110%) and repeatabilities (RSD = 0.7-6.9%) were obtained at spiking levels of 20 and 100 μg kg⁻¹ with the use of an isotope dilution technique. Trueness of data obtained for AFB1 in maize by DART-MS was demonstrated by analysis of corn certified reference materials. PMID:24588621

  20. SCFTIR1/AFB-based auxin perception: mechanism and role in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Salehin, Mohammad; Bagchi, Rammyani; Estelle, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Auxin regulates a vast array of growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Auxin responses are highly context dependent and can involve changes in cell division, cell expansion, and cell fate. The complexity of the auxin response is illustrated by the recent finding that the auxin-responsive gene set differs significantly between different cell types in the root. Auxin regulation of transcription involves a core pathway consisting of the TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, and the ARF transcription factors. Auxin is perceived by a transient coreceptor complex consisting of a TIR1/AFB protein and an Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the coreceptor results in degradation of the Aux/IAAs and derepression of ARF-based transcription. Although the basic outlines of this pathway are now well established, it remains unclear how specificity of the pathway is conferred. However, recent results, focusing on the ways that these three families of proteins interact, are starting to provide important clues. PMID:25604443

  1. SCFTIR1/AFB-based auxin perception: mechanism and role in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Salehin, Mohammad; Bagchi, Rammyani; Estelle, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Auxin regulates a vast array of growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Auxin responses are highly context dependent and can involve changes in cell division, cell expansion, and cell fate. The complexity of the auxin response is illustrated by the recent finding that the auxin-responsive gene set differs significantly between different cell types in the root. Auxin regulation of transcription involves a core pathway consisting of the TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, and the ARF transcription factors. Auxin is perceived by a transient coreceptor complex consisting of a TIR1/AFB protein and an Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the coreceptor results in degradation of the Aux/IAAs and derepression of ARF-based transcription. Although the basic outlines of this pathway are now well established, it remains unclear how specificity of the pathway is conferred. However, recent results, focusing on the ways that these three families of proteins interact, are starting to provide important clues.

  2. SCFTIR1/AFB-Based Auxin Perception: Mechanism and Role in Plant Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Salehin, Mohammad; Bagchi, Rammyani; Estelle, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Auxin regulates a vast array of growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Auxin responses are highly context dependent and can involve changes in cell division, cell expansion, and cell fate. The complexity of the auxin response is illustrated by the recent finding that the auxin-responsive gene set differs significantly between different cell types in the root. Auxin regulation of transcription involves a core pathway consisting of the TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, and the ARF transcription factors. Auxin is perceived by a transient coreceptor complex consisting of a TIR1/AFB protein and an Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the coreceptor results in degradation of the Aux/IAAs and derepression of ARF-based transcription. Although the basic outlines of this pathway are now well established, it remains unclear how specificity of the pathway is conferred. However, recent results, focusing on the ways that these three families of proteins interact, are starting to provide important clues. PMID:25604443

  3. Normal probabilities for Vandenberg AFB wind components - monthly reference periods for all flight azimuths, 0- to 70-km altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falls, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB), California, wind component statistics are presented to be used for aerospace engineering applications that require component wind probabilities for various flight azimuths and selected altitudes. The normal (Gaussian) distribution is presented as a statistical model to represent component winds at Vandenberg AFB. Head tail, and crosswind components are tabulated for all flight azimuths for altitudes from 0 to 70 km by monthly reference periods. Wind components are given for 11 selected percentiles ranging from 0.135 percent to 99.865 percent for each month. The results of statistical goodness-of-fit tests are presented to verify the use of the Gaussian distribution as an adequate model to represent component winds at Vandenberg AFB.

  4. Noise assessment of the rocket sled test track operation at Jolloman AFB, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, W.J.

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the results of noise data measurements of the Holloman AFB rocket-sled test-track operations. Impulse and community noise measurements were made to determine the impact of the rocket-sled noise on the surrounding community. A worst case sled run was measured and used to determine that the rocket sled has very little impact on the community for a worst-case rocket-sled run and little or no impact for the majority of the runs. Recommendations were made to limit the number of people exposed to the rocket sled noise and require test-track personnel to wear hearing protection. Sonic-boom measurement equipment should be purchased to document all sonic booms created by the rocket sled.

  5. Characterization of the geothermal resource at Lackland AFB, San Antonio, Texas. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.W.; Malone, C.R.; Allman, D.W.; Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.

    1983-06-01

    The geothermal resource under Lackland Air Force Base (AFB), San Antonio, Texas was studied. It is the conclusion of the investigators that a geothermal well drilled at the site recommended by this study has a high probability of delivering geothermal fluids in sufficient quantity and at adequate temperatures to support a projected space and domestic hot water heating system. An exploratory production well location is recommended in the southwest sector of the base, based upon geologic conditions and the availability of sufficient open space to support the drilling operation. It is projected that a production well drilled at the recommended location would produce geothermal fluid of 130 to 145/sup 0/F at a rate of approximately 1000 gpm with reasonable fluid drawdowns. The Environmental Assessment for the drilling portion of the project has been completed, and no irreversible or irretrievable impacts are anticipated as a result of this drilling program. The permitting process is proceeding smoothly.

  6. The lithostratigraphy of a marine kame delta-outwash fan complex at Pease AFB, Newington, NH

    SciTech Connect

    Dineen, R.J.; Manning, S.; McGeehan, K. )

    1993-03-01

    The overburden stratigraphy at Pease AFB is based on over 1,200 wells, borings, piezometers, and test pits, and includes five lithologic units: Fill, Upper Sand (US), Marine Clay and Silt (MCS), Lower Sand (LS), and Till (GT). The US is a yellow brown, poorly sorted sand to silty sand and is massive to laminated, and locally has hummocky bedding. The MCS (the Presumpscot Formation) is a dark gray, massive to laminated sandy to silty clay, and is locally interbedded with silty sand. The MCS contains a trace of organic matter, primarily as fine particles of peat. The LS is a gray to brown, poorly sorted, silty sand to gravelly sand that is massive to planar bedded and locally grades down into GT and/or upward into MCS. The GT consists of a massive to crudely bedded dark gray to dark brown, very poorly sorted, sandy silt to gravelly, silty sand. The US, MCS, LS and upper part of the GT were deposited in a marine environment at or near the ice margin. Pease AFB is built on two large fans of gravelly sand (LS plus US) that are bordered to the east by NW-SE till ridges (drumlins ). The northern-most fan is flat-topped with a surface elevation of 30 m ASL. The southern fan is more hummocky, with a surface elevation of 18.5 m ASL. Both fans coarsen towards the NW, and are interbedded with MCS towards the SE. The apices of the fans overlie deeply-scoured troughs in the rock surface. The fans are interpreted to be kame deltas or submarine outwash fans that are deposited along the retreating Wisconsinan ice margin by concentrated meltwater flow. Later, the US may have been deposited by marine shoreface erosion of the emergent fans as the ice front retreated and sea level fell.

  7. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  11. Appendix C -- Soil gas analysis of vadose zone monitoring system installation report for McClellan AFB

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-31

    This appendix compiles the data from gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy measurements of gas samples from McClellan AFB soils collected and analyzed in December, 1995. Compounds detected include: vinyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroethanes, chloroethenes, benzene, chlorobenzenes, propylene, trimethylbenzenes, acetone, toluene, xylenes.

  12. Determination of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of a common form of aflatoxin, AFB1, extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending...

  14. Immuno-physiological alterations from AFB1 in rats counteracted by treatments with Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 and montmorillonite clay mixture.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Jebali, Rania; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Oueslati, Ridha; Abbès, Samir

    2016-09-01

    High contamination by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been detected in Beja province (Tunisia) in many dairy products and animal feed, which has resulted in many tons of cereals and cereals being removed from the market, causing economic loss. While removal represents a means of reducing risk, exposures still occur. Studies have increasingly focused on means of AFB1 biodegradation/elimination using lactic acid bacteria and clay mineral. In the study here, Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 (LP) and montmorilonite clay (MT) were used to reduce the physio-/immunotoxicologic disorders that could develop in rats that underwent AFB1 exposures for a total of 7 consecutive days. The results indicated that rats treated with AFB1 (80 μg/kg BW) alone had significant decreases in lymphocytes in their blood (including B-lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte subtypes, and NK cells), immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and pro-inflammatory cytokines; these rats also had altered oxidative stress status. In contrast, in rats treated with LP + MT (2 × 10(9) cfu/ml [∼ 2 mg/kg] + 0.5 mg MT/kg BW) for a total of 7 days before, concurrent with or after AFB1 treatment, there was a significant blockade/mitigation of each AFB1-impacted parameter. Moreover, treatment with the mixture at any point in relation to AFB1 treatment expectedly caused enhanced TNFα and IL-1β expression relative to control values; all other parameters were comparable to values noted in control rats. Alone, the mixture had no impact on host parameters. From the results here it may be concluded the the LP + MT mixture was effective in protecting these hosts against AFB1-induced immunologic/physiologic disorders and that LP + MT could prevent and/or mitigate AFB1 toxicities in vivo.

  15. Immuno-physiological alterations from AFB1 in rats counteracted by treatments with Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 and montmorillonite clay mixture.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Jebali, Rania; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Oueslati, Ridha; Abbès, Samir

    2016-09-01

    High contamination by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been detected in Beja province (Tunisia) in many dairy products and animal feed, which has resulted in many tons of cereals and cereals being removed from the market, causing economic loss. While removal represents a means of reducing risk, exposures still occur. Studies have increasingly focused on means of AFB1 biodegradation/elimination using lactic acid bacteria and clay mineral. In the study here, Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 (LP) and montmorilonite clay (MT) were used to reduce the physio-/immunotoxicologic disorders that could develop in rats that underwent AFB1 exposures for a total of 7 consecutive days. The results indicated that rats treated with AFB1 (80 μg/kg BW) alone had significant decreases in lymphocytes in their blood (including B-lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte subtypes, and NK cells), immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and pro-inflammatory cytokines; these rats also had altered oxidative stress status. In contrast, in rats treated with LP + MT (2 × 10(9) cfu/ml [∼ 2 mg/kg] + 0.5 mg MT/kg BW) for a total of 7 days before, concurrent with or after AFB1 treatment, there was a significant blockade/mitigation of each AFB1-impacted parameter. Moreover, treatment with the mixture at any point in relation to AFB1 treatment expectedly caused enhanced TNFα and IL-1β expression relative to control values; all other parameters were comparable to values noted in control rats. Alone, the mixture had no impact on host parameters. From the results here it may be concluded the the LP + MT mixture was effective in protecting these hosts against AFB1-induced immunologic/physiologic disorders and that LP + MT could prevent and/or mitigate AFB1 toxicities in vivo. PMID:27294391

  16. Vadose zone monitoring system installation report for McClellan AFB

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.; Faybishenko, B.; James, A.; Freifeld, B.; Salve, R.

    1996-10-31

    Two vadose zone monitoring systems (VZMS) have been installed at Site S-7, in Investigation Cluster 34 (IC 34), in Operable Unit A (OU A) of McClellan AFB. The two boreholes, VZMS-A and VZMS-B were instrumented at depths ranging from approximately 6 ft to 113 ft. Instruments were installed in clusters using a custom-made stainless steel cage with a spring-loaded mechanism allowing instruments to be in contact with the well bore wall once in place. Each cluster contains a tensiometer, suction lysimeter, soil gas probe and thermistor for measuring hydraulic potential, liquid- and gas-phase pressure, temperature of the formation and for collecting samples for chemical analyses in both the liquid and gas phases. Neutron probe logging is performed in two separate, smaller borings, VZMS-NP-1 and VZMS-NP-2, to obtain soil moisture content data. Preliminary details of soil gas analyses, laboratory field testing of soil samples, particle size analyses and neutron probe data are presented.

  17. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 2, Appendix A: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  18. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 1: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  19. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 4, Appendixes E and F: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  20. Wastewater characterization survey, Victor Valley Wastewater Reclamation Authority and hazardous-waste survey at George AFB, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Binovi, R.D.; Ng, E.K.; Tetla, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is a report of a survey of the Victor Wastewater Reclamation Authority Sewerage system, the sewage treatment plant, and effluent from the various operations at George AFB, California. The scope of work included the characterization of the wastewater from George AFB, as well as characterization of effluents from 29 oil/water separators servicing industrial operations on base, flow measurements at three locations on base, a microbiological evaluation of aeration basin foam, bench-scale activated-sludge studies, and a review of results from previous surveys. Recommendations: (1) AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam) should never be discharged to the sewer. (2) Programming for pretreatment should proceed at selected operations. (3) More waste and wastestream analysis be performed. (4) Upgrade waste accumulation points. (5) Implement an aggressive inspection program for oil/water separators. (6) Cut down on nonessential washing.

  1. Ultra-rapid real-time PCR for the detection of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB).

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Do-Bu; Lee, Dong-Woo; Kim, Eul-Hwan; Yoon, Byoung-Su

    2008-09-01

    A novel micro-PCR-based detection method, termed ultra-rapid real-time PCR, was applied to the development of a rapid detection for Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB). This method was designed to detect the 16S rRNA gene of P. larvae with a micro-scale chip-based real-time PCR system, GenSpector TMC-1000, which has uncommonly fast heating and cooling rates (10 degrees C per second) and small reaction volume (6microl). In the application of ultra-rapid real-time PCR detection to an AFB-infected larva, the minimum detection time was 7 min and 54s total reaction time (30 cycles), including the melting temperature analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this novel detection method is one of the most rapid real-time PCR-based detection tools. PMID:18571197

  2. Detection of serum AFB1-lysine adduct in Malaysia and its association with liver and kidney functions.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, S; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, A M; Nurul 'Aqilah, A R; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Kang, Min-Su; Zuraini, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (p<0.01). It was noteworthy that subjects with adduct levels greater than average (>6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (p<0.01), GGT (p<0.05) and creatinine (p<0.01). Nevertheless, only the level of total bilirubin, (r=0.347, p-value=0.003) and creatinine (r=0.318, p-value=0.007) showed significant and positive correlation with the level of AFB1-lysine adduct. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to aflatoxin in Malaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in

  3. Evaluation of bromide mass discharge in a sandy aquifer at Vandenberg AFB, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. M.; Rasa, E.; Einarson, M.; Kaiser, P.; Chakraborty, I.; Scow, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    Side-by-side experiments were conducted by UC Davis research team at a former fuel station at Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB) to evaluate the rate of transformation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) impacted by ethanol and to investigate evidence of TBA degradation under sulfate reducing conditions. On one side we injected groundwater amended with ethanol and MTBE. In the other lane we injected groundwater amended with TBA. On both sides, injected ground water was spiked with bromide tracer to provide estimates of groundwater flow direction variations, flow velocity, dispersion, and mobile mass loss resulting from diffusive sequestration into aquitards. 162 monitoring wells were aligned into seven transects located downgradient of the injection wells. The mass discharge approach was used to evaluate the natural attenuation of the injected constituents. In this talk we will focus on calculations of mass discharge of the bromide tracer at each of the seven monitoring well transects. The amount of bromide mass discharged through each transect was calculated for any sampling time using field measurements of break through curves. Cumulative mass discharges were estimated and, by iteration based on mass balance, the flow properties of the aquifer were estimated. The calibration process resulted in subtle but quantitatively important changes in our assumptions regarding key physical properties of the aquifer (thickness, porosity) which could be only approximately estimated by standard methods (coring, CPT, etc.). On the basis of this calibration, a more robust approach was devised for evaluating the source and fate of TBA in the aquifer.

  4. Remediation of NAPL source zones: lessons learned from field studies at Hill and Dover AFB.

    PubMed

    McCray, John E; Tick, Geoffrey R; Jawitz, James W; Gierke, John S; Brusseau, Mark L; Falta, Ronald W; Knox, Robert C; Sabatini, David A; Annable, Michael D; Harwell, Jeffrey H; Wood, A Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Innovative remediation studies were conducted between 1994 and 2004 at sites contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) at Hill and Dover AFB, and included technologies that mobilize, solubilize, and volatilize NAPL: air sparging (AS), surfactant flushing, cosolvent flooding, and flushing with a complexing-sugar solution. The experiments proved that aggressive remedial efforts tailored to the contaminant can remove more than 90% of the NAPL-phase contaminant mass. Site-characterization methods were tested as part of these field efforts, including partitioning tracer tests, biotracer tests, and mass-flux measurements. A significant reduction in the groundwater contaminant mass flux was achieved despite incomplete removal of the source. The effectiveness of soil, groundwater, and tracer based characterization methods may be site and technology specific. Employing multiple methods can improve characterization. The studies elucidated the importance of small-scale heterogeneities on remediation effectiveness, and fomented research on enhanced-delivery methods. Most contaminant removal occurs in hydraulically accessible zones, and complete removal is limited by contaminant mass stored in inaccessible zones. These studies illustrated the importance of understanding the fluid dynamics and interfacial behavior of injected fluids on remediation design and implementation. The importance of understanding the dynamics of NAPL-mixture dissolution and removal was highlighted. The results from these studies helped researchers better understand what processes and scales are most important to include in mathematical models used for design and data analysis. Finally, the work at these sites emphasized the importance and feasibility of recycling and reusing chemical agents, and enabled the implementation and success of follow-on full-scale efforts.

  5. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Xue, Kathy S.; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A.; Elmore, Sarah E.; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the GI tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer-344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25 or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1/kg b.w. and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1-albumin, urinary AF (AFM1), and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 hr. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging between 45 to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67 and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1-albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  6. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Xue, Kathy S; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A; Elmore, Sarah E; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-07-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer 344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25% or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1 per kg body weight and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1 -albumin, urinary AF (AFM1) and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 h. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging from 45% to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67% and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1 -albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  7. 16. Photographic copy of photograph, 1973 (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of photograph, 1973 (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view showing Major General Jerry Johnson and crew at work in battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Sections and details, both buildings. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 3. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Blast deflector fence plan. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 13. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Looking glass aircraft on runway. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1964 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1964 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior isometric with pump equipment, building no. 528. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 24. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations and sectinos for fabric closure (gasket) for hangar doors. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of two crew members operating the data display system in the battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan, roof plan, and elevations, both buildings. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 23. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1985 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1985 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevation drawings of nose dock nos. 491, 492, and 493. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 15. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in STRATCOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in STRATCOM Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of crew members at work in battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 4. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Blast deflector fence plan, elevations, and details. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 26. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor and ceiling plan, interior elevations, detail sections, dock nos. 491, 492, and 493. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan of entire building. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1976 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations of entire building exterior. Includes elevation, plan and details of the addition's interior stairs. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations and roof plan. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1970 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan and section. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1968 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1968 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Floor plan and roof framing plan for addition. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of construction drawing 1958 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Plan, elevations, sections, and details - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Water Supply Building, Southwest of West corner of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. Defining Binding Efficiency and Specificity of Auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA Co-receptor Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Structure–activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure–activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding. PMID:24313839

  6. Monitoring and data analysis for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS), McClellan AFB. Quarterly status report

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Salve, R.; Freifeld, B.

    1997-05-28

    This report contains information on field and laboratory work performed between January and May 15th 1997 at site S-7 in IC 34, at McClellan AFB. At this location, a Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is currently being used to collect subsurface data including hydraulic potential, soil gas pressure, moisture content, water chemistry, gas chemistry, and temperature. Due to delays in the completion of the above-ground installations, data collection did not commence until mid-February. As a result, the data presented in this report is preliminary.

  7. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, Zenaida M; Cervancia, Cleofas R; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Tolentino, Mitos M; Abrera, Gina B; Cobar, Ma Lucia C; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Sabino, Noel G; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C; Feliciano, Chitho P

    2011-10-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a ⁶⁰Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D₁₀) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10⁵- 9 × 10³ spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D(min)) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to γ-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials.

  8. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1. PMID:27529243

  9. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1. PMID:27529243

  10. Compliance testing of Eielson AFB (Air Force Base) central heating and power plant, coal-fired Boiler Number 4, Eielson AFB, Arkansas. Final report, 7-15 June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-07-01

    At the request of HQ 343 CSG/DEEV and HQ AAC/SGPB, source compliance testing (particulate and visible emissions) of Boiler No 4 in the Eielson AFB Central Heating and Power Plant was conducted on 7-15 June 1989. Testing was performed to determine compliance with regards to the renewal of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality Control Permit to Operate 8331-AA001. Boiler No. 4 was tested on 12 and 14 Jun 89. On 12 June results indicated that visible-emissions standards were met; however, particulate-emissions standards were not met. The boiler was retested on 14 June and all emissions standards were met. All emission requirements for permit renewal have now been met.

  11. 17. Photographic copy of photograph, 1971 (original photograph printed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph, 1971 (original photograph printed in "55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing: A Decade at Offutt AFB, 16 Aug. 1966 to 16 Aug., 1976," by Col. Guy H. Winstead, Jr. and SSGT Jerome E. Schroeder, 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of Lt. General Glen W. Martin "turning the key" during a practice launch of minuteman missiles. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. Loring AFB, Caribou, Maine. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts a-f. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-27

    This report is a six-part statistical summary of surface weather observations for Loring AFB, Caribou, ME. It contains the following parts: (A) Weather Conditions; Atmospheric Phenomena; (B) Precipitation, Snowfall and Snow Depth (daily amounts and extreme values); (C) Surface winds; (D) Ceiling versus Visibility; Sky Cover; (E) Psychrometric Summaries (daily maximum and minimum temperatures, extreme maximum and minimum temperatures, psychrometric summary of wet-bulb temperature depression versus dry-bulb temperature, means and standard deviations of dry-bulb, wet-bulb and dew point temperatures and relative humidity); and (F) Pressure Summary (means, standard deviations, and observation counts of station pressure and sea-level pressure). Data in this report are presented in tabular form, in most cases in percentage frequency of occurrence or cumulative percentage frequency of occurrence tables. (Author)

  13. Effect of Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations on the Performance of AFB-MFC Enriched with High-Strength Synthetic Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Sheng; Yang, Ping; Li, Chong-Ming; Guo, Yong; Lai, Bo; Wang, Ye; Feng, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate on the performance of microbial fuel cell, a system combining an anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was employed for high-strength nitrogen-containing synthetic wastewater treatment. Before this study, the AFB-MFC had been used to treat high-strength organic wastewater for about one year in a continuous flow mode. The results showed that when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased from 1700 mg/L to 4045 mg/L and 545 mg/L to 1427 mg/L, respectively, the nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen removal efficiencies were both above 99%; the COD removal efficiency went up from 60.00% to 88.95%; the voltage was about 375 ± 15 mV while the power density was at 70 ± 5 mW/m(2). However, when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were above 4045 mg/L and 1427 mg/L, respectively, the removal of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, COD, voltage, and power density were decreased to be 86%, 88%, 77%, 180 mV, and 17 mW/m(2) when nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased to 4265 mg/L and 1661 mg/L. In addition, the composition of biogas generated in the anode chamber was analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Nitrogen gas, methane, and carbon dioxide were obtained. The results indicated that denitrification happened in anode chamber. PMID:26495144

  14. Effect of Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations on the Performance of AFB-MFC Enriched with High-Strength Synthetic Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian-sheng; Yang, Ping; Li, Chong-ming; Guo, Yong; Lai, Bo; Wang, Ye; Feng, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate on the performance of microbial fuel cell, a system combining an anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was employed for high-strength nitrogen-containing synthetic wastewater treatment. Before this study, the AFB-MFC had been used to treat high-strength organic wastewater for about one year in a continuous flow mode. The results showed that when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased from 1700 mg/L to 4045 mg/L and 545 mg/L to 1427 mg/L, respectively, the nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen removal efficiencies were both above 99%; the COD removal efficiency went up from 60.00% to 88.95%; the voltage was about 375 ± 15 mV while the power density was at 70 ± 5 mW/m2. However, when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were above 4045 mg/L and 1427 mg/L, respectively, the removal of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, COD, voltage, and power density were decreased to be 86%, 88%, 77%, 180 mV, and 17 mW/m2 when nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased to 4265 mg/L and 1661 mg/L. In addition, the composition of biogas generated in the anode chamber was analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Nitrogen gas, methane, and carbon dioxide were obtained. The results indicated that denitrification happened in anode chamber. PMID:26495144

  15. Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feeds.

    PubMed

    Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the immunological status of progeny of hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feed. For this purpose, White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens (40-weeks-of-age) were divided into six groups (A-F). Hens in Group A were fed a commercial layer ration while those in Groups B and C were kept on a diet amended with 3 and 5 mg OTA/Kg, respectively. Group D was fed a ration containing 5 mg AFB(1)/Kg, while hens in Groups E and F were kept on feed amended with OTA and AFB(1) each. All feedings were for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. Fertile eggs were set for hatching on a weekly basis to obtain progeny of each week separately. At 14 days-of-age, subsets of progeny were euthanized and the frequency of immunoglobulin(s)-bearing cells in their spleen and bursa of Fabricius assessed; at 16 days-of-age, other chicks in each set were utilized to determine their lymphoblastogenic responses against phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P). At 30 days-of-age, the final sub-set of chicks/group was euthanized and their peritoneal macrophages harvested for measurements of phagocytic potential and nitrite production. Relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and of the spleen were significantly lower in the progeny of hens fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets for 14 and 21 days. The frequencies of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-bearing cells were also significantly lower in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen of progeny chicks obtained from hens fed the OTA + AFB(1) mixed diet. Feeding contaminated diets to breeder hens also resulted in significantly lower responses to PHA-P. In addition, the percentages of peritoneal macrophages displaying phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), the number of SRBC/macrophage, and nitrite production were each significantly lower in cells from progeny chicks from OTA- and AFB(1)-fed hens. The findings of the present study indicated there were severe immunosuppressive effects in progeny chicks as a result of exposure of their

  16. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli(AFB) External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Muluken; Jerene, Degu; Alem, Genetu; Seid, Jemal; Belachew, Feleke; Kassie, Yewulsew; Habte, Dereje; Negash, Solomon; Ayana, Gonfa; Girma, Belaineh; Haile, Yared K.; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Suarez, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, external quality assurance (EQA) services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking. Materials and Methods The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP). A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN). The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the readings of microscopic centers. Results We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively. Conclusion Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals’ capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued

  17. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 3, Appendixes B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  18. Unexploded ordnance detection experiments at extensive fully ground-truthed test sites at Yuma Proving Ground and Eglin AFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Clyde C.; Marinelli, Vincent R.; Ressler, Marc A.; Ton, Tuan T.

    1999-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL), under the sponsorship of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, is conducting experiments to establish and enhance the ability of low-frequency, ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to detect and discriminate unexploded ordnance (UXO). Preliminary investigations using ARL's BoomSAR - a UWB radar mounted atop a mobile boom lift platform - concluded that the radar image texture and frequency-dependent scattering from mines and mine-like targets could be exploited in the development of automatic target detection algorithms. To support further investigations, ARL established extensive UXO test sites at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, and Eglin AFB, Florida. The soils at both test sties have been characterized in terms of physical, chemical and electromagnetic properties. Precise location, depth, and orientation information was recorded for each of the approximately 500 inert ordnance test targets at each site. This information helps researchers to better understand the phenomenology associated with UXO target scattering and to more accurately evaluate and modify data processing programs. The ultimate goal is to develop innovative automatic target detection algorithms that provide a high probability of detection with an acceptable false-alarm rate under varying environmental conditions and operational scenarios. This paper present details on the design and characterization of the two test sites and some initial results from BoomSAR data collections.

  19. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  20. Hazardous-waste technical-assistance survey, McChord AFB, Washington. Final report, 22-26 Oct 90

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, L.B.

    1991-03-01

    A hazardous waste survey was conducted at McChord AFB, Washington, from 22-26 Oct 90 which addressed hazardous waste management and waste disposal practices, explored opportunities for waste minimization, and determined waste-streams. Recommendations include: (1) Shops using aircraft soap should switch to a milder soap; (2) Consider using a siliceous-based absorbant; (3) Use a contractor who accepts wet batteries or neutralize the acid; (4) Accumulation point managers should maintain a log; (5) Conduct frequent refresher training; (6) Upgrade accumulation sites; (7) Analyze used paint filters; (8) Dispose of anti-freeze in the sanitary sewer; (9) Sample NDI chemicals to determine if hazardous; (10) Update the Waste Analysis Plan; (11) Find a method to recover solvent from the washrack; (12) Entomology needs to comply with FIFRA; (13) Triple-rinse pesticide containers; (14) List all accumulation sites and managers in the hazardous waste management plan; (15) Use an off-the-shelf filtration unit in the waterfall paint booths; (16) Label all hazardous waste drums; (17) Dispose of waste latex paint as municiple waste; (18) Disposal of old hazardous waste drums; and (19) Analyze shop rags from CATM to determine toxicity.

  1. Control efficiency determination of sudden expansion incinerator bldg 348, Kelly AFB, Texas. Final report, 19 July 1995-11 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Compliance emissions testing and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) destruction efficiency determination were conducted on the Sudden Expansion (SUE) Incinerator located at the Kelly AFB Fuel Accessory Test Facility, Bldg 348. The purpose of the Kelly AFB SUE Incinerator is to destroy calibration fluid vapors emitted from fuel accessory test stands located in Bldg 348. The incinerator can also be used to destroy liquid waste calibration fluid by burning it as a supplemental fuel. Emissions testing was conducted during combustion of both vapors and liquid calibration fluid. For purposes of determining the incinerator VOC destruction efficiency, monitoring for Total VOC concentration in the inlet air stream was conducted on 19-20 July 1995. Emissions testing of the incinerator exhaust was conducted on 10-11 January 1996 and included monitoring for Total VOC, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and visible emissions.

  2. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  3. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mosissa, Lemi; Kebede, Abebaw; Mindaye, Tedla; Getahun, Muluwork; Tulu, Sisay; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a public health problem in sub Saharan African countries. In resource-limited settings, TB diagnosis relies on sputum smear microscopy, with low and variable sensitivities, especially in paucibacillary pediatric and HIV-associated TB patients. Tuberculosis microscopy centers have several weaknesses like overworking, insufficiently trained personnel, inconsistent reagent supplies, and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes. The performance of TB microscopy centers in the private health facilities in Addis Ababa is not known so far. The main objective of the study was to assess laboratory performance of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 selected private health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia comprising 7 hospitals, 2 NGO health centers, 23 higher clinics and 1 diagnostic laboratory that provide AFB smear microscopy services. The study was conducted from January to April 2014. A total of 283 stained sputum smears were randomly collected from participant laboratories for blinded rechecking, 320 panel slides were sent to 32 microscopy centers to evaluate their performance on AFB reading, staining and reporting. Checklists were used to assess quality issues of laboratories. Data were captured, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0; χ(2) tests, kappa statistics were used for comparison purpose. P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Among the 32 participant laboratories, 2-scored 100%, 15 scored 80-95% & the remaining 15 scored 50-75% for overall proficiency test performance. There were 10 (3.15%) major errors and 121 (37.8%) minor errors. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of panel reading by microscopy centers were 89%, 96%, 96%, and 90% respectively. Out

  4. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mosissa, Lemi; Kebede, Abebaw; Mindaye, Tedla; Getahun, Muluwork; Tulu, Sisay; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a public health problem in sub Saharan African countries. In resource-limited settings, TB diagnosis relies on sputum smear microscopy, with low and variable sensitivities, especially in paucibacillary pediatric and HIV-associated TB patients. Tuberculosis microscopy centers have several weaknesses like overworking, insufficiently trained personnel, inconsistent reagent supplies, and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes. The performance of TB microscopy centers in the private health facilities in Addis Ababa is not known so far. The main objective of the study was to assess laboratory performance of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 selected private health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia comprising 7 hospitals, 2 NGO health centers, 23 higher clinics and 1 diagnostic laboratory that provide AFB smear microscopy services. The study was conducted from January to April 2014. A total of 283 stained sputum smears were randomly collected from participant laboratories for blinded rechecking, 320 panel slides were sent to 32 microscopy centers to evaluate their performance on AFB reading, staining and reporting. Checklists were used to assess quality issues of laboratories. Data were captured, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0; χ(2) tests, kappa statistics were used for comparison purpose. P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Among the 32 participant laboratories, 2-scored 100%, 15 scored 80-95% & the remaining 15 scored 50-75% for overall proficiency test performance. There were 10 (3.15%) major errors and 121 (37.8%) minor errors. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of panel reading by microscopy centers were 89%, 96%, 96%, and 90% respectively. Out

  5. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mosissa, Lemi; Kebede, Abebaw; Mindaye, Tedla; Getahun, Muluwork; Tulu, Sisay; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a public health problem in sub Saharan African countries. In resource-limited settings, TB diagnosis relies on sputum smear microscopy, with low and variable sensitivities, especially in paucibacillary pediatric and HIV-associated TB patients. Tuberculosis microscopy centers have several weaknesses like overworking, insufficiently trained personnel, inconsistent reagent supplies, and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes. The performance of TB microscopy centers in the private health facilities in Addis Ababa is not known so far. The main objective of the study was to assess laboratory performance of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 selected private health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia comprising 7 hospitals, 2 NGO health centers, 23 higher clinics and 1 diagnostic laboratory that provide AFB smear microscopy services. The study was conducted from January to April 2014. A total of 283 stained sputum smears were randomly collected from participant laboratories for blinded rechecking, 320 panel slides were sent to 32 microscopy centers to evaluate their performance on AFB reading, staining and reporting. Checklists were used to assess quality issues of laboratories. Data were captured, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0; χ2 tests, kappa statistics were used for comparison purpose. P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Among the 32 participant laboratories, 2-scored 100%, 15 scored 80-95% & the remaining 15 scored 50-75% for overall proficiency test performance. There were 10 (3.15%) major errors and 121 (37.8%) minor errors. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of panel reading by microscopy centers were 89%, 96%, 96%, and 90% respectively. Out of

  6. Defining binding efficiency and specificity of auxins for SCF(TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA co-receptor complex formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah; Sundaram, Shanthy; Armitage, Lynne; Evans, John P; Hawkes, Tim; Kepinski, Stefan; Ferro, Noel; Napier, Richard M

    2014-03-21

    Structure-activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure-activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding.

