Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Vaishnav, Ragini
We assessed the changes in the plasma Aβ, oxidative stress/antioxidants, and membrane bound enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice (Tg2576) after dietary supplementation of Omani figs fruits for 15 months along with spatial memory and learning test. AD Tg mice on control diet without figs showed significant impairment in spatial learning ability compared to the wild-type mice on same diet and figs fed Tg mice as well. Significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were observed in AD Tg mice. 4% figs treated AD Tg mice significantly attenuated oxidative damage, as evident by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls and restoration of antioxidant status. Altered activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na+ K+ ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) in AD Tg mice brain regions and was restored by figs treatment. Further, figs supplementation might be able to decrease the plasma levels of Aβ (1–40, 1–42) significantly in Tg mice suggesting a putative delay in the formation of plaques, which might be due to the presence of high natural antioxidants in figs. But this study warrants further extensive investigation to find a novel lead for a therapeutic target for AD from figs. PMID:25050360
Whitlock, R I H
During the past 10 years of civil unrest in Northern Ireland a wide variety of facial injuries have been treated at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. The causes and nature of these injuries are described and the experience gained in their management is reviewed. Imagesp-ap-aFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:7247260
McCarthy, J; Proctor, S J
Cerebral myeloma in a 49-year-old white man took the form of diffuse arachnoid infiltration, intracerebral perivascular cuffing, and frank intracerebral invasion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:417093
The morbid anatomical changes which take place in man and animals exposed to the chronic hypoxia of residence at high altitude are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:493205
Sigal, Stephen L.; Kliger, Alan; Smith, G.J. Walker
Infection with pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus was found in a young male suspected of having miliary tuberculosis. Problems of diagnosis and predisposing factors for these infections in the patient are discussed. The patient's clinical course and management are reviewed. Autopsy findings are presented. Alternative modes of therapy are considered. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:6305041
Fox, B; Bull, T B; Guz, A
Unmyelinated nerve fibres, probably sensory in type, are present in the human alveolar wall. It is possible that these fibres may be associated with juxta-capillary receptors which have been identified on physiological grounds in animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7216905
Jennings, R C; Priestley, S E
A case of thorotrastosis occurred 25 years after thorotrast angiography, with the previously unrecorded association of myeloma type paraproteinaemia. The relationship between haemangioendothelioma due to thorotrast and other vascular sarcomas of the liver is briefly reviewed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:748384
Finseth, Katherine Alden; Finseth, Frederick
Ethiopia, among the world's poorest countries, suffers from a full spectrum of health problems. A plastic surgeon and a public health physician present their experiences in Sidamo province in the Rift Valley. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:1173955
Lidwell, O. M.; Mackintosh, C. A.
Eleven fabrics selected to provide a representative range of yarns and weaves have been examined microscopically and subjected to a series of tests. The observations were directed towards assessing the potential ability of each fabric to resist penetration by particles, such as skin scales, which might carry micro-organisms. The number, size and shape of pores penetrating through the material were estimated and the penetration of test dusts assessed in several ways. While, generally, the relative merits of the fabrics are similar whatever test or measurement is considered there are a number of significant exceptions which reflect peculiarities of the test system or of a fabric. Comparison with the results of dispersal experiments with volunteers wearing garments made of the fabrics is made in a following paper. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Plate 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:731024
Viseltear, A. J.
Urinary lithiasis and gout were uncommonly prevalent in the eighteenth century. This essay considers the history of both afflictions and especially tells of the last illnesses of Sir Robert Walpole, who died from complications of stone, and his son, Horace, who throughout his life was a sufferer of gout. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:6356637
Tredwell, Stephen J.
The challenge of the limping child demands that the primary care physician identify those problems which are urgent, when neglect can harm the child, and to provide appropriate supportive care for those which are not. The approach to the limping child should consider the child's age, whether or not the limp is painful, and certain key physical findings. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7b PMID:21297725
MacInnis, Joseph B.
Recent undersea experiments in the United States and France showed that divers can live and work effectively for many days from dwellings placed on the continental shelf to depths down to 432 feet. If prolonged exposure to the hostile underwater environment is to be tolerated successfully, existing physical, biological and equipment hazards must be recognized, prepared for and, when possible, circumvented. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 6 PMID:4380341
Beraud, R.; Bilodeau, B.; Sirois, J.; Reinhardt, G.; Cote, J.
Two cases of post-traumatic thrombosis of the internal carotid artery are presented, which are of interest because of their relative rarity. A detailed understanding of the pathogenesis and variety of clinical presentations, an adequate appraisal of the diverse proposed treatments, and an improvement in the prognosis, which is poor even in young patients-these await further enquiry and research. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5904926
George, B. Olu.; Mabayoje, J. Olu.
A case of Fallot's tetralogy associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a young Nigerian female is described. The clinical spectrum of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is reviewed. The rarity of this syndrome is stressed. Some other aspects of the clinical manifestation of cyanotic congenital heart disease which may mimic the skeletal syndrome are mentioned. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:1197165
Pullan, C R; Alexander, F W; Halse, P C
Three children presenting with aneurysmal bone cysts are described. The first patient was 10 months old with a cyst of the scapula. The second was more typical but his cyst was treated initially as a malignant tumour. In the third child the second cervical vertebra was affected which posed considerable problems of management; it was treated by radiotherapy. Despite the problems all 3 children have made a good recovery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:727814
Marquez, Francisco; Rein, Charles R.; Arias, Oswaldo
This report deals with the geographical distribution, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, serological, clinical, and histopathological features, and treatment of mal del pinto, or pinta, in Mexico. Repository penicillin preparations (PAM and Panbiotic) have been found highly effective in the treatment of this endemic, non-venereal treponematosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13260889
Dathan, J. R.; Thompson, J. M. A.; Worthington, B. S.
An analysis of 86 angiographic studies of Quinton–Scribner shunts has shown that these may be very useful in determining the cause and helping in the management of poorly functioning cannulae in patients on regular haemodialysis treatment. ImagesFig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5822081
Sanford, S E; Josephson, G K
Hitherto unreported tubulo-acinar mucous lingual glands were located ventrally in the free tip of the tongue, just cranial to the attachment of the frenulum linguae in 186 of 400 (47%) of pigs' tongues. The glands were bilateral in 126 (32%) of the tongues. These glands emptied by several ducts onto the ventral surface of the tongue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2606778
The history of hyperparathyroidism is outlined and the diagnosis and treatment of its various causes reviewed with reference to a series of 153 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism in the past 20 years. In 119 cases the condition was primary, being due to a tumour or hyperplasia. Future developments in this field are briefly considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:782326
Sparkman, Robert S.
The 1978 Presidential Address of the Southern Surgical Association is dedicated to the wives of the members, past and present, in acknowledgment and appreciation of the enduring contribution that they have made to the quality and character of this association. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20. PMID:375854
Because of the potential for permanent physical and psychological sequelae, acne vulgaris should be regarded as a true disease—not the “normal” physiologic response one might infer from its near universal prevalence in adolescence. Effective therapy reduces pilosebaceous unit obstruction, minimizes secondary inflammation, and lessens the chance of significant scarring. This article reviews current therapeutic modalities, and suggests a sequence for implementation of specific agents. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:21289790
The choice of clothing for sports must take into account the climate, movement, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 2 of this two-part article describes the clothing needed for running, cycling, skiing, windsurfing, triathlon, aerobic dancing and hot air ballooning. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274232
Ive, F. Adrian; Marks, Ronald
Fourteen cases are described in which the local application of corticosteroid preparations to ringworm infections of the skin have resulted in unusual clinical pictures. A kerion-like lesion due to Trichophyton rubrum, intertriginous infections simulating candidiasis and due to Epidermophyton floccosum, and pictures resembling poikiloderma, papular rosacea, and indeterminate leprosy are among the changes that were seen in these patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5662546
Taylor, C. R.; Mason, D. Y.
Paraffin sections of tissues from thirty-three cases of plasma cell neoplasia have been examined by an immunoperoxidase method for demonstrating and characterizing intracellular immunoglobulins. The specificity of the method has been confirmed by a comparison of results with the serum paraprotein types analysed independently. The morphology of some of the immunoglobulin-containing cells is discussed and possible diagnostic applications of the method are briefly described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4219910
Hsiung, G. D.; Morris, J. M.; Starr, J. B.
There has been a close association between Yale University and educational institutions in China for almost 80 years. Although this relationship was interrupted during the early years of the People's Republic of China, collaboration between Yale and medical institutions in China is in the process of being resumed. The history of this collaboration and the opening phases of its resumption are described. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7245805
Reznik-Schüller, H.; Mohr, U.
N-dibutyl-nitrosamine induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma in European hamsters were studied electron microscopically. The tumours were composed of light and dark cells, which, due to their lamellar bodies, resembled alveolar epithelial cells Type II. As cells containing lamellar bodies also occasionally occurred with the epithelial lining of tumour associated peripheral bronchi, a possible bronchiolar origin of the neoplasms is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1212352
Doty, Donald B.; Anderson, Alan E.; Rose, Earl F.; Go, Raymundo T.; Chiu, Chiang L.; Ehrenhaft, J. L.
Clinical and experimental observations in myocardial contusion have been correlated. Cardiac arrhythmia is always an important consequence and may be fatal. Reduction in cardiac output often accompanies significant cardiac injury. The coronary arterial circulation is not interrupted and is generally enhanced to the area of injury. Healing of the injury under these circulatory conditions may result in patchy scarring and peculiar adynamic areas of myocardium. Early diagnosis of myocardial contusion may be aided using radionuclide imaging with 99mTc-Sn-polyphosphate. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4412327
Forman, B. H.; Marban, E.; Kayne, R. D.; Passarelli, N. M.; Bobrow, S. N.; Livolsi, V. A.; Merino, M.; Minor, M.; Farber, L. R.
A 51-year-old female was diagnosed preoperatively to have a pheochromocytoma producing ACTH. This diagnosis was based upon her paroxysmal hypertension, hyperpigmentation, and hypokalemia. Elevated levels of serum and urine corticosteroids, plasma ACTH, urinary VMA, and catecholamines fell after a right adrenal pheochromocytoma was removed. Subsequently this tumor was found to have a high content of ACTH. Review of the literature indicates a mortality rate of 57% for this syndrome. Proper preoperative recognition and management can result in total cure. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:222080
Gollub, J P
The development of complex states of fluid motion is illustrated by reviewing a series of experiments, emphasizing film flows, surface waves, and thermal convection. In one dimension, cellular patterns bifurcate to states of spatiotemporal chaos. In two dimensions, even ordered patterns can be surprisingly intricate when quasiperiodic patterns are included. Spatiotemporal chaos is best characterized statistically, and methods for doing so are evolving. Transport and mixing phenomena can also lead to spatial complexity, but the degree depends on the significance of molecular or thermal diffusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:11607563
Chakravorty, N. K.; Das, S. K.; Kataria, M. S.
Paget's disease of bone has been known for about 100 years and the usual deformities of bone, e.g. bowed tibia, large head, are well described in medical text books. However, there does not appear to have been a description of corrugation of the skull as a recognized deformity in Paget's disease. Three cases are now described to illustrate this deformity as an unusual but valuable sign in this disease. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 7 and 8 PMID:876912
Smith, William H.
A review of the literature reveals considerable evidence to support the suggestion that vegetative surfaces remove particulate matter from the atmosphere. Preliminary observations of the leaf surfaces of an important urban tree indicate the presence of numerous particulate contaminants. In view of the medical importance of fine particles in urban atmospheres, it is important to assess the efficiency of tree surfaces in particle retention. Can particulate loads be reduced below biologically significant thresholds by vegetation? Are trees acutely injured or subtly influenced in the process of this removal? A brief assessment of research needs is provided. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:331695
Stünzi, H.; Hauser, B.
Tumours of the nasal cavity are rare in domestic animals, most cases occurring in the dog. Epithelial tumours are the most common type in carnivores (dogs and cats). In general, the same types of tumour occur in domestic animals as occur in man. There was no significant predisposition for breed in dogs, but in both dogs and cats far more males than females were affected. Metastases occurred only rarely. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:1086156
Raspanti, M; Ottani, V; Ruggeri, A
Collagen fibrils from different rat tendons have been investigated by freeze-fracture and transmission electron microscopy. In all cases, marked differences in both fibril morphology and subfibrillar organisation have been consistently found between the tendon core (composed of large and heterogeneous fibrils comprising tightly-packed, straight, parallel molecules) and sheath (showing small, uniform collagen fibrils with a helical arrangement of the molecules). The bio-mechanical requirements to which these tissues are subjected suggest, as do previous observations on other tissues, that a causal correlation exists between substructure and collagen fibril function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272900
The surface coating of the alveolar macrophages and pneumonocytes of hamster lung was studied using an electron microscopy technique. Slices of lung tissue were fixed in aldehyde, labelled with a battery of lectin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates, incubated in a diaminobenzidine-hydrogen peroxide medium and then postfixed in an osmium tetroxide solution. The results of the study suggest that the surface coating of the pneumonocytes and macrophages contains the following carbohydrate groups: N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, D-galactose and sialic acid. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2447050
Singh, H; Fitzgerald, E; Ruttley, M S
Computed tomography has become established as complementary to aortography in the investigation of patients with suspected aortic dissection. Two cases of dissecting aneurysm are reported in which extensive aortography failed to show evidence of dissection. In both cases dissection was demonstrated by computed tomography. The diagnosis was confirmed in one case at operation and in the other case by follow up. It is suggested that computed tomography is the diagnostic method of first choice in aortic dissection. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3730218
Turk, J. L.; Allen, E.
Bleeding and cupping have been used in medicine since ancient times in the treatment of fevers and local inflammatory disorders. Local bleeding, by 'wet cupping', was effected by a scarificator or by leeches. John Hunter recommended venesection in moderation but preferred leeches for local bleeding. Bleeding as an accepted therapeutic practice went out of vogue in the middle of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of modern scientific methods. Dry cupping and the use of leeches, as counter irritants, persisted until the middle of this century. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6338802
Carrillo-Farga, J; Castell, A; Pérez, A; Rondán, A
Langerhans cells have been described in epidermis and other stratified epithelia of mammals. In other vertebrates equivalent cells have not been found. Amphibians show skin graft rejection, so it is possible that these animals have epidermal cells homologous to Langerhans cells. In this work we demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in frog epidermis that are similar ultrastructurally to mammalian Langerhans cells, except for the absence of Birbeck granules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2148747
Holman, J. C. M.
The methods employed for iodizing free-running salts are discussed. They are not suitable for the iodization of coarse crystalline salts and a new process has been devised by the Chilean Iodine Educational Bureau of London for the iodization of open-pan and solar evaporated salts. This process is described and illustrated by photographs of suitable plants. Attention is drawn to the advantages of potassium iodate as an iodizing agent. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:13094511
Hawke, Michael; Kwok, Peter
The authors provide a number of ear-drum pictures and identify and discuss diseases affecting the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane and middle ear. They also deal with the removal of foreign bodies from the external canal, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and the use of an artificial ventilation tube. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:21263886
Dragatakis, L. N.; Klassen, J.; Hüttner, I.; Fraser, D. G.; Poirier, N. L.; Klassen, G. A.
In a case of myocarditis electron microscopic and immunoflourescent studies of a transmural myocardial biopsy specimen indicated an autoimmune process. Extensive inflammatory cell infiltration, immunoglobulin and complement deposition along the sarcolemma and in the interstitium, and capillary endothelial injury were found. After a short course of immunosuppressive therapy the inflammatory process was replaced by collagenous scarring and lymphocytic depletion; the blood vessels were then normal. Earlier therapy in such cases may be lifesaving. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:427670
Levine, D. S.; Fischer, D. G.; Forman, B. H.
A 45-year-old female developed hypertension and hypokalemia. Elevated plasma aldosterone and suppressed plasma renin levels were measured with no evidence for glucocorticoid or androgen abnormalities. A left adrenal tumor was removed that showed histologic criteria for malignancy. It is commonly taught that malignant adrenal tumors are recognized by their multiple hormone production. However, isolated aldosterone production by a carcinoma can occur and requires close follow-up observation and therapy for this highly malignant tumor. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:6537692
The choice of clothing for any particular sport can be made on a reasonably scientific basis, taking into account hot, cold or wet conditions, effects on temperature regulating mechanism, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 1 of this two-part article discusses the selection of garments for any sports activity according to specific properties of certain fabrics and also covers safety gear, sports brassieres and shoes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 and 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21274113
Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327
Erdohazi, M; Marshall, P
The clinical features, and the radiological and neuropathological findings of 3 unrelated children with striatal degeneration are presented. In one case the father had recently developed choreiform movements while in the other two the family history was negative for neurological disorders. Two patients had juvenile onset of psychiatric symptoms, seizures, and rigidity. The 3rd child presented with focal seizures at 9 weeks of age. The neuropathological findings are virtually identical in all 3 cases. The classification of striatal degeneration in childhood is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:434899
Dilworth, G. R.
Acne surgery consists of comedone extraction of non-inflamed lesions, triamcinolone acetate injections of some inflamed lesions, and extraction of milia. Prevention is a very important part of comedone treatment, especially avoidance of picking, moisturizers and harsh soaps. Instruments are also very important: even the finest may be too thick and may have to be filed down. Acne surgery is only an adjunct of good medical therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21283373
The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. Similar but distinct versions of the N-end rule operate in all organisms examined, from mammals to fungi and bacteria. In eukaryotes, the N-end rule pathway is a part of the ubiquitin system. I discuss the mechanisms and functions of this pathway, and consider its applications. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8901547
Lemaire, Marcellin; Gaumond, Emile
Eight cases of xeroderma pigmentosum are described-six in family B. and two in family T. The criteria used in making this diagnosis are indicated. The occurrence of epitheliomas and melanoma was observed. In family B. five of the six patients are alive at time of reporting, their ages varying from 40 to 55 years. In family T. the two affected children died at ages 8 and 14 years. The differential diagnosis between xeroderma pigmentosum and other conditions is briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:14261153
Lawson, Victor G.; Middleton, William G.
Foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract are common. They may cause minimal disturbance of function, severe morbidity or even sudden death. They enter the aerodigestive tract because of haste during eating, disturbances in physical function, impairments due to extreme youth or age, or contamination of food with foreign bodies. Common symptoms are pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, cough, airway distress, hemoptysis and hematemesis. Signs include point tenderness, respiratory distress and surgical emphysema. Clinical, radiological and endoscopic investigations are described, as are principles of crisis and elective management. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:21267132
Bell, W. E.; McCormick, W. F.
A 15-year-old girl is described with a sporadic, progressive illness manifested by unilateral limb rigidity and dystonia. Obvious dysarthria and some intellectual decline also were noted. Neuropathological findings included gross discoloration and shrinkage of the pallida and, microscopically, profound neuronal loss and gliosis of the caudata and putamena, with less severe neuronal loss from the pallida and substantia nigra. The disease bears some similarities to striatonigral degeneration, but certain clinical and morphological differences justify its consideration as a separate syndrome. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:5565467
Louis, Eugene L. St.; Provan, John L.; Gray, Robin R.; Grosman, Harvey; Ameli, F. Michael; Elliott, David S.
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is a relatively new technique employed in the treatment of stenoses or occlusions of peripheral arteries. While the longterm success rates have yet to be determined, short-term results have been excellent. The procedure has greatest value in the dilatation of localized lesions, avoiding surgery and its attendant risks. However, PTA and surgery are complementary, not competing, modes of therapy. PTA complements the traditional therapy of peripheral vascular disease, which remains reconstructive surgery. ImagesFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21286052
Helde, M. D.; Campbell, J. S.; Himaya, A.; Nuyens, J. J.; Cowley, F. C.; Hurteau, G. D.
Five follicular ovarian implantations occurred among 200 ectopic pregnancies encountered during a 14-year period. Abortions from impregnated follicles may cause hemoperitoneum more often than is generally suspected. Wedge resection or cystectomy to ensure hemostasis provides tissue for histological examination, without which ruptured ovarian pregnancy may masquerade as rupture of a corpus luteum with hemorrhage (“ovarian apoplexy”). Including patients reported here, IUCD users have within the past five years accounted for about 10% of all ovarian pregnancies recorded in English. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5057958
Newborn mice were inoculated intracerebrally with murine cytomegalovirus and studies were made of the pathological changes in the striate and cardiac muscle and brown fat. Widespread necrosis was seen in muscle and brown fat in the early stages of the infection. Necrotic lesions became calcified. By 56 days lesions were not resolved in the heart and brown fat but were completely resolved in skeletal muscle. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4363374
Apical disease is discussed against a background of a hitherto assumed high percentage of cystic and bacteriologically sterile lesions, both these concepts being challenged by the author's own investigations. Techniques are described for posterior root resection with emphasis on the conservability of apically diseased teeth, even in the presence of systemic diseases. Open operation is suggested for the diagnosis and treatment of apical disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7396345
An experimental model was used to study the revascularization of an ischaemic skin lesion and the effect on this process of the blood extract Solcoseryl. Under the conditions given in the experiment, restoration of the circulation was by 2 modes--re-flow in the original vessels, and neovascularization. Solcoseryl given daily i.p. encouraged the re-flow phenomenon and therefore, by improving the microcirculation and nutrition, the healing of the ischaemic lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6176254
Campbell, I L; Abraham, C R; Masliah, E; Kemper, P; Inglis, J D; Oldstone, M B; Mucke, L
Cytokines are thought to be important mediators in physiologic and pathophysiologic processes affecting the central nervous system (CNS). To explore this hypothesis, transgenic mice were generated in which the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6), under the regulatory control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene promoter, was overexpressed in the CNS. A number of transgenic founder mice and their offspring exhibited a neurologic syndrome the severity of which correlated with the levels of cerebral IL-6 expression. Transgenic mice with high levels of IL-6 expression developed severe neurologic disease characterized by runting, tremor, ataxia, and seizure. Neuropathologic manifestations included neuro-degeneration, astrocytosis, angiogenesis, and induction of acute-phase-protein production. These findings indicate that cytokines such as IL-6 can have a direct pathogenic role in inflammatory, infectious, and neurodegenerative CNS diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7694279
Hall, K T; Boumsell, L; Schultze, J L; Boussiotis, V A; Dorfman, D M; Cardoso, A A; Bensussan, A; Nadler, L M; Freeman, G J
Herein we describe the molecular characterization of the human leukocyte activation antigen CD100 and identify it as the first semaphorin, to our knowledge, in the immune system. Semaphorins have recently been described as neuronal chemorepellants that direct pioneering neurons during nervous system development. In this study we demonstrate that CD100 induces B cells to aggregate and improves their viability in vitro. We show that CD100 modifies CD40-CD40L B-cell signaling by augmenting B-cell aggregation and survival and down-regulating CD23 expression. Thus, these results suggest that semaphorins as exemplified by CD100 also play a functional role in the immune system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8876214
Alvarez-Otero, R; Regueira, S D; Anadon, R
Nerve fibre contacts on Purkinje cell perikarya in the cerebellum of the small-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were studied using the Cajal reduced silver technique, Golgi methods and electron microscopy. Silver staining revealed axons with thick swellings close to the base of Purkinje cells. Golgi methods demonstrated the presence of 'pincushions' of somatic spines on Purkinje cells. Electron microscopy revealed flattened fibres that formed extensive synaptic contacts with the Purkinje cell 'pincushions'. It is proposed, on the basis of the ultrastructural features, that these fibres are climbing fibres. Their possible significance in terms of the evolution of cerebellar circuitry is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8509296
Laurance, B M; Brito, A; Wilkinson, J
Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature and had scoliosis, 2 were tall but they even more severely mentally retarded than is usually the case. Nine other patients died aged between 3 and 23 years. The most common cause of death was cor pulmonale. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7212756
Kapp, D. S.; LiVolsi, V. A.; Sanders, M. M.
Most cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can be pathologically and often historically associated with the presence of low-grade (differentiated) cancer in the thyroid. That radiation therapy to the differentiated tumor plays an etiologic role in the transformation of a differentiated to an undifferentiated tumor has been suggested. If such therapy can be implicated, is there a difference in risk between external radiotherapy or radioactive iodine? Review of the literature discloses that more anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid develop in patients without a history of prior radiation than in individuals who have received radiation. We report our recent experience with two patients who demonstrated the sequence of well-differentiated followed by anaplastic thyroid cancer subsequent to radiation and review the question. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7183024
Khan, Q; Heath, D; Smith, P
The variations in anatomical structure and position of both carotid bodies were noted in 100 consecutive subjects who came to necropsy. Considerable variations in form were found. Although most carotid bodies (83% on the right and 86% on the left) were of the classic ovoid type, an appreciable minority was bilobed (9% on the right and 7% on the left) or double (7% on the right and 6% on the left); 1% were leaf shaped. All these anatomical variants have to be distinguished from the pathologically enlarged carotid body that may have a smooth or finely nodular surface. Anatomical variants (such as the bilobed) may themselves enlarge as a consequence of carotid body hyperplasia. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3209707
Grondin, Pierre; Lepage, Gilles; Castonguay, Yves
Acquired aortic disease is now currently corrected by total prosthetic replacement of the aortic valve. Aortic valve replacement was performed in 13 cases at the Montreal Heart Institute in 1963. In the first four cases, Bahnson aortic leaflets were used; in the remaining nine, the Starr-Edwards semirigid aortic valve prosthesis. The surgical technique employed is described. There were two operative deaths and two late deaths. The results have been excellent in all of the survivors but one. They have returned to full-time activities and four of them to strenuous physical work. It is the contention of the authors that aortic valve replacement is a surgical procedure with acceptable risks, offering hope for a near-normal life to patients crippled by severe aortic valvular lesions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14179061
Amonoo-Kuofi, H S; el-Badawi, M G; Fatani, J A; Butt, M M
The lumbosacral spines of two fetal and twelve adult cadavers have been studied by dissection. Evidence shows that the fifth lumbar intervertebral foramen is crossed on its external aspect by a strong, cord-like corporotransverse ligament passing obliquely downwards, forwards and medially from the inferior aspect of the accessory process of the fifth lumbar vertebra to the lateral surface of the intervertebral disc and the adjacent parts of the bodies of the fifth and first sacral vertebrae. Superficially, the ligament is related to another flat band--the lumbosacral hood. Together these ligaments separate and provide openings for the sympathetic ramus, the ventral ramus and blood vessels related to the intervertebral foramen. On the dorsal aspect, a tripartite ligament, the mamillo-transverso-accessory ligament, bears important relationships to the subdivisions of the dorsal ramus and also the zygapophyseal joint. The significance of these findings is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:3248957
Gilpin, S A; Gosling, J A
A series of human fetal and neonatal specimens ranging in age from the second month of intrauterine development to 4 1/2 years after birth has been examined using histological and histochemical techniques. In both sexes histologically differentiated smooth muscle cells were evident in the bladder wall from the 52 mm crown-rump length stage onwards--urethral smooth muscle was not distinguishable until 119 mm crown-rump length. In addition to relatively late differentiation, urethral smooth muscle was histochemically distinct from the urinary bladder detrusor muscle. Sex differences in the arrangement and innervation of smooth muscle in the proximal urethra have also been observed, and these findings lend support to the presence of a pre-prostatic urethra sphincter. It seems likely that this sphincter acts principally to prevent reflux of ejaculate into the bladder during seminal emission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6654742
An accurate clinical diagnosis of foot and ankle pain can be made by a history, physical examination and routine X-rays of the affected part. Each problem has a specific treatment; however, fractures and dislocations around the foot and ankle can be thought of in an organized fashion by proper physical examination and then the appropriate treatment. Fractures and soft tissue injuries can be treated rationally by understanding the mechanism of injury and the possibility of subsequent deformity. This article classifies specific injuries as a group and indicates a treatment program for each problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274230
Richardson, J; Cvekl, A; Wistow, G
Pax-6 is essential for normal eye development and has been implicated as a "master gene" for lens formation in embryogenesis. Guinea pig zeta-crystallin, a taxon-specific enzyme crystallin, achieves high expression specifically in lens through use of an alternative promoter. Here we show that Pax-6 binds a site in this promoter, which is essential for lens-specific expression. Lens and lens-derived cells exhibit a tissue-specific pattern of alternative splicing of Pax-6 transcripts and Pax-6 is expressed in adult lenses and cells that support zeta-crystallin expression. These results suggest that zeta-crystallin is a natural target gene for Pax-6 and that this Pax family member has a direct role in the continuing expression of tissue-specific genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753863
Delage, C.; Lagacé, R.; Huard, J.
An unusual bluish discolouration of the nose was noticed in a woman 9 months after she had begun treatment with a coronary vasodilator, amiodarone hydrochloride. Cutaneous biopsies of the nose were obtained 6 and 9 months later for light and electron microscopic studies. In the dermis were histiocytes containing cytoplasmic yellow-brown granules with histochemical properties of melanin and lipofuscin. Ultrastructurally the granules appeared as lysosomal membrane-bound dense bodies similar to lipofuscin. Similar granules were observed at diascopy in both corneas. The pathogenesis is obscure. A storage disease involving the drug or its metabolites cannot be ruled out. Another possibility is that amiodarone accelerates the normal cellular autophagocytosis, resulting in increased production of lipofuscin, which then accumulates in lysosomes because of a deficiency in lipolytic enzymes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:47784
Davey, D F; Mark, R F; Marotte, L R; Proske, U
The extraocular muscles of the carp Carassius contain two types of muscle fibre. Large white fibres have ribbon-shaped peripheral myofibrils and triads located at the Z line. Small red fibres, rich in mitochondria, have polygonal-shaped myofibrils and triads at the A-I junction. Silver- and cholinesterase-stained preparations show that the large fibres are innervated by axons which spiral around them and exhibit intense cholinesterase activity over long distances. Axons supplying small muscle fibres run across bundles of fibres, making one contact with each fibre. By electron microscopy the nerve endings on each fibre type appear identical, both having a smooth post-junctional muscle membrane. The differences in structure and innervation pattern of the two fibre types are discussed in relation to their possible functional roles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1184453
Cambridge, N A
The Ancients had at their disposal torpedo fish, amber and magnets. It was not until the sixteenth century that ideas on the strange behaviour of amber and magnets were put forward. The eighteenth century saw the application of Newton's theories of matter and the introduction of the electrostatic machine, Galvanism and Volta's battery. In the nineteenth century there was extensive application of electricity in medical practice, with the development of electrocautery apparatus and illuminated cystoscopes, the pioneering of the electrocardiogram and the discovery of X-rays. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 PMID:335397
Schmidt, Herbert W.; Hargraves, Malcolm M.; Andersen, Howard A.; Daugherty, Guy W.
The physician who specializes in pulmonary diseases has a most helpful aid in the form of chest roentgenography. This examination is secured routinely in many hospitals and clinics today. The roentgenogram is very accurate in finding pulmonary lesions. Accuracy in determining the type of lesion depends on the experience of the physician who is studying the patient. Pulmonary lesions occur in many systemic diseases. They may occur in some of the collagen diseases and at times they may be the first and also the most striking findings noted during the examination of a patient. For this reason, attention is called to some of the pulmonary findings encountered in certain of these diseases. Some of the clinical, roentgenologic and pathologic manifestations of necrotizing alveolitis, periarteritis nodosa, glomerulonephritis, disseminated lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:13991999
Baskerville, A.; Hambleton, P.
The development of pathological lesions in the organs of rabbits was examined at intervals from 1 h to 4 days after aerosol infection with Francisella tularensis. The earliest change, accumulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in ulmonary alveolar ducts, occurred at 19 h. From the 2nd day multiple foci of necrosis and PMN infiltration were present in large airways and alveoli throughout the lungs and progressively increased in size. Pulmonary arteritis was a prominent feature of the infection. Areas of necrosis were present in the nasal mucosa, pharynz and trachea, and pyogranolomatous lesions consistently developed in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:952731
Lauder, I; Ellis, H A; Ashcroft, T; Burridge, A
The clinical, pathological, and radiological features of 2 male sibs with a severe and lethal form of micromelic dwarfism are desribed. The family also includes 2 normal sibs. The histological and radiological appearances suggested a diagnosis of achondrogenesis type I, but the markedly deficient ossification of the skull and the presence of intrauterine rib fractures were atypical. These changes have been observed in two other families with 2 or more infants with suspected achondrogenesis, raising the possibility that these familial cases may be a subvariant of achondrogesis or even a distinct disease entity. The disease appears to be inherited as an autosomal recessive and death occurs shortly after birth because of severe pulmonary hypoplasia. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:962365
Many systemic diseases have cutaneous manifestations. In some diseases skin involvement is the predominant factor (Behçet's syndrome, urticaria pigmentosa, discoid lupus erythematosus and pseudoxanthoma elasticum); in others the skin manifestations, when present, are an important part of the condition (sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypersensitivity angiitis, porphyria). This report includes descriptions of and comments on these cutaneous manifestations. Erythema nodosum and erythema multiforme are reaction patterns of the skin and mucous membrane which may have many causes. The relationship between discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus is discussed. There is little doubt that these are variations of the same basic disease process, even though the prognoses are very different. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14063940
Gazin, C; Rigolet, M; Briand, J P; Van Regenmortel, M H; Galibert, F
Published sequence data of the human c-myc gene indicate the presence of a coding capacity for a polypeptide of 188 residues within the first exon. Using antibodies raised against five synthetic peptides corresponding to different non-over-lapping parts of this polypeptide, two proteins of 32 kd and 58 kd antigenically related to the synthetic peptides have been detected in extracts of human cells. The confidence of this detection has been reinforced by showing that epitopes corresponding to different peptides were indeed located on the same molecule and that the 58 kd protein appears to be a dimeric form of the 32 kd protein. That these proteins originate from the first exon was indicated by: hybrid-arrested translation experiments followed by immunodetection of the translation products; in vitro translation of messenger RNA derived from cloned exon 1 by SP6 polymerase transcription. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2430795
Spranger, J. W.
Any review of the metaphyseal chondrodysplasias is complicated by their variety and mainly unknown pathogenesis. The more familiar types display considerable clinical and radiological diversity: even more so the rarer disorders which still require complete definition, but differences in their mode of inheritance make diagnostic precision mandatory. These dysplasias present in infancy or in childhood, when the patient, usually dwarfed, may be proportionate, so that some forms may be confused with rickets or other lesions. Mental retardation is unusual, but the skin, hair, nails and facies provide valuable diagnostic features. Radiological abnormalities mainly affect the metaphyses of the shortened limb bones, less often the skull, vertebrae, pelvis, ribs and extremities, and sometimes their distribution may indicate the specific type of dysplasia. In a further complex group multiple systems are involved, notably the pancreas, intestine and lympho-reticular, causing malabsorption and haematological or immunological disorders. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:335375
Pérez Torres, A; Millan Aldaco, D A
Langerhans cells (LC) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells located in mammalian epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. We recently demonstrated the presence of Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken using ultrastructural histochemistry for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The aim of the present study was to test whether ATPase-positive dendritic cells also express class II histocompatibility molecules (Ia antigens) encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a double staining technique, in separated chicken epidermal sheets. We concluded that the epidermal dendritic cells observed are the LC of the chicken, based on their morphology and spatial distribution, but mainly on the complete overlap for ATPase reaction and Ia antigen expression, these being reliable markers for the identification of mammalian LC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs 7,8 Figs 9,10 Figs 11,12 PMID:7928646
Carrillo-Farga, J; Pérez Torres, A; Castell Rodríguez, A; Antuna Bizarro, S
In mammalian epidermis a population of ATPase-positive dendritic cells, identified as Langerhans cells, has been found. Such cells are bone marrow-derived and participate in the immunological functions of the skin. We demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in separated epidermal sheets of chicken skin, by means of light and electron microscopy. They have a mean distribution of 688 +/- 265 cells/mm2 and showed several features in common with Langerhans cells. Since chickens can develop contact dermatitis, the finding is taken as the first formal demonstration of the presence of Langerhans cells in this group of vertebrates. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1717417
Strains of Spiroplasma citri are persistently infected by viruses which have been separated into three groups on the basis of their morphology. The properties of each group are reviewed. Viruses normally only appear in spiroplasma cultures but recently all three types of particle have been identified in cells of a single strain of S. citri within an infected plant. Replication of a short-tailed polyhedral virus SP-V3 (ai) appears to be correlated with unusually mild symptom expression. Introduction of the virus with its host into plants already infected with a severe and potentially lethal strain of S. citri results in a marked suppression of symptoms and a reduction in the number of spiroplasmas. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:6382829
Waxler, G. L.; Britt, A. L.
Forty gnotobiotic pigs from six litters were exposed orally to Escherichia coli 083:K·:NM at 69 to 148 hours of age, while 17 pigs from the same litters served as unexposed controls. Clinical signs of infection included fever, anorexia, diarrhea, lameness, and reluctance to move. Eighty-four percent of the exposed pigs in four litters died, while only 13% in two litters died. Gross and microscopic lesions included serofibrinous to fibrinopurulent polyserositis in 96% of the exposed pigs in four litters and 33% of the exposed pigs in two litters. A few pigs had gross and/or microscopic lesions of arthritis. Escherichia coli was routinely isolated from the serous and synovial cavities of infected pigs. Anti-hog cholera serum administered orally as a colostrum substitute gave partial protection against E. coli infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4261837
Mahony, D; Gurdon, J B
We have cloned a type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, XTrR-I, from Xenopus. XTrR-I (Xenopus transforming growth factor beta-related receptor type I) is expressed in all regions of embryos throughout early development. Overexpression of this receptor does not affect ectoderm or endoderm but dorsalizes the mesoderm such that muscle appears in ventral mesoderm and notochord appears in lateral mesoderm normally fated to become muscle. In addition, overexpression of XTrR-I in UV-treated embryos is able to cause formation of a partial dorsal axis. These results suggest that XTrR-I encodes a receptor which responds in normal development to a transforming growth factor beta-like ligand so as to promote dorsalization. Its function would therefore be to direct mesodermalized tissue into muscle or notochord. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7604016
Jones, D. B.; Castleden, M.; Smith, J. L.; Mepham, B. L.; Wright, D. H.
Eight patients with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy have been studied by a variety of immunological and pathological techniques. They exhibited a spectrum of immunological reactivities that, in this small series, could be roughly correlated with survival. Those patients with relative B-cell predominance as shown by cell marker studies, histologically showed large numbers of plasma cells, and this pattern was associated in 3 of our patients with a survival of 3 years or more. T-cell predominance or both B- and T-cell depletion was associated histologically with large numbers of blast cells and eosinophils, but with few plasma cells. These patients responded poorly to therapy and had short survival times. One patient with B-cell predominance subsequently died of a histiocytic lymphoma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:678427
Sun, J M; Ali, Z; Lurz, R; Ruiz-Carrillo, A
In vivo competition between histones H1 and H5 for chromatin has been studied in rat sarcoma XC10 cells transfected with a glucocorticoid responsive MMTV-H5 gene. Activation of H5 expression results in accumulation of H5 in the nuclei where it partially replaces H1. H5 displaces H1 from its primary binding sites presumably during chromatin replication and also binds with high affinity to secondary chromatin sites normally not occupied by H1. Replacement of H1 by H5 to levels similar to those of mature chicken erythrocytes does not alter the nucleosome repeat length of chromatin. This indicates that H5 is not solely responsible for the increase in nucleosome spacing of maturing erythroid cells. Exchange of H1 by H5 in vivo or in vitro results in a higher compaction/stability of chromatin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2328730
Brewster, S F
The development and differentiation of the human seminal vesicles has been studied using 14 human male fetuses and 4 postnatal specimens. Earlier accounts of the morphogenesis of the seminal vesicle have been reviewed and commented upon in the light of the present findings. Previously undocumented observations include the movements of the mesenchyme, the formation of epithelial folds and the development of the lamina propria and tunica muscularis. Epithelial differentiation is also described. The function of the basal cells and the possible prepubertal secretory activity of the seminal vesicle are discussed. More work is required on the differentiation of the vesicle between birth and puberty. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3870731
Leitman, I. M.
Surgery evolved from colonial times through many innovations and developments. During this time it was transformed from a dangerous practice to a delicate and scientific art. Many of these early developments continue to be a part of modern surgical therapy. Although European discoveries have had a profound effect on this evolution, American advances solidified the link between the laboratory and the operating room. The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, like other medical centers around the country, made important contributions to this evolution. Because the hospital has spanned American history, it also has paralleled surgical development in the United States. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:1933072
Guinet, R M; Gabriel, S M
Soluble cytoplasmic extracts of Candida albicans groups A and B were prepared and compared by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis experiments performed with a commercial anti-C. albicans group A immune serum. Although crossed immunoelectrophoresis, tandem crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and line immunoelectrophoresis revealed many cross-reactions between the two groups, some components seemed to be specific to group A. However, the complexity of the extracts studied did not allow us to demonstrate specific constituents with these methods. Crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis with and without absorption of antibodies in situ was then used, and four specific antigens unique to group A cytoplasmic extract were demonstrated, one of which appeared to be quantitatively important. The value of various quantitative immunoelectrophoretic methods applied to complex antigenic preparations is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6159327
Pastor, L M
The epithelium of the trachea of the Natrix maura snake was studied by conventional light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium is formed of basal, ciliated, endocrine and secretory cells. It shows different thickness and distribution of the cells, depending on the area (covering the cartilaginous or the membranous zone). Secretory cells show a morphology similar to that found in lizards but it is different from the mucous cells reported in the extrapulmonary airways of turtles, birds and mammals. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is similar to that reported for serous cells in the airways of mammals. Intra-epithelial plasma cells are also found within the epithelium. The present results show that there are marked morphological differences between the tracheal epithelium of lizards and snakes and that of turtles, birds and mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272908
Olivier, Louis; Haskins, Willard T.; Gurian, Joan
This paper describes experiments to test the action of low concentrations of sodium pentachlorophenate against freshly laid eggs of Australorbis glabratus, the principal intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in the western hemisphere. Techniques for collecting the eggs without damage and for conducting the tests are described. This compound was found to be 4-10 times more toxic for the eggs than for the adult snails. Strain differences in susceptibility of the eggs were also found. The demonstration of greater susceptibility of the eggs to the compound suggests that snail control might be accomplished more economically in some situations if the chemical were directed primarily against the eggs. The possibility of using eggs instead of adults for screening potential molluscicides is also discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:14481844
van Heel, M; Stöffler-Meilicke, M
Large sets of electron microscopic images of the 30S ribosomal subunits of Bacillus stearothermophilus (914 molecules) and Escherichia coli (422 molecules) were analysed with image processing techniques. Using computer alignment and a new multivariate statistical classification scheme, three predominant views of the subunit were found for both species. These views, which together account for approximately 90% of the population of images, were determined to a reproducible resolution of up to 1.7 nm, thus elucidating many new structural details. The angular spread of the molecular orientations around the three main stable positions is remarkably small (less than 8 degrees). Some of the current models for the small ribosomal subunit are incompatible with our new results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3908096
David, C; McPherson, P S; Mundigl, O; de Camilli, P
Amphiphysin, a major autoantigen in paraneoplastic Stiff-Man syndrome, is an SH3 domain-containing neuronal protein, concentrated in nerve terminals. Here, we demonstrate a specific, SH3 domain-mediated, interaction between amphiphysin and dynamin by gel overlay and affinity chromatography. In addition, we show that the two proteins are colocalized in nerve terminals and are coprecipitated from brain extracts consistent with their interactions in situ. We also report that a region of amphiphysin distinct from its SH3 domain mediates its binding to the alpha c subunit of AP2 adaptin, which is also concentrated in nerve terminals. These findings support a role of amphiphysin in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8552632
Milroy, C M; Blanshard, J D; Lucas, S; Michaels, L
Fulminant aspergillosis was diagnosed on nasal biopsy in a 49 year old man who had features of an aspergilloma. Further postmortem examination of this area was performed and the results were contrasted with the histological features of other Aspergillus infections. The nasal biopsy specimen and postmortem examination showed infiltrating Aspergillus hyphae with tissue necrosis and little inflammatory response. The hyphae were easily seen with routine stains. This contrasts with the findings in invasive aspergillosis where there is fibrosis and a granulomatous response to the Aspergillus hyphae. The hyphae are seen in giant cells using fungal stains. In the saprophytic infections aspergilloma and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis there is no tissue invasion or destruction. Aspergillus infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses often require biopsy for accurate diagnosis. As treatment varies pathologists need to be able to distinguish the different patterns of infection. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2921352
Kirkpatrick, C. H.; Rich, R. R.; Graw, R. G.; Smith, T. K.; Mickenberg, Irad; Rogentine, G. N.
The immunological defect in a patient with chronic mucocutaneous moniliasis was characterized. While his Candida skin test was negative. exposure of his lymphocytes to candida extracts in vitro produced an increase in thymidine incorporation. Supernatants from cultures of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes did not contain macrophage migration-inhibition factor (MIF) activity. Restoration of the immune system with transfusions of immuno-competent allogeneic lymphocytes was accompanied by conversion of the Candida skin test to positive, and MIF production by his lymphocytes. During the period that his immune system remained intact, there was marked clearing of the moniliasis. Eight months following the transfusions, the moniliasis recurred and when restudied, the patient again had negative skin tests and insignificant MIF production. These observations demonstrate the importance of mediators in the expression of delayed hypersensitivity and provide evidence of a role of cellular immunity in resistance to certain chronic fungal infections. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4945734
Kaur, C; Ling, E A; Wong, W C
The activity of TPPase in amoeboid microglial cells has been studied in postnatal rats. When examined with the light microscope such cells in 1-10 days old rats perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde were round and showed a dark brown reaction in their cytoplasm. In older rats (10-30 days), the reactive amoeboid microglial cells were oval, flattened or branched. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the reaction product was seen on the plasma membrane, in the subplasmalemmal vacuoles, in tubular invaginations of plasma membrane and in the transface of the Golgi saccules. In rats perfused with the mixed aldehyde solution, the amoeboid microglial cells did not show a positive TPPase reaction with the light microscope but at the ultrastructural level a weak reaction was seen in some cytoplasmic vacuoles and in the Golgi saccules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2820912
King, M D; Dudgeon, J; Stephenson, J B
Five children with features of Joubert's syndrome and Leber's amaurosis are described. The presenting symptoms were panting tachypnoea in the newborn, prolonged apnoeic attacks in the neonatal period (in both of identical twins), global developmental delay, and failure to develop vision. Three children had multiple hemifacial spasms, such as have been seen in Joubert's syndrome, and the same three had cystic dysplasia of the kidneys. Necropsy confirmed the retinal and renal pathology, together with agenesis of the vermis and brainstem dysgenesis in the identical twins. It is concluded that a gene for Leber's amaurosis may commonly manifest itself as the specific hind brain malformation underlying Joubert's syndrome. In infants with respiratory irregularities (especially rapid panting), hemifacial spasms, or developmental delay, absence of the cerebellar vermis should be specifically sought by ultrasound and computed tomography, and the electroretinogram measured, whether or not impaired vision is clinically evident. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6476867
Casley-Smith, J. R.; Eckert, P.; Földi-Börcsök, E.
The results of contusion were examined by electron and light microscopy in the lungs of rats. It was found that the results here were very similar to those elsewhere in the body, with a few minor modifications due to the unique structure of the lung. Densitometry of protein concentration and visual estimation of oedema were used to quantitate the effects on the injury. The benzo-pyrone drug Venalot had a considerable effect in reducing the protein concentration in the air spaces and the interstitial tissue, and of the oedema in the latter. Neither the proteinase inhibitor Trasylol nor the pectin-based plasma expander HAS had any significant effect on the fine structural alterations of pulmonary contusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1087159
Kim, Y G; Cha, J; Chandrasegaran, S
A long-term goal in the field of restriction-modification enzymes has been to generate restriction endonucleases with novel sequence specificities by mutating or engineering existing enzymes. This will avoid the increasingly arduous task of extensive screening of bacteria and other microorganisms for new enzymes. Here, we report the deliberate creation of novel site-specific endonucleases by linking two different zinc finger proteins to the cleavage domain of Fok I endonuclease. Both fusion proteins are active and under optimal conditions cleave DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Thus, the modular structure of Fok I endonuclease and the zinc finger motifs makes it possible to create "artificial" nucleases that will cut DNA near a predetermined site. This opens the way to generate many new enzymes with tailor-made sequence specificities desirable for various applications. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8577732
Cavett, C M; Selby, J H; Hamilton, J L; Williamson, J W
Arteriovenous malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon and treatment is problematic because routine barium contrast studies and endoscopy fail to demonstrate the lesion. Diagnosis is by selective mesenteric arteriography, demonstrating a characteristic vascular tuft and very early venous phase. Two cases of arteriovenous malformation are presented and 47 other reported cases are reviewed. Forty-five per cent were found in the cecum; 37, or 80%, involved the distal ileum, cecum ascending colon, or hepatic flexure. Seventy-five per cent of all patients fall into the 50--80 year age range. The literature reveals a recurring pattern of chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, anemia, and delay (even negative abdominal explorations) before the diagnosis is finally made. A more aggressive approach to chronic gastrointestinal bleeding is suggested through the use of selective mesenteric arteriography. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:299801
Pezzullo, David J.; Karas, Steven; Irrgang, James J
In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13.Fig 14.Fig 15. PMID:16558304
Laroche, G. P.
Raynaud's phenomenon is commonly induced in chain-saw operators by vibration; the hand guiding the tool is the more severely affected. The condition tends to persist after use of the chain-saw is stopped but compensation is rarely sought. Among 17 cases of Raynaud's phenomenon in lumberjacks the condition was found to be related to use of the chain-saw in 14, 10 of whom had to give up their work in colder weather because the disease was so disabling. Two criteria essential to establish the condition as vibration-induced Raynaud's phenomenon are the presence of symptoms for at least 2 years and a history of at least 1 year's constant use of the chain-saw. Careful physical examination and simple tests of vascular function will provide objective evidence of permanent damage by which the patients may be classified and compensated. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:1000455
In contrast to the foreign literature, there are no large North American studies on the sequelae to trauma and infection in the recently pregnant uterus. For this reason, the present status of these sequelae was reviewed and re-evaluated. They constitute a long-recognized, well-established clinical syndrome comprising: (1) past history of puerperal or postabortal infection and/or curettage, followed by (2) amenorrhea or hypomenorrhea, (3) dysmenorrhea, (4) habitual abortion, and (5) sterility. Knowledge of the existence of the entity is of great importance for its prevention and treatment. Strict maintenance of aseptic technique during curettage, use of a dull or serrated curette, and proper use of antibiotics are essential preventive measures. Treatment measures for this condition are solely surgical and consist of (1) dilatation and curettage, (2) hysterotomy, (3) transplantation of living tissues, and finally (4) hysterectomy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:14322441
Sahni, D; Jit, I; Joshi, K; Sanjeev
In paired tests obtained from 425 adults, 50 children and 10 neonates, the incidence of testicular appendices was 76% in adults (93.3% sessile) and 83.3% in neonates/children (88% sessile). An epididymal appendix was present in 21.9% of adults and 20% of neonates/children, out of which 79% were stalked in both types of specimen. Three sessile testicular appendices and 11 epididymal appendices were double. The microscopic structure of the appendices and the ultrastructure of their epithelia are described. Testicular or epididymal appendices were not present in any domestic or laboratory animal examined except the horse. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8886956
Gratz, N. G.; Bracha, P.; Carmichael, A.
Hut and village-scale trials with solid and liquid-type dichlorvos dispensers were carried out in 1961 in the vicinity of Lagos, Nigeria, by the WHO Insecticide Testing Unit. Bioassay results indicated that with a single application satisfactory mortalities of caged mosquitos could be obtained for a period of 12-13 weeks in mud-walled huts, whether with galvanized corrugated-iron roofs or with thatched roofs. Chemical analysis of air samples showed that satisfactory concentrations of dichlorvos vapour were maintained throughout the huts for about 12 weeks, after which time sublethal concentrations were observed first near the floors of the dwellings. No depression in blood or plasma cholinesterase was noted in the exposed inhabitants ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:14056280
Coates, J W; Schmutz, S M; Rousseaux, C G
Postmortem examinations were performed on 30 morphologically abnormal aborted bovine fetuses, stillbirths and nonviable neonates. Fibroblasts from the pericardium were cultured for chromosome analysis. Karyotypes were successfully completed on 18 animals, of which three were trisomic, one was mosaic monosomic and one was chimeric. All aneuploid calves had multisystemic anomalies. Using chromosomal banding techniques, the abnormal karyotypes were determined to be: 61,XY,+27; 61,XX,+21; 61,XY,+?; 59,XY,-?/60,XY; and 60,XX/60,XY. Bacterial contamination or nonviability of tissues prevented the growth of fibroblasts in culture and cytogenetic analysis of the other 12 animals. It was estimated that 2.0% of all late gestation abortuses and stillbirths may have chromosomal abnormalities characterized by aneuploidy. The findings of this study suggest chromosomal abnormalities characterized by aneuploidy are a significant cause of multisystemic anomalies in aborted bovine fetuses and nonviable neonates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3370561
Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S
As a base line for future cell genetical studies the authors record the distribution of non-specific esterase reaction in the various histologically distinguishable cell types of the mouse epididymis. The findings are correlated with previous descriptions of the lobar structure of the organ. Assuming the sequence of lobes of the head to be as implied in these classical descriptions, the esterase activity of the epithelial cells gradates between strong to weak several times along the length of the epididymal duct. The relationship of the lobes to each other, as seen in transverse sections, is described. Methodological studies using different fixatives indicate that apparent similarity of esterase reaction at different sites may camouflage an underlying difference in the nature of the esterases at these sites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:564339
Holbrook, K A; Odland, G F
Bundles of collagen fibrils, elastic fibres and fibroblasts are organized into a network that lies in the plane of a large portion of the bat wing. By ultrastructural (TEM and SEM) and biochemical analyses it was found that individual bundles of the net are similar to elastic ligaments. Although elastic fibres predominate, they are integrated and aligned in parallel with small bundles of collagen. A reticulum of fibroblasts, joined by focal junctions, forms a cellular framework throughout each bundle. Because of the unique features of the fibre bundles of the bat's wing, in particular their accessibility, and the parallel alignment of the collagen fibrils and elastic fibres in each easily isolatable fibre bundle, they should prove a most valuable model for connective tissue studies, particularly for the study of collagen-elastin interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:649500
Bibby, M. C.; Smith, G. M.
