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  1. Chronic dietary supplementation of 4% figs on the modification of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Al-Adawi, Samir; Vaishnav, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the changes in the plasma Aβ, oxidative stress/antioxidants, and membrane bound enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice (Tg2576) after dietary supplementation of Omani figs fruits for 15 months along with spatial memory and learning test. AD Tg mice on control diet without figs showed significant impairment in spatial learning ability compared to the wild-type mice on same diet and figs fed Tg mice as well. Significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were observed in AD Tg mice. 4% figs treated AD Tg mice significantly attenuated oxidative damage, as evident by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls and restoration of antioxidant status. Altered activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na(+) K(+) ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) in AD Tg mice brain regions and was restored by figs treatment. Further, figs supplementation might be able to decrease the plasma levels of Aβ (1-40, 1-42) significantly in Tg mice suggesting a putative delay in the formation of plaques, which might be due to the presence of high natural antioxidants in figs. But this study warrants further extensive investigation to find a novel lead for a therapeutic target for AD from figs. PMID:25050360

  2. Chronic Dietary Supplementation of 4% Figs on the Modification of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Vaishnav, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the changes in the plasma Aβ, oxidative stress/antioxidants, and membrane bound enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice (Tg2576) after dietary supplementation of Omani figs fruits for 15 months along with spatial memory and learning test. AD Tg mice on control diet without figs showed significant impairment in spatial learning ability compared to the wild-type mice on same diet and figs fed Tg mice as well. Significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were observed in AD Tg mice. 4% figs treated AD Tg mice significantly attenuated oxidative damage, as evident by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls and restoration of antioxidant status. Altered activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na+ K+ ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) in AD Tg mice brain regions and was restored by figs treatment. Further, figs supplementation might be able to decrease the plasma levels of Aβ (1–40, 1–42) significantly in Tg mice suggesting a putative delay in the formation of plaques, which might be due to the presence of high natural antioxidants in figs. But this study warrants further extensive investigation to find a novel lead for a therapeutic target for AD from figs. PMID:25050360

  3. Mesenteric lymph node cavitation in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, G K

    1986-01-01

    A patient with coeliac disease and mesenteric lymph node cavitation is reported. This is a rare occurrence and has received very little attention in the English literature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3721297

  4. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A; Rasmussen, S L; Campbell, T M; Lester, W M

    1984-01-01

    An elderly man had a 10-year history of multiple pulmonary nodules that he had refused to have investigated. He died of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. At autopsy the nodules were shown to consist of amyloid. There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6744167

  5. Mitochondrial myopathy in rats fed with a diet containing beta-guanidine propionic acid, an inhibitor of creatine entry in muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Z.; De Tata, V.; Pollera, M.; Bergamini, E.

    1988-01-01

    In rats with phosphoryl-creatine depletion (fed a standard Randoin-Causeret diet containing 1% beta-guanidine propionic acid) abnormal mitochondria were observed in slow skeletal muscles, often containing paracrystalline inclusions very like those induced by ischaemia or mitochondrial poisons and in human mitochondrial myopathy. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 5 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:3196657

  6. The morbid anatomy of high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Donald

    1979-01-01

    The morbid anatomical changes which take place in man and animals exposed to the chronic hypoxia of residence at high altitude are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:493205

  7. The Zollinger-Ellison syndrome due to an infiltrating tumour of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Royston, C. M. S.; Brew, D. St. J.; Garnham, J. R.; Stagg, B. H.; Polak, Julia

    1972-01-01

    This is the first case report of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome due to an infiltrating tumour of the stomach. Plasma gastrin levels were high and gastrin was demonstrated in argyrophil tumour cells by an immunofluorescent technique. Evidence is presented that the tumour arose from the G cells. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4562021

  8. Hypertrichosis with hereditary gingival hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, G. B.; Simpkiss, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of infantile hypertrichosis who subsequently developed oral abnormalities are described. In one case generalized gingival hyperplasia was associated with retarded eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth and macrodontia. In the second case the mucosal hyperplasia was limited to the palatal surface. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4834021

  9. Experience gained from treating facial injuries due to civil unrest

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, R I H

    1981-01-01

    During the past 10 years of civil unrest in Northern Ireland a wide variety of facial injuries have been treated at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. The causes and nature of these injuries are described and the experience gained in their management is reviewed. Imagesp[35]-ap[42]-aFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:7247260

  10. Dangers of placement of narrow bore nasogastric feeding tubes.

    PubMed Central

    Biggart, M.; McQuillan, P. J.; Choudhry, A. K.; Nickalls, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Three complications of the use of narrow bore nasogastric feeding tubes are described. Clinical tests to determine correct placement are noted to be unreliable and the importance of radiological confirmation is stressed. A number of suggestions are made for safe use of these tubes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3111340

  11. The evaluation of fabrics in relation to their use as protective garments in nursing and surgery. I. Physical measurements and bench tests.

    PubMed Central

    Lidwell, O. M.; Mackintosh, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven fabrics selected to provide a representative range of yarns and weaves have been examined microscopically and subjected to a series of tests. The observations were directed towards assessing the potential ability of each fabric to resist penetration by particles, such as skin scales, which might carry micro-organisms. The number, size and shape of pores penetrating through the material were estimated and the penetration of test dusts assessed in several ways. While, generally, the relative merits of the fabrics are similar whatever test or measurement is considered there are a number of significant exceptions which reflect peculiarities of the test system or of a fabric. Comparison with the results of dispersal experiments with volunteers wearing garments made of the fabrics is made in a following paper. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Plate 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:731024

  12. Child Abuse Is a Family Social Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Charles T.

    1973-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a social disease due to a breakdown in family dynamics and parent child relationships. The family doctor is closest to the family. As such he is the most suitable and effective professional for the prevention and management of the syndrome. This article outlines the types of injury common to this syndrome, with frequently heard complaints from parents. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:20468964

  13. Lethal Complications of the Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beighton, P.

    1968-01-01

    Death from arterial bleeding or gastrointestinal perforation has previously been reported in more than 15 patients with the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. On a basis of 100 personally examined patients and a review of published accounts, these events seem particularly likely to occur in two distinct and recognizable forms (the gravis and the ecchymotic forms) of the syndrome. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 1 PMID:5673215

  14. Maedi-visna in Canadian sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, T W; Greig, A S; Corner, A H

    1979-01-01

    Lesions of maedi-visna were seen in sheep from the institutional research flock of the Animal Research Institute, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada in Ottawa. Viral particles demonstrated by electron microscopy in tissue culture cells and serological results confirm the diagnosis of maedi-visna. The extent of the problem in this flock will be described in a future paper. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:226248

  15. Hyperparathyroidism: retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.

    1976-01-01

    The history of hyperparathyroidism is outlined and the diagnosis and treatment of its various causes reviewed with reference to a series of 153 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism in the past 20 years. In 119 cases the condition was primary, being due to a tumour or hyperplasia. Future developments in this field are briefly considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:782326

  16. Evidence of turnover of mammalian Merkel cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nafstad, P H

    1987-01-01

    The Merkel cells in the snout of the pig and the lips of the sheep were studied by transmission electron microscopy. They were subdivided into three main subgroups that are believed to represent different stages in the life cycle of the cells. A final dermal disintegration of the cells is proposed. The observations are discussed in relation to earlier reports on the avian Merkel cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3654361

  17. The ultrastructure of N-dibutylnitrosamine induced pulmonary tumours (adenocarcinomata) in European hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Reznik-Schüller, H.; Mohr, U.

    1975-01-01

    N-dibutyl-nitrosamine induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma in European hamsters were studied electron microscopically. The tumours were composed of light and dark cells, which, due to their lamellar bodies, resembled alveolar epithelial cells Type II. As cells containing lamellar bodies also occasionally occurred with the epithelial lining of tumour associated peripheral bronchi, a possible bronchiolar origin of the neoplasms is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1212352

  18. The Medical and Human Performance Problems of Living Under the Sea

    PubMed Central

    MacInnis, Joseph B.

    1966-01-01

    Recent undersea experiments in the United States and France showed that divers can live and work effectively for many days from dwellings placed on the continental shelf to depths down to 432 feet. If prolonged exposure to the hostile underwater environment is to be tolerated successfully, existing physical, biological and equipment hazards must be recognized, prepared for and, when possible, circumvented. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 6 PMID:4380341

  19. Musculocutaneous flaps in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, A. G.

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of musculocutaneous flaps to head and neck reconstructive surgery is described. The flaps available are listed, and the most important ones described and illustrated. Both the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major flaps are felt to have a role in head and neck reconstruction, though they have largely been superseded by microvascular free flaps such as the radial forearm flap. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 PMID:2686511

  20. Tissue expansion in perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, D. T.; Burd, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Tissue expansion is a recent advance in skin cover technique. Its empirical use has enabled many previously difficult reconstructions to be completed without recourse to distant flaps. Its high complication rate and lack of basic scientific understanding at present restrict its use to selected cases, but the quality of repairs possible by this method encourage further serious scientific study. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 PMID:2589784

  1. Cutaneous Markers of Internal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forsey, R. R.; Reardon, P. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Cutaneous markers of internal disease are legion. This article discusses the pigmentary disorders, acanthosis nigricans, pruritus, the xanthomas and problems of photosensitivity, outlining the appropriate procedures to establish a definite diagnosis, and in some cases the management of such patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:21286147

  2. Limb preservation in the treatment of bone tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sweetnam, Rodney

    1983-01-01

    The treatment of primary malignant tumours of bones by resection and prosthetic replacement is discussed in relation to more conventional treatment by amputation. Removal of the hemipelvis with preservation of the limb is suggested as an alternative for some patients who hitherto might have been regarded as only suitable for hindquarter amputation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:6824295

  3. A Family Physician's Approach to Acne

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Eugene

    1981-01-01

    Because of the potential for permanent physical and psychological sequelae, acne vulgaris should be regarded as a true disease—not the “normal” physiologic response one might infer from its near universal prevalence in adolescence. Effective therapy reduces pilosebaceous unit obstruction, minimizes secondary inflammation, and lessens the chance of significant scarring. This article reviews current therapeutic modalities, and suggests a sequence for implementation of specific agents. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:21289790

  4. Aneurysm of the Splenic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, P. D.; Lodge, Brian

    1960-01-01

    This paper records an incidence of 10·4% of aneurysm of the splenic artery in 250 consecutive routine post-mortem examinations. Medial degeneration seemed to be the commonest cause of such aneurysms and although a number were associated with other intraabdominal pathology, including portal hypertension, the association may be fortuitous and not causal. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:13688586

  5. Arteriography of the coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery in five cases of haemochromatosis with particular regard to the pancreatic circulation

    PubMed Central

    Scuro, L. A.; Curri, G.; Monti, G.; Zuin, R.; Romani, S.

    1968-01-01

    Arteriography of the coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery in five patients with haemochromatosis revealed a constant deficit of pancreatic vascularization as shown by reduced visualization of the arterial circle. These consistent results appear to be significant. There was no correlation between the existence and severity of diabetes mellitus and the pancreatic vascular involvement. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5665746

  6. The electrophoresis of transferrins in urea/polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R W; Williams, J

    1980-01-01

    The denaturation of transferrin by urea has been studied by (a) electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels incorporating a urea gradient, (b) measurements of the loss of iron-binding capacity and (c) u.v. difference spectrometry. In human serum transferrin and hen ovotransferrin the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the iron-free protein were found to denature at different urea concentrations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:7213345

  7. Presidential Address: The Woman in the Case Jane Todd Crawford, 1763-1842

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 Presidential Address of the Southern Surgical Association is dedicated to the wives of the members, past and present, in acknowledgment and appreciation of the enduring contribution that they have made to the quality and character of this association. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20. PMID:375854

  8. Congenital malformations of human dermatoglyphs

    PubMed Central

    David, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    A classification for congenital malformations of dermatoglyphs is presented, dividing them into ridge aplasia, ridge hypoplasia, ridge dissociation, ridges-off-the-end, and a combination of the last two. The medical and genetic significance of these are considered in the light both of previous published cases and of new material. Malformations of dermatoglyphs are important as physical signs in paediatric diagnosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4693462

  9. Reduction of Gas Contamination in The Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Shykoff, Henry J.

    1977-01-01

    The level of anesthetic gas considered to be hazardous for operating room personnel is as yet unknown, but the least possible contamination is desirable. This paper discusses methods of reducing contamination from several sources — the anesthetic machine, high pressure leaks, low pressure leaks, and from anesthetists' poor habits. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 & 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:20469279

  10. The last illnesses of Robert and Horace Walpole.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis and gout were uncommonly prevalent in the eighteenth century. This essay considers the history of both afflictions and especially tells of the last illnesses of Sir Robert Walpole, who died from complications of stone, and his son, Horace, who throughout his life was a sufferer of gout. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:6356637

  11. Clothing for Sports: Part 2: Stridalongapos Loses Shorts, Wins in Style

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for sports must take into account the climate, movement, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 2 of this two-part article describes the clothing needed for running, cycling, skiing, windsurfing, triathlon, aerobic dancing and hot air ballooning. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274232

  12. Endocrine tumour in kidney affecting small bowel structure, motility, and absorptive function 1

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, M. H.; Bloom, S. R.; Polak, J. M.; Henry, K.; Dowling, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman is described with an endocrine tumour arising in the kidney. There were associated abnormalities of small intestinal morphology, motility, and absorptive function. These abnormalities reversed on removal of the tumour. Detailed studies showed that the tumour contained, and was secreting, glucagon. It is postulated that the intestinal abnormalities may have resulted from glucagon itself or another, as yet unidentified, hormone. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4941684

  13. PubMed Central

    Auger, Pierre; Viens, Pierre; Arnoux, Emmanuel; Bonin, André; Lambert, Jacques

    1976-01-01

    An outbreak of domestic trichinosis occurred in an Italian family living in Montreal. All patients had a fever, facial edema and extreme eosinophilia, and results of serologic tests were positive. Larvae of Trichinella spiralis were seen in a muscle biopsy from one of the patients. The discussion emphasizes some characteristic clinical, serologic and histopathological aspects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:816445

  14. The fibrous growth plate of the rat tibia: tritiated thymidine autoradiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Badi, M H

    1978-01-01

    Tritiated thymidine autoradiographic studies have demonstrated that the intermediate fibrogenic zone of the fibrous growth plate at the upper end of the rat tibia is a site of intense cellular proliferation, the resulting cells differentiating into osteoblasts which manufacture the bundle bone at the distal end of the growth plate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:689992

  15. Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Intra-abdominal Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Richard H.; Halber, Michael D.; Morgan, Carlisle L.; Trought, William S.; Thompson, William M.; Rice, Reed P.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess by radiographic means often relies on combining the results of several different imaging modalities. Computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a safe, accurate and rapid diagnostic method of diagnosing these abscesses. Five patients with a variety of intra-abdominal abscesses are presented in whom the CT scan alone provided the correct diagnosis. The various imaging modalities available for the radiologic diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess are described and are compared to CT diagnosis regarding their pitfalls. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig.5.C. PMID:758860

  16. The N-end rule: functions, mysteries, uses.

    PubMed Central

    Varshavsky, A

    1996-01-01

    The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. Similar but distinct versions of the N-end rule operate in all organisms examined, from mammals to fungi and bacteria. In eukaryotes, the N-end rule pathway is a part of the ubiquitin system. I discuss the mechanisms and functions of this pathway, and consider its applications. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8901547

  17. Carcinoma Adenomatodes Cervicis Uteri

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Herbert R.