  7. Differential downward stream of auxin synthesized at the tip has a key role in gravitropic curvature via TIR1/AFBs-mediated auxin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Nakano, Hitomi; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Niwa, Chiharu; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2009-11-01

    Since the early days of Darwin, monocot coleoptiles have been used to investigate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, polar transport and tropisms. Here, using maize coleoptiles, we first showed that polar transport of IAA synthesized at the tip region is regulated by ZmPIN(s). Then, the TIR/AFBs-mediated auxin signaling pathway corresponds to the asymmetric IAA flow after gravi-stimulus, which results in tropic curvature. When [(13)C(11)(15)N(2)]Trp was applied to coleoptile tips, substantial amounts of the stable isotope were incorporated into IAA at the tip region, and the labeled IAA was transported in a polar manner at approximately 7 mm h(-1). Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that ZmPIN1(s) was present in almost all cells. ZmPIN1(s) showed a relatively non-polar distribution at the tip, but a basal cellular localization at lower regions. Application of the IAA transport inhibitors 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and brefeldin A (BFA) at the very tip region almost completely inhibited IAA movement from the tip. These inhibitors also severely suppressed gravitropic bending. PEO-IAA, an auxin antagonist that binds to TIR1/AFBs, suppressed not only the expression of an auxin-responsive ZmSAUR2 gene, but also gravitropic curvature. Expression of ZmSAUR2 was up-regulated on the lower side and down-regulated on the upper side of the coleoptile elongation zone, corresponding to the asymmetric IAA distribution. These results indicate that the asymmetric downward streams of IAA control the differential growth rate of the cells by attenuating TIR1/AFBs-mediated auxin response genes, including ZmSAUR2, and therefore result in tropic curvature. PMID:19897572

  8. Monitoring and Data Analysis for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS), McClellan AFB. Quarterly Status Report (2/20/98 - 5/20/98)

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Mountford, H.S.Monitoring and Data Analysis; for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System; Mountford, H.S.; Dahlquist, R.; Rodriguez, S.J.

    1998-06-18

    This report contains information on field and laboratory work performed between February 20th, 1998 and May 20th, 1998, at site S-7 in IC 34, at McClellan AFB. At this location, a Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) (LBNL, 1996) is currently being used to collect subsurface data including hydraulic potential, soil gas pressure, moisture content, water chemistry, gas chemistry, and temperature. This report describes: moisture content changes, based on neutron logging; gas-phase VOC concentrations; aqueous-phase VOC concentrations; temperature profiles; and installation of new instrument cluster.

  9. 25. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of construction drawing 1957 (original drawing located in Building 301, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Elevations, plans,and sections for galvanized-steel wall and roof cladding, dock nos. 491, 492, and 493. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 14. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of photograph, n.d. (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Detail of funnel-shaped drogue that holds the trailing wire antenna, a component of the aircraft's communication system. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. First Airswot Interferometric Radar Water Surface Elevations and Flooded Inundation Extent from the Sacramento River and Edwards AFB Wetland Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Smith, L. C.; Gleason, C. J.; Baney, O. N.; Chu, V. W.; Bennett, M. M.; Pavelsky, T.; Sadowy, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's forthcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission aims to quantify global freshwater fluxes from space using Ka-band interferometric radar. AirSWOT is the airborne calibration/validation instrument for SWOT with first-pass data collected over the Sacramento River in May 2013 and a wetland complex on Edwards AFB (Piute Ponds) in May 2014. Here, AirSWOT elevation and coherence data are compared with high resolution airborne imagery and concurrent in-situ field mappings of inundation area and water surface elevation. For the Sacramento River, AirSWOT water surface elevations are compared with field-surveyed elevations collected using a high precision GPS Lagrangian river drifter escorted down 30 km of river length. Additionally, field mapped river shorelines are compared with shorelines extracted from AirSWOT coherence data. For the Piute Ponds, we use an exhaustive field mapping of inundation extent and flooded vegetation to assess the ability of AirSWOT coherence and backscatter to map shorelines in a complex lake and wetland environment containing varying vegetation and soil moisture conditions.

  12. Measurement of the Inclusive Forward-Backward top quark-antitop quark Production Asymmetry and its Rapidity Dependence dAfb/d(delta y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strycker, Glenn Lloyd

    Early measurements of a large forward-background asymmetry at the CDF [1, 2, 3, 4] and Dempty [5, 6] experiments at Fermilab have generated much recent interest, but were hampered by large uncertainties. We present here a new measurement of the corrected forward-backward asymmetry of pair-produced top quarks, using a high-statistics sample with much improved precision. We study the rapidity, ytop, of the top quark production angle with respect to the incoming parton momentum in both the lab and tt¯ rest frames. We find the corrected forward-backward asymmetries to be Appfb=0.150+/- 0.050stat+/-0.024syst Attfb=0.158+/-0 .072stat+/-0.024syst These results should be compared with the small lab pp¯ frame charge asymmetry expected in QCD at NLO, Afb = 0.050 +/- 0.015 [7, 8, 9, 10]. Additionally, we introduce a measurement of the A fb rapidity dependence dAfbd Dy . We find this to be Attfb Dy<1.0 =0.026+/-0.104stat+/-0.012 syst Attfb Dy>1.0=0.6 11+/-0.210stat+/-0.246syst which we compare with model predictions 0.039 +/- 0.006 and 0.123 +/- 0.018 for the inner and outer rapidities, respectively.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): American Lake Gardens (McCord AFB - Area D), Pierce County, WA. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-19

    The American Lake Gardens (McChord AFB-Area D) site is an active U.S. Air Force base located at McChord Air Force Base, Pierce County, Washington. The site consists of two areas, Area D and American Lake Garden Tract (ALGT). From the mid-1940's to the present, no known industrial activities have occurred in the ALGT area; however, seven waste disposal sites have operated within the Area D portion of the site. Concurrent with DOD investigations, EPA discovered TCE in ground water monitoring wells installed at the ALGT, and in 1984, concluded that waste disposal sites in Area D were the likely source of ground water contamination. The ROD addresses remediation of the contaminated onsite and offsite ground water plume, as a final remedy. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; other organics; and metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  14. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase SCFTIR1/AFB and Membrane Sterols Play Key Roles in Auxin Regulation of Endocytosis, Recycling, and Plasma Membrane Accumulation of the Auxin Efflux Transporter PIN2 in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianwei; Fujioka, Shozo; Peng, Jianling; Chen, Jianghua; Li, Guangming; Chen, Rujin

    2009-01-01

    The PIN family of auxin efflux transporters exhibit polar plasma membrane (PM) localization and play a key role in auxin gradient-mediated developmental processes. Auxin inhibits PIN2 endocytosis and promotes its PM localization. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that the inhibitory effect of auxin on PIN2 endocytosis was impaired in SCFTIR1/AFB auxin signaling mutants. Similarly, reducing membrane sterols impaired auxin inhibition of PIN2 endocytosis. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses indicate that membrane sterols were significantly reduced in SCFTIR1/AFB mutants, supporting a link between membrane sterols and auxin signaling in regulating PIN2 endocytosis. We show that auxin promoted PIN2 recycling from endosomes to the PM and increased PIN2 steady state levels in the PM fraction. Furthermore, we show that the positive effect of auxin on PIN2 levels in the PM was impaired by inhibiting membrane sterols or auxin signaling. Consistent with this, the sterol biosynthetic mutant fk-J79 exhibited pronounced defects in primary root elongation and gravitropic response. Our data collectively indicate that, although there are distinct processes involved in endocytic regulation of specific PM-resident proteins, the SCFTIR1/AFB-dependent processes are required for auxin regulation of endocytosis, recycling, and PM accumulation of the auxin efflux transporter PIN2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:19218398

  15. Microbial effects on sorption and transport of actinides in tuff samples from the Nevada Test Site and soils from McGuire AFB, NJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.; Gostic, R.; Gostic, J.; Czerwinski, K.; Moser, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    The sorption and behavior of various actinides were examined for two sets of environmental samples. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) harbors a variety of radionuclides resulting from atomic weapons testing from the 1950s-1990s. Modeling the transport of radionuclides at the NTS is difficult because each detonation cavity is a unique environment with distinct hydrologic characteristics, chemical composition, and microbial community structure. McGuire AFB was the site of an explosion that resulted in the burning of a BOMARC nuclear missile and deposition of particles containing high-fired oxides of Am, Pu, and U in soils on the base. Analysis of the NTS samples focused on sorption/desorption of 233-U and 241-Am in the presence/absence of bacteria, and work on the BOMARC cores addressed the potential role of microorganisms in mediating particle degradation and movement. Batch experiments with various NTS tuff samples and strains of bacteria showed that sorption of actinides may be enhanced by >25% under certain conditions by bacteria. Sorption of 233-U was highly dependent on carbonate concentrations in the liquid matrix, while 241-Am was unaffected. Different bacterial species also affected sorption differently. Sorption kinetics for both actinides were rapid, with maximum sorption usually occurring within 4 hours. Actinides bound tightly to tuff and little desorption occurred in carbonate-free batch experiments. Column experiments showed that bacterial cultures in minimal salts buffer desorbed significantly more 233-U from tuff than low carbonate NTS water, but less than 30 mM bicarbonate buffer. Hot particles in the BOMARC cores were located using CT mapping and were extracted from the soil prior to analysis of core sections by gamma spectroscopy. Subcores for DNA extraction and culturing were collected from soil in direct contact with hot particles. The extracted particles consisted of a mixture of weapons-grade Pu, 241-Am and 235-U and ranged in activity from 5-66 k

  16. ENHANCED REMEDIATION DEMONSTRATIONS AT HILL AFB: INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine enhanced aquifer remediation technologies were demonstrated side-by-side at a Hill Air Force Base Chemical Disposal Pit/Fire Training Area site. The demonstrations were performed inside 3 x 5 m cells isolated from the surrounding shallow aquifer by steel piling. The site w...

  17. Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' lands at Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The rear wheels of the Space Shuttle Orbiter 101 raise desert sand on the landing strip at Edwards Air Force Base as the 'Enterprise' completes the fourth of five scheduled Approach and Landing Test (ALT) free flights. This mission marked the first occasion of the orbiter to fly minus tail cone. The unpowered phase, with Astronauts Joe H. Engle, commander, and Richard H. Truly, pilot, controlling the Enterprise, took two-minutes and 34 seconds. One of the T-38 chase planes that remained with the Shuttle craft for the mission's duration is partially visible at right.

  18. X-31 in Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

  19. Critique and Summary of the Chanute AFB CBE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himwich, H. A., Ed.

    Chanute Air Force Base was the first military training center to undertake an extensive investigation of the use of the PLATO IV system in technical training. The service test was to compare a conventionally taught course in general vehicle maintenance with a course taught with computer-based instructional materials. Part I of this document is the…

  20. TRANSECT STUDY OF THE INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION TEST PLOT: DOVER AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work described in this report is part of a project undertaken by the Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Action Team of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum, a joint U.S. Federal agency-industry collaboration, to study the natural attenuation of chlorinated ethen...

  1. STREAM INJECTION INTO FRACTURE BEDROCK AT LORING AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine, was used for the disposal of drums containing spent chlorinated solvents, mainly tetrachloroethene (PCE). After closure of the base, surface geophysics were used to locate the drums, and they were removed. Subs...

  2. X-31 in Banked Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

  3. X-31 #1 in Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584) flies over Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1993. Aircraft 584 completed 292 flights during the Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) program before being lost on January 19, 1995 when icing in the nose probe caused the flight control computer to receive bad data. German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang ejected after the aircraft became uncontrollable. The program continued, using the second aircraft (Bu. No. 164585). The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

  4. Historical chronology of Hanscom AFB 1941-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Del Papa, E.M.; Warner, M.P.

    1987-11-01

    This report contents are Initial Efforts; Program Guidance; Development, Test and Evaluation (DTandE)/Initial; Operational Test and Evaluation (IOTandE); Production Contract for HAVE A QUICK AN/ARC-164 Modification Kits; Additional HAVE QUICK Requirements; Additional HAVE QUICK Program Guidance; HAVE QUICK Extension; Deployment and Testing; FY 1981 Supplemental Budget Buy of HAVE QUICK Production Units AN/GRC-171 HAVE QUICK Modified Radio Contract; HAVE QUICK for the E-3A AWACS; Program Management Responsibility Transfer (PMRT) for the HAVE QUICK AN/ARC-164 Radio; HAVE QUICK for the Tactical Air Control System (TACS); Additional HAVE QUICK Program Guidance; Air Force Organizational Excellence Award to HAVE QUICK Program Office; HAVE QUICK for the E-3A; HAVE QUICK for NATO; AN/GRC-171 HAVE QUICK Modified Radio; HAVE QUICK Contract F19628-81-c-0151; SEEK BARON; Additional HAVE QUICK Program Guidance; Production; HAVE QUICK Net Rollover Problem; HAVE QUICK System Timing; GRC-171(V)4 Enhancements and Production; HAVE QUICK Technical Order (TO) Issues; HAVE QUICK GRC-171 Multiplexing (MUX) Network; HAVE QUICK for NATO; Navy Problem with HAVE QUICK; Nuclear Hardening, HAVE QUICK ARC-164C; HAVE QUICK GRC-171A(V)2; Midnight Madness; HAVE QUICK GRC-171 Multiplexing (MUX) Network; U.S. Marine Corps HAVE QUICK requirements; HAVE QUICK for NATO; HAVE QUICK Program Costs; and Summary and Conclusion.

  5. Walk-off correction with AFB nonlinear composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.-C.; Meissner, H. E.

    2007-04-01

    Beam walk-off in uniaxial and biaxial crystals occurs when the phase normal of the propagating electromagnetic wave deviates from the direction of the Poynting vector. This beam walk-off limits frequency conversion efficiency and restricts the OPO tuning range. The beam walk-off angle in nonlinear single crystals can be alleviated by bonding similar non-linear crystals rotated by 180° with respect to each other. An even number of twisted twins of single crystals is formed that is stress-free and has negligible loss at the AFB® (Adhesive-Free Bond) interfaces. Since no adhesive is employed and the bonding force consists primarily of Van der Waals attractive forces, there is no adverse effect or absorption at the bond interface. The theory of walk-off angles as a function of orientation for uniaxial and biaxial crystals is derived. Correcting beam walk-off by producing an AFB® composite configuration results in more efficient frequency conversion and thereby allows the generation of higher power output of frequency converted radiation for a given input power. Beam correction is demonstrated experimentally for zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP) as representative of a uniaxial nonlinear crystal, and on biaxial KTP crystals. AFB® composites of ZGP with inactive ends of gallium phosphide have been produced in an effort to further improve damage resistance of a ZGP optical parametric oscillator for frequency conversion into the mid-IR range.

  6. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the uncrating of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite is moved inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. NOAA-L is part of the Polar- Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Outside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., a crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite is lowered to the ground before being moved inside. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite arrives at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  7. AFB's Computerized Travel Aid: Two Years of Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Progress on the computerized travel aid, an electronic device, using elements of the Polaroid Sonar Camera and a microprocessor, for visually handicapped persons is reviewed, and research on the effectiveness of various models noted. Recommended modifications touch on aspects of mounting, beam shape, and audible outputs. (CL)

  8. Dog Guide Training: AFB Directory of Services Listings

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACB of Minnesota P.O. Box 7341 Minneapolis, MN 55407 mike-hally@hotmail.com http://www.acb. ... New Dimensions, Inc. 100 East 22nd Street Minneapolis, MN 55404-2514 (612) 872-0100 (Local) (612) 872- ...

  9. 9. Photograph copy of construction drawing, 1964 (original drawing in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph copy of construction drawing, 1964 (original drawing in Building No. 301, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska). Site plan of project looking glass historic district and Offutt Air Force Base. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. Treatability study for Hill AFB`s Operable Unit-1: Enhanced microaerobic dechlorination using various electron donors. MasMajor report

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, P.G.

    1999-05-13

    A treatability study of the microaerobic biodegradation of cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) was completed using a series of eight continuously operated columns filled with contaminated soils from Hill Air Force Base`s Operable Unit 1. Columns were supplied groundwater from the site, vitamins and yeast, and an electron donor solution containing one of the following donors: n-butyric acid, benzoic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, n-propanol, or toluene. Concentrations of c-DCE varied over six months and ranged from 2736 micrograms/L to 30 micrograms/L. Though attempted as an anaerobic study, the ability to continuously eliminate oxygen from an active system proved difficult and columns operated as microaerobic systems. In all columns the degradation of c-DCE was observed, however, the removal efficiencies determined by comparing the influent and effluent concentrations were highly inconsistent throughout the experiment. By comparing the background columns to the columns supplied electron donors, it does not appear the addition of vitamins or electron donors enhance the indigenous microorganism`s ability to remove c-DCE. While c-DCE removal within the background column averaged 17%, the vitamin amended control column averaged only 7% c-DCE removal within the column and the electron donor supplied columns averaged between 7% removal and 5% apparent production. Of the electron donors supporting c-DCE removal, benzoic acid demonstrated 7% removal followed closely by propionic acid and n-propanol, both showing 5% c-DCE removal.

  11. 6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. Soil Flushing Through a Thick Vadose Zone: Perchlorate Removal Documented at Edwards AFB, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battey, T. F.; Shepard, A. J.; Tait, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    There are currently few viable alternatives for perchlorate remediation in the vadose zone, particularly for the relatively thick vadose zones that are typical in the arid southwest where many perchlorate sites occur. Perchlorate in the vadose zone occurs in the form of highly soluble salts that may represent a risk to human or ecological receptors, and may also represent a threat to the underlying groundwater. A soil flushing treatability study was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in the Mojave Desert of southern California at a site with a 129-foot thick vadose zone consisting primarily of clayey sand. This study utilized an infiltration gallery in conjunction with extraction, treatment, and re-injection of groundwater at the site, which contained perchlorate-contaminated soil and groundwater. The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the infiltration gallery to 1) introduce treated groundwater back into the aquifer and 2) wash the perchlorate from the vadose zone soils to the aquifer. The infiltration gallery consisted of slotted PVC pipes within a highly permeable engineered bed of washed gravel. The initial water introduced into the gallery was amended with potassium bromide tracer. A downhole neutron probe was used to track the movement of the wetting front downward and outward from the gallery. Successive neutron measurements in vertical access tubes revealed that the introduced water reached the 125-foot bottom of the access tubes 14 weeks after the water was introduced into the gallery. The bromide tracer was detected in groundwater immediately below the gallery approximately 1 week later. The infiltration gallery was able to sustain an average flow rate of 2.3 gallons per minute. Prior to infiltration, the perchlorate concentration in groundwater below the gallery was 4,500 µg/L. Approximately 18 weeks after the start of infiltration, a perchlorate spike of 72,400 µg/L was detected below the gallery. The increase in perchlorate groundwater concentrations indicates the transfer of perchlorate from the vadose zone to the saturated zone, where it was readily captured by an adjacent groundwater extraction well. Continued flushing of treated water through the vadose and saturated zones resulted in a rapid decline in perchlorate groundwater concentrations. Confirmation soil boreholes documented the effectiveness of the soil treatment after perchlorate groundwater concentrations returned to their pre-soil flushing levels. This treatability study demonstrates that perchlorate can be removed from a thick sandy vadose zone by controlled infiltration with associated hydraulic control of groundwater to capture the leached perchlorate. The treatability study results also indicates that an infiltration gallery may provide 1) a cost-effective alternative to injection wells for reintroducing treated groundwater to the aquifer and 2) an effective mechanism for the delivery of amendments to the vadose zone and aquifer for promoting enhanced biodegradation of perchlorate in soil and groundwater.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study analysis asphalt storage area, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska. The site is located approximately 2000 feet from the east end of the east/west runway and includes approximately 25 acres. The site was used for asphalt storage and preparation activities during the 1940s and 1950s. Approximately 4,500 drums of asphalt and 29 drums of unknown materials have been abandoned at the site. The drums are located in 32 areas throughout the 25-acre site. Following several decades of exposure to the elements, many of the drums have corroded and leaked to the ground surface. Several acres of soil are inundated with liquid asphalt that has leaked from the drums. Depths of the asphalt range from 6 to 10 inches in areas where surface anomalies have created depressions, and thus a collection point for the asphalt. A 14-x 18-x 4 foot wood frame pit used to support previous asphalt operations is located at the north end of the site. The pit contains approximately 2300 gallons of asphalt. There are also locations where the soil appears to be contaminated by petroleum products other than asphalt.

  14. 78 FR 48292 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... (78 FR 33016) Docket No. FAA-2013-0261. Interested parties were ] invited to participate in this... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  15. 1987 ASCAN Readdy in ejection seat during training at Vance AFB, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    William F. Readdy, 1987 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) and member of Astronaut Class 12 (Group 12), straps himself into ejection seat as personnel look on during training at Vance Air Force Base (VAFB), Enid, Oklahoma. The new group of ASCANs participated in parachute training while at VAFB, 09-09-87 through 09-11-87.

  16. ASCAN Susan J. Helms participates in ejection seat training at Vance AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Susan J. Helms participates in ejection seat training at Vance Air Force Base (VAFB), Enid, Oklahoma. Wearing a helmet and strapped into a seat, Helms will experience the 'feel' of emergency ejection from a jet aircraft during this test. Helms, along with the rest of the 1990 Astronaut Class, was part of ground egress and parasail training exercises at VAFB from 07-29-90 through 07-31-90. Photograph was taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Robert L. Walck.

  1. ARAC dispersion modeling support for January--March 1995 Vandenberg AFB launches

    SciTech Connect

    Baskett, R.L.; Pace, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Glory Trip (GT) 17-PA Peacekeeper launch originally scheduled at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) between 15 and 20 November 1994 was cancelled based on modeled toxic exhaust cloud calculations. The Missile Flight Control Branch, 30th Space Wing Safety Office (30 SW/SEY), made several successive ``No Go`` decisions using Version 7. 05 Rocket Exhaust Effluent Dispersion Model (REEDM) with forecasted meteorological conditions. REEDM runs made from T-14 hours to T-30 minutes predicted that ground-level concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas from the catastrophic abort case would exceed 5 ppM, the ``instantaneous`` ambient air concentration ``Tier 2`` limit at that time, modeled as a peak 1-minute cloud centerline concentration. Depending on the forecasted wind direction and speed at launch time, this limit was predicted to be exceeded sometimes at Base Housing, approximately 10 km southeast of the launch, and during other launch windows at the town of Casmalia, about 5 km east- southeast. In late December 1994, the LLNL Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) program modeled the aborted November 1994 Peacekeeper launch and compared its results with REEDM. This initial comparison showed that the ARAC model predicted values about 1/3 as large as REEDM for the limiting case at Base Housing. Subsequently ARAC was asked to provide real-time modeling support to 30 SW/SEY during the rescheduled Peacekeeper GT 17-PA launch in January 1995 and two Minuteman launches in February and March. This report first briefly discusses the model differences and then summarizes the results of the three supported launches.

  2. 78 FR 17085 - Amendment of Multiple Restricted Areas; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 73 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Multiple Restricted Areas;...

  3. Pilot-scale in situ vitrification at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold AFB, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Lominac, J.K.; Edwards, R.C. ); Timmerman, C.L. )

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Defense has the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to identify and permanently remediate hazardous material disposal sites at its military bases across the United States. Pursuant to this guidance, Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) selected In Situ Vitrification (ISV) to remediate an old fire training area, Fire Protection Training Area (FPTA) No. 2. The ISV technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA, for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and will allow for the destruction and encapsulation of the petroleum-oil-lubricants (POL) and heavy metal-constituents found at the FPTA and adjacent overflow pond. ISV operates by passing a measured current of electricity into the ground through a set of electrodes. The resulting heat causes the soil to melt and form a solid vitreous (glass) mass similar to naturally occurring obsidian or basalt. In the process, organic constituents will be pyrolyzed (changed by heat) by the ensuing heat whereas the non-organic material will be incorporated into the glass matrix. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL REMEDIATION: THE LORING AFB STEAM INJECTION PROJECT EXAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental remediation programs require that adequate planning be done before field work for characterization or remediation is undertaken. However, the heterogeneous nature of the subsurface can often thwart our best planning efforts. More recently, dynamic work plans which...

  5. Experimental plan and construction guidance for Hanford Protective Barrier Test at Hill AFB, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    Permanent isolation surface barriers are needed to fully isolate buried waste materials for long periods of time from the general environment. Multi-layer surface barriers that use natural earthen materials overlying bio-intrusion layers of rock and/or asphalt are expected to reduce infiltration or deep percolation to less than 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) of water. The layering also reduces root penetration, preventing uptake and translocation of hazardous materials to the surface vegetation. The opportunity exists to test the Hanford Barrier in a wetter, colder climate at an existing lysimeter facility located at Hill Air Force Base near Salt Lake, Utah. The use of an existing lysimeter facility simplifies the construction effort and allows comparison of the Hanford Protective Barrier with an existing US Environmental Protection Agency-Resource Conservation and Recovery Act clay cap already undergoing tests at the lysimeter site. This document presents the experimental plan for testing the Hanford Protective Barrier in a wetter, colder climate.

  6. Views of STS-4 crew and families at Ellington AFB departing for KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Views of STS-4 crew and families at Ellington Air Force Base departing for Kennedy Space Center. Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, II., right, and Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr. on the Ellington Air Force Base runway. Behind them are the T-38's they will be flying to the Kennedy Space Center (32917,32924); Mattingly climbs aboard NASA aircraft 918, a T-38 jet, as he prepares to leave Ellington for KSC (32918); Mattingly seating in T-38 with canopy up preparing to leave (32919,32925); Hartsfield prepares to board NASA aircraft 919, a T-38 jet, at Ellington (32920); Hartsfield seated in T-38 with canopy up preparing to leave Ellington (32921,32923); The family of Astronuat Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr. stands near the NASA Gulfstream aircraft priot to boarding it for Florida. Astronaut Bryan D. O'Conner talks with the family - from the left, daughters Judy Lynn, Keely Warren and wife Judy Frances Hartsfield (32922).

  7. Astronauts McDivitt and White during water egress training at Ellington AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts James A. McDivitt, command pilot, and Edward H. White II, pilot, the Gemini-Titan 4 prime crew are seen during water egress training at Ellington Air Force Base, Texas. Views include McDivitt climbing out of the capsule and into the water beside White while a diver looks on. Both are wearing full space suits (19282); White floats in a life raft while McDivitt clings to a life vest in the pool with the capsule floating nearby (19283).

  8. NOAA-L satellite is mated to Apogee Kick Motor at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (below) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite above. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. 8. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska). Looking glass crew celebrating the mission's twentieth anniversary. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for a Mutagenic Mode of Action for Cancer: AFB1 and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AOPs provide a framework to describe a sequence of measureable key events (KEs), beginning with a molecular initiating event (MIE), followed by a series of identified KEs linked to one another by KE Relationships (KERs), all anchored by a specific adverse outcome (AO). Each KE/KE...

  10. Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Batuk, Olga N; Conradson, Steven D; Aleksandrova, Olga N; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Burakov, Boris E; Clark, David L; Czerwinski, Ken R; Felmy, Andrew R; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Moore, Dean A; Myasoedov, Boris F; Reed, Donald T; Reilly, Dallas D; Roback, Robert C; Vlasova, Irina E; Webb, Samuel M; Wilkerson, Marianne P

    2015-06-01

    The speciation of U and Pu in soil and concrete from Rocky Flats and in particles from soils from Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, and McGuire Air Force Base and bottom sediments from Mayak was determined by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) element maps. These experiments identify four types of speciation that sometimes may and other times do not exhibit an association with the source terms and histories of these samples: relatively well ordered PuO2+x and UO2+x that had equilibrated with O2 and H2O under both ambient conditions and in fires or explosions; instances of small, isolated particles of U as UO2+x, U3O8, and U(VI) species coexisting in close proximity after decades in the environment; alteration phases of uranyl with other elements including ones that would not have come from soils; and mononuclear Pu-O species and novel PuO2+x-type compounds incorporating additional elements that may have occurred because the Pu was exposed to extreme chemical conditions such as acidic solutions released directly into soil or concrete. Our results therefore directly demonstrate instances of novel complexity in the Å and μm-scale chemical speciation and reactivity of U and Pu in their initial formation and after environmental exposure as well as occasions of unexpected behavior in the reaction pathways over short geological but significant sociological times. They also show that incorporating the actual disposal and site conditions and resultant novel materials such as those reported here may be necessary to develop the most accurate predictive models for Pu and U in the environment. PMID:25815708

  11. Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Batuk, Olga N; Conradson, Steven D; Aleksandrova, Olga N; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Burakov, Boris E; Clark, David L; Czerwinski, Ken R; Felmy, Andrew R; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Moore, Dean A; Myasoedov, Boris F; Reed, Donald T; Reilly, Dallas D; Roback, Robert C; Vlasova, Irina E; Webb, Samuel M; Wilkerson, Marianne P

    2015-06-01

    The speciation of U and Pu in soil and concrete from Rocky Flats and in particles from soils from Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, and McGuire Air Force Base and bottom sediments from Mayak was determined by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) element maps. These experiments identify four types of speciation that sometimes may and other times do not exhibit an association with the source terms and histories of these samples: relatively well ordered PuO2+x and UO2+x that had equilibrated with O2 and H2O under both ambient conditions and in fires or explosions; instances of small, isolated particles of U as UO2+x, U3O8, and U(VI) species coexisting in close proximity after decades in the environment; alteration phases of uranyl with other elements including ones that would not have come from soils; and mononuclear Pu-O species and novel PuO2+x-type compounds incorporating additional elements that may have occurred because the Pu was exposed to extreme chemical conditions such as acidic solutions released directly into soil or concrete. Our results therefore directly demonstrate instances of novel complexity in the Å and μm-scale chemical speciation and reactivity of U and Pu in their initial formation and after environmental exposure as well as occasions of unexpected behavior in the reaction pathways over short geological but significant sociological times. They also show that incorporating the actual disposal and site conditions and resultant novel materials such as those reported here may be necessary to develop the most accurate predictive models for Pu and U in the environment.

  12. Analysis of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of aflatoxins extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument parameter settings wer...

  13. Analysis of wind bias change with respect to time at Cape Kennedy, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the temporal variability of wind vectors at 1 km altitude intervals from 0 to 27 km altitude after applying a digital filter to the original wind profile data sample.

  14. An inverse modeling approach to estimate groundwater flow and transport model parameters at a research site at Vandenberg AFB, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasa, E.; Foglia, L.; Mackay, D. M.; Ginn, T. R.; Scow, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    A numerical groundwater fate and transport model was developed for analyses of data from field experiments evaluating the impacts of ethanol on the natural attenuation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Site 60. We used the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) groundwater flow (MODFLOW2000) and transport (MT3DMS) models in conjunction with the USGS universal inverse modeling code (UCODE) to jointly determine flow and transport parameters using bromide tracer data from multiple experiments in the same location. The key flow and transport parameters include hydraulic conductivity of aquifer and aquitard layers, porosity, and transverse and longitudinal dispersivity. Aquifer and aquitard layers were assumed homogenous in this study. Therefore, the calibration parameters were not spatially variable within each layer. A total of 162 monitoring wells in seven transects perpendicular to the mean flow direction were monitored over the course of ten months, resulting in 1,766 bromide concentration data points and 149 head values used as observations for the inverse modeling. The results showed the significance of the concentration observation data in predicting the flow model parameters and indicated the sensitivity of the hydraulic conductivity of different zones in the aquifer including the excavated former contaminant zone. The model has already been used to evaluate alternative designs for further experiments on in situ bioremediation of the tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) plume remaining at the site. We describe the recent applications of the model and future work, including adding reaction submodels to the calibrated flow model.

  15. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of programmed…

  16. 7. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph, 1975 (original photograph in 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska). Aerial view of project looking glass historic district. Large rectangular form closet to top of photograph is the district's centerpiece, the operational apron. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 5. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 2. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 1. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 3. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 4. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. Waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey, Mather AFB California. Final report, 28 November-9 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.P.; Hedgecock, N.S.

    1989-10-01

    Personnel from the AFOEHL conducted a waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey at MAFB from 28 Nov to 9 Dec 1988. The scope of this survey was to characterize the waste-water, address hazardous-waste-management practices, and explore opportunities for hazardous waste minimization. The waste water survey team analyzed the base's industrial effluent, effluent from oil/water separators, and storm water. The team performed a shop-by-shop evaluation of chemical-waste-management practices. Survey results showed that MAFB needs to improve its hazardous-waste-management program. Recommendations for improvement include: (1) Collecting two additional grab samples on separate days from the hospital discharge. Analyze for EPA Method 601 to determine if the grab sample from the survey gives a true indication of what is being discharged. (2) Locate the source and prevent mercury from the hospital from discharging into the sanitary sewer. (3) Dilute the soaps used for cleaning at the Fuels Lab, Building 7060. (4) Investigate the source of chromium from the Photo Lab. (5) Clean out the sewer system manhole directly downgradient from the Photo Lab. (6) Locate the source of contamination in the West Ditch Outfall. (7) Reconnect the two oil/water separators that discharge into the storm sewerage system. (8) Investigate the source of methylene chloride coming on the base. (9) Investigate the source of mercury at Fuel Cell Repair, building 7005.