Electron microscopic observations of sequential stages of skin carcinogenesis induced by tobacco smoke condensate (SC) and a cyclohexane fraction of tobacco smoke condensate (G) revealed an increase in incidence of intracisternal A particles within the epidermal cells. Tumours induced by SC also contained C-type particles, but these were not seen in G-induced tumours or after irritant or solvent treatment. There was no evidence of an increase in intracisternal A particles after irritant or solvent treatment. A direct relationship between the proliferation of A particles and neoplastic growth of BALB/c mouse epidermis appears likely. The data suggest possible activation of a latent C-type virus by SC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:194615
Minamoto, N.; Oki, K.; Tomita, M.; Kinjo, T.; Suzuki, Y.
Avian rotaviruses were isolated from feral pigeon faeces treated with trypsin using roller tube cultures of mammalian cells. Two pigeon strains, designated as strains PO-8 and PO-13, produced a marked cytopathic effect (CPE), small intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and high titres of infectious particles in infected MA-104 and MDBK cell lines without cell adaptation and roller drum apparatus. The pigeon rotaviruses shared a common group specific antigen with the Lincoln strain of bovine rotavirus by indirect immunofluorescence, but differed from both the Lincoln strain and the Wa strain of human rotavirus in neutralization tests. The RNA segment profile of this virus on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis differed from that of group A mammalian rotaviruses. The results of a serological survey suggested that antibody to pigeon rotaviruses was widespread in avian species in Japan. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:2837407
Chapman, J E; Ochsner, J L
A 33-year-old woman had a diagnosis of idiopathic Budd-Chiari syndrome complicated by inferior vena caval occlusion. Conservative medical therapy failed to control the symptoms of both portal hypertension and vena caval stasis. Therefore, a prosthetic shunt was placed from the right common iliac vein to the right atrium with a side-arm to the superior mesenteric vein. She exhibited almost complete relief of symptoms and the graft was documented to be patent two weeks postoperatively. In many instances aggressive surgical therapy may help these patients who, in the past, would have been relegated to symptomatic therapy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 6A., 6B. PMID:718289
The chance finding of two cases of undiagnosed malakoplakia in the files of the Department of Pathology, Queen's University Belfast prompted a systematic study of all cases of inflammatory testicular and epididymal disease diagnosed in that department during a 43-year period from 1934 to 1977. A total of 71 cases was studied, and no additional example of malakoplakia was found. In the Belfast collection, there is one other example of testicular malakoplakia and therefore a total of three cases in 74 examples of inflammatory testicular and epididymal disease (4.3% incidence). In the series there were 10 cases of granulomatous disease (13.5%). The world literature on testicular malakoplakia has been reviewed, and typical and atypical features have been determined. Also a comparison has been made between testicular malakoplakia and granulomatous orchitis, and the relationship between these conditions is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7430373
Scheynius, A; Fischer, T; Forsum, U; Klareskog, L
The cellular response in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was analysed in situ with an immunohistochemical double staining technique. Allergic patch test reactions were elicited in 10 patients and irritant reactions in eight cases, using the Finn chamber technique. Skin biopsies were obtained 6-72 h after test applications. Frozen sections of 43 biopsies were investigated by simultaneous staining with rabbit anti-HLA-DR antibodies and various mouse monoclonal antibodies. The cell infiltrates were usually larger in the allergic than in the irritant reactions. However, the kinetics of the cell responses, the phenotypes of the inflammatory cells, their distribution and spatial relationships were similar. It thus appears that the applications of allergens or irritants to the skin generates a cell pattern that to a large extent reflects an immunological readiness for further immune reactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6362938
Zhang, L H; Rodriguez, H; Ohno, S; Miller, W L
Microsomal cytochrome P450c17 catalyzes both steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity and scission of the C17-C20 steroid bond (17,20-lyase) on the same active site. Adrenal 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity is needed to produce cortisol throughout life, but 17,20-lyase activity appears to be controlled independently in a complex, age-dependent pattern. We show that human P450c17 is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation of P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity, while dephosphorylation virtually eliminates this activity. Hormonally regulated serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 suggests a possible mechanism for human adrenarche and may be a unifying etiologic link between the hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance that characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479852
Kupari, M; Verkkala, K; Maamies, T; Härtel, G
The development of a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of heart surgery. Until recently it has been impossible to detect without an angiographic study of the left ventricle. A combination of cross sectional and Doppler ultrasound studies led to the correct diagnosis in two patients with left ventricular pseudoaneurysms after mitral valve replacement. Cross sectional echocardiography showed a posterolateral echo-free space confined only by the pericardium and communicating with the left ventricle through a defect in the ventricular wall, and Doppler echocardiography confirmed the presence of blood flow in this cavity. This Doppler finding is critical if the perforation is too small to be identified reliably by cross sectional imaging. Surgical repair of the pseudoaneurysm can be undertaken without invasive studies if the echocardiographic findings are unequivocal and there is no reason to suspect the integrity of the circumflex coronary artery. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3620242
Botos, I; Scapozza, L; Zhang, D; Liotta, L A; Meyer, E F
Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes have been implicated in degenerative processes like tumor cell invasion, metastasis, and arthritis. Specific metalloproteinase inhibitors have been used to block tumor cell proliferation. We have examined the interaction of batimastat (BB-94) with a metalloproteinase [atrolysin C (Ht-d), EC 220.127.116.11] active site at 2.0-angstroms resolution (R = 16.8%). The title structure exhibits an unexpected binding geometry, with the thiophene ring deeply inserted into the primary specificity site. This unprecedented binding geometry dramatizes the significance of the cavernous primary specificity site, pointing the way for the design of a new generation of potential antitumor drugs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8610113
Hayes, M A; Wobeser, G A
Young Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing purified T-2 toxin at levels of 20 or 30 ppm for two or three weeks. Ingestion of T-2 toxin was associated with reduced weight gain and delayed development of adult plumage. Affected ducks developed caseonecrotic plaques throughout the upper alimentary tract, especially in oropharynx and ventriculus. Several ducks also developed severe ulcerative, proliferative esophagitis and proventriculitis. Generalized atrophy of all lymphoid tissues consistently occurred. The manifestations of T-2 mycotoxicosis in Mallard ducks were mostly attributable to irritant toxicity to the alimentary mucosa. The T-2 toxin caused neither hematopoietic suppression nor a hemorrhagic syndrome in ducks. These alimentary lesions of T-2 mycotoxicosis in ducks do not resemble diseases of native waterfowl presently being recognized in routine surveillance of waterfowl mortality in Saskatchewan. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6883185
Tilley, A. R.; Douglas, L. G.
Lymphedema of the lower extremities poses a challenging problem in management. Gross deformities may be encountered in patients with filarial infestation. This degree of involvement is rare in native North Americans suffering from primary lymphedema. A case is presented of a patient with changes similar to those seen in filariasis, due to several episodes of acute lymphangitis over a period of years. The involved tissue was excised and the defects skin-grafted, employing a modified Charles procedure. The magnitude of the excision was such that it was carried out in three widely spaced stages. The result was satisfactory from a functional viewpoint, and also represented a marked cosmetic improvement. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4590797
Boyd, N. A.; Barry, N. A.; Davies, A. K.
The surgical commitment of No. 2 Field Hospital, R.A.M.C., during its stay in Jordan is presented. The majority of patients that were admitted had sustained war wounds, many of which were infected due to the delay in treatment. The difficulties encountered in their subsequent management are discussed. Special reference is made to the use of ketamine (Ketalar) and mafenide acetate (Sulphamylon) in the treatment of those burns cases under our care. It is the first time for many years that a British field hospital has been employed in an active rôle. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 8Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5114910
Stoop, J. W.; Ballieux, R. E.; Hijmans, W.; Zegers, B. J. W.
A description is given of an 8-year-old girl of pure Dutch extraction who, since age 4, has shown unclassifiable skin changes, marked eosinophilia and diffuse infiltrative pulmonary changes with enlarged mediastinal lymph glands, dyspnoea and impaired diffusion. The patient's serum contained a large amount of proteins related to the Fc-fragment of IgA. She developed a pharyngeal tumour with the histological characteristics of a paragranuloma. The mucosa of the lower air passages is regarded as a possible site of origin of the abnormal serum protein. The disease was therefore interpreted as a disorder of the secretory IgA system, and this patient could well represent the respiratory form of the alpha-chain disease, described so far. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:4111693
Seigneurin, J M; Renversez, J C; Baccard, M; Seigneurin, D; Micouin, C
A patient with chronic T cell lymphocytic leukaemia developed a monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG3 kappa = 14 g/l) which was in part cryoprecipitable. At the same time, a subclinical CMV infection occurred which was associated with a neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, and which led to a rise in anti-CMV antibodies. The F(ab')2 fragment of IgG3 kappa, obtained by enzymatic cleavage, was examined for several antiviral activities and it was found to have a strong anti-CMV activity using the immunofluorescence test with anti-kappa conjugate. This is one of the few examples of a cryoglobulin with specific antiviral activity. The leukaemia, possibly together with immunosuppressive therapy, may have been responsible for the uncontrolled proliferation of the clone producing the cryoimmunoglobulin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6254708
Branca, M.; Nicoletti, L.
The effect of cyclophosphamide on MSV-H oncogensis and the immune response of young mice has been investigated. A single, sublethal dose (100 and 50 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide) in 8-day-old mice given 24 h before or after MSV-H infection led to an earlier and lower incidence of tumours in comparison with controls infected only with MSV-H. The protective effect of cyclophosphamide, and the mechanism of action of both cyclophosphamide and MSV-H on the target cells, mesenchymal cells in rapid replication, as well the immunological implications of the findings are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:201258
Soler, C; Blázquez, C; Sánchez, N; Cervelló, M; Sánchez, P; Núñez, A
Doses (2.5 mg/kg) of rhodamine 6GO were given subcutaneously to five Charles-Rivel mice. After 15 minutes the testis and epididymis were observed with a fluoroscope and a fluorescent microscope which showed that rhodamine 6GO was present in a rhodamine-fluorescent zone (RF-zone) of the caput epididymidis. In this RF-zone, the fluorochrome was localised in the epithelial cells of the epididymal duct but not in the lumen nor the vascular system. At the edge of the RF-zone a wide band of connective tissue was present; the epithelium of the epididymal duct in this zone was higher and its tubular diameter greater than in the rest of the epididymal duct and spermatozoa were usually not present in the lumen. A possible role played by the epididymis in the endocrine control of the testicular function is suggested. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2081701
Rajendran, K; Ling, E A
The cavernous sinus of Macaca fascicularis is in many respects similar to the human sinus. It consists predominantly of one main venous channel that, together with the internal carotid artery, occupies a meningo-endocranial compartment lateral to the pituitary gland. Trabeculae are few and do not in any way cause the sinus to appear cavernous. They are mostly flattened in the direction of the main venous channel. Cranial nerves three, four, six and the ophthalmic division of five are all located in the lateral wall of the meningo-endocranial compartment with cranial nerve six located most medially adjacent to the internal carotid artery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:4077687
This study is an attempt to classify all described species of African Bulinus. It is based upon the author's examination of a great number of specimens collected from many parts of Africa. The variations attributable to age, environment and genetic factors which may be noted in the taxonomic characters are discussed, and some new species and subspecies are established. For each recognized species and subspecies the author states the distinguishing characters, indicates the geographical distribution, and gives a list of synonyms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 2(concluded)Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5(continued)Fig. 5(concluded)Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 16(concluded)Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 22(concluded)Fig. 23 PMID:13479773
Pope, F M; Narcisi, P; Nicholls, A C; Liberman, M; Oorthuys, J W
Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV is an often lethal disease caused by various mutations of type III collagen genes. It presents in infancy and childhood in several ways, and the symptoms and signs include low birth weight, prematurity, congenital dislocation of the hips, easy inappropriate bruising (sometimes suspected as child battering), and a diagnostic facial phenotype. These features predict a lethal adult disease often complicated by fatal arterial rupture in early or middle adult life. Most affected patients can be diagnosed from radiolabelled collagen protein profiles by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Prenatal diagnosis by specific type III collagen restriction fragment length polymorphisms is possible in some families, and will become increasingly important. Prenatal diagnosis and prevention of the disease in selected families is already possible and will be widely available in the future. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 PMID:3178263
Maina, J N; King, A S
Qualitative and quantitative characteristics suggest that the lung of the emu is poorly adapted for gas exchange when compared with that of other birds. The granular epithelial cells extend over the air capillaries, and the squamous epithelial cells have microvilli indicating a poor differentiation of the epithelium of the exchange tissue. The surface area of the blood-gas tissue barrier per unit body mass was only 5.4 cm2/g, the volume of the pulmonary capillary blood per unit body mass was only 0.93 cm3/kg, and the tissue barrier was unusually thick (0.232 micron). These parameters produce a relatively small total morphometric pulmonary diffusing capacity for oxygen of 0.014 ml O2/sec/mbar/kg. The findings conform to the evolution of a very large flightless bird in a warm environment lacking effective predators. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2606782
Harrison, S. H.
The surgical management of the arthritic hand is very largely concerned with rheumatoid arthritis and Still's disease and less frequently with psoriatic and degenerative arthritis. In the rheumatoid hand the surgeon may be called upon to intervene at any point in the chain reaction leading to total deformity, performing synovectomies of joints or tendons to relieve pain or prevent further deformity, repairing ruptured tendons, restoring the mechanism of injured joints, and correcting deformities when they have been allowed to occur. The great variety of operations that may be necessary to achieve these ends, with varying degrees of success, are discussed with reference to a personal series of 970 cases and 2002 operations. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 PMID:420491
Cameron, J; McCredie, J
The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041
Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J
The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967
Criley, J. M.; Criley, D.; Zalace, C.
The cardiac physical examination is in itself a multimedia experience. It is an amalgamation of visible, palpable, and audible sensations, preceded by the collection of an appropriate historical context in which to place these multiple sensations. It is unlikely that any electronic media could ever replace the real life experience of admitting, examining, diagnosing, and effectively treating a patient with mitral stenosis who has decompensated because of the onset of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response, or a patient with sudden, severe aortic regurgitation due to endocarditis. These potentially fatal conditions can be effectively treated only if the suspicion of their presence is seriously raised. Although there is no substitute for first-hand experience, attempts to provide an effective surrogate experience are worth pursuing. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:9108683
Sims, T. A.; Hay, J.; Talbot, I. C.
The wall of intact Toxoplasma tissue cysts within the brains of mice with congenital toxoplasmosis was investigated. Smaller cysts were identified within the soma of neurones. With larger cysts, the contained cystozoites were shown by ultrastructural examination to be surrounded by a layer of microtubules; immunohistochemical staining revealed that this layer contained neurofilament protein. Interior to this layer was a much convoluted parasitophorus vacuole membrane; exterior was the host cell membrane. In most cases, synaptic plates were noted on the outer plasma membrane. In no instance were tissue cysts observed either within neuroglial cells or in the absence of host cells. These observations are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of congenital toxoplasmosis in the brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2504268
Moore, P. E.
An explosive epidemic of tuberculosis in a small isolated settlement is described. This outbreak, in a population of 329 Eskimos and 16 whites, produced 80 cases of active tuberculosis, involving 55% of all the house-holds. Forty-five of these patients were children under 10 years of age and only five were persons over 30. These patients probably were infected by one highly infectious individual. The contributing causes of poor housing, overcrowding and poor nutrition, coupled with the debilitating effect of recent epidemics of virus diseases, measles, mumps and German measles, are discussed. Since this article was written, a third resurvey in the same year, conducted in November 1963, revealed 11 more cases among the 279 members of the population who underwent radiological examination; all are hospitalized. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14144539
Ellis, D S; Simpson, I H; Francis, D P; Knobloch, J; Bowen, E T; Lolik, P; Deng, I M
Electron microscopy of tissues from two necropsies carried out in the Sudan on patients with Ebola virus infection identified virus particles in lung and spleen, but the main concentrations of Ebola particles were seen in liver sections. Viral precursor proteins and cores were found in functional liver cells, often aligned in membrane-bound aggregations. Complete virions, usually found only extracellularly, were mainly seen as long tubular forms, some without cores. Many tubular forms had 'enlarged heads' or 'spores' and some branched and torus forms were identified. The size and structure of the Ebola virus forms appear to be virtually indistinguishable from those of Marburg virus. Images Figs 6, 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:641193
Lang, J; Price, A B; Levi, A J; Burke, M; Gumpel, J M; Bjarnason, I
Operative small bowel resection specimens received over a period of 16 years were reviewed to assess whether any intestinal disease could be directly attributed to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Seven cases of intestinal disease associated with the use of NSAID were identified, all of which occurred in the final six years of the survey, which may reflect the increasing use of these compounds. A spectrum of patterns was found from multiple pathognomonic ileal mucosal diaphragms to broad strictures similar to those seen as a complication of enteric potassium. It seems likely that the formation of diaphragm lesions requires an additional factor, but what is not known as yet is whether the effects of NSAID are local or systemic. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 PMID:3384981
de Man, J. C.; Snoep, M. P.; Huiskens-van der Meij, J. W.; Warnaar, S. O.; Schaberg, A.
Morphological and growth characteristics are described of a rapidly growing cell line with epithelioid and giant-cell characteristics derived from a chondrosarcoma in a male patient 65 years of age. This cell line is of considerable interest because in these cells cross-reacting antigens with known animal oncorna-viruses are present. Biochemically, the cells contain particles with a density of 1-16 with "cores" of density 1'23 associated with a reverse-transcriptase-like enzyme and with 70S RNA. Occasionally, virus-like particles were demonstrated by electron microscope in material derived from the culture medium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:857824
Leegwater, P A; van der Vliet, P C; Rupp, R A; Nowock, J; Sippel, A E
Nuclear factor I from HeLa cells, a protein with enhancing function in adenovirus DNA replication, and the chicken TGGCA protein are specific DNA-binding proteins that were first detected by independent methods and that appeared to have similar DNA sequence specificity. To test whether they are homologous proteins from different species we have compared (i) their DNA binding properties and (ii) their function in reconstituted adenovirus DNA replication systems. Using deletion and substitution mutants derived from the DNA binding site on the adenovirus 2 inverted terminal repeat, it was found that the two proteins protect the same 24-nucleotide region of both strands against DNase I digestion and that they have identical minimal recognition sequences of 15 bp containing dyad symmetry. Like nuclear factor I, the TGGCA protein enhances the initiation reaction of adenovirus 2 DNA replication in vitro in a DNA recognition site-dependent manner. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3709517
Cell structure, emerging from behind the veil of conventional electron microscopy, appears far more complex than formerly realized. The standard plastic-embedded, ultrathin section can image only what is on the section surface and masks the elaborate networks of the cytoplasm and nucleus. Embedment-free electron microscopy gives clear, high-contrast micrographs of cell structure when combined with removal of obscuring material such as soluble proteins. The resinless ultrathin section is the technique of choice; it is simple and inexpensive, and it uses ordinary electron microscopes. The resulting pictures reveal a world of complex cell structure and function. These images necessarily change our conception of the cytoskeleton, nuclear matrix, mitosis, and the relation of membranes to cytostructure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7777493
Cowan, M. E.; Buchan, A.; Skinner, G. R.
The synthesis of immunoglobulins by the uterine cervix was investigated in an endocervical organ-culture system. Using Ouchterlony immunodiffusion gels immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A and secretory piece were detected in washings of endocervical explants and in explant incubation medium. Synthesis of immunoglobulin in the organ-culture system was investigated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of radiolabelled polypeptides; 2 polypeptides co-migrated with the heavy and light chains of a reference polyclonal immunoglobulin G and were confirmed, by use of anti-human globulin and iodinated staphylococcal protein A, to be the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin G. This experimental system will provide a useful model in future investigations of the efficacy of a local vaccine in human subjects. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6803822
Cowan, M. E.; Ward, K.; Woodman, C. B.; Skinner, G. R.
There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the in-vitro synthesis of 3 polypeptides between squamous and columnar epithelial explants of human cervix. One cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 50,000 was synthesized and phosphorylated by squamous but not by columnar explants; a second cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 52,000, which was present in larger amounts in squamous than columnar explants, was both glycosylated and phosphorylated during in-vitro explantation of squamous tissue; a third polypeptide of mol. wt 25,200 which was keratin-like but not cross-linked, was synthesized in squamous-tissue explants but in only 4% of columnar-tissue explants. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6184064
Gear, J. H. S.; Davis, D. H. S.; Pitchford, R. J.
In this investigation the susceptibility of several species of rodents—Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis, Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus, Aethomys chrysophilus, Tatera brantsi and the white mouse (SAIMR 200 strain)—to Schistosoma haematobium was determined and the pathology studied. From the results it is clear that these rodents are susceptible to infection with Schistosoma haematobium. For various reasons, notably adaptability to laboratory conditions, the most suitable as laboratory animals for the study of bilharziasis are Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus and Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis. These three species breed readily in the laboratory and show a high susceptibility to S. haematobium, with characteristic lesions involving several organs, including the lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas and intestine. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 16FIG. 17FIG. 18FIG. 19FIG. 20FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15 PMID:5297005
Kazdan, Jerome J.; McCulloch, J. Clement; Crawford, John S.
Endogenous uveitis in 117 children aged 15 years or under was investigated at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, in a 12-year period from 1953 to 1964. This group included 55 children with anterior uveitis, 59 with posterior uveitis, and three with diffuse uveitis. An etiologic diagnosis could be made or the uveitis recognized as part of a definite clinical syndrome in approximately 47% of the 117 children. The commonest cause of posterior uveitis was toxoplasmosis and the commonest associated finding in anterior uveitis was juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic cyclitis of unknown etiology was a relatively common disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:6066889
Ashby, B. S.
Fibreoptic choledochoscopy permits visual examination of the interior of the bile ducts during operations for gallstones. But it does not replace operative cholangiography, and the common bile duct should not be opened simply to perform choledochoscopy. Operative choledochoscopy following conventional exploration and removal of stones ensures that the ducts are clear before insertion of a T tube and closure, avoiding the problem of the retained stone. Exploratory choledochoscopy with stone retrieval under direct vision is less traumatic to the ducts than conventional blind methods, and visual confirmation that the lower end of the duct is clear and the papilla patent may allow the common bile duct to be closed without a T tube, shortening the patient's convalescent period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:697297
Kizaka-Kondoh, S; Matsuda, M; Okayama, H
A rat fibroblast mutant defective in oncogenic transformation and signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras has been isolated. The mutant contains dominant negative-type point mutations in the C-terminal SH3 domain of one crkII gene. Among the adapters tested, the mutant is complemented only by crkII cDNA. Expression of the mutated crkII in parent cells generates the phenotype indistinguishable from the mutant cell. Yet overexpression or reduced expression of Grb2 in the mutant before and after complementation with crkII have little effect on its phenotype. We conclude that adapter molecules are highly specific and that the oncogenic growth signal from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras is predominantly mediated by CrkII in rat fibroblast. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8901553
Evans, Alfred S.
The Henle-Koch postulates are reviewed in terms of their full validity in Koch's day and in light of subsequent developments. The changing guidelines developed for viral diseases, for viruses in relation to cancer and to chronic central nervous system infection, and for causative agents in chronic diseases are discussed chronologically. A set of guidelines for both acute infectious and chronic diseases is presented. The need for recognizing the role of the host and the spectrum of host responses, for sound biologic sense in evaluating causal roles of agents in disease, and for flexibility in adapting our guidelines to new knowledge are emphasized. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:782050
Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L
The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:500497
Polak, Julia M.; Coulling, I.; Doe, W.; Pearse, A. G. E.
An indirect immunofluorescence technique, using the globulin fraction of rabbit antihuman gastrin serum, was applied to formalin-fixed material obtained by suction biopsy from the fundic mucosa of nine cases of pernicious anaemia. Cytochemical tests for endocrine polypeptide cells of the APUD series, in which the G cell is included, were carried out in parallel with immunofluorescence and with ultrastructural observations. G cells were present, in large numbers, in five of the nine cases studied. In the remaining four cases the predominantly intestinalized glands contained only enterochromaffin in cells. Because of their low gastrin content (immunofluorescence), low secretion granule content (cytochemistry), and the associated ultrastructural findings, it is suggested that the G cells of the fundic mucosa are in a state of high synthetic and high secretory activity. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4930156
No, D; Yao, T P; Evans, R M
During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, a cascade of morphological changes is triggered by the steroid hormone 20-OH ecdysone via the ecdysone receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In this report, we have transferred insect hormone responsiveness to mammalian cells by the stable expression of a modified ecdysone receptor that regulates an optimized ecdysone responsive promoter. Inductions reaching 4 orders of magnitude have been achieved upon treatment with hormone. Transgenic mice expressing the modified ecdysone receptor can activate an integrated ecdysone responsive promoter upon administration of hormone. A comparison of tetracycline-based and ecdysone-based inducible systems reveals the ecdysone regulatory system exhibits lower basal activity and higher inducibility. Since ecdysone administration has no apparent effect on mammals, its use for regulating genes should be excellent for transient inducible expression of any gene in transgenic mice and for gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8622939
Panaccio, François; Montgomery, D. C.; Adam, J. E.
A delayed hypersensitivity type of allergic contact dermatitis was observed following exposure to certain brands of 50% cotton, 50% polyester coloured permanent-pressed sheets produced by a particular manufacturer. The dermatitis presented as an extremely pruritic follicular eczema of the body and vesicular edema of the ears and face. Patch testing excluded formalin as the allergen but suggested permanent-pressing chemicals as a possibility. Several washings of the sheets did not prevent the development of the dermatitis. The removal of sheets did not immediately result in improvement: the condition could persist for up to eight weeks after their discontinuance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4268628
Hawks, A.; Hicks, R. M.; Holsman, J. W.; Magee, P. N.
Single toxic doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced mild centrilobular necrosis of the liver in rats and mice. Ultrastructural studies showed hepatic nuclear changes including nucleolar microsegregation and changes in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. 1-Methylhydrazine caused little morphological change in the liver. Tumours of the colon and kidney and also massive cystic hyperplasia of the liver were found in some of the rats and tumours of the anal margin and kidney in some of the mice, following single doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Incorporation of amino acids into rat liver proteins was inhibited by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, which also caused disaggregation of hepatic polysomes. No effects on hepatic protein synthesis by 1,1-dimethylhydrazine or 1-methylhydrazine were observed. Similarities between the effects of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, cycasin and dimethylnitrosamine are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4469195
The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.
Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E
The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334
White, F H; Gohari, K
The present report describes quantitative studies of mitochondria from stratified squamous epithelial cells from hamster cheek pouch mucosa in differentiating compartments. Mucosa was processed for electron microscopy and, using strict sampling procedures, electron micrographs of epithelium from defined basal, spinous and granular strata were acquired. Using stereological and other morphometric methods, the volume density, numerical density and volume-to-surface ratio of mitochondria were estimated in each cellular layer, and these data were transformed into absolute values characterising the average cell in these layers. The results suggest that both volumetric and numerical densities of mitochondria decreased progressively during epithelial differentiation; conversely, the total volume and number of mitochondria present in granular cells were consistently higher than in basal cells, as was the volume of individual mitochondria. These quantitative changes may reflect functional alterations in the metabolism of epithelial cells during differentiation and provide a base line for further work on experimental epithelial biology and pathology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6350250
Kharbanda, S; Saleem, A; Yuan, Z; Emoto, Y; Prasad, K V; Kufe, D
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is required for the growth and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. In the present studies using human monocytes, we show that M-CSF induces interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with the focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK. The results demonstrate that tyrosine-phosphorylated pp125FAK directly interacts with the SH2 domain of Grb2. The findings indicate that a pYENV site at Tyr-925 in pp125FAK is responsible for this interaction. We also demonstrate that the Grb2-FAK complex associates with the GTPase dynamin. Dynamin interacts with the SH3 domains of Grb2 and exhibits M-CSF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation in association with pp125FAK. These findings suggest that M-CSF-induced signaling involves independent Grb2-mediated pathways, one leading to Ras activation and another involving pp125FAK and a GTPase implicated in receptor internalization. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7597091
Warren, A. G.
Basic surgical principles applied when caring for neuropathic limbs can result in the maintenance or restoration of a useful ulcer-free limb. It is possible to help many patients with neuropathy to become ulcer-free and to remain ulcer-free and mobile, with surgical procedures. Recommended methods of management are briefly outlined. These include the débridement of the osteomyelitic, metatarsal head in order to save the adjacent toe, removal of bony irregularities that predispose to ulceration, and the use of wedge osteotomies and arthrodeses to improve the functional shape of the affected foot. The emphasis is on the removal of high pressure points from the weight-bearing surface and to increase the total area available for weight-bearing. Adequate rest and protection are essential, and include the use of splints or total contact plaster casts in all cases of ulceration of weight-bearing surfaces. All patients with reduced sensory perception should learn daily self-examination and care to reduce the chances of recurrent ulceration. Healing after surgical reconstruction will occur, and the healed tissues, if adequately cared for, will maintain their integrity for years. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 fig. 9 fig. 10 PMID:2549839
Gabriel, H G; Alexander, J C; Valli, V E
Four groups of weanling rats were fed semisynthetic diets containing 15 percent by weight of dietary fats for 28 days. Two groups received thermally oxidized low-erucic acid rapeseed oil (OLE) or lard (OLA) and the other two groups received the respective fresh fats (FLE, FLA) as controls. Average daily feed consumption and feed efficiency were not affected by either OLE or OLA, however final body weights were depressed by the OLA in the diet. The relative heart weights and heart total lipids were significantly increased in both the OLE and OLA groups. A majority of the animals in both the OLE and OLA groups exhibited various gross symptoms attributable to heated fat toxicity such as seborrhea, diarrhea and polyuria. Excessive hair loss was noted in all the animals fed the heated fats. Tissue fatty acid changes due to OLA were confined largely to the polar liver lipids, whereas OLE produced dramatic changes in both the neutral heart lipids as well as in the neutral and polar liver lipids. Histological evaluation of the hearts, livers and kidneys indicated that OLA was very injurious to the kidneys, whereas OLE caused greater damage to both the hearts and livers. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:832196
A technique is described for producing large demyelinating lesions of the spinal cord in the guinea pig. Guinea pigs were pretreated by immunization with ovalbumin and water-soluble adjuvant (N-acetyl-muramyl L-alanyl D-isoglutamine, MDP) in water-in-oil emulsion (Freund's incomplete adjuvant). They were given a large dose (10 mg) of ovalbumin i.p. one month later. After a few weeks the animals were sensitized with guinea-pig basic protein in Freund's complete adjuvant. Five out of 11 animals developed large, distinctive, sharply demarcated, symmetrical demyelinating lesions within 30 days. These lesions occurred in the dorsal and anterior columns, root entry zones and subpial region of the spinal cord. Histology showed a considerable amount of free lipids. There were also infiltrative lesions of classical experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) of normal severity in the same animals. The demyelinating lesions resembled those seen in multiple sclerosis in their location and extent in the spinal cord and in the presence of free lipids. Control experiments indicated that pretreatment with ovalbumin/MDP and the second injection of ovalbumin was necessary for all the demyelination; moreover guinea pigs immunized with basic protein in Freund's complete adjuvant or Freund's incomplete adjuvant plus MDP without pretreatment only developed classical EAE with minimal or no demyelination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7426390
Wu, X; Shaw, J
An essential step in the initiation of a virus infection is the release of the viral genome from the other constituents of the virus particle, a process referred to as uncoating. We have used reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification procedures to determine the rate and direction of in vivo uncoating of the rod-shaped tobacco mosaic virus. The virus particles contain a single 6.4-kb RNA molecule that lies between successive turns of a helical arrangement of coat protein subunits. When the particles are introduced into plant cells, the subunits are removed via a bidirectional uncoating mechanism. Within 2-3 min, the part of the viral RNA from the 5' end to a position >70% toward the 3' end has been freed of coat protein subunits. This is followed by removal of subunits from the 3' end of the RNA and sequential uncoating of the RNA in a 3'-to-5' direction. An internal region of the viral RNA is the final part to be uncoated. Progeny virus particles are detected in the cells 35-40 min after inoculation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8610154
Donald, John W.
Complications of diverticula of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, exclusive of Meckel's diverticula are extremely rare but can produce major diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Major reported complications include hemorrhage, perforation, biliary and pancreatic obstruction, and inflammation with intestinal obstruction. The mortality of complicated duodenal diverticula is reported from 33 to 48%. Our experience with some of these complications is reported. This experience and a review of other reported cases have led to the following recommendations for surgical treatment. 1) Massively bleeding duodenal diverticulum. Precise localization of the bleeding point by endoscopy and/or arteriography is highly desirable. Excision or partial excision of the diverticulum with suture ligation of the bleeding point is necessary. 2) Perforated duodenal diverticulum. Excision or partial excision, secure closure and drainage are necessary. If peri-Vaterian, a probe should be passed through the ampulla of Vater via the common duct. Unless an entirely satisfactory closure is achieved, complete diversion of the enteric stream from the duodenum by vagotomy, antrectomy with closure of duodenal stump, and Billroth II anastomosis is recommended. 3) Choledochal obstruction due to duodenal diverticulum. Choledocho-duodenostomy. 4) Perforation, bleeding, or obstruction due to jejunal or ileal diverticulum. In rare cases, local excision of the diverticulum is feasible. Usually, resection of the involved segment with primary anastomosis is indicated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:111637
Loutit, J F; Corp, M J; Ardran, G M
The natural radiographic appearance of the various bones of the skeleton are described for several strains of laboratory mice. The Harwell substrains of CBA, A and 101 are generally similar and become osteoporotic on ageing. Harwell C57BL have similar, but more delicately chiseled, bones. Harwell C3H mice have bones with stouter cortices and may show osteosclerosis on ageing. CF1 females (donated by Dr M. Finkel) showed osteosclerosis and osteophytic outgrowths when aged. NMRI mice (donated by Dr A. Luz) appeared larger than the pure-strain Harwell mice. In general, mouse bones are simple tubular structures with an ivory cortex and a marrow cavity. Cancellous trabecular bone is scanty, even in vertebrae, flat bones and the metaphyses of long bones. Bone-seeking radionuclides administered to mice lead to skeletal tumours: (a) osteosarcomata, which are commonly radio-opaque to a variable degree owing to calcified tumour bone, but which may be osteolytic, (b) primitive mesenchymal (angio-) sarcomata which are non-osteogenic and osteolytic, (c) fibrosarcomata--which also are osteolytic--and to local or general lymphomata from irradiation of parental cells in bone marrow, but no special radiological features have been found associated with these last-named tumours. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1069700
Sanger, V. L.; Holt, J. A.
Osteopetrosis was experimentally produced and lesion development in time was studied by fluorescent illumination of tetracycline labels in the bone. Bones from birds 84, 115, 186 and 354 days of age were examined by ground section under ultraviolet light. Periosteal activity of the tibia and femur was present in normal bones at 84 days of age but had stopped at 115 days. Focal periosteal activity of osteopetrotic lesions was present at 186 days but not at 354 days of age. Slight endosteal activity of osteopetrotic bones was present at 354 days of age. Osteopetrotic bone formed at a rate of 1.26 mm. per week or 6 times faster than normal bone in some of these lesions. Tetracycline diffused throughout the 354-day-old osteopetrotic lesion but not normal compact bone indicating that the osteopetrotic bone is porous and spongy. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13. PMID:4221759
Freisewinkel, I M; Schenck, K; Koch, N
Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules present peptides from an extracellular source of antigens to CD4+ T lymphocytes. The class II-associated invariant chain affects this role of alpha and beta polypeptides by restriction of peptide loading to endocytic vesicles. Up to now no specific portion of the invariant chain has been defined as the class II binding site. We constructed recombinant invariant chain genes and inspected association of the mutant invariant chains with class II polypeptides. Here we demonstrate that an extracytoplasmic sequence of the invariant chain (aa 81-109) that is only 23 residues away from the transmembrane region is essential for contact with class II polypeptides, whereas the remaining C-terminal part is dispensable for binding. The sequence of invariant-chain-derived peptides that were eluted from class II molecules is contained in this segment and may define the class II binding site of the invariant chain. The membrane-proximal position of this region suggests that the invariant chain and invariant-chain-derived peptides isolated from class II molecules bind to a domain distinct from the class II pocket. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8415765
Seidel, S L; Shires, T K
At least four hepatic isoenzymes of cytochrome P-450 were purified and characterized from rats treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. A monoclonal antibody developed against one of the forms (designated cytochrome P-450 MC-B) and polyclonal antibodies against others were used to demonstrate that form MC-B is immunologically distinct from other methylcholanthrene-inducible forms. Limited N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed that cytochrome P-450 MC-B has a primary structure that differs from the N-terminal sequences of other established rat isoenzymes. Cytochrome P-450 MC-B has a minimum Mr of 53,000, a CO-reduced spectral maximum at 448 nm, a Soret maximum of 417 nm in the absolute oxidized spectrum and a pattern of substrate preferences that differs from those of the other methylcholanthrene-induced forms. The other forms (MC-A, MC-C and MC-D) share characteristics with isoenzymes previously reported by other investigators. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3753450
Sundt, T M; Compton, C C; Malt, R A
Current conceptions of Ménétrier's disease only obliquely resemble those originally described. Bona-fide cases are so uncommon that, of 125 cases diagnosed as Ménétier's disease, hypertrophic gastritis, or protein-losing gastropathy treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the 26-year period of 1962-1987, only six cases merited an unequivocal anatomic diagnosis. Two other cases previously described proved on review to be nondiagnostic in one instance and Campylobacter pylori gastritis in the other. Because abnormalities in the secretion of gastric acid and in the loss of protein from the stomach may coexist, a representation of each case in semiquantitative terms can be described on triaxial coordinates. Three patients had a hypercoagulable state, one in association with gastric carcinoma. One other case of gastric carcinoma and one of esophageal carcinoma coexistant with Ménétrier's disease were identified. Administration of subcutaneous heparin during the perioperative period to patients with Ménétrier's disease is appropriate regardless of whether or not hypercoagulation or carcinoma is manifest. If treatment with anticholinergic drugs and inhibitors of gastric acid secretion fails, total gastrectomy is the best solution, because it stops protein loss, eliminates hyperchlorhydria, prevents development of gastric carcinoma, and permits anastomotic reconstruction between normal esophagus and normal small bowel. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3264139
Bach, J. R.
Manual and mechanical exsufflation are important but underutilized ways to clear airway secretions. These methods are especially useful when used in concert with noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance to facilitate extubation and ventilator weaning. This can be used as much as 24 hours a day as an alternative to tracheostomy ventilation or body ventilator use for patients with paralytic restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. These techniques expedite community management of ventilator assisted individuals by avoiding tracheostomy and need for invasive suctioning and ongoing wound care. For these techniques to be effective and to prevent further suppression of ventilatory drive, supplemental oxygen administration must be avoided unless pO2 is less than 60 mm Hg despite normalization of pCO2. Custom molded interfaces for the delivery of noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance can also be used to facilitate the delivery of variable inspiratory expiratory positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance or body ventilator use can rest the respiratory muscles of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This and pulmonary rehabilitation programs geared to exercise reconditioning are therapeutic options that significantly improve the quality of life of these patients. For both paralytic restrictive and obstructive pulmonary patients, these techniques decrease cost and frequency of hospitalizations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1586868
Wilkie, I W; Fallding, M H; Shewen, P E; Yager, J A
Bovine lung explants were used in a study designed to compare the pathogenic effects of Pasteurella haemolytica type 1, a nonpathogenic organism Neisseria subflava, or the crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica on alveolar macrophages and lung parenchymal cells. Concentrated, purified peripheral blood neutrophil suspensions were added with the bacteria to some explants. Duplicate pairs of cultures from each treatment group were fixed at regular intervals up to 24 hours after seeding and morphological changes were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Pasteurella haemolytica caused deterioration of alveolar macrophages within one hour but did not affect parenchymal cells for more than 12 hours. Neisseria subflava did not affect alveolar macrophages initially, but caused an accelerated deterioration after four hours. After 24 hours, bacterial overgrowth caused similar deterioration of all cells in explants seeded with either bacterium. Alveolar macrophages phagocytosed large numbers of N. subflava but rarely ingested P. haemolytica. Added neutrophils did not have any discernible effect on any of the explants and did not potentiate bacterial effects. Addition of crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica to the culture medium significantly accelerated alveolar macrophage deterioration without apparent effect on parenchymal cell survival. These results support the hypothesis that the severe tissue destruction of fulminant pneumonic pasteurellosis is not a direct result of bacterial infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2306666
Moreno, S; Sanchez, Y; Rodriguez, L
Invertase (EC 18.104.22.168) was purified to homogeneity from exponentially growing cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe fully de-repressed for synthesis of the enzyme, and was shown to be a high-molecular-mass glycoprotein that can be dissociated in the presence of 8 M-urea/1% SDS into identical subunits with an apparent molecular mass of 205 kDa. The carbohydrate moiety, accounting for 67% of the total mass, is composed of equimolar amounts of mannose and galactose. There is a small amount of glucosamine, which is probably involved in the linkage to the protein moiety, since the enzyme is sensitive to treatment with endoglycosidase H. The composition of the carbohydrate moiety resembles that found in higher-eukaryotic glycoproteins and differs from glycoproteins found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein portion of each subunit is a polypeptide of molecular mass 60 kDa, very similar to the invertase of Sacch. cerevisiae. Both proteins cross-react with antibodies raised against the protein fractions of the other, indicating that the two enzymes are similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2187435
Sasaki, K; Iwatsuki, H; Suda, M; Itano, C
The spleen in fetal and early postnatal mice contains a variety of proliferating haematopoietic cells as well as 2 kinds of phagocytes, scavenger macrophages and mast cells, laden with large heterogeneous inclusions. Their phagocytotic activity is directed towards extruded erythrocyte nuclei, erythrocytes and dying haematopoietic cells. The splenic cords after 18 d of gestation become filled with proliferating haematopoietic cells, and the cords contain a small number of free haematopoietic cells undergoing degeneration. The early signs of cell death can be observed in the nuclear structures: hyperchromasia of the nuclear membrane or nuclear dissolution. Erythroblast nuclei are amongst the most frequent elements engulfed. Phagocytes also take up and digest degenerating blood cells, i.e. erythrocytes, erythroblasts and neutrophil granulocytes. Since the digestion processes are ultrastructurally different for the various haematopoietic elements, the origins of heterolysosomes enclosed by phagocytes can be identified by electron microscopy. Mast cells, originally classified as secretory cells, phagocytose erythroid line cells in the spleen. Cell death in several haematopoietic cell lines is discussed in relation to programmed cell death in the developing spleen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8270466
Anthony, P. P.; McAdam, I. W. J.
Human infestation with nematode worms of the superfamily Strongyloidea has been recorded from time to time to give rise to serious surgical complications. Worms of the genus Oesophagostomum are most frequently responsible. These are common parasites of ruminants, monkeys, and apes in which their histotropic phase is confined to the bowel wall and sometimes results in multiple inflammatory nodules. Man is an accidental host and it seems an abnormal one. The worm fails to return to the bowel lumen, migrates further and persists in the tissues. The commonest manifestation is a solitary tumour-like inflammatory mass or abscess (`helminthoma') in the ileocaecal region. The ileum, transverse and sigmoid colons are affected less commonly and the lesions are occasionally multiple. Patients may also present with abscesses of the abdominal wall. The clinical diagnosis is difficult, even at laparotomy. Carcinoma, appendicitis, ileocaecal tuberculosis are frequently simulated and unnecessary radical surgery is often the result, particularly in expatriate Europeans. In this communication 34 cases from Uganda are reviewed with emphasis on histopathology as responsibility for the correct diagnosis is likely to fall on pathologists. Three characteristic appearances are described and related to phases in the natural history of the disease. Current knowledge on parasitology is reviewed. The disease affects Africans as well as Europeans and it is anticipated that cases will be seen in those returning from the tropics. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4258523
Howlett, C R; Dickson, M; Sheridan, A K
The vascular supply to the proximal tibial growth plate of the 7 weeks old chicken is described using various vascular markers. In addition the ultrastructure of metaphyseal and epiphyseal vessels as well as their supporting tissue is reported. The metaphyseal arterioles terminate in large calibre vessels which have occasional endothelial gaps and no basement membrane or supporting cells, and therefore could be classified as venous sinusoids. In contrast the epiphyseal arteriole terminates in a capillary-venule plexus lined by an attenuated and fenestrated but continuous endothelium. This paper definitively establishes that communication of epiphyseal and metaphyseal vessels across the avian growth plate does not occur. The eosinophilic streaks which often join these two vascular supplies have been described ultrastructurally and would appear to be remnants of the 'retreating' epiphyseal vessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6469851
Phillpotts, C. J.
Male and female rats 8 weeks old were exposed for 360 days to a sole source of drinking water containing 0.2 g/l cadmium as the chloride salt. Control rats were exposed for the same period to deionized water. At 90, 180, 270 and 360 day intervals a proportion of the rats from both test and control groups were killed and the duodenums removed. The histopathology was assessed by both light and electron microscopy. In cadmium treated rats the duodenums were enlarged and there was a significant reduction in the percentage of crypts containing Paneth cells. Remaining Paneth cells appeared vacuolated. By both light and electron microscopy changes were noted in the epithelial cells covering the villus tips. These were swollen and protruded towards the duodenal lumen to give a 'cobblestone' appearance by scanning electron microscopy. It is suggested that these histopathological appearances will be seen in chronic dietary exposure to cadmium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 3 Fig. 8 PMID:3741776
Thomson, D A
Meckel's cartilage, in Xenopus laevis prior to metamorphosis, is a tissue exhibiting very large lacunae, separated by thin rims of matrix, presenting a net-like appearance, similar to that of cartilage in invertebrates. The cells on the periphery of the tissue are rather more flattened, and more closely packed. On the lateral aspects of the cartilage distinct columns of apparently dividing cells are evident. During metamorphic climax, the amount of matrix separating the lacunae increases, with an associated decrease in lacunar size, and some of the deeper cells develop cilia, which are not seen either before or after climax. By the end of metamorphic climax there is a considerable increase in the amount of matrix present in the tissue, while many cells at all depths in the cartilage show the presence of lysosome-like structures, possibly associated with the changing shape of the cartilage. Intramembranous ossification is proceeding around Meckel's cartilage, but there is no evidence of endochondral ossification up to the end of metamorphosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:3693112
Pabst, R.; Kamran, D.
In minipigs 1 ureter was replaced by a loop of the terminal ileum and the contralateral kidney removed. After 2.5 to 3 years the morphology of the replaced ureter was compared with the normal ileum. Independent of the 3 different operative techniques used, in about half of the pigs there was loss or flattening of the villi. In the other pigs the morphometrically determined number of intraepithelial lymphocytes, the cell density in the lamina propria and the length of the villi did not differ significantly compared with the normal ileum. There was no increase in goblet cells in the crypts. The transitional epithelium covered only a short distance at the anastomotic junctions. Peyer's patches of normal age-related size were found in the replaced ureter. Despite the long-term contact with urine instead of gut contents, in many pigs a normal amount of lymphocytes remained in the "ileal ureter". Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6882677
For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424
Dropulić, B; Hĕrmánková, M; Pitha, P M
Defective-interfering viruses are known to modulate virus pathogenicity. We describe conditionally replicating HIV-1 (crHIV) vectors that interfere with wild-type HIV-1 (wt-HIV) replication and spread. crHIV vectors are defective-interfering HIV genomes that do not encode viral proteins and replicate only in the presence of wt-HIV helper virus. In cells that contain both wt-HIV and crHIV genomes, the latter are shown to have a selective advantage for packaging into progeny virions because they contain ribozymes that cleave wt-HIV RNA but not crHIV RNA. A crHIV vector containing a triple anti-U5 ribozyme significantly interferes with wt-HIV replication and spread. crHIV vectors are also shown to undergo the full viral replicative cycle after complementation with wt-HIV helper-virus. The application of defective interfering crHIV vectors may result in competition with wt-HIVs and decrease pathogenic viral loads in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8855316
Gajadhar, A A; Marquardt, W C
Skeletal muscle, diaphragm, tongue, esophagus and heart of beef carcasses that were condemned for eosinophilic myositis and those that were unaffected were collected at an abattoir in Colorado and studied to determine the involvement of Sarcocystis spp. All affected carcasses contained similar granulomatous lesions with adjacent infiltrations of leukocytes. Intact or fragments of sarcocysts were found within 32 of 363 granulomas, and whole sarcocysts were present in nearby unaffected muscle cells. Light and electron microscopic examinations revealed that sarcocysts, affected or unaffected by cellular response in condemned carcasses, as well as those found in unaffected carcasses, were consistent with those of S. cruzi. Transmission experiments confirmed that S. cruzi were present in all carcasses, and that dogs, but not cats, were the definitive hosts. The results of pepsin-HCl digestion assays showed that unaffected carcasses that were approved for human consumption generally contained more infective parasites than carcasses that were condemned for eosinophilic myositis. This study provides evidence to support the suggestion that dogs, rather than cats, and unaffected rather than eosinophilic myositis-affected carcasses, have greater potential for contributing to the perpetuation of eosinophilic myositis in the cattle industry. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1586892
Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.
Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157
Olson, L. D.
The length of incubation for 36 eight and 12 week old swine in eight experimental passages averaged 11 days and ranged from five to 24 days. The duration of diarrhea for 24 of these swine averaged 6.4 days and ranged from two to 19 days. The consistent macroscopic lesion was a colitis and, subsequently, a typhlitis. In the swine euthanized on the first day of diarrhea, the colitis was most intense in the coils near the apex of the colon and, frequently, these swine had a hyperemia of the fundus of the stomach. The amount of visible blood in the colon varied. Organisms identified microscopically and ultrastructurally as spirochetes were observed commonly in the feces and the mucosal glands of the colon of swine with a diarrhea, but not in the adjacent mesenteric lymph nodes. These spirochetes which were the most numerous on the first day of diarrhea, could not be isolated and propagated in vitro. Swine which recovered naturally or were medicated at the height of a diarrhea, developed a resistance to swine dysentery. Colon from infected swine remained infectious when stored at -77°C for nine months but not when stored at -16°C. Feces from infected swine were not infectious after lyophilization and storage at -12°C. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:4272961
Pastor, L M; Ballesta, J; Castells, M T; Perez-Tomas, R; Marin, J A; Madrid, J F
The lung of the tortoise, Testudo graeca (Chelonia) was studied by means of light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunocytochemistry. The lung showed the typical faviform structure of the reptilian lung. Three orders of trabeculae were observed. The epithelium of primary and secondary trabeculae was composed of ciliated, mucous, basal and endocrine cells. Mucous cells contained sialo- and sulpho-mucins and were reactive to the lectins Con-A, WGA, DBA, PNA and SBA. Endocrine cells were observed as solitary cells or forming neuroepithelial bodies. By means of immunocytochemistry, endocrine cells were demonstrated to contain serotonin. In the gas-exchange area Types I and II pneumonocytes and undifferentiated cells were observed. Free macrophages were detected in the faveolar lumen. The lung interstitium contained smooth muscle cells, fibrocytes, pigment cells, myelinated and unmyelinated nerves and intrapulmonary ganglia. Nerve terminals containing clear and dense-cored vesicles were observed in the adventitia of the blood vesicles and interspersed between the smooth muscle bands. The lung of the hibernating specimens showed a marked vacuolisation of pneumonocytes. In conclusion, the lung of Testudo graeca showed a complex histological organisation. Marked differences from mammalian lung were found. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:2606791
The author discusses the role of “natural” hepatotoxic substances, derived from plants and fungi, in the etiology of liver disease, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The hazards involved in even the occasional use of natural hepatotoxins and the difficulty in tracing the causative factors of chronic diseases are illustrated by the example of the pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloids. The ingestion by rats of a single dose of these alkaloids can induce chronic liver lesions and even hepatoma which, however, may not become apparent for 1½-2½ years. It is suggested that, however varied the chemical structures of the various hepatocarcinogens, they may all affect an essential cell constituent (e.g., a “mitotic hormone”), possibly of a steroidal nature, each substance interfering with a particular stage of its biosynthesis. “Natural” toxic factors may also be responsible for some other chronic diseases, especially those which are mainly encountered in, or restricted to, certain pastoral communities. In view of the greater susceptibility of the suckling young and the foetus than of adults to hepatotoxins, it would appear more promising to attempt to trace the causative agents of liver disease in children than in adults, in whom disease takes much longer to develop. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:14107756
Davies, E. Rhys
Renal scintiscanning is a simple investigation that does not require special preparation and is well tolerated by patients. Radiopharmaceuticals used in linear scanning are accumulated in the renal cortex. This accumulation is diminished: (a) when the cortex is destroyed, e.g. by pyelonephritis, injury, etc.; and (b) when the amount available to the cortex is reduced, e.g. by ischaemia. The scintigram depicts the kidneys unimpeded by bowel contents, gives a qualitative assessment of renal function and shows the distribution of zones of normal function. Recent technical improvements show great promise in deriving a quantitative measure of renal function in some circumstances. The location of normally functioning cortex is often important in the management of renal diseases and the value of scintiscanning is then considerable. It is occasionally useful in planning surgery. The anatomy of the renal collecting system can be shown only by urography. High dose techniques achieve this even in the face of renal failure, and scintiscanning has few indications in investigating lesions that distort the renal anatomy, e.g. tumours and cysts. Renal scintiscanning is a very valuable additional method to urography, arteriography and renography in investigation of renal disorders. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4905447
A 36 kDa monomeric protein and its complex with a 10 kDa protein both isolated from bovine aorta are calpactin-like proteins that differ in their Ca2+-dependent calmodulin-binding and actin-severing properties.