    1926-01-01

    The case is one of carcinoma adenomatodes (adenoma malignum) cervicis uteri, which occurred in a patient, aged 49. Vaginal hysterectomy was performed with the Pacquelin cautery, and the patient remains well after 22 years. Attention is drawn to the rarity of the disease, and the point is emphasized that in true cases of the disease the glandular epithelium is nowhere proliferated, and therefore reliance on microscopic examination alone for the diagnosis may lead to serious error. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:19985105

  18. Specialized contacts of astrocytes with astrocytes and with other cell types in the hypothalamus of the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Suarez Najera, I; Fernandez Ruiz, B; Garcia Segura, L M

    1980-01-01

    Adult hamsters were used for this electron microscopic study of the hypothalamic region. Specialized contacts between astrocytes and astrocytes, and between astrocytes and other cellular elements, are described and illustrated. The specialized inter-astrocytic junctions occur primarily in perivascular and subpial regions, but also in areas of high synaptic density. The junctions between astrocytic processes are of hemidesmosomal type. Astrocytes are connected to oligodendroglial cells by means of desmosomes, and to neuronal processes by means of zonulae occludens. The functional significance of these arrangements is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7364663

  19. Mechanisms of tissue destruction following cryosurgery.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    Destruction of diseased tissue in situ by means of freezing is well established in many branches of surgery. The tissues are apparently unaltered at thaw but progressive necrosis ensues. There is controversy as to whether tissue death is principally due to the direct effects of freezing or to subsequent ischaemia. Studies at the ultrastructural level show that ice-crystals are formed within the cells during cryosurgery, that resultant cell damage is osmotic rather than mechanical and that microcirculatory changes are secondary in terms of the chronological development of tissue necrosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6435496

  20. Accumulation of ceroid in smooth muscle indicates severe malabsorption and vitamin E deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Stamp, G W; Evans, D J

    1987-01-01

    Four patients had accumulation of ceroid in smooth muscle (lipofuscinosis), which indicated severe or uncontrolled malabsorption, with confirmed vitamin E deficiency in three cases. The distribution of the pigment was systematic, and there seemed to be an association between malabsorption syndrome and vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E supplementation seems to be indicated in such patients, and it is suggested that studies of smooth muscle function should be made in cases of heavy accumulation of ceroid. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3624501

  1. Disseminated histoplasmosis in an English patient with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Jariwalla, A; Tulloch, B R; Fox, H; Kelly, J; Davies, R

    1977-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is not endemic in Britain. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an English man who had not ventured out of northern Europe for 30 years. The disease presented as painful mouth ulcers and hepatosplenomegaly six months after he had developed maturity-onset diabetes. The origin of the infecting fungus may have been from within the United Kingdom or alternatively it may have existed as an intraoral saprophyte for over 30 years. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 PMID:851818

  2. Molecular parasitism in the Escherichia coli-Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus system: translocation of the matrix protein from the host to the parasite outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, F; Romano, V; Valenzi, M; Di Giulio, M; Mupo, M R; Sacco, M

    1982-01-01

    During the intracellular maturation in Escherichia coli of the parasite Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus the outer membrane, major protein I of E. coli (i.e., the matrix protein) becomes associated with the outer membrane of the emerging parasite cells. The binding properties of this protein with the outer membrane of the host and of the parasite are identical. An analogous phenomenon also occurs during Bdellovibrio parasitism on Klebsiella pneumoniae and on Salmonella typhimurium. Possible roles for this scavenging action of Bdellovibrio, and similar phenomena in other parasitic systems, are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6765198

  3. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of peripheral blood cultural characteristics in adult acute leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, F. R.; Oliver, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    A simple liquid culture technique has been used to study peripheral blood from patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia. Evidence is presented that cells from morphologically identical types of leukaemia have differing capacity for "differentiation" from free floating blast cells into plastic-adherent phagocytic, trypsin-resistant macrophage-like cells with Fc and C3 receptors. Preliminary analysis suggests that patients whose cells have the greatest capacity for "differentiation" have a better chance of achieving complete remission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1063591

  4. Bleeding and cupping.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, J. L.; Allen, E.

    1983-01-01

    Bleeding and cupping have been used in medicine since ancient times in the treatment of fevers and local inflammatory disorders. Local bleeding, by 'wet cupping', was effected by a scarificator or by leeches. John Hunter recommended venesection in moderation but preferred leeches for local bleeding. Bleeding as an accepted therapeutic practice went out of vogue in the middle of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of modern scientific methods. Dry cupping and the use of leeches, as counter irritants, persisted until the middle of this century. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6338802

  5. Failure of articular process (zygaphophyseal) joint development as a cause of vertebral fusion (blocked vertebrae).

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S

    1987-01-01

    Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327

  6. Clothing for Sports: Part 1: Fashion Foils Phidippides, Proves Fatal At Finish

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for any particular sport can be made on a reasonably scientific basis, taking into account hot, cold or wet conditions, effects on temperature regulating mechanism, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 1 of this two-part article discusses the selection of garments for any sports activity according to specific properties of certain fabrics and also covers safety gear, sports brassieres and shoes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 and 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21274113

  7. Gill diseases of cultured salmonids in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, P Y; Ferguson, H W

    1983-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1981, the Fish Pathology Laboratory of the Ontario Veterinary College received 239 cases from trout farms of southern Ontario, 51 (21.3%) of which had diseased gills. Branchial lesions in 86.3% of these 51 cases were characterized by marked lamellar epithelial hyperplasia with epithelial hypertrophy and lamellar fusion. Filamentous bacteria were seen on the surface of the branchial filaments and lamellae in 68.6% of the cases. Our observations highlight the importance of gill diseases as a production problem of farmed salmonids in southern Ontario. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6416657

  8. Mirror symmetry breaking at the molecular level.

    PubMed Central

    Avetisov, V; Goldanskii, V

    1996-01-01

    Reasoning from two basic principles of molecular physics, P invariance of electromagnetic interaction and the second law of thermodynamics, one would conclude that mirror symmetry retained in the world of chiral molecules. This inference is fully consistent with what is observed in inorganic nature. However, in the bioorganic world, the reverse is true. Mirror symmetry there is definitely broken. Is it possible to account for this phenomenon without going beyond conventional concepts of the kinetics of enantioselective processes? This study is an attempt to survey all existing hypotheses containing this phenomenon. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8876153

  9. Metastases and the Normalization of Tumour Blood Vessels by ICRF 159: A New Type of Drug Action

    PubMed Central

    Le Serve, A. W.; Hellmann, K.

    1972-01-01

    Profound modification of the structure and arrangement of the blood vessels has been shown in tumours after treatment with ICRF 159. X-ray angiography, carbon black (Pelikan ink) labelling, and intravital staining with lissamine green were used to demonstrate the changes. Alteration of the morphology of the blood vessels at the edge of a tumour may affect the escape of malignant cells and the rate of blood flow (and thus the concentration of anticancer drugs) through the tumour. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4111169

  10. Blue rubber bleb naevus disease: an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal tract bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, M; Ward, P; Maddocks, J L

    1988-01-01

    A 23 year old woman presented with facial pain, a right parotid tumour and iron deficiency anaemia. She had several cutaneous venous swellings and tumours with a similar appearance were found in the large bowel. Histological examination of the parotid tumour and angiography of the skin and gut lesions confirmed that they were venous in origin. The aetiology, classification, and complications of disorders of the venous system and the importance of using a tourniquet to examine the peripheral veins is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3264257

  11. Freeze-etching studies on the ciliary necklace in the rat and chick.

    PubMed Central

    Breipohl, W; Mendoza, A S; Miragall, F

    1980-01-01

    The existence of a ciliary necklace in kinocilia, atypical cilia and mature and differentiating sensory cilia is described in rat and chicken. In addition to parallel horizontally oriented rows of the ciliary necklace, irregular forms of intramembranous particle (IMP) aggregations are also described. The function of the ciliary necklace is discussed, special attention being given to the appearance of circular rows of IMP prior to the outgrowth of olfactory cilia and to the existence of dynein arms in these. Evidence is provided for the motility of olfactory cilia in the chick. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7429968

  12. The structure of Artemia sp. (brine shrimp) haemoglobins. Purification of a structural unit to homogeneity.

    PubMed Central

    Moens, L; Van Hauwaert, M L; Wolf, G

    1985-01-01

    The extracellular haemoglobins (Mr 260 000) of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. were cleaved by limited digestion with subtilisin. Structural units of Mr 16 000, which can bind dioxygen reversibly, were isolated. Analysis of the 16 000-Mr fraction (E) reveals the presence of a limited number of structural units. A single type of structural unit, E1 (Mr 15 800; pI4.8), was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:4004806

  13. Removal of Atmospheric Particulates by Urban Vegetation: Implications for Human and Vegetative Health

    PubMed Central

    Smith, William H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals considerable evidence to support the suggestion that vegetative surfaces remove particulate matter from the atmosphere. Preliminary observations of the leaf surfaces of an important urban tree indicate the presence of numerous particulate contaminants. In view of the medical importance of fine particles in urban atmospheres, it is important to assess the efficiency of tree surfaces in particle retention. Can particulate loads be reduced below biologically significant thresholds by vegetation? Are trees acutely injured or subtly influenced in the process of this removal? A brief assessment of research needs is provided. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:331695

  14. Preparation of iodized salt for goitre prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Holman, J. C. M.

    1953-01-01

    The methods employed for iodizing free-running salts are discussed. They are not suitable for the iodization of coarse crystalline salts and a new process has been devised by the Chilean Iodine Educational Bureau of London for the iodization of open-pan and solar evaporated salts. This process is described and illustrated by photographs of suitable plants. Attention is drawn to the advantages of potassium iodate as an iodizing agent. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:13094511

  15. Demonstration of pepsinogen C in human pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Szecsi, P B; Halgreen, H; Poulsen, S S; Axelsson, C K; Damkjaer-Nielsen, M; Kjaer, T; Foltmann, B

    1987-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue from 16 post mortem kidney donors have been examined for the content of pepsinogens. A zymogen with electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point and molecular weight equal to that of pepsinogen C of gastric origin was found in all specimens. A comparison between pepsinogen C extracted from pancreatic tissue and gastric mucosa demonstrated immunological identity. Quantitative measurements with a radioimmunoassay showed pepsinogen C concentrations in pancreatic tissue three to 80 times higher than those of blood serum. Immunohistochemical staining gave positive reaction for pepsinogen C only in the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3315877

  16. Fetal monitoring during maternal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, K. S.; Friesen, R. M.; Livingstone, R. A.; Peddle, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Fetal cardiac activity was monitored with an external ultrasound transducer in two patients with clinical class III heart disease due to severe mitral stenosis complicated by pulmonary hypertension, undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Fetal distress was detected in one patient, who had mitral valvuloplasty, and was corrected by increasing the rate of blood flow, and the other patient had a mitral valve replacement but no fetal distress was noted. The postoperative course of both mothers and fetuses was uneventful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:1125921

  17. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction: A Dental Overview

    PubMed Central

    Hillier, Clyde D.

    1985-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is common and often acutely painful. Because of the large and diverse symptom complex created by this disorder, patients frequently first seek relief from their physician rather than their dentist. In this article temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is defined and the presenting signs and symptoms are discussed. Their etiology is described in relation to the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint. Examination techniques can help in the differential diagnosis. Current treatment ranges from heat, local anesthesia and ultrasound to anxiolytics, transcutaneous nerve stimulation and nutritional supplementation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21274225

  18. Sonar and its Use in Kidney Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, E. A.; Murphy, A. V.; Arneil, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles of diagnostic ultrasound or sonar are given, together with the special technique required for scanning newborn infants and small children for kidney abnormalities. Illustrative examples of the potential of this procedure, both in diagnosis and in monitoring changes include a normal neonatal and preadolescent kidney, unilateral renal agenesis, duplex kidney, renal cyst, polycystic disease, nephroblastoma, and examples of mild and severe hydronephrosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:4343783

  19. Perineurial differentiation in interchange grafts of rat peripheral nerve and spinal root.

    PubMed Central

    Radek, A; Thomas, P K; King, R H

    1986-01-01

    The differentiation of the perineurium has been examined in replacement nerve grafts in which segments of the third lumbar dorsal root and the peroneal division of the sciatic nerve of rats were excised and resutured into the gaps. This was compared with perineurial differentiation in interchange grafts in which segments of peroneal nerve were grafted into the third lumbar dorsal root and vice versa. It was concluded that not only the origin of the graft but also the local tissue environment is important in determining the morphological outcome, the latter having the predominant influence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693073

  20. Cryosurgery of the prostate gland.

    PubMed Central

    Green, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    This personal review of the use of cryosurgery in prostatic disorders aims to put in perspective the value of the technique, establishing its place in the urologist's armamentarium mainly in the unfit subject but pointing to other applications as well. "Blind" perurethral cryosurgery has been used and has been shown to be effective in relieving urethral outflow obstruction, particularly in the second series of 178 patients with benign prostatic disease in which a simple "rule of thumb" technique was used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:879634

  1. Effect of the anti-oestrogen tamoxifen on the development of renal cortical necrosis induced by oestrone + vasopressin administration in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kocsis, J.; Karácsony, G.; Karcsú, S.; László, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    Bilateral renal cortical necrosis was observed after vasopressin administration in rats pretreated with oestrone acetate. Histochemical (succinic dehydrogenase, trichrome, periodic acid Schiff) and electronmicroscopic methods were used to examine how the anti-oestrogen, Tamoxifen, influences the development of this renal cortical necrosis. The experiments revealed that in most rats vasopressin did not induce renal tubular necrosis if the anti-oestrogen was administered simultaneously, even during oestrogen pretreatment. The results suggest that oestrogen receptors in the kidney are involved in the induction of renal cortical necrosis by vasopressin. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 5 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3377960

  2. Marfan syndrome with coronary artery lesions in a North American Indian.

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, S. W.; Corbett, B. N.; Benediktsson, H.

    1976-01-01

    Marfan syndrome has not been well documented in North American Indians. A 19-year old Ojibwa man had evidence of this syndrome -- specifically, tall stature, long, thin extremities (particularly, fingers and toes), increased urinary excretion of hydroxyproline, aortic aneurysm, aortic regurgitation and pathologic evidence of aortic rupture and alastic tissue fragmentation. Intimal hyperplasia was present in the extramural coronary arteries, while the intramural arteries, usually thought to be involved, were normal. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:974953

  3. Gastric leiomyoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.; Candy, J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes two cases of gastric leiomyoblastoma (bizarre smooth muscle tumour), one of them having evidence of metastases. Both patients remain well after seven years and three and a half years respectively. The literature is reviewed, and the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed. The histological appearances are described in detail and an attempt is made to assess the criteria for the diagnosis of malignancy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5485837

  4. The Functions of the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Osoba, David

    1966-01-01

    In rodents the thymus performs at least two functions. It is a major site of lymphopoiesis in the embryo and newborn, with the resulting lymphocytes migrating from the thymus to seed the spleen, lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs. In addition, the thymus produces a hormone which has an immunotrophic effect, i.e. it endows cells having immunological potential with immunological competence. In some animals other organs, in addition to the thymus, are responsible for directing the normal development of the immunological system. These are the bursa of Fabricius in birds and the appendix in rabbits. In humans it has been postulated that the tonsillar tissues may play an analogous role. Animal experiments involving extirpation of the immunotrophic lymphoid tissues have led to a better understanding of immunological deficiency diseases in man. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5324977

  5. A collagen and elastic network in the wing of the bat.

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, K A; Odland, G F

    1978-01-01

    Bundles of collagen fibrils, elastic fibres and fibroblasts are organized into a network that lies in the plane of a large portion of the bat wing. By ultrastructural (TEM and SEM) and biochemical analyses it was found that individual bundles of the net are similar to elastic ligaments. Although elastic fibres predominate, they are integrated and aligned in parallel with small bundles of collagen. A reticulum of fibroblasts, joined by focal junctions, forms a cellular framework throughout each bundle. Because of the unique features of the fibre bundles of the bat's wing, in particular their accessibility, and the parallel alignment of the collagen fibrils and elastic fibres in each easily isolatable fibre bundle, they should prove a most valuable model for connective tissue studies, particularly for the study of collagen-elastin interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:649500

  6. Circulating monoclonal IgM lambda cryoglobulin with collagen type I affinity in vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Clemmensen, I; Jensen, B A; Hølund, B; Kappelgaard, E; Neilsen, H

    1986-01-01

    A previously fit 66-years-old male primarily presented symptoms compatible with Henock-Schönlein's purpura, from which he seemingly recovered. Shortly hereafter he relapsed with an IgM lambda essential monoclonal cryoglobulinemia type I, presenting a systemic, necrotizing vasculitis, with low titer of circulating immune complexes and complement consumption. Glucocorticoid treatment and plasmapheresis did not prevent an ultimately lethal course. An indirect immunoperoxidase technique showed that the cryo-IgM bound to the interstitial connective tissue corresponding to the localization of collagen type I. In addition it bound to affinity purified human procollagen type I. These results indicate, that the IgM lambda of the proband was an autoantibody with collagen type I specificity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3098468

  7. Animal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. W.; Penner, P.

    1967-01-01

    A number of branding tools of various metals and various sizes in combination with several wetting agents were cooled with liquid nitrogen and applied for different lengths of time to calves and mature cattle. White hair appeared in the shape of the brand on the animals in place of dark hair when the application was properly carried out. Best results can be obtained by using metal irons at least 25 millimeters thick and 14 millimeters wide with xylol as a wetting agent for ten seconds in young or thin skinned animals and up to twenty seconds in mature or thick skinned animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 5. PMID:4229181

  8. A morphological study of the tracheal epithelium of the snake Natrix maura.

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M

    1990-01-01

    The epithelium of the trachea of the Natrix maura snake was studied by conventional light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium is formed of basal, ciliated, endocrine and secretory cells. It shows different thickness and distribution of the cells, depending on the area (covering the cartilaginous or the membranous zone). Secretory cells show a morphology similar to that found in lizards but it is different from the mucous cells reported in the extrapulmonary airways of turtles, birds and mammals. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is similar to that reported for serous cells in the airways of mammals. Intra-epithelial plasma cells are also found within the epithelium. The present results show that there are marked morphological differences between the tracheal epithelium of lizards and snakes and that of turtles, birds and mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272908

  9. Ischemic bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, M. F.; Qizilbash, A. H.; Salem, S.; Fyshe, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    The clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of 25 cases of ischemic bowel disease are presented. The majority of patients presented with the triad of abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. In 13 patients the diarrhea was associated with the passage of bright red blood per rectum. There were 10 cases of infarction, 11 of enterocolitis and 4 had resulted in stricture formation. In five cases of enterocolitis the lesion was transient; symptoms improved with conservative medical management and the radiologic findings returned to normal. Barium enema examination yielded abnormal findings in the majority of the cases in which it was performed. Plain films of the abdomen, however, were not helpful. The actual mortality in this group of patients was 44%, 80% in those with infarction of the bowel and 20% in the other two groups. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4419659

  10. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Two Fatal Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hader, W.; Bayatpour, M.; Dempster, G.; Rozdilsky, B.