  4. Site S-7 Representative Model and Application for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) McClellan AFB - 1998 Semi-Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    1998-12-01

    Vadose zone data collection and enhanced data analysis are continuing for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) installed at site S-7 in IC 34 at McClellan MB. Data from core samples from boreholes drilled in 1998 and from VZMS continuous monitoring are evaluated and compared to previously collected data and analyses. The suite of data collected to date is used to develop and constrain a spatially averaged, one-dimensional site S-7 representative model that is implemented into T2VOC. Testing of the conceptual model under conditions of recharge of 100 mm/yr produces plausible moisture contents relative to data from several sources. Further scoping calculations involving gas-phase TCE transport in the representative model were undertaken. We investigate the role of recharge on TCE transport as well as the role of ion- and gas-phase flow driven by density and barometric pumping effects. This report provides the first example of the application of the site S-7 representative model in th e investigation of subsurface VOC movement.

  5. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United States.

  6. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Lay Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-04

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report to present the results of RI/FS activities at four sites located at the Point Lay radar installation. The remedial investigation (RI) field activities were conducted at the Point Lay radar installation during the summer of 1993. The four sites at Point Lay were investigated because they were suspected of being contaminated with hazardous substances. RI activities were conducted using methods and procedures specified in the RI/FS Work Plan, Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), and Health and Safety Plan.

  7. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Bullen Point Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Bullen Point Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) (U.S. Air Force 1996). The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the five sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  8. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment Point Lonely Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-04-01

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Point Lonely Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Twelve sites at the Point Lonely radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The Vehicle Storage Area (SS14) was combined with the Inactive Landfill because the two sites were essentially co-located and were sampled during the RI as a single unit. Therefore, 11 sites are discussed in this risk assessment. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Point Lonely Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the 11 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks, chlorinated solvents, and manganese. The 11 sites investigated and the types of samples collected at each site are presented.

  9. Effect of acid deposition on potentially sensitive soil-plant systems at Vandenberg AFB, California. Final report, 1 September 1984-1 September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Zedler, P.H.; Marion, G.

    1988-04-30

    The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of the acid deposition expected from rocket launches on natural coastal vegetation and soils. Interest was directed primarily toward the longer-term and more-subtle effects of acidity, and the degree of sensitivity of different soil-plant systems. A study area was established along a topographic chronosequence that ranged from stabilized dunes to residual soils over bedrock. Soils and plants were collected from this region and used in three main studies. A leaching study measured the changes in chemical properties of four soils subjected to repeated acid additions. A second study treated seeds of wide variety of native or spontaneous species with HC1 on the four soils to establish the sensitivity of the vegetation to deposition events during the fall to winter germination pulse characteristic of California coastal ecosystems. A third study examined the effect of acid treatments on the growth of and competition between two common woody plants -- Artemisia californica and Pinus muricata. A fourth study partially supported by this grant studied the invasion of an exotic species in a recently burned site on one of the four study soils. The studies collectively show that, although the soil-plant systems are well buffered against moderate and low inputs of acidity, the effect of acid additions differed among soil types and from species to species. Overall the hypothesis that acidic deposition could affect plant-plant and soil-plant interactions was supported, but some of these effects are subtle and not all appear to be deleterious.

  10. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 5. General interior overview of addition. View to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General interior overview of addition. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 11. Northeast front, dock no. 493. View to west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Northeast front, dock no. 493. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 6. General interior overview of addition. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General interior overview of addition. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 5. Headon view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Head-on view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of operational apron. Painted warning sign in foreground. View to north - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 5. Southwest front, dock no. 492. View to east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Southwest front, dock no. 492. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 1. General view of Boeing EC135 looking aircraft. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Boeing EC-135 looking aircraft. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. Three quarter view of traffic check house, looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Three quarter view of traffic check house, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Traffic Check House, Mercury Avenue between D-Wing & E-Wing, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing number not listed, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, drawing number AW30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 73. New addition building 500 floor plan, drawing number AW600201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. New addition building 500 floor plan, drawing number AW-60-02-01, dated 26 January, 1970 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 21. Threequarter view of northeast corner of Hwing, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Three-quarter view of northeast corner of H-wing, looking southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 10. Threequarter view of southwest corner of building 500 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Three-quarter view of southwest corner of building 500 and G-wing, looking northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 7. General view of command center, building 501, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General view of command center, building 501, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 23. View of Jwing left, at Mercury Avenue, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of J-wing left, at Mercury Avenue, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 22. Threequarter view of rear of Jwing, looking southwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Three-quarter view of rear of J-wing, looking southwest from Mercury Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 6. Threequarter view of Awing, building 500, from Minuteman Circle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Three-quarter view of A-wing, building 500, from Minuteman Circle looking northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 6. General view of command center, building 501, looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General view of command center, building 501, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 19. View of main entrance and front (east) facade of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of main entrance and front (east) facade of H-wing from Comstat Drive, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 32. View from roof of Hwing, with Ewing on left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. View from roof of H-wing, with E-wing on left, looking southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 3. Threequarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 27. Threequarter view of building 500, and Awing, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Three-quarter view of building 500, and A-wing, looking southeast from Minuteman Circle - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 17. View of Mercury Avenue from Apollo Drive, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of Mercury Avenue from Apollo Drive, looking north at E-wing - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 5. View of front walkway to building 500 looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of front walkway to building 500 looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 18. Threequarter view of southeast corner of Hwing, looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Three-quarter view of southeast corner of H-wing, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 33. View from roof of Hwing, with Gwing in background, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View from roof of H-wing, with G-wing in background, looking southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 4. View of drainage ditch and front walkway to building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of drainage ditch and front walkway to building 500 looking east from SAC Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 15. Threequarter view of Gwing from intersection of Apollo Drive ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Three-quarter view of G-wing from intersection of Apollo Drive and Mercury Avenue, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 30. View from roof of Fwing of front entry to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View from roof of F-wing of front entry to building 500, looking northwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 11. Threequarter view of southwest corner of building 500 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Three-quarter view of southwest corner of building 500 and G-wing, looking northeast, from Apollo Drive - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. The Angular Coefficients and $A_{fb}$ of Drell-Yan $e^{+}e^{-}$ Pairs in the Z Mass Region from $p\\bar{p}$ Collision at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jiyeon; /Rochester U.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the measurement of angular coefficients and the forward and backward asymmetry (A{sub fb}) of Drell-Yan dielectron pairs from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The angular distributions are studied as a function of the transverse momentum of dielectron pair and A{sub fb} is measured using the event counting method. The Lam-Tung (A{sub 0} - A{sub 2} = 0) relation which is only valid for a spin-1 description of the gluon is also tested.

  17. Intercalation of aflatoxin B sub 1 in two oligodeoxynucleotide adducts: Comparative sup 1 H NMR analysis of d(ATC sup AFB GAT)ter dot d(ATCGAT) and d(AT sup ATB GCAT) sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Harris, T.M.; Stone, M.P. )

    1990-11-01

    8,9-Dihydro-8-(N7-guanyl-(d(ATCGAT)))-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B{sub 1}{center dot}d(ATCGAT) and 8,9-dihydro-8-(N7-guanyl-(d(ATGCAT)))-9-hydroxyafltoxin B{sub 1}{center dot}8,9-dihydro-8-(N7-guanyl-(d(ATGCAT)))-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B{sub 1} were prepared by direct addition of aflatoxin B{sub 1} 8,9-expoxide to d(ATCGAT){sub 2} and d(ATGCAT){sub 2}, respectively. {sup 1}H NOE experiments, nonselective {sup 1}H T{sub 1} relaxation measurements, and {sup 1}H chemical shift perturbations demonstrate that in both modified oligodeoxynucleotides the aflatoxin moiety is intercalated above the 5{prime}-face of the modified guanine. The oligodeoxynucleotides remain right-handed, and perturbation of the B-DNA structure is localized adjacent to the adducted guanine. Aflatoxin-oligodeoxynucleotide {sup 1}H NOEs are observed between aflatoxin and the 5{prime}-neighbor base pair and include both the major groove and the minor groove. The protons at C8 and C9 of the aflatoxin terminal furan ring exhibit slower spin-lattice relaxation as compared to other oligodeoxynucleotide protons, which supports the conclusion that they face into the major groove. Increased shielding is observed for aflatoxin protons. The difference in reaction stoichiometry is consistent with an intercalated transition-state complex between aflatoxin B{sub 1} 8,9-epoxide and B-DNA. Intercalation provides excellent positioning for nucleophilic attack by guanine N7 on aflatoxin B{sub 1} 8,9-epoxide, which probably accounts for the observed efficiency of adduct formation despite the relatively low DNA binding affinity observed for aflatoxin B{sub 1}.

  18. Evaluation of pilot-scale pulse-corona-induced plasma device to remove NO{sub x} from combustion exhausts from a subscale combustor and from a hush house at Nellis AFB, Nevada. Final report, August 1994--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Haythornthwaite, S.M.; Durham, M.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Rugg, D.E.

    1997-05-01

    Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are used to test-fire new, installed, and reworked jet engines. Because JETCs have been classified as stationary sources of pollutant emissions, they are subject to possible regulation under Title 1 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990. In Phase 1 of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, a novel NOx-control approach utilizing pulsed-corona-induced plasma successfully showed 90% removal of NOx in the laboratory. The objective of Phase 2 was to reproduce the laboratory-scale results in a pilot-scale system. The technology was successfully demonstrated at pilot scale in the field, on a slipstream of JETC flue gas at Nellis Air Force Base. Based on the field data, cost projections were made for a system to treat the full JETC exhaust. The technology efficiently converted NO into ONO, and a wet scrubber was required to achieve the treatment goal of 50-percent removal and destruction of NOx. The plasma simultaneously removes hydrocarbons from the flue gas stream. This project demonstrated that pulse-corona-induced plasma technology is scalable to practical industrial dimensions.

  19. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned Oliktok Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-06-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for four sites located at the Oliktok Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the eight sites located at the Oliktok Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, four sites are recommended for no further action.

  20. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-08

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  1. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-05-24

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for two sites located at the Bullen Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the five sites located at the Bullen Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, two sites are recommended for no further action. Sites at the Bullen Point radar installation recommended for no further action are: Old Landfill/Dump Site East (LF06) and Drum Storage Area (SS10).

  2. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study: Oliktok Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Volume 1. (Includes appendices a - b)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-15

    This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Oliktok Point radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

  3. From the utilization point of view, the two approaches seem to United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Barrow Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-02-19

    This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Point Barrow radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

  4. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, December 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-05-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for nine sites located at the Barter Island radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the 14 sites located at the Barter Island installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, nine sites are recommended for no further action.

  5. Search for pair production of Higgs bosons in the b b xAFb b xAF final state using proton-proton collisions at √{s }=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. 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R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    A search for Higgs-boson pair production in the b b ¯b b ¯ final state is carried out with 3.2 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √{s }=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector. The data are consistent with the estimated background and are used to set upper limits on the production cross section of Higgs-boson pairs times branching ratio to b b ¯b b ¯ for both nonresonant and resonant production. In the case of resonant production of Kaluza-Klein gravitons within the Randall-Sundrum model, upper limits in the 24 to 91 fb range are obtained for masses between 600 and 3000 GeV, at the 95% confidence level. The production cross section times branching ratio for nonresonant Higgs-boson pairs is also constrained to be less than 1.22 pb, at the 95% confidence level.

  6. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis potential tce impact to the drinking water supply, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action to address potential trichloroethene (TCE) impact to drinking water supply wells, located in the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit, at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information fron the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives, in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  7. Vaccination of lactating dairy cows for the prevention of aflatoxin B1 carry over in milk.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, Luciano; Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Sforza, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Casoli, Claudio; Ronzi, Paola; Grilli, Ester; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Piva, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The potential of anaflatoxin B(1) (AnAFB(1)) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a vaccine (AnAFB(1)-KLH) in controlling the carry over of the aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) metabolite aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in cow milk is reported. AFB(1) is the most carcinogenic compound in food and foodstuffs amongst aflatoxins (AFs). AnAFB(1) is AFB(1) chemically modified as AFB(1)-1(O-carboxymethyl) oxime. In comparison to AFB(1), AnAFB(1) has proven to be non-toxic in vitro to human hepatocarcinoma cells and non mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains. AnAFB(1)-KLH was used for immunization of cows proving to induce a long lasting titer of anti-AFB(1) IgG antibodies (Abs) which were cross reactive with AFB(1), AFG(1), and AFG(2). The elicited anti-AFB(1) Abs were able to hinder the secretion of AFM(1) into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB(1). Vaccination of lactating animals with conjugated AnAFB(1) may represent a solution to the public hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with AFs.

  8. Cytochrome P3-450 cDNA encodes aflatoxin B1-4-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Faletto, M B; Koser, P L; Battula, N; Townsend, G K; Maccubbin, A E; Gelboin, H V; Gurtoo, H L

    1988-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogen and ubiquitous dietary contaminant in some countries, is detoxified to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via cytochrome P-450-mediated AFB1-4-hydroxylase. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that the expression of AFB1-4-hydroxylase is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon locus and suggested that different cytochrome P-450 isozymes catalyze AFB1-4-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. We have now examined lysates from mammalian cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses containing expressible cytochrome P1-450 or P3-450 cDNAs for their ability to metabolize AFB1 to AFM1. Our results show that cytochrome P3-450 cDNA specifies AFB1-4-hydroxylase. This is the first direct assignment of a specific cytochrome P-450 to an AFB1 detoxification pathway. This finding may have relevance to the dietary modulation of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis.

  9. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MAIN ASSEMBLY LEVEL LOOKING NORTHEAST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE MAIN ASSEMBLY LEVEL LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE B-26 FINAL PRODUCTION LINE SHOWING THE INTEGRITY OF THE "BOMB-PROOF" BUILDING AFTER THE CRASH OF A B-25 ON SEPTEMBER 22, 1943. WHO, 1943 - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. GENERAL VIEW OF THE PRODUCTION LINE BEING CONVERTED FROM B26 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE PRODUCTION LINE BEING CONVERTED FROM B-26 TO B-29 PRODUCTION SHOWING THE LINK-BELT CONVEYOR SYSTEM AND ENGINE NACELLES READY FOR ASSEMBLY. WHO, 1944 - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. GENERAL VIEW OF THE FINAL PRODUCTION LINE OF THE FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE FINAL PRODUCTION LINE OF THE FIRST B-29 SHOWING THE LINK-BELT CONVEYOR SYSTEM AND WOOD BLOCK FLOORING. WHO, 1944 - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 17. General interior overview, dock no. 491. View to east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. General interior overview, dock no. 491. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 21. General interior overview, dock no. 492. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General interior overview, dock no. 492. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 14. General interior overview, dock no. 492. View to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. General interior overview, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 15. Interior view of hangar doors, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of hangar doors, dock no. 492. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access road in foreground. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of airplane tail protruding out of hangar doors, dock no. 491. Detail of canvas gasket allowing doors to close tightly around fuselage. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 4. Southwest fronts, dock nos. 491 and 492. Southeast end, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Southwest fronts, dock nos. 491 and 492. Southeast end, dock no. 492. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 22. Detail of interior corner showing truss system, dock no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail of interior corner showing truss system, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 9. Southeast end, dock no. 492. Dock no. 493 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Southeast end, dock no. 492. Dock no. 493 in background. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ladder. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 10. Detail of center hangar doors and canvas gasket, dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of center hangar doors and canvas gasket, dock no. 493. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of the operational apron. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 18. General interior overview, dock no. 491. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. General interior overview, dock no. 491. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 16. General interior overview, dock no. 493. View to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. General interior overview, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access road in foreground. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead door, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 4. Northeast front and northwest side of original section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast front and northwest side of original section and addition. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View shows exposed tail of aircraft being serviced inside the hangar. Operational apron in background. View to southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast rear and northwest end, dock no. 492. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northwest end and northeast rear, dock no. 491. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer seat with instrument panel. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southeast end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southwest front, dock no. 491. Aircraft tail extends through gasket in center hangar doors. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 20. General interior overview, dock no. 493. View to northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. General interior overview, dock no. 493. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 1. Southwest front and southeast end, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southwest front and southeast end, building no. 528. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 2. Looking glass aircraft with open main entry door and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Looking glass aircraft with open main entry door and cockpit hatch. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 4. Southwest front and southeast end, building no. 529. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Southwest front and southeast end, building no. 529. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 1. Northeast front and southeast side of original section. Addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northeast front and southeast side of original section. Addition to rear view to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of the operational apron. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and copilot seats with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and co-pilot seats with console and overhead instrument panels. View to northeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. 12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. View to west - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. COMPARISON OF TWO FIELD SAMPLING PROCEDURES (EN CORE AND FIELD METHANOL EXTRACTION) FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ Lasagna technology was recently evaluated at a contaminated site at Offutt Air Force Base. The site was contaminated with low levels (< 30 mg/kg) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Originally, researchers planned to use field methanol extraction for both pre- and pos...

  10. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST OF THE ROLL OUT OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST OF THE ROLL OUT OF THE FIRST B-29 SUPERFORTRESS ON MAY 24, 1944, SHOWING THE NOSE RAISED TO ALLOW THE TAIL TO PASS UNDER THE CANOPY DOORS. WHO, 1944 - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 74. SAC control center addition sect 9top three floors, first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. SAC control center addition sect 9-top three floors, first floor plan, drawing number AS-BLT.AW30-02-03, dated May, 1958 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 15. View looking up Dramp from middle floor level showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View looking up D-ramp from middle floor level showing lighting conduits and manometer panel on wall of decontamination area. Building 501, October 2, 1956 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 9. Threequarter view of building 500 looking northeast from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Three-quarter view of building 500 looking northeast from the corner of Apollo Drive and SAC Boulevard at the outbound gate - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 31. View from roof of courtyard from Hwing, with Dwing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. View from roof of courtyard from H-wing, with D-wing on left, and C-wing on right, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 12. Threequarter view of southwest corner of building 500, Gwing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Three-quarter view of southwest corner of building 500, G-wing, and loading dock looking northeast, from Apollo Drive - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. GENERAL VIEW OF THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING LOOKING SOUTH FROM "HOSPITAL HILL" SHOWING THE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION OF THE LOWER MANUFACTURING LEVEL WITH RAIL TRACKS IN THE FOREGROUND AND FORT CROOK IN THE BACKGROUND. Peter Kiewit Sons, Inc. (PKS), 1941. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. NetView technical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  18. Effect of water molecules on the fluorescence enhancement of Aflatoxin B1 mediated by Aflatoxin B1:beta-cyclodextrin complexes. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Galicia, Guillermo; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Gabriela Vargas, M

    2007-01-01

    In order to explain the observed fluorescence enhancement of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) when forming AFB1:beta-cyclodextrin (AFB1:beta-CD) inclusion complexes, we have performed a theoretical (quantum chemistry calculations) study of AFB1 and AFB1:beta-CD in vacuum and in the presence of aqueous solvent. The AM1 method was used to calculate the absorption and emission wavelengths of these molecules. With the help of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) vibrational frequencies and related excitation energies of AFB1 and AFB1.(H2O)m = 4,5,6,11 were calculated. On the basis of these calculations we propose a plausible mechanism for the fluorescence enhancement of AFB1 in the presence of beta-CD: (1) before photoexcitation of AFB1 to its S1 excited state, there is a vibrational coupling between the vibrational modes involving the AFB1 carbonyl groups and the bending modes of the nearby water molecules (CG + WM); (2) these interactions allow a thermal relaxation of the excited AFB1 molecules that results in fluorescence quenching; (3) when the AFB1 molecules form inclusion complexes with beta-CD the CG + WM interaction decreases; and (4) this gives rise to a fluorescence enhancement.

  19. 75 FR 60740 - Record of Decision for the Base Closure and Realignment Beddown and Flight Operations of Remotely...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Operations of Remotely Piloted Aircraft at Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB), ND ACTION: Notice of... Operations of Remotely Piloted Aircraft at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota. The ROD states the Air Force... Remotely Piloted Aircraft at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota, inputs from the public and regulatory...

  20. 78 FR 19278 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Area New Mexico 3 Buildings Kirtland AFB Kirtland AFB NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property...: Secured Area Bldg. 30116 5801 Manzano St SE Kirtland AFB NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property... alternative method to gain access w/out comprising nat'l security. Reasons: Secured Area 6 Buildings...

  1. 75 FR 14612 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...: 88200940004 Status: Unutilized Reasons: Extensive deterioration New Mexico Bldg. 1016 Kirtland AFB Bernalillo...: Underutilized Reasons: Secured Area Bldgs. 436, 437 Kirtland AFB Bernalillo NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air... flammable or explosive material Bldgs. 20612, 29071, 37505 Kirtland AFB Bernalillo NM 87117...

  2. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods.

  3. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods. PMID:27467853

  4. Human health implications from co-exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize-based foods in Latin America: Guatemala as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-occurence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in maize has been demonstrated in many surveys. Combined-exposure to FB1 and AFB1 was of concern to the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives because of the known genotoxicity of AFB1 and the ability of FB1 to induce regenerative...

  5. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detec...

  6. The Effect of Aflatoxin-B1 on Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and Assessment of Dietary Supplementation of NovaSil for the Prevention of Aflatoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Ly, Hoai J.; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Romoser, Amelia; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum. PMID:24064717

  7. The effect of aflatoxin-B1 on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and assessment of dietary supplementation of NovaSil for the prevention of aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Zychowski, Katherine E; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Ly, Hoai J; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Romoser, Amelia; Gatlin, Delbert M; Phillips, Timothy D

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum. PMID:24064717

  8. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366 nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432 nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475 nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509 nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources.

  9. Protective roles of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis of jejunum in broilers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler's jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25526081

  10. Protective roles of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis of jejunum in broilers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-12-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler's jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25590100

  11. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25526081

  12. Perturbation of polysome - membrane interaction by aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Erki, L.; Patterson, W.J. Jr.; delRosario, R.; Devlin, T.M.; Ch'ih, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    In this study AFB/sup 1/ was used to assess the interaction between polysomes and the membrane. Hepatocytes treated with 50 ..mu..M AFB/sub 1/ showed no significant quantitative changes in phospholipid, protein, and RNA as compared with untreated cells. Mitochondrial and microsomal fractions isolated from AFB/sub 1/ treated cells showed 10-20% increases in protein and phospholipid. Determinations of membrane components of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and RER isolated from AFB/sub 1/ treated S-10 reaction gave similar results. To study AFB/sub 1/ activation and modification along with polysome and membrane interactions, SER or RER was incubated in the presence or absence of polysomes. In the presence of 0.25, 1 and 3 mg polysomes, (/sup 3/H)AFB/sub 1/ activation was inhibited by 28, 38, and 59%, respectively. When SER was incubated with (/sup 3/H)AFB/sub 1/ for 20 min in the absence of polysomes, the subsequent addition of varying amounts of polysomes resulted in a concentration dependent modification of polysomes. This concentration dependent modification and inhibition of AFB/sub 1/ activation by polysomes and the lack of changes in membrane components by AFB/sub 1/ indicated that the membrane sites for AFB/sub 1/ activation and polysome attachment are in close proximity.

  13. Dietary vitamin E in White Leghorn layer breeder hens: a strategy to combat aflatoxin B1-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajid Arshad; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Hassan, Zahoor Ul; Rafique, Shahid; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Ahad, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of animal and human feed and food respectively. This study was designed to investigate the protective activity of vitamin E (Vit E) in White Leghorn breeder hens and their progeny against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced damage. The results indicated a significant decrease in egg production and quality in the groups exposed to dietary AFB1. A detectable amount of AFB1 residue appeared in the eggs during the first week of mycotoxin exposure at levels ≥ 2.5 mg kg(-1), which reached its peak (0.403 ± 0.04 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation]) during the second week of the experiment (in the group fed 10 mg kg(-1)). Feeding Vit E + AFB1 resulted in higher AFB1 residues (0.467 ± 0.03) when compared with the hens fed AFB1 alone. The resistance of red blood cells to oxidative damage was decreased, while embryonic mortalities and deformities were increased in the AFB1-fed groups. The protective effect of Vit E on these parameters was noted in the groups fed lower doses of AFB1. After the withdrawal of mycotoxin-contaminated feed, most of the parameters returned towards normal within 2 weeks, except AFB1 residues that were still detectable. From the findings of this study one can conclude that the addition of Vit E in the diet of hens provided only partial protection against AFB1-induced damage.

  14. Occupational Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in a Portuguese Poultry Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luísa; Almeida, Ana; dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and is the most potent hepatocarcinogen known in mammals and has been classified by the International Agency of Research on Cancer as Group 1 carcinogen. Although dietary exposure to AFB1 has been extensively documented, there are still few studies dedicated to the problem of occupational exposure. Considering recent findings regarding AFB1 occupational exposure in poultry production, it was considered relevant to clarify if there is also exposure in poultry slaughterhouses. Occupational exposure assessment to AFB1 was done with a biomarker of internal dose that measures AFB1 in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty workers from a slaughterhouse were enrolled in this study. A control group (n = 30) was also considered in order to know AFB1 background levels for Portuguese population. Fourteen workers (47.0%) showed detectable levels of AFB1 with values from 1.06 to 4.03ng ml(-1), with a mean value of 1.73ng ml(-1). No AFB1 was detected in serum of individuals used as controls. Despite uncertainties regarding the exposure route that is contributing more to exposure (inhalation or dermal) is possible to state that exposure to AFB1 is occurring in the slaughterhouse studied. It seems that reducing AFB1 contamination in poultry production can have a positive result in this occupational setting.

  15. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Heidi A; El-Nezami, Hani S; Leppänen, Jukka M; Myllynen, Päivi K; Woodhouse, Heather J; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure. Placenta is the primary route for various compounds, both nutrients and toxins, from the mother to the fetal circulation. Furthermore, placenta contains enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. AFB1, AFB1-metabolites, and AFB1-albumin adducts have been detected in cord blood of babies after maternal exposure during pregnancy. However, the role that the placenta plays in the transfer and metabolism of AFB1 is not clear. In this study, placental transfer and metabolism of AFB1 were investigated in human placental perfusions and in in vitro studies. Eight human placentas were perfused with 0.5 or 5microM AFB1 for 2-4 h. In vitro incubations with placental microsomal and cytosolic proteins from eight additional placentas were also conducted. Our results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta. In vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human placenta to form AFL. AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1.

  16. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Chen, Ruohong; Zhang, Caihui; Li, Kangbai; Xu, Weiying; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Qingmei; Mu, Peiqiang; Jiang, Jun; Wen, Jikai; Deng, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB1 in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB1 to form AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB1 by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB1. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB1 binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB1. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB1 in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB1. PMID:27626447

  17. The role of duck hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1 in the induction of oxidative stress in the liver.

    PubMed

    Barraud, L; Douki, T; Guerret, S; Chevallier, M; Jamard, C; Trepo, C; Wild, C P; Cadet, J; Cova, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to use the Pekin duck model to investigate the interactions between hepadnaviral infection and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure including the role of both factors in the induction of oxidative stress in the liver. AFB1 exposure of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected Pekin ducks induced a significant increase in viral replication associated with an intense biliary ductular cells proliferation. Interestingly, extremely high levels of AFB1-DNA adducts (40-120 pmol AFB1-Fapy/mg DNA) and AFB1-albumin adducts (1,500-3,000 pg AFB1-lys Eq/mg albumin) were detected in duck liver and serum respectively, as compared to other animal species exposed to a similar AFB1 dose. DHBV infection was found to induce a non-significant increase in AFB1-albumin adduct levels in duck serum. During the treatment duration there was no effect on formation of oxidative base damage within DNA and no effect on oxidative lipid peroxidation following either viral infection or AFB1 exposure. In terms of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase) a significant increase in SOD activity occurred following AFB1 exposure, but not DHBV infection, but this was observed only after the cessation of treatment, when biliary ductular cells proliferation was reduced. PMID:11341355

  18. Dietary butylated hydroxytoluene protects against aflatoxicosis in Turkeys.

    PubMed

    Klein, Patrick J; Van Vleet, Terry R; Hall, Jeffery O; Coulombe, Roger A

    2002-07-01

    Turkeys are among the most sensitive species to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In mammals, dietary antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), have been shown to lessen the toxic effects of AFB(1) by various mechanisms. To test whether BHT protects against aflatoxicosis in turkeys, we supplemented the feed of 10-day-old male white turkeys with low (1000 ppm) and high (4000 ppm) BHT for 20 days. AFB(1) (1 ppm) was then added to the diets and continued for another 10 days. Birds in the AFB(1)-only group had a lower weight gain, a condition that had returned to near control in groups fed diets containing AFB(1) + BHT. Significant elevations in serum aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, which were evident in the AFB(1) group, were reversed in the AFB(1) + BHT groups. Histopathology revealed hepatic submassive necrotic lesions and biliary hyperplasia, the severity of which was lessened in the AFB(1) + BHT-treated birds. Hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was observed in the BHT-only group, but not in the AFB(1) + BHT groups. This condition associated with BHT treatment was found in a separate study to be reversible and without any long-term adverse effects. These results indicate that BHT counteracts many of the deleterious effects caused by AFB(1) and that this antioxidant may prove to be a viable feed additive for the reduction of aflatoxicosis in turkeys.

  19. Effects of various types of aluminosilicates and aflatoxin B1 on aflatoxin toxicity, chick performance, and mineral status.

    PubMed

    Scheideler, S E

    1993-02-01

    In vivo and in vitro trials were conducted to test the efficacy of four aluminosilicates (AS) (Ethacal feed component, Novasil, Perlite, and Zeobrite) to sorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and alleviate aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks. Percentage sorption capacity of AS to radiolabeled AFB1 dissolved in methanol varied from 2 to 60%, whereas percentage sorption in intestinal contents varied from 0 to 40.0% according to type of AS tested. Intestinal contents alone sorbed 42% radiolabeled AFB1. Novasil and Zeobrite exhibited the highest rates of sorption (55 and 60%, respectively) in methanol. An in vivo study compared the four types of AS in combination with 0 or 2.5 ppm AFB1 fed to day-old chicks (two pens of six chicks per treatment) to 3 wk of age. Diet effects on body weight, liver lipid, bone ash, and serum Ca, P, Na, K, and Cl were measured. The AFB1 significantly decreased 2- and 3-wk body weight, and a significant interaction effect of AS and AFB1 on bird weight occurred at 2 and 3 wk of age. Three of the four AS tested alleviated the growth depression caused by AFB1. Liver lipids percentage was increased in the AFB1-treated chicks, but this effect was suppressed by three of the AS. Bone ash was not affected by AFB1 and was increased by Novasil and decreased by Ethacal. Ethacal, Novasil, Perlite, and Zeobrite all tended to decrease serum Cl, regardless of AFB1 treatment.

  20. Glycine N-methyltransferase affects the metabolism of aflatoxin B{sub 1} and blocks its carcinogenic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, C.-H.; Hung, J.-H.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chen, S.-Y.; Liu, H.-H.; Chou, T.-Y.; Tsai, T.-F.; Darbha, Ramalakshmi; Hsieh, L.-L.; Chen, Y.-M.A

    2009-03-15

    Previously, we reported that glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) knockout mice develop chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) spontaneously. For this study we used a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter to establish a GNMT transgenic (TG) mouse model. Animals were intraperitoneally inoculated with aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) and monitored for 11 months, during which neither male nor female GNMT-TG mice developed HCC. In contrast, 4 of 6 (67%) male wild-type mice developed HCC. Immunofluorescent antibody test showed that GNMT was translocated into nuclei after AFB{sub 1} treatment. Competitive enzyme immunoassays indicated that after AFB{sub 1} treatment, the AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts formed in stable clones expressing GNMT reduced 51.4% compared to the vector control clones. Experiments using recombinant adenoviruses carrying GNMT cDNA (Ad-GNMT) further demonstrated that the GNMT-related inhibition of AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts formation is dose-dependent. HPLC analysis of the metabolites of AFB{sub 1} in the cultural supernatants of cells exposed to AFB{sub 1} showed that the AFM{sub 1} level in the GNMT group was significantly higher than the control group, indicating the presence of GNMT can enhance the detoxification pathway of AFB{sub 1}. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the GNMT group had higher survival rate than the control group after they were treated with AFB{sub 1}. Automated docking experiments showed that AFB{sub 1} binds to the S-adenosylmethionine binding domain of GNMT. Affinity sensor assay demonstrated that the dissociation constant for GNMT-AFB{sub 1} interaction is 44.9 {mu}M. Therefore, GNMT is a tumor suppressor for HCC and it exerts protective effects in hepatocytes via direct interaction with AFB{sub 1}, resulting in reduced AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts formation and cell death.

  1. Complete protection against aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer with a triterpenoid: DNA adduct dosimetry, molecular signature and genotoxicity threshold

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Natalie M.; Egner, Patricia A.; Baxter, Victoria K.; Sporn, Michael B.; Wible, Ryan S.; Sutter, Thomas R.; Groopman, John D.; Kensler, Thomas W.; Roebuck, Bill D.