Martin, F; Derancourt, J; Capony, J P; Watrin, A; Cavadore, J C
Interaction of plasma membrane with the cytoskeleton involves a large number of proteins, among them a 36 kDa protein that was found to be involved in the interaction with actin filaments. We have isolated a 36 kDa protein from bovine aorta as a monomer and in a complex with a 10 kDa protein. Partial amino acid sequence determinations show that the 36 kDa and 10 kDa proteins isolated from bovine aorta are analogous to or identical with corresponding proteins purified from bovine intestine already described by Kristensen, Saris, Hunter, Hicks, Noonan, Glenney & Tack [(1986) Biochemistry 25, 4497-4503]. We report here that the association of the 10 kDa protein with the 36 kDa protein confers specific calmodulin-binding and actin-severing properties on the complex that are not possessed by the 36 kDa monomer alone. These findings suggest that the protein complex could be involved in thin-filament-related structures or could modulate some Ca2+-regulated events mediated by calmodulin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2970844
Mascarello, F; Rowlerson, A
In sheep, the muscle component of the proximal sesamoidean ligament, which is well developed at birth, undergoes a progressive involution postnatally. The development of muscle fibres in the proximal sesamoidean ligament was compared with masseter and semimembranosus muscles from before birth into adult life, using histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. Neonatal myosin (a marker for developmental immaturity) disappeared earlier, and the adult pattern of myosin expression and fibre type composition was reached earlier in the proximal sesamoid ligament than masseter and semimembranosus. Proximal sesamoid ligament muscle fibres therefore complete normal development, but with a faster time course than the other muscles. Invasion of fibrous connective tissue between muscle fibres of the proximal sesamoidean ligament adjoining the tendinous component (one feature of the involution) was found to begin perinatally, eventually resulting in a marked fibrosis and atrophy of peripheral fibres. Regeneration of muscle fibres was absent or abortive, even near areas of fibre necrosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7649819
Rojo, M C; Blánquez, M J; González, M E
A histochemical study of the branchial area of brown trout embryos from 35 to 71 d of incubation is reported. A battery of 6 different horseradish peroxidase-labelled lectins, the PAS reaction and Alcian blue staining were used to study the distribution of carbohydrate residues in glycoconjugates along the pharyngeal and branchial epithelia. Con A and WGA reacted at every site of the branchial region thus showing the ubiquitous presence of alpha-D-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. WGA, DBA and SBA were good markers for the hatching gland cells (HGCs) and mucous cells. Other lectins, such as PNA and UEA I, reacted only for a short time at some sites during the considered period of incubation. From 35 d until posthatching stages, a manifest strong reaction was noted both in the dorsal epithelium of branchial arches and the HGCs as shown by SBA reactivity. This may be significant with regard to the controversial origin of HGCs, which is thought to be endodermal. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8982837
Weinstein, C J
This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479718
Charlton, K M; Corner, A H; Davey, K; Kramer, J K; Mahadevan, S; Sauer, F D
Fully refined rapeseed oils containing different amounts of erucic acid (1.6%, 4.3% and 22.3%) were fed, at 20% by weight of diet, to weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for periods up to 112 days. Transient myocardial lipidosis characterized by accumulation of fat droplets in myocardial fibers was marked in male and female rats fed oxidized and unoxidized rapeseed oil containing 22.3% erucic acid, moderate with rapeseed oil containing 4.3% erucic acid and very slight in rats fed rapeseed oil containing 1.6% erucic acid. Peak intensity of myocardial lipidosis occurred at three to seven days and regressed thereafter. Focal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis occurred in male rats fed rapeseed oils containing different levels of erucic acid for 112 days. The incidence of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was markedly lower in female rats, and the incidence of these lesions in either sex was not affected by the state of oxidation of these oils. In a second experiment, male rats were fed diets containing crude, partially refined or fully refined rapeseed oils. There was no correlation between the number of foci of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis and the state of refinement of the oils, but there were generally fewer lesions in rats fed those oils having the lowest levels of erucic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1170010
Kiss, Z; Luo, Y; Vereb, G
Rat liver plasma membranes contain a 55 kDa protein which proved to be identical with type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (kinase A) by several criteria (gel electrophoretic behaviour, peptide map, position of the autophosphorylated site). Analysis of phosphopeptide maps revealed that the membrane-bound RII was phosphorylated by a kinase which is unrelated to the catalytic unit (C) of kinase A. Dephosphorylation of the membrane-bound RII by an endogenous phosphatase was stimulated by both cyclic AMP and fluoride. Addition of C did not stimulate dephosphorylation even in the presence of ADP; moreover, protein inhibitor of C did not modify the effects of cyclic AMP or fluoride. The effects of both cyclic AMP and fluoride were, however, inhibited by C. Results indicate that rat liver plasma membranes contain a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation system for which RII is a relatively specific substrate. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3010951
Cox, R W; Peacock, M A
The fine structure of the elastic cartilage of the pinna has been examined in young rabbits aged from 1 day to 1108 days. Changes associated with growth and development are related not only to age but also to the actual situation in the pinna. In the midline, progressive changes are seen from the tip to the base. The changes in the chondroblasts with time are compared with those described in hyaline cartilage. Structures occur that, except for the presence of crystals, are apparently morphologically identical with the matrix vesicles of calcifying cartilage. These matrix vesicles, however, become very prominent with age, and aggregations of them appear to be released into the intercellular tissue from vacuoles at the periphery of the chondroblasts. There is no obvious association with calcification. Occasional single cilia, desmosomes and giant mitochondria are seen. Elastica is present at birth, and eventually every cell is separated from its neighbours by a partial investment of elastica. The quantity of matrix seems to increase with time, and with distance from the tip of the ear. This is accompanied by a marked increase in cell size with time. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:870470
Lane, E B; Goodman, S L; Trejdosiewicz, L K
The behaviour of keratin filaments during cell division was examined in a wide range of epithelial lines from several species. Almost half of them show keratin disruption as described previously: by immunofluorescence, filaments are replaced during mitosis by a 'speckled' pattern of discrete cytoplasmic dots. In the electron microscope these ' speckles ' are seen as granules around the cell periphery, just below the actin cortical mesh, with no detectable 10 nm filament structure inside them and no keratin filament bundles in the rest of the cytoplasm. A time course of the filament reorganization was constructed from double immunofluorescence data; filaments are disrupted in prophase, and the filament network is intact again by cytokinesis. The phenomenon is restricted to cells rich in keratin filaments, such as keratinocytes; it is unrelated to the co-existence of vimentin in many of these cells, and vimentin is generally maintained as filaments while the keratin is restructured. Some resistance to the effect may be conferred by an extended cycle time. Filament reorganization takes place within minutes, so that a reversible mechanism seems more likely than one involving de novo protein synthesis, at this metabolically quiet stage of the cell cycle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6202508
Cui, K H; Matthews, C D
Better appreciation of the female reproductive anatomy of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) should improve the prospects for nonsurgical embryo transfer in this model. Vaginal measurements were performed in 8 female adult marmoset monkeys. Four monkeys were measured at laparotomy for gross internal anatomy, and 1 monkey was analysed at autopsy. The vagina of the marmoset monkey was found to be divided into a lower and upper vagina with a marked vaginal isthmus between them. The mean lengths of the lower and upper vagina were 17 mm (34 mm in total vagina). The mean uterine size was 8.4 (length) x 10.0 (width) x 6.4 (thickness) mm, with the ovary measuring 5.3 x 4.3 x 3.8 mm. The mean length of the fallopian tube was 10.5 mm with a width of 1.5 mm. Nonsurgical embryo transfer in this model appears to be feasible, but the proportionally long vagina and short uterine cavity needs to be recognised. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7649784
Dubochet, J; Adrian, M; Schultz, P; Oudet, P
The structure of SV40 minichromosomes has been studied by cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified thin layers of solution. In high-salt buffer (130 mM NaCl), freshly prepared minichromosomes are condensed into globules 30 nm or more in diameter. On the micrograph, they appear to be formed by the close packing of 10 nm granules which give rise to a 10 nm reflection in the optical diffractogram. The globules can adopt many different conformations. At high concentration, they fuse into a homogeneous 'sea' of closely packed 10 nm granules. In low-salt buffer (less than 10 mM NaCl), the globules open, first into 10 nm filaments, and then into nucleosome-strings. The 'liquid drop' model is proposed to explain the condensed structure of the minichromosome in high-salt buffer: nucleosomes stack specifically on top of one another, thus forming the 10 nm filaments. 10 nm filaments in turn, tend to aggregate laterally. Optimizing both these interactions results in the condensation of 10 nm filaments or portions thereof into a structure similar to that of a liquid. Some implications of this model for the structure of cellular chromatin are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. PMID:3011410
Espejo, R T; Avendaño, L F; Muñoz, O; Romero, P; Eternod, J G; Lopez, S; Moncaya, J
During the period October to December 1979, rotaviruses were obtained from infants and young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Mexico City and were compared by analysis of the migration of their double-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome segments in gel electrophoresis. Comparison of the results of this analysis and of those of similar studies carried out in 1977 and 1978 showed that the two rotavirus electropherotypes designated 2s and 21 have been continuously present and that the proportion in which these two types have been found in hospitalized patients has varied greatly year to year. The RNAs from rotaviruses 2s and 21 differed in the electrophoretic migraton of at least eight genome segments. However, RNAs from virus assigned to the same electrophoreotypes were not necessarily identical: on the basis of small but significant differences in the migration of segment 7, 8, or 9, isolates of types 2s and 21 could be assigned to two and three different subtypes, respectively. Human rotaviruses obtained in a distant geographical region, Santiago, Chile, in July 1979 had RNA electrophoretic patterns similar to that of electropherotype 21 but different from it in the migration of one or two of the larger RNA segments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6254887
Bradley, E L; Clements, J L
Intestinal obstruction as a complication of pancreatitis is infrequently recognized. Only four cases of idiopathic duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis have been previously reported. In a three-year study of 878 patients with pancreatitis, nine cases of idiopathic duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis have been found. Each of the nine cases was characterized by frank obstruction in the second or third portions of the duodenum and an intact mucosa in the area of stricture. Four patients gave an abrupt history of moderately severe pancreatitis. Resolution of the duodenal obstruction occurred by three weeks in each of these four cases. Surgical exploration in one of these patients revealed marked duodenal edema with intramural hematoma. The remaining five patients reported a chronic history of obstruction. Inadequate resolution of the obstruction after four weeks of hyperalimentation led to surgical bypass. Duodenal biopsy specimens revealed inflammation, muscle destruction, and extensive fibrosis. Duodenal involvement in the inflammatory process of moderately severe pancreatitis was discovered in 25% of the upper gastrointestinal studies, but was usually self-limiting and of a mild degree. Since contiguous duodenal edema is common and fibrosing pancreatoduodenitis only occurs in an occasional patient, surgical intervention for duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis should only be considered after demonstrated failure of conservative management. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:7235767
Suss, K H; Arkona, C; Manteuffel, R; Adler, K
Further evidence is provided that the Calvin cycle enzymes ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (EC 22.214.171.124), ribulose-5-phosphate kinase (Ru-5-P-K, EC 126.96.36.199), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuP2Case, EC 188.8.131.52), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 184.108.40.206), sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (Sed-1,7-bPase, EC 220.127.116.11), and electron transport protein ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR, EC 18.104.22.168) are organized into stable CO2-fixing multienzyme complexes with a molecular mass of 900 kDa. Limited trypsinolysis combined with immunoblotting revealed that all of chloroplast stromal Ru-5-P-K and GAPDH is located in enzyme complexes. The Calvin cycle enzyme complexes remain intact indefinitely at lower ionic strength but dissociate into components at KCl concentrations >250 mM. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that Ru-5-P-K, GAPDH, Sed-1,7-bPase, and FNR are bound to stroma-faced thylakoid membranes in situ, whereas RuP2Case and RuP2Case activase are randomly distributed throughout chloroplasts. The results indicate that membrane-bound enzyme supercomplexes may play an important role in photosynthesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:11607406
Sánchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurlé, J M
The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119
Lang-Unnasch, Naomi; Ausubel, Frederick M.
In addition to leghemoglobin, at least nine nodule-specific polypeptides from the alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Rhizobium meliloti symbiosis were identified by immune assay. Some of these polypeptides may be subunits of larger proteins but none appeared to be subunits of the same multimeric protein. All nine of the nodule-specific polypeptides were localized to within the plant cytosol; they were not found in extracts of bacteroids or in the peribacteroid space. At least one of these nodule-specific polypeptides was found to be antigenically related to nodule-specific polypeptides in pea and/or soybean. Ineffective nodules elicited by R. meliloti strains containing mutations in four different genes required for nitrogenase synthesis contained reduced concentrations of leghemoglobin and of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. Other nodule-specific polypeptides were unaltered or actually enriched in the ineffective nodules. Many of the differences between the ineffective and effective nodules were apparent in nodules harvested shortly after the nodules became visible. These differences were greatly amplified in older nodules. When the four ineffective nodule types were compared to one another, there were clear quantitative differences in the concentrations of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. These differences suggest that lack of a functional nitrogenase does not have a single direct effect on nodule development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664146
Plopper, C. G.; Dungworth, D. L.; Tyler, W. S.
Four hours exposure to 3 ppm ozone produces morphometrically quantifiable alterations in the lungs of rats. Lungs of exposed rats were fixed either immediately after exposure or after a 12-hour recovery period, and the tissue was evaluated using stereologic technics with both the light and electron microscopes. Immediately after exposure, the volume fraction of nonparenchymal tissue was larger (0.057) than for controls (0.045); that of the lumina of large vessels decreased (0.039) from the control value (0.059). The nonparenchymal tissue fraction was 0.053 12 hours later, while the luminal fraction (0.054) resembled the control value. The volume fractions of parenchyma, total tissue and air space showed only slight changes. Ozone also affects all three components of the air-blood barrier, primarily by the production of intracellular edema. The arithmetic mean thickness of the pulmonary blood-air barrier increased from 1.385 ± 0.095 μ in unexposed rats to 1.700 ± 0.189 μ in rats immediately after exposure. The primary increase was in thickness of membranous epithelial and capillary endothelial cells. Partial recovery of total barrier thickness (1.582 ± 0.292 μ) occurred 12 hours after exposure. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5 PMID:4577265
Gruss, C; Gutierrez, C; Burhans, W C; DePamphilis, M L; Koller, T; Sogo, J M
Protein-free DNA in a cytosolic extract supplemented with SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag), is assembled into chromatin structure when nuclear extract is added. This assembly was monitored by topoisomer formation, micrococcal nuclease digestion and psoralen crosslinking of the DNA. Plasmids containing SV40 sequences (ori- and ori+) were assembled into chromatin with similar efficiencies whether T-Ag was present or not. Approximately 50-80% of the number of nucleosomes in vivo could be assembled in vitro; however, the kinetics of assembly differed on replicated and unreplicated molecules. In replicative intermediates, nucleosomes were observed on both the pre-replicated and post-replicated portions. We conclude that the extent of nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts is not dependent upon DNA replication, in contrast to previous suggestions. However, the highly sensitive psoralen assay revealed that DNA replication appears to facilitate precise folding of DNA in the nucleosome. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2167837
Long, E O; Gross, N; Wake, C T; Mach, J P; Carrel, S; Accolla, R; Mach, B
HLA-DR antigens are polymorphic cell surface glycoproteins, expressed primarily in B lymphocytes and macrophages, which are thought to play an important role in the immune response. Two polypeptide chains, alpha and beta, are associated at the cell surface, and a third chain associates with alpha and beta intracellularly. RNA isolated from the human B-cell line Raji was injected in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Immunoprecipitates of translation products with several monoclonal antibodies revealed the presence of HLA-DR antigens similar to those synthesized in Raji cells. One monoclonal antibody was able to bind the beta chain after dissociation of the three polypeptide chains with detergent. The presence of all three chains was confirmed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The glycosylation pattern of the three chains was identical to that observed in vivo, as evidenced in studies using tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation. The presence of alpha chains assembled with beta chains in equimolar ratio was further demonstrated by amino-terminal sequencing. An RNA fraction enriched for the three mRNAs, encoding alpha, beta, and intracellular chains, was isolated. This translation-assembly system and the availability of monoclonal antibodies make it possible to assay for mRNA encoding specific molecules among the multiple human Ia-like antigens. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6821356
Burns, M A; Mastrangelo, C H; Sammarco, T S; Man, F P; Webster, J R; Johnsons, B N; Foerster, B; Jones, D; Fields, Y; Kaiser, A R; Burke, D T
Photolithographic micromachining of silicon is a candidate technology for the construction of high-throughput DNA analysis devices. However, the development of complex silicon microfabricated systems has been hindered in part by the lack of a simple, versatile pumping method for integrating individual components. Here we describe a surface-tension-based pump able to move discrete nanoliter drops through enclosed channels using only local heating. This thermocapillary pump can accurately mix, measure, and divide drops by simple electronic control. In addition, we have constructed thermal-cycling chambers, gel electrophoresis channels, and radiolabeled DNA detectors that are compatible with the fabrication of thermocapillary pump channels. Since all of the components are made by conventional photolithographic techniques, they can be assembled into more complex integrated systems. The combination of pump and components into self-contained miniaturized devices may provide significant improvements in DNA analysis speed, portability, and cost. The potential of microfabricated systems lies in the low unit cost of silicon-based construction and in the efficient sample handling afforded by component integration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643614
Erlinger, R; Welsch, U; Scott, J E
Mutable connective tissue, unique to echinoderms, changes its mechanical behaviour within seconds of nervous stimulation. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In this study proteoglycans and collagen of the brachial ligaments connecting neighbouring ossicles of the arms of the feather star Antedon bifida have been investigated by biochemistry, light and electron microscopy and the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) technique using the dye Cupromeronic Blue (CB). The ligaments consist mainly of parallel cross-striated collagen fibrils, 82 +/- 12 nm in diameter, with a characteristic banding pattern and a D-period of 52.8 +/- 3.2 nm. Some fibrils were disaggregated into bundles of 10-11 nm protofibrils, lying between the normal fibrils. Proteoglycans occur at the surface of the fibrils with 2 binding sites (each with a different CEC) per D-period and also inside the fibrils. The surface proteoglycans are more highly sulphated (i.e. their CECs are > 1.3 M) than the intrafibrillar proteoglycans (CEC < 0.9 M). The glycosaminoglycans consist of a highly sulphated chondroitin sulphate, possibly with fucose residues. The results are consistent with the theory that disaggregation of the fibrils into protofibrils and reaggregation might be a mechanism of mutability, without excluding the possibility that fibrils may slide alongside each other during movements in the viscous phase of the ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8270464
David, D. J.
It is postulated that craniosynostosis is due to a growth abnormality in all or part of the cranial capsule. Release of the stenosed part in the first months of life will re-establish the balance between the rapidly growing brain and eye, and the cranial capsule. Three periods for operative treatment are described: early, intermediate and late. Only in the early period can operative treatment restore normal growth dynamics; in the late period the aim is correction of an established deformity. The relationship between cranial clefts and frontonasal encephaloceles is explored. If the space-occupying encephalocele is removed early, the distorted facial bones adopt a more normal position, whereas cranial clefts do not respond to early operation by remoulding. The treatment of the acquired deformities of acute cranio-facial trauma have taken on new perspectives with the application of the multi-disciplinary approach and surgical techniques developed in the treatment of congenital deformities resulting in considerable reduction in the period of hospitalisation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6742741
Dohlman, H G; Goldsmith, P; Spiegel, A M; Thorner, J
Myristic acid (C14:0) is added to the N-terminal glycine residue of the alpha subunits of certain receptor-coupled guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins). The G alpha subunit (GPA1 gene product) coupled to yeast pheromone receptors exists as a pool of both myristoylated and unmyristolyated species. After treatment of MATa cells with alpha factor, the myristoylated form of Gpa1p increases dramatically, and the unmyristoylated form decreases concomitantly. This pheromone-stimulated shift depends on the function of STE2 (alpha-factor receptor), STE11 (a protein kinase in the response pathway), and NMT1 (myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase) genes and uses the existing pool of fatty acids (is not blocked by cerulenin). Myristoylated Gpa1p persists long after pheromone is removed. Because myristoylation is essential for proper G alpha-G beta gamma association and receptor coupling, pheromone-dependent stimulation of Gpa1p myristoylation may be an important contributing factor in adaptation after signal transmission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8415763
Ko, M S; Nakauchi, H; Takahashi, N
Glucocorticoid hormones induce the transcription of genes having glucocorticoid response elements in a dose dependent manner. To determine whether this dose dependence represents a response of individual templates or of the mass of templates, we introduced a bacterial beta-galactosidase gene linked to the glucocorticoid-inducible enhancer/promoter of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MTV) into Ltk- cells and obtained stable transformants containing a single or a few templates per cell. Visual inspection and flow cytometry analysis by enzyme histochemistry assay for beta-galactosidase revealed that individual cells showed very heterogeneous beta-galactosidase activity after 48 h induction with dexamethasone. When the glucocorticoid concentration was increased, an increasing cell population producing beta-galactosidase was observed. These phenomena were probably not due to heterogeneity of template copy number or to a predetermined cellular state among individual cells, since cells forming a single small colony gave similar results. This was also supported by data showing that recloned cells retained both their responsiveness to the glucocorticoid hormone and their digestion pattern in Southern blotting analyses. These results indicate that the dose dependent increase of glucocorticoid-inducible gene expression is caused by an increase in the number of transcriptionally active templates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 8. PMID:2167833
Janossy, G.; Thomas, J. A.; Pizzolo, G.; Granger, S. M.; McLaughlin, J.; Habeshaw, J. A.; Stansfeld, A. G.; Sloane, J.
Tissue sections of frozen biopsy specimens obtained from normal and hyperplastic human lymphoid tissues, 33 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas as well as various forms of immunoregulatory disorders (angioimmunoblastic and dermatopathic lymphadenopathy) were analysed in immunofluorescence tests (using red TRITC and green FITC double-labelling). A panel of antisera including well-characterized conventional reagents to immunoglobulin classes, T lymphoid and Ia-like antigens, and monoclonal antibodies was used. In selected cases the results were compared with the observations of membrane-marker staining on viable cells in suspension. the findings show that the immunological methods can give a very accurate analysis of the normal and malignant lymphoid cells, and can provide complementary information to conventional histology. The investigator can choose the reagent combinations which give answers to various specific questions: e.g. antisera to light chains establish the monoclonality of lymphomas, whilst staining combinations for human T and Ia-like antigens are particularly useful in various immunoregulatory disorders. Monoclonal antibodies will be particularly useful in various immunoregulatory disorders. Monoclonal antibodies will be particularly useful reagents for analysing the tissue distribution of lymphoid subpopulations and ancillary cells in tissue biopsy specimens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6775656
Hu, Q J; Dyson, N; Harlow, E
The protein product of the retinoblastoma (RB) gene is thought to function in a pathway that restricts cell proliferation. Recently, transforming proteins from three different classes of DNA tumor viruses have been shown to form complexes with the RB protein. Genetic studies suggest that these interactions with the RB protein are important steps in transformation by these viruses. In order to understand better the function of the RB-viral oncoprotein complexes, we have mapped the regions of the RB protein that are necessary for these associations. Two non-contiguous regions of RB were found to be essential for complex formation with adenovirus E1A or SV40 large T antigen. These two regions are found between amino acids 393 and 572 and 646 and 772. Interestingly, these binding sites on RB overlap with the positions of naturally occurring, inactivating mutations of the RB gene. These results strongly suggest that these viral oncoproteins are targeting a protein domain that is an important site in the normal function of the RB protein. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. PMID:2138977
Cooperberg, A. A.; de Champlain, M. B.; Siminovitch, J.; Rosenberg, A.; Schwartz, J. P.
A patient with immunoblastic lymphadenopathy (IL) had an unusual course of illness, with frequent episodes, over a 20-month period, of chills, fever, abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly and weight loss. The episodes were short-lived and many resolved spontaneously. Eventually generalized lymphadenopathy and profound monoclonal IgG gammopathy developed, with atypical mononuclear cells in the peripheral blood and increased numbers of plasmacytoid cells in the bone marrow. Lymph node biopsy revealed the morphologic triad typical of IL: proliferation immunoblasts, proliferation of small blood vessels and the deposit of an amorphous acidophillic material in the vascular walls and the interstitium. Up to October 1976 110 cases had been reported of this disorder, first described 3 years ago, which indicates that IL is not rare. Remissions have occurred spontaneously and after steroid therapy or chemotherapy or both. However, death has been reported in almost 50% of the cases, and the best approach to therapy remains to be determined. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:861911
Gutierrez, L M; Hidalgo, M J; Palmero, M; Ballesta, J J; Reig, J A; Garcia, A G; Viniegra, S
The myosin-light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation accompanying catecholamine release in chromaffin cells was investigated with the objective of assessing the possible role of this contractile protein in catecholamine secretion. The electrophoretic characteristics of adrenomedullary MLC were determined by immunochemical techniques using two different specific antibodies. The identified 22 kDa phosphoprotein was mainly present in the cytosol, as demonstrated by ultracentrifugation and immunocytochemical analysis. A part of this protein was located on, or close to, the plasma membrane. Cell stimulation by secretagogues resulted in a Ca2(+)-dependent 32P incorporation into MLC, the time course of this process being related to catecholamine release. These findings were supported by a two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis by which means this protein was resolved into two acidic forms. A role for Ca2(+)-calmodulin and Ca2(+)-phospholipid kinases in adrenomedullary MLC phosphorylation is reported. The results obtained suggest a regulatory role for such a protein in the underlying exocytotic event. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2481449
Rodger, F. C.
In this review, the author discusses separately the cutaneous and the ocular aspects of the symptomatology, pathology and pathogenesis of onchocercal infections. Original results are also reported on dermal onchocerciasis. The less well known lesions are described in greater detail than the better-known. Among the former are the association of cutaneous tumours with dermal onchocerciasis, depigmentation of the skin, and the posterior ocular lesions. In dealing with the pathology of dermal onchocerciasis, the author demonstrates that the main effect of the death of the parasites is on the blood vessels, causing them to become atrophic so that the consequent anoxia gives rise to the better-known, more obvious changes of pachyderma. The relationship of allergic and nutritional factors with the different lesions is discussed. It is pointed out that the evidence connecting the symptomatology with allergy is not very conclusive while the evidence connecting nutritional factors with the ocular manifestations continues to mount. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13974619
Meinhard, Elizabeth; McRae, C. U.; Chisholm, G. D.
Testicular biopsy findings in 100 infertile men were correlated with the clinical findings. Mild or moderately severe tubular lesions were seen in 57 cases and severe changes in 43. Clinical examination and semen analysis were no guide to the severity of the testicular lesion. Though patients with normal sized testes more commonly had mild tubular lesions, many were severe. Patients with small testes more often had severe lesions but some had only mild tubular changes. Biopsy findings in both aspermic and oligospermic patients ranged from normal to a complete loss of germinal tissue. Testicular biopsy is advocated in infertile men for the complete assessment of the case and for identifying those which are potentially treatable. Patients with a severe lesion can be spared further investigations. The choice and results of treatment are discussed, particularly the surgical treatment of varicocele or obstruction. Only patients with a mild or moderate testicular tubular lesion should participate in future trials with drugs for male infertility. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:4726930
Mahfoudi, A; Roulet, E; Dauvois, S; Parker, M G; Wahli, W
The estrogen receptor (ER) stimulates transcription of target genes by means of its two transcriptional activation domains, AF-1 in the N-terminal part of the receptor and AF-2 in its ligand-binding domain. AF-2 activity is dependent upon a putative amphipathic alpha-helix between residues 538 and 552 in the mouse ER. Point mutagenesis of conserved hydrophobic residues within this region reduces estrogen-dependent transcriptional activation without affecting hormone and DNA binding significantly. Here we show that these mutations dramatically alter the pharmacology of estrogen antagonists. Both tamoxifen and ICI 164,384 behave as strong agonists in HeLa cells expressing the ER mutants. In contrast to the wild-type ER, the mutant receptors maintain nuclear localization and DNA-binding activity after ICI 164,384 treatment. Structural alterations in AF-2 caused by gene mutations such as those described herein or by estrogen-independent signaling pathways may account for the insensitivity of some breast cancers to tamoxifen treatment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7753783
Hardy, D M; Oda, M N; Friend, D S; Huang, T T
To study the organization of fertilization enzymes in the sperm acrosome, we isolated and characterized two physicochemically distinct acrosomal fractions of guinea-pig spermatozoa. A soluble fraction contained the 25,000-Mr acrosomal autoantigen, AA1, and most of the acrosomal hyaluronidase and dipeptidyl peptidase II activity. A particulate fraction, designated acrosomal matrix (AM), consisted of membraneless crescent-shaped structures, and contained most of the acrosomal proacrosin. The AM also contained a 28,000-Mr putative proacrosin-binding protein, and a very-high-Mr component which, on reduction, was dissociated into 48,000-Mr and 67,000-Mr subunits. Autoproteolytic dissolution of the AM correlated with proteolysis by acrosin of the 28,000-Mr and 48,000-Mr AM molecules. Components of both the AM and the soluble fraction were localized by immuno-electron microscopy to the electron-dense region of the guinea-pig sperm acrosome. We conclude that acrosomal molecules are segregated into soluble and matrix compartments. This segregation is a function of disulphide bonding and non-covalent interactions among the relatively few components of the AM. Association of acrosin with the AM may be the mechanism by which this enzyme's release from the spermatozoon during the acrosome reaction is delayed relative to the release of other acrosomal molecules. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1903927
Macrae, T H; Ludueña, R F
Tubulin from embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia has been purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on phosphocellulose P11 and DEAE-cellulose, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and assembly-disassembly of microtubules. Peptide mapping indicated that Artemia and bovine brain tubulin were very similar in spite of differences in the electrophoretic behaviour of tubulin from these two organisms. Isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were used to resolve and identify several Artemia isotubulins . The isotubulin composition and the quantity of tubulin did not change during pre-emergence development of Artemia embryos. Formation of microtubules with tubulin purified from embryos at different stages of development did not require glycerol or microtubule-associated proteins and formation of structurally normal microtubules was actually hindered by glycerol and Mg2+. The characteristics of Artemia tubulin, in concert with the unusual life history of Artemia, suggest that this organism will be very useful for the study of tubulin gene expression and tubulin utilization during embryo development. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6721849
Wiche, G; Briones, E; Hirt, H; Krepler, R; Artlieb, U; Denk, H
To study the individual location of the microtubule proteins MAP-1 and MAP-2 in neuronal tissues and cells, antisera to electrophoretically purified MAP-1 and MAP-2 components were raised in rabbits. When frozen sections through rat brain were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy the antibodies to MAP-1 strongly stained a variety of nerve cells including dendrites and myelinated axons in the cerebrum and cerebellum. Antibodies to MAP-2 showed similar staining patterns, except that myelinated axons were unstained. These results were confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy of frozen sections through cerebellum using the peroxidase technique. Thereby, the association of MAP-1 with microtubules was also clearly demonstrated. When cultured mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy the antiserum to MAP-1 brightly stained filamentous structures resembling microtubules, whereas relatively weak and diffuse staining of the cytoplasm was observed with the antiserum to MAP-2. In agreement with the immunolocalization, MAP-1, but not MAP-2, was found as a prominent component of microtubules proteins polymerized in vitro by taxol from soluble N2A cell extracts. Together these results indicate that neuronal microtubules are preferentially associated with distinct high mol. wt. polypeptides. Therefore, they support the concept that different complements of associated proteins determine distinct functions of microtubules. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6641705
Elek, S. D.; Smith, B. V. Kingsley; Highman, Wilma
Flagellar fragments are thin cylinders that are particularly suitable for the study of agglutination by electron microscopy. Their shape leads to a characteristic pattern of agglutination and thus the early stages can be studied. Measurement of interflagellar distances under conditions of negative staining, suggest that the minimum length of the rabbit antibody molecules is about 180 Å. The molecules carry the specific sites at the ends of the long axis, and become attached radially to the surface of the flagella, resembling the bristles of a bottle-brush. To explain this orientation it is postulated that the antibody is inserted into the surface of the flagellum in such a manner that surrounding molecules give it a fixed direction. Geometrically this hypothesis corresponds to an insertion into pits. Pepsin-treated (5S) rabbit antibody behaves in a like manner, but the molecule appears to be shorter. No information could be obtained about the thickness and actual shape of antibody molecules by the techniques employed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 9FIG. 11FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15 PMID:14210767
Klintworth, Gordon K.
Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106
Fraher, J P; McDougall, R D
In immature rats active macrophages were frequently seen projecting into the subarachnoid space from the surface of the leptomeninges. They also occurred between the layers of the pia and within the nerve roots. They were most frequent during the first two weeks after birth, which is a period of rapid neural growth and myelination in ventral roots. In contrast, they were much fewer at later stages. The ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are described. It is suggested that these cells take part in tissue growth and remodelling by the removal of material which degenerates or becomes redundant during development. For example, they may ingest effete leptomeningeal cells or fragments of them. Those within the ventral roots may phagocytose abnormal Schwann cells, or the myelin of sheaths which have failed to develop normally. It is also suggested that macrophages may be involved in the excavation of the subarachnoid space. Another possible function in which they may be involved is the ingestion of material, possibly of a protein nature, from the cerebrospinal fluid. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1213953
Servelle, M; Bastin, R; Loygue, J; Montagnani, A; Bacour, F; Soulie, J; Andrieux, J B
We have operated upon 588 patients with Klippel and Trenaunay syndrome. The underlying factor is a congenital malformation of the deep veins: agenesis, atresia or compression by fibrovascular bands of the popliteal, femoral or iliac veins. Of these 588 patients, 6 children between 15 months and 4 years of age had severe rectal bleeding and hematuria. One of these children died from massive bleeding of the rectum with septicemia. Another boy was saved by rectal resection and the last one by subtotal cystectomy. The important venogram shows an absence of the anterior venous pathway (superficial femoral vein) compensated by the abnormal development of 2 venous groups, the vein of the sciatic nerve and large veins along the external aspect of the inferior limb. These 2 venous groups penetrate into the pelvis by the sciatic and gluteal notches and terminate in the internal iliac vein which becomes enormous and has a very high flow. This overflow hinders drainage of the venous collateral from the rectum, the bladder and the vagina. The retro adductor vein, prolongated by the deep femoral vein, represents an anastomosis between the sciatic nerve vein and the common femoral vein. The surgeon must try to widen this pathway. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. PMID:178278
Aronoff, Alex; Gault, Mathew H.; Huang, Shao-Nan; Lal, Stephan; Wu, Kwang-Tzen; Moinuddin, M.D.; Spence, Leslie; MacLean, Lloyd D.
Over a seven-year period 18 of 125 patients who underwent renal transplantation developed hepatitis. Acute hepatic necrosis occurred in two, chronic aggressive hepatitis progressing to posthepatitic cirrhosis in eight, chronic persistent hepatitis in five, acute hepatitis with recovery in two and cholestatic hepatitis in one. Hepatic failure was the cause of death in four and a major contributing factor in three. Fifteen of the 18 were of blood Group A. After renal transplantation Australia antigen (Au) was present in the blood of 12 of the 15 patients with hepatitis who were tested and in one of 38 patients without clinical evidence of liver disease. Once present, Au persisted in all patients but one. Particles measuring 210 to 250 Å, characteristic of Au, were seen in liver cells by electronmicroscopy in nine of the 10 patients examined who had hepatitis with Australia antigenemia, but they were not seen in the two patients studied with Au-negative hepatitis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4566289
Doe, W F; Danon, F; Seligmann, M
Since the early diagnosis of alpha chain disease (alphaCD)) is essential to successful treatment and to epidemiological studies, the available immunodiagnostic techniques were compared for their sensitivity, specificity and ease of performance on a panel of sixteen sera, comprising ten alphaCD sera and six control sera containing either IgA myeloma protein or high levels of polyclonal IgA. Immunoselection by immunoelectrophoresis into gel containing a specially developed anti-Fabalpha antiserum provided the most sensitive and specific detection system for alphaCD protein. The same technique using anti-light chain antiserum for immunoselection was also highly sensitive, but proved less specific, being prone to false positives with difficult IgA myeloma proteins. Somewhat less sensitive, but specific and simple to perform, was immunoelectrophoresis using an antiserum recognizing the conformational specificities of Fabalpha as well as those of the constant region of alpha chains. Immunoselection using the Ouchterlony or rocket techniques proved to be less sensitive and prone to false positives when some IgA myeloma sera were tested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:113152
Sugimoto, K; Shimomura, T; Hashimoto, K; Araki, H; Sugino, A; Matsumoto, K
The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevents mitotic entry through the action of the S phase checkpoint. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an essential protein kinase, Spk1/Mec2/Rad53/Sad1, controls the coupling of S phase to mitosis. In an attempt to identify genes that genetically interact with Spk1, we have isolated a temperature-sensitive mutation, rfc5-1, that can be suppressed by overexpression of SPK1. The RFC5 gene encodes a small subunit of replication factor C complex. At the restrictive temperature, rfc5-1 mutant cells entered mitosis with unevenly separated or fragmented chromosomes, resulting in loss of viability. Thus, the rfc5 mutation defective for DNA replication is also impaired in the S phase checkpoint. Overexpression of POL30, which encodes the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, suppressed the replication defect of the rfc5 mutant but not its checkpoint defect. Taken together, these results suggested that replication factor C has a direct role in sensing the state of DNA replication and transmitting the signal to the checkpoint machinery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692942
Song, C Z; Loewenstein, P M; Toth, K; Green, M
The 243-amino acid adenovirus E1A oncoprotein both positively and negatively modulates the expression of cellular genes involved in the regulation of cell growth. The E1A transcription repression function appears to be linked with its ability to induce cellular DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cell transformation, as well as to inhibit cell differentiation. The mechanism by which E1A represses the transcription of various promoters has proven enigmatic. Here we provide several lines of evidence that the "TATA-box" binding protein (TBP) component of transcription factor TFIID is a cellular target of the E1A repression function encoded within the E1A N-terminal 80 amino acids. (i) The E1A N-terminal 80 amino acids [E1A-(1-80)protein] efficiently represses basal transcription from TATA-containing core promoters in vitro. (ii) TBP reverses completely E1A repression in vitro. (iii) TBP restores transcriptional activity to E1A-(1-80) protein affinity-depleted nuclear extracts. (iv) The N-terminal repression domain of E1A interacts directly and specifically with TBP in vitro. These results may help explain how E1A represses a set of genes that lack common upstream promoter elements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479778
Grakoui, A; McCourt, D W; Wychowski, C; Feinstone, S M; Rice, C M
Host and viral proteinases are believed to be required for the production of at least nine hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific polyprotein cleavage products. Although several cleavages appear to be catalyzed by host signal peptidase or the HCV NS3 serine proteinase, the enzyme responsible for cleavage at the 2/3 site has not been identified. In this report, we have defined the 2/3 cleavage site and obtained evidence which suggests that this cleavage is mediated by a second HCV-encoded proteinase, located between aa 827 and 1207. This region encompasses the C-terminal portion of the 23-kDa NS2 protein, the 2/3 cleavage site, and the serine proteinase domain of NS3. Efficient processing at the 2/3 site was observed in mammalian cells, Escherichia coli, and in plant or animal cell-free translation systems in the absence of microsomal membranes. Cleavage at the 2/3 site was abolished by alanine substitutions for NS2 residues His-952 or Cys-993 but was unaffected by several other substitution mutations, including those that inactivate NS3 serine proteinase function. Mutations abolishing cleavage at the 2/3 site did not block cleavage at other sites in the HCV polyprotein. Cotransfection experiments indicate that the 2/3 site can be cleaved in trans, which should facilitate purification and further characterization of this enzyme. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8248148
Lauweryns, J M; Van Lommel, A
This study on the innervation of rabbit intrapulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEB) was undertaken to obtain more information about the detailed ultrastructure of morphologically afferent and efferent intracorpuscular NEB nerve endings, the extent to which they are in cytoplasmic continuity with one another, and the structure of the synaptic junctions they form with the NEB corpuscular cells. As in earlier studies, NEB exhibit intracorpuscular nerve endings containing predominantly either mitochondria (morphologically afferent) or synaptic vesicles (morphologically efferent). Both types of nerve endings form synaptic junctions with the NEB corpuscular cells, arranged so that a NEB corpuscular cell is the presynaptic element and the nerve ending the postsynaptic element. This arrangement implies that NEB can transmit nerve impulses to the central nervous system, thus arguing in favour of their hypothetical neuroreceptor function. Moreover, on serial sections, the morphologically afferent and efferent intracorpuscular nerve endings are often found in cytoplasmic continuity. Hence, transduction of stimuli in the NEB implies concomitant efferent modulation of the NEB corpuscular cells. In conclusion, intrapulmonary NEB apparently function as neuroreceptors that are locally modulated by axon reflexes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 PMID:3654362
Pines, J; Hunt, T
We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding sea urchin cyclin and determined its sequence. It contains a single open reading frame of 409 amino acids which shows homology with clam cyclins. RNA transcribed in vitro from this sequence was efficiently translated in reticulocyte lysates, yielding full-length cyclin. Injection of nanogram amounts of this synthetic mRNA into Xenopus oocytes caused them to mature more rapidly than with progesterone treatment. The sea urchin cyclin underwent two posttranslational modifications in the Xenopus oocytes during maturation. The first occurred at about the time that maturation became cycloheximide-resistant, when a small apparent increase in the molecular weight of cyclin was observed. The second modification involved destruction of the cyclin at about the time of white spot appearance, just as would have occurred at the metaphase/anaphase transition in the natural environment of a cleaving sea urchin embryo. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. PMID:2826125
Ben-Yehoshua, Shimshon; Burg, Stanley P.; Young, Roger
The resistance of oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to ethylene, O2, CO2, and H2O mass transport was investigated anatomically with scanning electron microscope and physiologically by gas exchange measurements at steady state. The resistance of untreated fruit to water vapor is far less than to ethylene, CO2 and O2. Waxing partially or completely plugs stomatal pores and forms an intermittent cracked layer over the surface of fruit, restricting transport of ethylene, O2, and CO2, but not of water; whereas individual sealing of fruit with high density polyethylene films reduces water transport by 90% without substantially inhibiting gas exchange. Stomata of harvested citrus fruits are essentially closed. However, ethylene, O2 and CO2 still diffuse mainly through the residual stomatal opening where the relative transport resistance (approximately 6,000 seconds per centimeter) depends on the relative diffusivity of each gas in air. Water moves preferentially by a different pathway, probably through a liquid aqueous phase in the cuticle where water conductance is 60-fold greater. Other gases are constrained from using this pathway because their diffusivity in liquid water is 104-fold less than in air. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16664527
Kratzing, J E
The structure and extent of olfactory epithelium in the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) were examined by light and electron microscopy. Sensory epithelium covers most of the dorsal conchae, though non-sensory epithelium lines ventrally facing scrolls. The middle conchae are partly covered by olfactory epithelium, the proportion of olfactory to ciliated respiratory epithelium increasing caudally. Ventral conchae are lined by non-sensory ciliated epithelium. The nasal septum ends short of the floor of the nasal cavity in its caudal two thirds. It is covered dorsally by olfactory epithelium. The ventral margin has rounded lateral extensions which carry the isolated strips of olfactory epithelium which form the septal olfactory organ. The fine structure of the olfactory epithelium is the same in all areas. Cell types include olfactory receptors, supporting cells, two types of basal cell and rarer pale and brush cells. There is considerable morphological variation in olfactory cells, and evidence suggestive of continuing turnover in the receptor cell population. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:640961
Monte, A; Costa, A; Porto, L C
Elastic system fibres are extracellular matrix components found in different organs for which they provide elasticity and some mechanical resistance. Oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibres, which possess graduated amounts of elastin, are the 3 forms of elastic system fibres that are identifiable by their tinctorial and ultrastructural features. The distribution of these fibres in adult human liver is well-established but little, if anything, is known about them in fetal liver. The distribution of elastic system fibres was therefore investigated in human fetal liver, and the process of elastogenesis characterised. Specimens of liver from 24 human fetuses ranging in age from 13 to 38 wk postfertilisation were studied. The results are presented in relation to gestational age and the size of the portal tracts. Portal tracts exhibited a network of oxytalan fibres at 13 wk; elaunin fibres appeared later after 20 wk postfertilisation. Elastogenesis occurred more rapidly in venous than in arterial walls, and in veins it was more evident in the adventitia. A microfibrillar network of oxytalan fibres was observed around biliary ducts from the outset of their development. Elastogenesis follows the sequence oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibres, but the elastogenetic process only completes its maturation in arterial walls, thus leading to the internal elastic lamina. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8763481
Stowers, L; Yelon, D; Berg, L J; Chant, J
The mechanisms by which cells rapidly polarize in the direction of external signals are not understood. Helper T cells, when contacted by an antigen-presenting cell, polarize their cytoskeletons toward the antigen-presenting cell within minutes. Here we show that, in T cells, the mammalian Ras-related GTPase CDC42 (the homologue of yeast CDC42, a protein involved in budding polarity) can regulate the polarization of both actin and microtubules toward antigen-presenting cells but is not involved in other T-cell signaling processes such as those which culminate in interleukin 2 production. Although T-cell polarization appears dispensable for signaling leading to interleukin 2 production, polarization may direct lymphokine secretion towards the correct antigen-presenting cell in a crowded cellular environment. Inhibitor experiments suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for cytoskeletal polarization but that calcineurin activity, known to be important for other aspects of signaling, is not. Apparent conservation of CDC42 function between yeast and T cells suggests that this GTPase is a general regulator of cytoskeletal polarity in many cell types. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7761442
Stamm, S; Casper, D; Lees-Miller, J P; Helfman, D M
In this study we report on the developmental and regional expression of two brain-specific isoforms of tropomyosin, TMBr-1 and TMBr-3, that are generated from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via the use of alternative promoters and alternative RNA splicing. Western blot analysis using an exon-specific peptide polyclonal antibody revealed that the two isoforms are differentially expressed in development with TMBr-3 appearing in the embryonic brain at 16 days of gestation, followed by the expression of TMBr-1 at 20 days after birth. TMBr-3 was detected in all brain regions examined, whereas TMBr-1 was detected predominantly in brain areas that derived from the prosencephalon. Immunocytochemical studies on mixed primary cultures made from rat embryonic midbrain indicate that expression of the brain-specific epitope is restricted to neurons. The developmental pattern and neuronal localization of these forms of tropomyosin suggest that these isoforms have a specialized role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7694294
Meyer, R. C.; Bohl, E. H.; Kohler, E. M.
Germ-free swine were routinely procured by both hysterectomy and hysterotomy (Caesarian section). By means of light-weight portable equipment, piglets could be obtained and transported to the laboratory (without contamination) over distances in excess of 100 miles. The isolators employed in rearing were constructed of stainless steel and flexible plastic film. At weekly intervals, fecal swabs and waste from the floor of the isolator were cultured on blood-agar and in thioglycolate broth, as well as being examined microscopically for the presence of bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The presence of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) and viruses in such material was not demonstrable, either by the use of enriched PPLO media or primary porcine-kidney cell cultures. Tissues, body fluids, and cecal contents of piglets sacrificed specifically for microbiological examination were also negative for PPLO, viruses, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Prenatal infestations by ascarids were not observed. Nutritional problems related to rearing of germ-free piglets, such as hypoglycemia, were not encountered, and the use of an autoclaved commercial sow's milk replacer proved quite satisfactory. The temperature to which piglets were subjected during the first few days of life, however, was very important. The isolator design and application of gnotobiotic techniques to the procurement and rearing of a large germ-free animal such as the pig proved feasible and less difficult than anticipated. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:14199016
Rosenfeld, R G; Luzzatti, L; Hintz, R L; Miller, O J; Koo, G C; Wachtel, S S
A case of a 46,XYp- phenotypic female provided an opportunity to evaluate both sexual and somatic determinants for the Y chromosome. The patient had multiple stigmata of Turner syndrome, but normal stature. Laparotomy revealed a normal uterus and tubes, with 1.5 cm undifferentiated gonads. Serological tests for H-Y antigen (ostensibly the product of Y-chromosomal testis-determining genes) indicated absence of the H-Y+ phenotype normally associated with the intact Y chromosome. We conclude that genes exist on the short arm of the human Y chromosome which both suppress some of the somatic stigmata of Turner syndrome and determine normal expression of H-Y antigen and testicular differentiation of the primitive gonad. Our data are consistent with the view that H-Y genes comprise a family of testis-determinants, and that loss of a critical moiety is inconsistent with normal development of the male gonad. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:573550
The ultrastructure of the chief neurosecretory nuclei, supraoptic, (SON), parventricular, (PVN) and infundibular (IN), of the dormouse (Eliomys quercinus L.) has been studied during active and hibernating states. In the active state all three nuclei contained light, dark and intermediate type neurons. In hibernation the SON showed only a single light type which differed from the light neurons of the active state; the endoplasmic reticulum was vacuolized and sometimes grouped in 'honey-comb' structures; the cytoplasm contained accumulations of filamentous 'crystalline' material. None of these features occurred in the active state neurons. In the PVN and IN during hibernation both a light and a dark type neuron were present. 'Honey-comb' structures were seen in neurons of the PVN during hibernation, but never in those of the IN. Thus specific morphological features in the SON and PVN appear to be associated with the physiological changes of hibernation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:721686
Parry, H D; Mattaj, I W
Consensus tRNA gene promoter elements, A and B boxes, were introduced into the coding sequence of a Xenopus U6 gene. Combinations in which A and B boxes were coupled to wild-type or mutant U6 promoters were made. In this way information about both the functions of individual promoter elements and functional relationships between different classes of RNA polymerase III promoter element were obtained. Mutants in which the U6 PSE was non-functional were rescued by the presence of a B box, indicating a degree of functional relationship between these two elements. Moreover, the B box acted to increase the transcriptional activity and competitive strength of the wild-type U6 promoter. In contrast, no evidence was obtained to suggest that a tRNA A box can interact productively with U6 promoter elements in the absence of a B box. Data obtained suggest that the U6 PSE functions as an 'adaptor', being necessary to enable the basal U6 promoter to respond to upstream enhancement. Certain combinations of U6 and tRNA promoter elements are shown to be mutually antagonistic by a mechanism which is likely to involve blockage of transcription initiation. In summary, the U6 and tRNA promoters are shown to consist of functionally related, but distinct, promoter elements whose interactions shed new light on their normal roles in transcription. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2323333
A genomic library of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) DNA BamH1 fragments was prepared and two cloned fragments were evaluated for their potential as probes for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The virus was purified by a modified sucrose density gradient procedure for the isolation of pure ILTV DNA. A genomic library was constructed using BamH1-digested ILTV DNA and pGEM7 as a vector. A 1.1 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA was tested in a slot or dot blot assay for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The limit of detection for this probe was at least 0.12 ng of pure ILTV DNA. The probe was able to identify both chicken embryo liver (CELi) cells and choriallantoic membranes infected with ILTV. Chicken embryo liver cells infected with several field isolates and a vaccine strain of ILTV were positive by dot blot analysis using this probe. Some qualitative differences in the degree of hybridization to cells infected by different ILTV isolates were observed. Uninfected cells and cells infected with fowlpox virus, turkey herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus or Newcastle disease virus were negative by the same assay. Compared with the 1.1 kb fragment, a larger 6 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA showed a stronger hybridization signal to DNA from ILTV infected cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1316798
Wen, Tuan-Nan; Luthe, Dawn S.