    1967-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of the first two reported cases of herpes simplex encephalitis occurring in Saskatchewan are presented. The clinical history of an acute onset, an early organic mental syndrome followed by coma, neurologic disturbances, rapid progression and death suggests the diagnosis. The acute, diffuse, inflammatory process with predominant involvement of the temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres and the presence of intranuclear inclusions in nerve and glial cells are illustrated. The viral particles were found in electron micrographs from the brain tissue of both patients. The definitive diagnosis was established by the isolation, from postmortem brain tissue, of the herpes simplex virus, which was grown in tissue culture and shown to be pathogenic in suckling mice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 7Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4290725

  11. Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Frederick A.; Whitfield, Sylvia G.

    1975-01-01

    Arenaviruses have unique structural characteristics; they are pleomorphic, have a mean diameter of 110-130 nm, and consist of a membranous envelope with surface projections surrounding an interior containing ribosomes and filaments. Virus particles bud from plasma membranes of infected cells and in many cases large intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are formed. These characteristics allow generic identification, but not differentiation of individual viruses. Ultrastructural identification of virus particles and pathological processes in infected tissues of man and experimental animals is important in understanding the nature of arenaviral pathogenesis Such identification also contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of viral shedding and transmission in reservoir host species. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:182396

  12. Degradation of Proteins Artificially Introduced into Vacuoles of Chara australis1

    PubMed Central

    Moriyasu, Yuji; Tazawa, Masashi

    1988-01-01

    When an exogenous protein, bovine serum albumin, was introduced into the vacuole of a Chara australis internodal cell, it was degraded with time. This degradation proceeded only in the vacuole as far as could be observed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Degradation was inhibited by protease inhibitors such as antipain and leupeptin. Endogenous proteins introduced into the vacuole were also degraded there. Furthermore, intravacuolar cytoplasmic drops, which were often formed by cell ligation, seemed to be degraded in the vacuole. However, bovine serum albumin degradation did not proceed when mixed with isolated vacuolar sap. These results show that the vacuole in the Chara internodal cell has the capacity to degrade cellular proteins, but that cytoplasmic support is needed for this degrading activity to be maintained. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16666427

  13. Immunoperoxidase localisation of human placental lactogen: a marker for the placental origin of the giant cells in 'syncytial endometritis' of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Heyderman, E; Gibbons, A R; Rosen, S W

    1981-01-01

    One hundred endometrial biopsies of various histological patterns, and material from 10 tubal pregnancies together with their associated uterine decidua, were examined for the presence of human placental lactogen using affinity-purified first and second antibodies and an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Positive cells in endometrial curettings were seen only in association with an intrauterine pregnancy and morphologically resembled syncytiotrophoblast. Decidua associated with tubal pregnancy, pseudodecidua in progestogen-treated patients, and proliferative, secretory, and basal endometria were all negative. An immunoperoxidase stain for human placental lactogen is a useful marker for intrauterine pregnancy and supports the placental origin of the syncytial giant cells in so-called 'syncytial endometritis'. The technique is of potential value in those endometrial biopsies where pregnancy is suspected but no villi are seen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7014653

  14. Primary lymphoma of the upper small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Khosrow; Haghighi, Parviz; Bakhshandeh, Kiumars; Haghshenas, Mansour

    1970-01-01

    Seven patients with primary lymphoma involving the upper small intestine and presenting with diarrhoea, non-specific abdominal pain, and clubbing are reported. The disease appears to be more prevalent in young women, and clinical and radiological findings can provide an excellent preliminary diagnosis which is usually confirmed by peroral biopsy of the small intestine. This type of lymphoma is found to be clinically distinguishable both from the primary intestinal lymphomas reported from western countries and also from gastrointestinal involvement as part of a more systemic disease. It appears to be prevalent in the Middle East, and because of clear clinical, radiological, and histological features, it can be singled out from other primary intestinal lymphomas and considered as a distinct clinical entity. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4919259

  15. Rapid development of renal lesions in diabetic DBA mice infected with the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D).

    PubMed Central

    Doi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Tsuda, T.; Onodera, T.

    1989-01-01

    Marked hyperglycaemia and renal lesions developed rapidly in DBA mice infected with 10 plaque-forming units of the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D). Renal alterations were demonstrated in the glomeruli, tubular epithelium and small vessels 2 months after infection. Glomerular changes were characterized by mesangial thickening due to an increase of basement membrane-like material in the mesangial matrix. Nodular glomerular lesions were commonly observed 3 months after infection, whereas distinct thickening of the glomerular basement membrane was rarely seen. Besides these glomerular changes, glycogen inclusions in the distal tubular epithelium and medial degeneration in the arterioles were also noticed. The EMC-D-infected DBA mouse appears to be a useful experimental model for the study of human diabetic nephropathy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2765387

  16. Abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in a patient with alpha heavy chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gafter, U; Kessler, E; Shabtay, F; Shaked, P; Djaldetti, M

    1980-01-01

    A patient with alpha heavy chain disease (alphaHCD), who showed an abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in 10% of the bone marrow cells, is described. The mesenteric lymph nodes, which showed reactive hyperplasia in the first biopsy, transformed later to a malignant lymphoma and finally to a plasma cell tumour. The small intestine revealed villous atrophy, diminished crypts, and intact surface epithelium. The ultrastructure of the goblet and epithelial cells appeared to be normal, and the microvilli were preserved except for circumscribed areas of destruction. The lamina propria was heavily infiltrated with mononuclear cells, mainly mature plasma cells. Alpha heavy chains (alphaHC) were found in the patient's saliva. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:6767755

  17. Human Peripheral Lung Tumours: Light and Electron Microscopic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Mollo, Franco; Canese, Maria G.; Campobasso, Onofrio

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen human peripheral lung tumours have been studied in both light and electron microscopy. They were classified as epidermoid carcinoma, mucus-secreting cell adenocarcinoma, and alveolar cell adenocarcinoma, the latter made up of granular pneumocytes. Alveolar cell cancer, as defined by ultrastructural features, could assume different gross histological patterns in light microscopy, and therefore electron microscopy is required for its identification. Since neither squamous nor mucous metaplasia was observed in any alveolar cell tumour, it is tentatively suggested that all peripheral lung tumours which lack these features may be derived from granular pneumocytes, irrespective of whether they appear to be adenocarcinomata or large cell carcinomata when examined by light microscopy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:4348471

  18. A review of the osteopetroses.

    PubMed Central

    Beighton, P.; Horan, F.; Hamersma, H.

    1977-01-01

    The osteopetroses are a group of conditions which are characterized by varying combinations of bony sclerosis and modelling defects. Classical osteopetrosis may be inherited as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive: the former variety is benign, heterogeneous and comparatively common, while the latter is precocious, potentially lethal and rare. Many other craniotubular dysplasias and hyperostoses are loosely grouped with the osteopetroses. The commonest of these is the autosomal dominant form of craniometaphyseal dysplasia, while the others which are well known include Pyle disease, and van Buchem disease. Sclerosteosis is a progressive condition in which massive cranial thickening is associated with syndactyly and gigantism. Each of these disorders has specific clinical and radiographic features, which permit recognition. Diagnostic accuracy is crucial for treatment, prognostication and effective genetic management. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:335376

  19. How cellular slime molds evade nematodes.

    PubMed Central

    Kessin, R H; Gundersen, G G; Zaydfudim, V; Grimson, M

    1996-01-01

    We have found a predator-prey association between the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and the free soil living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans feeds on the amoebae and multiplies indefinitely when amoebae are the sole food source. In an environment created from soil, D. discoideum grows and develops, but not in the presence of C. elegans. During development, C. elegans feeds on amoebae until they aggregate and synthesize an extracellular matrix called the slime sheath. After the sheath forms, the aggregate and slug are protected. Adult nematodes ingest Dictyostelium spores, which pass through the gut of the worm without loss of structure and remain viable. Nematodes kill the amoebae but disperse the spores. The sheath that is constructed when the social amoebae aggregate and the spore coats of the individual cells may protect against this predator. Individual amoebae may also protect themselves by secreting compounds that repel nematodes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8643493

  20. Effects of Malignant Effusions on the Mitotic Index of L Strain Mouse Cells Grown in Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hrushovetz, S. B.; Ewaniuk, Meriam H.

    1963-01-01

    By employing a clone of L strain mouse fibroblasts (LE) which does not exhibit cell clumping and lysis (cytolytic antibody reaction), it was possible to screen for the presence of growth-regulating factors in human sera and effusions, exclusive of an antigen-antibody reaction. Under conditions of the test a mitotic index greater than 20% indicated the presence of a growth-promoting factor. A total of 11 pleural effusions was tested. Four of the eight malignant effusions possessed a growth-promoting factor, while none of the three non-malignant effusions or the one sample of human umbilical cord serum possessed such a factor. Overnight storage of the unfiltered effusions at 5° C. resulted in complete loss of the growthpromoting activity. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14052976

  1. Multimedia instruction of cardiac auscultation.

    PubMed Central

    Criley, J. M.; Criley, D.; Zalace, C.

    1997-01-01

    The cardiac physical examination is in itself a multimedia experience. It is an amalgamation of visible, palpable, and audible sensations, preceded by the collection of an appropriate historical context in which to place these multiple sensations. It is unlikely that any electronic media could ever replace the real life experience of admitting, examining, diagnosing, and effectively treating a patient with mitral stenosis who has decompensated because of the onset of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response, or a patient with sudden, severe aortic regurgitation due to endocarditis. These potentially fatal conditions can be effectively treated only if the suspicion of their presence is seriously raised. Although there is no substitute for first-hand experience, attempts to provide an effective surrogate experience are worth pursuing. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:9108683

  2. Heterophile Antibodies and Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Taichman, Norton S.; Pulver, Wayne H.; Schönbaum, Eduard

    1973-01-01

    Platelets appear to be pathogenetic determinants in the development of lethal Forssman shock, which was provoked in guinea pigs by an intravenous injection of rabbit antiserum to sheep erythrocyte stromata. Within moments, circulating platelets (prelabeled with 14C-serotonin) were removed from the blood stream and impacted in the lungs, where they liberated 14C into the tissues. When animals were depleted of platelets prior to the production of shock, they survived for prolonged periods of time or were protected against death. Pretreatment with antiinflammatory compounds capable of inhibiting platelet aggregation and release phenomena had a similar protective influence. It would appear, therefore, that Forssman shock is a convenient and accessible model for investigating the mechanisms whereby platelets mediate immune vascular damage. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5 PMID:4740636

  3. Rethinking cell structure.

    PubMed Central

    Penman, S

    1995-01-01

    Cell structure, emerging from behind the veil of conventional electron microscopy, appears far more complex than formerly realized. The standard plastic-embedded, ultrathin section can image only what is on the section surface and masks the elaborate networks of the cytoplasm and nucleus. Embedment-free electron microscopy gives clear, high-contrast micrographs of cell structure when combined with removal of obscuring material such as soluble proteins. The resinless ultrathin section is the technique of choice; it is simple and inexpensive, and it uses ordinary electron microscopes. The resulting pictures reveal a world of complex cell structure and function. These images necessarily change our conception of the cytoskeleton, nuclear matrix, mitosis, and the relation of membranes to cytostructure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7777493

  4. Joint laxity and osteoarthrosis: a radiological survey of female physical education specialists.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, H. A.; Hudson, A.; Eastmond, C. J.; Wright, V.