    2014-01-01

    In experimental animals and humans, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatic toxin and carcinogen. The synthetic oleanane triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), a powerful activator of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling, protects against AFB1-induced toxicity and preneoplastic lesion formation (GST-P positive foci). This study assessed and mechanistically characterized the chemoprotective efficacy of CDDO-Im against AFB1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A lifetime cancer bioassay was undertaken in F344 rats dosed with AFB1 (200μg/kg rat/day) for 4 weeks and receiving either vehicle or CDDO-Im (three times weekly), one week prior to and throughout the exposure period. Weekly, 24-hour urine samples were collected for analysis of AFB1 metabolites. In a subset of rats, livers were analyzed for GST-P foci. The comparative response of a toxicogenomic RNA expression signature for AFB1 was examined. CDDO-Im completely protected (0/20) against AFB1-induced liver cancer compared to a 96% incidence (22/23) observed in the AFB1 group. With CDDO-Im treatment, integrated level of urinary AFB1-N7-guanine was significantly reduced (66%) and aflatoxin-N-acetylcysteine, a detoxication product, was consistently elevated (300%) after the first AFB1 dose. In AFB1-treated rats, the hepatic burden of GST-P positive foci increased substantially (0% to 13.8%) over the 4 weeks, but was largely absent with CDDO-Im intervention. The toxicogenomic RNA expression signature characteristic of AFB1 was absent in the AFB1 + CDDO-Im treated rats. The remarkable efficacy of CDDO-Im as an anticarcinogen is established even in the face of a significant aflatoxin adduct burden. Consequently, the absence of cancer requires a concept of a threshold for DNA damage for cancer development. PMID:24662598

  2. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in marketed foods and risk estimates of dietary exposure in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyun Ee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shim, Won Bo; Lee, Hyomin; Bae, Dong-Ho; Chung, Duck-Hwa; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2007-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an unavoidable food contaminant. To evaluate the potential health risk of AFB1 to Koreans posed by food consumption, we determined the natural occurrence of AFB1 in food and estimated the excess risk for liver cancer through dietary exposure to AFB1. A total of 694 food samples collected from six different regions of South Korea were analyzed for their AFB, content. One hundred four of the 694 samples were found to give positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) readings for AFB1 and were further investigated with high-performance liquid chromatography. Thirty-two samples, including 2 maize samples, 3 soybean products, 20 peanut samples, nut samples, and their products, and 7 spices, were found to be contaminated with AFB1 (4.6% incidence), up to 48.6 microg kg(-1). The level of AFB1 contamination in 28 of the 32 food products was below 10 microg kg(-1), which is the legal tolerance limit in Korea. From data on daily food consumption, the exposure dose of AFB1 was estimated to be 6.42 x 10(-7) mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1). The major contributors to the dietary intake of AFB1 were soybean paste and soy sauce, which composed 91% of the total exposure to AFB1. The excess risk of liver cancer for those exposed to AFB1 through food intake was estimated to be 5.78 x 10(-6) for hepatitis B-negative individuals and 1.48 x 10(-4) for hepatitis B-positive individuals. These results suggest that special consideration is required to reduce the intake of AFB1 in hepatitis B-positive individuals.

  3. Complete protection against aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver cancer with a triterpenoid: DNA adduct dosimetry, molecular signature, and genotoxicity threshold.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Natalie M; Egner, Patricia A; Baxter, Victoria K; Sporn, Michael B; Wible, Ryan S; Sutter, Thomas R; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W; Roebuck, Bill D

    2014-07-01

    In experimental animals and humans, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatic toxin and carcinogen. The synthetic oleanane triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), a powerful activator of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling, protects against AFB1-induced toxicity and preneoplastic lesion formation (GST-P-positive foci). This study assessed and mechanistically characterized the chemoprotective efficacy of CDDO-Im against AFB1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A lifetime cancer bioassay was undertaken in F344 rats dosed with AFB1 (200 μg/kg rat/day) for four weeks and receiving either vehicle or CDDO-Im (three times weekly), one week before and throughout the exposure period. Weekly, 24-hour urine samples were collected for analysis of AFB1 metabolites. In a subset of rats, livers were analyzed for GST-P foci. The comparative response of a toxicogenomic RNA expression signature for AFB1 was examined. CDDO-Im completely protected (0/20) against AFB1-induced liver cancer compared with a 96% incidence (22/23) observed in the AFB1 group. With CDDO-Im treatment, integrated level of urinary AFB1-N(7)-guanine was significantly reduced (66%) and aflatoxin-N-acetylcysteine, a detoxication product, was consistently elevated (300%) after the first AFB1 dose. In AFB1-treated rats, the hepatic burden of GST-P-positive foci increased substantially (0%-13.8%) over the four weeks, but was largely absent with CDDO-Im intervention. The toxicogenomic RNA expression signature characteristic of AFB1 was absent in the AFB1 + CDDO-Im-treated rats. The remarkable efficacy of CDDO-Im as an anticarcinogen is established even in the face of a significant aflatoxin adduct burden. Consequently, the absence of cancer requires a concept of a threshold for DNA damage for cancer development. PMID:24662598

  4. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Volume 1 (includes appendices a through c). Revision 1. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-05

    This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Barter Island radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

  5. Up-regulation of nucleotide excision repair in mouse lung and liver following chronic exposure to aflatoxin B{sub 1} and its dependence on p53 genotype

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, Jeanne E.; Bondy, Genevieve S.; Mehta, Rekha; Massey, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is biotransformed in vivo into an epoxide metabolite that forms DNA adducts that may induce cancer if not repaired. p53 is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in the regulation of global nucleotide excision repair (NER). Male heterozygous p53 knockout (B6.129-Trp53{sup tm1Brd}N5, Taconic) and wild-type mice were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} for 26 weeks. NER activity was assessed with an in vitro assay, using AFB{sub 1}-epoxide adducted plasmid DNA as a substrate. For wild-type mice, repair of AFB{sub 1}–N7-Gua adducts was 124% and 96% greater in lung extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm and 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} respectively, and 224% greater in liver extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm AFB{sub 1} (p < 0.05). In heterozygous p53 knockout mice, repair of AFB{sub 1}–N7-Gua was only 45% greater in lung extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm AFB{sub 1} (p < 0.05), and no effect was observed in lung extracts from mice treated with 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} or in liver extracts from mice treated with either AFB{sub 1} concentration. p53 genotype did not affect basal levels of repair. AFB{sub 1} exposure did not alter repair of AFB{sub 1}-derived formamidopyrimidine adducts in lung or liver extracts of either mouse genotype nor did it affect XPA or XPB protein levels. In summary, chronic exposure to AFB{sub 1} increased NER activity in wild-type mice, and this response was diminished in heterozygous p53 knockout mice, indicating that loss of one allele of p53 limits the ability of NER to be up-regulated in response to DNA damage. - Highlights: • Mice are chronically exposed to low doses of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}). • The effects of AFB{sub 1} and p53 status on nucleotide excision repair are investigated. • AFB{sub 1} increases nucleotide excision repair in wild type mouse lung and liver. • This increase is attenuated in p53 heterozygous mouse lung and liver. • Results portray the role of p53 in

  6. Bypass of Aflatoxin B[subscript 1] Adducts by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P.

    2012-07-18

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is oxidized to an epoxide in vivo, which forms an N7-dG DNA adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG). The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG can rearrange to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative. Both AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and the {beta}-anomer of the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct yield G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the latter is more mutagenic. We show that the Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) bypasses AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG in an error-free manner but conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including misinsertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations observed in E. coli. Three ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) structures with AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adducted template:primers have been solved. These demonstrate insertion of dCTP opposite the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, and correct vs incorrect insertion of dATP vs dTTP opposite the 5'-template neighbor dT from a primed AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG:dC pair. The insertion of dTTP reveals hydrogen bonding between the template N3 imino proton and the O{sup 2} oxygen of dTTP, and between the template T O{sup 4} oxygen and the N3 imino proton of dTTP, perhaps explaining why this polymerase does not efficiently catalyze phosphodiester bond formation from this mispair. The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG maintains the 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety observed in DNA. The bond between N7-dG and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety remains in plane with the alkylated guanine, creating a 16{sup o} inclination of the AFB{sub 1} moiety with respect to the guanine. A binary (Dpo4-DNA) structure with an AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adducted template:primer also maintains 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety. The {beta}-deoxyribose anomer is observed. Rotation about the FAPY C5-N{sup 5} bond orients the bond between N{sup 5} and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety out of plane in the 5'-direction, with respect to the FAPY base. The formamide group extends in the 3'-direction. This improves stacking of the AFB{sub 1

  7. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in imported wheat and barley in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K R N; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-11-01

    Thirty samples consisting of wheat (15) and barley (15) were collected from different markets in Penang, Malaysia, originating from India and Thailand, respectively. All samples were analyzed for occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Aspergillus flavus was dominant in all samples followed by A. niger. AFB1 could be detected in three wheat samples ranging from 0.42 to 1.89 μg/kg and one barley sample had 0.58 μg/kg of AFB1. The AFB1 levels in all the samples were below the Malaysian regulatory limits (<35 μg/kg). The frequency and quantity of AFB1 levels in this study were very low in wheat and barley samples compared to other agricultural commodities reported in India and Thailand. This is the first report on determination of Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 in imported wheat and barley grains in Penang, Malaysia.

  8. Utilization of geothermal resources at United States Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Grogger, P.K.

    1980-09-01

    The Air Force installations on the continental United States as well as Alaska and Hawaii, were evaluated as to the possibility of utilizing geothermal energy to develop electricity, produce process steam, or heat and/or cool buildings. Twenty-five bases have suspected geothermal resources available. Because of either need or available technology seven installations were rated priority I, six were rated priority II and priority III and IV totaled ten. Geological and geophysical data indicated further investigation of the priority I installations, Saylor Creek Range, Idaho, Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota, Charleston AFB, South Carolina, Kirkland AFB, New Mexico, Vandenberg AFB, California, Luke AFB, Arizona, and Williams AFB, Arizona, should be accomplished as soon as possible. The use of geothermal energy will decrease the need for fossil fuels by the USAF and during times of short supply allow such fuels to be used for the Air Force's primary mission, military defense.

  9. Effect of Sodium Selenite on Pathological Changes and Renal Functions in Broilers Fed a Diet Containing Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Na; Wang, Fengyuan; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Chen, Zhengli; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi; Geng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the renal toxicity of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ameliorating effects of added dietary sodium selenite in broiler, renal histopathological changes, ultrastructural changes, and renal function parameters were monitored at 7, 14, and 21 days of age. Two hundred one-day-old healthy male Avian broilers were divided into four groups, namely control group, AFB1 group (0.3 mg/kg AFB1), +Se group (0.4 mg/kg Se), and AFB1+Se group (0.3 mg/kg AFB1+0.4 mg/kg Se). Compared with that of the control group, the relative weight of kidney was increased in the AFB1 group. There were no significant differences between the AFB1+Se group and the control group. By histopathological observation, the renal epithelia were swelling and necrosis at 7 and 21 days of age. Ultrastructurally, the lipid droplets and expanded endoplasmic reticulum appeared in the plasma of epithelia cells in the AFB1 group. Enlarged mitochondria with degenerated cristae were observed in the +Se group. Compared with the control group, the contents of serum creatinine and serum uric acid in the AFB1 group were increased, while the activity of renal Na+-K+ ATPase was decreased. When 0.4 mg/kg selenium was added into the diet containing 0.3 mg/kg AFB1, there were no obvious histological changes in the AFB1+Se group, and the contents of the serum creatinine and serum uric acid contents and the activity of renal Na+-K+ ATPase were close to those in the control group. In conclusion, sodium selenite exhibited protective effects on AFB1-induced kidney toxicity in broilers. PMID:26371027

  10. Spectral characteristics of fluorescence and circular dichroism of aflatoxin B1 reaction with its anti-idiotypic antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiping; Yang, Hongxiu; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic secondary metabolite and sensitive methods for its analysis have been developed. In our lab, a number of works have been carried out, including exploitation of detection methods and production of anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) against Fab fragment of anti-AFB1 antibody (Ab1). In this paper, Ab2 was generated upon the immunization of mice with F(ab')2 fragment, which was specific to AFB1 and obtained by pepsin digestion of Ab1. The characteristics of Ab2 was primarily investigated by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), which indicated that Ab2, might bear an internal image of antigen AFB1 and was able to combine to F(ab')2 in competition with AFB1, and the concentration of Ab2 to cause 50% inhibition of binding (IC50) was 131.8 μg/mL. In addition, fluorescence and circular dichroism studies were designed to explore the mutual relationship among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2. The fluorescence spectroscopy implied that both AFB1 and Ab2 act as a quencher upon F(ab')2, and the Ab2 could compete with AFB1 when both of Ab2 and AFB1 reacted with F(ab')2. The circular dichroism (CD) spectrum suggested that both the binding of Ab2 and AFB1 on F(ab')2 brought secondary conformation change of F(ab')2, especially in the changes of α helix and β sheet. The research performed would provide unique insight into the comprehension of interaction among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2 as well as offer structural information for substitution researches of toxic antigen like AFB1.

  11. Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C

    2009-12-01

    A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.

  12. Effects of aflatoxin and carotenoids on growth performance and immune response in mule ducklings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y H; Shen, T F; Pang, V F; Chen, B J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if carotenoids could alleviate the adverse effects caused by aflatoxin with respect to growth performance and immune response. In two experiments, a total of 320 mule ducklings were assigned to 5 treatments, i.e. control, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) 200 ppb, AFB(1) +beta-carotene (BC) 200 ppm, AFB(1)+BC 400 ppm, and AFB(1)+astaxanthin (AS) 200 ppm. In experiment 1, the addition of beta-carotene or astaxanthin in the diet containing AFB(1) 200 ppb resulted in a significant decrease in average daily gain as compared with the control. AFB(1) 200 ppb alone and the addition of BC or AS on top of AFB(1) resulted in a significantly lower daily feed intake than for the control group. There were no significant differences in relative organ weights among treatment groups. Both treatments of BC 400 ppm and AS 200 ppm had significantly more macrophages harvested per duck than the control and AFB(1) 200 ppb treatments. However, there were no significant differences among treatments in percentages of phagocytotic macrophages and number of Candida albican phagocytized by phagocytotic macrophages. In experiment 2, blood biochemical parameters and antibody titers were evaluated. There were no significant differences among treatments in total bilirubin content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the serum or in antibody titers against fowl cholera. However, AFB(1) treatment had the highest activities of AST and ALT in the serum. The addition of BC 400 ppm on top of AFB(1) significantly reduced ALT activity as compared with the AFB(1) 200 ppb treatment. These results suggest that carotenoids could provide a slightly toxic alleviating effect on growth performance, enhance the chemotaxis ability of macrophages, and reduce ALT activity elevated by AFB(1).

  13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance for Geothermal Resource Evaluation Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Thomas R. Wood; Joel Renner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to report on the evaluation of geothermal resource potential on and around three different United States (U. S.) Air Force Bases (AFBs): Nellis AFB and Air Force Range (AFR) in the State of Nevada (see maps 1 and 5), Holloman AFB in the State of New Mexico (see map 2), and Mountain Home AFB in the State of Idaho (see map 3). All three sites are located in semi-arid parts of the western U. S. The U. S. Air Force, through its Air Combat Command (ACC) located at Langley AFB in the State of Virginia, asked the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for technical assistance to conduct technical and feasibility evaluations for the potential to identify viable geothermal resources on or around three different AFBs. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is supporting FEMP in providing technical assistance to a number of different Federal Agencies. For this report, the three different AFBs are considered one project because they all deal with potential geothermal resource evaluations. The three AFBs will be evaluated primarily for their opportunity to develop a geothermal resource of high enough quality grade (i.e., temperature, productivity, depth, etc.) to consider the possibility for generation of electricity through a power plant. Secondarily, if the resource for the three AFBs is found to be not sufficient enough for electricity generation, then they will be described in enough detail to allow the base energy managers to evaluate if the resource is suitable for direct heating or cooling. Site visits and meetings by INL personnel with the staff at each AFB were held in late FY-2009 and FY-2010. This report provides a technical evaluation of the opportunities and challenges for developing geothermal resources on and around the AFBs. An extensive amount of literature and geographic information was evaluated as a part of this assessment. Resource potential maps were developed for each of the AFBs.

  14. Effects of astaxanthin and esterified glucomannan on hematological and serum parameters, and liver pathological changes in broilers fed aflatoxin-B1-contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jigang; Wang, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    The effects of astaxanthin (ASTA) and esterified glucomannan (EMG) on hematological and serum parameters, and liver pathological changes in broilers fed on aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) contaminated diet were investigated. Two hundred and forty 10-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments including: (i) control diet; (ii) AFB1-contaminated diet; (iii) AFB1 + EGM diet; (iv) AFB1 + ASTA diet; and (v) AFB1 + EGM + ASTA diet. At 35 days old, blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis. Results indicated that total white blood cell (WBC) number, hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct) level, serum alanine amino transferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, red blood cell (RBC) number, serum globulin (GLB) and urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations (P < 0.05) were increased by feeding AFB1-contaminated diet. EMG and ASTA alleviated the alteration of RBC, WBC, Hgb and AST caused by AFB1-contaminated diet. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was reduced, while myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased by AFB1-contaminated diet (P < 0.05). Both EGM and ASTA restrained the increase of MPO activity (P < 0.05). Degeneration of the liver tissues was found in broilers fed AFB1-contaminated diet. It suggested that feeding 0.4 mg/kg AFB1-contaminated diet resulted in adverse effects on blood parameters and liver morphology. Dietary addition of EGM addition at 5 g/kg diet, ASTA at 10 mg/kg diet and especially their combination showed positive protection effects on alleviating the alteration of feeding AFB1. The results indicated that supplementation of 5 g EGM/kg diet, 10 mg ASTA/kg diet and their combination could partially or greatly alleviate the adverse effects caused by AFB1, with the EGM+ASTA group receiving the most effective treatment.

  15. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin

    2012-03-27

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  16. Dietary Aflatoxin-Induced Stunting in a Novel Rat Model: Evidence for Toxin-Induced Liver Injury and Hepatic Growth Hormone Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Knipstein, Brittany; Huang, Jiansheng; Barr, Emily; Sossenheimer, Philip; Dietzen, Dennis; Egner, Patricia A.; Groopman, John D.; Rudnick, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a strong statistical correlation between dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-exposure and childhood stunting, the causal mechanism remains speculative. This issue is important because of emerging interest in reduction of human aflatoxin exposure to diminish the prevalence and complications of stunting. Pediatric liver diseases cause growth impairment, and AFB1 is hepatotoxic. Thus, liver injury might mediate AFB1-associated growth impairment. We have developed a rat model of dietary AFB1-induced stunting to investigate these questions. Methods Newly-weaned rats were given AFB1-supplemented- or control-diets from age 3-9 weeks, and then euthanized for serum- and tissue-collection. Food intake and weight were serially assessed, with tibial-length determined at the experimental endpoint. Serum AFB1-adducts, hepatic gene and protein expression, and liver injury markers were quantified using established methodologies. Results AFB1-albumin adducts correlated with dietary toxin contamination, but such contamination did not affect food consumption. AFB1-exposed animals exhibited dose-dependent wasting and stunting, liver pathology, and suppression of hepatic targets of growth hormone (GH) signaling, but did not display increased mortality. Conclusion These data establish toxin-dependent liver injury and hepatic GH-resistance as candidate mechanisms by which AFB1-exposure causes growth impairment in this mammalian model. Interrogation of modifiers of stunting using this model could guide interventions in at-risk and affected children. PMID:25938735

  17. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut and sunflower oils in different Sudanese states.

    PubMed

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly.

  18. Dynamic representation of spectral edges in guinea pig primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Montejo, Noelia

    2015-01-01

    The central representation of a given acoustic motif is thought to be strongly context dependent, i.e., to rely on the spectrotemporal past and present of the acoustic mixture in which it is embedded. The present study investigated the cortical representation of spectral edges (i.e., where stimulus energy changes abruptly over frequency) and its dependence on stimulus duration and depth of the spectral contrast in guinea pig. We devised a stimulus ensemble composed of random tone pips with or without an attenuated frequency band (AFB) of variable depth. Additionally, the multitone ensemble with AFB was interleaved with periods of silence or with multitone ensembles without AFB. We have shown that the representation of the frequencies near but outside the AFB is greatly enhanced, whereas the representation of frequencies near and inside the AFB is strongly suppressed. These cortical changes depend on the depth of the AFB: although they are maximal for the largest depth of the AFB, they are also statistically significant for depths as small as 10 dB. Finally, the cortical changes are quick, occurring within a few seconds of stimulus ensemble presentation with AFB, and are very labile, disappearing within a few seconds after the presentation without AFB. Overall, this study demonstrates that the representation of spectral edges is dynamically enhanced in the auditory centers. These central changes may have important functional implications, particularly in noisy environments where they could contribute to preserving the central representation of spectral edges. PMID:25744885

  19. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 during the fermentation of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-07-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration. PMID:23812408

  20. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut and sunflower oils in different Sudanese states.

    PubMed

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly. PMID:26472622

  1. Effect of curcumin on hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities and gene expressions in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight rats were examined in a 5-week experiment to investigate the effect of curcumin on gene expression and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). The rats were divided into four groups. Rats in 1-4 groups served as control, oral curcumin treated (15 mg/kg body weight), single i.p. dose of AFB1 (3 mg/kg body weight) and combination of single i.p. dose of AFB1 with oral curcumin treated, respectively. AFB1 Liver damage and oxidative stress were evident in untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats as indicated by a significant elevation in hepatic transaminases, elevation in lipid peroxide biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS), reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and down-regulation of gene expression of these antioxidant enzymes compared to control. Liver sections of rats intoxicated with AFB1 showed a disrupted lobular architecture, scattered necrotic cells and biliary proliferation. Administration of curcumin with AFB1 resulted in amelioration of AFB1 -induced effects compared to untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats via an up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene expression, activation of the expressed genes and increase in the availability of GSH.

  2. Sulforaphane, a cancer chemopreventive agent, induces pathways associated with membrane biosynthesis in response to tissue damage by aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Nirachara; Fiala, Jeannette L. A.; Navasumrit, Panida; Croy, Robert G.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Essigmann, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the major risk factors for liver cancer globally. A recent study showed that sulforaphane (SF), a potent inducer of phase II enzymes that occurs naturally in widely consumed vegetables, effectively induces hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and reduces levels of hepatic AFB1-DNA adducts in AFB1-exposed Sprague Dawley rats. The present study characterized the effects of SF pre-treatment on global gene expression in the livers of similarly treated male rats. Combined treatment with AFB1 and SF caused reprogramming of a network of genes involved in signal transduction and transcription. Changes in gene regulation were observable 4 h after AFB1 administration in SF-pretreated animals and may reflect regeneration of cells in the wake of AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity. At 24 h after AFB1 administration, significant induction of genes that play roles in cellular lipid metabolism and acetyl-CoA biosynthesis was detected in SF-pretreated AFB1-dosed rats. Induction of this group of genes may indicate a metabolic shift toward glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis to generate and maintain pools of intermediate molecules required for tissue repair, cell growth and compensatory hepatic cell proliferation. Collectively, gene expression data from this study provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SF against AFB1 hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenicity, in addition to the chemopreventive activity of this compound as a GST inducer. PMID:25450479

  3. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration. PMID:23812408

  4. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 during the fermentation of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-06-28

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration.

  5. Ultraviolet Light Enhances the Bovine Serum Albumin Fixation for Acid Fast Bacilli Stain

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pei-Yin; Lee, Shih-Yi; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fu, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi

    2014-01-01

    The use of a liquid culture system such as MGIT broth has greatly improved the sensitivity of isolating mycobacteria in clinical laboratories. Microscopic visualization of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the culture positive MGIT broth remains the first routine step for rapidly indicating the presence of mycobacteria. We modified an ultraviolet (UV) light fixation process to increase AFB cells adherence to the slide. The retained haze proportion of a 1-cm circle marked area on the smear slide was quantified after the staining procedure indicating the adherence degree of AFB cells. More AFB cells were preserved on the slide after exposure to UV light of either germicidal lamp or UV crosslinker in a time-dependent manner. We demonstrated both the bovine serum albumin (BSA) in MGIT media and UV light exposure were required for enhancing fixation of AFB cells. While applying to AFB stains for 302 AFB positive MGIT broths in clinics, more AFB cells were retained and observed on smear slides prepared by the modified fixation procedure rather than by the conventional method. The modified fixation procedure was thus recommended for improving the sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis of AFB cells in culture positive MGIT broth. PMID:24586725

  6. Butylated hydroxytoluene chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis - effects on aflatoxin B(1) bioavailability, hepatic DNA adduct formation, and biliary excretion.

    PubMed

    Guarisco, J A; Hall, J O; Coulombe, R A

    2008-12-01

    The extreme sensitivity of turkeys to aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P-450 (P450)-mediated bioactivation, and deficient glutathione S-transferase (GST) mediated detoxification. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) protects against AFB(1) toxicity in turkeys through mechanisms that include competitive inhibition of P450-mediated AFB(1) bioactivation. To test whether dietary BHT alters hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adduct formation, excretion, and bioavailability of AFB(1)in vivo, turkeys were given diets with BHT (4000ppm) for 10 days, given a single oral dose of [(3)H]-AFB(1) (0.05microg/g; 0.02microCi/g), then sampled at intervals up to 24h. Radiolabel in serum, red blood cells, liver, and breast meat was frequently lower in BHT-treated compared to control. Hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adducts in BHT-treated turkeys were significantly lower at 12 and 24h. BHT-fed birds had significant higher bile efflux, though biliary radiolabel excretion was not different from control. The amount of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) excreted in the bile was lower than in control, but BHT had no effect on the biliary excretion of AFB(1), aflatoxin Q(1) or glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Thus, the chemopreventive properties of BHT may also occur through a reduction in AFB(1) bioavailability in addition to inhibition of bioactivation.

  7. Sulforaphane, a cancer chemopreventive agent, induces pathways associated with membrane biosynthesis in response to tissue damage by aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Nirachara; Fiala, Jeannette L A; Navasumrit, Panida; Croy, Robert G; Wogan, Gerald N; Groopman, John D; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Essigmann, John M

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the major risk factors for liver cancer globally. A recent study showed that sulforaphane (SF), a potent inducer of phase II enzymes that occurs naturally in widely consumed vegetables, effectively induces hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and reduces levels of hepatic AFB1-DNA adducts in AFB1-exposed Sprague Dawley rats. The present study characterized the effects of SF pre-treatment on global gene expression in the livers of similarly treated male rats. Combined treatment with AFB1 and SF caused reprogramming of a network of genes involved in signal transduction and transcription. Changes in gene regulation were observable 4h after AFB1 administration in SF-pretreated animals and may reflect regeneration of cells in the wake of AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity. At 24h after AFB1 administration, significant induction of genes that play roles in cellular lipid metabolism and acetyl-CoA biosynthesis was detected in SF-pretreated AFB1-dosed rats. Induction of this group of genes may indicate a metabolic shift toward glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis to generate and maintain pools of intermediate molecules required for tissue repair, cell growth and compensatory hepatic cell proliferation. Collectively, gene expression data from this study provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SF against AFB1 hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenicity, in addition to the chemopreventive activity of this compound as a GST inducer. PMID:25450479

  8. CD26 surface molecule involvement in T cell activation and lymphokine synthesis in rheumatoid and other inflammatory synovitis.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Muscat, C; Bertotto, A; Bistoni, O; Agea, E; Tognellini, R; Fiorucci, G; Cesarotti, M; Bombardieri, S

    1996-07-01

    T cell surface expression and the functional role of CD26 antigen (Ag), a surface ectoenzyme involved in T cell activation and migration across the extracellular matrix, were analyzed in the peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) from patients with inflammatory arthritides. CD26 membrane expression on T cells was detected by cytofluorometry using two different monoclonal antibodies, anti-Ta1 and anti-1F7, while cell proliferation and both IL-2 and IFN-gamma production were evaluated in anti-CD3- or anti-CD2-stimulated cell cultures after Ag surface modulation with anti-1F7. The results showed that Ta1 and 1F7 Ag expression were increased on T cells from PB of patients with active, but not inactive, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most SF T cells from RA or other inflammatory arthritides displayed the memory marker CD45R0 and the Ta1 Ag, but lacked the 1F7 molecule. In addition, in vitro 1F7 modulation, which enhanced RA PB T cell proliferation and both IL-2 and IFN-gamma synthesis, did not synergize with anti-CD3 or anti-CD2 in inducing IL-2-dependent activation of SF T cells, but reduced IFN-gamma production. A spontaneous reappearance of 1F7 Ag on the SF T cell surface was seen after 2-5 days in culture. Phorbol myristate acetate, able to accelerate its reexpression, also restored a normal response of SF T cells to anti-1F7 comitogenic effects. These data confirm a role of the CD26 surface molecule in regulating T cell activation and lymphokine synthesis. This observation may have important implications in the regulation of T cell activity at the joint level during chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:8674237

  9. Failure of catalase to protect against aflatoxin B{sub 1}-induced mouse lung tumorigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Guindon, Katherine A.; Foley, Julie F.; Maronpot, Robert R.; Massey, Thomas E.

    2008-03-01

    The carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) induces 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation in mouse lung, an effect that can be prevented by treatment with polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-CAT). G {yields} T transversion mutation in K-ras, an early event in AFB{sub 1}-induced mouse lung carcinogenesis, is thought to result from AFB{sub 1}-8,9-exo-epoxide binding to DNA to form AFB{sub 1}-N{sup 7}-guanine, but may also result from formation of 8-OHdG. Therefore, oxidative DNA damage may be important in AFB{sub 1} carcinogenicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether PEG-CAT would prevent AFB{sub 1} tumorigenicity. Mouse lung tumorigenesis was assessed following treatment of female A/J mice with 300 kU/kg PEG-CAT ip and/or 50 mg/kg AFB{sub 1}. Mice were killed 7 months post-treatment and tumors greater than 1 mm in diameter were excised. Unexpectedly, the mean number of tumors per mouse in the PEG-CAT + AFB{sub 1} group (8.81 {+-} 3.64, n = 47) was greater than that of the group treated with AFB{sub 1} alone (7.05 {+-} 3.45, n = 42) (P < 0.05). The tumors obtained from mice treated with PEG-CAT + AFB{sub 1} were larger than those from mice treated with AFB{sub 1} alone (P < 0.05). There was no difference in K-ras exon 1 mutation spectrum or in the histological diagnosis of tumors between AFB{sub 1} and PEG-CAT + AFB{sub 1} groups (P > 0.05). In vitro incubation with mouse liver catalase (CAT) resulted in conversion of [{sup 3}H]AFB{sub 1} into a DNA-binding species, a possible explanation for the results observed in vivo. These results demonstrate that PEG-CAT is not protective against AFB{sub 1} carcinogenicity in mouse lung despite preventing DNA oxidation.

  10. The Relationship between Age at First Birth and Mother's Lifetime Earnings: Evidence from Danish Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Having children creates career interruptions and reductions in labor income for women. This study documents the relation between the age at first birth (AFB) and women’s labor income. We study these dynamics in the short run (i.e. ratio between labor income at AFB and two years prior to AFB) and long run (i.e., positive/negative differences in total lifetime labor income). Methods Using unique Danish administrative register data for the entire Danish population, we estimate the age-income profiles separately for college and non-college women conditional on marital status, and mothers’ age at first birth (AFB). We compute the lifetime labor income differentials by taking the differences between the labor income of women with and without children at each AFB. Results The short-run loss in labor income, defined as the difference in percentages between the income earned two years prior to AFB and income earned at AFB, ranges from 37% to 65% for college women and from 40% to 53% for non-college women. These losses decrease monotonically with respect to AFB for both education groups. Our results on the lifetime labor income differentials between mothers and women without children also show a net effect that is monotonic (from negative to positive) in AFB. With AFB<25, the lifetime labor income loss for college women is -204% of their average annual labor income and this figure is -252% for non-college women. There are lifetime labor income gains with AFB>31. The largest gains for college women are 13% of their average annual income and this figure is 50% for non-college women. Conclusion Women have a large and unambiguous short-run reduction in labor income at their AFB. In terms of lifetime labor income, both college and non-college women, compared to childless women, are associated with lower income of more than twice their respective average annual income when bearing a child at AFB<25. In other words, women with AFB<25 are associated with a lower

  11. Sulforaphane, a cancer chemopreventive agent, induces pathways associated with membrane biosynthesis in response to tissue damage by aflatoxin B{sub 1}

    SciTech Connect

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Nirachara; Fiala, Jeannette L.A.; Navasumrit, Panida; Croy, Robert G.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Essigmann, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is one of the major risk factors for liver cancer globally. A recent study showed that sulforaphane (SF), a potent inducer of phase II enzymes that occurs naturally in widely consumed vegetables, effectively induces hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and reduces levels of hepatic AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts in AFB{sub 1}-exposed Sprague Dawley rats. The present study characterized the effects of SF pre-treatment on global gene expression in the livers of similarly treated male rats. Combined treatment with AFB{sub 1} and SF caused reprogramming of a network of genes involved in signal transduction and transcription. Changes in gene regulation were observable 4 h after AFB{sub 1} administration in SF-pretreated animals and may reflect regeneration of cells in the wake of AFB{sub 1}-induced hepatotoxicity. At 24 h after AFB{sub 1} administration, significant induction of genes that play roles in cellular lipid metabolism and acetyl-CoA biosynthesis was detected in SF-pretreated AFB{sub 1}-dosed rats. Induction of this group of genes may indicate a metabolic shift toward glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis to generate and maintain pools of intermediate molecules required for tissue repair, cell growth and compensatory hepatic cell proliferation. Collectively, gene expression data from this study provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SF against AFB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenicity, in addition to the chemopreventive activity of this compound as a GST inducer. - Highlights: • This study revealed sulforaphane (SF)-deregulated gene sets in aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-treated rat livers. • SF redirects biochemical networks toward lipid biosynthesis in AFB{sub 1}-dosed rats. • SF enhanced gene sets that would be expected to favor cell repair and regeneration.