The two major subunits of rice glutelin, the acidic (α) and basic (β) polypeptides were purified by chromatofocusing and cation exchange chromatography, respectively. The molecular weight range of the α polypeptides was 28.5 to 30.8 kilodaltons and the molecular weight range of the β polypeptides was 20.6 to 21.6 kilodaltons. Electrofocusing in polyacrylamide gels showed that the isoelectric points of the α and β polypeptides were 6.5 to 7.5 and 9.4 to 10.3, respectively. At least 12 polypeptides of the α-group and nine polypeptides of the β-group could be separated by electrofocusing. The amino acid compositions of whole glutelin, and the purified α and β subunits were analyzed. The α subunit contained more glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, and glycine, and less alanine, lysine, aspartic acid/asparagine, and isoleucine than the β subunit. A comparison of the amino acid composition of rice glutelin subunits with those of the 11S proteins from eight other plant species indicated that there is more similarity between the β subunits than the α subunits of several diverse plant species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16664193
Warner, J O; Götz, M; Landau, L I; Levison, H; Milner, A D; Pedersen, S; Silverman, M
In developing these international guidelines there were several unifying themes in the diagnosis and simple management of childhood asthma. For the purposes of the meeting, asthma was operationally defined as 'episodic wheeze and/or cough in a clinical setting where asthma is likely and other rarer conditions have been excluded'. In making a diagnosis of asthma, a full history is a prerequisite. Additional tests are only used to support clinical impression and to provide objective evidence for therapeutic recommendations. General features of a multidisciplinary approach include an appreciation of the importance of psychosocial factors, counselling, and education. Drugs should be prescribed in a rational sequence: beta 2-stimulants for mild episodic wheeze; sodium cromoglycate for mild to moderate asthma; inhaled steroids for moderate to severe asthma; with xanthines, ipratropium bromide, and oral steroids having their place in more persistent and severe cases. Children and their parents should be reassured that if asthma is properly controlled there is no reason why the child should not lead a normal and physically active life. The management of asthma is rewarding and return to 'normal' lifestyle is nearly always possible with active participation in sporting activities. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:2698121
Grass pollen allergens are shown to remain associated with protein material and a yellow pigment during paper chromatography and during dialyses and ultrafiltrations of various types. Dialysable* allergens comprise only a fraction of 1 per cent of the total activity and the amount of activity extractable by diethylene glycol (DEG) and similar solvents is of the same order. Besides the allergens, the DEG and aqueous extracts contain large amounts of inositol, glucose and fructose, also some yellow pigments and phosphates. Larger amounts of free and combined amino acids are found in the aqueous than in the DEG extracts, but the reverse is true for sucrose. In addition the DEG extracts contain a yellow glucoside different from the dactylen of the aqueous extracts, a glucosan and an arabinose-galactose-pigment complex, only the latter being associated with any activity. The spontaneous release of the crystalline dactylen from originally clear aqueous pollen extracts is found not to be caused by enzymes. The washed crystals are found to be chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous and devoid of allergenic activity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13640676
Lampert, I A
Ia antigen (HLA-DR in man) has been demonstrated in keratinocytes in graft versus host disease. This study investigates the occurrence of HLA-DR in keratinocytes in the following dermatoses: eczematous dermatitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, with immunoglobulin and non-exposed skin from cases of systemic lupus erythematosus with immunoglobulin deposits, lichen planus, lichen simplex, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, 'toxic erthema', tuberculid and chillblain. Keratinocyte staining was found in a variety of conditions. The unifying features of the instances of its occurrence was lymphoid infiltration and usually some focal evidence of keratinocyte damage. Thus in eczema the staining was mid-epidermal, while in discoid lupus erythematosus and lichen planus it was basal. HLA-DR staining was absent in bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris, which is consistent with the hypothesis that in these conditions the damage is mediated by autoantibodies and complement in the absence of cellular immune attack. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6204802
Baranes, D; López-García, J C; Chen, M; Bailey, C H; Kandel, E R
Synapses of the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway exhibit several characteristic features, including a unique form of long-term potentiation that does not require activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor by glutamate, a complex postsynaptic architecture, and sprouting in response to seizures. However, these connections have proven difficult to study in hippocampal slices because of their relative paucity (<0.4%) compared to commissural-collateral synapses. To overcome this problem, we have developed a novel dissociated cell culture system in which we have enriched mossy fiber synapses by increasing the ratio of granule-to-pyramidal cells. As in vivo, mossy fiber connections are composed of large dynorphin A-positive varicosities contacting complex spines (but without a restricted localization). The elementary synaptic connections are glutamatergic, inhibited by dynorphin A, and exhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate-independent long-term potentiation. Thus, the simplicity and experimental accessibility of this enriched in vitro mossy fiber pathway provides a new perspective for studying nonassociative plasticity in the mammalian central nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643467
Dermietzel, R; Leibstein, A; Frixen, U; Janssen-Timmen, U; Traub, O; Willecke, K
Using affinity-purified antibodies against mouse liver gap junction protein (26 K), discrete fluorescent spots were seen by indirect immunofluorescence labelling on apposed membranes of contiguous cells in several mouse and rat tissues: pancreas (exocrine part), kidney, small intestine (epithelium and circular smooth muscle), Fallopian tube, endometrium, and myometrium of delivering rats. No reaction was seen on sections of myocardium, ovaries and lens. Specific labelling of gap junction plaques was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy on ultrathin frozen sections through liver and the exocrine part of pancreas after treatment with gold protein A. Weak immunoreactivity was found on the endocrine part of the pancreas (i.e., Langerhans islets) after glibenclamide treatment of mice and rats, which causes an increase of insulin secretion and of the size as well as the number of gap junction plaques in cells of Langerhans islets. Furthermore, the affinity purified anti-liver 26 K antibodies were shown by immunoblot to react with proteins of similar mol. wt. in pancreas and kidney membranes. Taken together these results suggest that gap junctions from several, morphogenetically different tissues have specific antigenic sites in common. The different extent of specific immunoreactivity of anti-liver 26 K antibodies with different tissues is likely due to differences in size and number of gap junctions although structural differences cannot be excluded. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6209130
Jensen, L G; Olsen, O; Kops, O; Wolf, N; Thomsen, K K; von Wettstein, D
The codon usage of a hybrid bacterial gene encoding a thermostable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase was modified to match that of the barley (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme EII gene. Both the modified and unmodified bacterial genes were fused to a DNA segment encoding the barley high-pI alpha-amylase signal peptide downstream of the barley (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme EII gene promoter. When introduced into barley aleurone protoplasts, the bacterial gene with adapted codon usage directed synthesis of heat stable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase, whereas activity of the heterologous enzyme was not detectable when protoplasts were transfected with the unmodified gene. In a different expression plasmid, the codon modified bacterial gene was cloned downstream of the barley high-pI alpha-amylase gene promoter and signal peptide coding region. This expression cassette was introduced into immature barley embryos together with plasmids carrying the bar and the uidA genes. Green, fertile plants were regenerated and approximately 75% of grains harvested from primary transformants synthesized thermostable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase during germination. All three trans genes were detected in 17 progenies from a homozygous T1 plant. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8622963
Response of mink, skunk, red fox and raccoon to inoculation with mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus and prevalence of antibody to parvovirus in wild carnivores in Ontario.
Barker, I K; Povey, R C; Voigt, D R
Mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2 were inoculated separately into groups of raccoon, mink, red fox and striped skunk. Raccoons were highly susceptible to mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia, with animals developing clinical illness, and several dying within six to ten days of inoculation with lesions typical of parvovirus infection. Both viruses were shed in high titre in the feces of infected raccoons, and high antibody titres were stimulated. Raccoons inoculated with canine parvovirus-2 showed no signs; shedding of virus was sporadic though moderate titres of antibody developed. Mink inoculated with mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia developed signs and lesions of early parvovirus infection. No signs or significant lesions followed canine parvovirus-2 inoculation. Shedding of virus was heavy (mink virus enteritis) or sporadic (feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2), though good serological responses were elicited to all three viruses. Red fox showed no signs of infection, shed all three viruses only sporadically, and the serological response was strong only to feline panleukopenia. Skunks developed low antibody titres, but no signs, and did not shed virus. Antibody to parvovirus was found in 79.2% of 144 wild red foxes; 22.3% of 112 wild raccoons; 1.3% of 157 wild skunks and 6/7 coyotes in southern Ontario. The likely significance of these viruses to wild and captive individuals and populations of these carnivores is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6309349
Floyd, S.; Butler, M. H.; Cremona, O.; David, C.; Freyberg, Z.; Zhang, X.; Solimena, M.; Tokunaga, A.; Ishizu, H.; Tsutsui, K.; De Camilli, P.
Amphiphysin I is a 128 kD protein highly concentrated in nerve terminals, where it has a putative role in endocytosis. It is a dominant autoantigen in patients with stiff-man syndrome associated with breast cancer, as well as in other paraneoplastic autoimmune neurological disorders. To elucidate the connection between amphiphysin I autoimmunity and cancer, we investigated its expression in breast cancer tissue. We report that amphiphysin I was expressed as two isoforms of 128 and 108 kD in the breast cancer of a patient with anti-amphiphysin I antibodies and paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy. Amphiphysin I was also detectable at variable levels in several other human breast cancer tissues and cell lines and at low levels in normal mammary tissue and a variety of other non-neuronal tissues. The predominant amphiphysin I isoform expressed outside the brain in humans is the 108 kD isoform which represents an alternatively spliced variant of neuronal amphiphysin I missing a 42 amino acid insert. Our study suggests a link between amphiphysin I expression in cancer and amphiphysin I autoimmunity. The enhanced expression of amphiphysin I in some forms of cancer supports the hypothesis that amphiphysin family members may play a role in the biology of cancer cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 PMID:9513187
Soter, N A; Mihm, M C; Dvorak, H F; Austen, K F
An unusual patient, with dermal nodules, flexion contractures of the fingers and toes, cold-induced urticaria, dermographism and serum hypocomplementaemia, had necrotizing cutaneous venulitis underlying the spontaneous lesions. Since necrotizing cutaneous venulitis could be experimentally induced by the physical stimuli of cold or trauma, the time-course of histopathological events was documented in the skin of this patient. The histopathological alterations were studied in 1 micron thick, Epon-embedded skin biopsy specimens over an interval of 6 days. The early massive degranulation of the mast cells was followed by the sequential infiltration of neutrophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic polymorphonuclear leucocytes, by the development of venular endothelial cell necrosis and by the deposition of fibrin. The persistent serum hypocomplementaemia involved the classic activating and amplification pathways. It seems possible that the unusual combination of pathobiological processes involving the mast cells and the complement system in this patient has created a unique syndrome, in which venules are damaged and the sheaths of the extensor tendons of the hands and feet become affected in time. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:668192
Miller, M I; Christensen, G E; Amit, Y; Grenander, U
Mathematical techniques are presented for the transformation of digital anatomical textbooks from the ideal to the individual, allowing for the representation of the variabilities manifest in normal human anatomies. The ideal textbook is constructed on a fixed coordinate system to contain all of the information currently available about the physical properties of neuroanatomies. This information is obtained via sensor probes such as magnetic resonance, as well as computed axial and emission tomography, along with symbolic information such as white- and gray-matter tracts, nuclei, etc. Human variability associated with individuals is accommodated by defining probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system, the transformations forming mathematical translation groups of high dimension. The ideal is applied to the individual patient by finding the transformation which is consistent with physical properties of deformable elastic solids and which brings the coordinate system of the textbook to that of the patient. Registration, segmentation, and fusion all result automatically because the textbook carries symbolic values as well as multisensor features. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8265653
Sturrock, R R
Four distinct types of glial cell were recognized in the corpus callosum of young postnatal mice: the early glioblast; the small glioblast; the large glioblast; and the young astrocyte. As well as these, mature microglia could be recognized from birth. In semithin, toluidine blue stained sections early glioblasts had large, fair to moderately stained nuclei, and a thin rim of pale cytoplasm; small glioblasts had small, dark nuclei and a rim of darkly stained cytoplasm; large glioblasts had moderately unevenly stained nuclei and a thin rim of moderately stained cytoplasm; and young astrocytes had fairly small nuclei, moderately stained cytoplasm, and one or more processes, which could usually be seen extending for 5 mum or more from the perikaryon. Differential glial counts using the criteria described above, in conjunction with electron microscopic analysis, suggested that early glioblasts gave rise to small glioblasts and large glioblasts; that small glioblasts gave rise directly to astrocytes, large glioblasts, oligodendrocytes and possibly microglia; that large glioblasts formed oligodendrocytes only, and might be immature light oligodendrocytes; and that part of the microglial population might arise from vascular pericytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:795801
Bondok, A A; Botros, K G; el-Mohandes, E A
The distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites has been studied in chicken spinal cord and cerebellum using a fluorescent analogue of propranolol, 9-amino-acridin-propranolol (9-AAP). In the cervical and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, beta-adrenoceptor sites were concentrated on cell bodies of alpha-motor neurons of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral nuclear groups of the ventral horn. In the thoracic region, they were present on cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic nucleus (dorsal commissural nucleus). In the dorsal horn, the receptor sites were present mainly on cell bodies of columna dorsalis magnocellularis. Sparse distribution of fluorescence was present in other regions of the gray matter. In the cerebellum, a dense distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites was observed on Purkinje cell bodies and their apical dendrites. Sparse distribution of receptor sites was present on fine ramifications of Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer. Receptor sites were absent in the granule cell layer and the white matter. These observations indicate that alpha-motor neurons, preganglionic sympathetic neurons, neurons of columna dorsalis magnocellularis, and Purkinje cells are adrenoceptive, while granule cells are non-adrenoceptive. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2855328
Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, H. F.
Emulsions of complete (CFA) and incomplete (IFA) Freund's adjuvants were examined in the light and electron microscopes, and the resulting morphological findings were correlated with the effectiveness of the emulsions as immunological adjuvants. Thick (viscous) emulsions of both IFA and CFA consisted of highly stable, three-dimensional meshworks composed of interconnecting strands of antigen-containing water droplets interspersed in oil phase. Included mycobacteria were confined to this meshwork and were coated with an adherent surface layer of water droplets. Thin Freund's adjuvants were less stable, relatively coarse emulsions, but even in such preparations mycobacteria showed a striking affinity for the surface of water droplets when these contained low concentrations of antigens such as human serum albumin (HSA). The characteristic adjuvant effect of CFA was observed only when associations between mycobacteria and water droplets took place. Thus, no adjuvant effect occurred with oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions, nor when antigen and mycobacteria-in-oil were injected into separate foot pads. Further, a good adjuvant effect was observed even with thin emulsions when mycobacteria-water droplet associations were abundant. These morphological and immunological data suggest that CFA is a device for bringing extrinsic, water-soluble antigens into intimate, stable contact with myco-bacteria, thereby conferring on them the ability to elicit an immunological response qualitatively similar to that induced by mycobacteria-in-oil to the intrinsic antigen, tuberculin. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4605156
Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J
The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing into internal and external sheaves, are involved in the formation of the structures of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. The primary visual centres, which comprise 2 hypothalamic, 5 thalamic and 5 pretectal zones of retinal projections, together with the 2 superficial layers of the tectum and a single tegmental projection zone, all have their origin in the external sheaf of the 1st wave of migration. The finding that the adult nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, pars ventralis arises from one of the migrations of the dorsal thalamus is discussed in the context of the debate over the possible homologues of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 (cont.) Fig. 5 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 (cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 (cont.) Fig. 9 Fig. 10 (cont.) Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8300423
Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; Földi, M.
Macroscopical, light microscopical and electronmicroscopical observations were made of the diaphragm, skin and brain of rats, some of which were treated with intraperitoneal silica for 8 days (after being given it i.v. for 2 days). The diaphragms showed a most remarkable increase in fibroblast activity and fibrosis beneath the peritoneal mesothelium (which was disintegrating). Deep to this there were many disintegrating macrophages, and much oedema and increased protein concentration. Ligation of the cervical lymphatics produced the usual changes of lymphoedema in the skin and brain. This was greatly reduced in the animals treated with a mixture of benzo-pyrones. However, in those animals also treated with silica, the benzo-pyrones had no effect on the amount of oedema or of protein. In all the animals except those treated with silica, lymphoedema was accompanied by considerable numbers of macrophages entering the affected tissues; in those treated with silica, these numbers were greatly reduced. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:207299
Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; Földi, M.
The fine structural changes produced by lymphoedema, and by its treatment by coumarin and rutin were studied in the facial skin, parotid glands, ciliary bodies and cerebral cortices of rats, after the ligation of their cervical lymphatics. Both the true initial lymphatics (in the first two sites) and the prelymphatics (in the other two) behaved similarly, as did the tissue around them. There was much protein and oedema fluid during lymphoedema, which were markedly reduced by the drugs, separately and in combination. The very dilated lymphatics in the facial skin had many open endothelial intercellular junctions: the better supported ones in the parotid did not dilate so much and had no open junctions, although they normally possess some. It is suggested that the raised intralymphatic pressures, plus the smaller amount of dilatation permitted in this site, caused the junctions to be sealed closed. Fenestrae seemed to have little effect on the amount of lymphoedema, nor did it appear to affect their numbers. ImagesFigs. 10-11Fig. 1Figs. 5-7Figs. 2-3Fig. 4Figs. 8-9 PMID:4835800
Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börsök, E.; Földi, M.
Light and electron microscopy was used to examine portions of the brain, the circle of Willis, and the internal carotid arteries of normal cats and rabbits, of sham-operated ones, and of those whose cervical lymphatics had been ligated. Carbon was injected into the cerebral cortex of some lymphoedematous animals. It was found that lymphatic ligation produced oedema of the brain, and a dilatation of the prelymphatic spaces around the vessels. Carbon was traced in these from the injection site, around the minor and major vessels, in the adventitia of the internal carotid artery, entering lymphatics adjacent to it, and finally in the draining lymph nodes. The oedema and dilated spaces were not present in the control animals. This was taken to indicate that there is a continuous system of non-endothelialized spaces and potential spaces-the prelymphatics-draining the brain into the cervical lymphatics. The protein in these spaces appeared to be increased if the lymph-oedema had lasted three weeks as compared to 24 hours, indicating that one of the major roles of this system is the removal of protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:773400
Kolesnitchenko, V; Wahl, L M; Tian, H; Sunila, I; Tani, Y; Hartmann, D P; Cossman, J; Raffeld, M; Orenstein, J; Samelson, L E
Despite intensive investigation, no clearly defined mechanism explaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced cell killing has emerged. HIV-1 infection is initiated through a high-affinity interaction between the HIV-1 external envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and the CD4 receptor on T cells. Cell killing is a later event intimately linked by in vitro genetic analyses with the fusogenic properties of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 and transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. In this report, we describe aberrancies in cell cycle regulatory proteins initiated by cell-cell contact between T cells expressing HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins and other T cells expressing CD4 receptors. Cells rapidly accumulate cyclin B protein and tyrosine-hyperphosphorylated p34cdc2 (cdk1) kinase, indicative of cell cycle arrest at G2 phase. Moreover, these cells continue to synthesize cyclin B protein, enlarge and display an abnormal ballooned morphology, and disappear from the cultures in a pattern previously described for cytotoxicity induced by DNA synthesis (S phase) inhibitors. Similar changes are observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected in vitro with pathogenic primary isolates of HIV-1. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8524869
Lin, Tien-Yu; Lee, Chue-Shue; Chen, Chiou-Chiang; Liau, Kuong-Yi; Lin, Wen-Shih-Jen
Regeneration of the residual lobe of the liver after hepatic lobectomy in humans was studied by repeated liver scanning in seven noncirrhotic and three cirrhotic patients. Each patient was studied for several months during the study which lasted from 1-12 years. Regeneration was apparent in noncirrhotic liver remnants following hepatic lobectomy. In the case of a long standing, space occupying lesions such as benign giant cysts, the liver remnant would complete its regeneration process rather early, usually within a few months of hepatic lobectomy. In hepatoma cases, however, regeneration of the residual lobe after hepatic resection usually took five or six months for completion. On the contrary, no definite increase in the size of the liver remnant was seen on repeated liver scanning in cirrhotic patients. Histologic study of the residual lobe was repeated on needle biopsy specimens in two noncirrhotic and four cirrhotic patients. Regenerative hyperplasia of liver cells with large hyperchromatic, or double nuclei never seen in the preresection liver appeared in the liver remnant five, 11, and 27 days after hepatic lobectomy in noncirrhotic patients. In cirrhotics, however, there were no histologic changes between the preresection liver and the postresection remnant studied three, five, 15, 40 days or even two years and 8 months after hepatic lobectomy. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:464678
Wilson, T M; Scholz, R W; Drake, T R
An acute afebrile paretic condition was diagnosed in 18 of 225 feeder pigs between eight to ten weeks of age. Nine pigs died acutely, seven pigs were euthanatized and two appeared to recover. Macroscopic lesions in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements consisted of focal, bilateral, depressed areas. Histopathologically, the lesion consisted of endothelial proliferation, glial cell reaction and microcavitation. Similar lesions were observed in some brain stem motor nuclei. High selenium levels were detected in the pig feed and in pig tissues and blood. Two of five experimental pigs fed a commercial grower ration and supplemented with 52 ppm selenium as sodium selenite developed paresis and paralysis after a 29 day feeding trial. Histopathological lesions of focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia confined to the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements, and identical to those in the field cases, were produced. Select brain stem motor nuclei were also affected. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:6667430
Blackard, Douglas; Sampson, Jo-Ann
Objective: To present a case of an uncomplicated posterior elbow dislocation in a US World Cup athlete and discuss her rehabilitation. Background: Traditional protocol for management of this injury has been splint immobilization for several weeks, but research suggests a shortened duration of immobilization and early active motion. Differential Diagnosis: Elbow dislocation with possible fracture. Treatment: The dislocation was reduced and a compression bandage and sling were applied. The sports medicine staff and athlete determined that rehabilitation would involve limited immobilization with a posterior splint. Also, active range-of- motion exercises were to be incorporated early in the range-of- motion program to decrease pain at the articulation. Uniqueness: The athlete was not immobilized and her aggressive five-phase rehabilitation program progressed according to decrease in inflammation and increase in range of motion and strength. Conclusions: Shortened immobilization and return to World Championship competition 6 weeks postinjury had no longterm adverse effects on the athlete. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16558436
Bisaria, K K
In a study of 80 cavernous sinuses in 40 cadavers, the trochlear nerve entered the cavernous sinus in 87.5% of cases before the crossing, in 7.5% at the crossing and in 5.0% after the crossing of the free and the attached margins of the tentorium cerebelli. In 77.5% of specimens the trochlear nerve showed a marked bend with flattening at the site of its entrance into the cavernous sinus. The nerve ran between the superficial and deep layers of dura, partly between them, in the thickness of the deeper layer, or deep to the deep layer but adherent to it. These findings do not conform with the description of its course by other workers in the past. In 72.5% of specimens the size of the trochlear nerve was larger during its course in the cavernous sinuses but in 20.0% of specimens such an increase in thickness was noted even in the posterior cranial fossa. Only in one specimen was the trochlear nerve adherent to the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Cases showing the trochlear nerve entering the cavernous sinus after the crossing of the two margins of tentorium cerebelli and the splitting and branching of the trochlear nerve in the cavernous sinus have not hitherto been reported. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3248970
Kobayashi, H; Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Akazawa, T
During transitional conversion of chloroplasts to chromoplasts in ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits, transcripts for several plastid genes for photosynthesis decreased to undetectable levels. Run-on transcription of plastids indicated that transcriptional regulation operated as a predominant factor. We found that most of the genes in chloroplasts were actively transcribed in vitro by Escherichia coli and soluble plastid RNA polymerases, but some genes in chromoplasts seemed to be silent when assayed by the in vitro systems. The regulatory step, therefore, was ascribed to DNA templates. The analysis of modified base composition revealed the presence of methylated bases in chromoplast DNA, in which 5-methylcytosine was most abundant. The presence of 5-methylcytosine detected by isoschizomeric endonucleases and Southern hybridization was correlated with the undetectable transcription activity of each gene in the run-on assay and in vitro transcription experiments. It is thus concluded that the suppression of transcription mediated by DNA methylation is one of the mechanisms governing gene expression in plastids converting from chloroplasts to chromoplasts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2303026
Motta, P M; Andrews, P M
Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the rabbit endometrium during the secretory phase of the oestrous cycle. The free surfaces of ciliated and of inactive active secretory cells are described. Changes in secretory cell surface morphology resulting from accumulation and secretion of material involve the apparent retraction of microvilli and the formation of one or more bulbous protrusions of the cell's apical surface. These protrusions may be relatively smooth surfaced or exhibit long slender micro-extensions. The protrusions grow in size and are eventually pinched off. Loss of the bulbous protrusions often leaves behind crater-like invaginations of the cell's surface. Secretory cells adjacent to the endometrial glands are the first to exhibit signs of mucin accumulation and secretion. The single cilium of a secretory cell is not apparently affected by the secretory process. Signs of ciliated and secretory cell degeneration, and possible sloughing, are also described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1033932
Hekman, Annemarie; Shulman, S.
The antigens of guinea-pig sperm cells, of both the epididymal and ejaculated (or seminal) types, have been studied, using rabbit and guinea-pig antisera. Several antigens could be revealed by gel diffusion studies, using well-washed but non-ruptured sperm cells, indicating that intentional cell breaking is not essential for demonstrating the antigens. This release of soluble antigen was followed as a function of time and temperature, both as total protein in supernatants and in increasing strength of precipitation. With rabbit antiserum, epididymal sperm showed two antigens, that were also demonstrated in epididymal and testicular extract and in seminal sperm. These other materials revealed additional antigens with these antisera. Immunofluorescent staining was limited to the acrosomes. With guinea-pig antibodies, no precipitating antigen that was characteristic of sperm could be seen. These antisera showed immunofluorescent staining of the acrosomes. The staining could be distinguished, in terms of thermostability, from the staining produced by normal serum. No evidence was found for the occurrence of any sperm-coating antigens in the guinea-pig, especially since both antiseminal plasma and antivesicular fluid antisera failed to give immunofluorescent staining of the sperm cells. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4998924
Terrell, Timothy G.; Stookey, James L.; Eddy, Gerald A.; Kastello, Michael D.
Gross and microscopic lesions associated with Bolivan hemorrhagic fever virus infection in the rhesus monkey were studied in 10 animals which died following inoculation. Gross lesions included skin rash, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, meningeal edema, hydropericardium and enlarged friable livers. Hemorrhagic manifestations of the infection were not consistently observed, but hemorrhages were present in the skin, heart, brain and nares in some monkeys. Histopathologic lesions were fairly consistent. Hepatic necrosis with the presence of acidophilic hyaline bodies, necrotizing enteritis, epithelial necrosis and adrenal cortical necrosis were present in all monkeys. Those monkeys which died after the seventeenth day of infection had nonsupurative meningoencephalitis; lymphoid necrosis was present in 3 monkeys that died after day 18. Other microscopic lesions included myocardial degeneration, lymphoid and reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia and lymphoid depletion. Most of the histopathologic lesions described in human autopsy material were reproduced; however, the necrosis in the skin and oral mucosa, mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and the adrenal cortex have not been described in man. Despite these apparent discrepancies the results of this investigation indicate that the rhesus monkey is a good experimental model for the study of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever infection. ImagesFig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4202335
Segan, Ross D.; Cassidy, Christine; Bentkowski, Jamie
In some areas, it is a commonly accepted emergency medical technician protocol to remove a helmet during the initial management of suspected cervical spine injures. After a comprehensive survey of relevant literature, four primary reasons why Emergency Medical Services professionals would desire to remove a helmet emerge. Sources suggest that the presence of a helmet might: 1) interfere with immobilization of the athlete; 2) interfere with the ability to visualize injuries; 3) cause hyperflexion of the cervical spine; and 4) prevent proper airway management during a cardiorespiratory emergency. Many available protocols are designed for the removal of closed chamber motorcycle helmets that do not have removable face masks. There are a great number of differing viewpoints regarding this issue. The varying viewpoints are results of the failure of many emergency medical technician management protocols to address the unique situation presented by a football helmet. We: 1) demonstrate that football helmet removal is potentially dangerous and unnecessary, 2) suggest that cardiorespiratory emergencies can be effectively managed without removing the helmet, and 3) provide sports medicine professional with information that may be used to establish a joint Emergency Medical Services/Sports Medicine emergency action plan. ImagesFig. 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6. PMID:16558244
Kiama, S G; Bhattacharjee, J; Maina, J N; Weyrauch, K D
The pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans), a diurnally active bird of prey, has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. In this species the pecten consists of 12 highly vascularised pleats, held together apically by a heavily pigmented 'bridge' and projects freely into the vitreous body in the ventral part of the eye cup. Ascending and descending blood vessels of varying calibre, together with a profuse network of capillaries, essentially constitute the vascular framework of the pecten. A distinct distribution of melanosomes is discernible on the pecten, the concentration being highest at its apical end, moderate at the crest of the pleats and least at the basal and lateral margins. Overlying and within the vascular network, a close association between blood vessels and melanocytes is evident. It is conjectured that such an association may have evolved to augment the structural reinforcement of this nutritive organ in order to keep it firmly erectile within the gel-like vitreous. Such erectility may be an essential prerequisite for its optimal functioning, as well as in its overt use as a protective shield against the effects of ultraviolet light, which otherwise might lead to damage of the pectineal vessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7649799
Donald, R G; Roos, D S
Nonhomologous integration vectors have been used to demonstrate the feasibility of insertional mutagenesis in haploid tachyzoites of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Mutant clones resistant to 5-fluorouracil were identified at a frequency of approximately 10(-6) (approximately 2 x 10(-5) of the stable transformants). Four independent mutants were isolated, all of which were shown to lack uracil phosphoribosyl-transferase (UPRT) activity and harbor transgenes integrated at closely linked loci, suggesting inactivation of the UPRT-encoding gene. Genomic DNA flanking the insertion point (along with the integrated vector) was readily recovered by bacterial transformation with restriction-digested, self-ligated total genomic DNA. Screening of genomic libraries with the recovered fragment identified sequences exhibiting high homology to known UPRT-encoding genes from other species, and cDNA clones were isolated that contain a single open reading frame predicted to encode the 244-amino acid enzyme. Homologous recombination vectors were exploited to create genetic knock-outs at the UPRT locus, which are deficient in enzyme activity but can be complemented by transient transformation with wild-type sequences--formally confirming identification of the functional UPRT gene. Mapping of transgene insertion points indicates that multiple independent mutants arose from integration at distinct sites within the UPRT gene, suggesting that nonhomologous integration is sufficiently random to permit tagging of the entire parasite genome in a single transformation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7777580
Sternberg, Leonard; Wald, Robert W.; Feiglin, David H.I.; Morch, John E.
Myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 and electrocardiography with the subject at rest and undergoing submaximal treadmill exercise were performed in 19 men and 3 women. Selective coronary arteriography and left ventriculography showed that 7 had normal coronary arteries and 15 had coronary artery disease. The 11 persons with electrocardiographic evidence of an old myocardial infarct (q waves) had a perfusion defect at rest in the area of the infarct and a segmental abnormality of wall motion apparent on the left ventriculogram corresponding to the perfusion defect. Myocardial perfusion imaging and electrocardiography were equally sensitive in detecting coronary artery disease in exercising individuals: perfusion defects were noted in 7 of the 15 persons with coronary artery disease, and diagnostic ST-segment depression was present in 8 of the 15. Combination of the results of the two tests with exercise permitted the identification of 11 of the 15 persons and improved the sensitivity. Combination of the results of rest and exercise imaging and electrocardiography permitted the identification of 94% of the patients with coronary artery disease. Myocardial perfusion imaging with 201TI in the subject at rest is a sensitive indicator of previous myocardial infarction. Imaging after the subject has exercised is a useful adjunct to conventional exercise electrocardiography, especially in those whose exercise electrocardiogram is non-interpretable. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:630487
Nabarra, B.; Andrianarison, I.
The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse develops spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Converging lines of evidence indicate that the disease is of autoimmune origin and is primarily mediated by T cells. It thus appeared interesting to study the morphology of the thymic microenvironment in order to determine whether the architecture and/or the cellular components of the organ are altered. In the NOD mouse, significant aspects of involution were observed as early as the first month of life, forming a heterogeneous pattern with non-involuted areas. With time, these involuted aspects increased in surface and severity. In non-involuted zones vacuolization of epithelial cells was noted, as well as infiltration by plasma cells and the presence of numerous macrophages with high phagocytic activity. Involuted areas, forming a cellular layer as if cells had lost their limiting membranes, were crossed by a great number of cystic cavities bordered by epithelial cells and cells containing granulations. Their lumens contained lymphocytes and a few macrophages. These observations, which are reminiscent of similar reports made in other autoimmune mouse strains, may be related to the functional thymic abnormality thought to participate in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:1843256
Genain, C P; Roberts, T; Davis, R L; Nguyen, M H; Uccelli, A; Faulds, D; Li, Y; Hedgpeth, J; Hauser, S L
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that serves as a model for the human disease multiple sclerosis. We evaluated rolipram, a type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, for its efficacy in preventing EAE in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. In a blinded experimental design, clinical signs of EAE developed within 17 days of immunization with human white matter in two placebo-treated animals but in none of three monkeys that received rolipram (10 mg/kg s.c. every other day) beginning 1 week after immunization. In controls, signs of EAE were associated with development of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and cerebral MRI abnormalities. In the treatment group, there was sustained protection from clinical EAE, transient cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in only one of three animals, no MRI abnormality, and marked reduction in histopathologic findings. Rolipram-treated and control animals equally developed circulating antibodies to myelin basic protein. Thus, inhibition of type IV phosphodiesterase, initiated after sensitization to central nervous system antigens, protected against autoimmune demyelinating disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7536938
Forty-five patients with Takayasu's disease were studied between 1972 and the end of 1979. Operative treatment was less frequently needed for aortic arch disease than for descending aorta disease. Correct evaluation may be difficult in the latter till the time of operative exploration. Children with significant stenosis need early operation and a "plasty' type of repair is favoured over bypass grafts. Contrary to some descriptions, the disease process can affect the region of the aortoiliac bifurcation, needing surgical management based on established principles. Correct evaluation can make operative treatment safe and rewarding for those patients who need intervention as the recurrence rate of the disease process has been low in surgically treated patients. Immunologically the patients show defective T-lymphocyte function, increase in ther serum level of IgG, and a reduction in serum complement constituents C3 and C4, indicating the possibility of formation of a complement-binding immune complex. Histochemical studies show deposition of IgG and PAS-positive material in the intima and probable deposition of IgM and IgA in the junctional area of media and intima, with total destruction of the elastic lamina. A hypothesis for the pathogenesis of the disease is presented. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6115612
Tabilio, A; Rosa, J P; Testa, U; Kieffer, N; Nurden, A T; Del Canizo, M C; Breton-Gorius, J; Vainchenker, W
We demonstrate that HEL, a human erythroleukemic cell line, has numerous megakaryocytic markers which were markedly enhanced following the addition of the inducers dimethyl sulfoxide or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to the culture medium. Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies showed: (i) the presence of organelles morphologically resembling the platelet alpha-granules; and (ii) a peroxidase activity with the same characteristics as that specifically found in platelets. The platelet alpha-granule proteins (von Willebrand factor, platelet factor-4 and beta-thromboglobulin) were immunologically detected in the HEL cell cytoplasm and their amounts increased after induction. Of particular interest was the presence of platelet membrane proteins. A monoclonal antibody specific for glycoprotein Ib bound to HEL cells. Platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa were identified on intact cells using specific antibodies in a binding assay or in cell lysates using either crossed immunoelectrophoresis or an immunoblotting procedure following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Most HEL cells also expressed the platelet alloantigen PIA1. All of the platelet membrane proteins were present in higher amounts after induction. Glycophorin A, specific for the erythroid lineage, was also detected on HEL cells. Thus, while confirming the presence of erythroid markers, our studies provide evidence that the HEL cell line also expresses platelet antigens. As such, HEL cells represent a unique system with which to study the biosynthesis of platelet-specific proteins and glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6201359
The ACTH cells form a layer 1-8 cells thick, dorsal to the prolactin cells in the rostral pars distalis. They react only mildly with a variety of stains including PAS-lead haematoxylin. Their nuclear diameters vary seasonally in a manner that closely parallels that of the prolactin cells. The relative volumes of the ACTH and prolactin cell zones are remarkably constant in animals of different sizes. It is suggested that the two hormones may act synergistically at various body sites and that this accounts for the related morphological features of the ACTH and prolactin cells. There are no changes in the surface density of the ACTH zone with increasing animal size. Consequently, the ACTH/neurohypophysial border is highly convoluted in large animals. The proximity of the neurohypophysis also influences cell ultrastructure, as small processes, packed with secretory granules are more numerous near the basal lamina separating the adeno- and neurohypophyses. A morphometric analysis of ACTH cells provides base-line ultrastructural data for experimental studies and for comparisons with other teleosts. The cells have small, secretory granules, 100-300 nm in diameter, and of variable electron density. There is little rough endoplasmic reticulum and a small Golgi apparatus. There is no evidence of granule release by exocytosis and various explanations for this are suggested. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6290440
Randak, C; Brabletz, T; Hergenröther, M; Sobotta, I; Serfling, E
Cyclosporin A (CsA), a powerful immunosuppressive drug, inhibits the synthesis of lymphokines in T lymphocytes at the level of gene transcription. Using protein extracts from El4 lymphoma cells we show that the binding of lymphocyte-specific factors interacting with the two so-called purine boxes (Pu-boxes) of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancer are missing in CsA-treated cells. The CsA-sensitive factors are newly synthesized upon induction. The most prominent factor consists of 45 kd polypeptides and contacts both Pu-boxes at the two central G residues within the identical core sequence AAGAGGAAAA. The CsA-mediated suppression of factor binding to the Pu-boxes correlates well with functional studies in which the inducible, T cell-restricted proto-enhancer activity of Pu-boxes was selectively repressed by CsA. These observations support the conclusion that the suppression of factor binding to the Pu-boxes by CsA impairs the activity of IL-2 and of further lymphokine genes, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of lymphokines in T lymphocytes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2369902
Nakatani, T; Shinohara, H; Matsuda, T
Cell abutments in the ovarian bursal epithelium of the golden hamster included tight junctions, desmosome-like junctions, gap junctions and zonulae adhaerentes. The plasma membranes of adjacent epithelial cells were often closely apposed forming a zonula adherens at the apex of the intercellular space, but these did not fuse along the entire length of the intercellular space. Gap junctions and other intercellular junctions did not allow diffusion of ferritin into the junctional areas, but failed to prevent ferritin from filling the intercellular space basal to the junction. This suggested that these junctions were not continuous around the entire circumference of the cell. In general, intercellular connections in the bursal epithelium may be labile and this lability, as well as periodic distention of the bursa, may give rise to separation of epithelial cells. Ferritin injected into the bursal cavity reached lymphatics via three routes: (1) via stomata; (2) via gaps and pores; (3) via intercellular spaces. Transcellular transport did not make a major contribution to permeation of ferritin across the bursal epithelium, and ferritin particles did not enter fenestrated blood vessels within 30 minutes after injection. The variety of routes may facilitate rapid and complete drainage of fluid and cellular components from the bursal cavity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Figs. 17-18 PMID:3693080
Dominguez, M M; Liptrap, R M; Basrur, P K
Gonadal steroidogenesis in bovine fetuses of 40 to 125 days gestation was examined using histochemical procedures and radioimmunoassay on gonadal cultures to determine the physiological correlates of gonadal morphogenesis in cattle. Gonadal morphology and the in vitro secretion patterns were distinct between the sexes by 45 days when testes secreted significantly higher levels of testosterone and androstenedione and lower levels of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol that the ovaries (p less than 0.0001). It would appear that the main steroid route in the ovaries of 45 to 70 day old fetuses is the androstenedione to estrone to 17 beta-estradiol pathway. The high estrone secretion and the decreasing levels of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone in the ovaries of 70 to 125 day fetuses suggest an inhibition of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. It is postulated that this shift in steroid biosynthetic pathways may be related to the change in cellular events from mitosis to meiosis in fetal ovaries. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:3196968
Gidrol, X; Sabelli, P A; Fern, Y S; Kush, A K
Reactive oxygen species are common causes of cellular damages in all aerobic organisms. In Escherichia coli, the oxyR gene product is a positive regulator of the oxyR regulon that is induced in response to H2O2 stress. To identify genes involved in counteracting oxidative stress in plants, we transformed a delta oxyR mutant of E. coli with an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library and selected for clones that restored the ability of the delta oxyR mutant to grow in the presence of H2O2. Using this approach, we isolated a cDNA that has strong homology with the annexin super-gene family. The complemented mutant showed higher catalase activity. mRNA expression of the annexin gene in A. thaliana was higher in roots as compared with other organs and was also increased when the plants were exposed to H2O2 stress or salicylic acid. Based on the results presented in this study, we propose a novel physiological role for annexin in counteracting H2O2 stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8855345
Chandraraj, S; Briggs, C A
Bone formation in the vertebral centra commences within the centrum and is in this respect analogous to the secondary ossification which occurs in the epiphysis of a long bone. Bone tissue first appears at about the 85 mm C.R. stage and not in the 55 mm C.R. length embryo; at the latter stage blood vessels and calcification alone were observed. The connective tissue cells within the cartilage canal appear to assist osteogenesis by providing osteogenic cells which lay down bone in the walls of the cartilage canal, and provide cells which remove calcified cartilage found at the periphery of the canal; they assist growth by producing an appreciable number of chondrocytes that permit lateral expansion of the centra. Osteogenesis appears to occur in multiple foci within the growth plate of the older embryos and could account for the rapid rate of growth of vertebrae. Bone formation occurs in both mineralised and unmineralised matrix (as seen on the walls of the cartilage canals). The blood vessels within the growing vertebra tend to follow the zone of cartilage hypertrophy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3225216
Kushnir, S; Babiychuk, E; Kampfenkel, K; Belles-Boix, E; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D
Diamide oxidizes cellular thiols and induces oxidative stress. To isolate plant genes which may, when overexpressed, increase tolerance of plants toward oxidative damage, an in vivo diamide tolerance screening in yeasts was used. An Arabidopsis cDNA library in a yeast expression vector was used to transform a yeast strain with intact antioxidant defense. Cells from approximately 10(5) primary transformants were selected for resistance to diamide. Three Arabidopsis cDNAs which confer diamide tolerance were isolated. This drug tolerance was specific and no cross tolerance toward hydroperoxides was found. One cDNA (D3) encodes a polypeptide which has an amino-terminal J domain characteristic of a divergent family of DnaJ chaperones. Another (D18) encodes a putative dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase. Surprisingly, the third cDNA (D22) encodes a plant homolog of gamma-glutamyltransferases. It would have been difficult to predict that the expression of those genes would lead to an improved survival under conditions of depletion of cellular thiols. Hence, we suggest that this cloning approach may be a useful contribution to the isolation of plant genes that can help to cope with oxidative stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479844
Breton-Gorius, Janine; Guichard, Josette
Normal human platelets and megakaryocytes were examined for peroxidase activity by the diaminobenzidine (DAB) cytochemical technic. When the fixation and the incubation were adequate, a strong reaction was present in the dense tubular system of platelets suspended in plasma or spread on carbon. The black reaction product was ascribed to enzyme activity, since the reaction was completely eliminated when H2O2 or DAB were omitted, or when H2O2 was in excess. In addition, the reaction was inhibited by aminotriazole, cyanide and azide. In the human megakaryocytes, the reaction was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum including the perinuclear envelope. The Golgi complex and the clear vacuolar system were negative for the reaction. After platelet release, the reaction was always seen in the perinuclear space. The nature and function of the enzyme, as well as its possible relationships with catalase, are discussed. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:5009974
Brown, L; Cheng, J T; Chen, Q; Siciliano, M J; Crist, W; Buchanan, G; Baer, R
The tal-1 gene is altered as a consequence of the t(1;14) (p32;q11) chromosome translocation observed in 3% of patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). tal-1 encodes a helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain, a DNA binding and dimerization motif found in a number of proteins involved in cell growth and differentiation. We now report that an additional 25% of T-ALL patients bear tal-1 gene rearrangements that are not detected by karyotype analysis. These rearrangements result from a precise 90 kb deletion (designated tald) that arises independently in different patients by site-specific DNA recombination. Since the deletion junctions resemble the coding joints of assembled immunoglobulin genes, tald rearrangements are likely to be mediated by aberrant activity of the immunoglobulin recombinase. Moreover, t(1;14)(p32;q11) translocations and tald rearrangements disrupt the coding potential of tal-1 in an equivalent manner, and thereby generate a common genetic lesion shared by a significant proportion of T-ALL patients. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2209547
Suchi, T; Lennert, K; Tu, L Y; Kikuchi, M; Sato, E; Stansfeld, A G; Feller, A C
Based on the results of histological and immunohistochemical observations of a large number of peripheral T cell lymphomas from China, England, Germany and Japan, histological and cytological morphology were correlated with immunophenotype, aetiological association with HTLV-1, and clinical behaviour to produce a working classification of the T cell lymphomas. This classification, based mainly on cytological criteria, divides the peripheral T cell lymphomas into tumours of low grade and high grade malignancy. Adult T cell lymphoma/leukaemia (ATLL) is caused by HTLV-1 and belongs chiefly to the high grade category. Some tumours are characterised by an admixture of other cells (epithelioid cells, follicular dendritic cells, etc) and structures (high endothelial venules, follicles), which may indicate the secretion of lymphokines by the tumour cells. Clear cells seem to be specific for T cell lymphomas and may occur in various types of peripheral T cell lymphoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 PMID:3312308
The fine structure of malarial parasites is reviewed and the function of the intracellular organelles is discussed. When the erythrocytic, exoerythrocytic, and mosquito stages of plasmodia are compared, substantial differences are seen. The major differences involve the amount of surface coat of the motile forms, the structure and function of the mitochondria, and the ingestion and digestion of nutrients. Significant structural differences are also observed between comparable stages of mammalian and avian parasites. These differences indicate that malarial parasites adapt themselves to the different environments in which the parasite resides. When host cell changes induced by malarial parasite infection are reviewed, alterations characteristic of the infecting plasmodia are observed in erythrocytes. Erythrocyte changes include caveola—vesicle complexes, excrescences, and clefts. The caveola—vesicle complexes possess malarial antigens and exhibit pinocytotic activities. The excrescences form focal junctions with adjacent cells and may be responsible for infected erythrocyte sequestration in organs. The significance of these host cell changes specific to certain species of malarial parasite is still unknown. ImagesFig. 9Fig. 8Fig. 2Fig. 6Fig. 3Fig. 1Fig. 7Fig. 4Fig. 10Fig. 5 PMID:338177
Pearson, F. G.; Thompson, D. W.
The term “occult carcinoma” is applied to those patients with carcinoma of the bronchus at an in situ or early invasive stage who have carcinoma cells in their sputum but have no recognizable evidence of tumour in the chest radiograph. In eight such patients at the Toronto General Hospital, the lesion was localized and treatment instituted. Our experience with these eight patients can be compared with that of 27 patients described in two similar studies. The lesions were commonly symptomatic. Localization, although sometimes difficult, was accomplished using information obtained during bronchoscopy and bronchography. The prognosis following adequate resection appeared excellent. No patient died of carcinoma during the post-treatment follow-up period, which was continued for a minimum of 18 months. Pathological evidence indicates that bronchial carcinoma at this occult stage can be diagnosed cytologically, is rarely multifocal and, as a localized neoplasm, is amenable to curative therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:5929532
Howlett, Julie A.; Squier, Christopher A.
The colonization and invasion of various animal oral mucosae by Candida albicans were examined in an organ culture model. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the oral epithelium between 12 and 30 h after inoculation with the fungus revealed the morphological relationships between host and parasite. Examination of the fungi in thin sections showed five distinct layers in the cell wall of C. albicans within the epithelium, but changes were evident in the organization and definition of the outer cell wall layers in budding hyphae and in hyphae participating in colonization and invasion of the epithelial cells. Adherence of the fungus to the superficial cells of the oral mucosa appeared to involve intimate contact between the epithelial cell surface and the deeper layers of the fungal cell wall. During invasion a close seal was maintained between the invading hyphae and the surrounding epithelial cell envelope, there being no other evidence of damage to the host cell surface except at the site of entry. Within the epithelial cells there was only occasional loss of cytoplasmic components in the vicinity of the invading hyphae. These findings would suggest that enzymatic lysis associated with the invasive process is localized and that the mechanical support provided by surface adherence and the intimate association between the fungus and the epithelial cell envelope may permit growth of Candida on through the epithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6995338
Types: A. Essential. B. Paradoxical. C. False. D. True. True incontinence.—A. Congenital: (a) Developmental abnormalities. (b) Malformations of nervous system. B. Acquired: (a) Local abnormalities. (b) False passages. (c) Disturbance of innervation. Anatomy of sphincteric mechanism in male and female. Diagnosis: Need for careful investigation including cysto-urethroscopy, cysto-urethrography, and cysto-manometry. Treatment: A. Physiotherapy. B. Direct surgical repair. C. Surgical diversion of urine. Types of true incontinence amenable to direct surgical repair: A. Epispadias. B. Aberrant ureteric ostia. C. Fistulæ. D. Congenital or acquired defective sphincteric mechanism. Operative treatment of vesico-vaginal fistulæ. Transvesical operation for cure of congenitally defective sphincteric mechanism—report of seven cases. Stress incontinence.—Value of urethrograms to ascertain nature of defect. Operative treatment. Incontinence following prostatic surgery.—Types of operation advocated. New operative procedure utilizing ribbon catgut with demonstrative moving picture. ImagesFig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19991939
Glas-Greenwalt, P; Dalton, B C; Astrup, T
Employing the histochemical fibrin slide technique, we studied the localization of fibrinolytically active sites in relation to morphologic changes in saphenous veins used as coronary artery bypass autografts. Of veins from 100 patients undergoing surgery for coronary heart disease, 63 samples revealed well-demarcated intimal fibrinolytic activity. Distinct foci of lysis were present in the media and adventitia of all vein samples corresponding to the distribution of the vasa vasorum. Graft specimens obtained by autopsy from 13 patients surviving from 30 minutes to 13 days revealed considerable intimal damage with loss of fibrinolytic activity. Medial fibrinolytic activity disappeared early concomitant with disorganization of the medial muscle fibers, followed by necrosis, atrophy and fibrous transformation of the muscular structures. Adventitial activity disappeared later. One reoperation sample obtained after 8 weeks in situ showed moderate proliferative intimal fibrosis without an apparent neo-intima and without fibrinolytic activity, and one section showed evidence of valve cusp fibrosis, while most of the media had been replaced by fibrous tissue. Numerous foci of "medial" -adventitial fibrinolytic activity indicated presence of vascular structures in the venous wall. The fibrin slide technique is a convenient tool for studying the process of revascularization. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 5a-d. Fig. 6. Figs. 7a and b. Figs. 8a and b. PMID:1079445
Pashby, Thomas J.; Bishop, Patrick J.; Easterbrook, W. Michael
Racquet sports eye injuries have increased steadily in recent years. To determine the magnitude of the problem, the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Athletic Eye Injury Committee has sent questionnaires to COS members since 1976 to be completed for all racquet sports eye injuries treated. In the first year of the questionnaire 48 injuries were reported, including three legally blind eyes. From July 1978 to May 1981, 154 squash and 91 racquetball eye injuries were reported. Half the injured players required hospitalization and surgery was frequent; some players had permanent vision loss. These findings led to assessment of available eye protectors. Open-type protectors can be penetrated by balls and some closed-type protectors are not sufficiently sturdy. Steps are underway to write a Canadian standard for racquet sports eye protectors. Meanwhile the public must be informed of the danger of racquet sports eye injuries and the importance of wearing closed-type protectors. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21286105
De Brito, T.; Prado, M. J.; Negreiros, V. A.; Nicastri, A. L.; Sakata, E. E.; Yasuda, P. H.; Santos, R. T.; Alves, V. A.
Guinea-pigs were experimentally infected with L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and their liver and kidney were studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the post embedding indirect immunogold labelling technique. Primary antibody was a purified rabbit anti-serum produced against the same leptospiral strain used in the inoculum. Gold-labelled leptospiral antigen (LAg) was found close to cell membranes of hepatocytes, kidney tubular cells and endothelial cells of the interstitial capillaries of the kidney. Afterwards it was internalized by hepatic and tubular cells, and eventually found in lysosomes. Phagolysosomes of Kupffer cells were also found to contain remnants of degraded leptospires and gold-labelled LAg. Gold-labelled intact leptospires were detected at the enlarged intercellular spaces between hepatocytes at the areas of hepatic cell plate disarray, showing the potential for leptospiral migration during the septicaemic phase of the disease potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the lesions. The affinity of leptospiral antigenic material for cell membranes suggests an initial interaction with cell surface proteins followed by its internalization and cell damage. The nature of antigenic material detected, however, remains undefined; it may be a toxin, an enzyme or any other factor/s involved in leptospiral virulence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1419779
Kinmonth, J. B.; Wolfe, J. H.