    1980-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-four female specialist teachers of physical education who qualified between 1935 and 1950 agreed to have x-rays of the lumbar spine, hips and knees. Fifty-two has osteoarthrosis of the hip, 65 osteoarthrosis of the knee and 221 degenerative change in the spine. Overall osteoarthrosis of the knee was significantly less common than in a comparable sample from the general population (p < 0.001), severe or moderate osteoarthrosis being equally common in both groups but minor in minimal osteoarthrosis being much less common in the teachers. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of osteoarthrosis of the hip between the two populations though severe osteoarthrosis of the hip was slightly more common in the teachers. Images p179-a p179-b p179-c Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7448483

  5. Description of a new population of fixed macrophages in the splenic cords of pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Martin de las Mulas, J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Sierra, M A

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructure of porcine splenic cords was analysed by light and electron microscopy after both perfusion and immersion fixation. The external aspect of the splenic cords was found to be composed of a network of smooth muscle cells arranged between the trabeculae and the venous sinus walls. Macrophages frequently attached to smooth muscle cells surrounded the whole of their surfaces and were attached by slender cytoplasmic projections. Intercellular junctions in the form of electron-dense areas 200-350 nm in length and 45-55 nm in thickness were observed in the macrophage membrane close to the muscle cells. In the splenic cords of nonperfused animals, in addition to the macrophage population adhering to smooth muscle cells, numerous macrophages without cell junctions were also seen and identified as free macrophages. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7592002

  6. An Outbreak of Hexamitiasis in Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, G.; Loew, F. M.

    1970-01-01

    Hexamitiasis was encountered in a breeding colony of C3H/HeJ mice. The disease was observed in animals under three weeks of age. It was characterized clinically by retarded development, hunched attitude, lethargy, and in some cases by diarrhea and death. Lesions were noted particularly in the duodenum. The intestinal contents were watery and foamy. Histologically, cyst-like formations due to the dilation of the glands of Lieberkühn were seen together with inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria and sloughing of the epithelium. The infection was controlled by the routine administration of dimetridazole in the drinking water. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4249099

  7. Diffuse involvement of the leptomeninges by tumour--a clinical and pathological study of 63 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, R.; Thomas, M.; Adams, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of 63 cases of post-mortem-proved diffuse infiltration of the leptomeninges by tumour are presented. A wide variety of tumours of the nervous system, both primary and secondary, was found to give rise to such involvement, with adenocarcinoma having a particular propensity to behave in this manner. Dysfunction of cranial and spinal nerves, a confusional state and headache were prominent clinical features. Examination of the cerebro-spinal fluid was found to be less useful diagnostically in cases of primary tumours of the nervous system with leptomeningeal involvement than in cases of diffuse infiltration of the meninges by carcinoma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7393804

  8. Apical-basal membrane polarity of membrane phosphatases in isolated capillary endothelium: alteration in ultrastructural localisation under culture conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, R L; Sandra, A

    1993-01-01

    Capillaries from freshly isolated rat epididymal fat were subjected to protocols that allowed ultrastructural localisation of alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase. Alkaline phosphatase was almost entirely restricted to the capillary luminal membrane and vesicles associated with this membrane. 5'-nucleotidase was localised on the basal or abluminal membrane and associated vesicles. Arterioles and occasional venules were also present in the cell isolates, and arteriole localisation of 5'-nucleotidase was identical to that in capillaries. In venules, 5'-nucleotidase often failed to exhibit a polarised distribution and was present on both membrane domains. In confluent cultured endothelial cells, 5'-nucleotidase was not expressed in a predominantly polarised arrangement. Alkaline phosphatase was found on apical surfaces and regions of lateral cell contact. The results of these studies show that capillary endothelial cells exhibit enzyme polarity of their surface membranes which is subject to change on introduction of the cells to tissue culture. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8226289

  9. Incidence and structure of the appendices of the testis and epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, D; Jit, I; Joshi, K; Sanjeev

    1996-01-01

    In paired tests obtained from 425 adults, 50 children and 10 neonates, the incidence of testicular appendices was 76% in adults (93.3% sessile) and 83.3% in neonates/children (88% sessile). An epididymal appendix was present in 21.9% of adults and 20% of neonates/children, out of which 79% were stalked in both types of specimen. Three sessile testicular appendices and 11 epididymal appendices were double. The microscopic structure of the appendices and the ultrastructure of their epithelia are described. Testicular or epididymal appendices were not present in any domestic or laboratory animal examined except the horse. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8886956

  10. HLA-DR, DP and DQ expression in the small intestine of patients with coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Marley, N J; Macartney, J C; Ciclitira, P J

    1987-01-01

    Frozen sections of jejunal mucosa from control subjects and patients with both treated and untreated coeliac disease were examined for HLA class II DR, DP and DQ expression. Different staining patterns with monoclonal antibodies to the different class II subgroups were observed with the control subjects. There was some inter-subject variation but in general DR greater than DP greater than DQ staining was observed with the villous enterocytes staining most strongly with the staining decreasing towards the crypt bases. The patients with treated coeliac disease gave a similar pattern to the controls. The patients with untreated coeliac disease generally gave a more intense and relatively uniform staining of both surface and crypt enterocytes for all class II subgroups. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3322617

  11. Fungal Infections: The Stubborn Cases

    PubMed Central

    Adam, John E.

    1982-01-01

    Despite development of numerous antifungal preparations, mycotic infections persist, because of inaccurate diagnosis leading to inappropriate therapy, drug failure, non-compliance or resistance of the organism to antifungal medication. Direct KOH examination is the simplest method of proving the existence of a fungus. Fungal infections tend to be overdiagnosed; disorders which do not improve with three to four weeks of treatment should be reassessed before being labelled ‘stubborn’. Griseofulvin is effective treatment for all dermatophytes, but has certain side effects. Newer topical antifungals are also effective, but no single drug cures all fungal infections. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:20469387

  12. Fractures and Soft Tissue Injuries of the Feet and Ankle

    PubMed Central

    English, Edward

    1985-01-01

    An accurate clinical diagnosis of foot and ankle pain can be made by a history, physical examination and routine X-rays of the affected part. Each problem has a specific treatment; however, fractures and dislocations around the foot and ankle can be thought of in an organized fashion by proper physical examination and then the appropriate treatment. Fractures and soft tissue injuries can be treated rationally by understanding the mechanism of injury and the possibility of subsequent deformity. This article classifies specific injuries as a group and indicates a treatment program for each problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274230

  13. Maize Adh-1 promoter sequences control anaerobic regulation: addition of upstream promoter elements from constitutive genes is necessary for expression in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J.G.; Llewellyn, D.J.; Dennis, E.S.; Peacock, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The promoter region of a maize alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh-1) was linked to a reporter gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) and transformed stably into tobacco cells using T-DNA vectors. No CAT enzyme activity could be detected in transgenic tobacco plants unless upstream promoter elements from the octopine synthase gene or the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were supplied in addition to the maize promoter region. CAT enzyme activity and transcription of the chimaeric gene were then readily detected after anaerobic induction. The first 247 bp upstream of the translation initiation codon of the maize Adh-1 gene were sufficient to impose anaerobic regulation on the hybrid gene and S1 nuclease mapping confirmed mRNA initiation is from the normal maize Adh-1 transcription start point. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:15981329

  14. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. I. Non-specific esterase activity and regional histology of the epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    As a base line for future cell genetical studies the authors record the distribution of non-specific esterase reaction in the various histologically distinguishable cell types of the mouse epididymis. The findings are correlated with previous descriptions of the lobar structure of the organ. Assuming the sequence of lobes of the head to be as implied in these classical descriptions, the esterase activity of the epithelial cells gradates between strong to weak several times along the length of the epididymal duct. The relationship of the lobes to each other, as seen in transverse sections, is described. Methodological studies using different fixatives indicate that apparent similarity of esterase reaction at different sites may camouflage an underlying difference in the nature of the esterases at these sites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:564339

  15. Morphology and ultrastructure of oral strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Selected human oral and nonoral strains of the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The strains examined were morphologically identical to recognized Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus. By transmission electron microscopy, the cells were typically gram negative in morphology, with several strains possessing some extracellular ruthenium red-staining polymeric material. Numerous vesicular structures, morphologically identical to lipopolysaccharide vesicles, were seen to originate from and be continuous with the surface of the outer membrane. Large numbers of these vesicles were also found in the external environment. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that both actinobacilli and haemophili possessed surface projections and an amorphous surface material which connected and covered adjacent cells. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:7439996

  16. Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:500497

  17. An ultrastructural study of the cere of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed Central

    Purton, M D

    1988-01-01

    The relative scarcity of primary and secondary skin infections in birds depends, at least in part, on the functional morphological barrier presented by the avian integument. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopical techniques were used to study the ultrastructural morphology of the epidermal barrier in the cere of the domestic racing pigeon. The epidermis is composed of sebokeratocytes which are responsible for producing not only the keratin proteins of the keratinized stratum corneum, but also the lipid emulsion forming the surface lipid layer and filling the intercellular spaces. The possible importance and role of these components in the defensive barrier presented by the skin is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:3198483

  18. Ten human carcinoma cell lines derived from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Butler, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten cell lines of human squamous carcinomas of the tongue and larynx have been established from surgical specimens removed from 36 unselected patients, in order to provide systems for investigating the invasive and tissue-destructive capacity of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. The morphology, ultrastructure and growth characteristics of the 10 lines are described. Detailed cytogenetic analysis of the first 4 lines indicates that each is karyotypically unique, with no evidence of cross-contamination. Nine of the 10 cell lines secrete immunoreactive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) in the culture medium. No correlation was demonstrated between the ability of the cell lines to secrete plasminogen activator and their capacity to grow in soft agar or as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7195729

  19. Five human tumour cell lines derived from a primary squamous carcinoma of the tongue, two subsequent local recurrences and two nodal metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Pittam, M. R.; James, T.

    1981-01-01

    Five tumour cell lines have been derived from a primary squamous carcinoma of the tongue, from 2 subsequent local recurrences, and from 2 lymph-node metastases--all from the same patient. While the cell lines shared many morphological and biochemical characteristics, those derived from recurrences and metastases appeared to be less differentiated, were less well organized in culture, and displayed fewer desmosomes and tonofilaments than cells in the primary tumour line. A recurrent line showing greatest morphological divergence from the primary tumour line also demonstrated the greatest differences at the ultrastructural level, in increased production of plasminogen activator and in the composition of cell-surface glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7284233

  20. The 131I Ortho-iodohippurate Photoscan in Human Renal Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Dossetor, J. B.; Zweig, S. M.; Treves, S.; Ross, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Nine examples, in seven patients, from a large cadaver renal allograft program, illustrate the value of radio-hippuran photoscans in differentiating causes of post-implant oliguria. Hippuran scans are shown to be more valuable than chlormerodrin scans when renal function is acutely depressed. Hippuran scans aided in the decision to remove kidneys in four cases of severe oliguria and to retain kidneys in two others. In two further examples, extravasation of urine was detected by scanning after radio-hippuran injection when other tests had failed to do so. The technique of radio-hippuran scanning has a place in the differentiation of acute and subacute renal dysfunction and has proved particularly valuable in the early oliguric complications of a cadaver renal transplant program. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:4912294

  1. Gorlin's syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Thompson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is a condition inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It involves many organs, but principally affects the skin, skeleton, and endocrine and nervous systems. The most common features are multiple nervi and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, benign jaw cysts, dyskeratotic pits in the palms and soles, rib and vertebral abnormalities, brachymetacarpalism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. In 14 patients, 4 of whom belonged to one family, the age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 11 to 63 years. Ten patients are alive, but five are severely disfigured by carcinomas. Two patients died of complications resulting from uncontrolled tumours, and two died of other cancers. New skin tumours constantly develop; small ones can be excised, but large ones require extensive surgery with or without radiotherapy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:7116263

  2. Surface morphology of the gastroduodenal mucosa in duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Steer, H W

    1984-01-01

    Endoscopic biopsies from the duodenal cap and prepyloric areas of 25 patients have been examined with the scanning electron microscope. Eleven patients had duodenal ulceration. Bacteria are related only to the surface of gastric type epithelial cells whether these cells are located at areas of gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb or in the pre-pyloric region of the stomach. The bacteria are not associated with the surface of intestinal type epithelial cells. The bacteria are absent from the biopsies of those patients with a normal stomach and duodenum. Of those patients with duodenal ulceration, 73% have bacteria related to the epithelial surface. The bacteria are of two morphological types - a kidney shaped bacillus and an S-shaped bacillus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6500361

  3. Unusual transcription termination of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, E; Neuhaus, H; Tobler, H; Müller, F

    1990-01-01

    We studied termination of transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides, the first representative in the phylum of nemathelminthes analysed so far. RNase protection experiments in vivo reveal that the 3' end of the precursor rRNA coincides with the end of mature 26S rRNA. Promoter-containing miniplasmids are able to direct unique 3' end formation in vitro at a site identical to that observed in vivo, whereas deletion of these sequences abolishes 3' end formation throughout the entire spacer. A nuclear run-on experiment in vitro confirms the drop of polymerase I concentration down-stream of this site. The termination site for polymerase I transcription of the rDNA operon in A. lumbricoides is therefore unique, and located at the very end of the 26S rRNA gene. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2390973

  4. Total Replacement of the Mitral Valve: Results of Insertion of a Starr-Edwards Valve in Five Patients

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, John C.

    1963-01-01

    In five patients the mitral valve was resected and total valve replacement undertaken. The Starr-Edwards prosthesis was inserted. The first patient died, two and one-half months after operation, of a wide massive left-atrial clot and peripheral embolization. The second and third patients are well and back at work at eight months after operation, and the fourth patient is well at two and one-half months after operation. The fifth patient died suddenly at three weeks from massive peripheral embolization originating from the left side of the heart. The technical details of the insertion of the valves are described and the importance of careful postoperative anticoagulant management is stressed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14017893

  5. Presence of ribonucleoproteins and basic proteins in the nuage and intermitochondrial bars of human spermatogonia.

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, R; Nistal, M; Amat, P; Rodriguez, M C

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural cytochemical study of the nuage in the human adult testis revealed that this structure was a cytoplasmic fine fibrillar electron-dense mass, similar to the chromatoid body of spermatids, in all spermatogonial types and spermatocytes. The nuage was often observed in relation with the nucleus or mitochondria. Cytochemical techniques showed staining affinity of the nuage for both ethanolic phosphotungstic acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid. The intermitochondrial bars were also stained with the two procedures. The results suggest that the nuage originates from the nucleus and migrates to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores, giving rise to the intermitochondrial bars. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3870728

  6. Electrical apparatus used in medicine before 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, N A

    1977-01-01

    The Ancients had at their disposal torpedo fish, amber and magnets. It was not until the sixteenth century that ideas on the strange behaviour of amber and magnets were put forward. The eighteenth century saw the application of Newton's theories of matter and the introduction of the electrostatic machine, Galvanism and Volta's battery. In the nineteenth century there was extensive application of electricity in medical practice, with the development of electrocautery apparatus and illuminated cystoscopes, the pioneering of the electrocardiogram and the discovery of X-rays. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 PMID:335397

  7. Human CD100, a novel leukocyte semaphorin that promotes B-cell aggregation and differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, K T; Boumsell, L; Schultze, J L; Boussiotis, V A; Dorfman, D M; Cardoso, A A; Bensussan, A; Nadler, L M; Freeman, G J

    1996-01-01

    Herein we describe the molecular characterization of the human leukocyte activation antigen CD100 and identify it as the first semaphorin, to our knowledge, in the immune system. Semaphorins have recently been described as neuronal chemorepellants that direct pioneering neurons during nervous system development. In this study we demonstrate that CD100 induces B cells to aggregate and improves their viability in vitro. We show that CD100 modifies CD40-CD40L B-cell signaling by augmenting B-cell aggregation and survival and down-regulating CD23 expression. Thus, these results suggest that semaphorins as exemplified by CD100 also play a functional role in the immune system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8876214

  8. Smooth muscle in the wall of the developing human urinary bladder and urethra.

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, S A; Gosling, J A

    1983-01-01

    A series of human fetal and neonatal specimens ranging in age from the second month of intrauterine development to 4 1/2 years after birth has been examined using histological and histochemical techniques. In both sexes histologically differentiated smooth muscle cells were evident in the bladder wall from the 52 mm crown-rump length stage onwards--urethral smooth muscle was not distinguishable until 119 mm crown-rump length. In addition to relatively late differentiation, urethral smooth muscle was histochemically distinct from the urinary bladder detrusor muscle. Sex differences in the arrangement and innervation of smooth muscle in the proximal urethra have also been observed, and these findings lend support to the presence of a pre-prostatic urethra sphincter. It seems likely that this sphincter acts principally to prevent reflux of ejaculate into the bladder during seminal emission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6654742

  9. Synaptic endfeet in the 'acoustic nerve nucleus' of the rat. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J

    1988-01-01

    The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967

  10. A study of the ultrastructure of developing human umbilical vessels.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, A J; Turmaine, M; Cai, W Q; Burnstock, G

    1996-01-01

    Electron microscopic techniques were used to examine the ultrastructure of developing human umbilical arteries and vein (8-12, 13-17 and 37-40 wk gestational age). These showed that with increasing age there is (1) an increase in the size of the lumen and the thickness of the media; (2) an increase in the ratio of contractile smooth muscle phenotypic cells; (3) an increase in the myofilament content of the smooth muscle cells and the number of Weibel-Palade bodies; (4) a decrease in the glycogen content; (5) an appearance of microvilli on the luminal surface of the endothelium. Lipid vesicles, nerves and vasa vasorum were not observed in any region of the umbilical vein or arteries. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8655418

  11. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease recapitulates phosphorylation during development.

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, M; Jakes, R; Crowther, R A; Six, J; Lübke, U; Vandermeeren, M; Cras, P; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1993-01-01

    Tau is a neuronal phosphoprotein whose expression is developmentally regulated. A single tau isoform is expressed in fetal human brain but six isoforms are expressed in adult brain, with the fetal isoform corresponding to the shortest of the adult isoforms. Phosphorylation of tau is also developmentally regulated, as fetal tau is phosphorylated at more sites than adult tau. In Alzheimer disease, the six adult tau isoforms become abnormally phosphorylated and form the paired helical filament, the major fibrous component of the characteristic neurofibrillary lesions. We show here that Ser-202 (in the numbering of the longest human brain tau isoform) is a phosphorylation site that distinguishes fetal from adult tau and we identify it as one of the abnormal phosphorylation sites in Alzheimer disease. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease thus recapitulates normal phosphorylation during development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8506352

  12. Studies on Transmissible Gastroenteritis of Swine

    PubMed Central

    McClurkin, A W.; Norman, James O.