  12. Modulation of aflatoxin toxicity and biomarkers by lycopene in F344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Lili; Guan Hongxia; Ding Xiaolin; Wang Jiasheng . E-mail: js.wang@ttu.edu

    2007-02-15

    Modulation by lycopene of aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-induced toxic effects, metabolism, and metabolic activations was studied in young F344 rats. Animals were pretreated orally with either corn oil (control group) or lycopene [100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intervention group] 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Control animals were then treated daily with AFB{sub 1} (250 {mu}g/kg b.w) alone. Intervention animals were administered lycopene (100 mg/kg b.w.) at 1 h following a daily treatment with AFB{sub 1} (250 {mu}g/kg b.w.). Pretreatment and intervention with lycopene significantly reduced the toxic effect caused by AFB{sub 1} and greatly modulated AFB{sub 1} metabolism and metabolic activation. Urinary excretion of AFB{sub 1} phase 1 metabolites, AFM{sub 1}, AFQ{sub 1}, and AFP{sub 1}, was significantly decreased in lycopene-treated animals. Formation of serum AFB{sub 1}-albumin adducts was also significantly reduced. The rate of reduction was from approximately 30% on day 1 (p < 0.05) to 67.7% on day 15 (p < 0.001). Lycopene intervention also significantly reduced formation of AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts in liver compared to control animals, with the highest reduction (52.7%) occurring on day 3 (p < 0.05). Levels of AFB{sub 1}-N {sup 7}-guanine excreted in urine were also significantly decreased. Urinary excretion of the phase 2 detoxification metabolite, AFB{sub 1}-mecapturic acid, was significantly increased in lycopene-intervened animals. AFB{sub 1}-induced urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was also reduced to 50% on day 7 after lycopene intervention. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of phase 1 metabolism and metabolic activation, as well as induction of phase 2 detoxification enzyme activity are the potential mechanisms for the chemopreventive effects of lycopene.

  13. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Long, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Kui; Han, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yuan; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW) AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interferon γ (IFN-γ). Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four proinflammatory factors to different degrees and inhibit the inflammatory reaction of mice. The results suggest that GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced oxidative stress and significantly improves the immune injury of mice induced by AFB1. PMID:27070584

  14. Species and diet related resistance to chemical carcinogens: biochemical mechanisms of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    To provide insight into the biochemical mechanisms mediating species and diet related resistance to chemical carcinogens, the biotransformation and covalent binding to DNA of the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B/sub 1/(AFB) was investigated in resistant and susceptible species fed standard and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)-supplemented diets. The rat is sensitive to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of AFB, whereas the mouse, and rats fed BHA-supplemented diet, are resistant. To differentiate between enzyme induction and direct antioxidant effects, BHA was administered to rats for 9 days, or as a single dose 4-7 hrs prior to i.p. injection of /sup 3/H-AFB. Long-term treatment with BHA doubled the biliary excretion of the glutathione conjugate of AFB and the AFP/sub 1/-glucuronide, and reduced the binding of AFB to hepatic DNA to 16% of control. Single-dose BHA treatment had no effect. To determine if glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity towards the AFB-epoxide mediates both treatment and species related resistance to AFB carcinogenesis, a method was developed to measure the rate of formation of the AFB-epoxide, and the rate of inactivation of the epoxide via GST. To demonstrate the importance of GST-mediated detoxification of the AFB-epoxide in the mouse in vivo, depletion of hepatic GSH was accomplished by administration of L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine and diethyl maleate, prior to administration of AFB. GSH depletion was associated with a 30-fold increase in AFB-DNA binding.

  15. Protective Effects of Sporoderm-Broken Spores of Ganderma lucidum on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Immune Function of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Low Level of Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng; Wang, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and evaluate the effects of sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SSGL) in relieving aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly divided into four dietary treatments; the treatment diets were: Control (a basal diet containing normal peanut meal); AFB1 (the basal diet containing AFB1-contaminated peanut meal); SSGL (basal diet with 200 mg/kg of SSGL); AFB1+SSGL (supplementation of 200 mg/kg of SSGL in AFB1 diet). The contents of AFB1 in AFB1 and AFB1+SSGL diets were 25.0 μg/kg in the starter period and 22.5 μg/kg in the finisher period. The results showed that diet contaminated with a low level of AFB1 significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the average daily feed intake and average daily gain during the entire experiment and reduced (p < 0.05) serum contents of total protein IgA and IgG. Furthermore, a dietary low level of AFB1 not only increased (p < 0.05) levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, but also decreased (p < 0.05) total antioxidant capability, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in the liver and spleen of broilers. Moreover, the addition of SSGL to AFB1-contaminated diet counteracted these negative effects, indicating that SSGL has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis. PMID:27669305

  16. Identification of differentially expressed genes in aflatoxin B1-treated cultured primary rat hepatocytes and Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Harris, A J; Shaddock, J G; Manjanatha, M G; Lisenbey, J A; Casciano, D A

    1998-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mutagen and hepatocarcinogen in rats and humans, is a contaminant of the human food supply, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. AFB1-induced changes in gene expression may play a part in the development of the toxic, immunosuppressive and carcinogenic properties of this fungal metabolite. An understanding of the-role of AFB1 in modulating gene regulation should provide insight regarding mechanisms of AFB1-induced carcinogenesis. We used three PCR-based subtractive techniques to identify AFB1-responsive genes in cultured primary rat hepatocyte RNA: differential display PCR (DD-PCR), representational difference analysis (RDA) and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Each of the three techniques identified AFB1-responsive genes, although no individual cDNA was isolated by more than one technique. Nine cDNAs isolated using DD-PCR, RDA or SSH were found to represent eight genes that are differentially expressed as a result of AFB1 exposure. Genes whose mRNA levels were increased in cultured primary rat hepatocytes after AFB1 treatment were corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), cytochrome P450 4F1 (CYP4F1), alpha-2 microglobulin, C4b-binding protein (C4BP), serum amyloid A-2 and glutathione S-transferase Yb2 (GST). Transferrin and a small CYP3A-like cDNA had reduced mRNA levels after AFB1 exposure. Full-length CYP3A mRNA levels were increased. When liver RNA from AFB1-treated male F344 rats was evaluated for transferrin, CBG, GST, CYP3A and CYP4F1 expression, a decrease in transferrin mRNA and an increase in CBG, GST, CYP3A and CYP4F1 mRNA levels was also seen. Analysis of the potential function of these genes in maintaining cellular homeostasis suggests that their differential expression could contribute to the toxicity associated with AFB1 exposure.

  17. Effect of 8-oxoguanine glycosylase deficiency on aflatoxin B1 tumourigenicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Jeanne E.; Turner, Patricia V.; Massey, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) may initiate cancer by causing oxidatively damaged DNA, specifically by causing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) lesions. Base excision repair removes these lesions, with 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1) being the rate-limiting enzyme. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ogg1 deficiency on AFB1-induced oxidatively damaged DNA and tumourigenesis. Female wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous ogg1 null mice were given a single dose of 50mg/kg AFB1 or 40 µl dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ip. Neither ogg1 genotype nor AFB1 treatment affected levels of oxidised guanine in lung or liver 2h post-treatment. AFB1-treated ogg1 null mice showed exacerbated weight loss and mortality relative to DMSO-treated ogg1 null mice, but AFB1 treatment did not significantly increase lung or liver tumour incidence compared with controls, regardless of ogg1 genotype. Suspect lung masses from three of the AFB1-treated mice were adenomas, and masses from two of the mice were osteosarcomas. No osteosarcomas were observed in DMSO-treated mice. All liver masses from AFB1-treated mice were adenomas, and one also contained a hepatocellular carcinoma. In DNA from the lung tumours, the K-ras mutation pattern was inconsistent with initiation by AFB1. In conclusion, ogg1 status did not have a significant effect on AFB1-induced oxidatively damaged DNA or tumourigenesis, but deletion of one or both alleles of ogg1 did increase susceptibility to other aspects of AFB1 toxicity. PMID:25583175

  18. Investigations into the mechanisms of aflatoxin B sub 1 genotoxicity and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) was used as a model carcinogen for investigations into the initiation, promotion and progression phases of chemically induced carcinogenesis. In initial experiments {sup 3}H-AFB{sub 1} was evaluated for its rate of tritium exchange in vitro and in vivo. Tritium exchange form {sup 3}H-AFB{sub 1} to water in vitro (pH 7.4, 37{degree}C) and in-vivo from covalently bound AFB{sub 1} had a half-life of {approx}1 week. The physical interaction of AFB{sub 1} with DNA was examined to further characterize the steps involved in initiation. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy it was established that AFB{sub 1} binds to the outside of the DNA double helix and does not intercalate between the base pairs in spite of its relatively planar structure. In contrast to results obtained from NMR experiments, AFB{sub 1} and AFM{sub 1} were found to be direct acting mutagens in the Ames test and strain sensitivity indicated the direct mutagenicity was a result of a frameshift mutation suggesting intercalation. To determine if a free radical mechanism was converting the parent compound to a mutagenic derivative, the effect of the free radical inhibitor, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), on the mutagenicity of AFB{sub 1} to Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was determined. DNA sequences believed responsible for reversion of different Salmonella typhimurium strains were compared to the direct mutagenicity of AFB{sub 1} in these strains and with the rules reported in the literature for the sequence specific covalent binding of AFB{sub 1}. An alternative mechanism for the metabolic activation of AFB{sub 1} and AFM{sub 1} to genotoxic metabolites was investigated.

  19. Effect of dose on the inhibition of carcinogenesis/mutagenesis by aroclor 1254 in rainbow trout fed aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, D.W.; Hendricks, J.D.; Coulombe, R.A.; Bailey, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that Aroclor 1254 (PCB) differentially alters the incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) induced hepatocellular carcinomas in trout, depending upon the time of PCB administration relative to AFB/sub 1/ exposure. When fed simultaneously with AFB/sub 1/, PCB inhibits carcinoma incidence. The effect of AFB/sub 1/ and PCB dose on this inhibition was investigated. Duplicate tanks of 100 rainbow trout were fed AFB/sub 1/ at concentrations of 1, 4, or 8 ppb, either with or without the addition of 50 ppm PCB. Other groups were fed 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ + 5 ppm PCB, 50 ppm PCB alone, or control diet alone. After 9 and 12 mo, 40 and 60 fish per tank, respectively, were sampled to determine the incidence of liver tumors. The results show a parallel inhibition of the AFB/sub 1/-tumor dose-response curve by the presence of 50 ppm PCB. Fish fed 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ + 5 ppm PCB showed slight inhibition in response when compared with 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ alone. Also, livers from fish fed 50 ppm PCB were used to prepare S20 for use in the Salmonella mutagenesis assay. These livers were less efficient in converting AFB/sub 1/ to a mutagen, when compared to control S20. The AFB/sub 1/-mutagenesis dose-response curve was again shifted parallel to the right of the curve generated using control S20. These results suggest that the inhibitory action is at least partly at the level of carcinogen activation. The finding of parallel, as opposed to proportional, inhibition with varying carcinogen exposure for certain classes of inhibitors may have important implications for inhibition of environmental carcinogenesis at low levels of carcinogen exposure. 26 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  20. Comparison of nixtamalization and extrusion processes for a reduction in aflatoxin content.

    PubMed

    Elias-Orozco, R; Castellanos-Nava, A; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Figueroa-Cárdenas, J D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2002-09-01

    Traditional nixtamalization and an extrusion method for making the dough (masa) for corn tortillas that requires using lime and hydrogen peroxide were evaluated for the detoxification of aflatoxins. The traditional nixtamalization process reduced levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) by 94%, aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) by 90% and aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-dihydrodiol (AFB(1)-dihydrodiol) by 93%. The extrusion process reduced levels of AFB(1) by 46%, AFM(1) by 20% and AFB(1)-dihydrodiol by 53%. Extrusion treatments with 0, 0.3 and 0.5% lime reduced AFB(1) levels by 46, 74 and 85%, respectively. The inactivation of AFB(1), AFM(1) and AFB(1)-dihydrodiol in the extrusion process using lime together with hydrogen peroxide showed higher elimination of AFB(1) than treatments with lime or hydrogen peroxide alone. The extrusion process with 0.3% lime and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide was the most effective process to detoxify aflatoxins in corn tortillas, but a high level of those reagents negatively affected the taste and aroma of the corn tortilla as compared with tortillas elaborated by the traditional nixtamalization process.

  1. A novel strain of Cellulosimicrobium funkei can biologically detoxify aflatoxin B1 in ducklings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lv-Hui; Zhang, Ni-Ya; Sun, Ran-Ran; Gao, Xin; Gu, Changqin; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Qi, De-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to screen microorganisms with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) removal potential from soils and to evaluate their ability in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1 in ducklings. In experiment 1, we screened 11 isolates that showed the AFB1 biodegradation ability, and the one exhibited the highest AFB1 removal ability (97%) was characterized and identified as Cellulosimicrobium funkei (C. funkei). In experiment 2, 80 day-old Cherry Valley ducklings were divided into four groups with four replicates of five birds each and were used in a 2 by 2 factorial trial design, in which the main factors included administration of AFB1 versus solvent and C. funkei versus solvent for 2 weeks. The AFB1 treatment significantly decreased the body weight gain, feed intake and impaired feed conversion ratio. AFB1 also decreased serum albumin and total protein concentration, while it increased activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and liver damage in the ducklings. Supplementation of C. funkei alleviated the adverse effects of AFB1 on growth performance, and provided protective effects on the serum biochemical indicators, and decreased hepatic injury in the ducklings. Conclusively, our results suggest that the novel isolated C. funkei strain could be used to mitigate the negative effects of aflatoxicosis in ducklings.

  2. A clinical and bacteriological examination of Mycobacterium leprae in the epidermis and cutaneous appendages of patients with multibacillary leprosy.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, A

    1999-08-01

    In the specimens examined at Ryukyu University Hospital, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were observed in the epidermis, cutaneous appendages and endothelial cells of capillaries. These specimens were taken from non-ulcerating skin lesions of patients with multibacillary leprosies such as LL and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL). Of the 211 specimens examined, 23 (10.9%) were AFB-positive [AFB (+)] in the above mentioned skin regions. These AFB (+) samples were taken from nine leprosy patients; six cases (17 samples) of LL, two cases (5 samples) of BL, and one case (one sample) of BB. The AFB positive rate [AFB (+)-rate] in the above mentioned skin regions was high in the unmedicated LL sample (50.0%, 7/14) and low in the medicated mid-borderline leprosy (BB) samples (0.0%, 0/10). Particularly in the intraepidermal eccrine sweat duct (acrosyringium), a relatively high number of AFB were observed. The AFB (+)-rate appears likely to be higher in non-ulcering skin lesions with minor inflammation or in lesions with leprosy reaction than typical skin lesions such as papules, nodules, and infiltrated punched out skin lesions. Although the possibility that viable bacilli could be excreted from non-ulcerating skin lesions appeared to be small, these lesions were suspected of being a possible source of infection.

  3. 78 FR 4134 - Notice of Intent To Prepare An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) On the Proposal To Relocate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Aggressor Squadron From Eielson Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska to Joint Base Elmendorf- Richardson (JBER), Alaska and Rightsizing the Remaining Wing Overhead/ Base Operating Support at Eielson AFB, AK AGENCY... to relocate the 18th Aggressor Squadron from Eielson AFB to Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson...

  4. Los Angeles, CA.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A general view of the greater Los Angeles region of California (34,0N, 118.5W) showing the coastline, Vandenberg AFB, the south end of the Central Valley and the dry lake beds at Edwards AFB, landing site of the space shuttle.

  5. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 222 - Addressing MDR Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Defense Command. HQ NORAD/CSO, 250 Vandenberg St. Ste B016, Peterson AFB, CO 80914. (18) U.S. Africa Command. US Africa Command, Unit 29951, ATTN: COS-FOIA, APO AE 09751. (19) U.S. Central Command. U.S. Central Command, Attention: CCJ6-RDD, 7115 South Boundary Blvd., MacDill AFB, FL 33621-5101. (20)...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 222 - Addressing MDR Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Command. HQ NORAD/CSO, 250 Vandenberg St. Ste B016, Peterson AFB, CO 80914. (18) U.S. Africa Command. US Africa Command, Unit 29951, ATTN: COS-FOIA, APO AE 09751. (19) U.S. Central Command. U.S. Central Command, Attention: CCJ6-RDD, 7115 South Boundary Blvd., MacDill AFB, FL 33621-5101. (20)...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 222 - Addressing MDR Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Defense Command. HQ NORAD/CSO, 250 Vandenberg St. Ste B016, Peterson AFB, CO 80914. (18) U.S. Africa Command. US Africa Command, Unit 29951, ATTN: COS-FOIA, APO AE 09751. (19) U.S. Central Command. U.S. Central Command, Attention: CCJ6-RDD, 7115 South Boundary Blvd., MacDill AFB, FL 33621-5101. (20)...

  8. 75 FR 4789 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ..., 2005; 70 FR 46155). CHANGES: * * * * * SYSTEM LOCATION: Delete entry and replace with ``Defense Threat Reduction Information Analysis Center, 1680 Texas St., SE., Kirtland AFB NM 87117-5669.'' * * * * * HDTRA... Information Analysis Center, 1680 Texas St., SE., Kirtland AFB NM 87117-5669. CATEGORIES OF...

  9. 76 FR 5142 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 11/26/2010 (75 FR 72815) and 12/3/2010 (75 FR 75461-75462), the... Orlando, FL. Service Type/Location: Base Supply Center, 2000 Wyoming Boulevard, Kirtland AFB, NM. NPA: San... CONS CC, Kirtland AFB, NM. Service Type/Location: Landscaping & Groundskeeping, FAA Potomac...

  10. Comparing Levels of Anti-Fat Bias between American and Mexican Athletes and Undergraduate Physical Education and Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda, Miriam Wood; Whitehead, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatization consequent to anti-fat bias (AFB) may affect the services people who are obese receive from health professionals, including physical education and exercise science (PEX) professionals. In this study, we compared AFB levels of American and Mexican PEX students and Mexican athletes. We also investigated if socially desirable (SD)…

  11. 32 CFR Table 1 to Part 855 - Purpose of Use/Verification/Approval Authority/Fees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in AFI 35-201, Community Relations 1 No. Active duty US military and other US uniformed service... purpose are processed by HQ AMC/DOKA, 402 Scott Drive, Unit 3A1, Scott AFB IL 62225-5302.) International... 132, Scott AFB IL 62225-5363). An SF 1169 or SF 1103, US Government Bill of Lading, must be on...

  12. 75 FR 3715 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Basing F-35a Operational Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... identified that potential environmental impacts at Shaw AFB/ McEntire JNGB would be analyzed for no action... Department of the Air Force Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Basing F-35a... description of the alternative is as follows, ``Shaw AFB/McEntire JNGB would be analyzed for no action and...

  13. Rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by real-time PCR on paraffin-embedded human tissues.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Seung; Park, Kyoung Un; Park, Jung Ok; Chang, Ho Eun; Song, Junghan; Choe, Gheeyoung

    2011-07-01

    The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) in clinical specimens is important for diagnosing and caring for patients in whom tuberculosis is clinically suspected. We collected 129 FFPE specimens, including 56 nontuberculosis cases, 63 MTB cases, and 10 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cases determined by acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture. We performed AFB staining; nested MTB PCR, targeting the IS6110 gene; and real-time MTB PCR, targeting the senX3-regX3 intergenic region in the 129 FFPE specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of AFB staining were 37.0% and 98.2%, respectively, using AFB culture results as the reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting MTB were 68.3% and 98.5%, respectively, by nested PCR; and 74.6% and 98.5% by real-time PCR, respectively. Among the 129 specimens, four were positive by AFB staining but negative by nested or real-time PCR. NTM grew in all four of these cases by AFB culture. AFB density in FFPE tissue sections significantly correlated with MTB DNA load. Thus, real-time PCR is a useful diagnostic tool for rapid and sensitive MTB detection in FFPE specimens, whereas NTM should be included in differential diagnoses of cases positive by AFB staining but negative by PCR.

  14. Application of magnetic solid phase extraction for separation and determination of aflatoxins B ₁ and B₂ in cereal products by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Taherimaslak, Zohreh; Rashidi, Somayeh

    2014-06-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on the magnetic solid phase extraction with modified magnetic nanoparticles followed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed for extraction and determination of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and B2 (AFB2) in cereal products. Magnetic nanoparticle coated with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanthiol (TMSPT) and modified with 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AMT) was used as an antibody-free adsorbent. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves for AFB1 and AFB2 were linear in the ranges of 0.2-15 μg L(-1) and 0.04-3 μg L(-1), respectively. Detection limit was 0.041 μg L(-1) for AFB1 and 0.013 μg L(-1) for AFB2. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of AFB1 and AFB2 in spiked corn and rice samples with an average recovery of 93.5%. The results demonstrated that the developed method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, accurate and remarkably free from interference effects.

  15. A novel strain of Cellulosimicrobium funkei can biologically detoxify aflatoxin B1 in ducklings

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lv-Hui; Zhang, Ni-Ya; Sun, Ran-Ran; Gao, Xin; Gu, Changqin; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Qi, De-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to screen microorganisms with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) removal potential from soils and to evaluate their ability in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1 in ducklings. In experiment 1, we screened 11 isolates that showed the AFB1 biodegradation ability, and the one exhibited the highest AFB1 removal ability (97%) was characterized and identified as Cellulosimicrobium funkei (C. funkei). In experiment 2, 80 day-old Cherry Valley ducklings were divided into four groups with four replicates of five birds each and were used in a 2 by 2 factorial trial design, in which the main factors included administration of AFB1 versus solvent and C. funkei versus solvent for 2 weeks. The AFB1 treatment significantly decreased the body weight gain, feed intake and impaired feed conversion ratio. AFB1 also decreased serum albumin and total protein concentration, while it increased activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and liver damage in the ducklings. Supplementation of C. funkei alleviated the adverse effects of AFB1 on growth performance, and provided protective effects on the serum biochemical indicators, and decreased hepatic injury in the ducklings. Conclusively, our results suggest that the novel isolated C. funkei strain could be used to mitigate the negative effects of aflatoxicosis in ducklings. PMID:25616109

  16. Lophirones B and C prevent aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Taofeek Olakunle; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Oladiji, Adenike Temidayo

    2016-10-01

    Context Despite the reported anticarcinogenic activity of lophirones B and C, no scientific information exists for its activity in rat hepatocytes. Objective Effect of lophirones B and C on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation in rat hepatocytes was investigated. Materials and methods Wistar rat hepatocytes were incubated with lophirones B and C (1 mg/mL) or sylimarin (1 mg/mL) in the presence or absence of AFB1. For an in vivo study, rats were orally administered with lophirones B and C, and/or AFB1 (20 μg/d) for 9 weeks. Results Lophirones B and C lowered AFB1-mediated increase in nitric oxide, superoxide anion radicals, caspase-3 and fragmented DNA. Lophirones B and C attenuated AFB1-mediated decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione. Also, lophirones B and C attenuated AFB1-mediated increase in conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, AFB1-mediated alterations in alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, total bilirubin and globulin in rat serum were significantly annulled in lophirones B and C-treated rats. Conclusion This study revealed that lophirones B and C prevented AFB1-induced oxidative damage in rat hepatocytes.

  17. Response of the hepatic transcriptome to aflatoxin B1 in domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Monson, Melissa S; Settlage, Robert E; McMahon, Kevin W; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Rawal, Sumit; El-Nezami, Hani S; Coulombe, Roger A; Reed, Kent M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. AFB1 is especially hepatotoxic in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), since these birds are unable to detoxify AFB1 by glutathione-conjugation. The impacts of AFB1 on the turkey hepatic transcriptome and the potential protection from pretreatment with a Lactobacillus-based probiotic mixture were investigated through RNA-sequencing. Animals were divided into four treatment groups and RNA was subsequently recovered from liver samples. Four pooled RNA-seq libraries were sequenced to produce over 322 M reads totaling 13.8 Gb of sequence. Approximately 170,000 predicted transcripts were de novo assembled, of which 803 had significant differential expression in at least one pair-wise comparison between treatment groups. Functional analysis linked many of the transcripts significantly affected by AFB1 exposure to cancer, apoptosis, the cell cycle or lipid regulation. Most notable were transcripts from the genes encoding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2, osteopontin, S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2, and lipoprotein lipase. Expression was modulated by the probiotics, but treatment did not completely mitigate the effects of AFB1. Genes identified through transcriptome analysis provide candidates for further study of AFB1 toxicity and targets for efforts to improve the health of domestic turkeys exposed to AFB1.

  18. 76 FR 53421 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Maintaining Records About Individuals', dated February 8, 1996 (February 20, 1996, 61 FR 6427). Dated: August... Research Agency, 600 Chennault Circle, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6424. Categories of individuals covered by the... address: Air Force Historical Research Agency Records Manager, 600 Chennault Circle, Maxwell AFB,...

  19. Toxic effect of aflatoxin B1 and the role of recovery on the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bahey, Noha Gamal; Abd Elaziz, Hekmat Osman; Gadalla, Kamal Kamal El Sayed

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic and well-known mycotoxin that exists in many food stuff. Exposure to AFB1 has been reported to produce serious biochemical and structural alterations in human and animal organs, however, its effect on the brain is not well studied. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the possible histopathological effect of AFB1 and its withdrawal on the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Fifteen adult female Wistar rats were divided into 3 equal groups: control, AFB1 (15.75 μg/kg/orally, once weekly, for 8 weeks) and recovery groups. Brain sections were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as for NeuN and GFAP immunostaining. AFB1 administration resulted in several histopathological alterations including; cellular degeneration, dilatation of the blood vessels and significant decrease in the thickness of the frontal cortex and the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell layer. In the frontal cortex, there was a significant reduction in the percentage of astrocyte distribution without changes in neuronal numbers. On the other hand, in the hippocampal CA1 region, there was a significant reduction of neuronal number and a significant increase in the percentage of astrocyte distribution. Importantly, AFB1-induced structural alterations were rescued following AFB1 withdrawal. In conclusion, AFB1 induce histological alterations in the rat brain which are potentially reversible upon withdrawal. PMID:26380901

  20. Evaluation of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ mutagenesis: addition of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase to the Salmonella mutagenicity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, K.V.; Clayton, J.W.; Price, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of glutathione (GSH) and the combination of GSH and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) mutagenesis in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were tested. Ten concentrations of AFB/sub 1/ (0-1.0 ..mu..g/plate) were added to a liver microsomal homogenate (S9 mix) or to S9 mix containing GSH or S9 mix containing the combination of GSH + GST. One third of the samples were plated directly. Two-thirds were incubated for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C prior to plating, and of those, half included bacteria. The results show that the addition of GSH and GSH + GST affected AFB/sub 1/ mutagenesis by forming the AFB/sub 1/-GSH conjugate and decreasing the availability of AFB/sub 1/-8,9-epoxide. The effect of GST on GSH activity varied with the strain because of the different amounts of S9 mix used. The formation of the AFB/sub 1/-GSH conjugate was verified by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for quantitation of AFB/sub 1/ and detection of AFB/sub 1/-GSH.

  1. Aflatoxin B1 in sesame seeds and sesame products from the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Kollia, Eleni; Tsourouflis, Kyriakos; Markaki, Panagiota

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most potent liver carcinogen for humans. A method for determination in sesame seeds was developed. AFB1 was extracted by methanol-water, cleaned by immunoaffinity columns and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The recovery factor and the limit of detection (LOD) of AFB1 in sesame seeds were 111.5% and 0.02 ng g(-1), respectively. Thirty samples of sesame products were examined for the presence of AFB1. After analysis, 77.6% of samples were found to be contaminated. Eight samples exceeded the European Union (EU) limit (2 µg AFB1 kg(-1)). In 15 samples, AFB1 was below the EU limit. Seven samples remained below the LOD. The most contaminated (14.49 ng AFB1 g(-1)) sample was unpeeled packaged sesame seeds. In all samples, aflatoxigenic Aspergilli fungi as well as the risk for AFB1 presence in sesame seed was investigated.

  2. Reflections of a Lifetime Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augusto, Carl R.

    Carl Augusto, currently president and executive director of the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB), describes his personal and professional experience with the National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped and the talking books program. Topics discussed include AFB's history with its own talking book program founded…

  3. Aflatoxin B1 Risk Management in Parmigiano Reggiano Dairy Cow Feed

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Barbara; Pizzamiglio, Valentina; Biancardi, Alberto; Piazza, Pierluigi; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Tosi, Giovanni; Giacometti, Federica; Nocetti, Marco; Fustini, Mattia; Serraino, Andrea; Formigoni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in dairy cow feed and the risk management of AFB1 content in concentrates undertaken by feed industries in the Parmigiano Reggiano area. Data on aflatoxin contamination risk management applied in 29 feed industries were collected and the AFB1 content of 70 feed samples was analysed. Data were collected within the framework of a quality control programme promoted by the Parmigiano Reggiano Consortium in 2013 and 2014. Audit results showed that the control procedures to prevent AFB1 contamination mainly focused on maize and its by-products. AFB1 concentration resulted lower than 5 ppb [legal European Union (EU) limit] in all samples; in one out of 70 samples, AFB1 content was 3.8 ppb and in all the other samples it was lower than 3 ppb. Results showed that AFB1 risk management applied by Italian feed industries effectively monitors AFB1 levels in feed below the EU legal limit. PMID:27800427

  4. A structure-switchable aptasensor for aflatoxin B1 detection based on assembly of an aptamer/split DNAzyme.

    PubMed

    Seok, Youngung; Byun, Ju-Young; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2015-07-30

    An ultrasensitive, colorimetric and homogeneous strategy for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection, which uses a DNA aptamer and two split DNAzyme halves, has been developed. Split halves of a hemin-binding DNAzymes is combined with an AFB1 aptamer to generate a homogeneous colorimetric sensor that undergoes an AFB1 induced DNA structural change. In the absence of AFB1, the split probes have peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme activity associated with catalysis of a color change reaction. Specific recognition of AFB1 by the aptamer component leads to structural deformation of the aptamer-DNAzyme complex, which causes splitting of the DNAzyme halves and a reduction in peroxidase mimicking activity. Therefore, a decrease of colorimetric signal arising from the catalytic process takes place upon in the presence of AFB1 in a concentration dependent manner in the 0.1-1.0 × 10(4) ng/mL range and with a colorimetric detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL. The new assay system exhibits high selectivity for AFB1 over other mycotoxins and can be employed detect the presence of AFB1 in ground corn samples. Overall, the strategy should serve as the basis for the development of rapid, simple and low-cost methods for detection of mycotoxins. PMID:26320651

  5. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of borax against aflatoxin B1-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Dirican, Ebubekir; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2012-12-01

    A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with AFB1 (3.12 ppm) as compared to controls. However, co-application of BX (1, 2 and 5 ppm) and AFB1 resulted in decreases of SCE and MN rates as compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone. Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:22526492

  6. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of borax against aflatoxin B1-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Dirican, Ebubekir; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2012-12-01

    A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with AFB1 (3.12 ppm) as compared to controls. However, co-application of BX (1, 2 and 5 ppm) and AFB1 resulted in decreases of SCE and MN rates as compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone. Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity.

  7. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors in honeybee larval infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae se...

  8. Co-occurence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize: guatemala as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are found in maize. AFB1 is a genotoxic carcinogen (IARC Group 1) and FB1 a liver cancer promoter in rodents and trout (IARC Group 2B). Therefore, the possibility of co-exposure is a health concern, most notably in areas where maize serves as a dietary st...