There are many different clinical and lymphographic groups of patients with primary lymphoedema. Improved lymphographic techniques have emphasised the importance of changes in the nodes as well as in the lymph vessels. A systematic histological study has been made of nodes removed during therapeutic operations or investigations on patients with primary lymphoedema. Many nodes showed a marked fibrotic process. This, in its distribution in the node and its histological appearance, was quite different from that which might have arisen from attacks of infection and inflammation. The majority of patients had no clinical history of such attacks. It may be regarded as primary fibrosis in the nodes. Associated clinical features suggest strong genetic or familial factors in its aetiology. Many of the changes found in the lymph vessels may follow obstructive effects from fibrosis in the nodes. The histological findings have been related to the clinical and lymphographic features in different types of primary lymphoedema. The degree of fibrosis and its distribution have important bearings on the prognosis, clinical course, and treatment of the patient. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 Fig. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7436291
Scheuermann, D W
Chromaffin cells were observed singly or in clusters in the heart and sympathetic cord of 2 genera of dipnoan fish, Protopterus and Lepidosiren. They were invariably found in close association with the autonomic sympathetic nervous system and at sites where chromaffin cells or their precursors are situated in mammals during ontogenetic development. X-ray microanalysis demonstrated that they contained a primary catecholamine which was identified microspectrofluorometrically as dopamine. The chromaffin cells were innervated by efferent axons with typical preganglionic sympathetic terminals which were acetylcholinesterase-positive. Although the general morphology and cytochemistry agree with those of developing intra-adrenal chromaffin cells in mammals, the morphological characteristics implicate them as active secretory gland cells. The dopamine transmitter phenotype seems to be determined by the maintenance throughout life of the separate and distant location of steroidogenic interrenal tissue from suprarenal elements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 14 PMID:8300420
McCraw, B. M.; Slocombe, J. O. D.
Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes and were examined at necropsy from two to 56 days postinfection. Larvae penetrated the intestine and reached the liver intravenously before 40 hours postinfection. Occasional thrombi and larval tracks associated with the intima of cecal and colic veins suggested aberrant paths. Larvae in the liver doubled in width between seven and 15 days postinfection and a sudden increment in circulating eosinophils occurred between 11 and 15 days. These changes were probably associated with the third molt. At 30 days fourth stage larvae were migrating in the liver; at 42 days they were present in the hepatorenal ligament. White foci were observed in the liver from two to 56 days. They contained mononuclear cells and eosinophils and later necrotic cores of eosinophils. By one month foci were overshadowed by tortuous tracks of migrating larvae. Aberrant larvae in the lungs were confined in granulomas. Massive granulomas in the wall of the cecum and colon contained small larvae which were probably inhibited by antibody associated with the third molt. Severe disruption of omental architecture and adhesions involving the intestine occurred several weeks after infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20.Fig. 21.Fig. 22.Fig. 23.Fig. 24. PMID:4274818
Yeakley, J M; Morfin, J P; Rosenfeld, M G; Fu, X D
A purine-rich splicing enhancer from a constitutive exon has been shown to shift the alternative splicing of calcitonin/CGRP pre-mRNA in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that the native repetitive GAA sequence comprises the optimal enhancer element and specifically binds a saturable complex of proteins required for general splicing in vitro. This complex contains a 37-kDa protein that directly binds the repetitive GAA sequence and SRp40, a member of the SR family of non-snRNP splicing factors. While purified SR proteins do not stably bind the repetitive GAA element, exogenous SR proteins become associated with the GAA element in the presence of nuclear extracts and stimulate GAA-dependent splicing. These results suggest that repetitive GAA sequences enhance splicing by binding a protein complex containing a sequence-specific RNA binding protein and a general splicing activator that, in turn, recruit additional SR proteins. This type of mechanism resembles the tra/tra-2-dependent recruitment of SR proteins to the Drosophila doublesex alternative splicing regulatory element. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8755518
Veiga Neto, E R; Tamega, O J; Zorzetto, N L; Dall Pai, V
In the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) the main lacrimal gland is composed of 2 distinct portions with an intraorbital and extraorbital localisation, interconnected by a bridge of glandular tissue which crosses the lateral orbital wall through the lateral orbital fissure located in the sphenozygomatic suture. The intraorbital lacrimal gland is flattened and extremely thin, with a variable outline. It lies on the upper and outer third of the globe of the eye, and the aponeurosis and the belly of the lateral rectus muscle, extending antero-posteriorly from the upper lateral angle of the orbit midway along the orbital cavity. The extraorbital lacrimal gland is compact, halfmoon-shaped, with 3 surfaces, 3 borders and 2 extremities. It lies in the temporal fossa between the temporalis muscle and the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone, fitting into a depression in this bone, and totally surrounded by adipose tissue. The secretory cells have a flocculent appearance and either low or high density. They possess a basal region containing the nucleus and rich in granular endoplasmic reticulum, and an apical region filled with secretory granules varying in size, form and density. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1452484
McArthur, R. G.; Edwards, J. H.
Typus Degenerativus Amstelodamensis or Amsterdam dwarfism, a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by mental retardation, a distinctive face, characteristic hands and feet, defective growth and other minor malformations, was first described by Cornelia de Lange in 1933. Approximately 69 cases, including nine autopsies, have been reported in the literature. In this paper we present a further 20, with illustrations of the syndrome from infancy to puberty (including de Lange's original three cases). The historical, physical, laboratory and radiographic findings of de Lange's three patients and our 20 are tabulated. Autopsy findings in one of our patients are reported and the literature is briefly reviewed. Although some observers have recently reported chromosome abnormalities in de Lange's syndrome, we feel that the diagnosis is made from the history and physical examination and that there are no definitive laboratory aids which can confirm the diagnosis. Chromosome studies in all 20 of our patients were normal and the genetic implications are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 9Fig. 11p1197-a PMID:6022788
Ganote, Charles E.; Peterson, Darryl R.; Carone, Frank A.
Renal structural changes were studied sequentially between 1 hour and 6 days in rats treated with D-serine. Extensive necrosis of proximal straight tubules was rapid in onset and was followed by complete tubular regeneration 6 days post-treatment. The apparent progression of cellular changes was initial shrinkage, followed either by swelling and loss of apical cytoplasm or immediate lysis of cytoplasmic and nuclear contents. Tubular damage left only the basement membrane as a barrier between interstitial and luminal fluids. In similarly treated rats, proteinuria and glucosuria developed at the onset of tubular necrosis and disappeared when the tubules were completely relined by epithelium suggesting that they are due to diffusion of protein and glucose from interstitium into tubular fluid across the denuded basement membranes and that epithelial cells, under normal conditions, act as a barrier to diffusion of certain substances between the interstitium and tubular fluid. ImagesFig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9 PMID:4447130
Presidente, P. J. A.; McCraw, B. M.; Lumsden, J. H.
Three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with 1000 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica and examined on days 7, 14, and 28 postinoculation to determine the early response of a resistant host to this infection. It was concluded that only small numbers of the metacercariae penetrated the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. Flukes that migrated to the liver penetrated through Glisson's capsule, primarily on the parietal surface. Marked fibroplasia and cellular infiltration of the capsule were induced and flukes were killed and destroyed in granulomas immediately beneath the capsule. Migration in hepatic parenchyma was minimal and immature flukes or migratory tracks were not found. There were infiltrations of eosinophils and mononuclear cells, bile duct hyperplasia and fibroplasia in portal areas. A few flukes penetrated through the diaphragm within 14 days postinoculation and on day 28 granulomas were observed on the dorsal surface of the lung where F. hepatica had penetrated this organ. The early reaction of Glisson's capsule to F. hepatica infection in white-tailed deer has not been described in cattle, sheep or swine infected with this fluke. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:4277445
Ruskell, G L
The distribution of dorsal rami of the otic ganglion was traced on one or both sides of 1 rhesus and 15 cynomolgus monkeys using interrupted serial sections. From 15 to 24 fine rami containing unmyelinated and small myelinated nerve fibres entered the cranial cavity with the mandibular nerve through the foramen ovale. Most rami contributed to a plexus positioned in the crotch of the mandibular and maxillary nerves adjacent to the trigeminal ganglion. The plexus was augmented by an accessory otic ganglion. Rami then continued dorsally on each side of or through the maxillary nerve and joined the cavernous sinus plexus. The pathway described probably gives otic parasympathetic fibres access to the cerebral arteries and may share a wider distribution in common with other nerves contributing to the cavernous sinus plexus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Figs. 13,15 Fig. 14 PMID:8376193
Petros, B. L.; Procell, P. M.; Campbell, G. H.; Collins, F. H.
A nitrocellulose (NC) membrane was evaluated as a solid-phase support for the detection of malaria-infected mosquitos using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) with a laboratory model based on Plasmodium inui and Anopheles dirus. MAbs produced against sporozoites of the N34 strain of P. inui, and selected by immunofluorescence assay and the circumsporozoite precipitin test, were used. A one-site indirect NC-ELISA that used unlabelled MAb and enzyme-labelled anti-mouse IgG was developed. Its sensitivity was about 200 sporozoites and it reliably detected one infected mosquito in a pool of 20. This indirect NC-ELISA has the advantage that it does not require direct conjugation of the MAb to an enzyme or biotin. In the direct one-site NC-ELISA, which is also reported, the relatively simple biotinylation procedure was an alternative to the enzyme- or radiolabelled MAbs. The NC-ELISAs were simple and rapid. Furthermore, the indirect NC-ELISA can be used to detect sporozoite antigen localized in various body sectors of mosquitos. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2a Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2575463
Duff, John H.; Gundel, Walter D.; Vignoul, Henri G.; MacLean, Lloyd D.
The single apparent and potential benefit of hyperbaric oxygen is the great increase in the blood content of dissolved oxygen achieved when pure oxygen is breathed at increased pressure. The design of an economical chamber for this purpose is presented. A large number of physiological measurements (cardiac output, electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, etc.) can be performed on patients or experimental animals within the chamber by use of unique electronic connections in the chamber wall which permits all recording equipment to remain outside. Expected arterial blood oxygen tensions have been achieved in patients studied at 2, 3, and 4 atmospheres. Safety features are emphasized. No complication has resulted in 113 dives over the period January to June 1964, one-half of which were for treatment of patients. The chamber has been used clinically as an adjunct to treatment of shock, certain forms of malignancy, anaerobic infections, coronary occlusion, and problems of ischemia, and for preservation of organs for transplantation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:14214227
Atchison, M L; Delmas, V; Perry, R P
The octamer (or dc/cd) motif is considered to be a critical component of all immunoglobulin (Ig) promoters. Although the sequence of this motif is highly conserved among most Ig promoters, there are some notable examples in which efficiently expressed Ig genes contain divergent octamers with base substitutions that are demonstrably deleterious when tested with heterologous proximal promoter elements. To elucidate the mechanisms that enable these naturally occurring Ig genes to cope with divergent octamers, we analyzed two such promoters with regard to their ability to interact with relevant transcription factors. We found that the divergent octamer in the kappa O germline promoter strongly binds both Oct-1 and Oct-2 factors, presumably because of compensatory contributions by flanking DNA sequences. A more surprising result was obtained with the V kappa 19 promoter. In this case, the divergent octamer is a very weak Oct factor binding site and, without help from another upstream element, is inadequate for efficient promoter function. This additional element, termed kappa Y because of its high pyrimidine content (CTTCCTTA), serves as a binding site for a novel lymphoid-specific factor. When the divergent V kappa 19 octamer was converted to a strong Oct factor binding site by a single point mutation, the need for kappa Y was obviated. Interestingly, VH promoters that contain the same divergent octamer also contain an upstream element that is very similar to kappa Y. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2120037
Asari, M; Kano, Y; Wakui, S; Nishita, T; Matsushita, H; Oshige, H
The ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells in bovine fetuses and neonates were examined by light and electron microscopy. In 7-9 months old fetuses (68, 82 and 86 cm CRL) the dome epithelium was usually a little thinner than elsewhere and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. FAE cells were already distinguishable by their being more cuboidal and eosinophilic than the other epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of the FAE cells bulged noticeably into the lumen and contained numerous mitochondria and vacuoles. At 18 hours and 21 hours after birth, the dome epithelium was more columnar and eosinophilic than previously and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. The FAE cells showed characteristic bulging of large cytoplasmic processes into the lumen, as seen in the previous stage. In the cytoplasm, moderate numbers of mitochondria, numerous vesicles and microtubules could be seen. Frequently degenerated FAE cells could also be found among normal FAE cells in the epithelium. After this stage the cytoplasmic processes almost disappeared but distribution of the other organelles was similar to that seen at the previous stage except that multivesicular bodies were frequently seen in the apical cytoplasm. These histological results suggest that bovine ileal FAE cells are histologically and functionally mature by birth and that at birth they seem to be able to react against the penetration of pathogenic substances from the extrauterine environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2606783
Thornton, D J; Nieduszynski, I A; Oates, K; Sheehan, J K
Proteoglycans (A1D1) extracted from bovine femoral-head cartilage were examined by electron microscopy using benzyldimethylammonium chloride as a spreading agent. The preparation contained a mixture of particles, some with a 'beaded' structure and a contiguous filamentous 'tail' at one end and others which appeared as round 'blobs', some of which also had filamentous tails. Previous electron-microscopic studies of proteoglycan monomers have indicated that their length distributions were apparently unimodal, a finding that contrasted with agarose/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis results, which generally indicated two bands. In the present study proteoglycans isolated from the slowly migrating electrophoretic band were shown to be predominantly the larger molecules of beaded appearance, whereas the rapidly migrating proteoglycans were predominantly molecules with the 'blob-like' appearance. Gel-filtration, isopycnic-density-gradient-centrifugation and rate-zonal-centrifugation techniques were evaluated as means of proteoglycan fractionation by electron microscopy and agarose-gel electrophoresis. Rate-zonal centrifugation in mixed-salt gradients of caesium chloride/4 M-guanidinium chloride yielded the most effective fractionation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3827853
Califano, D; D'Alessio, A; Colucci-D'Amato, G L; De Vita, G; Monaco, C; Santelli, G; Di Fiore, P P; Vecchio, G; Fusco, A; Santoro, M; de Franciscis, V
Germ-line missense mutations of the receptor-like tyrosine kinase ret are the causative genetic event of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and type 2B syndromes and of the familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. We have used the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12, as a model system to investigate the mechanism or mechanisms by which expression of activated ret alleles contributes to the neoplastic phenotype in neuroendocrine cells. Here we show that stable expression of ret mutants (MEN2A and MEN2B alleles) in PC12 cells causes a dramatic conversion from a round to a flat morphology, accompanied by the induction of genes belonging to the early as well as the delayed response to nerve growth factor. However, in the transfected PC12 cells, the continuous expression of neuronal specific genes is not associated with the suppression of cell proliferation. Furthermore, expression of ret mutants renders PC12 cells unresponsive to nerve growth factor-induced inhibition of proliferation. These results suggest that induction of an aberrant pattern of differentiation, accompanied by unresponsiveness to growth-inhibitory physiological signals, may be part of the mechanism of action of activated ret alleles in the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine tumors associated with MEN2 syndromes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8755580
Kleiner, E; Dietrich, W; Pfister, H
Treatment of bovine papilloma virus (BPV) 1-transformed mouse fibroblasts with cycloheximide led to a 10-fold increase in the amount of viral transcripts, after as little as 1 h of protein synthesis inhibition. Northern blots revealed no qualitative changes in the RNA pattern. Nuclear run-on experiments showed about a 7-fold increase in specific transcriptional activity after cycloheximide treatment. The half-life of BPV1 mRNA was twice as long as in untreated controls. These results indicate that both RNA synthesis and degradation of viral RNA are controlled by labile proteins. Cycloheximide stimulation turned out to be independent of the BPV1 E2 gene activity which enhances viral transcription. Cycloheximide treatment had no effect on the amount of human papilloma virus (HPV) 18 transcripts in cervical carcinoma derived HeLa and C4-1 cells. Transcription of HPV16 in the cervical carcinoma line SiHa was likewise unaffected. The differential regulation of transcription in transformed fibroblasts and cancer-derived cells, and the significance for malignant conversion are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:3019673
Shin, J S; Park, J H; Kim, J D; Lee, J M; Kim, S J
Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy is highly effective in the therapy of carcinoma in situ of the bladder, but the mechanism of BCG immunotherapy is not clearly understood. We studied the production of TNF-alpha in spleens and bladders of mice after intravesical BCG or BCG/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) instillation. Significant change of TNF-alpha mRNA expression of spleens and bladders of C3H/He mice was observed after intravesical BCG instillation, although intravesical IFN-gamma therapy 3 days after BCG instillation to maintain the activated state of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells did not show a significant change of TNF-alpha mRNA, compared with that of BCG therapy alone. Maximal production of TNF-alpha mRNA in spleens of mice was seen after the first or second intravesical BCG instillation, and production of TNF-alpha mRNA in bladders was also increased after intravesical BCG instillation. The increment of TNF-alpha production by BCG stimulation in HL-60, a promyelocytic leukaemic cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro may support the in vivo effect of BCG therapy on the bladder. These data show that local production of TNF-alpha as well as systemic production by intravesical BCG treatment may correlate with one of the mechanisms of BCG immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7697918
Brewin, N. J.; Robertson, J. G.; Wood, E. A.; Wells, B.; Larkins, A. P.; Galfre, G.; Butcher, G. W.
Three rat hybridoma lines that produced monoclonal antibodies reacting with the peribacteroid membrane from Pisum sativum were isolated, and these all appeared to recognise the same antigenic structure. Using one of these monoclonal antibodies, AFRC MAC 64, electron microscopy of immunogold-stained thin sections of nodule tissue revealed that the antigen, present in the peribacteroid membrane, was also found in the plant plasma membranes and in the Golgi bodies, but not in the endoplasmic reticulum. When peribacteroid membrane proteins were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose by electro-blotting, it was found that MAC 64 bound to a series of protease-sensitive bands that migrated in the mol. wt. range 50-85 K. The epitope was sensitive to periodate oxidation and its structure may therefore involve the carbohydrate component of a membrane glycoprotein. We suggest that this structure originates in the Golgi apparatus and is subsequently transferred to the peribacteriod membranes and plasma membranes. The monoclonal antibody also reacted with peribacteroid membranes from nodules of Vicia and lupin, and with plasma membranes and Golgi membranes from uninfected plant cells, including root tip cells from onion (Allium cepa), indicating that the antigen is highly conserved in the plasma membranes of plant cells. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:15926221
Elling, F.; Møller, T.
In Denmark a nephropathy in pigs characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis has been identified frequently during the last 5 decades in the course of meat inspection in slaughterhouses. The disease was first described by Larsen, who recognized the connexion between feeding mouldy rye to pigs and the development of the nephropathy. In this study kidneys were examined from 19 pigs coming from a farm with an outbreak of nephropathy. The barley fed to the pigs was contaminated with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Histological examination revealed different degrees of change ranging from slight regressive changes in the tubular epithelium and periglomerular and interstitial fibrosis to tubular atrophy, thickened basement membranes, glomerular sclerosis, and marked fibrosis. These differences were considered to be due to differences in the length of time of exposure to the mouldy barley and differences in the amount of mycotoxin consumed by the individual pig. However, it will be necessary to carry out experiments using crystalline ochratoxin A in order to prove such a relationship. Mycotoxins have also been suggested as etiological factors in Balkan nephropathy in man, which in the initial stages is characterized by tubular lesions similar to those seen in mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4546872
Thomas, R J; Abbott, M; Bhathal, P S; St John, D J; Morstyn, G
Fifteen patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer were treated with phototherapy. Each patient had dysphagia and weight loss before therapy and could not be operated on because of the extent of the tumor or poor performance status. Patients received a photosensitizer (hematoporphyrin derivative) 72 hours before phototherapy and were then treated by light delivered by an argon pumped dye laser or gold metal vapor laser at powers up to 2.2 W and doses of 337 J/cm2. Fourteen patients received 24 treatments. The results were all patients achieved a tumor response. The depth of response depended on the dose and dose rate of radiation. There were four of 24 local complications (mediastinitis 3, bronchoesophageal fistula 1). These occurred in patients treated with a power of greater than 1.5 W. There were two complete pathologic remissions in patients with locally advanced cancer. In conclusion, phototherapy is an effective alternative to other forms of palliation and potentially may be an alternative to surgery in selected cases of locally advanced esophageal cancer. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2.,Fig. 3.,Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:3606245
Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.
The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822
Jaspers, M T; Witkop, C J
A review of the literature on teeth with enlarged pulp chambers and apical displacement of the bifurcation or trifurcation of roots (taurodontism) and investigation of the association of this trait with X-chromosomal aneuploidy shows that: (1) Taurodontism is not a rare trait in modern man, as indicated by the majority of recent reports, but occurs in approximately 2.5% of adult Caucasians. (2) Taurodontism occurs in syndromes, particularly in those having an ectodermal defect. (3) Among 12 patients showing taurodontic teeth radiographically, all had normal karyotypes. (4) Among 12 patients showing various combinations of X-chromosomal aneuploidy, 11 had taurodontic molars. (5) Patients with a female habitus and X-chromosomal aneuploidy as well as patients with a male habitus and X-chromosomal states have taurodontic teeth. (6) There is no simple association of the degree of taurodontism and the number of X chromosomes, but, in general, patients with the more severe forms of the trait--meso- or hypertaurodontism--are more likely to have X-chromosomal aneuploidy. While taurodontism may be viewed as an extension of a continuous trait of pulp chamber size, the extreme shape may arise when conditions disturbing the epithelial-derived root sheath produce a generalized amplified instability of development, as has been suggested from tissue culture studies of X-chromosomal aneuploid cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6992564
Brun, L O; Stuart, J; Gaudichon, V; Aronstein, K; French-Constant, R H
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide and has an unusual life history that ensures a high degree of inbreeding. Individual females lay a predominantly female brood within individual coffee berries and because males are flightless there is almost entirely full sib mating. We investigated the genetics associated with this interesting life history after the important discovery of resistance to the cyclodiene type insecticide endosulfan. Both the inheritance of the resistance phenotype and the resistance-associated point mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene Rdl were examined. Consistent with haplodiploidy, males failed to express and transmit paternally derived resistance alleles. Furthermore, while cytological examination revealed that males are diploid, one set of chromosomes was condensed, and probably nonfunctional, in the somatic cells of all males examined. Moreover, although two sets of chromosomes were present in primary spermatocytes, the chromosomes failed to pair before the single meiotic division, and only one set was packaged in sperm. Thus, the coffee berry borer is "functionally" haplodiploid. Its genetics and life history may therefore represent an interesting intermediate step in the evolution of true haplodiploidy. The influence of this breeding system on the spread of insecticide resistance is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568233
Lu, T T; Yan, L G; Madri, J A
Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a 130-kDa member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes and plays a role during endothelial cell migration. Phosphoamino acid analysis and Western blot analysis with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody show that endothelial PECAM-1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is decreased with endothelial cell migration on fibronectin and collagen and with cell spreading on fibronectin but not on plastic. Cell adhesion on anti-integrin antibodies is also able to specifically induce PECAM-1 dephosphorylation while concurrently inducing pp125 focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of dephosphorylation with sodium orthovanadate suggests that this effect is at least partially mediated by phosphatase activity. Tyr-663 and Tyr-686 are identified as potential phosphorylation sites and mutated to phenylalanine. When expressed, both mutants show reduced PECAM-1 phosphorylation but Phe-686 mutants also show significant reversal of PECAM-1-mediated inhibition of cell migration and do not localize PECAM-1 to cell borders. Our results suggest that beta 1-integrin engagement can signal to dephosphorylate PECAM-1 and that this signaling pathway may play a role during endothelial cell migration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876219
Sugihara, H.; Hagedorn, M.; Bōttcher, D.; Neuhof, H.; Mittermayer, Ch.
Bromocarbamides are sleep-inducing drugs which can lead, in man, to intoxication and death due to respiratory failure. To prove whether hemodynamic factors or the changed endothelial permeability induce pulmonary edema, animal experiments were performed. The fine structural changes in pulmonary edema in rabbits were observed at 60, 90 and 120 minutes after oral administration. The major findings were a) large blebs between capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium and b) interstitial edema of the vessel wall. The bleb contents were much less electron dense than the blood contents in the capillary. Colloidal carbon did not enter the bleb or the edematous interstitial tissue. Exogenous peroxidase uptake in pinocytotie vesicles increased in pathologic cases. The hemodynamic measurements in animal receiving artificial respiration which maintained the blood pO2 at a steady state showed similar blebs in the pulmonary vessels, indicating that anoxia is not the major cause of the vascular lesion. Moreover, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance could be held in the normal range in artificially respirated animals under bromocarbamide intoxication. Thus, hemodynamic factors are not likely to play a pathogenetic role in bringing about pulmonary edema. The chief, early factor is the increased endothelial permeability due to increased cytoplasmic transport. From this a practical suggestion for treating patients with bromocarbamide intoxication is derived: the usual fluid replacement in shock patients should be handled with great care to avoid fluid overload of the lung. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4835993
Matutes, E; Catovsky, D
The ultrastructural characteristics of normal lymphocyte subpopulations, identified by monoclonal antibodies and visualized by a colloidal gold labelled anti-mouse IgG were analysed. Our study demonstrates: (1) the major T lymphocyte subsets (OKT4+ and OKT8+) have distinct ultrastructural morphology. The majority of OKT4+ cells have a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) and few cytoplasmic organelles whilst most OKT8+ cells have a low N/C ratio and numerous organelles, namely a well developed Golgi apparatus, lysosomal granules and parallel tubular arrays (PTA); (2) a unique subtype with irregular nuclear outline that resembles Sézary cells was seen in 5-10% of OKT4+ lymphocytes; (3) OKM1, a reagent that reacts with monocytes and granulocytes, is positive in a small lymphocyte subset which appears to be negative with the OKT reagents and is morphologically identical to OKT8+ cells; (4) 'hand-mirror' cells were only seen labelled with OKT8 and OKM1; (5) B lymphocytes labelled with FMC4 (anti-IA) could be distinguished from OKT3+ lymphocytes by having numerous profiles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ribosomes; these were particularly prominent in lymphoplasmacytoid cells. Morphological similarities between normal T lymphocyte subsets and T neoplasias of the same membrane phenotype suggest that these disorders arise from specific T cell types present in normal peripheral blood or from common precursors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6185261
Martin, B F
It has been shown that the membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue, known as Scarpa's fascia, is confined to an oval area on each side of the abdominal wall. By its attachment to the deep fascia it encloses an obliquely directed oval sac which extends into the perineum by three pocket-like diverticulae. The fascial extension which forms the pockets is known as the fascia of Colles. Medially, the sac blends with the fundiform ligament, so that the sacs do not communicate with each other or with the interfascial space deep to the penile dartos. Laterally, the inferior margin creates the crease-line of the groin by its attachment to the fascia lata. Between these attachments the pockets arise from the sac. The lateral pocket continues into the superficial perineal pouch. The medial pocket, together with the intermediate, occupies the scrotum or labium majus. The intermediate pocket is associated with the spermatic cord or the round ligament of the uterus and blends with their coverings posteriorly. In the male it terminates just above the testis. The significance of the fascial arrangements in relation to urinary extravasation is discussed, and also the relationship of the intermediate pocket to an indirect inguinal hernia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:6235202
Wilson, D. S. Poole
(1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991
McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J
The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:4041970
Monteiro, R A
Two types of oligodendrocytes considered to be a constant feature in the cerebellar cortex of the rat are described. One cell type (I) exhibits rounded or elliptical nuclei, whereas the other type (II) presents more irregular nuclear and cellular contours and wider perinuclear cisternae. The latter cell type shows a more electron-dense cytoplasm with more heavily clumped heterochromatin, contrasting strongly with the euchromatin; also long and parallel cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum are more frequent. The percentages of both types of oligodendrocytes in relation to the total population of common glial cell types were calculated in the cortical layers and at several levels in these layers. The distribution of oligodendrocytes in the associated white matter was also carried out for purposes of comparison. The results provide evidence the the Purkinje cells may have a special kind of oligodendrocyte (Type II) as satellites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6630036
Jit, I; Grewal, S S
The gross anatomy, microscopic structure and nerve supply of the suspensory muscle of the duodenum and Hilfsmuskel have been studied in cadavers of 88 adults, 5 children, 1 infant and 6 neonates. The suspensory muscle of the duodenum, consisting of plain muscle fibres, arose from the connective tissue around the stems of the coeliac and superior mementeric arteries. It was inserted into the third and fourth parts of the duodenum in 53%, and into the duodeno-jejunal flexure in addition in 40%. It was innervated by non-myelinated fibres arising from the coeliac and superior mesenteric plexuses. Although both the longitudinal and circular muscle coats of the duodenum extended into the suspensory muscle, it was not supplied by Auerbach's plexus. The Halfsmuskel, which is a slip of the diaphragm is attached above to the margin of the oesophageal hiatus and below to the connective tissue in the region of the stem of the coeliac artery, sometimes extending to the stem of the superior mesenteric artery. The Hilfmuskel and the suspensory muscle of the duodenum are separate entities. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:870476
Papadopoulos, N J; Sherif, M F; Albert, E N
The course of the great saphenous vein in a fascial canal derived from the deep fascia of the lower extremity is described. The fascial canal is absent in 15% of the cases. In 85% of the cases, the sheath surrounding the great saphenous vein is continuous from the thigh to the leg and supports the vein from the hydrostatic pressure of the blood, being absent only in the uppermost and the lowermost quarters of the vein in the thigh and the leg, respectively. Thus, up to one quarter of the vein is ensheathed in 30%, up to one half in 45% and up to three quarters in 10% of the cases studied. The absence of this fascial envelope of the vein, in whole or in part, may be involved in the pathogenesis or the complications of the varicosities of the great saphenous vein along with the well-known aggravating factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7298485
Vandaele, D J; Perlman, A L; Cassell, M D
Two mechanisms have been proposed which address the downfolding of the epiglottis during swallowing. The passive mechanism (Fink et al. 1979) focuses on passive mechanical forces transmitted through the median hyoepiglottic ligament and pre-epiglottic adipose tissue to the epiglottis. The active mechanism (Ekberg & Sigurjonsson, 1982) expands the passive mechanism to include active contributions from the aryepiglotticus and thyroepiglotticus muscles. By means of laryngeal microdissection and whole mount orcein staining, distinct bands of fascial condensations were identified running from the lateral edge of the epiglottis just superior to the attachment of the median hyoepiglottic ligament to the hyoid bone near the ends of the greater horns. Neither the proposed active nor the passive mechanisms address the possible contribution of these paired lateral hyoepiglottic ligaments to epiglottic downfolding. Computer image analysis of videofluoroscopic examinations of swallowing was then used to assess the dynamic movements of the larynx during swallowing. It was observed that the downfolding of the epiglottis occurred in the same video frame as initiation of anterior displacement of the hyoid bone and thyrohyoid approximation. Based on the anatomical and dynamic relationship of the epiglottis to other laryngeal structures, we propose that as the larynx elevates and the hyoid bone moves anteriorly, these lateral ligaments exert traction preferentially on the upper third of the epiglottis to bring it to a position below the horizontal. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:7649805
Giannessi, F; Pera, L
The structure of the paratympanic organ in chickens was investigated by means of the transmission electron microscope. The epithelium lining the lumen of the paratympanic organ consists of sensory and non-sensory components. The sensory epithelium is composed of supporting and hair cells. The hair cells are similar to the type II receptor cells present in the neuroepithelia of the vestibule and of the lateral line organs. The afferent synapses at the bases of the hair cells are also described. The non-sensory epithelium is made up of cells with a clear cytoplasm and arranged in a single layer. It also contains dark, flattened cells which sometimes possess motile cilia. Special emphasis is given to the fact that the results agree with Vitali's theory that the paratympanic organ and the lateral line organs are homologous. It is concluded, therefore, that present knowledge about this structure is not yet sufficient to allow a definitive functional interpretation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693071
Yang, L; Mohr, I; Fouts, E; Lim, D A; Nohaile, M; Botchan, M
For efficient DNA replication of papillomaviruses, only two viral-encoded proteins, E1 and E2, are required. Other proteins and factors are provided by the host cell. E2 is an enhancer of both transcription and replication and is known to help E1 bind cooperatively to the origin of DNA replication. E1 is sufficient for replication in extracts prepared from permissive cells, but the activity is enhanced by E2. Here we show that purified E1 can act as an ATP-dependent DNA helicase. To measure this activity, we have used strand displacement, unwinding of topologically constrained DNA, denaturation of duplex fragments, and electron microscopy. The ability of E1 to unwind circular DNA is found to be independent of origin-specific viral DNA sequences under a variety of experimental conditions. In unfractionated cellular extracts, E1-dependent viral DNA replication is origin-dependent, but at elevated E1 concentrations, replication can occur on non-origin-containing DNA templates. This conversion from an origin-dependent replication system to a nonspecific initiator system is discussed in the context of the current understanding of the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8389467
Hegarty, M M; Bryer, J V; Angorn, I B; Baker, L W
Twenty-five patients with traumatic diaphragmatic hernia discovered at least five months after injury are described, of whom 18 were male and seven female. All but one hernia occurred on the left side. Stab wounds were the etiological factor in 22 patients and blunt trauma in three. The diagnosis was most often made by a chest or abdominal radiograph, but barium ingestion confirmed the diagnosis in ten patients. Intercostal drainage of gastric contents provided the diagnosis in two patients. In all nine patients initially approached by a thoracotomy or a thoracoabdominal incision, the hernia was easily reduced and the defect repaired. Although reduction and repair were easily accomplished by the abdominal route in seven patients, this approach was unsatisfactory or inadequate in six others. The colon and stomach were usually in the chest, and strangulation occurred in five patients. The mortality was 20% but rose to 80% when gangrene was present. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:686890
Munemitsu, S; Albert, I; Souza, B; Rubinfeld, B; Polakis, P
The APC tumor-suppressor protein associates with beta-catenin, a cell adhesion protein that is upregulated by the WNT1 oncogene. We examined the effects of exogenous APC expression on the distribution and amount of beta-catenin in a colorectal cancer cell containing only mutant APC. Expression of wild-type APC caused a pronounced reduction in total beta-catenin levels by eliminating an excessive supply of cytoplasmic beta-catenin indigenous to the SW480 colorectal cancer cell line. This reduction was due to an enhanced rate of beta-catenin protein degradation. Truncated mutant APC proteins, characteristic of those associated with cancer, lacked this activity. Mutational analysis revealed that the central region of the APC protein, which is typically deleted or severely truncated in tumors, was responsible for the down-regulation of beta-catenin. These results suggest that the tumor-suppressor activity of mutant APC may be compromised due to a defect in its ability to regulate beta-catenin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7708772
Two types of mechanoreceptor have been found in the articular capsule of the knee joint of the domestic cat--Ruffini corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. Ruffini corpuscles are situated in the stratum fibrosum and consist of 2 to 6 cylinders. Each cylinder is made up of an afferent axon (diameter 3-4 micrometer), its swellings and terminal processes, Schwann cells enveloping the nerve swellings and terminal processes, endoneural connective tissue and a perineural capsule. The perineural capsule is incomplete in Ruffini corpuscles. The Pacinian corpuscles are 20 to 40 micrometer wide and 150-250 micrometer long. They are situated in groups of up to five at the boundary between the stratum synoviale and the stratum fibrosum. The afferent axon is myelinated (diameter 3-5 micrometer). Its terminal portion is inside the inner bulb which is formed of modified Schwann cells. Each corpuscle is enveloped by a perineural capsule (4-8 layers). The ultrastructure of the Pacinian corpuscles is compared with the ultrastructure of the skin receptors in the cat. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:604339
Cristanti, A; Colantoni, A; Snodgrass, R; von Boehmer, H
We have examined the in situ expression of T cell receptor (TCR) V beta 8 protein in murine thymus during ontogeny using the monoclonal antibody F23.1. Positive cells were first detected at day 15 of gestation (0.6%). By day 16 the frequency of positive cells increased dramatically (4.18%). From day 16 to day 17 positive cells doubled (8.17%). The first clusters of F23.1 positive cells were seen at day 17. In the cortex, positive cells decreased from 14% in the newborn mice to 9.8% in 8-week-old mice, whereas in the medulla the frequency remained unchanged at 20%. The antibody F23.1, as well as an antiserum raised against the constant region of the beta chain, immunoprecipitated receptor dimers from highly purified Lyt2+, L3T4+ thymocytes and from two thymic lymphomas of cortical phenotype which express full size alpha and beta mRNA. The receptor dimer could not be precipitated from Lyt2-, L3T4- thymocytes. The results are discussed with regard to intrathymic T cell repertoire selection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2431899
Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.
Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771
Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A; Cerpenè, E; Rowlerson, A
The middle ear muscles of several species of carnivores (cat, dog, fox, ferret and stone-marten) and some New World monkeys (Callithrix, Saimiri) and Old World monkeys (Cercopithecus, Macaca) were examined. The fibre type compositions of these muscles were determined by a combination of the standard histochemical myofibrillar ATPase method, and immunohistochemical techniques using myosintype-specific antisera. Immunohistochemically slow-tonic fibres were found in the stapedius muscles of only two carnivores, the ferret and stone-marten. In all the carnivores and the New World monkeys, tensor tympani muscle contained IIM, slow-tonic and slow-twitch fibres, but in the Old World monkeys it resembled stapedius muscle, and contained only Type I (slow-twitch) and IIA fibres. Thus, because all the species examined had IIM fibres in the jaw-closer muscles, this means that the common embryological origin of tensor tympani muscle and the jaw-closers does not necessarily result in tensor tympani muscle containing this fibre type even though IIM fibres occur only in first branchial arch muscles. This fact, together with other species differences in the fibre type composition of these muscles, shows that there is no typical composition of middle ear muscles in general, and suggests that the differences are related to very different functional requirements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6415024
Oghiso, Y.; Kagan, E.; Brody, A. R.
Although all commercial types of asbestos can cause pulmonary fibrosis, little is known about ultrastructural differences in the evolution of pulmonary lesions induced by amphiboles and serpentines. The present study was designed to compare the histological and ultrastructural effects produced by chronic inhalation of either crocidolite (amphibole) or chrysotile (serpentine) asbestos in the rat. Animals, exposed by intermittent inhalation for 3 months, were killed after 2 to 16 months. When inhaled, both types of asbestos caused thickened alveolar duct bifurcations associated with macrophage aggregates. Crocidolite inhalation also produced subpleural collections of alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed some similarities, but also distinct differences, in the pulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite. Whereas both asbestos varieties were identified within the pulmonary interstitium, only crocidolite was detected inside alveolar macrophages. Chrysotile fibres were seen infrequently within the vascular compartment. Microcalcifications were noted after chrysotile inhalation, but were never observed following crocidolite exposure. Both asbestos types induced slight pulmonary fibrosis. These findings indicate that crocidolite and chrysotile produce different pathogenetic features, although both are fibrogenic. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:6087872
Washam, C. J.; Black, C. H.; Sandine, W. E.; Elliker, P. R.
Glass wool, nonabsorbent cotton, fiberglass filter medium, and a commercial absolute filter were tested for effectiveness in removing aerosolized bacterial viruses under low flow rate (1 ft3/min) and high flow rate (10 to 25 ft3/min) air-flow conditions. Special equipment was designed for measurement of filter efficiencies under the two air-flow conditions. Under low air-flow rate test conditions, glass wool was only 98.543 to 99.83% efficient, whereas cotton (five layers), fiberglass medium (three layers), and the commercial absolute filter were at least 99.900, 99.999, and 99.999 efficient, respectively. Glass wool and cotton were not used under higher air-flow conditions because they were difficult to assemble in leak-tight filters. The commercial absolute filter and fiberglass medium (three layers) were at least 99.990 and 99.999% efficient, respectively, under the higher air flow conditions. A stainless-steel filter of simple design and fitted with three layers of fiberglass medium was found to be greater than 99.999% efficient in removing high concentrations (20,000 to 70,000 plaque-forming units per cubic foot) of aerosolized bacteriophages from air moving at a low flow rate (1 ft3/min). Use of this filter on pressure-vacuum tanks in the fermentation industry is suggested. Several other uses of such a filter are proposed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:5927020
Birch, John R.; Shea, John; Currie, Donald J.
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is a method of visualizing the biliary tree by the injection of radio-opaque medium through the abdominal wall and liver into an intrahepatic bile duct. The procedure is indicated in the immediate preoperative evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice of unknown etiology and is usually diagnostic in these cases. It may also be of value in avoiding operation in poor-risk patients with obstructive jaundice. Biliary leak resulting in chemical peritonitis is a complication in about 5% of these procedures. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage is a complication in less than 1%. Death results from the procedure in less than 0.5% of cases. Transhepatic cholangiography during surgical operation is of value in demonstrating obstructive lesions of the bile ducts. However, preoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is preferred, since it makes possible adequate preparation for technically difficult repairs and resections. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:14158553
Fiori, M G
Schwann cells in ciliary ganglia of fowls aged five to seven years were found to contain numerous intranuclear inclusions and pseudo-inclusions. Similar inclusions were usually absent from both neurons and non-neuronal cells, including connective tissue cells, and were rare in Schwann cells of chickens aged less than five years. Inclusions were of two different types: filamentous bundles and granulofibrillar bodies. Individual nuclei contained one to three inclusions. Pseudo-inclusions, i.e. cytoplasmic pockets invaginated into the nuclei, were found more rarely and accompanied one or both types of 'true' inclusions. The possible significance of these findings in relation to ageing phenomena is discussed. It is concluded that intranuclear inclusions appear to be a consequence of nuclear/cellular activation and may be regarded as aggregates of previously dispersed intranuclear proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Figs. 11-12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-19 PMID:2833482
Lazcano, M A; Bentura, M L; Toledano, A
Vasopressin (VP)- and oxytocin (OXY)-producing neurons, components of the rat supraoptic nucleus, have been located with immunohistochemical methods, with the purpose of studying their morphofunctional characteristics during different phases of life (embryonic, juvenile, adult and senile). To carry out this study, an IBAS I (Kontron) computerised image analyser has been utilised. The hormone VP is first detected in the neuronal cytoplasm of 21 days old rat embryos and the hormone OXY appears in the neuronal cytoplasm later, in the newborn phase. The neuronal area with a positive reaction for the two neurohormones has been evaluated and it has been found that the quantity of reaction substance is proportional to the age. In the adult period, VP neurons possess a reaction area (198 microns 2) greater than that of OXY neurons (153 microns 2). In the SON, there are two neuronal shapes, fusiform and round; these shapes coexist in both hormonal types of neurons. Until Day 15 of postnatal development, the SON neurons are intermixed in the interior of the nucleus but in this period a neuronal redistribution is initiated. In the adult phase, OXY neurons are situated preferentially in the anterior, posterior and dorsal parts and VP neurons in the ventral and posterior parts, with both neurons being present in the intermediate part of the SON. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:2182586
Winkler, F K; Stanley, K K
Purified pig brain clathrin can be reversibly dissociated and separated into heavy chain trimers and light chains in the presence of non-denaturing concentrations of the chaotrope thiocyanate. The isolated heavy chain trimers reassemble into regular polygonal cage structures in the absence of light chains. The light chain fraction can be further resolved into its two components L alpha and L beta which give different one-dimensional peptide maps. Radiolabelled light chains bind with high affinity (KD < 10(-10) M) to heavy chain trimers, to heavy chain cages and to a 110,000 mol. wt. tryptic fragment of the heavy chain. Both light chains compete with each other and with light chains from other sources for the same binding sites on heavy chains and c.d. spectroscopy shows that the two pig brain light chains possess very similar structures. We conclude that light chains from different sources, despite some heterogeneity, have a highly conserved, high affinity binding site on the heavy chain but are not essential for the formation of regular cage structures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 8. PMID:10872336
Polak, Julia M.; Bloom, S.; Coulling, I.; Pearse, A. G. E.
Localization of the endocrine polypeptide cells responsible for `glucagon-like immunoreactivity' in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog has been achieved with an immunofluorescent technique using antibodies raised against porcine pancreatic glucagon. The cells, for which we prefer the term `enteroglucagon', could only be demonstrated by this technique in tissues fixed in carbodiimide. The enteroglucagon cells possess cytological, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics in common with those of the pancreatic α2 cell and they are equivalent in the stomach to the A cell and in the intestine to the L cell of the Wiesbaden terminology. Their distribution, predominantly in fundus and jejunum, correlates precisely with the distribution of glucagon-like immunoreactivity by radioimmunoassay and bioassay. The storage form of enteroglucagon differs in many respects from that of pancreatic glucagon although there are some close resemblances between the two forms of specific hormone-containing granule. Elucidation of the role of enteroglucagon should be assisted by the ability to demonstrate enteroglucagon cells. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:4930155
Sartori, A; Roque-Barreira, M C; Coe, J; Campos-Neto, A
In a previous report analysing kidney sections by immunofluorescence we showed that hamsters infected with L. donovani develop a glomerulonephritis (GN) associated with deposition of hamster immunoglobulins and parasite antigens in the glomeruli. In this study we characterize these immune components eluted from the kidneys. The eluted immunoglobulins showed specificity for L. donovani antigens and hamster immunoglobulins (rheumatoid factor-like activity). The four isotypes IgG1, IgG2, IgA and IgM were detected. Several L. donovani antigens were detected in the renal eluates by Western blot and immunoprecipitation using 125I-labelled eluates. Proteins with mol. wt of 134, 82, 52, 31, and 26 kD were detected by Western blot and proteins with 134, 110, 93, 89 and 48 kD were detected by immunoprecipitation. With the exception of the 134 kD protein which was recognized by both rabbit anti-promastigote and rabbit anti-amastigote sera all the others were recognized only by the anti-amastigote serum. The 134 kD protein was the only one isolated from the kidneys of infected hamster immunocomplexed with IgG and was the only one detected in a promastigote lysate using IgG from L. donovani-infected hamsters. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1544224
Khan, K D; Shuai, K; Lindwall, G; Maher, S E; Darnell, J E; Bothwell, A L
The murine Ly-6A/E gene is transcriptionally induced in cells exposed to interferon alpha/beta or gamma (IFN-alpha/beta or IFN-gamma). Analysis of the 5' flanking sequence using reporter plasmids that contain upstream elements of the Ly-6E gene has previously identified an approximately 850-base-pair IFN-responsive region that lacked an IFN-alpha-stimulated response element (ISRE), the element present and required for an IFN-alpha response of a number of genes. Analysis by deletion and stable transfection of the IFN-responsive region of the Ly-6E promoter has defined an 80-base-pair region containing an IFN-gamma activation site (GAS) but no ISRE that allows IFN-gamma and IFN-alpha inducibility of the Ly-6E gene. As tested by specific antiserum, a 91-kDa protein known to be activated in IFN-alpha- or IFN-gamma-treated cells binds to the GAS element from the Ly-6E promoter. The 91-kDa protein exists as an inactive cytoplasmic precursor and depends on tyrosine phosphorylation for its activation. Thus the same 91-kDa protein appears to act in the signal transduction pathways of both types of IFN for the Ly-6-A/E gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7688129
Dveksler, G S; Pensiero, M N; Dieffenbach, C W; Cardellichio, C B; Basile, A A; Elia, P E; Holmes, K V
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59 uses as cellular receptors members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family in the immunoglobulin superfamily. Recombinant receptor proteins with deletions of whole or partial immunoglobulin domains were used to identify the regions of receptor glycoprotein recognized by virus and by antireceptor monoclonal antibody CC1, which blocks infection of murine cells. Monoclonal antibody CC1 and MHV-A59 virions bound only to recombinant proteins containing the entire first domain of MHV receptor. To determine which of the proteins could serve as functional virus receptors, receptor-negative hamster cells were transfected with recombinant deletion clones and then challenged with MHV-A59 virions. Receptor activity required the entire N-terminal domain with either the second or the fourth domain and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Recombinant proteins lacking the first domain or its C-terminal portion did not serve as viral receptors. Thus, like other virus receptors in the immunoglobulin superfamily, including CD4, poliovirus receptor, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, the N-terminal domain of MHV receptor is recognized by the virus and the blocking monoclonal antibody. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8383324
Spaeth, Stephen C.
Intracellular substances leak from imbibing cotyledons of grain legumes during imbibition. This work reports the discovery of a biophysical process by which intracellular substances are driven from cotyledons during imbibition. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) cotyledons and the material released from them into imbibition water. A large fraction of the visible materials released from excised bean and pea cotyledons during the first 30 minutes of imbibition consisted of convoluted or helical streams of material which rapidly emerged from the cotyledons surfaces. Large streams of material from bean cotyledons contained starch grains and protein bodies, and smaller streams from bean and pea cotyledons probably contained protein bodies. The forms of streams were characteristic of a viscous fluid which had been forced by pressure through irregular orifices. The sites of extrusion from bean cotyledons were multicellular blisters which formed on the surfaces of imbibing cotyledons. In 6 hours, pea and bean cotyledons leaked from 1 to 11 micrograms protein per milligram of seed dry weight. The quantities of protein leaked primarily depended on cultivar. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665661
Horan, G S; Wu, K; Wolgemuth, D J; Behringer, R R
Hoxa-4 (previously known as Hox-1.4) is a mouse homeobox-containing gene that is expressed in the presumptive hindbrain and spinal cord, prevertebrae, and other tissues during embryogenesis. To understand the role of Hoxa-4 during development, we generated Hoxa-4 mutant mice. Homozygous mutants were viable and fertile. Analysis of neonatal skeletons revealed the development of ribs on the seventh cervical vertebra at variable penetrance and expressivity. A low frequency of alterations in sternal morphogenesis was also observed. In addition, we analyzed the skeletons of transgenic mice that overexpress Hoxa-4 and found that the formation of the small rib anlagen that often develop on the seventh cervical vertebra was suppressed. Analysis of adult homozygous mutant skeletons revealed that the dorsal process normally associated with the second cervical vertebra was also found on the third cervical vertebra. These results demonstrate that Hoxa-4 plays a role in conferring positional information along the anteroposterior axis to specify the identity of the third and the seventh cervical vertebrae. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7809093
Sheng, S; Carey, J; Seftor, E A; Dias, L; Hendrix, M J; Sager, R
Maspin, a novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin), inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis of mammary carcinoma. We show here that recombinant maspin protein blocks the motility of these carcinoma cells in culture over 12 h, as demonstrated by time-lapse video microscopy. Lamellopodia are withdrawn but ruffling continues. Both exogenous recombinant maspin and maspin expressed by tumor transfectants exhibit inhibitory effects on cell motility and cell invasion as shown in modified Boyden chamber assays. In addition, three prostatic cancer cell lines treated with recombinant maspin exhibited similar inhibition of both invasion and motility, suggesting a similar mode of maspin action in these two glandular epithelial cancers. When mammary carcinoma cells were treated with recombinant maspin, the protein was shown by immunostaining to bind specifically to the cell surface, suggesting that maspin activity is membrane associated. When pretreated with antimaspin antibody, maspin loses its inhibitory effects on both invasion and motility. However, when maspin is added to these cells preceding antibody treatment, the activity of maspin is no longer inhibited by subsequent addition of the antibody. It is concluded therefore that the inhibition of invasion and motility by maspin is initially localized to the cell surface. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876194
Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.
Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286
Gokhale, S. D.; Gulati, O. D.; Joshi, N. Y.