    1966-01-01

    Five cell culture isolates from transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) of swine have been studied. There is a cytopathogenic virus common to all of these isolates. Some of the characteristics of this virus, such as its size, approximately 100 mµ, its relative sensitivity to ether, lability at pH 2, pH 3, and pH 10, and its heat lability suggest that it may be a member of the myxovirus class. Concurrent research in this laboratory indicates that this cytopathogenic virus is not the only virus involved in the etiology of TGE, but it appears to be associated with many of the outbreaks of TGE which have been studied by this laboratory. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 11. PMID:4224292

  13. Specific Immune Response in Human Skin Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nairn, R. C.; Nind, A. P. P.; Guli, E. P. G.; Muller, H. K.; Rolland, J. M.; Minty, C. C. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight out of nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma of skin have shown immunological reactivity against their own tumour cells by one or more tests with their sera or peripheral blood lymphocytes. The tests included membrane and cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, and, with cultured tumour, complement-dependent serum cytotoxicity and lymphocyte attack. One case examined in depth had an unusually conspicuous lymphocyte and plasma cell reaction on histological examination, and was positive by all four tests; a time-lapse cinephoto-micrographic record over seven days was obtained of the attack on the carcinoma cells in culture by the patient's lymphocytes. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:4943032

  14. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  15. A structural study of gallstones.

    PubMed Central

    Bills, P M; Lewis, D

    1975-01-01

    A number of gallstones have been studied using methods which have not previously been applied to gallstones. In particular, the use of scanning electron microscopy and micro-x-radiography have allowed detailed observations to be made on the structure of the stones and the distribution of the various components within the stones. Large differences in structure have been shown to exist between stones having similar overall chemical compositions. In cholesterol gallstones containing calcium carbonate the crystalline nature, distribution and method of deposition of the calcium carbonate was studied and was found to vary from stone to stone. Evidence was found for the presence of fibrous material in the centre of many stones and it is possible that this material acted as a nucleus for the deposition of the other stone components. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:1183859

  16. Microspectroscopic imaging tracks the intracellular processing of a signal transduction protein: fluorescent-labeled protein kinase C beta I.

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaens, P I; Jovin, T M

    1996-01-01

    We have devised a microspectroscopic strategy for assessing the intracellular (re)distribution and the integrity of the primary structure of proteins involved in signal transduction. The purified proteins are fluorescent-labeled in vitro and reintroduced into the living cell. The localization and molecular state of fluorescent-labeled protein kinase C beta I isozyme were assessed by a combination of quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, and novel determinations of fluorescence resonance energy transfer based on photobleaching digital imaging microscopy. The intensity and fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency images demonstrate the rapid nuclear translocation and ensuing fragmentation of protein kinase C beta I in BALB/c3T3 fibroblasts upon phorbol ester stimulation, and suggest distinct, compartmentalized roles for the regulatory and catalytic fragments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8710884

  17. Objectivity in the classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, L.; Hyams, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of tumours derived from each of the four cell types of nasal epithelium is presented. Criticism is levelled at the adoption of additional terms for tissue types such as lympho-epithelium and transitional cell epithelium and tumours said to be derived from them. Electron microscopy is of assistance in classification particularly in the detection of evidence of keratin synthesis. The proposed classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium is: (1) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: (a) papillary adenoma, (b) papillary carcinoma. (2) Squamous epithelium: (a) everted squamous papilloma, (b) inverted papilloma, (c) squamous carcinoma of any grade of differentiation from well differentiated to undifferentiated. (3) Melanocyte: malignant melanoma. (4) Olfactory neuroepithelium: olfactory neuroblastoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 21Fig. 20 PMID:1197175

  18. New structural aspects of the synaptic contacts on Purkinje cells in an elasmobranch cerebellum.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Otero, R; Regueira, S D; Anadon, R

    1993-01-01

    Nerve fibre contacts on Purkinje cell perikarya in the cerebellum of the small-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were studied using the Cajal reduced silver technique, Golgi methods and electron microscopy. Silver staining revealed axons with thick swellings close to the base of Purkinje cells. Golgi methods demonstrated the presence of 'pincushions' of somatic spines on Purkinje cells. Electron microscopy revealed flattened fibres that formed extensive synaptic contacts with the Purkinje cell 'pincushions'. It is proposed, on the basis of the ultrastructural features, that these fibres are climbing fibres. Their possible significance in terms of the evolution of cerebellar circuitry is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8509296

  19. The Effect of Glucose-Insulin-Potassium on Cardiac Ultrastructure Following Acute Experimental Coronary Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Sybers, H. D.; Maroko, P. R.; Ashraf, M.; Libby, P.; Braunwald, E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) on cardiac ultrastructure following acute experimental coronary occlusion were studied in dogs. Epicardial ST segment elevations at multiple sites on the anterior surface of the left ventricle 15 minutes after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery were used to predict infarct development. Biopsies removed from sites of known ST segment elevation were examined with the electron microscope, and the degree of injury was correlated with the ST segment elevation. The animals receiving GIK showed significantly less necrosis than was seen in dogs with occlusion alone at corresponding levels of ST segment elevation. Other evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of GIK was the presence of a fibrillar material in several biopsies from the treated animals, which may indicate the regeneration of myofilaments. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 8Fig 9Fig 5Fig 6Fig 10Fig 7p[417]-aFig 1Fig 2 PMID:4570076

  20. Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65.

    PubMed Central

    Tugal, H B; van Leeuwen, F; Apps, D K; Haywood, J; Phillips, J H

    1991-01-01

    The bovine homologue of p65, a calmodulin-binding protein located in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and endocrine secretory granules, has been studied by the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against this antigen and against dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase. The protein (apparent molecular mass 67 kDa; pI = 5.5-6.2) is partially degraded by treatment with neuraminidase or endoglycosidase F. Trypsin treatment of intact adrenal chromaffin granules or of granule membranes releases a soluble 39 kDa fragment of p65 which corresponds to the whole of its cytoplasmic domain. This domain contains both the epitope for the monoclonal antibody cgm67 and the calmodulin-binding site. The 20 amino acids at the N-terminus of this fragment are identical to part of the rat p65 sequence. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1719959

  1. Follicular contact dermatitis due to coloured permanent-pressed sheets

    PubMed Central

    Panaccio, François; Montgomery, D. C.; Adam, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed hypersensitivity type of allergic contact dermatitis was observed following exposure to certain brands of 50% cotton, 50% polyester coloured permanent-pressed sheets produced by a particular manufacturer. The dermatitis presented as an extremely pruritic follicular eczema of the body and vesicular edema of the ears and face. Patch testing excluded formalin as the allergen but suggested permanent-pressing chemicals as a possibility. Several washings of the sheets did not prevent the development of the dermatitis. The removal of sheets did not immediately result in improvement: the condition could persist for up to eight weeks after their discontinuance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4268628

  2. Experiences with a sac-type artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David T.; Couves, Cecil M.

    1971-01-01

    A total replacement artificial heart is described having in vitro performance satisfying human requirements up to and including moderate work. The in vitro design has been modified to make its implantation into the chests of experimental animals technically feasible. The heart has been tested in vivo for up to six hours, and has been found to provide the experimental animals with adequate blood flow and pressures. Preliminary tests have shown major problems of air embolism and red blood cell hemolysis. The heart design and technique of implantation are undergoing further improvement. Performance will be more comprehensively examined with the use of larger experimental animals in order more accurately to evaluate the heart's potential. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:5112120

  3. Dolphin pox: a skin disease of cetaceans.

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, J R; Hicks, B D; St Aubin, D J

    1979-01-01

    Poxvirus has been identified morphologically from skin lesions in captive and free-ranging bottlenosed dolphins, Tursiops truncatus and a stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. The lesions, commonly referred to as ring or pinhole lesions, appear as solitary or coalesced circular grey blemishes. Advanced ring lesions may take the form of black punctiform stippled patterns known as "tattoo". Histologically, the stratum externum is thickened, and there is ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intractyoplasmic inclusions in the stratum intermedium. These includions contain virus particles which exhibit typical poxvirus morphology. Stress, environmental conditions and general health appear to play a major role in the clinical manifestation of dolphin pox. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:232852

  4. The Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Harold W.; Maeda, William K.

    1965-01-01

    A euploid/aberrant double stem line mosaicism was found in two cases of the de Lange syndrome with severe abnormalities. In both cases the structural heterozygosity of the aberrant stem line involved, apparently, the loss of chromosomal material from a smaller autosome of Group (6-12) X, probably No. 11. Differences in the cultural characteristics of de Lange cells suggest that the aberrant stem line may not proliferate in culture, so that mosaicism may not be detected. Moreover, the mosaicism may not be present in all tissues, resulting in normal cytogenetic findings as noted in a third case studied. Our findings suggest that the de Lange syndrome is the phenotypic expression of chromosomal mosaicism. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5825977

  5. The fine structure of pulmonary contusion and the effect of various drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Eckert, P.; Földi-Börcsök, E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of contusion were examined by electron and light microscopy in the lungs of rats. It was found that the results here were very similar to those elsewhere in the body, with a few minor modifications due to the unique structure of the lung. Densitometry of protein concentration and visual estimation of oedema were used to quantitate the effects on the injury. The benzo-pyrone drug Venalot had a considerable effect in reducing the protein concentration in the air spaces and the interstitial tissue, and of the oedema in the latter. Neither the proteinase inhibitor Trasylol nor the pectin-based plasma expander HAS had any significant effect on the fine structural alterations of pulmonary contusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1087159

  6. Uptake of rhodamine 6GO into a specific zone of the mouse epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Soler, C; Blázquez, C; Sánchez, N; Cervelló, M; Sánchez, P; Núñez, A

    1990-01-01

    Doses (2.5 mg/kg) of rhodamine 6GO were given subcutaneously to five Charles-Rivel mice. After 15 minutes the testis and epididymis were observed with a fluoroscope and a fluorescent microscope which showed that rhodamine 6GO was present in a rhodamine-fluorescent zone (RF-zone) of the caput epididymidis. In this RF-zone, the fluorochrome was localised in the epithelial cells of the epididymal duct but not in the lumen nor the vascular system. At the edge of the RF-zone a wide band of connective tissue was present; the epithelium of the epididymal duct in this zone was higher and its tubular diameter greater than in the rest of the epididymal duct and spermatozoa were usually not present in the lumen. A possible role played by the epididymis in the endocrine control of the testicular function is suggested. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2081701

  7. The value of angiography in the surgical management of pancreatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, G. V.; Bathurst, N. C.; Virjee, J.; Cooper, M. J.; Williamson, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Selective visceral angiography should help to determine the nature and extent of pancreatic lesions and their suitability for resection. Between 1980 and 1987 coeliac and superior mesenteric angiograms were obtained in 76 patients considered for pancreatic resection. Anomalous arterial anatomy was delineated in 25%. Among arterial abnormalities observed in 42 patients (55%), increased or decreased vascularity and displacement were of limited diagnostic value, but encasement correctly predicted cancer in 18 of 21 cases and irresectability in nine of these. When present (17%), invasion or occlusion of the portal or superior mesenteric vein was even more accurate, indicating cancer in 12 of 13 cases and irresectability in 11 of these. Hepatic metastases were only detected in 7 of 15 patients (47%). Overall, angiography confirmed the diagnosis in 54%, localised the lesion in 64% and correctly forecast irresectability in 58%. Misleading data were obtained in five patients. There were no complications. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 PMID:2705733

  8. Heterotypic and homotypic associations between ezrin and moesin, two putative membrane-cytoskeletal linking proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, R; Bretscher, A

    1993-01-01

    Ezrin and moesin are components of actin-rich cell surface structures that are thought to function as membrane-cytoskeletal linking proteins. Here we show that a stable complex of ezrin and moesin can be isolated from cultured cells by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. The capacity of these two proteins to interact directly was confirmed with a blot-overlay procedure in which biotin-tagged proteins in solution were incubated with immobilized binding partners. In addition to the heterotypic association of ezrin and moesin, homotypic binding of ezrin to ezrin and of moesin to moesin was also demonstrated in vitro. These results suggest mechanisms by which ezrin and moesin might participate in dynamic aspects of cortical cytoskeletal structure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8248180

  9. PubMed Central

    Tremblay, G. M.; Sasahara, A. A.

    1966-01-01

    Pulmonary angiographic studies were performed on 100 patients with suspected pulmonary embolic disease. In the majority, the contrast medium was injected through a catheter located in the outflow tract of the right ventricle or the pulmonary trunk. Pulmonary embolic disease should be suspected in the presence of the following unexplained symptoms or signs: (1) dyspnea, (2) thoracic pain, (3) hemoptysis, (4) left ventricular failure, (5) global ventricular failure, and (6) pulmonary function deterioration. Pulmonary angiography is a simple, specific and objective method by which to diagnose thromboembolic disease of the lung. Acute myocardial infarction and terminal illness were the only contraindications to the procedure. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5926268

  10. Association of mitogen-activated protein kinase with the microtubule cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Reszka, A A; Seger, R; Diltz, C D; Krebs, E G; Fischer, E H

    1995-01-01

    Using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical techniques, we have determined that approximately one-third of the total mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. This population of enzyme can be separated from the soluble form that is found distributed throughout the cytosol and is also present in the nucleus after mitogen stimulation. The microtubule-associated enzyme pool constitutes half of all detectable MAPK activity after mitogenic stimulation. These findings extend the known in vivo associations of MAPK with microtubules to include the entire microtubule cytoskeleton of proliferating cells, and they suggest that a direct association of MAPK with microtubules may be in part responsible for the observed correlations between MAPK activities and cytoskeletal alteration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:7568036

  11. The origin of microglial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boya, J; Calvo, J; Prado, A

    1979-01-01

    The rat brain has been studied between 6 hours after birth and 100 days, using histochemical techniques for acid phosphatase and peroxidase, and silver impregnation for microglial cells. The results indicate that microglia come initially from acid phosphatase-positive cells of the meninges. These invade the nervous parenchyma and transform into ramified microglia. At 3 days of age similar cells are present on the outer surface of the large blood vessels, from which site they migrate into the nervous parenchyma. In 100 days old rats the acid phosphatase-positive cells are practically all pericytes. None of the microglial cells or their precursors give a positive reaction for peroxidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:511761

  12. Whatalotwegot--the messages in drug advertisements.

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, R. E.; Scott, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Advertisers are increasingly using symbols to circumvent logical argument when trying to persuade people (the "targets" of the advertisement) to make choices that are not strictly rational. Symbols can convey covert meanings and awaken or exploit subconscious feelings, such as a desire for power or a fear of doing harm. Some of the ways in which pharmaceutical advertisements use these techniques are examined: advertising by contagion; adding to our worries; polarity of choices; teasers; idealisation. Rational prescribing should be based on logic, but advertisements do not depend on logical arguments for their most powerful effects: the advertisers may subvert us by appealing to our unconscious desires. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:7820006

  13. Interactions of cellular proteins involved in the transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J A; Wu, F K; Mitsuyasu, R; Gaynor, R B

    1987-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a human retrovirus which is the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To study the cellular factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of this virus, we performed DNase I footprinting of the viral LTR using partially purified HeLa cell extracts. Five regions of the viral LTR appear critical for DNA binding of cellular proteins. These include the negative regulatory, enhancer, SP1, TATA and untranslated regions. Deletion mutagenesis of these binding domains has significant effects on the basal level of transcription and the ability to be induced by the viral tat protein. Mutations of either the negative regulatory or untranslated regions affect factor binding to the enhancer region. In addition, oligonucleotides complementary to several of the binding domains specifically compete for factor binding. These results suggest that interactions between several distinct cellular proteins are required for HIV transcriptional regulation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:3428273

  14. Nephrotic Syndrome with Heart Disease: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, P. J.; Jones, N. F.; Tighe, J. R.