  9. Preparation and characterization of an immunoaffinity column for the selective extraction of aflatoxin B1 in 13 kinds of foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; He, Jian-Li; Shao, Yu; Fan, Chun-Lin; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Wen-Xiao; Chen, Min; Wang, Qi; Pei, Xing-Yao; Ding, Shuang-Yang; Jiang, Hai-Yang

    2015-08-15

    A rapid and reliable immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up based ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in cereals, peanuts, vegetable oils and Chinese traditional food products like sufu and lobster sauce. The immunoaffinity column of AFB1 (AFB1-IAC) was prepared by coupling CNBr-activated Sepharose-4B with the anti-AFB1 monoclonal antibody. The column capacity of IAC was over 260ng/mL gel. Samples were extracted with methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the extracts were then purified on an AFB1-IAC before UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The average recoveries of AFB1 in spiked samples at levels of 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0μg/kg ranged from 72% to 98%, with the relative standard deviations of 1.2-9.3% (n=6). The limits of qualification ranged from 0.07 to 0.23μg/kg, which were below the MRLs of AFB1 in the matrices evaluated. In this work, the developed method was suitable for the determination of trace AFB1 residues in 13 kinds of foodstuffs. PMID:26160471

  10. Production of Group Specific Monoclonal Antibody to Aflatoxins and its Application to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Cha, Sang-Ho; Karyn, Bischoff; Park, Sung-Won; Son, Seong-Wan

    2011-01-01

    Through the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using AFB1- carboxymethoxylamine BSA conjugates. One clone showing high binding ability was selected and it was applied to develop a direct competitive ELISA system. The epitope densities of AFB1-CMO against BSA and KLH were about 1 : 6 and 1 : 545, respectively. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) from cloned hybridoma cell was the IgG1 subclass with λ-type light chains. The IC50s of the monoclonal antibody developed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 4.36, 7.22, 6.61 and 29.41 ng/ml, respectively, based on the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA system and 15.28, 26.62, 32.75 and 56.67 ng/ml, respectively, based on the mAb coated ELISA. Cross-relativities of mAb to AFB1 for AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 60.47, 65.97 and 14.83% in the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA, and 59.41, 46.66 and 26.97% in the mAb coated ELISA, respectively. Quantitative calculations for AFB1 from the AFB1-Ab ELISA and AFB1-Ag ELISA ranged from 0.25 to 25 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99) and from 1 to 100 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precision CVs were < 10% in both ELISA assay, representing good reproducibility of developed assay. Recoveries ranged from 79.18 to 91.27%, CVs ranged from 3.21 to 7.97% after spiking AFB1 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 ng/ml and following by extraction with 70% methanol solution in the Ab-coated ELISA. In conclusion, we produced a group specific mAb against aflatoxins and developed two direct competitive ELISAs for the detection of AFB1 in feeds based on a monoclonal antibody developed. PMID:24278561

  11. Metabolomics of the bio-degradation process of aflatoxin B1 by actinomycetes at an initial pH of 6.0.

    PubMed

    Eshelli, Manal; Harvey, Linda; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; McNeil, Brian

    2015-02-04

    Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a cause of serious economic and health problems. Different processes have been used to degrade AFB1. In this study, biological degradation of AFB1 was carried out using three Actinomycete species, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, and S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762, in liquid cultures. Biodegradation of AFB1 was optimised under a range of temperatures from 25 to 40 °C and pH values of 4.0 to 8.0. An initial concentration of 20 µg/mL of AFB1 was used in this study. The amount of AFB1 remaining was measured against time by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with UV and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). All species were able to degrade the AFB1, and no significant difference was found between them. AFB1 remained in the liquid culture for R. erythropolis, S. lividans and S. aureofaciens were 0.81 µg/mL, 2.41 µg/mL and 2.78 µg/mL respectively, at the end of the first 24 h. Degradation occurred at all incubation temperatures and the pH with the optimal conditions for R. erythropolis was achieved at 30 °C and pH 6, whereas for S. lividans and S. aureofaciens the optimum conditions for degradation were 30 °C and pH 5. Analysis of the degradative route indicated that each microorganism has a different way of degrading AFB1. The metabolites produced by R. erythropolis were significantly different from the other two microorganisms. Products of degradation were identified through metabolomic studies by utilizing high-resolution mass spectral data. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that the degradation of AFB1 was associated with the appearance of a range of lower molecular weight compounds. The pathway of degradation or chemical alteration of AFB1 was followed by means of high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HR-FTMS) analysis as well as through the MS2 fragmentation to unravel the degradative pathway for AFB1. AFB1 bio

  12. Metabolomics of the Bio-Degradation Process of Aflatoxin B1 by Actinomycetes at an Initial pH of 6.0

    PubMed Central

    Eshelli, Manal; Harvey, Linda; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; McNeil, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a cause of serious economic and health problems. Different processes have been used to degrade AFB1. In this study, biological degradation of AFB1 was carried out using three Actinomycete species, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, and S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762, in liquid cultures. Biodegradation of AFB1 was optimised under a range of temperatures from 25 to 40 °C and pH values of 4.0 to 8.0. An initial concentration of 20 µg/mL of AFB1 was used in this study. The amount of AFB1 remaining was measured against time by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with UV and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). All species were able to degrade the AFB1, and no significant difference was found between them. AFB1 remained in the liquid culture for R. erythropolis, S. lividans and S. aureofaciens were 0.81 µg/mL, 2.41 µg/mL and 2.78 µg/mL respectively, at the end of the first 24 h. Degradation occurred at all incubation temperatures and the pH with the optimal conditions for R. erythropolis was achieved at 30 °C and pH 6, whereas for S. lividans and S. aureofaciens the optimum conditions for degradation were 30 °C and pH 5. Analysis of the degradative route indicated that each microorganism has a different way of degrading AFB1. The metabolites produced by R. erythropolis were significantly different from the other two microorganisms. Products of degradation were identified through metabolomic studies by utilizing high-resolution mass spectral data. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that the degradation of AFB1 was associated with the appearance of a range of lower molecular weight compounds. The pathway of degradation or chemical alteration of AFB1 was followed by means of high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HR-FTMS) analysis as well as through the MS2 fragmentation to unravel the degradative pathway for AFB1. AFB1 bio

  13. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B1 in broiler model

    PubMed Central

    Amiridumari, Halimeh; Sarir, Hadi; Afzali, Nazar; FaniMakki, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS), as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB1. Materials and Methods: The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design) was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1), 250 ppb AFB1 (T2), 500 ppb AFB1 (T3), 0.5% MTS (T4), 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T5), 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6), 1.0% MTS (T7), 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T8), and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T9). The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid), lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), and High density lipoprotein (HDL)) and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT) in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010) were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Results: Consumption of 500 ppb AFB1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65), Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13), and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42) compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively), (P < 0.05). In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011) and AST (244.51 ± 4.91). Using MTS together with AFB1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB1 on the above parameters. Conclusion: MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on broiler chicks. PMID:24381623

  14. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2013-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  15. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jatulan, Eduardo O.; Rabajante, Jomar F.; Banaay, Charina Gracia B.; Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Jose, Editha C.

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework) model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic. PMID:26674357

  16. Sequence specificity in aflatoxin B1--DNA interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Muench, K F; Misra, R P; Humayun, M Z

    1983-01-01

    The activated form of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes covalent modification primarily of guanine residues, leading to alkali-labile sites in DNA. A simple extension of the Maxam-Gilbert procedure for sequence analysis permits the identification of alkali-labile sites induced by AFB1 and determination of the frequency of alkali-labile AFB1 modifications at particular sites on a DNA fragment of known sequence. Using this strategy, we have investigated the influence of flanking nucleotide sequences on AFB1 modification in a number of DNA fragments of known sequence. Our results show that certain guanine residues in double-stranded DNA are preferentially attacked by AFB1 over others in a manner predictable from a knowledge of vicinal nucleotide sequences. The observed in vitro sequence specificity is independent of a number of tested parameters and is likely to occur in vivo. Images PMID:6218504

  17. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Jatulan, Eduardo O; Rabajante, Jomar F; Banaay, Charina Gracia B; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Jose, Editha C

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework) model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic.

  18. Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by a Pseudomonas Strain

    PubMed Central

    Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Chang, Jinghua; Li, Jinhan; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg2+, Li+, Zn2+, Se2+, Fe3+ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB1 was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB1. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin. PMID:25341538

  19. Selenium Alleviates Aflatoxin B₁-Induced Immune Toxicity through Improving Glutathione Peroxidase 1 and Selenoprotein S Expression in Primary Porcine Splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shu; Hu, Junfa; Song, Suquan; Huang, Da; Xu, Haibing; Qian, Gang; Gan, Fang; Huang, Kehe

    2016-02-17

    Selenium (Se) is generally known as an essential micronutrient and antioxidant for humans and animals. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a frequent contaminant of food and feed, causing immune toxicity and hepatotoxicity. Little has been done about the mechanisms of how Se protects against AFB1-induced immune toxicity. The aim of this present study is to investigate the protective effects of Se against AFB1 and the underlying mechanisms. The primary splenocytes isolated from healthy pigs were stimulated by anti-pig-CD3 monoclonal antibodies and treated by various concentrations of different Se forms and AFB1. The results showed that Se supplementation alleviated the immune toxicity of AFB1 in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by increasing T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 production. Addition of buthionine sulfoximine abrogated the protective effects of SeMet against AFB1. SeMet enhanced mRNA and protein expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), selenoprotein S (SelS), and thioredoxin reductase 1 without and with AFB1 treatments. Furthermore, knockdown of GPx1 and SelS by GPx1-specific siRNA and SelS-specific siRNA diminished the protective effects of SeMet against AFB1-induced immune toxicity. It is concluded that SeMet diminishes AFB1-induced immune toxicity through increasing antioxidant ability and improving GPx1 and SelS expression in splenocytes. This study suggests that organic selenium may become a promising supplementation to protect humans and animals against the decline in immunity caused by AFB1.

  20. Effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and B2 on hepatic functions of broilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Bai, F; Zhang, K; Bai, S; Peng, X; Ding, X; Li, Y; Zhang, J; Zhao, L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and aflatoxin B(2) (AFB(2)) on serum biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, and pathological lesions of broilers. In total, 1,200 Cobb male broilers were randomly allocated into 5 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 30 birds per replicate, in a 42-d experiment. The dietary treatments were as follows: control, 25, 50, 75, and 100% contaminated corn groups. Results showed that serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the 75 and 100% contaminated groups were higher than that in the control group on d 21 (P < 0.05). Decreased content of hepatic total protein and increased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were observed as the percentage of contaminated corn increased (P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase and the content of hepatic malondialdehyde increased when the broilers were fed with more than 50% contaminated corn (P < 0.05). A reduction in glutathione peroxidase level was observed in the AFB(1)- and AFB(2)-contaminated groups on d 21 (P < 0.05). The average pathological lesion scores and apoptosis rate of liver cells increased as the concentration of dietary AFB(1) and AFB(2) increased. Ultrastructural changes were found in the livers of broilers fed 100% contaminated corn. In conclusion, diets containing AFB(1) and AFB(2) could induce pathological lesions in the livers, slightly change the serum biochemical parameters, and damage the hepatic antioxidant functions when the inclusion of AFB(1)- and AFB(2)-contaminated corn reached or exceeded 50%.

  1. Sulforaphane- and phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced inhibition of aflatoxin B1-mediated genotoxicity in human hepatocytes: role of GSTM1 genotype and CYP3A4 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gross-Steinmeyer, Kerstin; Stapleton, Patricia L; Tracy, Julia H; Bammler, Theo K; Strom, Stephen C; Eaton, David L

    2010-08-01

    Primary cultures of human hepatocytes were used to investigate whether the dietary isothiocyanates, sulforaphane (SFN), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) can reduce DNA adduct formation of the hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B(1) (AFB). Following 48 h of pretreatment, 10 and 50 microM SFN greatly decreased AFB-DNA adduct levels, whereas 25muM PEITC decreased AFB-DNA adducts in some but not all hepatocyte preparations. Microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses of gene expression in SFN and PEITC-treated hepatocytes demonstrated that SFN greatly decreased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA but did not induce the expression of either glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 or GSTT1. The protective effects of SFN required pretreatment; cotreatment of hepatocytes with SFN and AFB in the absence of pretreatment had no effect on AFB-DNA adduct formation. When AFB-DNA adduct formation was evaluated by GST genotype, the presence of one or two functional alleles of GSTM1 was associated with a 75% reduction in AFB-DNA adducts, compared with GSTM1 null. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the inhibition of AFB-DNA adduct formation by SFN is dependent on changes in gene expression rather than direct inhibition of catalytic activity. Transcriptional repression of genes involved in AFB bioactivation (CYP3A4 and CYP1A2), but not transcriptional activation of GSTs, may be responsible for the protective effects of SFN. Although GSTM1 expression was not induced by SFN, the presence of a functional GSTM1 allele can afford substantial protection against AFB-DNA damage in human liver. The downregulation of CYP3A4 by SFN may have important implications for drug interactions. PMID:20442190

  2. Dietary modulation of the biotransformation and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B(1).

    PubMed

    Gross-Steinmeyer, Kerstin; Eaton, David L

    2012-09-28

    Diet and its various components are consistently identified as among the most important 'risk factors' for cancer worldwide, yet great uncertainty remains regarding the relative contribution of nutritive (e.g., vitamins, calories) vs. non-nutritive (e.g., phytochemicals, fiber, contaminants) factors in both cancer induction and cancer prevention. Among the most potent known human dietary carcinogens is the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB). AFB and related aflatoxins are produced as secondary metabolites by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that commonly infect poorly stored foods including peanuts, pistachios, corn, and rice. AFB is a potent hepatocarcinogenic agent in numerous animal species, and has been implicated in the etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent research has shown that many diet-derived factors have great potential to influence AFB biotransformation, and some efficiently protect from AFB-induced genotoxicity. One key mode of action for reducing AFB-induced carcinogenesis in experimental animals was shown to be the induction of detoxification enzymes such as certain glutathione-S-transferases that are regulated through the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Although initial studies utilized the dithiolthione drug, oltipraz, as a prototypical inducer of antioxidant response, dietary components such as suforaphane (SFN) are also effective inducers of this pathway in rodent models. However, human GSTs in general do not appear to be extensively induced by SFN, and GSTM1 - the only human GST with measurable catalytic activity toward aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide (AFBO; the genotoxic metabolite of AFB), does not appear to be induced by SFN, at least in human hepatocytes, even though its expression in human liver cells does appear to offer considerable protection against AFB-DNA damage. Although induction of detoxification pathways has served as the primary mechanistic focus of chemoprevention studies, protective effects of

  3. Dietary modulation of the biotransformation and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B(1).

    PubMed

    Gross-Steinmeyer, Kerstin; Eaton, David L

    2012-09-28

    Diet and its various components are consistently identified as among the most important 'risk factors' for cancer worldwide, yet great uncertainty remains regarding the relative contribution of nutritive (e.g., vitamins, calories) vs. non-nutritive (e.g., phytochemicals, fiber, contaminants) factors in both cancer induction and cancer prevention. Among the most potent known human dietary carcinogens is the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB). AFB and related aflatoxins are produced as secondary metabolites by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that commonly infect poorly stored foods including peanuts, pistachios, corn, and rice. AFB is a potent hepatocarcinogenic agent in numerous animal species, and has been implicated in the etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent research has shown that many diet-derived factors have great potential to influence AFB biotransformation, and some efficiently protect from AFB-induced genotoxicity. One key mode of action for reducing AFB-induced carcinogenesis in experimental animals was shown to be the induction of detoxification enzymes such as certain glutathione-S-transferases that are regulated through the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Although initial studies utilized the dithiolthione drug, oltipraz, as a prototypical inducer of antioxidant response, dietary components such as suforaphane (SFN) are also effective inducers of this pathway in rodent models. However, human GSTs in general do not appear to be extensively induced by SFN, and GSTM1 - the only human GST with measurable catalytic activity toward aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide (AFBO; the genotoxic metabolite of AFB), does not appear to be induced by SFN, at least in human hepatocytes, even though its expression in human liver cells does appear to offer considerable protection against AFB-DNA damage. Although induction of detoxification pathways has served as the primary mechanistic focus of chemoprevention studies, protective effects of

  4. Efficacy of beer fermentation residue containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for ameliorating aflatoxicosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Bovo, F; Franco, L T; Kobashigawa, E; Rottinghaus, G E; Ledoux, D R; Oliveira, C A F

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) binding capacity of a beer fermentation residue (BFR) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and the efficacy of BFR to ameliorate the toxic effects of AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, and histology of broilers. The BFR was collected from a microbrewery, and the yeast cells were counted, dried, and milled before it was used in the study. In vitro evaluation of the BFR was conducted using different concentrations of AFB1 (2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, and 32.0 μg AFB1/mL) and 100 mg/10 mL of BFR at pH 3.0 or 6.0. Two hundred 1-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to chick batteries and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A completely randomized design was used with 5 replicate pens of 5 chicks assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments from hatch to 21 d, which included: 1) basal diet (BD), with no BFR or AFB1; 2) BD supplemented with 1% BFR; 3) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg of feed; and 4) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg feed and 1% BFR. Performance variables were determined weekly, while serum analyses were performed on d 14 and 21. At the end of the study, chicks were anesthetized with carbon dioxide, euthanized by cervical dislocation, and the kidney, liver, and bursa of Fabricius were removed for determination of relative weights, and for histological evaluation. In vitro assays showed that the higher the initial AFB1 concentration in solution, the greater the AFB1 amount adsorbed by BFR at both pHs tested. Feed intake, BW gain, and concentrations of albumin, total protein, and globulin increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed BFR+AFB1 (Diet 4), when compared to the birds receiving only AFB1 (Diet 2). Although BFR was not able to reduce or prevent the effects of AFB1 on relative weights of kidneys and liver, it reduced the severity of histological changes in the liver and kidney caused by AFB1.

  5. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Naehrer, K; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and dietary protein concentration on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 crude protein (CP) concentrations (16, 22, and 26%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from zero to 20 d of age. Endogenous N and amino acid loss were estimated from birds fed a N-free diet with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 A significant interaction between AFB1 and CP concentration was observed for growth performance, where reduction of BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight by AFB1 were most profound in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, and were completely eliminated when birds were fed the 26%-CP diet (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.023). Similarly, AFB1 reduced serum albumin, total protein, and globulin concentrations in birds fed 16 and 22% CP diets, but not in those fed the 26%-CP (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.071). Gut permeability was increased in birds fed AFB1-contamiated diets as measured by serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (main effect; P = 0.04). Additionally, AFB1 tended to increase endogenous N loss (P = 0.09), and significantly reduced apparent ileal digestible energy and standardized ileal N and amino acid digestibility in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, while birds fed higher dietary CP were not affected (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Further, AFB1 increased the translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP1), claudin1, and multiple jejunal amino acid transporters expression (main effect; P ≤ 0.04). Results from this study indicate that a 1.5 mg AFB1/kg diet significantly impairs growth, major serum biochemistry measures, gut barrier, endogenous loss, and energy and amino acid digestibility. Aflatoxicosis can be augmented by low dietary CP, while higher dietary CP completely eliminated the impairment of

  6. Hematological Parameters and the State of Liver Cells of Rats After Oral Administration of Aflatoxin B1 Alone and Together with Nanodiamonds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats were examined in vivo after the animals received aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) alone and together with modified nanodiamonds (MND) synthesized by detonation. The rats that had received the MND hydrosol had elevated leukocyte levels, mainly due to higher granulocyte counts and somewhat increased monocyte counts compared to control rats. Hematological parameters of the rats that had received AfB1 alone differed from those of the control rats in another way: total white blood cell counts were significantly lower due to the decreased lymphocyte counts. In rats that had consumed AfB1 with the MND hydrosol, changes in hematological parameters were less pronounced than in rats that had consumed either AfB1 or MND. Electron microscopy showed that hepatocytes of the rats that had received the MND hydrosol or AfB1 with the MND hydrosol contained elevated levels of lipid inclusions and lysosomes. Hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (EPR) was revealed in liver specimens of the rats that had received AfB1. Results of the study suggest the conclusion about mutual mitigation of the effects of nanoparticles and the mycotoxin on rats blood and liver cells after AfB1 has adsorbed on MND. PMID:20672086

  7. Effects of lipoic acid on immune function, the antioxidant defense system, and inflammation-related genes expression of broiler chickens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  8. Response of the hepatic transcriptome to aflatoxin B1 in ducklings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ni-Ya; Qi, Ming; Gao, Xin; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Jie; Gu, Chang-Qin; Song, Wen-Jing; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Sun, Lv-Hui; Qi, De-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the hepatic transcriptome in ducklings through RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Twenty four, 1-day-old ducklings were divided into 4 treatment groups. Each group received an oral dose of AFB1 at 0, 10, 20, 40 μg/kg BW per day for 2 weeks. Administration of 20 and 40 μg/kg BW of AFB1 significantly decreased body weight, feed intake, serum total protein and albumin, while increasing serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, and hepatic histopathological lesions. Furthermore, RNA was extracted from the liver of ducklings administrated 0 and 40 μg/kg BW of AFB1. Two RNA-Seq libraries were created from pooled samples and produced over 149 M reads, totaling 14.9 Gb of sequence. Approximately 96,953 predicted transcripts were assembled, 749 of which had significant differential expressions (≥ 2-fold) between the control and AFB1 treatment. GO and KEGG pathway analysis results showed that many genes involved in phase I metabolism, phase II detoxification, oxidation-reduction process, carcinogenesis, apoptosis and cell cycle, and fatty acid metabolism were affected by AFB1 exposure. Conclusion, this study determined the hepatic transcriptome responded to AFB1 exposure, and provide candidate genes can be targeted to prevent and/or reduce aflatoxicosis in ducklings. PMID:26763128

  9. Distinct response of the hepatic transcriptome to Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis and resistance in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiejun; He, Jiangtu; Lin, Jing; Sun, Xin; Sun, Fenyong; Ou, Chao; Jiang, Cizhong

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a natural potent carcinogen and a major cause of liver cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinogenesis remain largely unexplored. In this study, we profiled global gene expression in liver tissues of rats that developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) administration and those that were AFB1-resistant, as well as rats without AFB1 exposure as a control. AFB1 exposure resulted in extensive perturbation in gene expression with different functions in HCC and AFB1 resistance (AR) samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HCC sample were enriched for cell proliferation, cell adhesion and vasculature development that largely contribute to carcinogenesis. Anti-apoptosis genes were up-regulated in HCC sample whereas apoptosis-induction genes were up-regulated in AR sample. AFB1 exposure also caused extensive alteration in expression level of lncRNAs. Among all the 4511 annotated lncRNAs, half of them were highly expressed only in HCC sample and up-regulated a group of protein-coding genes with cancer-related functions: apoptosis regulation, DNA repair, and cell cycle. Intriguingly, these genes were down-regulated by lncRNAs highly expressed in AR sample. Collectively, apoptosis is the critical biological process for carcinogenesis in response to AFB1 exposure through changes in expression level of both protein-coding and lncRNA genes. PMID:27545718

  10. Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats after oral administration of aflatoxin b1 alone and together with nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Mogilnaya, Oa; Puzyr, Ap; Baron, Av; Bondar, Vs

    2010-01-01

    Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats were examined in vivo after the animals received aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) alone and together with modified nanodiamonds (MND) synthesized by detonation. The rats that had received the MND hydrosol had elevated leukocyte levels, mainly due to higher granulocyte counts and somewhat increased monocyte counts compared to control rats. Hematological parameters of the rats that had received AfB1 alone differed from those of the control rats in another way: total white blood cell counts were significantly lower due to the decreased lymphocyte counts. In rats that had consumed AfB1 with the MND hydrosol, changes in hematological parameters were less pronounced than in rats that had consumed either AfB1 or MND. Electron microscopy showed that hepatocytes of the rats that had received the MND hydrosol or AfB1 with the MND hydrosol contained elevated levels of lipid inclusions and lysosomes. Hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (EPR) was revealed in liver specimens of the rats that had received AfB1. Results of the study suggest the conclusion about mutual mitigation of the effects of nanoparticles and the mycotoxin on rats blood and liver cells after AfB1 has adsorbed on MND. PMID:20672086

  11. Distinct response of the hepatic transcriptome to Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis and resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiejun; He, Jiangtu; Lin, Jing; Sun, Xin; Sun, Fenyong; Ou, Chao; Jiang, Cizhong

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a natural potent carcinogen and a major cause of liver cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinogenesis remain largely unexplored. In this study, we profiled global gene expression in liver tissues of rats that developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) administration and those that were AFB1-resistant, as well as rats without AFB1 exposure as a control. AFB1 exposure resulted in extensive perturbation in gene expression with different functions in HCC and AFB1 resistance (AR) samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HCC sample were enriched for cell proliferation, cell adhesion and vasculature development that largely contribute to carcinogenesis. Anti-apoptosis genes were up-regulated in HCC sample whereas apoptosis-induction genes were up-regulated in AR sample. AFB1 exposure also caused extensive alteration in expression level of lncRNAs. Among all the 4511 annotated lncRNAs, half of them were highly expressed only in HCC sample and up-regulated a group of protein-coding genes with cancer-related functions: apoptosis regulation, DNA repair, and cell cycle. Intriguingly, these genes were down-regulated by lncRNAs highly expressed in AR sample. Collectively, apoptosis is the critical biological process for carcinogenesis in response to AFB1 exposure through changes in expression level of both protein-coding and lncRNA genes. PMID:27545718

  12. Neuroprotective effects of Kaempferide-7-O-(4″-O-acetylrhamnosyl)-3-O-rutinoside on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuaijun; Xu, Huali; Xin, Ying; Li, Maowei; Fu, Wenwen; Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Zeyuan; Yu, Xiaofeng; Sui, Dayun

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we aim to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanism of Kaempferide-7-O-(4″-O-acetylrhamnosyl)-3-O-rutinoside (A-F-B) against cerebral I/R injury. Adult male rats were pretreated with A-F-B by intragastric administration once a day for 3 days. One hour after the third day administration, animals were subjected to 2h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24h of reperfusion. Neurological deficit, infarct volume, histopathological changes, oxidative stress-related biochemical parameters, neuronal apoptosis, apoptosis-related proteins and the expression of pro-inflammator cytokines genes were measured. A-F-B significantly decreased neurological and histological deficits, reduced the infarct volume, and decreased neuroapoptosis. Meanwhile, A-F-B inhibited the expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and promoted Bcl-2 expression. In addition, the expression of pro-inflammator cytokines, including phospho-NF-kBp65, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, were also suppressed by A-F-B pretreatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-F-B could significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, but decrease the content of malondiadehyde in blood serum. These results suggest that A-F-B has the neuroprotective effect in ischemic stroke by suppressing neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species and neuroapoptosis.

  13. Hematological Parameters and the State of Liver Cells of Rats After Oral Administration of Aflatoxin B1 Alone and Together with Nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilnaya, O. A.; Puzyr, A. P.; Baron, A. V.; Bondar, V. S.

    2010-05-01

    Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats were examined in vivo after the animals received aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) alone and together with modified nanodiamonds (MND) synthesized by detonation. The rats that had received the MND hydrosol had elevated leukocyte levels, mainly due to higher granulocyte counts and somewhat increased monocyte counts compared to control rats. Hematological parameters of the rats that had received AfB1 alone differed from those of the control rats in another way: total white blood cell counts were significantly lower due to the decreased lymphocyte counts. In rats that had consumed AfB1 with the MND hydrosol, changes in hematological parameters were less pronounced than in rats that had consumed either AfB1 or MND. Electron microscopy showed that hepatocytes of the rats that had received the MND hydrosol or AfB1 with the MND hydrosol contained elevated levels of lipid inclusions and lysosomes. Hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (EPR) was revealed in liver specimens of the rats that had received AfB1. Results of the study suggest the conclusion about mutual mitigation of the effects of nanoparticles and the mycotoxin on rats blood and liver cells after AfB1 has adsorbed on MND.

  14. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Immune Function, the Antioxidant Defense System, and Inflammation-Related Genes Expression of Broiler Chickens Fed Aflatoxin Contaminated Diets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  15. Effects of dietary butylated hydroxytoluene on aflatoxin B1-relevant metabolic enzymes in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Klein, P J; Van Vleet, T R; Hall, J O; Coulombe, R A

    2003-05-01

    We have shown previously that the extreme sensitivity of turkeys to aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is due to a combination of efficient AFB(1) activation by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) 1A and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Phenolic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) have been shown to be chemoprotective in some animal models due, in part, to modulation of AFB(1)-relevant phase I and/or phase II activities, and we wished to determine whether BHT has a similar effect in turkeys. Ten-day-old male turkeys were maintained on diets amended with 1000 or 4000 ppm of BHT for 10 days, then sampled. Hepatic microsomal CYP 1A activity as well as conversion of AFB(1) to the putative toxic metabolite, the exo-AFB(1)-8,9-epoxide (AFBO), were significantly lower compared with control. Conversely, dietary BHT significantly increased activities of several isoforms of hepatic cytosolic GST, as well quinone oxidoreductase (QOR). Western immunoblotting confirmed that dietary BHT increased expression of homologues to rodent GST isoforms Yc1, Yc2 and Ya. There was, however, no observable BHT-related increase in GST-mediated specific conjugation with microsomally-generated AFBO. In total, our data indicates that dietary BHT modulates a variety of AFB(1)-relevant phase I and phase II enzymes, while having no measurable effect towards specific AFB(1) detoxification by GST.

  16. A simple aptamer-based fluorescent assay for the detection of Aflatoxin B1 in infant rice cereal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Wen, Fang; Li, Ming; Guo, Xiaodong; Li, Songli; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-01-15

    A fluorescent assay for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed in this study. Initially, a DNA/DNA duplex was formed between a fluorescein-labeled AFB1 aptamer and its partially complementary DNA strand containing a quencher moiety, resulting in fluorescence quenching due to the close proximity of fluorophore and quencher. Upon the addition of AFB1, an aptamer/AFB1 complex was generated to release the quencher-modified DNA strand, thus recovered the fluorescence of fluorescein and enabled quantitative detection for AFB1 by monitoring fluorescence enhancement. Under optimized conditions, this assay exhibited a linear response to AFB1 in the range of 5-100ng/mL with a detection limit down to 1.6ng/mL. Trials of this assay in infant rice cereal with satisfactory recovery in the range of 93.0%-106.8%, demonstrate that the new assay could be a potential sensing platform for AFB1 determination in food. PMID:27542489

  17. Cobalt-Porphyrin-Platinum-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanostructures: A Novel Peroxidase Mimetic System For Improved Electrochemical Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Jian; Qiu, Zhenli; Wei, Qiaohua; Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianping

    2015-10-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine cobalt flat stacking on the reduced graphene oxide with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO) were first synthesized and functionalized with monoclonal rabbit anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody (anti-AFB1) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and spectral techniques were employed to characterize the PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO hybrids. Using anti-AFB1-conjugated PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO as the signal-transduction tag, a novel non-enzymatic electrochemical immunosensing system was designed for detection of target AFB1 on the AFB1-bovine serum albumin-functionalized sensing interface. Experimental results revealed that the designed immunoassay could exhibit good electrochemical responses for target analyte and allowed the detection of AFB1 at a concentration as low as 5.0 pg mL-1 (5.0 ppt). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for analyzing naturally contaminated or spiked blank peanut samples with consistent results obtained by AFB1 ELISA kit, thus providing a promising approach for quantitative monitoring of organic pollutants.

  18. Aflatoxin B1-induced Hprt mutations in splenic lymphocytes of Fischer 344 rats. Results of an intermittent feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Morris, S M; Aidoo, A; Chen, J J; Chou, M W; Casciano, D A

    1999-01-25

    In a previous study, we found an increase in the mutant frequency at the Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus in the splenic lymphocytes of Fischer 344 rats acutely exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Because an acute exposure may not reflect the exposure pattern of individuals whose diet may contain AFB1-contaminated foodstuffs, we sought to determine if the feeding regimen affected the induction of Hprt mutations in the rat splenic lymphocyte. Thus, Fischer 344 rats were fed either (A) a control diet, (B) various doses of AFB1 for three four-week periods interspersed with two four-week periods of the control diet, or (C) continuously fed 1.6 ppm of AFB1. Not only was a significant increase in the mutant frequency detected in the lymphocytes of rats fed a dose as low as 0. 01 ppm of AFB1, but the increase in the mutant frequency at the end of the 20-week experimental period was consistent with an accumulation of damage induced by AFB1. These results indicate that the rat lymphocyte/Hprt assay is useful for detecting chronic low level exposures. Further, these data suggest that an intermittent, low-level exposure to AFB1 may present a human health risk. PMID:10029671

  19. Genotoxicity of Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A after simultaneous application of the in vivo micronucleus and comet assay.

    PubMed

    Corcuera, Laura-Ana; Vettorazzi, Ariane; Arbillaga, Leire; Pérez, Noemí; Gil, Ana Gloria; Azqueta, Amaya; González-Peñas, Elena; García-Jalón, Jose Antonio; López de Cerain, Adela

    2015-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) are genotoxic mycotoxins that can contaminate a variety of foodstuffs, the liver and the kidney being their target organs, respectively. The micronucleus (MN) assay (bone marrow) and the comet assay (liver and kidney) were performed simultaneously in F344 rats, treated with AFB1 (0.25 mg/kg b.w.), OTA (0.5 mg/kg b.w.) or both mycotoxins. After AFB1 treatment, histopathology and biochemistry analysis showed liver necrosis, focal inflammation and an increase in Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase. OTA alone did not cause any alteration. The acute hepatotoxic effects caused by AFB1 were less pronounced in animals treated with both mycotoxins. With regard to the MN assay, after 24 h, positive results were obtained for AFB1 and negative results were obtained for OTA, although both toxins caused bone marrow toxicity. In the combined treatment, OTA reduced the toxicity and the number of MN produced by AFB1. In the comet assay, after 3 h, positive results were obtained for AFB1 in the liver and for OTA in the kidney. The combined treatment reduced DNA damage in the liver and had no influence in the kidney. Altogether, these results may be indicative of an antagonistic relationship regarding the genotoxicity of both mycotoxins.

  20. Cobalt-Porphyrin-Platinum-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanostructures: A Novel Peroxidase Mimetic System For Improved Electrochemical Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian; Qiu, Zhenli; Wei, Qiaohua; Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianping

    2015-01-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine cobalt flat stacking on the reduced graphene oxide with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO) were first synthesized and functionalized with monoclonal rabbit anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody (anti-AFB1) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and spectral techniques were employed to characterize the PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO hybrids. Using anti-AFB1-conjugated PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO as the signal-transduction tag, a novel non-enzymatic electrochemical immunosensing system was designed for detection of target AFB1 on the AFB1-bovine serum albumin-functionalized sensing interface. Experimental results revealed that the designed immunoassay could exhibit good electrochemical responses for target analyte and allowed the detection of AFB1 at a concentration as low as 5.0 pg mL(-1) (5.0 ppt). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for analyzing naturally contaminated or spiked blank peanut samples with consistent results obtained by AFB1 ELISA kit, thus providing a promising approach for quantitative monitoring of organic pollutants.