Bretylium and guanethidine blocked the pressor effect of physostigmine and potentiated the responses to adrenaline and noradrenaline on the blood pressure of the rat. Morphine and atropine in small doses blocked the pressor effect of physostigmine without interfering with the actions of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Chlorpromazine in small doses (0.5 to 2.5 mg/kg) blocked the pressor effect of physostigmine and potentiated the responses to noradrenaline whilst those to adrenaline remained unaltered. 3,6-Di(3-diethylaminopropoxy)pyridazine di(methiodide) (Win 4981) blocked the pressor effect of physostigmine and, in its early stages, this block was partially reversed by choline chloride. N-Diethylaminoethyl-N-isopentyl-N'N'-diisopropylurea (P-286), in a dose that reduced the effect of dimethylphenylpiperazinium, had no effect on the pressor response to physostigmine or on the responses to adrenaline and noradrenaline. Hexamethonium, even in large doses (100 mg/kg), only blocked partially the effect of physostigmine while mecamylamine produced a complete block; the responses to adrenaline and noradrenaline were potentiated in both instances. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14081658
Matthes, Hans W.D.; Zenke, W. Martin; Grundström, Thomas; Staub, Adrien; Wintzerith, Marguerite; Chambon, Pierre
An inexpensive, extremely rapid manual method for simultaneous synthesis of large numbers of oligodeoxyribonucleotides on 50 or 150 nanomole scale is described. The oligonucleotides are assembled in parallel by the phosphotriester method on small cellulose paper disks in a simple gas pressure-controlled continuous-flow system. For each addition of a nucleotide the disks are sorted into four sets which are placed in four columns for addition of A, C, G and T, respectively. During one 2-week period, three rounds of synthesis by this method yielded 254 oligomers (8- to 22-mers), many of which were also purified during this time. Using 50 nanomole scale reactions the yields for 17-mers, for example, were in the range of 0.5 O.D.260 units (˜5 nmol, i.e., ˜10% yield), an amount sufficient for most purposes. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and for the most part usually already available in molecular biology laboratories. All chemicals are commercially available and the current reagent cost per oligonucleotide (25 μg, average length 17-mer) is ˜3 US dollars. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16453516
Williams, J M; Brandt, K D
Recent studies have indicated that immobilisation of the lower limb may prevent surface fibrillation and osteophyte formation, and reduce cell depletion, following injection of iodoacetate into the ipsilateral knee of the guinea-pig. The present study shows that temporary immobilisation also facilitates repair of the damaged cartilage during a subsequent period of remobilisation in which the animal is permitted to move 'on all fours'. Thus, in animals killed six weeks after a single intra-articular injection of iodoacetate (0.3 mg in 0.1 ml saline), and in which the injected knee had been immobilised for three weeks, Safranin-O staining of the articular cartilage was more intense, chondrocyte density greater, and osteophytosis much less marked than in animals injected with iodoacetate but killed immediately after the three weeks immobilisation period. By contrast, immobilisation for only one week failed to protect against degenerative changes and osteophytes caused by iodoacetate injection. Immobilisation alone produced no apparent pathological changes in animals which did not receive iodoacetate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6735906
Hagemoser, W A; Kluge, J P; Hill, H T
Domestic cats were inoculated orally with an Iowa isolate of pseudorabies virus. Several cats were killed at intervals of one day and tissues were examined virologically and histologically to determine the initial sites of virus penetration and replication and to evaluate the pathways traveled by the virus from the mouth to the central nervous system. Lesions were consistent in the tonsils, along the pathways of the sensory branches of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves, the tractus and nucleus solitarius and the area postrema in the medulla. Less consistent lesions in the ganglia and nuclei of the fifth cranial nerve indicated a lesser role for the passage of virus via this nerve. Nervous lesions consisted of multifocal to diffuse microgliosis, mononuclear perivascular cuffing and a mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration with a variable number of neutrophils occasionally forming microabscesses. Virus isolations correlated well with microscopic lesions. Ultrastructurally, virions were observed within the nucleus of the neurons in the medulla. Clinical signs were similar to those previously reported. Pruritus was consistently absent. Virus was isolated consistently for the first two or three days postinoculation from oral and nasal secretions but not from secretions after three days. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6250684
Toth, Bela; Wilson, Richard B.
Administration of 0.001% 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, symmetrical, in the drinking water of 7-week-old randomly bred Swiss mice for the remainder of their lifetime induced blood vessel tumors and enhanced the incidence of lung neoplasms. Ninety-eight percent of the females and 92% of the males developed vascular lesions, whereas among the controls the incidence was 3% in the females and 1% in the males. In addition, the incidence of lung tumors rose from 12 to 44% in the females and from 10 to 24% in the males, as compared with the controls. The occurrence of the vascular tumors in order of decreasing frequency was as follows: muscle, pararenal, fat, liver, parametrial, paraepididymal tissues, etc. Gross, light and electron microscopic examinations of vascular lesions revealed the characteristic appearance of angiosarcomas. The type and extent of macroscopic and histologic involvements of the various tissues by the tumors are presented. The ultrastructural descriptions of hemorrhagic areas, vascular spaces, neoplastic endothelial cells, their cytoplasms and organelles are illustrated in detail. In conclusion, whereas hydrazine enhanced the development of lung tumors, when the dimethyl group was attached to it at symmetrical positions, it evoked vascular tumors. Thus, the present study provides evidence for the possible relationship between chemical structure and tumor induction at specific organ sites. ImagesFig 10Fig 9Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8 PMID:5133519
2 Fig. 3 FEA model for the ATD lower-leg loading...3 Fig. 4 Typical pressure distribution under the boot sole in the FEA result ................................ 4 Fig. 5 Load histories of...the ATD lower leg in 10-meter-per-second (m/s), 10-millisecond (msec) pulse loading FEA
Alder, V. G.; Gingell, J. C.; Mitchell, J. P.
A new method of disinfection adapted for endoscopic instruments uses low temperature steam at 80°C or steam and formaldehyde at 80°C. The process has considerable advantages over existing methods and more closely approaches the ideal requirements. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:5569551
Lossi, L; Ghidella, S; Marroni, P; Merighi, A
the adult animal is attained. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8586569
Lauter, F R; Ninnemann, O; Bucher, M; Riesmeier, J W; Frommer, W B
Root hairs as specialized epidermal cells represent part of the outermost interface between a plant and its soil environment. They make up to 70% of the root surface and, therefore, are likely to contribute significantly to nutrient uptake. To study uptake systems for mineral nitrogen, three genes homologous to Arabidopsis nitrate and ammonium transporters (AtNrt1 and AtAmt1) were isolated from a root hair-specific tomato cDNA library. Accumulation of LeNrt1-1, LeNrt1-2, and LeAmt1 transcripts was root-specific, with no detectable transcripts in stems or leaves. Expression was root cell type-specific and regulated by nitrogen availability. LeNrt1-2 mRNA accumulation was restricted to root hairs that had been exposed to nitrate. In contrast, LeNrt1-1 transcripts were detected in root hairs as well as other root tissues under all nitrogen treatments applied. Analogous to LeNrt1-1, the gene LeAmt1 was expressed under all nitrogen conditions tested, and root hair-specific mRNA accumulation was highest following exposure to ammonium. Expression of LeAMT1 in an ammonium uptake-deficient yeast strain restored growth on low ammonium medium, confirming its involvement in ammonium transport. Root hair specificity and characteristics of substrate regulation suggest an important role of the three genes in uptake of mineral nitrogen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8755617
Jaeger, J L; Shimizu, N; Gitlin, J D
Using a ceruloplasmin cDNA clone in RNA blot analysis, a single 3.7 kb ceruloplasmin-specific transcript was detected in rat mammary gland tissue from pregnant and lactating animals. Ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland was tissue-specific, with no evidence of expression in brain, heart or other extrahepatic tissues. Ceruloplasmin mRNA was also detected in mammary gland tissue from male, virgin female and non-pregnant/multiparous animals, and the abundance of ceruloplasmin-specific transcripts in virgin female rats was independent of their stage of oestrus. In virgin female mammary gland the content of ceruloplasmin mRNA was 20% of that in hepatic tissue from these animals and approx. 2-3-fold greater than that found in mammary gland tissue of pregnant or lactating animals. Development studies revealed ceruloplasmin gene expression in male and female mammary gland by only 2 weeks of age, prior to the onset of puberty. Biosynthetic studies indicated that the ceruloplasmin mRNA in mammary gland tissue was translated into a 132 kDa protein qualitatively similar to that synthesized in liver. By in situ hybridization, ceruloplasmin gene expression was localized to the epithelium lining the mammary gland alveolar ducts, without evidence of expression in the surrounding mesenchyme. Ceruloplasmin gene expression was also detected in a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line and in biopsy tissue from women with invasive ductal carcinoma. Taken together, these data indicate that the mammary gland is a prominent site of extrahepatic ceruloplasmin gene expression and add to the evidence that ceruloplasmin biosynthesis is associated with growth and differentiation in non-hepatic tissues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1764031
Ravichandran, K S; Igras, V; Shoelson, S E; Fesik, S W; Burakoff, S J
Stimulation via the T-cell growth factor interleukin 2 (IL-2) leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, the interaction of Shc with Grb2, and the Ras GTP/GDP exchange factor, mSOS. Shc also coprecipitates with the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), and therefore, may link IL-2R to Ras activation. We have further characterized the Shc-IL-2R interaction and have made the following observations. (i) Among the two phosphotyrosine-interaction domains present in Shc, the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, rather than its SH2 domain, interacts with the tyrosine-phosphorylated IL-2R beta chain. Moreover, the Shc-PTB domain binds a phosphopeptide derived from the IL-2R beta chain (corresponding to residues surrounding Y338, SCFTNQGpYFF) with high affinity. (ii) In vivo, mutant IL-2R beta chains lacking the acidic region of IL-2Rbeta (which contains Y338) fail to phosphorylate Shc. Furthermore, when wild type or mutant Shc proteins that lack the PTB domain were expressed in the IL-2-dependent CTLL-20 cell line, an intact Shc-PTB domain was required for Shc phosphorylation by the IL-2R, which provides further support for a Shc-PTB-IL-2R interaction in vivo. (iii) PTB and SH2 domains of Shc associate with different proteins in IL-2- and T-cell-receptor-stimulated lysates, suggesting that Shc, through the concurrent use of its two different phosphotyrosine-binding domains, could assemble multiple protein complexes. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that the PTB domain of Shc interacts with Y338 of the IL-2R and provide evidence for a functional role for the Shc-PTB domain in IL-2 signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643566
Jericho, K. W. F.; Strausz, K. I.; Martin, P. J.
Disease in a large pig herd reared intensively and kept on sulfate-rich drinking water is described. It is the first report of diseased progeny of sows with high sulfate intake. Results of two surveys are presented, one for water with sulfate in excess of 2000 ppm and one for water with less than 1000 ppm. The management practices are described in detail. Disease of Survey I was manifested by high morbidity and mortality (50% of 600) in piglets, incoordination in piglets and some adult stock and osteopathy in piglets and weaners. In Survey II disease was less severe and restricted to piglets. Detailed histopathological studies revealed myelin deficiency in brain and spinal cord of sows and piglets, interferred endochondreal ossification of long bones of piglets and weaners, fatty changes of livers and interstitial nephritis in piglets and weaners. The changes in the nervous tissue were considered due to delayed fixation as tissue was only immersed in fixative and not perfused with it immediately after death. Similar changes have been described for pigs deficient in copper. Copper content of tissue and body fluids of pigs of this study were normal, as were the serum inorganic phosphate and total calcium levels. The bone changes observed have also been reported for rats given dextran sulfate injections, for pigs on experimental low-copper sulfate-enriched diet and for pigs reported low in copper and fed a diet supplemented with sulfide. The cause of the locomotor disturbance and mortality in piglets was not established. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4270430
Pumplin, D W; Reese, T S
1. Structural changes which normally accompany transmitter release at frog neuromuscular junctions are visualized with the freeze-fracture technique. The effects of brown widow spider venom and botulinum toxin were evaluated in terms of their ability to block or produce these structural changes. Changes produced by these neuropoisons were correlated with their known effects on neurotransmitter release. 3. Fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasmalemma, normally evoked by electrical stimulation, was abolished at neuromuscular junctions from frogs treated with botulinum toxin. 3. The concentration of large intramembranous particles in the presynaptic plasmalemma, an indication of the excess of synaptic vesicle fusion over recovery of synaptic vesicle membrane, was increased by treatment with brown widow spider venom, even in the presence of botulinum toxin. 4. When external calcium was present, sites of vesicle fusion induced by brown widow spider venom, as well as by electrical stimulation, were located mainly in the active zone. In the absence of external calcium, many plasmalemmal deformations, also though to be sites of vesicle fusion, were more evenly dispersed over the presynaptic surface of nerve terminals. 5. Botulinum toxin decreased the number of vesicle fusion sites in the active zone induced by spider venom in the presence of external calcium but had little effect on the number of fusion sites induced by spider venom in the absence of external calcium. 6. Nerve terminals soaked in a sodium-free Ringer solution were partially depleted of vesicles. Addition of spider venom to this Ringer did not cause additional depletion of vesicles. 7. Formation of cation-permeable channels in the presynaptic membrane could account for these effects of spider venom on the frog neuromuscular junction. Botulinum toxin blocks vesicle fusion by some means which is not yet understood. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:202700
Stratmann, U; Schaarschmidt, K; Lehmann, R R; Schürenberg, M; Willital, G H; Berens, A
The oesophagus of 18 minipiglets was exposed to endoscopic intraluminal irradiation with a 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser (10 W, 20 s) via a radial applicator with strictly radially symmetric light distribution. Immediately and at 2, 3, 4 and 8 wk after irradiation, the oesophagus was perfusion-fixed and filled with contrast solution. Radiographs were taken for evaluation by microradiometry. The specimens were subsequently prepared for light and transmission electron microscopy. The immediate reaction to irradiation was a morphological gradient of damage extending from the centre of the laser exposure where there was cellular thermonecrosis in all layers of the wall and condensation of the extracellular matrix, to a peripheral zone (at a distance of up to 8 mm from the region where the laser was centred) which showed only minor tissue damage manifested by intracellular vacuolation. In this zone dilatation of most vascular lumina was prominent. In the period between 2 and 8 wk after irradiation all phases of wound healing were observed and resulted in occlusion of the lumen of the oesophagus by early scar tissue after an interval of more than 3 wk at the former centre of laser exposure. Peripherally, epithelial regeneration resulted in a new luminal lining. Both the process of epithelial regeneration and that of fibrous repair indicated a good reparative capacity of laser-irradiated oesophageal wall tissues resembling the phases of normal wound healing. The immediate laser interaction with tissue indicated that the noncellular matrix components of tissues are more resistant to the photothermal effect than the cellular components. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8586565
Daròs, J A; Marcos, J F; Hernández, C; Flores, R
The structure of a series of RNAs extracted from avocado infected by the 247-nt avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) was investigated. The identification of multistranded complexes containing circular ASBVd RNAs of (+) and (-) polarity suggests that replication of ASBVd proceeds through a symmetric pathway with two rolling circles where these two circular RNAs are the templates. This is in contrast to the replication of potato spindle tuber viroid and probably of most of its related viroids, which proceeds via an asymmetric pathway where circular (+)-strand and linear multimeric (-)-strand RNAs are the two templates. Linear (+) and (-) ASBVd RNAs of subgenomic length (137 nt and about 148 nt, respectively) and one linear (+)-strand ASBVd RNA of supragenomic length (383-384 nt) were also found in viroid-infected tissue. The two linear (+)-strand RNAs have the same 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences, with the supragenomic species being a fusion product of the monomeric and subgenomic (+)-strand ASBVd RNAs. The 3' termini of these two (+)-strand molecules, which at least in the subgenomic RNA has an extra nontemplate cytidylate residue, could represent sites of either premature termination of the (+)-strands or specific initiation of the (-)-strands. The 5' termini of sub- and supragenomic (+)-strand and the 5' terminus of the subgenomic (-)-strand ASBVd RNA are identical to those produced in the in vitro self-cleavage reactions of (+) and (-) dimeric ASBVd RNAs, respectively. These observations strongly suggest that the hammerhead structures which mediate the in vitro self-cleavage reactions are also operative in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7809126
Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.
Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563
Möritz, Th.; Edström, J. E.; Pongs, O.
The puffing cycle of salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila larvae, which initiates the developmental path to pupariation, is induced by ecdysteroid hormone. Its action leads to prominent puffs at loci 2B5, 74EF and 75B. Fragments of the 74EF puff of the D. melanogaster 3L chromosome were microdissected from salivary gland squashes. EcoRI-digested DNA of these fragments was cloned into λ phage. Clones were screened with puff stage-specific cDNA probes. Thirteen out of 650 clones hybridized preferentially with puff stage 4-specific cDNA. The prominent early puffs at 74EF and 75B are most active between puff stage 4 and 6. Therefore, one of the 13 λ phages was chosen for further analysis. It was used to isolate 24 kb of Drosophila DNA from genomic libraries. The DNA hybridized in situ to locus 74F. The 74F DNA coded for a transcript, which was made in salivary glands, but not in fat body of third instar larvae. It accumulated in KC cells in response to ecdysteroid treatment. The polyadenylated transcript size was ˜2.7 kb as judged by Nothern blot analysis. The transcription start site of the 74F gene has been mapped. Sequences upstream of the transcription site contain several sequence elements common to other eucaryotic genes, including potential Z-DNA forming sequences. Also, there is sequence homology to upstream sequences, which have been involved in the regulation of transcription of the salivary gland glue protein 4 gene. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:16453498
Kunze, E.; Ruschitzka, F.; Schwalbe, K.
The present study reports the induction, histopathology, immunocytochemistry, growth pattern and proliferative behaviour of mesenchymal tumours of the urinary bladder of rats induced by a single intravesical dose (5 mg/kg/body weight) of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). In 14 of 283 female Wistar rats (incidence: 4.9%). 16 non-epithelial tumours had developed after an experimental period of 14 months. The most common histological type induced was of fibrohistiocytic origin (eight benign-appearing and three malignant fibrous histiocytomas). Furthermore, two pure histiocytomas (one benign and one malignant) and three capillary and cavernous haemangiomas were produced. Since no metastases occurred and no clear-cut distinction between a merely expansive and a truly invasive growth was possible, the diagnosis of malignancy was based on the degree of cellular atypia and the mitotic activity. The benign-appearing fibrous histiocytomas showed a mean mitotic index of 0.06% and the malignant fibrous histiocytomas of 0.34%. The mitotic activity of the malignant histiocytoma was threefold (0.78%) as high as in the benign-appearing histiocytoma (0.25%). There exist close morphological similarities between the induced mesenchymal tumours in the rat and those occurring in the human bladder. Although the spectrum of histological types of mesenchymal tumours seen in the rat bladder was narrower than that encountered in man, MNU seems suitable for further studying the histogenesis, histopathology and biology of experimentally induced non-epithelial bladder neoplasms to gain information for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of human disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:2164825
Werner, H; Karnieli, E; Rauscher, F J; LeRoith, D
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-I-R) plays a critical role in transformation events. It is highly overexpressed in most malignant tissues where it functions as an anti-apoptotic agent by enhancing cell survival. Tumor suppressor p53 is a nuclear transcription factor that blocks cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. Cotransfection of Saos-2 (os-teosarcoma-derived cells) and RD (rhabdomyosarcoma-derived cells) cells with IGF-I-R promoter constructs driving luciferase reporter genes and with wild-type p53 expression vectors suppressed promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of p53 is mediated at the level of transcription and it involves interaction with TBP, the TATA box-binding component of TFIID. On the other hand, three tumor-derived mutant forms of p53 (mut 143, mut 248, and mut 273) stimulated the activity of the IGF-I-R promoter and increased the levels of IGF-I-R/luciferase fusion mRNA. These results suggest that wild-type p53 has the potential to suppress the IGF-I-R promoter in the postmitotic, fully differentiated cell, thus resulting in low levels of receptor gene expression in adult tissues. Mutant versions of p53 protein, usually associated with malignant states, can derepress the IGF-I-R promoter, with ensuing mitogenic activation by locally produced or circulating IGFs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8710868
Tusié-Luna, M T; White, P C
Most cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, the inherited inability to synthesize cortisol, are caused by mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21). Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is unusual among genetic diseases in that approximately 95% of the mutant alleles have apparently been generated by recombination between a normally active gene (CYP21) and a linked pseudogene (CYP21P). Approximately 20% of mutant alleles carry DNA deletions of 30 kb that have presumably been generated by unequal meiotic crossing-over, whereas 75% carry one or more mutations in CYP21 that are normally found in the CYP21P pseudogene. These latter mutations are termed "gene conversions," although the mechanism by which they are generated is not well understood. To assess the frequency at which these different recombination events occur, we have used PCR to detect de novo deletions and gene conversions in matched sperm and peripheral blood leukocyte DNA samples from normal individuals. Deletions with breakpoints in a 100-bp region in intron 2 and exon 3 were detected in sperm DNA samples with frequencies of approximately 1 in 10(5)-10(6) genomes but were never detected in the matching leukocyte DNA. Gene conversions in the same region occur in approximately 1 in 10(3)-10(5) genomes in both sperm and leukocyte DNA. These data suggest that whereas deletions occur exclusively in meiosis, gene conversions occur during both meiosis and mitosis, or perhaps only during mitosis. Thus, gene conversions must occur by a mechanism distinct from unequal crossing-over. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479886
Skoryna, Stanley C.
calcium. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:6120036
Stoltz, R A; Abraham, N G; Laniado-Schwartzman, M
The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB by 12(R)-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid [12(R)-HETrE], an arachidonic acid metabolite with potent stereospecific proinflammatory and angiogenic properties, was examined and its role in the angiogenic response was determined in capillary endothelial cells derived from coronary microvessels. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay of nuclear protein extracts from cells treated with 12(R)-HETrE demonstrated a rapid and stereospecific time- and concentration-dependent increase in the binding activity of NF-kappaB, which was inhibitable by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine, butylated hydroxyanisole, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and was partially attenuated by the protein kinase C inhibitors, staurosporine and calphostin C. Neither 12(S)-HETrE nor other related eicosanoids--e.g., 12(R)-HETE, 12(S)-HETE, and leukotriene B4--stimulated the activation of NF-kappaB relative to 12(R)-HETrE, substantiating the claim for a specific receptor-mediated mechanism. 12(R)-HETrE stimulated the formation of capillary-like cords of microvessel endothelial cells distinguishable from a control; this effect was comparable to that observed with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation resulted in inhibition of capillary-like formation of endothelial cells treated with 12(R)-HETrE by 80% but did not affect growth observed with bFGF. It is suggested that 12(R)-HETrE's angiogenic activity involves the activation of NF-kappaB, possibly via protein kinase C stimulation and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates for downstream signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8610127
Cuadros, M A; García-Martín, M; Martin, C; Ríos, A
The existence of specialised phagocytic cells is described in regions of the retinal neuroepithelium undergoing intense cell death during early differentiation of the avian embryo retina (2.5-5 days of incubation). These results were obtained using routine techniques for light microscopy, acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunocytochemical staining with antibodies MB-1 and QH-1, both specific for quail endothelial cells and all blood cells except mature erythrocytes. Specialised phagocytes were distinguishable from neuroepithelial cells on the basis of morphological criteria: in the former, the nucleus was not oval in shape and was not oriented perpendicular to basement membrane neuroepithelium. The cytoplasm of the specialised phagocytes was often filled with dead cell fragments. In contrast to neuroepithelial cells, the specialised phagocytes showed acid phosphatase activity and were labelled with both MB-1 and QH-1 antibodies in normal quail embryos and chick----quail yolk sac chimeras. Moreover, some acid phosphatase positive and MB-1/QH-1 positive cells also appeared in the presumptive vitreous body, at the edges of the optic cup and in the surrounding mesenchyme. As the vitreal cells and the specialised phagocytes of the neural retina were immunolabelled in chick----quail yolk sac chimeras, we conclude that they are derived from haemopoietic cells in the yolk sac. Some images suggest that these cells enter the vitreous body from the surrounding mesenchyme and traverse the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium in the optic disc region to give rise to the specialised phagocytes of the retinal neuroepithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:1769889
Espelie, Karl E.; Franceschi, Vincent R.; Kolattukudy, P. E.
Thin sections of wound-healing potato tuber tissue were stained with rabbit antibody prepared against a suberization-associated anionic peroxidase and then stained with a goat anti-rabbit antibody-fluorescein conjugate. When these sections were examined with an epiilluminating fluorescence microscope, bright green fluorescent linear deposits were observed on the inner side of cell walls in the periderm layer. Initial deposits which were often not contiguous throughout the wall were first observed in some cells after 3 days of wound-healing and subsequently these layers became more pronounced so that all 6 day old periderm cells had green fluorescent layers on their inner walls. This fluorescence was not present in the walls of parenchyma cells or in the walls of periderm cells treated with preimmune serum and anti-rabbit IgG-FITC conjugate. Thin sections of wound-healing potato tissue which were stained with anti-peroxidase antibody and a goat anti-rabbit antibody-rhodamine conjugate exhibited a similar time course of development with a bright reddish-orange fluorescent layer observed on the inside wall of periderm cells. The production of this suberization-associated anionic peroxidase in wound-healing tissue was also demonstrated by an immunobinding dot blot assay which showed that the largest increase in the enzyme level occurred between 4 and 6 days of wound-healing. The present results support the hypothesis that this anionic peroxidase is involved in the deposition of the aromatic polymeric domain of suberin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 and 15 PMID:16664843
Tzeng, E; Billiar, T R; Robbins, P D; Loftus, M; Stuehr, D J
Murine inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) is catalytically active only in dimeric form. Assembly of its purified subunits into a dimer requires H4B. To understand the structure-activity relationships of human iNOS, we constitutively expressed recombinant human iNOS in NIH 3T3 cells by using a retroviral vector. These cells are deficient in de novo H4B biosynthesis and the role of H4B in the expression and assembly of active iNOS in an intact cell system could be studied. In the absence of added H4B, NO synthesis by the cells was minimal, whereas cells grown with supplemental H4B or the H4B precursor sepiapterin generated NO (74.1 and 63.3 nmol of nitrite per 10(6) cells per 24 h, respectively). NO synthesis correlated with an increase in intracellular H4B but no increase in iNOS protein. Instead, an increased percentage of dimeric iNOS was observed, rising from 20% in cytosols from unsupplemented cells to 66% in H4B-supplemented cell cytosols. In all cases, only dimeric iNOS displayed catalytic activity. Cytosols prepared from H4B-deficient cells exhibited little iNOS activity but acquired activity during a 60- to 120-min incubation with H4B, reaching final activities of 60-72 pmol of citrulline per mg of protein per min. Reconstitution of cytosolic NO synthesis activity was associated with conversion of monomers into dimeric iNOS during the incubation. Thus, human iNOS subunits dimerize to form an active enzyme, and H4B plays a critical role in promoting dimerization in intact cells. This reveals a post-translational mechanism by which intracellular H4B can regulate iNOS expression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8524846
Feliciano, D V; Spjut-Patrinely, V; Burch, J M; Mattox, K L; Bitondo, C G; Cruse-Martocci, P; Jordan, G L
From 1980 to 1989, 240 adult patients underwent splenorrhaphy at one urban trauma center. This represents 43.4% of all splenic injuries seen during this time interval. Splenic injuries were graded I to V, and splenorrhaphy was attempted except when the spleen was shattered or when multiple injuries with associated hypotension were present. Penetrating wounds, blunt trauma, or iatrogenic/unknown etiologies were present in 54.2%, 41.6%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively. Grade I or II injuries were present in 51.7% of patients, grade III in 34.6%, grade IV or V in 9.6%, and unknown grade in 4.1%. The technique of splenorrhaphy was simple suture (usually chromic) with or without the addition of topical hemostatic agents in 200 patients (83.3%), topical agents alone in 12 (5%), unknown type of repair in 12 (5%), compression, cautery, or nonbleeding injury in 9 (3.8%), and partial or hemisplenectomy in 7 (2.9%). Postoperative rebleeding occurred in three patients (1.3%) with grade II, III, and IV injuries, respectively, and led to splenectomy at reoperation. In another patient who had a hemisplenectomy performed for a grade IV injury, subphrenic abscesses and septic shock led to the death of the patient. Splenorrhaphy can be safely performed in properly selected adult patients after a variety of injuries. The risk of rebleeding is practically nil when the spleen is fully mobilized and visualized during repair. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2339918
Cameron, J L; Herlong, H F; Sanfey, H; Boitnott, J; Kaufman, S L; Gott, V L; Maddrey, W C
Twelve patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome have been managed surgically. Ten of the patients were female, two were male, with a mean age of 40 years. Three of the patients had polycythemia vera, two had pre-existing cirrhosis, one had ingested estrogens, one had an occult tumor, and in four there were no associated factors. Ten patients presented with ascites and two with bleeding esophageal varices. The diagnosis was confirmed in all 12 patients by liver biopsy and hepatic vein catheterization. Inferior vena cavography revealed the abdominal vena cava to be thrombosed in six patients. The superior mesenteric vein was used to decompress the congested liver in all 12 patients. In five patients, a mesocaval shunt (MCS) was performed and in seven patients, a mesoatrial shunt (MAS) was carried out. There were four hospital deaths (two MCS, two MAS). One late death (MAS) occurred from liver failure following shunt thrombosis. Two additional patients (one MCS, one MAS) re-developed ascites immediately following surgery and angiography revealed a thrombosed shunt. Ascites has been controlled with a LeVeen shunt in these two patients, but liver biopsies showed progression to cirrhosis. The remaining five patients (three MAS, two MCS) did well, and angiography revealed patent shunts. Two of these patients, however, re-developed ascites at 4 and 10 months following MAS and required a second MAS. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 68 months. In three of the patients (two MCS, one MAS) with patent shunts, liver biopsy shows a remarkable return toward normal liver architecture and histology. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6615056
Johnston, H S; McGadey, J; Thompson, G G; Moore, M R; Payne, A P
The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content were examined in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). The gland consisted of tubules lined by a single layer of epithelial cells and a myoepithelial network. The tubule cells were often binucleate and possessed lipid vacuoles in the apical half of the cell, a corona of granular endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus, and cytoplasmic 'slashes'. The latter are probably derived from dense membranous couplets and may be precursors of the lipid vacuoles. Holocrine and merocrine secretion was observed. Interstitial cells included plasma cells, mast cells and (predominantly) melanocytes which render the gland black. The gland was surrounded by a collagen capsule and an outer layer of highly attenuated (possibly endothelioid) cells. Within the gland, the secretory duct was lined by a single layer of normal tubule cells. Outside the gland, the duct enlarged to form an ampulla, from which clefts led off to deep crypts. The ampulla and clefts were lined by cells with small dense apical granules and stubby microvilli; some possessed lipid vacuoles. The crypts were lined by serous cells with active Golgi regions. At the duct opening, ampullary cells became squamous and goblet cells occurred. Geometric crystalloid deposits (with a layered structure of 7.6 nm periodicity) occurred at cleft-crypt junctions. Islets of extra-glandular ductal tissue were occasionally found within the gland. Porphyrins were detectable both by chemical assay and fluorescence microscopy. There was a trend for female glands to have a higher content than males. Solid intraluminal accretions of porphyrin and/or lipid were present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6654750
Le Ricousse, S; Gouilleux, F; Fortin, D; Joulin, V; Richard-Foy, H
We have previously characterized a regulatory element located between -294 and -200 within the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR). This element termed AA element cooperates with the glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) for glucocorticoid activation. Here we show that in a MMTV LTR wild type context, the deletion of this element significantly reduces both glucocorticoid and progestin activation of the promoter. Deletion of the two most distal GREs forces the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the progestin receptor (PR) to bind the same response elements and results in a dramatic decrease in the inducibility of the MMTV promoter by the two hormones. The simultaneous deletion of the two distal GREs and of the AA element abolishes completely the glucocorticoid-induced activation of the promoter. In contrast it restores a significant level of progestin-induced activation. This different effect of the double deletion on glucocorticoid- and progestin-induced MMTV promoter activation is not cell specific because it is also observed, and is even stronger, when either GR or PR is expressed in the same cell line (NIH 3T3). This is the first description of a mutated MMTV promoter that, although retaining GREs, is activated by progestins and not by glucocorticoids. This suggests a different functional cooperation between protein(s) interacting with the AA element and GR or PR. Cotransfections with constructs containing wild-type or mutated MMTV LTR with either PR lacking its C-terminal domain or GR/PR chimeras in which the N-terminal domains have been exchanged demonstrate that the N-terminal domains of the receptors specify the different behavior of GR and PR regarding the AA element. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643531
Earp, H. Shelton; Calvo, Benjamin F.; Sartor, Carolyn I.
The EGF Receptor (EGFR), the first transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase cloned and sequenced, and its closely related family members HER2, HER3, and HER4, play myriad roles in mammalian growth and development. Receptor activation involves ligand binding to separate receptors followed by formation of active dimers. These receptors can signal as homodimers or they can subtly alter signaling output by heterodimerizing with other family members. Adding complexity, these receptors with varying specificity bind at least 10 ligands from two ligand families, the EGF and neuregulin/heregulin families. This signaling system's impact on human neoplasia is underscored by the following: i.) EGFR is overexpressed or activated by autocrine or paracrine growth factor loops in at least 50% of epithelial malignancies; ii.) HER2 is amplified and dramatically overexpressed in approximately 20%-25% or breast cancers; iii) HER3 and HER4 are variably expressed in breast and other cancers. Overexpression and/or activation of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 has been correlated with poor tumor prognosis; antibody and small molecule inhibitors of their activity are being tested as therapy in cancer patients. However, the signaling complexity engendered by four interacting receptors and ten ligands makes it difficult to definitively measure receptor signaling output in human tumors and even makes mechanistic studies of the family's role in normal physiology and neoplastic transformation a challenge. In spite of the literature's emphasis on growth control, activation by some EGF receptor family member ligands can produce tumor cell differentiation, characterized by growth cessation and differentiation gene product synthesis. The present work delineates a role for HER4 in breast cancer cell differentiation and demonstrates that HER4 is both necessary and sufficient to produce an anti-proliferative signal. These Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:12813928
Vincent, A; Akhayat, O; Goldenberg, S; Scherrer, K
Two types of in vivo untranslated 'free' mRNA-protein particles (mRNP) were isolated from duck erythroblast cytoplasm and characterised. Both types, namely the highly purified globin mRNA-specific '20S' mRNP and the '35S' mRNP containing a heterogenous non-globin mRNA population, are not translatable in rabbit reticulocyte lysates, but yield active mRNA upon deproteinisation. In vivo, 90% of globin mRNA is translated, but the majority of mRNA types are found in the inactive mRNP fraction, including fully repressed mRNA species. Searching for the factors controlling differential mRNA repression, we characterised and compared the protein composition of globin and '35S' mRNP using two dimensional gel electrophoresis, in vivo labelling with [35S]methionine and in vivo phosphorylation. The major proteins ubiquitously bound to globin or any other mRNA in the polyribosomes (e.g., the 73 K mol. wt. poly(A) binding protein) were not detected in purified inactive mRNP. In the latter some polypeptides appear to be associated with only one of the two inactive mRNA types while some others are common to both mRNPs. Furthermore, different rates of synthesis and phosphorylation characterize the protein populations of the two types of repressed mRNP. The specificity in composition and metabolism of the populations of polypeptides associated with different subpopulations of inactive cytoplasmic mRNA, as shown here, argues in favour of a role of mRNP proteins in mRNA recognition and selective translational repression, possibly in association with the ScRNA previously found as components of the free mRNP and able to inhibit protein synthesis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6641704
Rocha, E; Monteiro, R A; Pereira, C A
A qualitative study by light and electron microscopy was undertaken on the liver of the brown trout, Salmo trutta fario. Vessels and bile ducts were observed to be scattered without any apparent order within the parenchyma. Venous profiles appeared either isolated or included in 'venous-arteriolar tracts' (VAT) and 'venous-biliary-arteriolar tracts' (VBAT). Bile ducts also appeared either isolated or in groups which often included an arteriole. The parenchyma was organised in tubules of hepatocytes encircling biliary passages radially. Those cells were uninucleate and contained large cytoplasmic areas of rough endoplasmic reticulum; lipid droplets and dense bodies sometimes also occupied a considerable portion of the cytoplasm. Microvilli extended from hepatocytes into biliary passages and towards the space of Disse. Other cell types encountered comprised biliary epithelial cells, macrophages (including melanin laden cells), fat-storing cells and endothelial cells. The biliary tree was formed sequentially by intra- and intercellular canaliculi, preductules, ductules and ducts. Canaliculi without microvilli are described for the first time in fishes. Structural differences between the brown trout and other fishes were noted. In contradistinction to other fishes, in brown trout the triads (i.e. the VBAT) are not just occasional structures; also, they probably transmit portal veins. Our observations support the concept of a tubular arrangement of hepatocytes in fish. The possibility that the axis of the tubule may be a sinusoid instead of a biliary passage is questioned. Homology between, on one hand, the segment formed by preductules and ductules and, on the other, the canal of Hering of mammals is defended. It is concluded that among salmonids notable interspecific differences do not seem to exist. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7961130
Jendrisak, Jerry; Skuzeski, Jim
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) was purified from wheat embryos germinated for 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours and examined with several polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic systems. A changing electrophoretic pattern of RNAP II was observed on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. Subunit structure analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that from ungerminated embryos, RNAP IIA was almost exclusively obtained which has a subunit structure identical to that established for wheat germ RNAP II previously (Jendrisak, Burgess 1977 Biochemistry 16: 1959-1964). Twelve polypeptides with molecular weights × 10−3 of 220, 140, 42, 40, 27, 25, 21, 20, 17.8, 17.0, 16.3, and 16.0 were routinely found to be associated with the purified enzyme. From embryos germinated for 36 hours, RNAP IIB was almost exclusively obtained which has a largest subunit of 180,000 mol wt instead of 220,000. From embryos germinated for 24 hours, an approximately equimolar mixture of RNAP IIA and IIB was obtained. Peptide maps of the 220,000 and 180,000 mol wt polypeptides of RNAP IIA and IIB were virtually identical, indicative of a precursor-product relationship for the two polypeptides. In addition to these results, SDS-PAGE indicated that the stoichiometry of the 27,000 mol wt polypeptide increased at the expense of the 25,000 mol wt polypeptide during germination and concomitantly with the appearance of the 180,000 molecular weight polypeptide. No modifications (e.g. gain, loss, or altered mobilities on analytical gels) in any of the other RNAP II subunits were observed in enzyme purified from embryos after various times of germination as determined by a variety of electrophoretic analyses under denaturing conditions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663122
Bona, C.; Anteunis, A.; Robineaux, R.; Astesano, A.
In an in vitro autologous system, studies were carried out on the transfer of either biosynthetically-labelled [14C]Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin or [125I]Maia squinado haemocyanin from macrophages to lymphocytes. When cultured 1 hour in vitro, lymphocytes adhered to autologous macrophages, forming lymphocyte-macrophage islands (LMI). Quantitative data obtained from stained thick sections showed that 1.8 per cent of the lymphocytes had adhered to macrophages with ingested [14C]endotoxin while 0.6 per cent of the lymphocytes adhered to macrophages with ingested [125I]haemocyanin. The presence of antigen macromolecules was observed mainly within lymphocytes adhering to macrophages with ingested antigens, i.e. at the level of LMI. On the other hand, autoradiography carried out on the same thick sections, showed that 0.20 per cent of the lymphocyte population in LMI possess silver grains. High resolution autoradiographic pictures of thin sections, showed a peculiar localization of silver grains in LMI lymphocytes: about 80 per cent of the radioactivity was found within lymphocytic nuclei and the remainder either on the cellular membrane or free in the cytoplasm. The disappearance of radioactivity from the LMI-located macrophage membranes (where lymphocytes contain silver grains) as well as the regular inhibition of antigen transfer occurring after pronase treatment of the macrophage which contained ingested antigen, strongly suggest that antigen bound to macrophage membrane was transferred to lymphocytes. As pretreatment of lymphocytes with anti-Ig serum resulted in regular inhibition of antigen transfer, it appears that the Ig receptors of lymphocyte membranes play an important role in the transfer mechanism. Combined technique, i.e. autoradiography and the peroxidase method for revealing Ig bound to lymphocyte membranes, showed that silver grains occurred only within lymphocytes displaying peroxidase-positive membrane. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID
Lai A Fat, R. F. M.; Suurmond, D.; Van Furth, R.
A study on the synthesis of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE), secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and in the adjacent mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal, oral and vaginal mucosa) is reported. The results are based on the culture of tissue samples in a medium with two radioactive amino acids and the detection of synthesized proteins by autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretic pattern of the culture fluid, except in the case of IgE for which the Ouchterlony technique was used. The results indicate that the normal skin does not synthesize immunoglobulins, whereas normal mucous membranes produce IgG and IgA. In the lesions of various skin diseases immunoglobulins are synthesized, mainly IgG but sometimes also IgA and IgE. The cells responsible for the production of immunoglobulins are plasma cells and lymphoid cells present in the skin lesions and mucous membranes. Synthesis of the free secretory component could be demonstrated only in certain mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and oral mucosa). Complement (C3) synthesis was found in normal skin, mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal and oral mucosa), and in the lesions of such skin diseases as discoid lupus erythematosus, (bullous) pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, malignant reticulosis, eczema and lichen planus. Complement production was also demonstrated in allergic skin reactions (i.e. tissue from allergic-positive patch tests, positive Mantoux tests and drug eruptions), but no immunoglobulin synthesis was detected in these lesions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4199092
Minick, C. Richard; Murphy, George E.
Rabbits fed a lipid-rich, cholesterol-poor diet and given concomitant injections of foreign protein, over a period as long as 17 months, developed in their coronary arteries both a) proliferative fibromuscular intimal thickening closely resembling the diffuse intimal thickening that commonly occurs in coronary arteries of man, and b) fatty-proliferative fibromuscular intimal thickening that closely resembles coronary atherosclerosis in man. In contrast, rabbits of another group that were concurrently fed the same diet for as long as 22 months without injections of foreign protein developed changes in arteries of their hearts that resemble neither coronary atherosclerosis nor diffuse intimal thickening in man. Fatty-proliferative changes in aortas of the first group of rabbits are strikingly greater and more closely resemble human aortic atherosclerosis than those in the latter group. In the course of the experiments, the average serum cholesterol was not significantly different in the two groups of rabbits. It was approximately 200 to 250 mg%, which is the average serum cholesterol in adult humans in the United States. These experiments support the hypothesis that the synergy of arterial injury, in particular immunologic injury, and a diet rich in lipid can lead to atherosclerosis in man. ImagesFig 24Fig 25Fig 26,27Fig 28Fig 29Fig 30Fig 31Fig 32Fig 33Fig 34Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 35Fig 36Fig 37Fig 38Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Fig 21Fig 22Fig 23 PMID:4758786
Dean, R. F. A.
Recent research carried out on kwashiorkor in Kampala, Uganda, is discussed. The first essential in both the treatment and the prevention of this disease being a diet rich in protein (preferably animal protein, to ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B12 and a satisfactory mixture of amino-acids), methods of incorporating sufficient protein into children's diets were investigated. For the treatment of severe cases, two high-protein diets—one based on animal protein, the other on plant protein—gave good results. In the first, the protein was obtained from dried skimmed milk and a calcium caseinate preparation known as Casilan; in the second, it was supplied by soya. Some vitamin B12, which is lacking in the soya itself, was added to the second diet in order to ensure satisfactory weight gains. With regard to prevention, the author points out that although it is theoretically simple there are serious practical difficulties. The best sources of protein—milk, meat, and fish—are unfortunately, at present, too expensive for general consumption in Uganda. Therefore, the best possible use of plant protein must be made for the time being. In this connexion, the author recommends investigating the value of sunflower, which grows more easily in Uganda than soya. He feels that soya, sunflower, and maize could probably be combined to provide a mixture of amino-acids which—though not as perfect as that found in animal proteins—would be very satisfactory. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:13141130
Kristensen, M; Chu, C Q; Eedy, D J; Feldmann, M; Brennan, F M; Breathnach, S M
The distribution of TNF-alpha, p55 TNF receptor (TNF-R) and p75 TNF-R in normal skin and uninvolved and lesional skin from psoriasis patients has been investigated, using specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies. In normal skin, and uninvolved and lesional skin from psoriasis patients, p55 TNF-R is associated with epidermal keratinocytes and a network of upper dermal dendritic cells. This suggests that the actions of TNF-alpha on epidermal cells in vivo are mediated by binding to the p55 TNF-R. In lesional psoriasis skin, there was staining of the parakeratotic stratum corneum and increased expression of p55 TNF-R in association with upper dermal blood vessels. Staining for p75 TNF-R in normal skin was restricted to eccrine sweat ducts and dermal dendritic cells, and was absent from the epidermis. In lesional psoriasis skin, there was staining for p75 TNF-R in association with upper dermal blood vessels and perivascular infiltrating cells. TNF-alpha in normal skin was predominantly localized to the basal cell layers of the epidermis, and was seen in association with eccrine ducts and sebaceous glands. In lesional psoriasis skin, and to a lesser extent in uninvolved psoriasis skin, TNF-alpha was distributed throughout the epidermis, and was also specifically localized to upper dermal blood vessels. Up-regulation of TNF-alpha, p55 TNF-R and p75 TNF-R on dermal blood vessels in psoriasis may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition by promoting cutaneous recruitment of inflammatory cells. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8222328
Dolfi, A; Lupetti, M; Bianchi, F; Michelucci, S
The aim of the present experiment was to verify whether the origin of the DIA is ectodermal or endodermal. A rabbit serum against the epithelial cells of the final portion of the cloaca was prepared. The indirect immunofluorescence method was applied to strips obtained with a cryostat, carefully cut in such a way as to include a part of the cloaca, the burso-cloacal stalk, the DIA, and the bursal plicae. In this way, it was possible to demonstrate that the epithelium of the cloaca, of the burso-cloacal stalk, and of the DIA exhibited an intense fluorescence that could not be observed at the level of the epithelium of the bursal plicae. These findings would appear to indicate that the DIA, like the cloaca and the burso-cloacal stalk, is ectodermal in origin. Furthermore, histological study revealed that the DIA exhibits close structural analogies with the dorsal wall of the cloaca. In both areas, unorganized lymphoid infiltrations of the tunica propria can be seen, and the epithelium does not show any follicle-associated epithelial cells. The glands often assume the aspect of dilated crypts containing intestinal transit material. The epithelium of these glands reveals lymphoid infiltrations at various points, and it is not uncommon to detect accumulations of cells in their lumina. Several groups of eosinophilic granulocytes can also be observed in the tunica propria of these two areas, with a clear predominance at the level of the DIA. These similarities between the cloaca and the DIA might lead one to suppose the existence of a functional as well as a morphological correspondence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3417544
Rubartelli, A; Cozzolino, F; Talio, M; Sitia, R
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a major soluble mediator of inflammation. Two human IL-1 genes, alpha and beta, have been isolated, which encode polypeptides with only 20-30% amino acid sequence homology. Unlike most secreted proteins, the two cytokines do not have a signal sequence, an unexpected finding in view of their biological role. Here we show that IL-1 beta is actively secreted by activated human monocytes via a pathway of secretion different from the classical endoplasmic reticulum--Golgi route. Drugs which block the intracellular transport of IL-6, of tumour necrosis factor alpha and of other secretory proteins do not inhibit secretion of IL-1 beta. Secretion of IL-1 beta is blocked by methylamine, low temperature or serum free medium, and is increased by raising the culture temperature to 42 degrees C or by the presence of calcium ionophores, brefeldin A, monensin, dinitrophenol or carbonyl cyanide chlorophenylhydrazone. IL-1 beta is contained in part within intracellular vesicles which protect it from protease digestion. In U937 cells large amounts of IL-1 beta are made but none is secreted. In these cells IL-1 beta is not found in the vesicular fraction, and all the protein is accessible to protease digestion. This suggests that intracellular vesicles that contain IL-1 beta are part of the protein secretory pathway. We conclude that IL-1 beta is released by activated monocytes via a novel mechanism of secretion which may involve translocation of intracellular membranes and is increased by stress conditions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2328723
Coyer, J A; Cabello-Pasini, A; Swift, H; Alberte, R S
Molecular and immunological techniques were used to examine N2 fixation in a ubiquitous heterotrophic marine bacterium, the facultative anaerobic Vibrio natriegens. When batch cultures were shifted from aerobic N-replete to anaerobic N-deplete conditions, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of N2 fixation was observed. Levels of nifHDK mRNA encoding the nitrogenase enzyme were highest at 140 min postshift and undetectable between 6 and 9 h later. Immunologically determined levels of nitrogenase enzyme (Fe protein) were highest between 6 and 15 h postshift, and nitrogenase activity peaked between 6 and 9 h postshift, declining by a factor of 2 after 12-15 h. Unlike their regulation in cyanobacteria, Fe protein and nitrogenase activity were present when nifHDK mRNA was absent in V. natriegens, indicating that nitrogenase is stored and stable under anaerobic conditions. Both nifHDK mRNA and Fe protein disappeared within 40 min after cultures were shifted from N2-fixing conditions (anaerobic, N-deplete) to non- N2-fixing conditions (aerobic, N-enriched) but reappeared when shifted to conditions favoring N2 fixation. Thus, unlike other N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria, nitrogenase must be resynthesized after aerobic exposure in V. natriegens. Immunological detection based on immunoblot (Western) analysis and immunogold labeling correlated positively with nitrogenase activity; no localization of nitrogenase was observed. Because V. natriegens continues to fix N2 for many hours after anaerobic induction, this species may play an important role in providing "new" nitrogen in marine ecosystems. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:11607653
Molleson, Ann L.; Moses, Montrose J.; Hackel, Donald B.
The pattern of protein synthesis was studied in the pancreatic beta cells of the Egyptian sand rat (Psammomys obesus). When fed a standard Purina Laboratory Chow diet instead of a leafy vegetable diet, these animals develop the characteristic signs of diabetes mellitus. Tritiated leucine was injected intravenously into pairs of sand rats (one on a vegetable diet and one on a Purina Laboratory Chow diet). Two pairs of animals were sacrificed at 5-, 20- and 60-minute intervals, and pancreatic tissue was studied by electron microscopic autoradiography. At 5 minutes, the relative grain density was greatest over the rough endoplasmic reticulum; at 20 minutes it was greatest over the Golgi complex and at 60 minutes, over the granules. There were no statistically significant differences in the relative grain densities over the rough endoplasmic reticulum, over the Golgi complex or over the secretion granules between the sand rats on the vegetable diet and Chow diet. These results show that in the early phase of the development of diabetes mellitus, the pattern of protein synthesis in the beta cells of the normal and diabetic sand rat compares with that of other endocrine glands. The tritiated leucine was apparently incorporated into the newly synthesized secretory product in the rough endoplasmic reticulum during the first 5 minutes. The formed product migrated to the Golgi complex at 20 minutes, and at 1 hour was seen mainly over the light granules. In addition, there was no obvious difference in this pattern of protein synthesis between the normal and diabetic sand rats. This suggests that the secretory product, considered to be mainly insulin, is produced in the usual or in increased amounts, but it is not fully utilized by the diabetic animal and remains in circulation, thus increasing the plasma insulin level. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4586126
Pierce, A. E.