    1968-01-01

    The evidence that heart failure alone may cause a nephrotic syndrome is inconclusive. Mercurial diuretics, which have also been implicated as a cause of the nephrotic syndrome, had been given in 23 of the 24 well-documented cases. Two cases of heart disease and nephrotic syndrome are described. Glomerular lesions were minimal on light microscopy, but thickening of the glomerular tuft basement membrane and partial fusion of the epithelial cell foot processes were apparent on elecronmicroscopy. The response to prednisone was such as to justify a trial of corticosteroid therapy in such cases despite the presence of cardiac disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5667991

  15. Human endodermal sinus tumour in nude mice and its markers for diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, T; Nakayasu, M; Hirohashi, S; Kameya, T; Kaneko, M; Yokomori, K; Tsuchida, Y

    1979-01-01

    Two human endodermal sinus tumours (yolk sac tumours) were transplanted successfully into nude mice. The transplanted tumours maintained not only morphological characters, such as Schiller-Duval bodies, but also the ability to synthesise alpha-fetoprotein, lactic dehydrogenase 1, liver and bone type alkaline phosphatase, and some human serum proteins. Since these tumours produced lactic dehydrogenase 1 but not the other four isozymes of lactic dehydrogenase, this isozyme, like alpha-fetoprotein, seems to be a good marker for the diagnosis and management of cases of endodermal sinus tumour. One of the two tumours produced another fetal antigen or carcinoembryonic antigen in addition to alpha-fetoprotein. These two endodermal sinus tumours, with their various markers in nude mice, will be useful in studies on diagnostic markers. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:91627

  16. On the ultrastructure of the canine mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Sinowatz, S; Wrobel, K H; El Etreby, M F; Sinowatz, F

    1980-01-01

    During pregnancy and lactation marked changes are observed in the fine structure of the secretory cells in the Beagle mammary gland: especially pronounced are differences in cellular height, shape and size of the nuclei and distribution of mitochondria. In later stages of pregnancy a proceeding development of those cellular organelles involved in synthesis and extrusion of secretory material (i.e. rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus) can be observed. Myoepithelial cells which can be first discerned from secretory cells by ultrastructural features from day 40 on show only minor variations of their ultrastructure during pregnancy and lactation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-13 Fig. 14 PMID:7462099

  17. Ecdysone-inducible gene expression in mammalian cells and transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    No, D; Yao, T P; Evans, R M

    1996-01-01

    During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, a cascade of morphological changes is triggered by the steroid hormone 20-OH ecdysone via the ecdysone receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In this report, we have transferred insect hormone responsiveness to mammalian cells by the stable expression of a modified ecdysone receptor that regulates an optimized ecdysone responsive promoter. Inductions reaching 4 orders of magnitude have been achieved upon treatment with hormone. Transgenic mice expressing the modified ecdysone receptor can activate an integrated ecdysone responsive promoter upon administration of hormone. A comparison of tetracycline-based and ecdysone-based inducible systems reveals the ecdysone regulatory system exhibits lower basal activity and higher inducibility. Since ecdysone administration has no apparent effect on mammals, its use for regulating genes should be excellent for transient inducible expression of any gene in transgenic mice and for gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8622939

  18. Congenital Anomalies of the Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, G.; Mongeau, M.; Moreault, P.; Dupuis, M.; Hebert, B.; Corriveau, C.

    1964-01-01

    As a preparatory step towards the development of a complete habilitation program for children with congenital limb anomalies associated with maternal ingestion of thalidomide, the medical records of all patients with congenital limb anomalies referred to the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal in the past decade were studied, and an examination and a thorough reassessment were made of 41 patients (21 males and 20 females). In this paper, Part I, the medical and prosthetic aspects are dealt with and a form of management is described for each type of anomaly. The conclusions are reached that prosthetic fitting and training should be initiated very early in life and that co-operation of the parent is essential to successful habilitation of a child with congenital limb anomalies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14154297

  19. Venous Thrombosis on Prosthetic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Rodman, N. F.; Wolf, R. H.; Mason, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Thrombi deposited on prosthetic devices in the superior vena cava of the rhesus monkey were studied by morphologic and biochemical technics. Glass or silicone-coated glass (SCG) rings were implanted for 30 minutes to 14 days. Thrombus was deposited on the surface of each prosthetic device, and deposition was much greater and more rapid on glass surfaces than on SCG surfaces. On SCG surfaces, initial deposits consisting of single platelets, small platelet aggregates and erythrocytes were seen by scanning electron microscopy. These were followed by larger platelet aggregates, fibrin and, much later, leukocytes. Transmission electron micrographs revealed disintegration of the platelets forming aggregates and an osmiophilic deposit on the prosthetic surface. Shortened partial thromboplastin times were observed in all test animals but the sham-operated one, and therefore may be predictive of thrombus formation. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4207269

  20. A morphometric analysis of chloride cells in the gills of the teleosts Oreochromis alcalicus and Oreochromis niloticus and a description of presumptive urea-excreting cells in O. alcalicus.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1991-01-01

    The gills of Oreochromis alcalicus, a hyperosmotic and low pH adapted teleost, and Oreochromis niloticus, a freshwater closely related fish have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and a morphometric analysis of, particularly, the chloride cells and their primary organelles, the mitochondria and the tubulo-vesicular system carried out. Oreochromis alcalicus had a fourfold greater number of chloride cells than O. niloticus and the chloride cells had more mitochondria and a more profuse tubulo-vesicular matrix. The ultrastructural features of the chloride cells of Oreochromis alcalicus were interpreted as adaptations for the severe ecosystem that the species inhabits. Putative urea excreting cells unique to the gills of Oreochromis alcalicus are described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs. 9-10 PMID:2050559

  1. Serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity: implications for adrenarche and the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L H; Rodriguez, H; Ohno, S; Miller, W L

    1995-01-01

    Microsomal cytochrome P450c17 catalyzes both steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity and scission of the C17-C20 steroid bond (17,20-lyase) on the same active site. Adrenal 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity is needed to produce cortisol throughout life, but 17,20-lyase activity appears to be controlled independently in a complex, age-dependent pattern. We show that human P450c17 is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation of P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity, while dephosphorylation virtually eliminates this activity. Hormonally regulated serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 suggests a possible mechanism for human adrenarche and may be a unifying etiologic link between the hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance that characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479852

  2. Intersexes in swine: a problem in descriptive anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Halina, W G; Barrales, D W; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1984-01-01

    Accurate anatomical descriptions of ten intersex pigs were compiled through dissection and histological examination in order to identify specific groups of reproductive anomalies. Six different anatomical phenotypes were identified: four varieties of male pseudohermaphrodite, one type of female pseudohermaphrodite and one type of true hermaphrodite. The intersex phenomenon is complicated by the number of distinct anatomical phenotypes represented broadly by the term hermaphrodite. Therefore, accurate anatomical descriptions and precise terminology are prerequisites to defining the etiology of hermaphroditism and defining the modes of inheritance. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:6478301

  3. Adenoviral protein VII packages intracellular viral DNA throughout the early phase of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P K; Vayda, M E; Flint, S J

    1986-01-01

    The proteins associated with parental, adenoviral DNA in productively-infected HeLa cells have been examined both directly and indirectly. HeLa cells infected with 32P-labelled Ad2 were irradiated with u.v. light at various points in the infectious cycle. Following degradation of the DNA, nuclear proteins carrying cross-linked nucleotides, or oligonucleotides, were distinguished from virion phosphoproteins by the resistance of their 32P radioactivity to 1 M NaOH. The major core protein of the virion, protein VII, was found to be associated with viral DNA throughout infection, even when cells were infected at a multiplicity of 0.14. Micrococcal nuclease digestion of intranuclear viral DNA 4 h after infection liberated two nucleoprotein particles containing viral DNA, neither of which co-migrated with HeLa cell mononucleosomes. These results indicate that core protein VII remains associated with parental adenoviral DNA during productive infections. The observation that protein VII can be cross-linked to DNA in cells infected at very low multiplicity, together with the results of a comparison of proteins cross-linkable to viral DNA in cells infected by wild-type virus and a non-infectious mutant containing the precursor to protein VII, suggest that nucleoproteins comprising viral DNA and protein VII must be the templates for expression of pre-early and early viral genes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3743550

  4. Histological features of respiratory epithelium of calves held at differing temperature and humidity.

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K W; Magwood, S E

    1977-01-01

    The effect of ambient temperature and humidity on the structure of respiratory epithelium of calves was studied. Four calves of each of three experiments were acclimatized to a nonoperational environmental chamber for six days and then exposed to constant extremes of temperatures and relative humidity of one of 30 degrees C --35%, or 27 degrees C--92%, or 5 degrees C--92% respectively in this chamber for eight days each. Five calves (3 and 2) were similarly acclimatized then exposed to 1 degrees C--40%. Nasal swabs were taken from all animals at regular intervals. Swabs of three animals yielded Mycoplasma spp. and one swab yielded the virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Detailed histological studies of respiratory epithelium of nose, trachea, major bronchus and terminal bronchioli were conducted at four sites. Goblet cells were least in calves held in hot and dry air; calves held in dry air had the least polymorphonuclear cells and the greatest prevalence of hypochromatic cell layers and vacuolation of epithelial cells. Differences between experiments were evident most for sites of trachea and major bronchus. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:922554

  5. Somatostatin receptors in the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The multiple actions of somatostatin are mediated by specific membrane-bound receptors present in all somatostatin target tissues, such as brain, pituitary, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract. Three different types of tissues in the human gastrointestinal tract express somatostatin receptors: (1) the gastrointestinal mucosa, (2) the peripheral nervous system, and (3) the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, where the receptors are preferentially located in germinal centers. In all these cases, somatostatin binding is of high affinity and specific for bioactive somatostatin analogs. Somatostatin receptors are also expressed in pathological states, particularly in neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Ninety percent of the carcinoids and a majority of islet-cell carcinomas, including their metastases, usually have a high density of somatostatin receptors. Only 10 percent of the colorectal carcinomas and none of the exocrine pancreatic carcinomas, however, contain somatostatin receptors. The somatostatin receptors in tumors are identified with in vitro binding methods or with in vivo imaging techniques; the latter allow the precise localization of the tumors and their metastases in the patients. Since somatostatin receptors in gastroenteropancreatic tumors are functional, their identification can be used to assess the therapeutic efficacy of octreotide to inhibit excessive hormone release in the patients. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1340064

  6. Brain-specific tropomyosins TMBr-1 and TMBr-3 have distinct patterns of expression during development and in adult brain.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Lees-Miller, J P; Helfman, D M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we report on the developmental and regional expression of two brain-specific isoforms of tropomyosin, TMBr-1 and TMBr-3, that are generated from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via the use of alternative promoters and alternative RNA splicing. Western blot analysis using an exon-specific peptide polyclonal antibody revealed that the two isoforms are differentially expressed in development with TMBr-3 appearing in the embryonic brain at 16 days of gestation, followed by the expression of TMBr-1 at 20 days after birth. TMBr-3 was detected in all brain regions examined, whereas TMBr-1 was detected predominantly in brain areas that derived from the prosencephalon. Immunocytochemical studies on mixed primary cultures made from rat embryonic midbrain indicate that expression of the brain-specific epitope is restricted to neurons. The developmental pattern and neuronal localization of these forms of tropomyosin suggest that these isoforms have a specialized role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7694294

  7. Listeria Monocytogenes Infections in Metropolitan Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, A. H.; Roy, T. E.

    1963-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in 21 patients with listeriosis are described and the subject is reviewed. Eleven of the infections were septicemias of newborns, eight were meningitis in infants or adults, and two other children had unusual manifestations. Neonatal septicemia was rapidly fatal; one of 11 infants survived. The disease often seemed traceable to mild maternal infection during the third trimester usually leading to premature delivery of critically ill babies. Only awareness of the possible presence of listeriosis and early antibiotic therapy seem capable of reducing this high mortality. Tissues from autopsies showed characteristic microscopic necrotic foci with mononuclear infiltration progressing to microabscesses containing small Gram-positive rods. Lesions were found in the one placenta examined. Five infants with meningitis recovered, and one of three affected adults. Specific diagnosis depends on demonstrating Listeria monocytogenes; differentiation from other forms of acute meningitis cannot be made clinically. One older child had septicemia and another had listerial pharyngitis. Both recovered. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:13987999

  8. New perspectives in the management of severe cranio-facial deformity.

    PubMed Central

    David, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is postulated that craniosynostosis is due to a growth abnormality in all or part of the cranial capsule. Release of the stenosed part in the first months of life will re-establish the balance between the rapidly growing brain and eye, and the cranial capsule. Three periods for operative treatment are described: early, intermediate and late. Only in the early period can operative treatment restore normal growth dynamics; in the late period the aim is correction of an established deformity. The relationship between cranial clefts and frontonasal encephaloceles is explored. If the space-occupying encephalocele is removed early, the distorted facial bones adopt a more normal position, whereas cranial clefts do not respond to early operation by remoulding. The treatment of the acquired deformities of acute cranio-facial trauma have taken on new perspectives with the application of the multi-disciplinary approach and surgical techniques developed in the treatment of congenital deformities resulting in considerable reduction in the period of hospitalisation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6742741

  9. Surgical management of the ectopic ACTH syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, C J; Joplin, G F; Welbourn, R B

    1982-01-01

    Most patients with extra-pituitary ACTH-secreting tumors die from carcinoma, but a few can benefit from operation. Of 96 patients with Cushing's syndrome, 11 probably had such tumors. There were three modes of presentation: (1) three had malignant tumors with visceral metastases initially. One (bronchial carcinoid) died without operation. Two with carcinoma (thyroid medullary and islet-cell) underwent adrenalectomy with remission, but died soon. (2) three had apparently benign tumors initially. One (appendicular carcinoid) underwent appendectomy and one (bronchial carcinoid with hilar node metastases) underwent lobectomy. Both had rapid remissions. The third (pheochromocytoma) died after resection of the tumor. (3) five patients had no obvious tumors and underwent adrenalectomy with remission. In one a benign bronchial carcinoid was removed later. Four others remain well, but without localizing signs of tumor. The main biochemical features in all were hypokalemic alkalosis and very high urinary excretion of free cortisol. Seven of the eight patients without visceral metastases are in remission from one to 15 years after operation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6287949

  10. Antibody production in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

    PubMed Central

    Coe, J. E.; Peel, L. F.

    1970-01-01

    Serum antibody was found by radioimmunoelectrophoresis (RIEP) in thirty-one of thirty-five bullfrogs (BF) immunized with one of four protein antigens. Rabbit γ-globulin (RGG) and hen egg albumin were the best antigens, whereas human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin induced a less consistent immune response. Although a IgM to IgG sequence of antibody production usually was detected with RGG as antigen, a similar sequence was infrequent with the other antigens and the initial response was usually a IgG antibody. IgM antibody was detected in the serum for a prolonged interval (>100 days) and precipitating quantities of IgG antibody were found more than 1 year after antigen inoculation. As measured by haemagglutination, the IgM antibody was routinely inactivated by mercaptoethanol (ME) treatment and IgG antibody was frequently inactivated by ME, although it still had antigen binding capacity by RIEP. IgG hemagglutinins, which were resistant to ME treatment, were found in some sera obtained from BF after booster injections of antigen. Immunoelectrophoretic examination of normal or immune BF sera revealed a prominent precipitin line of slow γ-mobility which did not bind 131I-labelled antigen but did bind 59Fe. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4097586

  11. Reversible and irreversible cross-linking of immunoglobulin heavy chains through their carbohydrate residues.

    PubMed Central

    Heimgartner, U; Kozulić, B; Mosbach, K

    1990-01-01

    After periodate oxidation and incubation with a dihydrazide, cross-linking of the two heavy chains of immunoglobulins G from several species proceeds specifically through their oligosaccharides. We have used malonic acid dihydrazide, adipic acid dihydrazide and dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide. The last compound is introduced in this work as a cleavable-carbohydrate-specific cross-linker. It was found that in rabbit and human immunoglobulins the degree of cross-linking was strongly dependent on the oxidation conditions but only very weakly dependent on the concentration and size of the dihydrazides. Papain cleavage of the cross-linked rabbit IgG indicated that the cross-linking occurred predominantly, if not exclusively, in the Fc region, probably through the two glycans linked to Asn-297 in the CH2 domain of each of the two heavy chains. The immunoglobulins from sheep, pig, goat and guinea pig show a comparable cross-linking pattern, indicating that the sugar chains from these immunoglobulins have a spatial structure closely related to that of rabbit and human IgG. When dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide was used as the cross-linker, the cross-link could be cleaved by mercaptoethanol. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2111130

  12. Reactions of Blood with Nonbiologic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Reginald G.; Shermer, Richard W.; Rodman, Nathaniel F.