  1. A Spectroscopic Approach to Investigate the Molecular Interactions between the Newly Approved Irreversible ErbB blocker "Afatinib" and Bovine Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Amer M; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of afatinib (AFB) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined via fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Spectrofluorimetric measurements revealed that AFB can strongly quench the BSA intrinsic fluorescence through producing a non-fluorescent complex. This quenching mechanism was thoroughly investigated with regard to the type of quenching, binding constant, number of binding locations and the fundamental thermodynamic parameters. Subsequently, the association constant of AFB with BSA was computed at three different temperatures and was found to range from 7.34 to 13.19 x10(5) L mol(-1). Thermodynamic parameters calculations demonstrated a positive ΔSƟ value with both negative ΔHϴ and ΔGϴ values for AFB-BSA complex, which in turn infers that a spontaneous binding is taking place with both electrostatic bonding and hydrophobic interactions participating in the binding of AFB and BSA. Similarly, the UV absorption spectra of AFB-BSA system were studied and confirmed the interaction. Conformational alteration of the protein upon binding to AFB was elaborated with the aid of three dimensional fluorescence measurements as well as synchronous fluorescence spectra. PMID:26751077

  2. Cobalt-Porphyrin-Platinum-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanostructures: A Novel Peroxidase Mimetic System For Improved Electrochemical Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jian; Qiu, Zhenli; Wei, Qiaohua; Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianping

    2015-01-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine cobalt flat stacking on the reduced graphene oxide with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO) were first synthesized and functionalized with monoclonal rabbit anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody (anti-AFB1) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and spectral techniques were employed to characterize the PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO hybrids. Using anti-AFB1-conjugated PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO as the signal-transduction tag, a novel non-enzymatic electrochemical immunosensing system was designed for detection of target AFB1 on the AFB1-bovine serum albumin-functionalized sensing interface. Experimental results revealed that the designed immunoassay could exhibit good electrochemical responses for target analyte and allowed the detection of AFB1 at a concentration as low as 5.0 pg mL−1 (5.0 ppt). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for analyzing naturally contaminated or spiked blank peanut samples with consistent results obtained by AFB1 ELISA kit, thus providing a promising approach for quantitative monitoring of organic pollutants. PMID:26462136

  3. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kei-ichi; Hiraoka, Hisaaki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.

  4. Efficiency of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of graded levels of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to ameliorate the adverse effects of 0.5 to 2 mg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg in broiler chicks. The study consisted of 8 dietary treatments, including 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with or without HSCAS (0.5%) fed to 8 replicate cages per diet (6 males chicks per cage) from 0 to 21 d of age. Cumulative feed intake, BW gain (P < 0.0001), and G:F (P = 0.004) of birds fed the 2 mg of AFB1/kg of diet were significantly lower in comparison with birds fed 0 to 1 mg of AFB1/kg. Relative liver weight was increased in the 2 mg of AFB1/kg group (P < 0.0001). Dietary HSCAS improved cumulative BW gain (main effect P = 0.06), particularly from 14 to 21 d of age (P = 0.037). Dietary HSCAS also reversed the increase in relative liver weight for birds fed AFB1 (P = 0.019). Dietary AFB1 negatively affected major serum parameters (albumin, total protein, globulin, phosphorus, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine phosphokinase), whereas supplementation with HSCAS partially alleviated the affected serum biochemistry. In addition, serum complement activity and liver gene expression were negatively affected by 2 mg of AFB1/kg. The HSCAS supplement increased the liver expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). Results from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with HSCAS can effectively improve BW gain and partially ameliorate aflatoxicosis for broiler chicks fed AFB1-contaminated feeds.

  5. Impact of dietary branched chain amino acids concentration on broiler chicks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gene expression of the mTOR pathway in broiler chicks when exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 BCAA concentrations (1.16, 1.94, and 2.73%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 (1.77 mg/kg analyzed). Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from 6 to 20 d of age. Exposure to AFB1 significantly reduced gain:feed ratio and breast muscle weight (P < 0.05), and tended to decrease cumulative BW gain (P = 0.087), while increasing dietary BCAA improved all performance measures (P ≤ 0.0002), except relative breast muscle weight. Apparent ileal digestibility of N and 9 amino acids were increased by AFB1 (P ≤ 0.05), but were reduced by higher dietary BCAA (P ≤ 0.023). Jejunum histology was not affected by AFB1, while higher dietary BCAA tended to increase villus height (P = 0.08). Additionally, the gene expression of mTOR pathway (mTOR, 4EBP1, and S6K1) from liver and jejunum were not affected by dietary treatments, while muscle expression of S6K1 tended to be increased by AFB1 (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between AFB1 and dietary BCAA were observed for any measures in the current study. Results from this study suggested that feed AFB1 contamination can significantly reduce growth performance and breast muscle growth in broiler chicks at 20 d. Higher BCAA supply may have beneficial impact on bird performance, but this effect is independent of AFB1 exposure. PMID:26957625

  6. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  7. Effect of. cap alpha. -tocopherol, butylated-hydroxytoluene and hydroxy-anisole on the activation and binding of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ to macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ch'ih, J.J.; Biedrzycka, D.; Devlin, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The anti-oxidants, ..cap alpha..-tocopherol(TPA), butylated-hydroxy-toluene(BHT) and hydroxyanisole(BHA) inhibit the carcinogenic and toxic effects of a variety of chemical compounds, their effect on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) activation and binding was examined utilizing rat liver microsomes and cells. With a NADPH generating system, oxygen, microsomes, (/sup 3/H)-AFB/sub 1/, 2.2 pmoles/h/mg protein was activated and bound to macromolecules. In hepatocytes, 3.4 and 1.4 pmoles of AFB/sub 1/ per 10/sup 6/ cells were taken up and bound to macromolecules, whereas the nucleic acid fraction contained 0.19 pmoles of bound AFB/sub 1/. Moderate decreases of AFB/sub 1/ activation and binding were observed when TPA was present in both cell-free and hepatocytes systems. Only in hepatocytes, BHT inhibited the AFB/sub 1/ uptake and binding to nucleic acids. BHA, however, inhibited microsomal activation of AFB/sub 1/ by 73%; maximum inhibition was reached at 1 mM. AFB/sub 1/ uptake, and binding to nucleic acids were inhibited by 65% and 79% by BHA. GSH-transferase activity of cells treated with these agents was not altered. The effect of BHA at various concentrations on AFB activation was compared with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors; the ED/sub 50/ of SKF 525A, BHA and metyrapone was 9 uM, 80 uM and 380 uM respectively. The data suggest that TPA, BHA and BHT exert their effect by different mechanisms.

  8. [Contamination level of aflatoxin B1 in lotus seeds rapid screening by indirect competitive ELISA method].

    PubMed

    Chu, Xian-feng; Dou, Xiao-wen; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Zhao, Chong; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    A simple and cost-effective indirect competitive enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed to rapidly screen the content of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in lotus seeds, and the results were confirmed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry( UFLC-MS/MS). Matrix-matched calibration expressed a good linearity ranging from 0. 171 to 7. 25 µg · L(-1) for AFB, with R2 > 0.978. The medium inhibitory concentration( IC50 ) for AFB1 was 1.29 µg · L(-1), the recovery for AFB1 was 74.73% to 126.9% with RSD < 5%, and the limit of detection (IC10) was 0.128 µg · L(-1). The developed ic-ELSIA method was applied to rapid analysis of AFB, in 20 lotus seeds samples and the results indicated that the contents of AFB, in samples 1-15 were in the range of 1. 19- 115. 3 µg · kg(-1) and in 40% of the samples exceeded the legal limit(5 µg · kg(-1)), while the contamination rate of AFB, in samples 16-20 was 40%. Pearson correlation coefficient(r) reached 0.997 for AFB1 content in the samples detected by ic-ELSIA and UFLC-MS/MS methods. The results proved that the developed ic-ELISA method is simple, sensitive and reliable, and can be used for rapid and high-throughput screening of AFB1 in lotus seeds

  9. Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B1 pharmacokinetics in human volunteers: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Jubert, C; Mata, J; Bench, G; Dashwood, R; Pereira, C; Tracewell, W; Turteltaub, K; Williams, D; Bailey, G

    2009-04-20

    Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 14601-14606 (2001)), where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB{sub 1}. However, neither AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetics nor Chla effects were examined. We conducted a small unblinded crossover study to establish AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters in human volunteers, and to explore possible effects of CHL or Chla co-treatment on those parameters. For protocol 1, fasted subjects received an IRB-approved dose of 14C-AFB{sub 1} (30 ng, 5 nCi) by capsule with 100 ml water, followed by normal eating and drinking after hr 2. Blood and cumulative urine samples were collected over 72 hr, and {sup 14}C-AFB{sub 1} equivalents were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Protocols 2 and 3 were similar except capsules also contained 150 mg of purified Chla, or CHL, respectively. All protocols were repeated 3 times for each of three volunteers. The study revealed rapid human AFB{sub 1} uptake (plasma ka 5.05 {+-} 1.10 hr-1, Tmax 1.0 hr) and urinary elimination (95% complete by 24 hr) kinetics. Chla and CHL treatment each significantly impeded AFB{sub 1} absorption and reduced Cmax and AUC's (plasma and urine) in one or more subjects. These initial results provide AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters previously unavailable for humans, and suggest that Chla or CHL co-consumption may limit the bioavailability of ingested aflatoxin in humans, as they do in animal models.

  10. Aflatoxin B(1) adsorption by natural and copper modified montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Daković, Aleksandra; Matijasević, Srdan; Rottinghaus, George E; Ledoux, David R; Butkeraitis, Paula; Sekulić, Zivko

    2008-10-01

    Adsorption of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) by natural montmorillonite (MONT) and montmorillonite modified with copper ions (Cu-MONT) was investigated. Both MONTs were characterized using the X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis, thermal analysis (DTA/TGA) and scanning electron miscroscopy/electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The results of XRPD and SEM/EDS analyses of Cu-MONT suggested partial ion exchange of native inorganic cations in MONT with copper occurred. Investigation of AFB1 adsorption by MONT and Cu-MONT, at pH 3, 7 or 9, showed that adsorption of this toxin by both MONTs was high (over 93%). Since AFB1 is nonionizable, no differences in AFB1 adsorption by both MONTs, at different pHs, were observed, as expected. Futhermore, it was determined that adsorption of AFB1 by both MONTs followed a non-linear (Langmuir) type of isotherm, at pH 3. The calculated maximum adsorbed amounts of AFB1 by MONT (40.982mg/g) and Cu-MONT (66.225mg/g), derived from Langmuir plots of isotherms, indicate that Cu-MONT was much effective in adsorbing AFB1. Since, the main cation in an exchangeable position in MONT is calcium, and in Cu-MONT both calcium and copper, the fact that ion exchange of inorganic cations in MONT with copper increases adsorption of AFB1 suggests that additional interactions between AFB1 and copper ions in Cu-MONT caused greater adsorption. PMID:18585010

  11. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions. PMID:25990012

  12. Effect of dietary resveratrol in ameliorating aflatoxin B1-induced changes in broiler birds.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M; Suganthi, R U; Thammiaha, V

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated feed by poultry affects the health of broiler birds causing severe economic losses. The use of phytochemicals is a safe, effective, alternative and practical approach to combat the toxic effect of AF in broilers. Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from red grapes, berries and peanuts, exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Our study was aimed at evaluating the possible protective effects of resveratrol against the adverse effects of AFB1 in broiler birds. A feeding trial of 42 days of duration was undertaken in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments: G1-AFB1(1.0 ppm); G2-CTR (basal diet alone); G3-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 0.5%; G4-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 1%; and G5-Resv 1%. Gain in body weight (BWG) and feed intake (FI) was observed to be highest (p < 0.05) in the AFB1 birds followed by the control group. Feed conversion ratio was lowest in G2-CTR birds and failed to record any significant variation (p > 0.05) between groups as well as within groups. Birds fed resveratrol at both 0.5% and 1.0% levels in combination with AFB1 as well as alone along with basal diet had lower BWG and FI between the fourth and fifth week and also at the fifth week (p < 0.05). No variation (p > 0.05) was obtained in the FCR of AFB1 and resveratrol group of broiler birds. AFB1 feeding significantly increased the activities of aspartate-(AST) and alanine-(ALT) amino transferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities (p < 0.05) but lowered glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum. Supplementation of resveratrol helped in increasing the activities of the oxidative enzymes and in improving the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and total protein (TP) significantly (p < 0.05) and protein values. The livers of AFB1 group showed degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and microgranuloma formation. In resveratrol supplemented birds, the severity and degree of the

  13. On the nonlinear steady-state response of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings-Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jon S.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2015-06-01

    The demand for oil-free turbo compressors is increasing. Current trends are divided between active magnetic bearings and air foil bearings (AFB), the latter being important due to mechanical simplicity. AFB supported rotors are sensitive to unbalance due to low damping and nonlinear characteristics, hence accurate prediction of their response is important. This paper gives theoretical and experimental contributions by implementing and validating a new method to simulate the nonlinear steady-state response of a rotor supported by three pads segmented AFBs. The fluid film pressures, foil deflections and rotor movements are simultaneously solved, considering foil stiffness and damping coefficients estimated using a structural model, previously described and validated against experiments.

  14. Forward-backward asymmetry of Drell-Yan lepton pairs in pp collisions at √{s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mohammed, Y.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Bagaturia, I.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garcia, J. Garay; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. 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D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; de La Barca Sanchez, M. Calderon; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Negrete, M. Olmedo; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, L. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry {A}_{FB} of oppositely charged lepton pairs (μ μ and ee) produced via Z/γ ^* boson exchange in pp collisions at √{s} = 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb^{-1} collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement of {A}_{FB} is performed for dilepton masses between 40 {GeV} and 2 TeV and for dilepton rapidity up to 5. The {A}_{FB} measurements as a function of dilepton mass and rapidity are compared with the standard model predictions.

  15. Effect of dietary resveratrol in ameliorating aflatoxin B1-induced changes in broiler birds.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M; Suganthi, R U; Thammiaha, V

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated feed by poultry affects the health of broiler birds causing severe economic losses. The use of phytochemicals is a safe, effective, alternative and practical approach to combat the toxic effect of AF in broilers. Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from red grapes, berries and peanuts, exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Our study was aimed at evaluating the possible protective effects of resveratrol against the adverse effects of AFB1 in broiler birds. A feeding trial of 42 days of duration was undertaken in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments: G1-AFB1(1.0 ppm); G2-CTR (basal diet alone); G3-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 0.5%; G4-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 1%; and G5-Resv 1%. Gain in body weight (BWG) and feed intake (FI) was observed to be highest (p < 0.05) in the AFB1 birds followed by the control group. Feed conversion ratio was lowest in G2-CTR birds and failed to record any significant variation (p > 0.05) between groups as well as within groups. Birds fed resveratrol at both 0.5% and 1.0% levels in combination with AFB1 as well as alone along with basal diet had lower BWG and FI between the fourth and fifth week and also at the fifth week (p < 0.05). No variation (p > 0.05) was obtained in the FCR of AFB1 and resveratrol group of broiler birds. AFB1 feeding significantly increased the activities of aspartate-(AST) and alanine-(ALT) amino transferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities (p < 0.05) but lowered glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum. Supplementation of resveratrol helped in increasing the activities of the oxidative enzymes and in improving the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and total protein (TP) significantly (p < 0.05) and protein values. The livers of AFB1 group showed degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and microgranuloma formation. In resveratrol supplemented birds, the severity and degree of the

  16. Dominance Is the Major Genetic Basis of Heterosis in Rice as Revealed by Qtl Analysis Using Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, J.; Li, J.; Yuan, L.; Tanksley, S. D.

    1995-01-01

    A set of 194 F(7) lines derived from a subspecific rice cross showing strong F(1) heterosis was backcrossed to the two parents. The materials (388 BC(1)F(7) lines, 194 F(8) lines, two parents, F(1)) were phenotyped for 12 quantitative traits. A total of 37 significant QTLs (LOD >/= 2.0) was detected through 141 RFLP markers in the BC(1)F(7) populations. Twenty-seven (73%) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in only one of the BC(1)F(7) populations. In 82% of these cases, the heterozygotes were superior to the respective homozygotes. The remaining 10 (27%) QTLs were detected in both BC(1)F(7) populations, and the heterozygote had a phenotype falling between those of the two homozygotes and in no instances were the heterozygotes found to be superior to both homozygotes. These results suggest that dominance complementation is the major genetic basis of heterosis in rice. This conclusion was strengthened by the finding that there was no correlation between most traits and overall genome heterozygosity and that there were some recombinant inbred lines in the F(8) population having phenotypic values superior to the F(1) for all of the traits evaluated--a result not expected if overdominance was a major contributor to heterosis. Digenic epistasis was not evident. PMID:7498751

  17. Resources and Information for Parents about Braille

    MedlinePlus

    ... impaired, see the AFB Press online bookstore . Instructional Strategies for Braille Literacy , edited by Diane P. Wormsley ... and Kosman. Gives an overview of reading and writing with braille for young children, and how parents ...

  18. FIELD ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE DNAPL REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five DNAPL remediation technologies were evaluated in constructed test cells at the Dover National Test Site, Dover AFB, Delaware. The technologies were cosolvent solubilization, cosolvent mobilization, surfactant solubilization, complex sugar flushing and air sparging/soil vapor...

  19. FIELD EVALUATION OF DNAPL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES: PROJECT OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five DNAPL remediation technologies were evaluated at the Dover National Test Site, Dover AFB, Delaware. The technologies were cosolvent solubilization, cosolvent mobilization, surfactant solubilization, complex sugar flushing and air sparging/soil vapor extraction. The effectiv...

  20. 32 CFR 842.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., tort, carrier recovery and hospital recovery claims in favor of the United States. (e) Geographic area.... (g) HQ 9AF. Headquarters Ninth Air Force, Shaw AFB, SC 29152-5002. (h) Owner. A holder of a...

  1. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for ...

  2. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES; EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for a...

  3. 78 FR 77141 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... for use to assist the homeless. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Juanita Perry, Department of Housing... Force: Ms. Connie Lotfi, Air Force Real Property Agency, 2261 Hughes Avenue, Suite 156, Lackland AFB,...

  4. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... important job. Â Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  5. 76 FR 55933 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    .... 525 and 730 Kirtland AFB Kirtland NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property Number: 18201130002... Air Guard Dr. SE Kirtland NM 87117 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property Number: 18201130039...

  6. 75 FR 75461 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... provision by the nonprofit agencies listed: ] Services Service Type/Location: Base Supply Center, Kirtland... Air Force, FA9401 377 CONS CC, Kirtland AFB, NM. Service Type/Location: Landscaping &...

  7. Education and Cognitive Ability as Direct, Mediating, or Spurious Influences on Female Age at First Birth: Behavior Genetic Models Fit to Danish Twin Data1

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McGue, Matt; Behrman, Jere R.; Petersen, Inge; Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The authors study education and cognitive ability as predictors of female age at first birth (AFB), using monozygotic and dizygotic female twin pairs from the Middle-Aged Danish Twin survey. Using mediated regression, they replicate findings linking education (and not cognitive ability) to AFB. But in a behavior genetic model, both relationships are absorbed within a latent variable measuring the shared family environment. Two interpretations are relevant. First, variance in AFB emerges from differences between families, not differences between sisters within the same family. Second, even in a natural laboratory sensitive to genetic variance in female fertility—during demographic transition—the variance in AFB was non-genetic, located instead within the shared environment. PMID:19569405

  8. Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron in T-38A cockpit at Ellington Field near JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron seated in the forward cockpit of a T-38A conducts preflight checkout procedures at Ellington Field near JSC. Cameron is preparing for a flight to Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) in Spokane, Washington.

  9. How does airway exposure of aflatoxin B1 affect serum albumin adduct concentrations? Evidence based on epidemiological study and animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xianwei; Lai, Hao; Yang, Yang; Xiao, Jun; He, Ke; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) airway inhalation represents an additional route of exposure to this toxin. However, the association between AFB1 inhalation and serum AFB1 albumin adducts remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the association between airway exposure to AFB1 and serum AFB1 albumin adduct concentrations via an epidemiological study, as well as in an AFB1 airway exposure animal model. Our epidemiological study was conducted in a sugar factory in the Guangxi Autonomous Region of China. In order to examine fungal contamination, air samples were obtained in the workshop and areas outside the workshop, such as the office and nearby store. Dust samples were also collected from the bagasse warehouse and presser workshop, and were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, blood samples were collected from a total of 121 workshop workers, and a control group (n = 80) was comprised of workers who undertook administrative tasks or other work outside the workshop. The animal experiment was conducted in the laboratory animal center of Guangxi Medical University, where a total of 60 adult male rabbits were involved in this study. By intubation, AFB1 was administered in three groups of rabbits daily, at dose rates of 0.075, 0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg/day for a period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected on day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 21, and the measurements of the AFB1 albumin adducts in the serum were performed by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. The epidemiological study showed that serum albumin adducts were detected in 67 workshop workers (55.37%), and the values ranged 6.4 pg/mg albumin to 212 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 51 ± 4.62 pg/mg albumin). In contrast, serum albumin adducts were detected in only 7 control group participants, with the values ranging from 9 pg AFB1/mg albumin to 59 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 20 ± 13.72 pg/mg albumin). The animal experiment revealed that the rabbits had detectable

  10. 32 CFR 881.3 - Individual Service Review Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... grade Lieutenant Colonel or higher, and civilian members, grade GS-12 or higher, appointed by the HQ... Management, Separations Branch, HQ AFPC/DPPRS, 550 C Street West, Suite 11, Randolph AFB, TX...

  11. KSC-04PD-1083

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A remote camera captures liftoff of the Delta II rocket carrying the Gravity Probe B spacecraft from Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg AFB, Calif., at 9:57:24 a.m. PDT.

  12. KSC-04PD-1079

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- This photo of the Delta II rocket carrying the Gravity Probe B spacecraft was taken minutes before launch from Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg AFB, Calif., at 9:57:24 a.m. PDT.

  13. Impact of casing damaging on aflatoxin B1 concentration during the ripening of dry-fermented meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Pleadin, Jelka; Kovačević, Dragan; Perković, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of casing damaging on the formation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) during the ripening of dry-fermented meat sausages. The level of AFB1 contamination was determined in 24 samples using the ELISA immunoassay throughout a six-month production period. While with intact casing samples no contamination was observed throughout the whole production process, in damaged casing samples AFB1 was detected in the ripening end-stages in the range of 1.62-4.49 μg/kg. The results showed that casing damaging occurring during long-term ripening of dry-fermented sausages can cause AFB1 contamination, possibly arising on the grounds of diffusion of this mycotoxin from the product surface to its interior.

  14. 75 FR 31769 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/9/2010 (75 FR 18164-18165), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... Force, FA3020 82 CONS LGC, Sheppard AFB, TX. Barry S. Lineback, Director, Business Operations....

  15. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  16. CSF Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lactate , Protein Electrophoresis , AFB Testing , Blood Culture , Herpes , Lyme Disease , Rubella , Syphilis , West Nile Virus , Toxoplasmosis , EBV Antibodies , ... or may be slow to develop, indicating a chronic disease, such as multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer disease . Depending ...

  17. Absence of the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene, norA, allows accumulation of deoxyaflatoxin B1 in Aspergillus flavus cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Scharfenstein, Lester L.; Cary, Jeffrey W.; Crawford, Jason M.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the highly toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in select Aspergillus species from the common intermediate O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) has been postulated to require only the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, OrdA (AflQ). We now provide evidence that the aryl alcohol dehydrogenase NorA (AflE) encoded by the aflatoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in A. flavus affects the accumulation of aflatoxins in the final steps of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Mutants with inactive norA produced reduced quantities of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but elevated quantities of a new metabolite, deoxyAFB1. To explain this result, we suggest that, in the absence of NorA, the AFB1 reduction product, aflatoxicol, is produced and is readily dehydrated to deoxyAFB1 in the acidic medium, enabling us to observe this otherwise minor toxin produced in wild-type A. flavus. PMID:20158523

  18. 75 FR 12519 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Beddown of Training F-35A Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Training F-35A Aircraft AGENCY: Air Education and Training Command and Air National Guard, United States..., 266 F Street West, Randolph AFB, TX 78150-4319, telephone 210/652-1961. Bao-Anh Trinh, Air...

  19. Comparative study of in vitro prooxidative properties and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 and its laccase-mediated detoxification products.

    PubMed

    Zeinvand-Lorestani, Hamed; Sabzevari, Omid; Setayesh, Neda; Amini, Mohsen; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Amir; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the enzymatic detoxification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by laccase was studied, and the prooxidant properties and mutagenicity of the detoxification products were compared with those of AFB1. The optimal enzymatic reaction occurred in 0.1M of citrate buffer containing 20% DMSO at 35 °C, a pH of 4.5, and a laccase activity of 30 U mL(-1). After 2 d, sixty-seven percent of the toxic substrate was removed. The prooxidative properties of the detoxified products (27% versus 86%) and the mutagenicity were significantly decreased in comparison with the parent toxin. Unlike AFB1, which promoted metabolism-dependent genetic mutations by base-pair substitution, the detoxified products did not induce genotoxicity. Comparison of the Km values for AFB1 and riboflavin, a valuable food nutrient, indicated that laccase showed greater affinity for the toxin than for riboflavin.

  20. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE) on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g) male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w) for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i) a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii) an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii) restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which decreased as well as its

  1. Combined effects of aflatoxin B1 and corticosterone treatment on selected performance indices and liver histopathology in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Magnoli, A P; Monge, M P; Nazar, F N; Magnoli, C E; Cavaglieri, L R; Bagnis, G; Dalcero, A M; Marin, R H

    2012-02-01

    Animal feed may be contaminated with different mycotoxins, with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) being a very common and toxic compound. Considering that birds normally have to cope with different stressful situations at the same time, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of feed contamination with AFB(1) in combination with corticosterone treatment in drinking water (a model to induce physiological stress in birds) on selected performance indices: BW, feed conversion, egg production, and macroscopic and microscopic liver alterations. At 5 wk of age, quails were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatment groups that resulted from the combination of the presence or absence of corticosterone in drinking water (5 mg/L) with the presence or absence of AFB(1) contamination (0, 100, or 500 μg/kg). The animals remained in these treatments from 5 to 11 wk of age. There were 6 replicates per treatment, each containing 2 males and 2 females. Contamination with 100 μg of AFB(1) per kilogram of feed induced no changes in BW, feed conversion, and egg production parameters. Quail fed with 500 μg of AFB(1) per kilogram of feed showed significant decreases in BW and feed consumption compared with their control counterparts. Corticosterone in combination with 500 μg of AFB(1) per kilogram of feed intensified the negative effects observed on BW and feed consumption and also had negative effects on feed conversion rate and egg production parameters, suggesting that the adverse effects of contamination with AFB(1) are intensified in situations of chronic stress. Quail treated with 500 µg of AFB(1) per kilogram showed hepatocytes with degree 1 and 2 lesions, and all quail treated with 500 µg of AFB(1) per kilogram of feed in combination with corticosterone showed degree 2 liver lesions (i.e., hepatocytes with fatty macro and microvacuoles and necrosis). This result is also consistent with the hypothesis that chronic stress exacerbates the effect of AFB(1) contamination. In

  2. Changes in hepatic cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activity and expression of its class-P during prenatal and postnatal period in rats treated with aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Faezeh; Allameh, Abdolamir; Dadkhah, Abolfazl; Forouzandeh, Mehdi; Kazemnejad, Somayeh; Sharifi, Roya

    2006-09-01

    The effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the expression of glutathione S-transferase-P (GST-P) which is the major isoform of GST in developmental stages has been investigated in rat liver during prenatal and postnatal stages. Following administration of AFB1 (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 mg/kg bw) injected I.P on day 8.5 of gestation the number of dead or reabsorbed fetuses and malformed embryos were recorded. Then the fetal livers were processed for measurement of total GST and GST-P activities, using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and ethacrynic acid (ETA) as substrates respectively. RT-PCR using rat GST-P specific primers was performed on mRNA extracted from livers. Besides, the effects of AFB1 on hepatic GST and GST-P were assessed in groups of suckling rats directly injected with the toxin. The results show that a single dose of AFB1 (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg bw) caused approximately 50-60% depletion in fetal liver GST towards CDNB. Postnatal experiments revealed that liver GST (using CDNB as substrate) was significantly induced (approximately 40%) in suckling rats injected with a single dose of AFB1 (3.0 mg AFB1/kg) 24 h before killing. Liver GST-P expression was unaffected due to AFB1 exposures of rats before and after the birth. This finding was substantiated by western blotting and RT-PCR techniques. These data suggest that AFB1-related induction in rat liver total GST after birth may be implicated in protective mechanisms against AFB1. In contrast, inhibition of this enzyme in fetal liver following placental transfer of the carcinogen may explain high susceptibility of fetal cells to trans-plancental aflatoxins. Furthermore, lack of influence of AFB1 on GST-P expression in developmental stages can role out the involvement of this class of GST in AFB1 biotransformation. PMID:16501953

  3. Protective Efficacy of Alpha-lipoic Acid against AflatoxinB1-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Ma, Q. G.; Zhao, L. H.; Guo, Y. Q.; Duan, G. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Ji, C.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is not only involved in energy metabolism, but is also a powerful antioxidant that can protect against hepatic oxidative stress induced by some drugs, toxins, or under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of α-LA against liver oxidative damage in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Birds were randomly divided into four groups and assigned different diets: basal diet, 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, for 3 weeks. The results revealed that the addition of 300 mg/kg α-LA protected against the liver function damage of broilers induced by chronic low dose of AFB1 as estimated by a significant (p<0.05) change in levels of plasma total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and the activities of liver glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The histopathological analysis also showed that liver tissues were injured in the AFB1 diet, but this effect was alleviated by the addition of 300 mg/kg α-LA. Additionally, AFB1 induced a profound elevation of oxidative stress in birds, as indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde level, a decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity and a depletion of the glutathione content in the liver. All of these negative effects were inhibited by treatment with α-LA. Our results suggest that the inhibition of AFB1-induced excess production of lipid peroxides and the maintenance of intracellular antioxidant status may play important roles in the protective effects of α-LA against AFB1-induced oxidative damage in the liver. PMID:25050030

  4. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetries in the production of Ξ and Ω baryons in p p ¯ collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brochmann, M.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cuth, J.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franc, J.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schott, M.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.; D0 Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We measure the forward-backward asymmetries AFB of charged Ξ and Ω baryons produced in p p ¯ collisions recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at √{s }=1.96 TeV as a function of the baryon rapidity y . We find that the asymmetries AFB for charged Ξ and Ω baryons are consistent with zero within statistical uncertainties.

  5. Effect of aflatoxin B₁ on IgA⁺ cell number and immunoglobulin mRNA expression in the intestine of broilers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Cui, Hengmin; Yu, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic group of mycotoxins produced by two species of the Aspergillus, common contaminants of food and animal feed. The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of AFB1 on the number of IgA(+) cell and immunoglobulin mRNA expression in the intestine of broilers. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly divided into the control group (the dosage of 0 mg/kg AFB1) and AFB1 group (the dosage of 0.6 mg/kg AFB1) with three replicates per group and 26 birds per replicate for 21 days, respectively. After necropsy at 7, 14 and 21 days of age, duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples were taken for analyzing IgA(+) cell by immunohistochemistry and IgA, pIgR, IgM and IgG mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. IgA(+) cells were mainly distributed in the lamina propria of small intestinal mucosa in both groups at 14 and 21 days of age. A significant decrease in the number of IgA(+) cells in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum was revealed in the AFB1 group compared with that of the control group. The expression levels of IgA, pIgR, IgM and IgG mRNA in the intestinal mucosa were lower in the AFB1 group than those in the control group at 14 and 21 days of age. Our data demonstrated that the dosage of 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 in broiler diet reduced the number of IgA(+) cell and the expression of IgA, pIgR, IgM and IgG mRNA in the small intestine.

  6. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: Impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression

    SciTech Connect

    Meissonnier, Guylaine M.; Pinton, Philippe; Laffitte, Joelle; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Gong, Yun Yun; Wild, Christopher P.; Bertin, Gerard; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2008-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus, is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. This toxin is hepatotoxic and immunotoxic. The present study analyzed in pigs the influence of AFB1 on humoral and cellular responses, and investigated whether the immunomodulation observed is produced through interference with cytokine expression. For 28 days, pigs were fed a control diet or a diet contaminated with 385, 867 or 1807 {mu}g pure AFB1/kg feed. At days 4 and 15, pigs were vaccinated with ovalbumin. AFB1 exposure, confirmed by an observed dose-response in blood aflatoxin-albumin adduct, had no major effect on humoral immunity as measured by plasma concentrations of total IgA, IgG and IgM and of anti-ovalbumin IgG. Toxin exposure did not impair the mitogenic response of lymphocytes but delayed and decreased their specific proliferation in response to the vaccine antigen, suggesting impaired lymphocyte activation in pigs exposed to AFB1. The expression level of pro-inflammatory (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-6, IFN-{gamma}) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR in spleen. A significant up-regulation of all 5 cytokines was observed in spleen from pigs exposed to the highest dose of AFB1. In pigs exposed to the medium dose, IL-6 expression was increased and a trend towards increased IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 was observed. In addition we demonstrate that IL-6 impaired in vitro the antigenic- but not the mitogenic-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from control pigs vaccinated with ovalbumin. These results indicate that AFB1 dietary exposure decreases cell-mediated immunity while inducing an inflammatory response. These impairments in the immune response could participate in failure of vaccination protocols and increased susceptibility to infections described in pigs exposed to AFB1.

  7. Pott's Disease? AIDS-Associated Mycobacterium heckeshornense Spinal Osteomyelitis and Diskitis

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Paul C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) spinal osteomyelitis in a patient with AIDS is often presumed to be caused by reactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, other AFB pathogens can mimic M. tuberculosis and, to ensure appropriate and adequate therapy, should be considered by clinicians. We present a case of aggressive spinal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in an AIDS patient; a review of the literature is also included. PMID:25428153

  8. Occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in Malaysian foods used for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kasa R N; Farhana, Nazira I; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2011-05-01

    Malaysian population widely consumes the cereal-based foods, oilseeds, nuts, and spices in their daily diet. Mycotoxigenic fungi are well known to invade food products under storage conditions and produce mycotoxins that have threat to human and animal health. Therefore, determining toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) in foods used for human consumption is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Ninety-five food products marketed in Penang, Malaysia were randomly collected from different supermarkets and were analyzed for presence of Aspergillus spp. by agar plate assay and AFB1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A. flavus was the dominant fungi in all foods followed by A. niger. Fifty-five A. flavus strains were tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins on rice grain substrate. Thirty-six (65.4%) strains out of 55 produced AFB1 ranging from 1700 to 4400 μg/kg and 17 strains (31%) produced AFB2 ranging from 620 to 1670 μg/kg. Natural occurrence of AFB1 could be detected in 72.6% food products ranging from 0.54 to 15.33 μg/kg with a mean of 1.95 μg/kg. Maximum AFB1 levels were detected in peanut products ranging from 1.47 to 15.33 μg/kg. AFB1 levels detected in all food products were below the Malaysian permissible limits (<35 μg/kg). Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 was not detected in any cookies tested. Although this survey was not comprehensive, it provides valuable information on aflatoxin levels in foods marketed in Malaysia.