Complete immunity to a challenge dose of 100,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella was developed in fowls 14 days after they had received the last of three graded doses of oocysts of this species, whereas uninfected fowls of comparable age were fully susceptible. In fowls similarly immunized, no detectable first-generation schizogony developed from challenge doses of 10 million oocysts administered to each fowl 21 days after the last of the three graded doses had been administered. Precipitating antibodies were demonstrated in some but not all of these immune fowls by the agar-gel diffusion technique. Precipitin bands, developed as the result of infection, showed a reaction of identity with those induced by parenteral injection of schizont antigen and most of the bands appeared to be directed against protein antigens. Cross reactions were observed between E. tenella antiserum and antigens prepared from the species of coccidia, E. tenella from the fowl and the species E. stiedae from the rabbit. Electrophoretic analysis of serum from immune birds showed an albumin component and four globulin fractions (I-IV); antibody activity was confined to the fraction with the slowest mobility (IV). No significant differences were shown between the electrophoretic analyses at comparable ages of serum from the infected and control groups of fowls between 7 and 63 days of age. The components in both groups altered significantly with time, showing a general rise in protein concentrations. Infected fowls repeatedly showed numerous pyroninophilic cells in the gut mucosa and cells closely resembling globular leucocytes in the deep glands of the caeca. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14486445
Cavallo, Tito; Galvanek, Eleonora G.; Ward, Peter A.; von Lichtenberg, Franz
The glomerular lesions induced in 10 chimpanzees infected with variable numbers of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were studied by means of light and electron microscopy and fluorescent antibody technic. Ten animals served as controls; 5 were uninfected and 5 were only lightly infected. The animals were observed for periods ranging from 3 to 17 months, and by the time of sacrifice, all had developed advanced liver fibrosis. In general, the degree of glomerular injury was related to infection intensity and degree and duration of portal liver fibrosis. Some animals had terminal BUN elevation and slight proteinuria. By light and electron microscopy, in the initial stages, only part of the glomeruli were involved and exhibited mesangial matrix expansion and mesangial cell proliferation with intracellular hyaline droplets. At later stages, a larger number of glomeruli were affected and exhibited diffuse hypercellularity, glomerular basement thickening, mesangial sclerosis and less often, focal necrosis, crescent formation, synechiae and global hyalinization. In addition, there were discrete electron-dense deposits localized in the mesangial area in some glomeruli. Immunofluorescent studies utilizing antisera to chimpanzee γ-globulin and complement (C3) and to human properdin disclosed only faint deposits of C3, apparently in mesangial areas. The association of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and nephropathy, the possible role of schistosomal antigen and the mechanism(s) of such glomerular injuries are reviewed and compared with the disease in humans and other host species infected with Schistosoma. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Figs 5-8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:4137991
Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218
Bellamy, S J; Kendall, M D
The ductuli efferentes of male common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were prepared for light and electron microscopy. The epithelium of breeding birds was pseudostratified, consisting of ciliated cells, which were of the same type throughout the ductules, and of two types of non-ciliated cells: an electron-dense form with complex lateral invaginations, long microvilli and apical invaginations found in proximal ductuli efferentes (Type 1 a) and a less dense, taller, seemingly more secretory cell found distally (Type 1 b). Both types contained crystal-like structures in granular and transitional endoplasmic reticulum, which were occasionally seen in ciliated cells and not elsewhere. These 'intracisternal bodies' were probably proteinaceous in nature. The ciliated cells were typically more electron-lucent than the non-ciliated cells. They adopted the height and interdigitation characteristics of the surrounding epithelium. Occasional annulate lamellae were encountered. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were seen occasionally, notably in non-breeding birds. The epithelial morphology of the non-breeding common starling is briefly mentioned. The tubules were collapsed and apparently inactive, although signs of proliferative activity were seen in birds killed in February. The distinction of the epithelial cells into one ciliated and two non-ciliated types in this study is discussed in the light of previous work, as differences were found to exist. It is suggested that care should be taken in the use of mammalian tubule nomenclature when it is applied to birds. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4077685
Tryphonas, L; Zawidzka, Z; Bernard, M A; Janzen, E A
Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed in a dog that had been living with his owners in Spain for two years. Clinical diagnosis was somewhat delayed as the disease is largely unknown to Canada and was manifested by a nonresponsive anemia which was not easily explained on peripheral blood evaluation alone, and concomitant interstitial nephritis. On post mortem examination splenomegaly was the main gross pathological finding. Light microscopic examination of bone marrow aspirates and subsequent electron microscopic examination of splenic and hepatic tissues revealed numerous Leishman-Donovan bodies in cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Parasitized reticuloendothelial cells were seen singly or forming granulomata. These latter did not contain giant cells and were confined mainly to the liver and spleen, being sparse and single in the first but extremely numerous and coalescing in the latter. Accumulation of intrafollicular hyaline material was seen in a small number of splenic follicles. Leishman-Donovan bodies on electron microscopic examination had a trilaminar periplast, a large round nucleus with heavy blocks of marginated chromatin and two nucleoli, a short flagellum and a kinetoplast. Lymph nodes and bone marrow had numerous parasitized macrophages but no granulomata. Leishman-Donovan bodies were not detected in the lungs and kidneys both of which exhibited a chronic intersitital reaction. The comparative hematological profile as well as the importance of bone marrow and electron microscopic examinations of the spleen and liver in diagnosis are discussed. The potential public health hazard of leishmaniasis to North America and particularly to Canada is considered. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. PMID:832183
Guo, Z; Narbaitz, R; Fryer, J N
The effects of excess iodine on the development of the thyroid gland of chick embryos was assessed following injections of potassium iodide prior to incubation. Iodide injection resulted in a significantly greater thyroid gland weight (goitre) on Day 18 of incubation and a delay in hatching. Histological studies of the thyroid gland on Day 12 of incubation revealed that iodide injection had inhibited thyroid follicle development. On Day 14, however, the thyroid glands of the iodide-treated embryos were indistinguishable from controls and on Day 18 the thyroid follicles of the iodide-injected embryos were clearly hypertrophied. In agreement with these light microscopical observations, electron microscopical examination showed conspicuous development of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the follicle cells of both iodide-treated 14 and 18 days old embryos and in those of the corresponding controls. Immunocytochemical studies of the pituitary of 18 days old embryos revealed a depletion of immunoreactive TSH suggesting that the iodide-induced hypertrophy of the thyroid was mediated by an activation of the thyrotropes. Iodide treatment was without effect on plasma levels of T3 and T4 for Day 18 embryos suggesting that the compensatory hypertrophy of the thyroid gland was sufficient to maintain circulating levels of thyroid hormones. The present results demonstrate that, in the embryonic chick thyroid, excess iodine produces effects which occur in two phases. The first phase consists of a transitory inhibition of the formation of follicles; it is followed by a second phase of compensatory hypertrophy resulting in goitre. The first phase probably results from a direct inhibitory effect of iodine on the developing thyroid whereas the second phase probably reflects a stimulation of the thyroid by TSH. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1917670
Mikić, Z D
On the basis of a study of 180 wrist joints from 100 fresh cadavers of individuals ranging in age from fetuses to 94 years, it is concluded that the triangular fibro-cartilage is very liable to degenerative alterations associated with ageing. Degeneration begins in the third decade and progressively increases in frequency and severity in subsequent decades. The changes comprise reduced cellularity, loss of elastic fibres, mucoid degeneration of the ground substance, exposure of collagen fibres, fibrillation, erosion, ulceration, abnormal thinning, and, ultimately, disc perforation. The changes are more frequent and more intense on the ulnar surface, and they are always situated in the central part of the disc. It appears that disc perforation is degenerative and age-related: thus there were no perforations in the first two decades of life; in the third there were 7.6%, in the fourth 18.1%, in the fifth 40.0%, in the sixth 42.8%, and in the over sixties 53.1%. There was an associated pattern of degenerative changes in the wrist joint as a whole. The structures adjacent to the articular disc (discal surface of the ulnar head, discal part of the lunate) were much more often involved, and the changes were much more advanced, than on non-discal surfaces. It is argued that this is because of more intensive biomechanical forces, particularly rotational forces, in the disc compartment of the joint. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 (cont.) Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:670069
History of ventilation in last 100 years, showing reversal of ideas and influence of sanatorium idea. Physiology of cool moving air. How it affects metabolism, heat-loss and heat-production. Relation to sunlight. Reactive capacity of the individual. Practice of these teachings, as illustrated by sanatorium treatment of tuberculosis and by open-air schools. Exposure to cooling air a powerful therapeutic agent. Infrequent occurrence in sanatoria of diseases or complications often ascribed to cold. Dilution of infection. Applicability to diseases other than tuberculosis. Shock and old age. Perflation and diffusion, their relative values. Uniformity or variability of effect desirable? Incompatibility of good ventilation and ordinary standards of heating. Former the more important. Conclusion that ward temperatures may be lowered without harm. Measures necessary to compensate, clothing, classification of patients, small wards. Changing standards of comfort. Psychological effects. Systems of ventilation in hospital wards. Mechanical by propulsion or extraction being displaced by natural system, usually by cross-window ventilation. Supplementary ventilators. Objection to heating of incoming air. Fallibility of human factor in management. Sash versus casement windows. Hoppers. Austral window. Orientation and exposure of wards. Ventilation of small wards. Proportion of window space to solid wall. Balconies. Floor space. Heating of wards. Heating of air or floor or walls. Open fires. Value of radiant heat. Steam or water under low or high pressure. Radiators or pipes. Lighting. Avoidance of glare from windows. Arrangement of beds in wards. Colour of walls. Blinds and curtains. Artificial lighting. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:19989481
Cai, W Q; Gabella, G
The innervation of the gall bladder and the biliary pathways was studied in guinea-pigs by means of histochemical methods for catecholamines and for acetylcholinesterase on whole mount preparations, on cryostat sections and on sections of plastic-embedded tissues. The gall bladder contains on average 367 neurons in a ganglionated plexus which lies at the outer surface of the muscle coat. The overall appearance of this plexus is rather similar to that of the submucosal plexus of the duodenum. From the gall bladder the plexus extends into the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the common bile duct, but from the middle portion of the common bile duct downwards, it is positioned at or near the inner surface of the muscle coat. Concurrently with the marked increase in muscle thickness in the lower parts of the common bile duct, another ganglionated plexus appears, which is truly intramuscular. The latter plexus is highly developed, lies usually between longitudinal and circular muscle and resembles in appearance the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, with which it is in continuity. Throughout the biliary system, the extent of the ganglionated plexus is roughly related to the extent of the musculature. An exchange of adrenergic fibres between the ganglionated plexus and perivascular nerves is observed in the gall bladder. Another nerve plexus, without ganglia but rich in adrenergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive fibres, lies between the mucosa and the muscle coat. Very few nerve fibres run into the musculature of the gall bladder. On the other hand, in the thick musculature of the lower portion of the common bile duct, several intramuscular nerve fibres are found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6833124
Sheibani, N; Frazier, W A
Murine endothelial cells are readily transformed in a single step by the polyomavirus oncogene encoding middle-sized tumor antigen. These cells (bEND.3) form tumors (hemangiomas) in mice which are lethal in newborn animals. The bEND.3 cells rapidly proliferate in culture and express little or no thrombospondin 1 (TS1). To determine the role of TS1 in regulation of endothelial cell phenotype, we stably transfected bEND.3 cells with a human TS1 expression vector. The cells expressing human TS1 were readily identified by their altered morphology and exhibited a slower growth rate and lower saturation density than the parental bEND.3 cells. The TS1-expressing cells also formed aligned cords of cells instead of clumps or cysts in Matrigel. Moreover, while the bEND.3 cells formed large tumors in nude mice within 48 hr, the TS1-expressing cells failed to form tumors even after 1 month. The TS1-transfected cells expressed transforming growth factor beta mRNA and bioactivity at levels similar to those of the parental or vector-transfected bEND.3 cells, indicating that the effects of TS1 expression are not due to the activation of transforming growth factor beta by TS1. TS1 expression resulted in a > 100-fold decrease in net fibrinolytic (urokinase-type plasminogen activator, uPA) activity due to more plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 and less uPA secretion. TS1 thus appears to be an important regulator of endothelial cell phenotype required for maintaining the quiescent, differentiated state. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624320
Garbe, T. R.; Hibler, N. S.; Deretic, V.
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a significant human pathogen capable of replicating in mononuclear phagocytic cells. Exposure to reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates is likely to represent an important aspect of the life cycle of this organism. The response of M. tuberculosis to these agents may be of significance for its survival in the host. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patterns of de novo proteins synthesized in M. tuberculosis H37Rv exposed to compounds that generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates were studied by metabolic labeling and two-dimensional electrophoresis. RESULTS: Menadione, a redox cycling compound which increases intracellular superoxide levels, caused enhanced synthesis of seven polypeptides, six of which appeared to be heat shock proteins. Chemical release of nitric oxide induced eight polypeptides of which only one could be identified as a heat shock protein. Nitric oxide also exhibited a mild inhibitory action on general protein synthesis in the concentration range tested. Hydrogen peroxide did not cause differential gene expression and exerted a generalized inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Cumene hydroperoxide caused mostly inhibition but induction of two heat shock proteins was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: The presented findings indicate major differences between M. tuberculosis and the paradigms of oxidative stress response in enteric bacteria, and are consistent with the multiple lesions found in oxyR of this organism. The effect of hydrogen peroxide, which in Escherichia coli induces eight polypeptides known to be controlled by the central regulator oxyR, appears to be absent in M. tuberculosis. Superoxide and nitric oxide responses, which in E. coli overlap and are controlled by the same regulatory system soxRS, represent discrete and independent phenomena in M. tuberculosis. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:8900541
Weihe, E; Tao-Cheng, J H; Schäfer, M K; Erickson, J D; Eiden, L E
Immunohistochemical visualization of the rat vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in cholinergic neurons and nerve terminals has been compared to that for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), heretofore the most specific marker for cholinergic neurons. VAChT-positive cell bodies were visualized in cerebral cortex, basal forebrain, medial habenula, striatum, brain stem, and spinal cord by using a polyclonal anti-VAChT antiserum. VAChT-immuno-reactive fibers and terminals were also visualized in these regions and in hippocampus, at neuromuscular junctions within skeletal muscle, and in sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic ganglia and target tissues. Cholinergic nerve terminals contain more VAChT than ChAT immunoreactivity after routine fixation, consistent with a concentration of VAChT within terminal neuronal arborizations in which secretory vesicles are clustered. These include VAChT-positive terminals of the median eminence or the hypothalamus, not observed with ChAT antiserum after routine fixation. Subcellular localization of VAChT in specific organelles in neuronal cells was examined by immunoelectron microscopy in a rat neuronal cell line (PC 12-c4) expressing VAChT as well as the endocrine and neuronal forms of the vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1 and VMAT2). VAChT is targeted to small synaptic vesicles, while VMAT1 is found mainly but not exclusively on large dense-core vesicles. VMAT2 is found on large dense-core vesicles but not on the small synaptic vesicles that contain VAChT in PC12-c4 cells, despite the presence of VMAT2 immunoreactivity in central and peripheral nerve terminals known to contain monoamines in small synaptic vesicles. Thus, VAChT and VMAT2 may be specific markers for "cholinergic" and "adrenergic" small synaptic vesicles, with the latter not expressed in nonstimulated neuronally differentiated PC12-c4 cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8622973
Sakaue, S.; Nishihira, J.; Hirokawa, J.; Yoshimura, H.; Honda, T.; Aoki, K.; Tagami, S.; Kawakami, Y.
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islet beta-cells in an autocrine manner, which suggests its pivotal role in the glucose metabolism. According to this finding, we evaluated MIF expression in cultured adipocytes and epididymal fat pads of obese and diabetic rats to investigate its role in adipose tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The murine adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 was used to examine MIF mRNA expression and production of MIF protein in response to various concentrations of glucose and insulin. Epididymal fat pads of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) and Wistar fatty rats, animal models of obesity and diabetes, were subjected to Northern blot analysis to determine MIF mRNA levels. RESULTS: MIF mRNA of 3T3-L1 adipocytes was up-regulated by costimulation with glucose and insulin. Intracellular MIF content was significantly increased by stimulation, whereas its content in the culture medium was decreased. When the cells were treated with cytochalasin B, MIF secretion in the medium was increased. Pioglitazone significantly increased MIF content in the culture medium of 3T3-L1 cells. However, MIF mRNA expression of both epididymal fat pads of OLETF and Wistar fatty rats was down-regulated despite a high plasma glucose level. The plasma MIF level of Wistar fatty rats was significantly increased by treatment with pioglitazone. CONCLUSION: We show here that the intracellular glucose level is critical to determining the MIF mRNA level as well as its protein content in adipose tissue. MIF is known to play an important role in glucose metabolism as a positive regulator of insulin secretion. In this context, it is conceivable that MIF may affect the pathophysiology of obesity and diabetes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:10415161
Sullivan, Louis W.
The author served as the 17th U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services, from March 1, 1989 until January 20, 1993. The department had 250 programs and 38 percent of the expenditures of the federal government ($600.0 billion), the fourth largest budget in the world. The history of the department included the fact that the tenure of previous Secretaries had ranged from only eight months up to 37 months, and had averaged 27.5 months, resulting in the view that the department was unmanageable. The author's tenure as Secretary was 47 months, and, in the author's view, the department was indeed manageable. The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) was created as a cabinet agency in 1953, during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Department was formed by bringing together the Social Security Administration (founded in 1935), the United States Commissioner of Education, and the United States Public Health Service (founded in 1798) to serve the United States Merchant Marines). This new cabinet department contained the nation's major domestic programs concerned with income security, public health and education. Oveta Culp Hobby of Texas was the first Secretary of the Department. By 1989, the department's programs had increased to more than 250, including Medicare, Medicaid, Headstart, Welfare, and others. During the administration of President Jimmy Carter, the Education programs were separated into a new cabinet agency, the U.S. Department of Education, and the name of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare became the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:12053720
Scott, H W; Shull, H J; Law, D H; Burko, H; Page, D L
Three patients with Menetrier's disease and protein-losing gastropathy who were studied during a 12 year period have been presented. The characteristic findings which differentiate them from patients with hypertrophic hypersecretory gastropathy, including the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, are: 1) hypertrophy of gastric mucosa with giant rugal folds involving the fundus, cardia and body of the stomach but sparing the antrum; 2) muscosal hypertrophy consisting of gastric mjcus-secreting cells while parietal cells and chief cells are diminished in number and may be absent from many microscopic sections; 3) gastric secretion of large volume containing excess mucus, low to absent hydrochloric acid and protein concentration 5 or 6 times normal (1.7 mg/ml); 4) hypoalbuminemia and hypoglobulinemia due to loss of serum proteins fron gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen; 5) rare association with gastric ulcer. Unlike the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome none of our patients had duodenal ucler or multiple endocrine adenomatosis or a family history of these conditions. We have found no authenticated reports in the literature which document a relationship of Menetrier's disease ( as defined above) with multiple endocrine adenomatosis. Menetrier's disease with protein-losing gastropathy is a potentially lethal disorder of unknown cause with no specific treatment. Resection of the site of gastric protein losses as first done by Waugh is logical and effective. One of our three patients died in hospital before gastrectomy was done. Two others have done well for 11 months and 12 years, respectively, after total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy and Hunt-Lawrence jejunal pouch. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6A. Fig. 6B. Fig. 7. Fig. 8A. Fig. 8B. Fig. 9A. Fig. 9B. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:1130890
Sarles, H.; Lebreuil, G.; Tasso, F.; Figarella, C.; Clemente, F.; Devaux, M. A.; Fagonde, B.; Payan, H.
Acute ethanol intoxication was studied in 38 Wistar rats, 18 on a balanced diet and 20 on a high fat diet, fed by gavage on 47% ethanol in a dosage of from 3 to 12 g/kg body weight daily for periods ranging from three to 16 days. No macroscopic changes in pancreas or liver were found in any of these animals. Histological changes (venous congestion of the pancreas, the liver, and the kidneys) were found in rats given 4 g or more per kilogram. The only difference between the findings in rats given a balanced diet and those given a high fat diet was the development of fatty livers in the latter group. Chronic ethanol intoxication was studied in 45 Wistar rats, on a balanced diet, which were given 20% ethanol freely for 20 to 30 months. More than half the animals developed pancreatic lesions very similar to those of human chronic pancreatitis. The pathological changes, in foci surrounded by normal pancreatic tissue, were a reduction in acini, duct multiplication (probably by neogenesis), protein plugs, sometimes calcified in the ducts and sclerosis. Samples of pancreatic juice from four animals exposed to ethanol contained significantly higher protein concentrations than samples taken from two control animals. Protein precipitates appeared spontaneously in the pancreatic juice of the animals exposed to ethanol, but not in that of the controls. These findings are very similar to those in alcoholic pancreatitis in man, which has thus been reproduced for the first time in experimental animals. Beta-cell adenomata of the islets of Langerhans were observed in four of the rats exposed to ethanol. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:4329553
Smits, B; Rosendal, S; Ruhnke, H L; Plante, C; O'Brien, P J; Miller, R B
Calmodulin (CAM) acts as an intracellular regulator of calcium, an important mediator of many cell processes. We used the CAM assay and electron microscopy to investigate the effects of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine oviductal explants obtained aseptically from slaughtered cows. A stock suspension of U. diversum (treated specimens) and sterile broth (controls) was added to replicates of cultured explants and incubated at 38 degrees C in an atmosphere of 5.5% CO2 for 48 hours. Explants were examined for ciliary activity, extracellular CAM loss, and for histological and ultrastructural changes. Explants and their culture media were examined for changes in CAM concentration. All experiments were replicated three times. In addition, U. diversum, medium and broth were assayed for CAM content. The concentrations of CAM in explants and media changed significantly (p < 0.05) in samples which were inoculated with U. diversum when compared to controls. The controls and infected specimens did not differ histologically or ultrastructurally, but U. diversum was seen to be closely associated with infected explant tissue. In view of this close affinity it is assumed the loss of CAM from the oviductal cells was causally related, but this was not proven. The failure to show cell membrane injury on light and electron microscopic examination was probably related to the short duration of the experiment and may only point out the sensitivity of the CAM assay in detecting early cell membrane injury. Compromise in characteristics of the medium to support both, the viability of oviductal cells and U. diversum limited the experimental time to 48 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:8004536
Pereira, L; Hoffman, M; Cremer, N
Serodiagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection by complement fixation tests depends on showing a fourfold rise in antibody titer from acute- to convalescent-phase sera. Freeze-thaw and glycine-extracted, infected cell culture antigens used for these tests give markedly different titers in reactions with the same sera. In this study, we characterized the CMV-infected cell polypeptides contained in freeze-thaw and glycine-extracted antigens and identified the proteins precipitated by 23 pairs of human acute and convalescent sera. Our results were as follows. First, freeze-thaw and glycine-extracted antigens prepared from infected cells radiolabeled with [35S]methionine and subjected to electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels yielded similar patterns, and the bulk of the label was contained in late structural proteins and glycoproteins. Glycine-extracted preparations contained a greater proportion of soluble 66,000- and 50,000-molecular-weight proteins than did freeze-thaw antigens. Second, convalescent sera precipitated proteins migrating with apparent molecular weights of 150,000, 130,000, 110,000, 96,000, 74,000, 66,000, 50,000, 34,000, 32,000, and 25,000. Of these the 130,000-, 110,000-, 96,000-, 66,000-, 50,000-, and 25,000-molecular-weight proteins comigrated with glucosamine-labeled polypeptides. Both immunoglobulin G and M antibodies in human sera precipitated these proteins from CMV-infected cell preparations. Implications of the results for serodiagnosis of CMV infections are discussed. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 PMID:6284646
Fraile, B; Paniagua, R; Rodríguez, M C; Sáez, F J; Jimenez, A
The testes of 8 specimens of Triturus marmoratus were collected during each month of 1987 and processed for electron microscopy and light microscopy demonstration of testosterone (T) following the ABC (avidin-biotin peroxidase complex) method. According to their staining affinity for anti-T antibodies, the glandular tissue cells were classified as T-, T+, T++, and T and the annual changes in the numbers of these cell populations, as well as in the volume occupied by the glandular tissue, were calculated. The volume occupied by the glandular tissue increases from September to December; it begins to decrease in April and disappears from June to August. The glandular tissue is formed from the interstitial cells that surround the lobules containing differentiating germ cells. During the spermatogenic process, the interstitial cells do not show staining affinity for anti-T antibodies. In August-September, the interstitial cells around the lobules that have completed spermatogenesis become positively stained (T+) and form the glandular tissue when the spermatozoa leave the testis. The numbers of intensely stained cells in the glandular tissue (T++ and T ) increase from September to November; begin to decrease in December; disappear in January-February; increase again in March and decrease again in April until they disappear in June-September. The interstitial cells, before their transformation in glandular tissue, are ultrastructurally similar to fibroblasts. After their transformation these cells increase in size and develop abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with tubular cristae and lipid droplets. This morphological pattern is maintained in the glandular tissue from September to April in spite of the changes in staining affinity during this period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2630543
Olson, S B; Magenis, R E; Lovrien, E W
The chromosomes from 57 persons were analyzed by means of quinacrine fluorescent staining in order to assess the amount of variation and the discriminatory power of Q-band heteromorphism analysis. Chromosomes 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, and Y of each person were visually compared to those of 56 others, for a total of 1,596 comparisons. No two persons were found to have the same set of variants. The number of differences between chromosomes for each comparison ranged from 2 to 12 out of a possible total of 14 for females and 15 for males. Relatives were also distinguishable, and differences ranged from two to seven. We used the frequency with which each chromosome was useful for telling two people apart, and estimated the probability of finding two persons with the same set of quinacrine variants as .0003. Distinctly different heteromorphisms were found in the 39 unrelated persons for each of the chromosomes examined. In this small population, the number of different sets of variants observed for chromosomes 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, and Y were six, seven, 27, 16, 20, 15, 24, and five, respectively, for a total number of possible combinations of 1.14 X 10(15). As a test of the usefulness of chromosome heteromorphisms in paternity cases, 12 father-mother-child trios of virtually certain paternity, owing to the father-child segregation of a rare structural rearrangement, were coded and recombined at random to produce 120 cases of uncertain paternity. When the code was broken, 108 "alleged fathers" had been excluded correctly and the 12 biological fathers had been included correctly. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3946425
Circulating tissue antigens (CTA) were investigated in 143 patients with disorders involving injury of the liver and of other organs and in forty-eight normal subjects by immunodiffusion techniques using rabbit anti-human liver serum containing antibodies to a liver-specific antigen and to tissue antigens of wide organ distribution. Analysis of serum samples by double immunodiffusion showed up to three CTA in the following cases: fifteen out of eighteen, viral hepatitis (VH), two out of thirteen, other infectious diseases, two out of ten, alcoholic cirrhosis, seven out of twenty-one, congestive heart failure (CHF), four out of fourteen, myocardial infarction, ten out of twenty-one, trauma, two out of thirteen, carcinoma and three out of thirty-three, miscellaneous diseases. Forty-eight normal subjects showed no CTA. Immunoelectrophoresis of most of the positive cases showed two to three CTA, while a few cases showed four to six. Absorption tests with organ extracts demonstrated that in most patients, CTA were substances shared by several organs. However, in two cases of VH, in two cases of CHF with liver necrosis and in two cases of trauma to the liver, one of the CTA was shown to be liver specific. The CTA were susceptible to digestion by pronase and were found to be relatively thermolabile. Positive sera showed higher glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase activities than the negative sera. These preliminary data suggest that further investigation on CTA in disease involving tissue injury and necrosis may be rewarding. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4219874
Holland, P C; Pena, S D; Guerin, C W
Intact monolayers of L6 myoblasts were treated with neuraminidase, with the aim of selectively removing sialic acid residues of cell-surface glycoproteins. Neuraminidase treatment unmasked binding sites for Ricinus communis agglutinin I and peanut agglutinin, thus allowing the identification of the major binding proteins for these lectins. For Ricinus communis agglutinin I these neuraminidase-sensitive glycoproteins had apparent Mr values of 136000, 115000, 87000, 83000 and 49000. For peanut agglutinin the major neuraminidase-sensitive glycoproteins had apparent Mr values of 200000, 136000, 87000 and 83000. We found highly reproducible, developmentally regulated, changes in the lectin-binding capacity of certain of these glycoproteins as L6 myoblasts differentiated into myotubes. Coincident with myoblast fusion there was a co-ordinate decrease in Ricinus communis agglutinin I binding by glycoproteins of apparent Mr of 136000 and 49000. There was also a co-ordinate shift in mobility of the broad band of glycoprotein, centred at an apparent Mr of 115000 in myoblasts, to a new average apparent Mr of 107000 in mid-fusion cultures and myotube cultures. Peanut agglutinin binding by the major protein of apparent Mr 136000 also decreased at the mid-fusion stage of myogenesis, and was barely detectable in 7-day-old fused cultures. These developmentally regulated changes in neuraminidase-sensitive glycoproteins were all inhibited by growth of myoblasts in 6.4 microM-5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, indicating that they are associated with myoblast differentiation. In contrast, an increase in fibronectin was seen in mid-fusion cultures, which was not inhibited by growth of myoblasts in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. This initial increase in fibronectin is, therefore, unlikely to be directly related to myoblast fusion or differentiation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6712625
Tennenbaum, T; Belanger, A J; Glick, A B; Tamura, R; Quaranta, V; Yuspa, S H
The epithelial-specific integrin alpha 6 beta 4 is suprabasally expressed in benign skin tumors (papillomas) and is diffusely expressed in carcinomas associated with an increase in the proliferating compartment. Analysis of RNA samples by reverse transcriptase-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that chemically or oncogenically induced papillomas (n = 8) expressed a single transcript of the alpha 6 subunit, identified as the alpha 6 A splice variant. In contrast, carcinomas (n = 13) expressed both alpha 6A and an alternatively spliced form, alpha 6B. Primary keratinocytes and a number of keratinocyte cell lines that vary in biological potential from normal skin, to benign papillomas, to well-differentiated slowly growing carcinomas exclusively expressed alpha 6A. However, I7, an oncogene-induced cell line that produces highly invasive carcinomas, expressed both alpha 6A and alpha 6B transcript and protein. The expression of alpha 6B in I7 cells was associated with increased attachment to a laminin matrix compared to cell lines exclusively expressing alpha 6A. Furthermore, introduction of an alpha 6B expression vector into a papilloma cell line expressing alpha 6A increased laminin attachment. When a papilloma cell line was converted to an invasive carcinoma by introduction of the v-fos oncogene, the malignant cells expressed both alpha 6A and alpha 6B, while the parent cell line and cells transduced with v-jun or c-myc, which retained the papilloma phenotype, expressed only alpha 6A. Comparative analysis of alpha 6B expression in cell lines and their derived tumors indicate that alpha 6B transcripts are more abundant in tumors than cell lines, and alpha 6B is expressed to a greater extent in poorly differentiated tumors. These results establish a link between malignant conversion and invasion of squamous tumor cells and the regulation of transcript processing of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624366
Blagosklonny, M V; Toretsky, J; Bohen, S; Neckers, L
The p53 mutant, 143ala, was translated in vitro in either rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) or wheat germ extract (WGE). In RRL, p53-143ala protein of both mutant and wild-type conformation, as detected immunologically with conformation-specific antibodies, was translated. The chaperone protein HSP90, present in RRL, was found to coprecipitate only with the mutated conformation of p53. Geldanamycin, shown previously to bind to HSP90 and destabilize its association with other proteins, decreased the amount of immunologically detectable mutated p53 and increased the amount of detectable wild-type protein, without affecting the total translation of p53. When translated in WGE, known to contain functionally deficient HSP90, p53-143ala produced p53 protein, which was not recognized by a mutated conformation-specific antibody. In contrast, the synthesis of conformationally detectable wild-type p53 in this system was not compromised. Reconstitution of HSP90 function in WGE permitted synthesis of conformationally detectable mutated p53, and this was abrogated by geldanamycin. Finally, when p53-143ala was stably tansfected into yeast engineered to be defective for HSP90 function, conformational recognition of mutated p53 was impaired. When stable transfectants of p53-143ala were prepared in yeast expressing wild-type HSP90, conformational recognition of mutated p53 was antagonized by macbecin I, a geldanamycin analog also known to bind HSP90. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for HSP90 in the achievement and/or stabilization of the mutated conformation of p53-143ala. Furthermore, we show that the mutated conformation of p53 can be pharmacologically antagonized by drugs targeting HSP90. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8710879
Maass, G; Schmidt, W; Berger, M; Schilcher, F; Koszik, F; Schneeberger, A; Stingl, G; Birnstiel, M L; Schweighoffer, T
Although both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are clearly required to generate long-lasting anti-tumor immunity induced by s.c. vaccination with interleukin 2 (IL-2)-transfected, irradiated M-3 clone murine melanoma cells, some controversy continues about the site and mode of T-cell activation in this system. Macrophages, granulocytes, and natural killer cells infiltrate the vaccination site early after injection into either syngeneic euthymic DBA/2 mice or athymic nude mice and eliminate the inoculum within 48 hr. We could not find T cells at the vaccination site, which argues against the concept that T-cell priming by the IL-2-secreting cancer cells occurs directly at that location. However, reverse transcription-PCR revealed transcripts indicative of T-cell activation and expansion in the draining lymph nodes of mice immunized with the IL-2-secreting vaccine but not in mice vaccinated with untransfected, irradiated M-3 cells. We therefore propose that the antigen-presenting cells, which invade the vaccination site, process tumor-derived antigens and, subsequently, initiate priming of tumor-specific T lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. These findings suggest a three-stage process for the generation of effector T cells after vaccination with IL-2-secreting tumor cells: (i) tumor-antigen uptake and processing at the site of injection by antigen-presenting cells, (ii) migration of antigen-presenting cells into the regional draining lymph nodes, where T-cell priming occurs, and (iii) circulation of activated T cells that either perform or initiate effector mechanisms leading to tumor cell destruction. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7777545
Botchkina, G. I.; Meistrell, M. E.; Botchkina, I. L.; Tracey, K. J.
Cerebral ischemia induces a rapid and dramatic up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) protein and mRNA, but the cellular sources of TNF in the ischemic brain have not been defined. The diverse activities of TNF are mediated via ligand interaction with two distinct receptors, p55 and p75, which activate separate intracellular signal transduction pathways, leading to distinct biological effects. Since the effects of cerebral ischemia on TNF receptor (TNFR) expression are unknown, we examined the cellular localization and protein expression of TNF and its two receptors in the rat cerebral cortex in response to permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The results indicate that focal. cerebral ischemia up-regulates expression of TNF and both TNFRs within the ischemic cortex. The most abundant type of TNF immunoreactivity (IR) was a punctate and filamentous pattern of transected cellular processes; however, cell bodies of neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, as well as infiltrating polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes also showed TNF IR. Brain vasculature displayed TNF IR not only within endothelial cells but also in the perivascular space. MCA occlusion induced significant up-regulation of TNF receptors, with p55 IR appearing within 6 hr, significantly before the appearance of p75 IR at 24 hr after the onset of ischemia. Since p55 has been implicated in transducing cytotoxic signalling of TNF, these results support the proposed injurious role of excessive TNF produced during the acute response to cerebral ischemia. Images FIG. 7 FIG. 3 FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:9407552
Giglioni, B; Casini, C; Mantovani, R; Merli, S; Comi, P; Ottolenghi, S; Saglio, G; Camaschella, C; Mazza, U
A family was studied in which two inherited defects of the non-alpha-globin cluster segregate: Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and beta-thalassemia. Fragments of the non-alpha-globin cluster from two patients were cloned in cosmid and phage lambda vectors, and assigned to either the HPFH or beta-thalassemic chromosome on the basis of the demonstration of a polymorphic BglII site in the HPFH gamma-globin cluster. The thalassemic beta-globin gene carries a mutation at nucleotide 1 of the intervening sequence I, known to cause beta zero-thalassemia; the beta-globin gene from the HPFH chromosome is entirely normal, both in the intron-exon sequence and in 5' flanking regions required for transcription. As the compound HPFH/beta-thalassemia heterozygote synthesizes HbA, these data prove that the HPFH beta-globin gene is functional, although at a decreased rate; its lower activity is likely to be due to a distant mutation. The HPFH A gamma-globin gene shows only two mutations: a T----C substitution in the large intervening sequence (responsible for the BglII polymorphic site) and a C----T substitution 196 nucleotides 5' to the cap site; the 5' flanking sequence is normal up to -1350 nucleotides upstream from the gene. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the mutation at -196 may be responsible for the abnormally high expression of the A gamma-globin gene. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6210198
Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals.
van der Schoot, P
differences occur in the extent of initial development of an intra-abdominal conus inguinalis and later cremaster muscles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8771400
The anatomy of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its possible relationships to other structures near the joint are not fully understood. A 3-dimensional analysis based on sagittal, frontal and horizontal serial sections through the human temporomandibular joint region was therefore undertaken. Capsular elements which directly connect the temporal bone with the mandible were seen only on the lateral side of the joint. In the posterior, anterior and medial regions of the joint the upper and lower laminae of the articular disc are attached separately either to the temporal bone or to the mandibular condyle. The shaping of the articular cavities and the texture of the joint capsule permit movements of the articular disc predominantly in the anteromedial direction. On the entire medial side of the joint the articular disc and its capsular attachments are in close contact with the fascia of the lateral pterygoid muscle whereby a small portion of the upper head of this muscle inserts directly into the anteromedial part of the articular disc. Thus both the upper and the lower heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle are likely to influence the position of the articular disc directly during temporomandibular joint movements. Laterally, the articular disc is attached to the fascia of the masseter muscle, and part of the lateral ligament inserts into the temporalis fascia. Since these attachments are relatively weak, neither the temporalis nor the masseter muscles are considered to act directly on the articular disc; instead, via afferents from muscle spindles, they may take part in signalling the position of the temporomandibular joint components, including that of the articular disc. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8014124
Mourelatos, Z; Gonatas, N K; Stieber, A; Gurney, M E; Dal Canto, M C
Dominant mutations of the SOD1 gene encoding Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase have been found in members of certain families with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To better understand the contribution of SOD1 mutations in the pathogenesis of familial ALS, we developed transgenic mice expressing one of the mutations found in familial ALS. These animals display clinical and pathological features closely resembling human ALS. Early changes observed in these animals were intra-axonal and dendritic vacuoles due to dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolar degeneration of mitochondria. We have reported that the Golgi apparatus of spinal cord motor neurons in patients with sporadic ALS is fragmented and atrophic. In this study we show that spinal cord motor neurons of transgenic mice for an SOD1 mutation display a lesion of the Golgi apparatus identical to that found in humans with sporadic ALS. In these mice, the stacks of the cisternae of the fragmented Golgi apparatus are shorter than in the normal organelle, and there is a reduction in Golgi-associated vesicles and adjacent cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus occurs in an early, presymptomatic stage and usually precedes the development of the vacuolar changes. Transgenic mice overexpressing the wild-type human superoxide dismutase are normal. In familial ALS, an early lesion of the Golgi apparatus of motor neurons may have adverse functional effects, because newly synthesized proteins destined for fast axoplasmic transport pass through the Golgi apparatus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643599
Hanafusa, T; Pujol-Borrell, R; Chiovato, L; Doniach, D; Bottazzo, G F
A method is described for culturing intact human thyroid follicles, based on the study of 40 thyroidectomy specimens from normal (n = 18) and diseased glands (n = 22). Reversal of the normal polarity of thyrocytes, whereby the microvilli move from the colloid edge to the vascular pole of the cells, occurs gradually when the amount of fetal calf serum (FCS) is changed from 0.5% to 10%. The translocation of thyroid 'microvillar' antigens, (surface expression of 'microsomal' and a separate surface antigen) from the follicular to the vascular pole of thyrocytes was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence with human sera containing microsomal antibodies, as well as by electron microscopy. In normal and diseased thyroid glands up to 80% of follicles became reversed after 5-10 days in high FCS and the microsomal/microvillar antigen persisted for about twice as long as in monolayer cultures. Spontaneous reversal of polarity was observed in six of eight glands from patients with Graves' thyrotoxicosis or toxic nodular goitre in freshly dispersed tissues or after 2 days in 0.5% FCS, unlike normal tissues where only a trace of reversal appeared after 7 days of culture under these conditions. It is postulated that polarity reversal may play a role in human thyroid autoimmunity as the normally secluded 'microvillar' antigens becomes transposed to the vascular pole of thyroid follicles where they are in direct contact with cytotoxic antibodies or sensitized immunocytes. This could initiate lesions in intact follicles. Inappropriate HLA-DR expression on thyrocytes, either stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or appearing spontaneously as an early marker of thyroiditis, did not correlate with reversal of polarity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6380840
Naim, H Y
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was isolated from detergent-derived extracts of human intestinal brush-border membranes (BBMs) by immunoprecipitation using a monoclonal antibody. Analysis of the immunoprecipitates by SDS/PAGE revealed a polypeptide of apparent M(r) 184,000 under reducing and non-reducing conditions, indicating that ACE does not contain intermolecular disulphide bridges. The quaternary structure of ACE was examined using cross-linking experiments with dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] (DSP) and density gradient centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Both approaches demonstrated that ACE is assembled in the membrane as a monomer. By contrast, the control glycoprotein aminopeptidase N (ApN) exists as a dimer. Biosynthetic labelling experiments in intestinal tissue explants demonstrated that the 184,000-M(r) protein is generated from a single-polypeptide, mannose-rich precursor of ACE (M(r) 175,000) by modification of the carbohydrate side-chains in the Golgi apparatus. The mode of association of the mature form of the enzyme with BBMs was investigated by hydrophobic labelling of right-side-out brush-border vesicles with the photoactivatable carbene-generating reagent 125I-labelled 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m[formylamino]phenyl)diazirine (125I-labelled TID), followed by treatment with trypsin at dilutions that do not cause substantial degradation of ACE. These studies demonstrated that ACE is associated with the membrane via a hydrophobic segment. Furthermore, treatment of 35S-labelled inside-out membrane vesicles with trypsin revealed that ACE possesses a cytoplasmic tail, and therefore has a transmembraneous orientation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1326943
Kerezoudi, E; King, R H; Muddle, J R; O'Neill, J A; Thomas, P K
The influence of age on the late retrograde effects of unilateral sciatic nerve section was investigated in rats. Operations were performed on young rats aged 3 months and older rats aged 15 and 18 months, with survival times ranging from 6 to 15 months depending upon age at the time of operation. As in previous studies, axonal atrophy was found in myelinated fibres proximal to nerve transection. This was observed to be greater in animals operated upon at 3 months of age than in those in which the sciatic nerve was transected at 15 and 18 months. In the sciatic nerve, focal intramyelinic oedema was present at a low frequency on the operated side just proximal to the section at all survival times but not on the unoperated side except in 1 old animal. Its frequency increased with age both in the dorsal and ventral roots on both sides but it was not more common on the operated side. Retrograde axonal atrophy is therefore unlikely to contribute to its occurrence. In the dorsal root ganglia the main abnormality was the presence of vacuolated neurons on the operated side. Nuclear eccentricity was also observed on the operated side in young animals in a proportion of the neurons; its frequency increased with age on the normal side and there was no difference in the older animals between operated and control sides. The possibility is discussed that growth factor deprivation secondary to axotomy is implicated in these changes. If so, there are age differences in its effect in giving rise to axonal atrophy and neuronal vacuolation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7591983
Fuller, S D; Bravo, R; Simons, K
The expression of viral envelope proteins on the plasma membrane domains of the epithelial cell line, MDCK, is polar. Influenza virus infection of these cells leads to expression of the viral haemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins on the apical domain of the plasma membrane while vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection yields basolateral expression of the sialic acid-bearing G protein. We have exploited the ability of the influenza neuraminidase to desialate the G protein of VSV to test for contact between these proteins during their intracellular transport to separate plasma membrane domains. We were able to select for VSV-G protein expression in doubly-infected cells because VSV protein production was accelerated in cells pre-infected with influenza virus. During double infection the envelope proteins of both viruses displayed the same polar localization as during single infection but the VSG-G protein was undersialated due to the action of the influenza neuraminidase. Incubation of singly-infected cells at 20 degrees C blocked the transport of VSV-G protein to the cell surface and resulted in increased sialation of the protein over that seen at 37 degrees C. This suggests that G protein is held in contact with the sialyl transferase at this temperature. 20 degrees C incubations of doubly-infected cells also produced the undersialated G protein characteristic of interaction with the neuraminidase. We conclude that most of the newly synthesised basolaterally-directed G protein is in physical contact with the majority of the neuraminidase through the terminal steps of Golgi processing. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2990898
Bradway, S D; Bergey, E J; Jones, P C; Levine, M J
The present investigation was carried out to examine the mechanism(s) whereby salivary molecules interact with human buccal epithelial cells. By utilizing antiserum against human parotid saliva, selected salivary components were detected by electrophoretic-transfer analysis of 1.5% SDS extracts of epithelial cells. Incubation of the cells and their aqueous cell-free extracts with 125I-labelled parotid saliva resulted in the formation of an iodinated high-molecular-mass complex which was not present in 125I-labelled saline alone. Formation of this complex was time-dependent and was inhibited by treating the buccal epithelial cells or their cell-free extracts with EGTA, iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide or by heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. The epithelial cells also promoted incorporation of [14C]putrescine into high-molecular-mass complexes whose formation was inhibited by iodoacetamide, unlabelled putrescine and EGTA. Cell extracts mediated cross-linking of monodansylcadaverine into alpha-casein, and this interaction was inhibited by iodoacetamide. Significant amounts of radioactivity were recovered with the epithelial-cell envelopes after exhaustive extraction of 125I-saliva- or [14C]putrescine-treated epithelial cells with 4% (w/v) SDS/10% (v/v) beta-mercaptoethanol. The incorporation of radioactivity into epithelial-cell envelopes was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with putrescine, EGTA, iodoacetamide, or heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. These data suggest that: (1) oral mucosal pellicle is formed by the selective adsorption of saliva to the epithelial-cell plasma membrane and its associated cytoskeleton; and (2) the adsorbed salivary components may be cross-linked to each other or the epithelial cytoskeleton by epithelial transglutaminases. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2572218
Angelotti, Robert; Maryanski, James H.; Butler, Thomas F.; Peeler, James T.; Campbell, Jeptha E.
The dry-heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores located in or on various materials was determined as D and z values in the range of 105 through 160 C. The systems tested included spores located on steel and paper strips, spores located between stainless-steel washers mated together under 150 inch-lb and 12 inch-lb of torque, and spores encapsulated in methylmethacrylate and epoxy plastics. D values for a given temperature varied with the test system. High D values were observed for the systems in which spores were encapsulated or under heavy torque, whereas lower D values were observed for the steel and paper strip systems and the lightly torqued system. Similar z values were obtained for the plastic and steel strip systems (zD = 21 C), but an unusually low z for spores on paper (zD = 12.9 C) and an unusually high z for spores on steel washers mated at 150 inch-lb of torque (zD = 32 C) were observed. The effect of spore moisture content on the D value of spores encapsulated in water-impermeable plastic was determined, and maximal resistance was observed for spores with a water activity (aw) of 0.2 to 0.4. Significantly decreased D values were observed for spores with moisture contents below aw 0.2 or above aw 0.4. The data indicate that the important factors to be considered when measuring the dry heat resistance of spores are (i) the initial moisture content of the spore, (ii) the rate of spore desiccation during heating, (iii) the water retention capacity of the material in or on which spores are located, and (iv) the relative humidity of the system at the test temperature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:4968962
Chan, R.; Lian, C.J.; Costerton, J.W.; Acres, S.D.
Electron microscopy was used to study the interaction between the glycocalyx of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain 210 (09:K30+;K99-;F41-:H-) and the glycocalyx of epithelial cells in then ileum of experimentally infected newborn colostrum-deprived calves. Fixation of tissues in anti-K30 antibody and ruthenium red was used to stabilize the bacterial glycocalyx so that the spatial relationship between the bacteria and the intestinal epithelial cells could be characterized. When strain 210 was grown in vitro and reacted with anti-K30 antibody prior to staining with ruthenium red, the extensive glycocalyx could be clearly visualized surrounding the bacterial cells. By negative staining, an unidentified pilus was also seen. Sections of ileum from infected calves, which were not fixed in antibody nor stained with ruthenium red, revealed attached bacteria which were surrounded by an electron-translucent zone and no visible bacterial glycocalyx. When ruthenium red staining was used, the bacterial glycocalyx partially collapsed during the dehydration steps of fixation, but could be seen as either a fibrous capsule or an electron-dense accretion on the bacterial cell surface. When ileal tissue was reacted for one hour in anti-K30 antibody before staining with ruthenium red, the bacterial glycocalyx was seen as a discrete electron-dense structure up to 1.0µm thick which was in intimate contact with the glycocalyx of the epithelial cells. The importance of the bacterial exopolysaccharide to microcolony formation on the villi could be clearly visualized. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:6349756
Ferguson, D. J.; Graham, D. I.; Hutchison, W. M.
The pathological changes in the brains of mice infected with T. gondii were studied at various intervals between 7 days and 22 months post-infection using histology, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Initially, a few single parasites were observed (day 7) but necrotic lesions and microglial and inflammatory nodules rapidly appeared (9-I4 days). The majority of the lesions between days 9 and I4 contained proliferating toxoplasma and early cyst formation but from 2I days onwards the vast majority of nodules contained neither parasites nor Toxoplasma antigen. Intact intracellular cysts persisted throughout the period of study eliciting no host response. A generalized meningoencephalitis developed by day II and persisted with varying degrees of severity throughout the 22 months studied. At first, the inflammatory cells consisted of lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages but during the chronic phase plasma cells predominated. In chronic infections, the number of microglial/inflammatory nodules was relatively constant with only a few containing toxoplasmic material resulting from recent cyst rupture. A few brains contained small nodules of dystrophic calcification. This study shows that in these asymptomatic animals, the major feature is perivascular cuffing by mononuclear cells and localized microglial/inflammatory nodules. After the development of the chronic state, there is no obvious increase or decrease in the severity of the pathological changes with time. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:1883744
Sañudo, J R; Domenech-Mateu, J M
The laryngeal primordium is present in both the laryngotracheal sulcus (LTS) and the primitive pulmonary sac (PPS). Its early period of development may be subdivided into two phases. The first phase (Stage 11) is represented by what is traditionally referred to as the LTS, located directly beneath the PP4 on the ventral wall of the foregut (primary segment), and by the PPS which is situated at its caudal end. The LTS will represent the primordium of the upper or membranous infraglottic cavity region; whereas the PPS, will give rise not only to the bronchial tree, but also to the primordium of the trachea and the lower or cartilaginous region of the infraglottic cavity. The second phase (Stages 13 and 14) is distinguished by the cranial growth of the LTS above the PP4 and therefore by its absorption into the floor of the primitive pharynx in the mesobranchial area (secondary segment), which will develop into the primordium of the vestibule of the larynx. Similarly, we observed that in the development of the laryngeal cavity there are two temporally and spatially separate epithelial structures: the epithelial septum and the epithelial lamina. In this respect we differ from other authors who are of the opinion that there is a single structure (the epithelial lamina). The epithelial septum is a primary structure responsible for the final configuration of the LTS, as it contributes to the development of the lower end of the primary segment of the LTS and also to the creation of the secondary segment. The epithelial lamina is a secondary structure which appears inside the LTS as a result of pressure exerted by the mesenchyme on its lateral walls, without having any effect on the morphogenesis of the LTS. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2081706
Arce, V.; Brenes, F.; Gutiérrez, J. M.
The degenerative and regenerative changes in murine skeletal muscle after injection of Bothrops asper venom were studied by histological, lectin histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. According to our observations, the process was divided into four main stages: (a) During the first 3 days prominent degenerative events took place in skeletal muscle fibres, capillaries, arteries, veins and intramuscular nerves. An inflammatory infiltrate was abundant after the first day and removal of necrotic material was well advanced by the third day. (b) Muscle regeneration was evident by the fourth day. From 4 to 6 days there were two populations of regenerating muscle fibres, one of apparently normal fibres located in areas where capillary vessels were abundant, and another population of groups of regenerative fibres showing signs of degeneration. This second type of fibre was predominant in areas where the number of capillaries was greatly reduced. (c) One and 2 weeks after envenomation areas of small regenerative fibres of normal morphology and areas of degenerating regenerative fibres were observed. The latter were abundant in regions of dense fibrotic tissue and scarce capillaries. (d) Finally, at 4 and 8 weeks after envenomation there were both areas of fibrosis and areas where regenerating muscle fibres predominated. However, the diameter of these fibres was abnormally small, an indication that they may have been atrophic fibres. It is suggested that muscle regeneration is partially impaired after myonecrosis induced by Bothrops asper venom, probably due to the damage induced by this venom on muscle microvasculature and nerves. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:1707650
ElHassan, A M; Gaafar, A; Theander, T G
In this study biopsies from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major were examined by immunohistochemistry, and by light and electron microscopy to identify the types of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and their location. APC, identified morphologically and by their expression of specific cell markers, included Langerhans cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells, and interdigitating reticulum cells of the paracortex of lymph nodes. These cells expressed MHC class II antigens and contained Leishmania antigen. Since some keratinocytes and endothelial cells also showed these characteristics, they may also act as APC. By examining tissue samples from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes it was possible to follow the probable route of trafficking of various inflammatory cells between the skin lesion and lymph nodes. Leishmania antigen containing Langerhans cells were found in the epidermis, dermis and the regional lymph nodes. We believe these cells translocate from the epidermis to the dermis, where they take up antigen and migrate to the paracortex of the regional lymph nodes. There they are intimately associated with cells of the paracortex, and could be involved in the generation of Leishmania-specific T memory cells. LFA-1-positive T cells of the CD45RO phenotype were found in the skin lesion. Venular endothelium in the skin lesions expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is the ligand for LFA-1. The migration of lymphocytes from the vascular lumen to the site of inflammation is possibly a result of the interaction of these two adhesion molecules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7882568
Dudrick, S J
Preliminary studies in 400 New Zealand albino rabbits produced a reliable animal model of nutrient-induced atherosclerosis that simulated that observed in humans. Atherosclerosis was then induced in an additional 1600 rabbits in sets of 40 animals each, maintaining plasma cholesterol concentrations between 1000 and 2000 mg/dL for 6-20 weeks. In each set, 10 control rabbits were killed to document baseline atherosclerosis, and the other 30 rabbits were assigned randomly to one of three groups of 10 rabbits. Groups of 10 rabbits were either continued on the atherogenic diet (group I), given standard laboratory rabbit pellets (group II), or infused continuously with specially formulated anticholesterol solutions via central venous catheters (group III) for 6 weeks. At autopsy, atherosclerotic lesions consistently involved 85-95% of the aorta in group I. In group II, atherosclerosis was comparable with the baseline control group with no regression. In group III, regression of atherosclerosis by 90-95% was consistently documented. Correlations between plasma amino acids and plasma cholesterol concentrations were established in four humans with severe atherosclerosis to maximize the cholesterol reduction capacity of the amino acid formulation. Infusion of the modified total parenteral nutrition solution induced prompt reduction in plasma cholesterol levels by 40-60% regardless of the initial level and was accompanied by evidence of regression of atherosclerosis after a 90-day infusion therapy period. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. PMID:3115205
Earle, Elizabeth D.; Gracen, Vernon E.; Yoder, Olen C.; Gemmill, Karen P.