    1972-01-01

    Interaction of normal and coagulation factor deficient bloods with glass, Teflon and silicone-coated glass surfaces have been studied. The morphology of the blood-surface interaction was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Activation of the intrinsic coagulation system and progression of these changes, monitored by use of the partial thromboplastin time test, were influenced by both the type of surface to which blood was exposed and the deficiencies of coagulation Factors I, VIII, IX, or XII. Deficiency of fibrinogen appears to enhance, minimally, activation of the coagulation sequences by test materials. However, deficiency of fibrinogen markedly reduces adhesion of platelets to foreign surfaces. Deficiency of Factor XII, but not of Factors VIII or IX, decreases platelet adhesion to nonbiologic surfaces but to a lesser extent than does deficiency of fibrinogen. Roughness of test surfaces appears to encourage cellular deposition from blood. An ex vivo model designed for screening materials for their compatibility with blood is described. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 PMID:4634736

  13. Eye Injuries in Canadian Racquet Sports

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Thomas J.; Bishop, Patrick J.; Easterbrook, W. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Racquet sports eye injuries have increased steadily in recent years. To determine the magnitude of the problem, the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Athletic Eye Injury Committee has sent questionnaires to COS members since 1976 to be completed for all racquet sports eye injuries treated. In the first year of the questionnaire 48 injuries were reported, including three legally blind eyes. From July 1978 to May 1981, 154 squash and 91 racquetball eye injuries were reported. Half the injured players required hospitalization and surgery was frequent; some players had permanent vision loss. These findings led to assessment of available eye protectors. Open-type protectors can be penetrated by balls and some closed-type protectors are not sufficiently sturdy. Steps are underway to write a Canadian standard for racquet sports eye protectors. Meanwhile the public must be informed of the danger of racquet sports eye injuries and the importance of wearing closed-type protectors. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21286105

  14. Occurrence of Zoogloea Colonies and Protozoans at Different Stages of Sewage Purification1

    PubMed Central

    Amin, P. M.; Ganapati, S. V.

    1967-01-01

    The presence of fingered branch-bearing Zoogloea has been noted on a number of occasions in the Baroda Sewage Disposal Works. Samples of raw sewage, the effluent from the continuous flow settling basin, the raw sludge, the floating scum in the settling basin, the final secondary digested sludge, and the supernatant liquid from the secondary digester were kept without any disturbance in 1-liter Pyrex glass beakers, which were loosely covered with petri dishes. Scum was formed on the surface within 48 hr in all the samples, and fingered Zoogloea colonies resembling the pure culture of Zoogloea ramigera reported by Crabtree et al. (5) were found in all except the final secondary digested sludge and the supernatant liquid from the secondary digester. It is not known whether the Zoogloea colonies discovered in the above cases are the same as or different from the typical Zoogloea ramigera of activated sludge, and whether they are slime-forming or flocculent types of bacteria. In any case, they seem to be different in their ecological status and in the nature of the accompanying protozoans from the typical Zoogloea ramigera. The reasons for the absence of zoogloeas in two of the samples are unknown. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16349712

  15. Spontaneous gastric squamous cell carcinomas and other neoplasms in Greenland collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus).

    PubMed Central

    Barker, I K; Mallory, F F; Brooks, R J

    1982-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms were present in 39/66 Dicrostonyx groenlandicus of varying ages, examined from a laboratory colony. The presence of multiple neoplasms in some resulted in an overall average of 1.15 tumors/affected animal. Gastric squamous papillomas were present in nine, and locally invasive or metastatic gastric squamous cell carcinomas in a further 36 animals. Three mammary adenocarcinomas, one pancreatic islet cell tumor, one probable pancreatic adenocarcinoma and one adrenal cortical adenoma were also seen in lemmings with gastric tumors. Two others had mammary adenocarcinoma alone, and one animal had bilateral Harderian gland adenocarcinoma. Lesions resembling glomerulonephrosis of rats were seen in 23/51 animals whose kidneys were examined. These findings were not considered artefacts of captivity since concurrent gastric squamous cell carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma and glomerulonephrosis were present in the single animal examined directly from the wild at Eskimo Point, Northwest Territories. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6751508

  16. Localisation of calcium ions and calcium-ATPase activity within myelinated nerve fibres of the adult guinea-pig optic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, W L; Watt, C; Pediani, J D; Graham, D I; Adams, J H; Gennarelli, T A

    1991-01-01

    There is no published description of the distribution of free Ca2+, nor of the distribution of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity associated with the maintenance of low axoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations, in normal central myelinated nerve fibres. We have used the oxalate-pyroantimonate technique to localise free Ca2+, together with the lead-citrate technique to localise Ca(2+)-ATPase activity within myelinated fibres from the adult guinea-pig optic nerve. Pyroantimonate precipitate occurred within the axoplasm at nodes of Ranvier and the internode, at areas of myelin disruption, within Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (SLI) and glial paranodal loops. But precipitate was absent from the axoplasm beneath SLI and at the paranode. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was localised in axonal smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), the outer membrane of mitochondria, the nodal axolemma, the glial membranes of the paranodal loops, the SLI and the external aspect of the myelin sheath. We have demonstrated large domains within the axons of CNS fibres where calcium is present or absent. Moreover, we have shown that, where calcium is absent, there is localisation of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, which would serve to remove calcium from the adjacent axoplasm. Our results are compared with information obtained from PNS fibres and some differences of distribution discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1833365

  17. Observations on abortions in cattle: a comparison of pathological, microbiological and immunological findings in aborted foetuses and foetuses collected at abattoirs.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R B; Quinn, P J

    1975-01-01

    Fifty nonaborted and 50 aborted bovine foetuses were examined utilizing histology, immunoelectrophoresis, bacteriology and the fluorescent antibody technique. Lesions were observed in 12 of the nonaborted foesuses and in four of these immunoglobulins were demonstrated. In addition, two of the nonaborted foetuses had immunoglobulins in the absence of observed lesions. Lesions were observed in 48 of the aborted foetuses and immunoglobulins were detected in 22 of these. An etiological diagnosis was arrived at in 24 of the 50 aborted foetuses. The tissues most frequently observed to have lesions of diagnostic significance were eyelid, intestine, liver, lung and placenta. Intestinal lesions were observed in several foetuses in association with a variety of agents including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Foetuses diagnosed as aborting because of mycotic infection consistently displayed lesions in their eyelids. The value of taking eyelid sections in cases of suspected mycotic abortions, the significance of foetal intestinal lesions, the evaluation of abomasal aspirates and the diagnostic importance of immunoglobulin determinations in aborted foetuses are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. PMID:166738

  18. Synaptic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat after reinnervation by vagus fibres

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, B.; Clementi, F.; Mantegazza, P.

    1971-01-01

    1. A vagus-sympathetic anastomosis was performed in the cat by connecting end to end the cranial trunk of the vagus to the cranial end of the cervical sympathetic trunk, both severed under the ganglia. 2. Forty to sixty days after the anastomosis, the ocular signs of sympathetic paralysis (such as myosis and prolapse of the nictitating membrane) which had developed shortly after the operation, had completely disappeared, thus suggesting the recovery of synaptic transmission in the ganglion. In case of plain preganglionic denervation after the same period the ocular signs of cervical sympathetic paralysis were still present. 3. Contraction of the nictitating membrane could be induced by electrical stimulation of both the vagus preanastomotic and the sympathetic postanastomotic—preganglionic trunks. Ganglionic blocking agents induced the blockade of the `new' ganglionic synaptic function, while nicotine and pilocarpine provoked a marked contraction of the nictitating membrane. 4. Electron microscopy showed that the preganglionic regeneration of vagus fibers resulted in the formation of new synapses, mainly of axodendritic type, identical to normal ganglionic synapses. Moreover, after cutting the preanastomotic trunk of the vagus, these new ganglionic presynaptic profiles degenerated, thus proving their vagal origin. 5. During restoration of the synaptic contacts readjustment of dendritic tips occurred. ImagesText-fig. 2Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4326851

  19. Intracellular Localization of Lipoxygenases-1 and -2 in Germinating Soybean Seeds by Indirect Labeling with Protein A-Colloidal Gold Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Vernooy-Gerritsen, Marjan; Leunissen, Jan L. M.; Veldink, Gerrit A.; Vliegenthart, Johannes F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Soybean lipoxygenases-1 and -2 were localized intracellularly in seeds at various stages of germination by indirect labeling of cryosections with protein A-colloidal gold complexes. Two sizes of gold particles (Au5 and Au16) were used in single- and double-labeling experiments. In primary leaves, lipoxygenases are demonstrated to occur in vacuolating parenchyma cells but not in massive, nondifferentiated cells. In cotyledons, both isoenzymes are localized in the cytoplasm of storage parenchyma cells and in an aberrant type of protein bodies, occurring in hypodermis and vascular bundle sheath cells. No association has been found with either protein bodies in storage parenchyma cells or lipid bodies, mitochondria, and other organelles in any type of cell. The possible significance of lipoxygenase in the metabolism of storage lipids and its possible function as a regulatory enzyme are discussed on the basis of the random distribution throughout the cytoplasm of storage parenchyma cells and the course of biochemical processes during seed germination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16663951

  20. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  1. A microscopic study of the lung of Testudo graeca (Chelonia).

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M; Ballesta, J; Castells, M T; Perez-Tomas, R; Marin, J A; Madrid, J F

    1989-01-01

    The lung of the tortoise, Testudo graeca (Chelonia) was studied by means of light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunocytochemistry. The lung showed the typical faviform structure of the reptilian lung. Three orders of trabeculae were observed. The epithelium of primary and secondary trabeculae was composed of ciliated, mucous, basal and endocrine cells. Mucous cells contained sialo- and sulpho-mucins and were reactive to the lectins Con-A, WGA, DBA, PNA and SBA. Endocrine cells were observed as solitary cells or forming neuroepithelial bodies. By means of immunocytochemistry, endocrine cells were demonstrated to contain serotonin. In the gas-exchange area Types I and II pneumonocytes and undifferentiated cells were observed. Free macrophages were detected in the faveolar lumen. The lung interstitium contained smooth muscle cells, fibrocytes, pigment cells, myelinated and unmyelinated nerves and intrapulmonary ganglia. Nerve terminals containing clear and dense-cored vesicles were observed in the adventitia of the blood vesicles and interspersed between the smooth muscle bands. The lung of the hibernating specimens showed a marked vacuolisation of pneumonocytes. In conclusion, the lung of Testudo graeca showed a complex histological organisation. Marked differences from mammalian lung were found. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:2606791

  2. Chronic Actinic Keratopathy—A Condition Associated with Conjunctival Elastosis (Pingueculae) and Typified by Characteristic Extracellular Concretions

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1972-01-01

    Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106

  3. Finger gangrene caused by small artery occlusive disease.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, L M; Baur, G M; Porter, J M

    1981-01-01

    Available evidence indicates that about one third of all patients presenting with localized finger gangrene developed the condition due to intrinsic occlusions of the small arteries of the hand and fingers caused by one of a variety of systemic diseases. We have treated 35 such patients in the past seven years. A variety of diagnostic tests allowed the establishment of the diagnosis of connective tissue disease in 14 patients, hypersensitivity angiitis in 13 patients, arteriosclerosis in five patients, and myeloid metaplasia, calciphylaxis, and carcinoma in one patient each. Treatment with cold and tobacco avoidance, vasodilators, and local debridement produced good results without amputation in 30 patients. Five patients required partial phalangeal amputation. These results suggest that appropriate diagnostic tests will allow an accurate diagnosis in all patients, and that the natural history is that of spontaneous improvement without major tissue loss. In our experience, surgical sympathectomy plays no role in the treatment of these patients. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:7212808

  4. Slipped epiphyses in renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Mehls, O; Ritz, E; Krempien, B; Gilli, G; Link, K; Willich, E; Schärer, K

    1975-01-01

    Clinical, biochemical, roentgenological, and histological features of slipped epiphyses (epiphysiolysis) in 11 out of 112 children with renal osteodystrophy have been analysed. Characteristic age-related patterns of involvement of different epiphyses are described. Quantitative measurements of iliac bone histology, serum parathyroid hormone levels, and clinical history show the presence of more advanced osteitis fibrosa in children with epiphysiolysis than in those without. A good correlation was found between serum parathormone levels and osteoclastic resorption, endosteal fibrosis as well as osteoid. Histological studies show that the radiolucent zone between the epiphyseal ossification centre and the metaphysis in x-rays is not caused by accumulation of cartilage and chondro-osteoid (as usually found in vitamin D deficiency rickets) but by the accumulation of woven bone and/or fibrous tissue. The response to vitamin D therapy in most cases was good. Parathyroidectomy was required in only one case. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. p549-b FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. PMID:1167068

  5. A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever*

    PubMed Central

    Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4538039

  6. Antibody mapping of functional domains in vinculin.

    PubMed Central

    Westmeyer, A; Ruhnau, K; Wegner, A; Jockusch, B M

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the functional domain structure of vinculin, a protein involved in linking microfilaments to the cytoplasmic face of cell membranes in animal cells. For this purpose, we used several monoclonal antibodies raised against chicken gizzard vinculin whose epitopes could be assigned to discrete regions in the vinculin sequence by immunoblotting of proteolytic fragments combined with N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Two of these antibodies induced the disruption of stress fibers and changed the number of morphology of focal contacts after microinjection in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Based on the location of its epitope in comparison with vinculin domains previously identified by other groups, we propose that one of these antibodies (15B7) interferes with the binding of vinculin to talin, the most peripheral of the microfilament proteins. The second antibody (14C10) binds within a region comprising three internal repeats and might therefore distort the inner architecture of vinculin. A third antibody (As3) inhibited the binding of F-actin to vinculin in an in vitro assay but had no effect on the microfilament system in cells. These data emphasize the role of vinculin as a key protein in microfilament-membrane linkage and support previous work on a direct interaction between vinculin and actin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1694125

  7. Inflammatory skin disease in transgenic mice that express high levels of interleukin 1 alpha in basal epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Groves, R W; Mizutani, H; Kieffer, J D; Kupper, T S

    1995-01-01

    Resting epidermal keratinocytes contain large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1), but the function of this cytokine in the skin remains unclear. To further define the role of IL-1 in cutaneous biology, we have generated two lines of transgenic mice (TgIL-1.1 and TgIL-1.2) which overexpress IL-1 alpha in basal keratinocytes. There was high-level tissue-specific expression of transgene mRNA and protein and large quantities of IL-1 alpha were liberated into the circulation from epidermis in both lines. TgIL-1.1 mice, which had the highest level of transgene expression, developed a spontaneous skin disease characterized by hair loss, scaling, and focal inflammatory skin lesions. Histologically, nonlesional skin of these animals was characterized by hyperkeratosis and a dermal mononuclear cell infiltrate of macrophage/monocyte lineage. Inflammatory lesions were marked by a mixed cellular infiltrate, acanthosis, and, in some cases, parakeratosis. These findings confirm the concept of IL-1 as a primary cytokine, release of which is able to initiate and localize an inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, these mice provide the first definitive evidence that inflammatory mediators can be released from the epidermis to enter the systemic circulation and thereby influence, in a paracrine or endocrine fashion, a wide variety of other cell types. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8524866