  9. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 on T-Cell Subsets and mRNA Expression of Cytokines in the Intestine of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Yu, Zhengqiang; Chen, Zhengli

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on T-cell subsets and mRNA expression of cytokines in the small intestine of broilers. One hundred and fifty-six one-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly divided into control group (0 mg/kg AFB1) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg/kg AFB1) with three replicates per group and 26 birds per replicate for 21 days, respectively. At 7, 14, and 21 days of age, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled for analyzing T cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+) by flow cytometry as well as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. The percentages of T-cells in the intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the AFB1 group showed a decreased tendency in comparison to the control group. The mRNA expression of cytokines in the three intestinal segments in the AFB1 group presented a general decline compared with the control groups. Our data demonstrated that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 in the broilers diet could reduce the percentages of T-cell subsets and the expression level of cytokine mRNA in the small intestine, implying that the immune function of the intestinal mucosa might be affected. The reduction of cytokines mRNA expression may be closely associated with the decreased proportions of T cells subsets induced by AFB1. PMID:25826527

  10. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Meissonnier, Guylaine M; Pinton, Philippe; Laffitte, Joëlle; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Gong, Yun Yun; Wild, Christopher P; Bertin, Gérard; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2008-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus, is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. This toxin is hepatotoxic and immunotoxic. The present study analyzed in pigs the influence of AFB1 on humoral and cellular responses, and investigated whether the immunomodulation observed is produced through interference with cytokine expression. For 28 days, pigs were fed a control diet or a diet contaminated with 385, 867 or 1807 microg pure AFB1/kg feed. At days 4 and 15, pigs were vaccinated with ovalbumin. AFB1 exposure, confirmed by an observed dose-response in blood aflatoxin-albumin adduct, had no major effect on humoral immunity as measured by plasma concentrations of total IgA, IgG and IgM and of anti-ovalbumin IgG. Toxin exposure did not impair the mitogenic response of lymphocytes but delayed and decreased their specific proliferation in response to the vaccine antigen, suggesting impaired lymphocyte activation in pigs exposed to AFB1. The expression level of pro-inflammatory (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR in spleen. A significant up-regulation of all 5 cytokines was observed in spleen from pigs exposed to the highest dose of AFB1. In pigs exposed to the medium dose, IL-6 expression was increased and a trend towards increased IFN-gamma and IL-10 was observed. In addition we demonstrate that IL-6 impaired in vitro the antigenic- but not the mitogenic-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from control pigs vaccinated with ovalbumin. These results indicate that AFB1 dietary exposure decreases cell-mediated immunity while inducing an inflammatory response. These impairments in the immune response could participate in failure of vaccination protocols and increased susceptibility to infections described in pigs exposed to AFB1.

  11. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetries in the production of Ξ and Ω baryons in $$p\\overline{p}$$ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-06-01

    Here, we measure the forward-backward asymmetries AFB of charged Ξ and Ω baryons produced inmore » $$p\\overline{p}$$ collisions recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at √s = 1.96 TeV as a function of the baryon rapidity y. We find that the asymmetries AFB for charged Ξ and Ω baryons are consistent with zero within statistical uncertainties.« less

  12. Spatial Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Buruli Ulcer Lesions: Implications for Laboratory Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bolz, Miriam; Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Bratschi, Martin W.; Sopho, Ghislain Emmanuel; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Um Boock, Alphonse; Junghanss, Thomas; Pluschke, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Background Current laboratory diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (BU) is based on microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), histopathology or cultivation. Insertion sequence (IS) 2404 qPCR, the most sensitive method, is usually only available at reference laboratories. The only currently available point-of-care test, microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB), has limited sensitivity and specificity. Methodology/ Principal Findings Here we analyzed AFB positive tissue samples (n = 83) for the presence, distribution and amount of AFB. AFB were nearly exclusively present in the subcutis with large extracellular clusters being most frequently (67%) found in plaque lesions. In ulcerative lesions small clusters and dispersed AFB were more common. Beside this, 151 swab samples from 37 BU patients were analyzed by IS2404 qPCR and ZN staining in parallel. The amount of M. ulcerans DNA in extracts from swabs correlated well with the probability of finding AFB in direct smear microscopy, with 56.1% of the samples being positive in both methods and 43.9% being positive only in qPCR. By analyzing three swabs per patient instead of one, the probability to have at least one positive swab increased from 80.2% to 97.1% for qPCR and from 45% to 66.1% for AFB smear examination. Conclusion / Significance Our data show that M. ulcerans bacteria are primarily located in the subcutis of BU lesions, making the retrieval of the deep subcutis mandatory for examination of tissue samples for AFB. When laboratory diagnosis is based on the recommended less invasive collection of swab samples, analysis of three swabs from different areas of ulcerative lesions instead of one increases the sensitivity of both qPCR and of smear microscopy substantially. PMID:27253422

  13. Modified Hydra Bioassay to Evaluate the Toxicity of Multiple Mycotoxins and Predict the Detoxification Efficacy of a Clay-Based Sorbent

    PubMed Central

    Brown, KA; Mays, T; Romoser, A; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Mitchell, NJ; Elmore, SE; Phillips, TD

    2013-01-01

    Food shortages and lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay (i.e. UPSN) has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present work were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB1 and FB1at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB1 and FB1 toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB1 binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB1 bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9-7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB1, AFB1 and FB1/AFB1 combinations with and without UPSN. Toxic response over 92 hours was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 μg/mLfor AFB1, while the MEC for FB1 was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 μg/mL FB1 + 10 μg/mL AFB1. This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin binding agents. PMID:23047854

  14. Effects of dietary protein concentration on performance and nutrient digestibility in Pekin ducks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Murdoch, R; Zhang, Q; Shafer, D J; Applegate, T J

    2016-04-01

    A 14-d study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary crude protein concentration on performance, serum biochemistry, and nutrient digestive functions in Pekin ducklings during aflatoxicosis. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments arranged in a 2×2 factorial with 2 crude protein (CP) (20 and 24% on an analyzed basis) with or without 0.2 mg/kg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (0.21 mg/kg analyzed). The AFB1 reduced BW gain, feed intake, and breast muscle weight by 33 to 43% (P<0.0001). Serum concentration of protein, glucose, and Ca were also decreased by AFB1 (P≤0.0015), while pancreatic activities of amylase and lipase were increased by AFB1 (P<0.005). Apparent N digestibility was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas apparent ileal digestible energy was reduced 7.6% by AFB1 (P=0.0003). Higher dietary CP improved BW gain, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight (P≤0.021), and tended to improve feed intake (P=0.094), but did not improve serum measures, digestive enzyme activity, or nutrient digestibility. No statistical interaction of AFB1 by CP was observed for any measures. Results from the current study suggest that AFB1 at low concentration can significantly impair performance of Pekin ducklings primarily through inhibited feed intake, as well as influence nutrient digestion processes (jejunum morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and apparent energy digestibility). Higher dietary CP can improve growth performance of ducklings regardless of AF exposure, but did not interact with dietary AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, or nutrient digestion in Pekin ducklings from hatch to 14 d.

  15. Modified hydra bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of multiple mycotoxins and predict the detoxification efficacy of a clay-based sorbent.

    PubMed

    Brown, K A; Mays, T; Romoser, A; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Mitchell, N J; Elmore, S E; Phillips, T D

    2014-01-01

    Food shortages and a lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay [i.e. uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN)] has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present study were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB(1) and FB(1) at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB(1) and FB(1) toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB(1) binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB(1) bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9-7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB(1), AFB(1) and FB(1) /AFB(1) combinations with and without UPSN. A toxic response over 92 h was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg ml(-1) for AFB(1), whereas the MEC for FB(1) was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 µg ml(-1) FB(1) + 10 µg ml(-1) AFB(1). This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin-binding agents.

  16. Acute aflatoxicosis in genetically resistant and nonselected Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Pegram, R A; Wyatt, R D; Marks, H L

    1986-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was administered by either oral intubation or intravenous (IV) injection to two lines of Japanese quail selected for aflatoxin resistance (AR2.5 and AR3) and a nonselected control line (NS). Pretreatment feed consumption did not vary significantly between lines; however, normal water intake of AR quail was 25% greater than that of NS quail. Oral AFB1 dosing (1.0 mg/kg body wt) elicited 53 and 25% decreases in feed and water consumption of NS quail within 24 hr. The only postdose change detected in the selected lines was a 10% increase in AR2.5 water intake. Oral AFB1 dosing also caused a significant reduction in excreta dry matter of NS quail. Twenty-four hr after IV AFB1 injection (.75 mg/kg body wt), feed and water consumption of the NS line were depressed by 93 and 75%, respectively, but only feed intake was decreased (13%) in the AR2.5 line. Intravenously injected AFB1 did not affect 24-hr parameters in the AR3 line. Body weight loss was noted in NS quail after both oral and IV dosing, while the AR lines maintained pretreatment body weights. Both AR lines also exhibited resistance to AFB1-induced hepatic lesions observed in NS birds. Biliary output was also studied during a 12-hr period following IV administration of AFB1. Cholecystic bile measurements taken at 1.5- and 3-hr after dosing averaged 34 and 50% higher in the AR lines than in the NS line. These results demonstrate the resistance of the selected quail to AFB1 whether administered orally or intravenously and therefore, indicate the AR line resistance is unrelated to intestinal absorption of the toxin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Anisotropic tubular filtering for automatic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.

  18. MicroRNA Responses to the Genotoxic Carcinogens Aflatoxin B1 and Benzo[a]pyrene in Human HepaRG Cells.

    PubMed

    Marrone, April K; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Beland, Frederick A; Pogribny, Igor P

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in toxicogenomics present an opportunity to develop new in vitro testing methodologies to identify human carcinogens. We have investigated microRNA expression responses to the treatment of human liver HepaRG cells with the human genotoxic carcinogens aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the structurally similar compounds aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) that exhibit minimal carcinogenic potential. We demonstrate that treatment of HepaRG cells with AFB1 or B[a]P resulted in specific changes in the expression of miRNAs as compared with their non-carcinogenic analogues, particularly in a marked over-expression of miR-410. An additional novel finding is the dose- and time-dependent inhibition of miR-122 in AFB1-treated HepaRG cells. Mechanistically, the AFB1-induced down-regulation of miR-122 was attributed to inhibition of the HNF4A/miR-122 regulatory pathway. These results demonstrate that HepaRG cells can be used to investigate miRNA responses to xenobiotic exposure, and illustrate the existence of early non-genotoxic events, in addition to a well-established genotoxic mode of action changes, in the mechanism of AFB1 and B[a]P carcinogenicity.

  19. Simple and sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 within five minute using a non-conventional competitive immunosensing mode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Youxiu; Zhou, Qian; Lin, Yuping; Tang, Dianyong; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2015-12-15

    A novel competitive-type immunosensing strategy based on target-induced displacement reaction with antibody-functionalized mesoporous carbon (MSC) nanoparticles was designed for sensitive and rapid electrochemical detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, used as a model) on the Nafion-functionalized sensing interface. Electroactive thionine molecules were initially decorated to the mesoporous carbon, and polyclonal anti-AFB1 antibody was then covalently conjugated to the nanostructures. The immunosensor was simply prepared via the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged Nafion film and positively charged anti-AFB1 antibody accompanying the nanostructures. The electrochemical signal originated from the carried thionine to mesoporous carbon. Upon target AFB1 introduction, the analyte reacted with the labeled anti-AFB1 antibody on the MSC based on specific antigen-antibody reaction and induced the dissociation of thionine-MSN nanostructures from the sensing interface, thus decreasing the cathodic current of the carried thionine molecules. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses for determination of target AFB1 at a concentration as low as 3.0 pg mL(-1) (3.0 ppt). Importantly, the non-conventional sensing system provides a promising immunosensing strategy for rapid screening of small molecules because of its simplicity, low cost and sensitivity without the needs of sample separation and washing step.

  20. Disposable competitive-type immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin B1 via detection of copper ions released from Cu-apatite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Yihe; Chu, Yanguang; Ma, Hongmin; Li, Yan; Wu, Dan; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-15

    A disposable electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) based on stripping voltammetric detection of copper ions released from Cu-apatite. AFB1 antibody (Ab) was firstly fixed on the gold nanoparticle (Au NPs) modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). AFB1-bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA) conjugate was labeled with Cu-apatite, and then competed with AFB1 for binding to the Ab. Copper ions were released from Cu-apatite through acidolysis and stripping voltammetry signal of the copper ions was used for the detection. The Cu-apatite increased the amount of loaded copper ions, and the anodic stripping strategy performed in the micro electrolytic cell of the SPCE simplified the detection procedure and further amplified the electrochemical signal. This immunosensor could detect AFB1 over a wide concentration range from 0.001 to 100ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.2pg mL(-1). The low cost, high sensitive, rapid and accurate method may find widely potential application in the detection of other toxic or harmful substances.

  1. Mass spectrometric identification and toxicity assessment of degraded products of aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Corymbia citriodora aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the detoxification potential of Corymbia citriodora plant extracts against aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L−1 and AFB2; 50 μg L−1) in In vitro and In vivo assays. Detoxification was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by TLC and HPLC, respectively. The study was carried out by using different parameters of optimal temperature, pH and incubation time period. Results indicated that C. citriodora leaf extract(s) more effectively degrade AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 95.21% and 92.95% respectively than C. citriodora branch extract, under optimized conditions. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products was done by LCMS/MS analysis. Ten degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 and their fragmentation pathways were proposed based on molecular formulas and MS/MS spectra. Toxicity of these degraded products was significantly reduced as compared to that of parent compounds because of the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring. The biological toxicity of degraded toxin was further analyzed by brine shrimps bioassay, which showed that only 17.5% mortality in larvae was recorded as compared to untreated toxin where 92.5% mortality was observed after 96hr of incubation. Therefore, our finding suggests that C. citriodora leaf extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:26423838

  2. Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis—role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Li, Liang; Makarova, Alena V.; Burgers, Peter M.; Stone, Michael P.; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base substitution being a G to T transversion. This transversion is consistent with previous mutational data derived from aflatoxin-associated HCCs. In vitro translesion synthesis assays demonstrated that polymerase (pol) ζ was the most likely candidate polymerase that is responsible for the G to T mutations induced by this adduct. PMID:24398669

  3. Effects of Nutrients in Substrates of Different Grains on Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Li, Chong; Rajput, Shahid Ali; Qi, Desheng

    2016-01-01

    The current study was to better understand the potential factors affecting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) accumulation varies between different grains. The nutrient composition and contents of defatted substrates were determined; additionally, according to the nutrient content of the substrates, the effects of starch, soluble sugars, amino acids, and trace elements on AFB1 production and mycelial growth in Czapek-Dox medium were examined. These results verified that removal of lipids from ground substrates significantly reduced the substrate's potential for AFB1 production by Aspergillus flavus. Maltose, glucose, sucrose, arginine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and zinc significantly induced AFB1 production up to 1.7- to 26.6-fold. And stachyose more significantly promoted A. flavus growth than the other nutrients. Thus, this study demonstrated that, combined with the nutrients content of grains, in addition to lipids, sucrose, stachyose, glutamic acid, and zinc might play key roles in various grains that are differentially infected by A. flavus. Particularly, two new nutrients (arginine and stachyose) of the grains we found significantly stimulate AFB1 production and A. flavus growth, respectively. The results provide new concepts for antifungal methods to protect food and animal feed from AFB1 contamination. PMID:27294129

  4. Biochemical and molecular aspects of mammalian susceptibility to aflatoxin B{sub 1} carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, T.E.; Stewart, R.K.; Daniels, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is a fungal toxin that has been implicated as a causative agent in human hepatic and extrahepatic carcinogenesis. In this review, the mechanisms involved in AFB{sub 1} toxicity are delineated, in order to describe the features that make a specific cell, tissue, or species susceptible to the mycotoxin. Important considerations include: (i) different mechanisms for bioactivation of AFB{sub 1} to its ultimate carcinogenic epoxide metabolite; (ii) the balance between bioactivation to and detoxification of the epoxide; (iii) the interaction of AFB{sub 1} epoxide with DNA and the mutational events leading to neoplastic transformation; (iv) the role of cytotoxicity in AFB{sub 1} carcinogenesis; (v) the significance of nonepoxide metabolites in toxicity; and (vi) the contribution of mycotoxin-unrelated disease processes. Although considerable controversy remains about the importance of specific events, a great deal has been learned about biochemical and molecular actions of AFB{sub 1}. 157 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Structural Elucidation and Toxicity Assessment of Degraded Products of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Aqueous Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L−1 and AFB2; 50 μg L−1) by in vitro and in vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e., 92.8 and 91.9% respectively. However, T. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that eight degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27064492

  6. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    PubMed

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  7. A novel electrochemical immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 in corn using single-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Li, Chao-Rui; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Xue, Jian; Huang, Ya-Ling; Yang, Xian-Xian; Tan, Bin; Zhou, Xi-Peng; Shao, Chuang; Ding, Shi-Jia; Qiu, Jing-Fu

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection based on single-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan was presented. The immunosensor was based on an indirect competitive binding to a fixed amount of anti-AFB1 between free AFB1 and AFB1-bovine serum albumin, which conjugate immobilized on covalently functionalized nanotubes/chitosan laid on the glass carbon electrode. Then, the anti-mouse immunoglobulin G secondary antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase was bound to the electrode surface through reacting with primary antibody. Finally, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the substrate α-naphthyl phosphate, which produced electrochemical signal. Compared with conventional methods, the established immunosensor was more sensitive and simple. Under optimal conditions, this method could quantitatively detect AFB1 from 0.01 to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3.5 pg mL(-1). Moreover, the immunosensor was successfully applied to assay AFB1 in corn powder, which showed good correlation with the results obtained from high performance liquid chromatography.

  8. Hetero-enzyme-based two-round signal amplification strategy for trace detection of aflatoxin B1 using an electrochemical aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wanli; Teng, Jun; Cheng, Lin; Ye, Yingwang; Pan, Daodong; Wu, Jingjing; Xue, Feng; Liu, Guodong; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-15

    An electrochemical aptasensor for trace detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed by using an aptamer as the recognition unit while adopting the telomerase and EXO III based two-round signal amplification strategy as the signal enhancement units. The telomerase amplification was used to elongate the ssDNA probes on the surface of gold nanoparticles, by which the signal response range of the signal-off model electrochemical aptasensor could be correspondingly enlarged. Then, the EXO III amplification was used to hydrolyze the 3'-end of the dsDNA after the recognition of target AFB1, which caused the release of bounded AFB1 into the sensing system, where it participated in the next recognition-sensing cycle. With this two-round signal amplified electrochemical aptasensor, target AFB1 was successfully measured at trace concentrations with excellent detection limit of 0.6*10(-4)ppt and satisfied specificity due to the excellent affinity of the aptamer against AFB1. Based on this designed two-round signal amplification strategy, both the sensing range and detection limit were greatly improved. This proposed ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor method was also validated by comparison with the classic instrumental methods. Importantly, this hetero-enzyme based two-round signal amplified electrochemical aptasensor offers a great promising protocol for ultrasensitive detection of AFB1 and other mycotoxins by replacing the core recognition sequence of the aptamer.

  9. A Spectroscopic Approach to Investigate the Molecular Interactions between the Newly Approved Irreversible ErbB blocker "Afatinib" and Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of afatinib (AFB) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined via fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Spectrofluorimetric measurements revealed that AFB can strongly quench the BSA intrinsic fluorescence through producing a non-fluorescent complex. This quenching mechanism was thoroughly investigated with regard to the type of quenching, binding constant, number of binding locations and the fundamental thermodynamic parameters. Subsequently, the association constant of AFB with BSA was computed at three different temperatures and was found to range from 7.34 to 13.19 x105 L mol-1. Thermodynamic parameters calculations demonstrated a positive ΔSƟvalue with both negative ΔHϴand ΔGϴvalues for AFB–BSA complex, which in turn infers thata spontaneous binding is taking place with both electrostatic bonding and hydrophobic interactions participating in the binding of AFB and BSA. Similarly, the UV absorption spectra of AFB-BSA system were studied and confirmed the interaction. Conformational alteration of the protein upon binding to AFB was elaborated with the aid of three dimensional fluorescence measurements as well as synchronous fluorescence spectra. PMID:26751077

  10. Evaluation of STAT5A Gene Expression in Aflatoxin B1 Treated Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Forouharmehr, Ali; Harkinezhad, Taher; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent mycotoxin which has been produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus as secondary metabolites due to their growth on food stuffs and induces hepatocellular carcinoma in many animal species, including humans. In the present study, the effect of AFB1 on STAT5A gene expression was investigated in bovine mammary epithelial cells using real time RT-PCR. Methods: Bovine mammary epithelial cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D) culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, cells were treated with AFB1 and incubated for 8 h. For real time PCR reaction, total RNA from the cultured and treated cells was extracted and used for complementary DNA synthesis. Results: The expression of STAT5A gene was significantly down regulated by AFB1 in dose- dependent manner and led to the reduction of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, which has direct effect in milk protein quantity and quality. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that down regulation of STAT5A gene in AFB1-treated cells maybe due to DNA damage induced by AFB1 in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:24312879

  11. Aflatoxin B1 Detection Using a Highly-Sensitive Molecularly-Imprinted Electrochemical Sensor Based on an Electropolymerized Metal Organic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mengjuan; Braiek, Mohamed; Florea, Anca; Chrouda, Amani; Farre, Carole; Bonhomme, Anne; Bessueille, Francois; Vocanson, Francis; Zhang, Aidong; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical molecularly-imprinted sensor was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), by electropolymerization of p-aminothiophenol-functionalized gold nanoparticles in the presence of AFB1 as a template molecule. The extraction of the template leads to the formation of cavities that are able to specifically recognize and bind AFB1 through π-π interactions between AFB1 molecules and aniline moities. The performance of the developed sensor for the detection of AFB1 was investigated by linear sweep voltammetry using a hexacyanoferrate/hexacyanoferrite solution as a redox probe, the electron transfer rate increasing when the concentration of AFB1 increases, due to a p-doping effect. The molecularly-imprinted sensor exhibits a broad linear range, between 3.2 fM and 3.2 µM, and a quantification limit of 3 fM. Compared to the non-imprinted sensor, the imprinting factor was found to be 10. Selectivity studies were also performed towards the binding of other aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, proving good selectivity. PMID:26371042

  12. Comparative Hepatotoxicity of Aflatoxin B1 among Workers Exposed to Different Organic Dust with Emphasis on Polymorphism Role of Glutathione S-Transferase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Saad-Hussein, Amal; Shahy, Eman M.; Shaheen, Weam; Taha, Mona M.; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; Ibrahim, Khadiga S.; Hafez, Salwa F.; Fadl, Nevein N.; El-Shamy, Karima A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The study aimed to investigate effects of organic dust exposure from different sources on aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts (AFB1/Alb), and role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphism in hepatotoxicity of (AFB1) among exposed workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Liver enzymes, AFB1/Alb, and GST polymorphism were estimated in 132 wheat flour dust and 87 woods sawmill workers, and 156 controls. RESULTS: Results revealed that AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes were significantly elevated in exposed workers compared to controls, and were significantly higher in sawmill workers compared to flour workers. AFB1/Alb in flour and sawmill workers with GSTT1 and GSTM1&GSTT1 null genotypes were significantly higher than controls, and in sawmill workers with GSTM1&GSTT1 null than flour workers. Liver enzymes (ALT and AST) in sawmill workers were significantly higher than flour workers and controls in all GST polymorphism; except in GSTT1 polymorphism, where these enzymes were significantly higher in the two exposed groups than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, organic dust exposure may cause elevation in AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes of exposed workers, and GST gene polymorphism plays an important role in susceptibility to hepatic parenchymal cell injury; except in workers with GSTT1&GSTM1 null genotype, gene susceptibility seemed to have little role and the main role was for environmental exposures. PMID:27335608

  13. Computer-aided feature extraction, classification, and acceptance processing of digital NDE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, Joseph H.

    1996-11-01

    As part of the advanced Launch System technology development effort begun in 1989, the Air Force initiated a program to automate, to the extent possible, the processing of NDE data from the inspection of slid rocket motors during fabrication. The computerized system, called the Automated NDE Data Evaluation System or ANDES, was developed under contract to Martin Marietta, now Lockheed Martin. The ANDES system is generic in structure and is highly tailorable. The system can be configured to process digital or digitized data from any source, to process data from a single or from multiple acquisition systems, and to function as a single stand-alone system or in a multiple workstation distributed network. The system can maintain multiple configurations from which the user can select. In large measure, a configuration is defined through the system's user interface and is stored in the system's data base to be recalled by the user at any time. Three operational systems are currently in use. These systems ar located at Hill AFB in Ogden, Utah, Kelly AFB in San Antonio, TX, and the Phillips Laboratory at Edwards AFB in California. Each of these systems is configured to process x-ray computed tomography, CT, images. The Hill AFB installation supports the aging surveillance effort on Minuteman third stage rocket motors. The Kelly AFB system supports the acceptance inspection of airframe and engine components and torpedo housing components. The installation at Edwards AFB provides technical support to the other two locations.

  14. Natural co-occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B and aflatoxins in Sicilian red wines.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Vita; Avellone, Giuseppe; Pitonzo, Rosa; Capocchiano, Valentina Giusi; Mazza, Alessia; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The natural occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 (OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in red wines was investigated by HPLC/FLD after immunoaffinity column clean-up in 57 market samples produced in Sicily (Italy). The results showed a very low incidence of these mycotoxins in analysed samples, confirming the high degree of quality and safety of Sicilian red wines. The results indicated 71.9% and 64.9% positive samples for OTA and OTB respectively, with an average level of 0.13 μg l(-1), well below the European maximum permitted levels (MLs). The aflatoxin most frequently detected in the samples was AFG1, present in 57.9% of samples, while the other aflatoxins were rarely present. Recovery experiments were carried out on eight mycotoxin-free red wines spiked with OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at two different levels. The limits of detection (LODs) in wines were 0.02 µg l(-1) for OTA, 0.04 µg l(-1) for OTB, 0.03 µg l(-1) for AFG1, AFG2 and AFB2, and 0.05 µg l(-1) for AFB1. A good correlation was found, with good performances in term of precision for the method.

  15. Analysis of aflatoxins in nonalcoholic beer using liquid-liquid extraction and ultraperformance LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad R; Alothman, Zeid A; Ghfar, Ayman A; Wabaidur, Saikh M

    2013-02-01

    Aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and posses a potential threat to food safety. In the present work, liquid-liquid extraction and ultraperformance LC-MS/MS method has been applied for the determination of four naturally occurring aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 in nonalcoholic beer. Aflatoxins extraction from nonalcoholic beer was carried out using liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The effects of solvent-types were studied to obtain maximum recovery of the target analytes with minimum contamination. Among different solvents, the aflatoxins extraction was best achieved using ethyl acetate. The obtained recoveries were ranged from 85 to 96% with good quality parameters: LOD values between 0.001 and 0.003 ng/mL, linearity of the calibration curve (r(2) > 0.999), and repeatability (run-to-run) and reproducibility (day-to-day) precisions with RSDs lower than 5% (n = 5) achieved at 0.50 ng/mL concentration. The optimized liquid-liquid extraction in combination with ultraperformance LC-MS/MS was applied successfully to the analysis of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 aflatoxins in 11 nonalcoholic beers and were detected up to 15.31 ng/L in some of the samples.

  16. Effects of Nutrients in Substrates of Different Grains on Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Li, Chong; Rajput, Shahid Ali; Qi, Desheng

    2016-01-01

    The current study was to better understand the potential factors affecting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) accumulation varies between different grains. The nutrient composition and contents of defatted substrates were determined; additionally, according to the nutrient content of the substrates, the effects of starch, soluble sugars, amino acids, and trace elements on AFB1 production and mycelial growth in Czapek-Dox medium were examined. These results verified that removal of lipids from ground substrates significantly reduced the substrate's potential for AFB1 production by Aspergillus flavus. Maltose, glucose, sucrose, arginine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and zinc significantly induced AFB1 production up to 1.7- to 26.6-fold. And stachyose more significantly promoted A. flavus growth than the other nutrients. Thus, this study demonstrated that, combined with the nutrients content of grains, in addition to lipids, sucrose, stachyose, glutamic acid, and zinc might play key roles in various grains that are differentially infected by A. flavus. Particularly, two new nutrients (arginine and stachyose) of the grains we found significantly stimulate AFB1 production and A. flavus growth, respectively. The results provide new concepts for antifungal methods to protect food and animal feed from AFB1 contamination. PMID:27294129

  17. Effects of aflatoxin on lymphoid cells of weanling rat.

    PubMed

    Raisuddin; Singh, K P; Zaidi, S I; Saxena, A K; Ray, P K

    1990-08-01

    Aflatoxin (AF), the hepatocarcinogenic food contaminant produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi, is known to interact with various vital processes, including the immune function. Effects of long-term treatment of three dose levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on lymphoid cells of weanling rats were studied. AFB1 treatment caused a reduction in body weight gain, significantly (P less than 0.01) at the 700 microgram level. There was also a significant decrease in the weight of spleen and thymus in AFB1-treated animals in comparison to control. Similarly, AFB1 depleted cell populations of thymus and bone marrow and WBC and RBC counts. There was a marked reduction in the population and phagocytic capacity of macrophages due to AFB1 administration at dose levels of 350 and 700 micrograms kg-1 body weight. Macromolecular synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in macrophages was affected, as there was significant inhibition in the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-uridine and [3H]-leucine. The hampered functioning of macrophages may be due to the cytotoxic action of AFB1.

  18. Genotoxic evaluation of ammonium inactivated aflatoxin B1 in mice fed with contaminated corn.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Márquez, R; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Tejada de Hernández, I

    1993-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major contaminant in different agricultural products including maize. In an attempt to reduce this problem and the hazards to human health, an AFB1 inactivating system with ammonia has been developed. In this work we evaluated the efficiency of the system in mice using micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis. Four groups of animals were fed during 8 weeks with a special diet mainly composed of maize: (1) uncontaminated; (2) uncontaminated/inactivated; (3) contaminated/inactivated; and (4) contaminated. We evaluated MN at weekly intervals in peripheral blood, and in weeks 4 and 8 SCE frequencies were quantified in bone marrow cells. The results showed that animals fed with AFB1 contaminated/inactivated maize had a 45% lower level of induced cytogenetic damage than those animals fed with AFB1 contaminated, but not inactivated maize. A residual amount of AFB1 after the inactivating treatment and the reconversion back to AFB1 in the organism may account for the remaining increased levels of SCE and MN.

  19. Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Sumit; Kim, Ji Eun; Coulombe, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous in corn-based animal feed and causes hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects. The most important AF in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Poultry, especially turkeys, are extremely sensitive to the toxic and carcinogenic action of AFB1, resulting in millions of dollars in annual losses to producers due to reduced growth rate, increased susceptibility to disease, reduced egg production and other adverse effects. The extreme sensitivity of turkeys and other poultry to AFB1 is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST). Discerning the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of this extreme sensitivity of poultry to AFB1, will contribute in the development of novel strategies to increase aflatoxin resistance. Since AFB1 is an unavoidable contaminant of corn-based poultry feed, chemoprevention strategies aimed at reducing AFB1 toxicity in poultry and in other animals have been the subject of numerous studies. This brief review summarizes many of the key recent findings regarding the action of aflatoxins in poultry.

  20. Indole-3-carbinol induces a rat liver glutathione transferase subunit (Yc2) with high activity toward aflatoxin B1 exo-epoxide. Association with reduced levels of hepatic aflatoxin-DNA adducts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Stresser, D M; Williams, D E; McLellan, L I; Harris, T M; Bailey, G S

    1994-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a metabolite of the grain mold Aspergillus flavus, is a potent hepatocarcinogen and widespread contaminant of human food supplies. AFB1-induced tumors or preneoplastic lesions in experimental animals can be inhibited by cotreatment with several compounds, including indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a component of cruciferous vegetables, and the well-known Ah receptor agonist beta-naphthoflavone (BNF). This study examines the influence of these two agents on the AFB1-glutathione detoxication pathway and AFB1-DNA adduction in rat liver. After 7 days of feeding approximately equally inhibitory doses of I3C (0.2%) or BNF (0.04%) alone or in combination, male Fischer 344 rats were administered [3H]AFB1 (0.5 mg/kg, 480 microCi/kg) intraperitoneally and killed 2 hr later. All three experimental diets inhibited in vivo AFB1-DNA adduction (BNF, 46%; I3C, 68%; combined, 51%). Based on Western blots using antibodies specific for the glutathione S-transferase (GST), subunit Yc2 (subunit 10) appeared to be substantially elevated by the diets containing I3C (I3C diet, 4.0-fold increase in band density; combined diet, 2.8-fold). The BNF diet appeared to elevate Yc2 to a lesser extent (2.2-fold increase in band density).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)