High yields of mesophyll protoplasts were obtained from leaves of corn (Zea mays L., inbred W64A). Many protoplasts survived a week in the dark in a simple osmoticum. Culture filtrate from Helminthosporium maydis race T at dilutions of 1:10,000 to 1:20,000 destroyed protoplasts with Texas male-sterile (T) cytoplasm. Substantial damage to protoplasts with nonmale-sterile (N) cytoplasm occurred only at a 1:20 dilution. High concentrations of partially purified H. maydis race T (HMT) toxin (32.5-130 μg dry weight/ml) did not reduce survival of protoplasts with N cytoplasm or C or S male-sterile cytoplasms after 6 days of exposure. Protoplasts with T or TRf (fertility restored) cytoplasm collapsed within 1 to 3 days after treatment with 0.13 μg of HMT toxin/ml, which was one-fifth the level causing 50% inhibition of T cytoplasm seedling root growth. Protoplasts with T cytoplasm which were washed after 30 minutes or more of exposure to HMT toxin also collapsed within a few days. Cultured W64A T protoplasts and freshly isolated protoplasts from inbreds C103 and Mo17 with T cytoplasm were less sensitive to HMT toxin than freshly isolated W64A T protoplasts. Toxin-treated protoplasts survived longer in the light than in the dark. The sensitivity and specificity of the system described will facilitate physiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of toxin action. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:16660306
Hogg, D A
The centres of ossification occurring in the skeleton of the domestic fowl from hatching onwards have been re-investigated in groups of birds from the same hatches, reared under standardised conditions and sampled at intervals from hatching to 182 days. Selected areas have been surveyed in adult birds. The numerous centres which are already present at hatching have been identified. Those first appearing around the time of hatching were for the uncinate processes and the phalanx of digit IV. The centres appearing after hatching were those for metacarpal II, four carpal centres, the orbitosphenoid, rostal and caudal basibranchials, epibranchials, entoglossal, proximal tibial centre, patella and tarsal sesamoid. These have been illustrated and the mean time of appearance and range of time of appearance of each calculated. Some evidence of slight variation in sequence of appearance was detected. The proximal tibial centre was concluded to be the only true secondary centre in the long bones and to correspond to the traction epiphysis of this region in the mammal. In adults, the phalangeal formula of the manus was found usually to be 2:2:1, but occasionally it was reduced to 1:2:1. The only sesamoidean centre found, other than the patella and the tarsal sesamoid, was in the carpal region and was termed the dorsal carpal sesamoid. Some of the many controversies existing in the previous literature have been assessed in the light of the findings of this study. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7429964
Barnum, S R; Ishii, Y; Agrawal, A; Volanakis, J E
In this paper, we demonstrate the synthesis of the complement component C2 and factors B and D by the human astroglioma cell line U105-MG. All three components were structurally and antigenically similar to their serum counterparts, as determined by biosynthetic labelling studies or Western blot analysis. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the mRNAs of all three components had the same apparent sizes as the equivalent mRNAs from hepatocyte and monocyte cell lines. Interestingly, U105-MG cells produce two C2 transcripts with sizes of approximately 2.8 and 2.3 kb. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) enhanced the expression of C2 and factor B mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, while factor D expression was refractory to IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma appeared to predominantly enhance the expression of the large (2.8 kb) C2 transcript. Kinetic studies demonstrated peak C2 and factor B expression in 48 h in response to IFN-gamma, similar to the acute-phase response of factor B in serum. These data are the first to demonstrate the synthesis of C2 and factor D by astroglioma cells. Combined with previous reports documenting the synthesis of C3 by astrocytes, our data suggest that endogenous synthesis of complement proteins, and particularly of alternative pathway activation components (C3, factors B and D), may play an important role in host defence in the central nervous system. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1445220
Bojsen-Moller, F; Flagstad, K E
On the basis of its internal structure, the ball of the foot can be divided into three transverse areas, each with a different mechanical function: (1) an area proximal to the heads of the metatarsals in which the retinacula cutis are developed into a series of transverse bands, and in which the deep fibres of the plantar aponeurosis form ten sagittal septa connected to the deep transverse metatarsal ligament and through this the proximal phalanges of the toes, (2) an area below the heads of the metatarsals in which vertical fibres from the joint capsules and the sides of the fibrous flexor sheaths form a cushion below each metatarsal head, and in which fat bodies cover the digital nerves and vessels in their passage between the cushions, and (3) a distal area which comprises the interdigital web. The superficial fibres of the plantar aponeurosis are inserted into the skin of this distal area, and deep to them the plantar interdigital ligament forms a series of transverse lamellae connected to the proximal phalanges by a mooring ligament which arches from one fibrous flexor sheath to the next. When the metatarsophalangeal joints are extended, the fibres of the three areas are tensed and the skin is anchored firmly to the skeleton. The direction of the fibres in the distal and proximal area promotes the transfer of forces exerted on the skin during push-off and braking respectively, while the intermediate area is adapted to bear the weight of the body. A concentration of Pacinian corpuscles is found along the digital nerves in the weight-bearing area below the transverse metatarsal ligament. The nerves for the second, and especially for the third, interstice are close to or in contact with the sharp proximal edges of the sagittal septa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1018010
Kogure, K.; Sasadaira, H.; Kawachi, T.; Shimosato, Y.; Tokunaga, A.; Fujimura, S.; Sugimura, T.
Oral administration of N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) to hamsters at a concentration of 50-83 μg/ml in the drinking water resulted in a high incidence of tumours in the glandular stomach. Short-term administration of MNNG for 4-6 months resulted in more adenocarcinomata in the glandular stomach than long-term administration for 7-8 months. One case of metastasis of an adenocarcinoma of the glandular stomach to the liver and 2 cases of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes were found. Spindle cell sarcomata in the glandular stomach and adenocarcinomata in the duodenum were also often produced. Oral administration of MNNG at the very high concentration of 500-2000 μg/ml induced a hepatic cell carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct carcinomata, bile duct cystadenomata and cystic dilatation, and a haemangioma in the liver but no tumour in the glandular stomach. Sequential morphological studies on the glandular stomach of hamsters receiving 50 μg/ml of MNNG in the drinking water showed 3 stages of change of the mucosa. The mucosa became atrophic and eroded in the first 16 weeks. Irregular atypical glands developed at the margins of erosions and proliferation of spindle cells in the submucosa were found after 18 weeks. Spindle cell sarcomata developed in animals after 20 weeks. Adenocarcinomata developed between 25 and 32 weeks. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4830138
Simpson, Elizabeth; Nehlsen, Sandra L.
Prolonged administration of ATS to mice resulted in depletion of small lymphocytes in the thymus-dependent (paracortical) areas of lymph nodes in all mice. Small lymphocyte depletion of the thymus-dependent periarteriolar region of the spleen was present in most mice, although this feature was masked by plasmacytosis in this region in some. Depletion of small lymphocytes in the thymus-dependent areas of Peyer's patches was evident in some of the younger mice. None of these changes in lymphoid organs were seen in control mice, untreated or given NRS. The thymus was unaffected except in some ATS- or NRS-treated mice which were sick and/or old, in which the narrowing of the thymic cortex was attributed to non-specific stress. Plasmacytosis was seen in the medullae of lymph nodes of both ATS- and NRS-treated mice, although it was more intense in the latter. In non-lymphoid organs the most striking changes were seen in the kidneys of mice treated both with ATS and NRS. Complex-type nephritis followed by amyloidosis was seen in a large proportion of mice over 6 months old in both these groups and in these mice amyloid was seen frequently in other organs, including spleen and liver. Tumours occurred in fifty-four ATS-treated mice, but in no other group. Fifty-two of these tumours were attributable to polyoma virus; two other were lymphoblastomas. Reticulum cell hyperplasia was seen in two further mice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4326920
Pick, E.; Krejči, J.; Čech, K.; Turk, J. L.
Peritoneal exudate lymphocytes (PEL), purified on glass beads and lymph node (LN) cells from guinea-pigs immunized with tubercle bacilli were cultured for 24 hours, in serum-free medium, without and with various concentrations of Tuberculin PPD. Supernatants obtained from cultures with 10 μg PPD/107 lymphocytes provoked an intense inflammatory reaction, when injected into the skin of normal guinea-pigs. PEL were more active than LN cells from the same animals. The reaction was characterized by erythema and induration, with a peak between 3 and 6 hours and histologically a mixed polymorphonuclear—mononuclear infiltrate in the dermis was seen. When fractionated on Sephadex G-200, skin activity of both PEL and LN supernatants was concentrated in a peak corresponding to the molecular weight of serum albumin, while in LN material some activity was also present in a small molecular weight peak. The active material could be separated from albumin by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of skin reactive peaks detected a slow α-globulin in both PEL and LN supernatants. PPD in the form of a complex with a protein precipitated by anti-γG antiserum, was detected in the skin-active Sephadex peak III of LN supernatants, by radioimmunoelectrophoresis. Skin activity was precipitated with ammonium sulphate at 66 per cent saturation and was destroyed by pepsin treatment. Formation of the skin-active material was depressed by Puromycin and Actinomycin-D and the development of skin inflammation was suppressed by pretreatment of the recipient with anti-lymph node extract serum. Evidence for antigen induced specific synthesis and release of an α-globulin in PEL and LN cultures was found but its relation to the skin active material is unknown. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 6FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 12 PMID:4187522
Kim, Y H; Buchholz, M J; Nordin, A A
The addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to anti-CD3-activated murine G0 phase T cells results in an increased level of tyrosine phosphorylation of a single 97-kDa protein. The degree of tyrosine phosphorylation paralleled the amount of rIL-2 added and correlated with the extent of DNA synthesis. IL-2 treatment resulted in a transient increase in p56lck kinase activity without detectable modification of its level of tyrosine phosphorylation and gel mobility. When G0 T cells were activated by phorbol dibutyrate in the absence of IL-2, the high-affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expressed failed to induce a proliferative signal, and neither the tyrosine phosphorylation of the 97-kDa protein nor the transient increase in p56lck kinase activity was detected. Northern analysis of the total RNA extracted from these cells showed the accumulation of IL-2R alpha chain-specific mRNA but neither c-myc nor cdc2 mRNA was expressed. The addition of 100 nM rIL-2 to T cells activated by phorbol dibutyrate was able to induce a proliferative response, and under these conditions tyrosine phosphorylation of the 97-kDa protein, the transient increase in p56lck kinase activity, and specific mRNA for IL-2R alpha chain, c-myc, and cdc2 were detected. Unstimulated G0 T cells responded to 100 nM rIL-2 in the same manner as phorbol dibutyrate-activated cells. Irrespective of the signal-transducing structures involved, the IL-2-induced proliferative response closely correlates with an increase in p56lck kinase activity along with the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 97-kDa protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7682694
Huang, L; Solursh, M; Sandra, A
To explore the possible role of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in craniofacial development, its expression in the craniofacial region of rat embryos from embryonic day (d) 9 to d 20 was examined by in situ hybridisation and immunostaining. The TGF-alpha transcripts were first detected in the neural fold of embryonic d 9 and 10 embryos. In the craniofacial region, the TGF-alpha transcripts were not detected until embryonic d 16 in mesenchyme surrounding the olfactory bulb, within the olfactory bulb, the nasal capsule, vomeronasal organ, and vibrissal follicle. In addition, TGF-alpha message was detected in mesenchyme in the vicinity of Meckel's cartilage, and in the dental epithelium and lamina. This expression pattern of TGF-alpha transcripts persisted until embryonic d 17 but disappeared by d 18. The presence of TGF-alpha protein largely coincided with TGF-alpha message although, unlike the message, it persisted throughout later embryogenesis in the craniofacial region. The possible function of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis was explored by employing the micromass culture technique. Cartilage nodule formation in mesenchymal cells cultured from rat mandibles in the presence of TGF-alpha was significantly inhibited. This inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis was reversed by addition of antibody against the EGF receptor, which crossreacts with the TGF-alpha receptor. The inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis in vitro was further confirmed by micromass culture using mesenchymal cells from rat embryonic limb bud. Taken together, these results demonstrate the involvement of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis during embryonic development, possibly by way of a specific inhibition of cartilage formation from mesenchymal precursor cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 PMID:8771398
Holden, David W.; Rohringer, Roland
Proteins in intercellular washing fluid (IWF) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves were separated by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or silver. Intracellular protein from the cut ends of leaves accounted for only a small proportion of total protein in IWF from wheat leaves. When these were heavily infected with the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and grown at 19°C, four infection-related CBB-stainable proteins were detected in IWF. To compare IWF proteins from wheat and barley leaves infected with the same pathogen, conditions were established that permitted luxuriant growth of stem rust of wheat in barley (exposure to chloroform before inoculation and maintenance at 25°C thereafter). Under these conditions, at least 10 infection-related silver-stainable proteins were detected in IWF from infected wheat in addition to the more than 50 that were of host origin. The electrophoretic properties of 8 of the infection-related proteins were the same as those of 8 infection-related proteins in IWF from barley. IWF from wheat and barley grown under these conditions was analyzed for Concanavalin A-binding glycoproteins immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane replicas made from gels. Of the many infection-related glycoproteins that were detected in IWF from stem rust-affected wheat, approximately 20 occupied the same positions as those from stem rust-affected barley. The glycoprotein pattern of IWF prepared from wheat leaves grown at 19°C and infected with the leaf rust fungus (P. recondita f. sp. tritici) was markedly different to that of IWF from the same host infected with the stem rust fungus. We conclude that IWF from rust-affected cereal leaves may be a useful source of surface or extracellular proteins from the parasitic mycelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16664314
Wangoo, A; Taylor, I K; Haynes, A R; Shaw, R J
Macrophage production of PDGF-B is believed to be important in the pathogenesis of diseases where chronic lung inflammation develops into fibrosis. Since tuberculosis is characterized by chronic inflammation and tissue fibrosis, we asked if lymphokines from lymphocytes stimulated by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen PPD, contained factors capable of increasing human alveolar macrophage PDGF-B mRNA. Supernatants from both phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)- and purified protein derivative (PPD)-stimulated lymphocytes, when added to macrophages, induced an increase in the mRNA of PDGF-B, but not transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). When lymphocytes from contacts of patients with tuberculosis, patients with tuberculosis, and normal subjects were compared following PPD stimulation, the lymphocytes from the contacts had the greatest proliferation response, the greatest production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and their lymphokines induced the greatest increase in PDGF-B mRNA in macrophages. Recombinant human IFN-gamma reproduced this ability of lymphokines to increase macrophage PDGF-B mRNA. Finally, the increase in macrophage PDGF-B mRNA following incubation with supernatants from PPD-stimulated lymphocytes was shown to be due to IFN-gamma, when the increase in macrophage PDGF-B mRNA was prevented by addition of anti-human IFN-gamma antibody to the lymphocyte supernatant. This study indicated that antigen-stimulated lymphocytes released IFN-gamma, which in turn resulted in an increase in PDGF-B mRNA in alveolar macrophages. Such a mechanism provides a link between the DTH response and the first stages of a fibrotic reaction, and may offer an explanation for the progression of chronic inflammation to fibrosis, as occurs in the lungs of patients with untreated pulmonary tuberculosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8403516
García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M
We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065
McGrew, L L; Richter, J D
The expression of certain maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation. To understand this process, we have focused on a maternal mRNA from Xenopus termed G10. This mRNA is stored in the cytoplasm of stage 6 oocytes until maturation when the process of poly(A) elongation stimulates its translation. Deletion analysis of the 3' untranslated region of G10 RNA has revealed that two sequence elements, UUUUUUAU and AAUAAA were both necessary and sufficient for polyadenylation and polysomal recruitment. In this communication, we have defined the U-rich region that is optimal for polyadenylation as UUUUUUAUAAAG, henceforth referred to as the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE). We have also identified unique sequence requirements in the 3' terminus of the RNA that can modulate polyadenylation even in the presence of wild-type cis elements. A time course of cytoplasmic polyadenylation in vivo shows that it is an early event of maturation and that it requires protein synthesis within the first 15 min of exposure to progesterone. MPF and cyclin can both induce polyadenylation but, at least with respect to MPF, cannot obviate the requirement for protein synthesis. To identify factors that may be responsible for maturation-specific polyadenylation, we employed extracts from oocytes and unfertilized eggs, the latter of which correctly polyadenylates exogenously added RNA. UV crosslinking demonstrated that an 82 kd protein binds to the U-rich CPE in egg, but not oocyte, extracts. The data suggest that progesterone, either in addition to or through MPF/cyclin, induces the synthesis of a factor during very early maturation that stimulates polyadenylation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9 PMID:2145153
Hecht, S J; Stedman, K E; Carlson, J O; DeMartini, J C
The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and various mammal groups for sequences related to JSRV. Probes prepared from the envelope (SU) region of JSRV and the capsid (CA) region of a Peruvian type D virus related to JSRV were used in Southern blot hybridization with genomic DNA followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Fifteen to 20 CA and SU bands were found in all members of the 13 breeds of domestic sheep and 6 breeds of goats tested. There were similar findings in 6 wild Ovis and Capra genera. Within 22 other genera of Bovidae including domestic cattle, and 7 other families of Artiodactyla including Cervidae, there were usually a few CA or SU bands at low stringency and rare bands at high stringency. Among 16 phylogenetically distant genera, there were generally fewer bands hybridizing with either probe. These results reveal wide-spread phylogenetic distribution of endogenous type B and type D retroviral sequences related to JSRV among mammals and argue for further investigation of their potential role in disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8622932
Ferrer, I; Zujar, M J; Admella, C; Alcantara, S
To investigate the morphology and distribution of nonpyramidal neurons in the brain of insectivores, parvalbumin and calbindin 28 kDa immunoreactivity was examined in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were found in all layers of the isocortex, but in contrast to other mammals, a laminar organisation or specific regional distribution was not seen. Characteristic parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were multipolar cells with large ascending and descending dendrites extending throughout several layers. Calbindin-immunoreactive neurons were similar to those found in other species, although appearing in smaller numbers than in the cerebral cortex of more advanced mammals. The morphology and distribution of parvalbumin- and calbindin-immunoreactive cells in the piriform and entorhinal cortices were similar in hedgehogs and rodents. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampal complex were pyramidal-like and bitufted neurons, which were mainly found in the stratum oriens and stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus, and in the stratum moleculare and hilus of the fascia dentata. Heavily stained cells were found in the deep part of the stratum granulare. Intense calbindin immunoreactivity occurred mainly in the granule cell and molecular layers of the dentate gyrus and in the mossy fibre layer. The most outstanding feature in the hippocampal complex of the hedgehog was the extension of calbindin immunoreactivity to CA1 field of the hippocampus, suggesting, in agreement with other reports, that mossy fibres can establish synaptic contacts throughout the pyramidal cell layer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1452472
Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton
Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7
Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette; Hallgren, Lars; Jorgensen, Kim G.; Munck, Lars
To widen the selection of proteins for gene expression studies in barley seeds, experiments were performed to identify proteins whose synthesis is differentially regulated in developing and germinating seed tissues. The in vitro synthesis of nine distinct barley proteins was compared using mRNAs from isolated endosperm and aleurone tissues (developing and mature grain) and from cultured (germinating) aleurone layers treated with abscisic acid (ABA) and GA3. B and C hordein polypeptides and the salt-soluble proteins β-amylase, protein Z, protein C, the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI-1 and 2), the α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (ASI) and the inhibitor of animal cell-free protein synthesis systems (PSI) were synthesized with mRNA from developing starchy endosperm tissue. Of these proteins, β-amylase, protein Z, and CI- 1 and 2 were also synthesized with mRNA from developing aleurone cells, but ASI, PSI, and protein C were not. CI-1 and also a probable amylase/protease inhibitor (PAPI) were synthesized at high levels with mRNAs from late developing and mature aleurone. These results show that mRNAs encoding PAPI and CI-1 survive seed dessication and are long-lived in aleurone cells. Thus, expression of genes encoding ASI, PSI, protein C, and PAPI is tissue and stage-specific during seed development. Only ASI, CI-1, and PAPI were synthesized in significant amounts with mRNA from cultured aleurone layers. The levels of synthesis of PAPI and CI-1 were independent of hormone treatment. In contrast, synthesis of α-amylase (included as control) and of ASI showed antagonistic hormonal control: while GA promotes and ABA reduces accumulation of mRNA for α-amylase, these hormones have the opposite effect on ASI mRNA levels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16664868
Ni, W; Trelease, R N; Eising, R
Five charge isoforms of tetrameric catalase were isolated from cotyledons of germinated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings. Denaturing isoelectric focusing of the individual isoforms in polyacrylamide gels indicated that isoforms A (most anodic) and E (most cathodic) consisted of one subunit of different charge, whereas isoforms B, C and D each consisted of a mixture of these two subunits. Thus the five isoforms apparently were formed through combinations of two subunits in different ratios. Labelling cotyledons in vivo with [35S]methionine at three daily intervals in the dark, and translation in vivo of polyadenylated RNA isolated from cotyledons at the same ages, revealed synthesis of two different subunits. One of the subunits was synthesized in cotyledons at all ages studied (days 1-3), whereas the other subunit was detected only at days 2 and 3. This differential expression of two catalase subunits helped explain previous results from this laboratory showing that the two anodic forms (A and B) found in maturing seeds were supplemented with three cathodic forms (C-E) after the seeds germinated. These subunit data also helped clarify our new findings that proteins of isoforms A, B and C (most active isoforms) accumulated in cotyledons of plants kept in the dark for 3 days, then gradually disappeared during the next several days, whereas isoforms D and E (least active isoforms) remained in the cells. This shift in isoform pattern occurred whether seedlings were kept in the dark or exposed to continuous light after day 3, although exposure to light enhanced this process. These sequential molecular events were responsible for the characteristic developmental changes (rise and fall) in total catalase activity. We believe that the isoform changeover is physiologically related to the changeover in glyoxysome to leaf-type-peroxisome metabolism. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1695843
Isacke, C M; Meisenhelder, J; Brown, K D; Gould, K L; Gould, S J; Hunter, T
Bombesin and the related mammalian peptides, such as gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), are potent mitogens for some fibroblast cell lines. Here we have examined the bombesin- and GRP-mediated changes in the phosphorylation of proteins in Swiss 3T3 cells and compared these to the events observed after platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and tumor promoter treatment. In agreement with previous reports, bombesin, GRP and PDGF, but not EGF, increased the activity of protein kinase C. This was assayed by an inhibition of [125I]EGF binding, stimulation in phosphorylation of pp60c-src on serine 12 and stimulation in phosphorylation of a group of 80 kd proteins. The different phosphorylated forms of the 80 kd proteins were examined by tryptic peptide mapping and shown to contain multiple phosphorylation sites. An investigation of the tyrosine phosphorylation events following mitogen treatment revealed a significant difference between PDGF and the bombesin peptides. PDGF treatment caused a marked increase in total cellular phosphotyrosine levels, and tyrosine phosphorylation both of known substrates and its own receptor. In contrast, bombesin and GRP treatments resulted in only a weak or undetectable increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of total cellular protein or known substrates. In this respect bombesin and GRP were more similar to EGF. The fact that the bombesin peptides do not induce a phosphorylation response identical with either PDGF or EGF suggests that there is not a single common signal pathway which is activated by all these mitogens. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2431903
Jou, T S; Stewart, D B; Stappert, J; Nelson, W J; Marrs, J A
The cadherin-catenin complex is important for mediating homotypic, calcium-dependent cell-cell interactions in diverse tissue types. Although proteins of this complex have been identified, little is known about their interactions. Using a genetic assay in yeast and an in vitro protein-binding assay, we demonstrate that beta-catenin is the linker protein between E-cadherin and alpha-catenin and that E-cadherin does not bind directly to alpha-catenin. We show that a 25-amino acid sequence in the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin and the amino-terminal domain of alpha-catenin are independent binding sites for beta-catenin. In addition to beta-catenin and plakoglobin, another member of the armadillo family, p120 binds to E-cadherin. However, unlike beta-catenin, p120 does not bind alpha-catenin in vitro, although a complex of p120 and endogenous alpha-catenin could be immunoprecipitated from cell extracts. In vitro protein-binding assays using recombinant E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain and alpha-catenin revealed two catenin pools in cell lysates: an approximately 1000- to approximately 2000-kDa complex bound to E-cadherin and an approximately 220-kDa pool that did not contain E-cadherin. Only beta-catenin in the approximately 220-kDa pool bound exogenous E-cadherin. Delineation of these molecular linkages and the demonstration of separate pools of catenins in different cell lines provide a foundation for examining regulatory mechanisms involved in the assembly and function of the cadherin-catenin complex. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7761449
Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin
Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917
Gordon, D. S.; Blair, G. A. S.
The technique of repairing defects of the skull with titanium is described. The skull contour can be accurately reproduced. The technique is simpler than wiring or suturing methods. The material is inert, radiolucent, and rigid. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4834099
Peters, Walter J.
Most minor burns can be expected to heal uneventfully if certain principles of management are followed. Prompt assessment of the etiology and classification of the burn will reveal which burns can be treated on an outpatient basis. This article outlines the principles of such treatment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469345
Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G
Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288
McKee, P. H.; Cameron, C. H.
A case of barium sulphate granuloma of the transverse colon following gunshot wounds to the abdomen has been described. Scanning electron microscopy with electron probe microanalysis was used to confirm the presence of barium sulphate and the absence of lead or other elements related to the gunshot wounds. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:740599
The management of vascular amputees in the Roehampton Limb Surgery Unit since its opening in 1975 is outlined and the results in 167 cases presented. Of the 35 patients over the age of 80, 57% were walking independently at the time of their discharge from the unit. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7377693
One hundred children with urinary tract infections were fully investigated radiologically. More than half showed abnormalities of the urinary tract. It is concluded that full investigation of the urinary tract is justifiable at any age; it should be carried out in boys at the first infection, and in girls at the latest after the second infection, or if treatment did not produce the expected cure. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5412561
Palayew, M. J.; Sedlezky, I.; Sigman, H. H.; Sheiner, N. M.
We have performed 17 percutaneous transluminal dilatations in 15 patients with segmental stenoses of the femoral and popliteal arteries. Initial success was achieved in 14 instances. This technique must be considered a useful adjunct in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease in selected patients. Its use along with endarterectomy has not been previously reported and warrants further investigation. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11 PMID:5353151
Corbel, M. J.; Scott, A. C.; Ross, H. M.
The properties of an atypical Brucella strain isolated from lymph node tissue of a cow slaughtered as a brucellosis reactor were examined. The organism was Gram negative and highly pleomorphic, existing as cocci, coccobacilli, rods, branched and irregular forms which stained with fluorescent antibody conjugates prepared against rough and smooth Brucella abortus strains. It produced lecithinase and required at least 15% v/v equine or bovine serum for growth. It did not need supplementary CO2 for growth, produced H2S and was inhibited by brucella dyes and partially by i-erythritol. Growth inhibition or lysis was produced by brucella-phages. The organism was not pathogenic for guinea-pigs or mice but evoked antibodies mainly to rough Brucella antigens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6820027
MALCOLM, J. E.
A mathematical model for study of blood flow has been derived from the avian egg, utilizing the theories of crystallography and photosynthesis. The model is employed to explain the form of the eye and the function of the cells of the human retina, with special reference to colour vision and the pathology of migraine. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4736600
Thibaut, M.; Ansel, M.; Saez, H.
Spectroscopic analysis by means of a laser microscope was employed to detect, in fungal tissue, some elements of Mendeleev's classification. Such a method allows all the necessary information to be obtained from the same sample, and permits the detection of 74 elements in the periodic system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Figs. 3-4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7295539
Piriou, A.; Maissiat, R.; Jacqueson, A.; Warnet, J. M.; Claude, J. R.
Ultrastructural study of hepatic parenchyma was carried out in female Wistar rats after they had received high doses (400 mg X kg-1) of rifampicin for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Morphological changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were observed as early as day 1 of intoxication. These changes corroborate the biochemical data available regarding RFP-induced fatty liver. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 & 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3580280
The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067
Cooper, J. E.
The history of diseases of the feet in falcons is briefly outlined; such diseases were recognised in Britain as long ago as the fifteenth century. The severity of the lesions varies and may conveniently be divided into three types. Surgery is of value in the treatment of Type-2 lesions and consists of the removal, under general anaesthesia, of infected and necrotic material. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG 4 PMID:7002014
Dourmashkin, R R; Deteix, P; Simone, C B; Henkart, P
To test the hypothesis that complement-mediated cell lysis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity operate by analogous mechanisms, cell membranes from two antibody-dependent cytotoxicity systems were examined by electron microscopy after negative staining. Ring-shaped membrane lesions generally similar to, but larger than, those previously described for complement lysis were observed. These findings are in agreement with recent measurements of larger functional pores for ADCC than complement. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7214742
Viseltear, A. J.
This paper considers the antecedent events that led to the development of Yale's Institute of Human Relations, the program of interdisciplinary research and teaching established, and the principal protagonists, James Rowland Angell, President of Yale University, and Milton C. Winternitz, Dean of the School of Medicine, both of whom were committed to the concept that medicine is a social science. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6399650
Bradamante, Z; Svajger, A
During chondrogenesis in the external ear of the rat oxytalan fibres precede the appearance of mature elastic fibres by 6-7 days. The spatial distribution of oxytalan fibres in fetal and neonatal pre-cartilage corresponds to that of the elastic fibres in mature cartilage. These findings support the hypothesis that oxytalan fibres in the pre-cartilage of the external ear of the rat are pre-elastic in nature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:885786
Peumans, W J; Spaepen, C; Stinissen, H M; Carlier, A R
A lectin has been isolated from embryos of a false brome grass species (Brachypodium sylvaticum) by affinity chromatography on immobilized N-acetylglucosamine. It is a dimeric protein of two identical subunits of mol.wt. 18 000. Although it resembles cereal lectins with respect to its biochemical and physicochemical properties, it differs structurally in several aspects from wheat-germ-agglutinin-like lectins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6816219
Jen, P Y; Dixon, J S
-ENK-IR nerves together with a few m-ENK-IR nerves. Occasional smooth muscle-associated varicose nerve fibres showed immunoreactivity for SP, CGRP, VIP or BOM although the majority of these types of nerve formed perivascular plexuses. Also at 26 wk numerous varicose nerve fibres were observed in association with the prostatic acini, the majority of such nerves containing NPY with a few showing immunoreactivity to VIP, l-ENK, SP or CGRP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7591978
Maina, J N
evolution of the lungs of the air-breathing vertebrates from lower through to higher vertebrates. The gross and ultrastructural heterogeneity of the organisation of the ophidian lung is illustrated and the dearth of pulmonary morphological data in this taxon is pointed out. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2630539
Camps, M; Castelló, A; Muñoz, P; Monfar, M; Testar, X; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A
1. GLUT-4 glucose-transporter protein and mRNA levels were assessed in heart, red muscle and white muscle, as well as in brown and white adipose tissue from 7-day streptozotocin-induced diabetic and 48 h-fasted rats. 2. In agreement with previous data, white adipose tissue showed a substantial decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA and protein levels in response to both diabetes and fasting. Similarly, GLUT-4 mRNA and protein markedly decreased in brown adipose tissue in both insulinopenic conditions. 3. Under control conditions, the level of expression of GLUT-4 protein content differed substantially in heart, red and white skeletal muscle. Thus GLUT-4 protein was maximal in heart, and red muscle had a greater GLUT-4 content compared with white muscle. In spite of the large differences in GLUT-4 protein content, GLUT-4 mRNA levels were equivalent in heart and red skeletal muscle. 4. In heart, GLUT-4 mRNA decreased to a greater extent than GLUT-4 protein in response to diabetes and fasting. In contrast, red muscle showed a greater decrease in GLUT-4 protein than in mRNA in response to diabetes or fasting, and in fact no decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA content was detectable in fasting. On the other hand, preparations of white skeletal muscle showed a substantial increase in GLUT-4 mRNA under both insulinopenic conditions, and that was concomitant to either a modest decrease in GLUT-4 protein in diabetes or to no change in fasting. 5. These results indicate that (a) the effects of diabetes and fasting are almost identical and lead to changes in GLUT-4 expression that are tissue-specific, (b) white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue and heart respond similarly to insulin deficiency by decreasing GLUT-4 mRNA to a larger extent than GLUT-4 protein, and (c) red and white skeletal muscle respond to insulinopenic conditions in a heterogeneous manner which is characterized by enhanced GLUT-4 mRNA/protein ratios. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1554359
Chan, L; Wong, Y C
The proteoglycans (PGs) in the guinea pig seminal vesicle were demonstrated ultrastructurally by both cuprolinic blue (CB) and ruthenium red (RR) staining. The PGs appeared as electron-dense granules with RR, but were filamentous following CB staining using the critical electrolyte concentration method. Three major types of PGs (T1, T2, T3) have been described according to their different locations and sizes. T1 filaments were short and were found mostly on both sides of the lamina densa of the basal lamina of the glandular epithelium (40-60 nm long) and also on the basal laminae of smooth muscle cells and capillary endothelial cells (20-30 nm long). In the epithelial basal lamina they were regularly spaced at an interval of 40-60 nm. T1 filaments in the lamina densa were smaller and more randomly distributed. Cytochemical characterisation of these PGs by various GAG degrading enzymes showed that T1 PGs are rich in heparan sulphate. T2 filaments were 30-40 nm long and closely associated with the collagen fibrils. They were arranged perpendicular to the long axis of collagen fibrils, also at intervals of about 60 nm. T2 filaments were removed by chondroitinase (Ch)-ABC, Ch-ABC plus Streptomyces (S)-hyaluronidase and pronase, but resistant to nitrous acid, heparitinase, heparinase, neuraminidase and S-hyaluronidase. These show that T2 filaments are rich in dermatan sulphate. T3 filaments (60-100 nm) were widely distributed in the stroma at sites such as the interstitial spaces of the lamina propria, the reticular layer below the basal lamina, around individual collagen fibrils or bundles of such fibres, and on the cell surfaces of fibroblasts. The T3 filaments were removed by Ch-ABC, Ch-AC and pronase but were resistant to heparitinase, heparinase, S-hyaluronidase, neuraminidase and nitrous acid. They are therefore rich in chondroitin sulphate. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig
Gonatas, Nicholas K.; Gonatas, Jacqueline O.; Stieber, Anna; Lisak, Robert; Suzuki, Kunuhiko; Martenson, Russell E.
injection of the mixture of Lewis rat large and small BP. It is concluded that although the BP-peroxidase labeling method reveals cells with specific anti-BP antibody, these cells are probably unrelated to EAE. The lack of correlation between EAE induced by low antigen doses and levels of circulating anti-BP antibody (determined with the use of highly encephalitogenic 125I-BP) suggests that effector cells can be stimulated at low antigen doses, but higher antigen doses are required to induce the production of levels of circulating antibody detectable by the method of immune coprecipitation. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4547331
are given, and the lines on which further experiments are being continued are indicated. Finally, the application of the results to the pathology of infection in this region, particularly paradontal disease, is given, and also their application to the phenomena of injection anæsthesia. ImagesFig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19990818
Gutiérrez, J. M.; Arroyo, O.; Chaves, F.; Lomonte, B.; Cerdas, L.
levels of lactate dehydrogenase. Isozymes LDH-3, LDH-4, and LDH-5 increased markedly, suggesting that the systemic pathology of coral snake envenoming may be more complex than previously thought. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 PMID:3947530
Lucas, C E
severely shattered spleen; these patients usually are treated best by early operative intervention. Following splenectomy for injury, polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine decreases the likelihood of OPSI and should be used routinely. The role of prophylactic penicillin is uncertain but the use of antibiotics for minor infectious problems is indicated after splenectomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:1992948
King, M J; Sale, G J
studies were confirmed by other methods. It is concluded that in cell extracts phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatases other than calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase are the major phosphotyrosyl-(insulin receptor) and -(EGF receptor) phosphatases. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. p899-a PMID:2852008
Baldo, B A; Sawyer, W H; Stick, R V; Uhlenbruck, G
subunits with approx. mol.wts. of 10000, 20000 and 40000. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:743208
Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L
domain. Thus different variants of chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate domains may have evolved separately to fulfil specific biochemical and physiological functions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1339285
Taguchi, O; Nishizuka, Y; Sakakura, T; Kojima, A
. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:6998618
Sacks, D B; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y; Gale, R D; McDonald, J M
receptor in a Ca2+-dependent manner, whereas it binds to polylysine seemingly by electrostatic interactions. These studies identify calmodulin as a substrate for the highly purified insulin receptor tyrosine kinase of human placenta. They also demonstrate that the basic proteins, which are required for insulin to stimulate the phosphorylation of calmodulin, do so by a direct interaction with calmodulin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 8. PMID:2480780
Gray, Albert A.
other nerve-structures in the body. If, therefore, structural changes occur as a result of defective functioning of those nerves, such structural changes will naturally be bilaterally symmetrical in their distribution. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19989872
Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.
A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470
Feik, S A; Ellender, G; Crowe, D M; Ramm-Anderson, S M
reflected in the periosteum which functions as an integrated unit modulating the signal transmitted to the osteoblasts which play a key role in events occurring at the bone surface. Changes are not attributable to internal bone strain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2081711
Cooper, Pam; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Hauptmann, Randal M.
The tissue specificity of the heat-shock response in maize was investigated. The ability to synthesize heat shock proteins (hsp) at 40°C, as well as the intensity and duration of that synthesis, was analyzed in coleoptiles, scutella, green and etiolated leaves, suspension-cultured cells, germinating pollen grains, and primary root sections at different stages of development. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of extracted proteins revealed that most of the tissues synthesized the typical set of 10 hsp, but that the exact characteristics of the response depended upon the tissue type. While elongating portions of the primary root exhibited a strong heat shock response, the more mature portions showed a reduced ability to synthesize hsp. Leaves, whether green or etiolated, excised or intact, constitutively synthesized a low level of hsp at 25°C, and high levels could be induced at 40°C. Suspension-cultures of Black Mexican sweet corn synthesized, besides the typical set of hsp, two additional polypeptides. In contrast to all the other tissues, germinating pollen grains could not be induced to synthesize the typical set of hsp but did synthesize two new polypeptides of 92 and 56 kD molecular weight. The heat shock response was transient for most of the tissues which synthesized the standard set of hsp. Hsp synthesis was detected up to 2 to 3 hours, but not at 10 hours of continuous 40°C treatment. The exception was suspension cultured cells, in which hsp synthesis showed only a slight reduction after 10 hours at 40°C. Tissue-specific differences in the heat-shock response suggest that there are differences in the way a given tissue is able to adapt to high temperature. We have confirmed the previous suggestion that maize hsp do not accumulate in substantial quantities. Using two-dimensional gel analysis, hsp could be detected by autoradiography but not by sensitive silver staining techniques. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6
McDowell, Elizabeth M.
2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17Fig 18Fig 19 PMID:4258508
Identification of the zinc-dependent endothelial cell binding protein for high molecular weight kininogen and factor XII: identity with the receptor that binds to the globular "heads" of C1q (gC1q-R).
Joseph, K; Ghebrehiwet, B; Peerschke, E I; Reid, K B; Kaplan, A P
High molecular weight kininogen (HK) and factor XII are known to bind to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a zinc-dependent and saturable manner indicating that HUVEC express specific binding site(s) for those proteins. However, identification and immunochemical characterization of the putative receptor site(s) has not been previously accomplished. In this report, we have identified a cell surface glycoprotein that is a likely candidate for the HK binding site on HUVECs. When solubilized HUVEC membranes were subjected to an HK-affinity column in the presence or absence of 50 microM ZnCl2 and the bound membrane proteins eluted, a single major protein peak was obtained only in the presence of zinc. SDS/PAGE analysis and silver staining of the protein peak revealed this protein to be 33 kDa and partial sequence analysis matched the NH2 terminus of gC1q-R, a membrane glycoprotein that binds to the globular "heads" of C1q. Two other minor proteins of approximately 70 kDa and 45 kDa were also obtained. Upon analysis by Western blotting, the 33-kDa band was found to react with several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing different epitopes on gC1q-R. Ligand and dot blot analyses revealed zinc-dependent binding of biotinylated HK as well as biotinylated factor XII to the isolated 33-kDa HUVEC molecule as well as recombinant gC1q-R. In addition, binding of 125I-HK to HUVEC cells was inhibited by selected monoclonal anti-gC1q-R antibodies. C1q, however, did not inhibit 125I-HK binding to HUVEC nor did those monoclonals known to inhibit C1q binding to gC1q-R. Taken together, the data suggest that HK (and factor XII) bind to HUVECs via a 33-kDa cell surface glycoprotein that appears to be identical to gC1q-R but interact with a site on gC1q-R distinct from that which binds C1q. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8710908
Bilateral cryptorchidism in a dog with persistent cranial testis suspensory ligaments and inverted gubernacula: report of a case with implications for understanding normal and aberrant testis descent.
Kersten, W; Molenaar, G J; Emmen, J M; van der Schoot, P
human cryptorchidism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:8771408
Hook, E. W.
Regardless of how you resolve the morality of our history, the fact is that Currier and Ives documented in their own special and often biased way the iconography of the growth and development of the United States of America (Fig. 88) in some of the most eventful years of its history from about 1840 through 1895. Now, as we near our 500th anniversary commemoration of Columbus' voyage to the Americas, it seems especially appropriate to review--to think about all of this. I think you have sensed, as we have gone along, that learning about Currier and his colleagues--these pacesetters of the American Image--has meant, as Osler predicted, a pleasant diversion for me. These activities have carried me into new areas of interest, expanding my perspective of the American Image--of people, of medicine, of life in general, and aiding in the identification of values, my own, as well as those of others. All along, my knowledge has been enhanced, especially of the history of this wonderful complex country of ours. Furthermore, and of considerable importance, this endeavor has sharpened my power of observation. I have, like a good doctor should do, learned to look better! Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 18 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. 27 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54 Fig. 55 Fig. 56 Fig. 57 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 Fig. 60 Fig. 61 Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 68 Fig. 67 Fig. 69 Fig. 70 Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73 Fig. 74 Fig. 75 Fig. 76 Fig. 77 Fig. 78 Fig. 79 Fig. 80 Fig. 82 Fig. 81 Fig. 83 Fig. 84 Fig. 85 Fig. 86 Fig. 87 Fig. 88 PMID:1413369
Matas, A J; Sibley, R; Mauer, M; Sutherland, D E; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S
infiltrate had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased survival at six to 24 months. 5) Kidneys with moderate chronic vascular rejection (MCV) without an acute infiltrate (ATI) had significantly better survival than those having both MCV and ATI. 6) Similarly, kidneys having severe ATI alone had better survival than those with ATI plus vascular rejection. It was concluded that a) percutaneous allograft biopsy can be done without graft loss or infection; b) biopsy represents changes throughout the kidney; c) biopsy aids in deciding when to treat for rejection and in deciding when to withhold increased immunosuppression, and d) allograft biopsy predicts the outcome of treatment of a rejection episode. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:6297416
De Marcucci, O G; Gibb, G M; Dick, J; Lindsay, J G
An immunological analysis has been conducted of early events in the biosynthesis, import and assembly of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). For this purpose, monospecific polyclonal antisera were produced against the intact assembly from ox heart, Mr 8.5 x 10(6), and each of its component polypeptides, E1 alpha, E1 beta, E2, E3 and protein X. Optimal detergent-based incubation mixtures were developed for obtaining clean immunoprecipitation of PDC polypeptides and their precursors from [35S]methionine-labelled extracts of PK-15 (pig kidney), NBL-1 (bovine kidney) and BRL (Buffalo Rat liver) cells. In PK-15 cells, independent higher Mr species, corresponding to precursors of the E2, E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits of PDC, could be detected by immune precipitation and fluorography after incubation of intact cells for 4 h with [35S]methionine and 1-2 mM-2,4-dinitrophenol or 10-15 microM-carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Similar precursor states could be observed in uncoupler-treated BRL or NBL-1 cells. Pre-E1 alpha, pre-E1 beta and also pre-E3, have signal sequences in the Mr range 1500-3000 while pre-E2 contains a long additional segment of Mr 7000-9000. All of these forms exhibit similar kinetics of processing to the mature subunits with a transit time of 10-12 min. In NBL-1 cells, E3 is present in the immune complexes formed with anti-PDC serum whereas this is not the case in PK-15 cells. Thus, there are significant variations in the affinity of lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) for the E2 core structure in different species. Pre-E1 alpha accumulates only poorly in PK-15 cells and is aberrantly processed on removal of uncoupler. This precursor is markedly more stable in NBL-1 and BRL cells. The lack of detection of a precursor form of component X is also discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3415648
Characterization of new polyclonal antibodies specific for 40 and 42 amino acid-long amyloid beta peptides: their use to examine the cell biology of presenilins and the immunohistochemistry of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy cases.
Barelli, H.; Lebeau, A.; Vizzavona, J.; Delaere, P.; Chevallier, N.; Drouot, C.; Marambaud, P.; Ancolio, K.; Buxbaum, J. D.; Khorkova, O.; Heroux, J.; Sahasrabudhe, S.; Martinez, J.; Warter, J. M.; Mohr, M.; Checler, F.
demonstrated that FAD-linked presenilins similarly affect both p342 and A beta 42, suggesting that these mutations misroute the beta APP to a compartment where gamma-secretase, but not alpha-secretase, cleavages are modified. Overall, these antibodies should prove useful for fundamental and diagnostic approaches, as suggested by their usefulness for biochemical, cell biological, and immunohistochemical techniques. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:9392006
Solomon, S E; Purton, M
The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:6490523
Allan, R. N.; Dykes, P. W.; Toye, D. K. M.
The accuracy of early radiology in patients with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been studied by a comparison of the radiological opinion with the established diagnosis. A full examination has proved safe and uncomplicated with a high degree of accuracy and no false-positive results. Analysis of the errors shows that the presence of residue discourages the radiologist from making the correct diagnosis, and modification of the standard bariummeal technique may be needed to overcome this difficulty. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4538882
Wilk, P J; Karipineni, R C; Pertsemlidis, D; Danese, C A
The prevention of induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis was studied by means of intestinal lymphatic blockade and of bile diversion in the dog. Hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were produced by high cholesterol feeding after induction of hypothyroidism with radio-iodine plus thiouracil. Complete diversion of bile, by shunting all bile into the urinary bladder, effectively prevented hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis; in contrast, blockade of the intestinal lymphatics failed to prevent the consequences of the atherogenic regimen, because of the development of collateral lymphatic channels. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:817679
Bachmair, A; Becker, F; Masterson, R V; Schell, J
A ubiquitin variant with Lys48 changed to Arg acts in vitro as an inhibitor of ubiquitin dependent protein degradation. To assess the role of this proteolytic pathway in the life cycle of plants, we expressed the ubiquitin variant in Nicotiana tabacum. Expression of variant mono- or polyubiquitin leads to marked abnormalities in vascular tissue. In addition, overexpression of variant polyubiquitin induces discrete lesions on leaves. This indicates that perturbations of the ubiquitin system can induce a programmed necrotic response in plants. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2176155
Dimitrov, D. H.; Graham, D. Y.; Lopez, J.; Muchinik, G.; Velasco, G.; Stenback, W. A.; Estes, M. K.
Between April 1979 and December 1982, viral agents were found in 231 of 695 children admitted to the Texas Children's Hospital with gastroenteritis. Electron microscopic analysis showed that rotaviruses were the most common viral agents, and a seasonal pattern of rotavirus disease was observed. The migration patterns of the RNA segments of these rotaviruses on electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels were compared with those of rotaviruses collected from other areas of the United States of America and from Argentina, Colombia and Mexico. A number of different RNA electropherotypes were found, including some patterns not previously reported. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:6329538
Thompson, R A; Lachmann, P J
The second case of C3b inhibitor deficiency is described in an 11-year-old girl who presented with recurrent attacks of meningitis, in between which she was well. Her serum showed all of the complement component changes noted in the first described case, although showing only a relatively slight defect in its ability to opsonize bacteria for phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. This correlated with the patient's freedom from other infections. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:849647
Anderson, M C
A series of 14 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis is presented which illustrates that cysts originating in the superior segment of the head of the pancreas communicate with the duct of Santorini which normally drains this area of the gland. Cysts in this location do not communicate with the major pancreatic duct (Wirsung) in most instances, and therefore may be overlooked in the standard retrograde drainage procedures employed to relieve pancreatic exocrine obstruction. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:518172
Biggs, P. M.; Payne, L. N.
The pathological changes in the livers and spleens which occur after the inoculation of adult fowl blood into fifteen-day-old embryos have been followed for about 7 weeks. Three consecutive histological stages were noticed. The first two stages, termed the splenomegaly syndrome and the stage of lymphoid hyperplasia, closely resembled those described following the injection of adult spleen cells into fifteen-day-old embryos (Biggs and Payne, 1960). The third stage was found in chicks in the terminal stages of runt disease, and was characterized by involution of the lymphoid tissues. The significance of these changes is discussed. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6
Alexander, J W
Although many surgical procedures were well-developed in principle before 1867, their application for the treatment of human disease was limited because of a mortality rate from postoperative infection alone of about 50%. It was the eventual acceptance of Lister's work and the development of the aseptic-antiseptic ritual that allowed operative therapy to be successful and made modern surgery possible. The background leading to the development of aseptic-antiseptic rituals is discussed. Images FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. PMID:3883923
Three of 60 cadavers have shown, in the adventitia or in the adipose tissue from the human carotid sinus region, small islands of tissue richly and typically vascularized and with nerve endings contacting cells like the tissue of the principal carotid body. In two of the cases such 'miniglomera' were single but in the third there were several all on the same side. A modified en bloc silver nitrate reduction stain was used to demonstrate the microvascular arrangements and the nerve endings by light microscopy of serial tangential sections of the carotid bifurcation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7364653
Morris, D. V.; Mason, W. P.; Wilson-Holt, N.; Adams, J.; Keene, M.; Tanner, J.; Jacobs, H. S.
A 20-year-old patient presented with primary amenorrhoea and growth hormone deficiency caused by a basal encephalocoele. She was found to have developed diabetes insipidus in the 8 years following diagnosis. Gonadotrophin release in response to bolus injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was normal, as was thyrotrophin and adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretion. Pulsatile administration of LHRH by the subcutaneous route resulted in normal ovulation and subsequent menstruation. The investigation and management of patients with basal encephalocoeles are discussed in the light of these findings. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6384984
Lawson, Ray N.; Alt, Leslie L.
New knowledge of temperature irregularities associated with various disease states has resulted in increasing interest in the recording of heat radiation from the human body. Infrared radiation from the skin is a surface phenomenon and the amount of such radiation increases with temperature. Previous recording techniques have been not only crude but difficult and expensive. An unconventional thermal imaging system is described which gives superior temperature patterns and is also simpler and cheaper than any of the other available procedures. This system is based on the employment of thermally sensitive phosphors which glow when exposed to ultraviolet illumination, in inverse proportion to the underlying temperature. The thermal image can be directly observed or more critically analyzed and photographed on a simple closed-circuit television monitor. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14270208
Family physicians can encourage disaster planning and mock disaster exercises in their community. If involved in an actual disaster, the family physician can be helpful as a triage officer in emergency, in initial resuscitation, in minor treatment, in discharging stable patients, and in counselling victims of post-traumatic shock syndrome. The key to effective performance is being prepared beforehand to cope with the stress and confusion of the incident. Use of laboratory and diagnostic imaging must be curtailed until all severely injured patients are treated. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21267128
Newbould, B. B.
Arthritis induced in rats by mycobacterial adjuvant has been used for the study of compounds of known value in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in man. The development of the arthritic syndrome in treated and control rats was followed by measuring the changes in foot thickness of both hind-feet with a micrometer. This method allowed the effect of anti-inflammatory compounds to be expressed quantitatively. Anti-inflammatory activity was readily observed in certain steroids, pyrazolidines, salicylates and sodium aurothiomalate. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were inactive. The inhibition obtained by daily treatment with the steroid paramethasone disappeared when treatment was withdrawn. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14066137
A series of 153 patients, the largest yet recorded from a single source, suffering from soft tissue sarcoma is discussed. References to the literature show the rarity of such tumours, the vagueness of the nomenclature and the disappointing results of treatment. Of the 153 patients only 7 have no histological confirmation of the diagnosis. In 146, sections and histological reports are available. 148 patients have been followed up either to death or to date. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14808223
Forget, P P; Meradji, M
Endoscopic and radiological examination was performed in 53 children with gastro-oesophageal reflux. There was fair agreement between endoscopic and radiological findings. Most patients showed either a normal or an erythematous oesophageal mucosa at endoscopy and these patients became asymptomatic on conservative therapy. 7 children presented destructive changes of the oesophageal mucosa with severe pathological abnormalities. Though their symptoms improved on conservative therapy, 5 required operation because of persistence or deterioration of mucosal damage. Endoscopic and pathological changes returned to normal after operation. Retrospective examination of data led to the definition of 'high risk factors' in this condition. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:942231
Nunez, D J; Davenport, A P; Brown, M J
The factor inhibiting aldosterone secretion produced by the adrenal medulla may be atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), since the latter abolishes aldosterone release in response to a number of secretagogues, including angiotensin II and K+. In this study we have shown that cells in the adrenal medulla contain ANF mRNA and therefore have the potential to synthesize this peptide. The presence of binding sites for ANF predominantly in the adrenal zona glomerulosa suggests that, if ANF is synthesized in the medulla and transferred to the cortex, it may affect mineralocorticoid status. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2146954
Jirik, F. R.; Henning, H.; Huckell, V. F.; Ostrow, D. V.
Amiodarone is an effective antiarrhythmic that has been used in Europe for over a decade and has been available for investigational use in North America for a shorter time. It has several well recognized side effects. Recent reports have related pulmonary disorders to the use of this drug; fibrosing alveolitis has been found by lung biopsy. Amiodarone's toxicity to the lung does not appear to be dose-related. Besides cessation of amiodarone administration, management of this complication includes steroid therapy. A case is described of nonspecific diffuse alveolar damage syndrome in a patient who had received amiodarone. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6839242