  8. Organelle pathology in metabolic neuromuscular disease: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, L E

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of metabolic neuromuscular disorders is wide. Most inherited metabolic diseases are related to enzyme defects within lysosomes but recent advances emphasize abnormalities of mitochondria, peroxisomes and intermediate filaments. In this overview, organelle pathology is described in the context of both the clinical manifestations and the biochemical and/or molecular aspects of the disease. Among the many clinical presentations of mitochondrial disorders three emerge as distinctive entities: mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like symptoms, mitochondrial encephalopathy with ragged-red fibers, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Peroxisomal disorders are associated with numerous biochemical defects, the most frequent of which are Zellweger's syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, and infantile Refsum's disease. Disorders of cytoskeletal proteins are associated with distinctive pathological accumulation of intermediate filaments but are without confirmed evidence of a biochemical defect. Understanding the role that organelle pathology plays in the pathogenesis of cellular disturbance or demise is essential to the elucidation of the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2407327

  9. A neurotensin antagonist, SR 48692, inhibits colonic responses to immobilization stress in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Castagliuolo, I; Leeman, S E; Bartolak-Suki, E; Nikulasson, S; Qiu, B; Carraway, R E; Pothoulakis, C

    1996-01-01

    We previously reported that short-term immobilization stress of rats causes increased colonic mucin release, goblet cell depletion, prostaglandin E2 secretion, and colonic mast cell activation, as well as increased colonic motility. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neurotensin (NT), a peptide expressed in both brain and digestive tract, participates in these responses. Rats were pretreated with SR 48692 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), an NT antagonist, 15 min before immobilization (30 min). The administration of the antagonist significantly inhibited stress-mediated secretion of colonic mucin, prostaglandin E2, and a product of rat mast cells, rat mast cell protease II (P < 0.05), but did not alter the increase in fecal pellet output caused by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress also resulted in a quantifiable decrease in the abundance of NT receptor mRNA in rat colon compared with that in colonic tissues from nonimmobilized rats as measured by densitometric analysis of in situ hybridization studies (P < 0.03). We conclude that the peptide NT is involved in colonic goblet cell release and mucosal mast cell activation after immobilization stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8901630

  10. Mutagenic and tumourigenic properties of the spores of Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, W.; Hardy, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Spore walls of a sputum-derived isolate of Aspergillus clavatus yielded mutagen(s) when their extracts were fractionally precipitated with ethanol following alkaline hydrolysis. After spores were given by nasal inoculation to 6-8-week-old CF-1 mice, light and electron microscopy of lung sections showed that they had been readily phagocytozed by the polymorphonuclear leucocytes and alveolar macrophages mobilized during early allergic alveolitis in immunized mice. The formation of phagosomes was followed in thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages grown in vitro. Unimmunised mice showed a comparable lung reaction, attributed to pulmonary mycotoxicosis, and revealed a rising incidence of lung tumours, from 25% at 2 months from inoculation, to 27.3% at 6 and to 55.5% at 8. Mean numbers of tumours per lung rose from 1.0 to 2.2. Total tumours, including lymphomas, reached a final incidence of 77.7% at 8 months, when control animals were tumour-free. Tumour development correlated with the retention of apparently intact spores within giant cells probably derived from aggregates of alveolar macrophages. The implications of these findings in the light of the known history of human exposure to such spores is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Figs 6 and 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7059453

  11. Characterization of the cell adhesion molecules L1, N-CAM and J1 in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Thor, G; Probstmeier, R; Schachner, M

    1987-01-01

    To gain insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial cell surface interactions in the adult mouse intestine, we have characterized the cell adhesion molecules L1, N-CAM and J1 by immunocytological, biochemical and cell biological methods. Whereas N-CAM and J1 expression was found to be confined to the mesenchymal and neuroectodermally-derived parts of the intestine, L1 was localized in the proliferating epithelial progenitor cells of crypts, but not in the more differentiated epithelial cells of villi. L1 was detected in crypt cells by Western blot analysis in the molecular forms characteristic of peripheral neural cells, with apparent mol. wts of 230, 180 and 150 kd. Aggregation of single, enriched crypt, but not villus cells, was strongly inhibited in the presence of Fab fragments of polyclonal L1 antibodies. These observations show that L1 is not confined to the nervous system and that it may play a functional role in the histogenesis of the intestine in the adult animal. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3315649

  12. The olfactory apparatus of the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus): fine structure and presence of a septal olfactory organ.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzing, J E

    1978-01-01

    The structure and extent of olfactory epithelium in the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) were examined by light and electron microscopy. Sensory epithelium covers most of the dorsal conchae, though non-sensory epithelium lines ventrally facing scrolls. The middle conchae are partly covered by olfactory epithelium, the proportion of olfactory to ciliated respiratory epithelium increasing caudally. Ventral conchae are lined by non-sensory ciliated epithelium. The nasal septum ends short of the floor of the nasal cavity in its caudal two thirds. It is covered dorsally by olfactory epithelium. The ventral margin has rounded lateral extensions which carry the isolated strips of olfactory epithelium which form the septal olfactory organ. The fine structure of the olfactory epithelium is the same in all areas. Cell types include olfactory receptors, supporting cells, two types of basal cell and rarer pale and brush cells. There is considerable morphological variation in olfactory cells, and evidence suggestive of continuing turnover in the receptor cell population. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:640961

  13. Distribution of elastic system fibres in human fetal liver.

    PubMed Central

    Monte, A; Costa, A; Porto, L C

    1996-01-01

    Elastic system fibres are extracellular matrix components found in different organs for which they provide elasticity and some mechanical resistance. Oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibres, which possess graduated amounts of elastin, are the 3 forms of elastic system fibres that are identifiable by their tinctorial and ultrastructural features. The distribution of these fibres in adult human liver is well-established but little, if anything, is known about them in fetal liver. The distribution of elastic system fibres was therefore investigated in human fetal liver, and the process of elastogenesis characterised. Specimens of liver from 24 human fetuses ranging in age from 13 to 38 wk postfertilisation were studied. The results are presented in relation to gestational age and the size of the portal tracts. Portal tracts exhibited a network of oxytalan fibres at 13 wk; elaunin fibres appeared later after 20 wk postfertilisation. Elastogenesis occurred more rapidly in venous than in arterial walls, and in veins it was more evident in the adventitia. A microfibrillar network of oxytalan fibres was observed around biliary ducts from the outset of their development. Elastogenesis follows the sequence oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibres, but the elastogenetic process only completes its maturation in arterial walls, thus leading to the internal elastic lamina. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8763481

  14. The structure and innervation of the saccopleural membrane of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R D; Vaillant, C; King, A S

    1987-01-01

    Microscopic studies have shown the saccopleural membrane in the respiratory system of the domestic fowl to consist of a sheet of three dense layers of collagen fibres covered dorsally and ventrally by mainly simple squamous epithelium. On the ventral surface, which faces into the caudal thoracic air sac, there are occasional ridges of pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. Many nerve bundles are present throughout the membrane, the larger bundles of myelinated and unmyelinated axons being confined to the lamina propria under the dorsal epithelium (parietal pleura). In addition to axonal profiles with the ultrastructural appearance of cholinergic or adrenergic axons, peptidergic-type axons were identified. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated VIP-, substance P-, somatostatin- and enkephalin-immunoreactive fibres in the membrane. Although it has been suggested that receptors may be present in this region of the respiratory system, none of the axons have features suggestive of sensory terminals, although many axonal profiles are closely associated with the epithelia where no obvious effector cells are present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3654325

  15. Presence of endothelium in an axillary-femoral graft of knitted Dacron with an external velour surface.

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, L R; Berger, K; Beilin, L B; Smith, J C; Wood, S J; Mansfield, P B

    1975-01-01

    An axillary-bilateral common femoral graft of knitted Dacron with an external velour surface was examined within one hour after the patient's death from non-graft-related causes. The prothesis, implanted for 20 months, was patent and was completely healed over 32% of the flow surface--that is, full wall fibrous tissue encapsulation of the graft had occurred, and 32% of the flow surface was endothelialized. The remaining flow surface was formed of fibrin, but fibrous tissue healing had reached the inner surface of the graft material, and the fibrin overlay was very thin. The healed protions of the graft included not only the areas adjacent to the anastomoses, but were scattered throughout the 45 cm length of the prosthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of complete healing (fibrous tissue encapsulation and endothelialization) documented at points beyond the plannus ingrowth at the prosthesis-artery anastomosis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:127556

  16. Cavernous portion of the trochlear nerve with special reference to its site of entrance.

    PubMed Central

    Bisaria, K K

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 80 cavernous sinuses in 40 cadavers, the trochlear nerve entered the cavernous sinus in 87.5% of cases before the crossing, in 7.5% at the crossing and in 5.0% after the crossing of the free and the attached margins of the tentorium cerebelli. In 77.5% of specimens the trochlear nerve showed a marked bend with flattening at the site of its entrance into the cavernous sinus. The nerve ran between the superficial and deep layers of dura, partly between them, in the thickness of the deeper layer, or deep to the deep layer but adherent to it. These findings do not conform with the description of its course by other workers in the past. In 72.5% of specimens the size of the trochlear nerve was larger during its course in the cavernous sinuses but in 20.0% of specimens such an increase in thickness was noted even in the posterior cranial fossa. Only in one specimen was the trochlear nerve adherent to the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Cases showing the trochlear nerve entering the cavernous sinus after the crossing of the two margins of tentorium cerebelli and the splitting and branching of the trochlear nerve in the cavernous sinus have not hitherto been reported. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3248970

  17. Insulin-like growth factor I receptors of fetal brain are enriched in nerve growth cones and contain a beta-subunit variant.

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, S; Garofalo, R S; Pfenninger, K H

    1995-01-01

    Nerve growth cones isolated from fetal rat brain are highly enriched in a 97-kDa glycoprotein, termed beta gc, that comigrates with the beta subunit of the IGF-I receptor upon two-dimensional PAGE and is disulfide-linked to this receptor's alpha subunit. Antibodies prepared to a conserved domain shared by the insulin and IGF-I receptor beta subunits (AbP2) or to beta gc were used to study receptor distribution further. Subcellular fractionation of the fetal brain segregated most AbP2 immunoreactivity away from growth cones, whereas most beta gc immunoreactivity copurified with growth cones. Experiments involving ligand-activated receptor autophosphorylation confirmed the concentration of IGF-I but not of insulin receptors in growth cone fractions. These results indicate the enrichment of IGF-I receptors in (presumably axonal) growth cones of the differentiating neuron. Furthermore, the segregation of beta gc from AbP2 immunoreactivity suggests that such neurons express an immunochemically distinct variant of the IGF-I receptor beta subunit at the growth cone. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753803

  18. The contributions of the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group to military surgery during World War II with special reference to thoracic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, L A

    1983-01-01

    The outstanding scientific and surgical accomplishments of the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations and the 7th Army in World War II were not exceeded by any other group in the United States Army Medical Corps. In the final 921-page report to the Surgeon General with 550 tables, 8801 severely wounded casualties out of a total of 22,000 treated were reviewed. In addition, the major portion of three books on war surgery and over 60 scientific articles were written by this group. The contributions in thoracic surgery that focused attention on physiologic principles and limited the indications for thoracotomy have stood the test of time. The author made the original description of the reaction of the lung to severe trauma of the brain, abdomen, and extremities by the development of "the wet lung of trauma" (RDS), while his introduction of a hand-operated, intermittent positive pressure oxygen respirator to treat the advanced form of this syndrome (pulmonary edema) ushered in a new form of treatment. Long-term, follow-up studies by the author confirm the validity of the physiologic approach to the treatment of thoracic trauma. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7A and B. Fig. 8. PMID:6338843

  19. Characterization of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Storage Proteins 1

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Monique; Aspart, Lorette; Delseny, Michel; Penon, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus cv Rond rose à bout blanc Vilmorin) seeds, as other cruciferae oil seeds, contain two major types of storage protein aggregates which can be separated by gel filtration into 12 and 1.7 Svedberg fractions. These two fractions have been characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid composition, and two bidimensional gel electrophoresis systems. These results were compared with those obtained with rapeseed storage proteins. Radish 12 Svedberg particles are made of a series of nine major polypeptides ranging from 33 to 30 kilodaltons. These polypeptides present charge heterogeneity. The 12 Svedberg particle is made of six subunits ≃ 55 kilodaltons. Each subunit is a couple of two polypeptides linked by a disulfide bridge. The 1.7 Svedberg particle has a simpler composition. It is made of two polypeptides of 10 and 12 kilodaltons and smaller peptides of ≃ 7 kilodaltons. Twelve and 1.7 Svedberg particles also differ in their amino acid composition, the 1.7 Svedberg being particularly rich in glutamic acid and proline. Its components are basic. The organization of the rapeseed storage protein is similar but more complex. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663449

  20. Canine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Prier, J. E.; Brodey, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    The authors review current knowledge of spontaneous neoplasms in the dog. The prevalence of certain types of canine tumour has been studied, and comparisons have been made with the occurrence of similar neoplasms in man. Where there are appropriate analogies between the two species, the dog with spontaneous tumours can be used for studies that are not practicable in man. Nutritional and morphological studies have been done on cells cultured from canine tumours. Some consistency has been demonstrated in the morphology of cultures of different tumours of the same type. Nutritional studies with the transmissible venereal sarcoma of the dog have shown the cells to be subject to a growth-repressing effect by SH-containing amino-acids. Attempts to transmit tumours to other dogs or other species have generally been unsuccessful. A transplantable tumour developed in a mouse injected with non-cellular material from a canine thyroid carcinoma, but it is not certain that the tumour was induced. Cell-culture studies have shown that some tumours yield a factor that is cytopathogenic for normal cells, but none has been shown capable of inducing neoplasms in vivo. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:14058226

  1. Ultrastructural and biochemical observations on proteoglycans and collagen in the mutable connective tissue of the feather star Antedon bifida (Echinodermata, Crinoidea).

    PubMed Central

    Erlinger, R; Welsch, U; Scott, J E

    1993-01-01

    Mutable connective tissue, unique to echinoderms, changes its mechanical behaviour within seconds of nervous stimulation. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In this study proteoglycans and collagen of the brachial ligaments connecting neighbouring ossicles of the arms of the feather star Antedon bifida have been investigated by biochemistry, light and electron microscopy and the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) technique using the dye Cupromeronic Blue (CB). The ligaments consist mainly of parallel cross-striated collagen fibrils, 82 +/- 12 nm in diameter, with a characteristic banding pattern and a D-period of 52.8 +/- 3.2 nm. Some fibrils were disaggregated into bundles of 10-11 nm protofibrils, lying between the normal fibrils. Proteoglycans occur at the surface of the fibrils with 2 binding sites (each with a different CEC) per D-period and also inside the fibrils. The surface proteoglycans are more highly sulphated (i.e. their CECs are > 1.3 M) than the intrafibrillar proteoglycans (CEC < 0.9 M). The glycosaminoglycans consist of a highly sulphated chondroitin sulphate, possibly with fucose residues. The results are consistent with the theory that disaggregation of the fibrils into protofibrils and reaggregation might be a mechanism of mutability, without excluding the possibility that fibrils may slide alongside each other during movements in the viscous phase of the ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8270464

  2. Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis (massive necrosis) with fat necrosis induced in mice by DL-ethionine fed with a choline-deficient diet.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, B.; Estes, L. W.; Longnecker, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    Female, albino mice were fed a choline-deficient diet containing 0.5% DL-ethionine. All animals died within 5 days due to the development of an acute hemorrhagic pancreatis with fat necrosis throughout the peritoneal cavity. The apancreatitis was characterized by a massive necrosis of the exocrine parenchyma with intense hemorrhage and inflammatory reaction of the stroma. The sequence of histologic and ultrastructural alterations occurring in the acinar cells of the pancreas were studied in mice fed the diet for 1, 2, and 3 days. Major findings consited of accumulation of zymogen granules, vacuolation due to foci of cytoplasmic degradation, and alterations in the morphology of the zymogen granules. The pancreatitis appears to be due to intraparenchymal activation of zymogens, resulting from a synergistic action of choline deficiency with the basic toxicity of ethionine toward the acinar cells of the pancreas. The experimental model simulates closely the acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with fat necrosis occurring in humans and may prove useful for exploring the pathogenesis of this condition. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 PMID:1094837

  3. Some Observations on the Surgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Millin, Terence

    1939-01-01

    Types: A. Essential. B. Paradoxical. C. False. D. True. True incontinence.—A. Congenital: (a) Developmental abnormalities. (b) Malformations of nervous system. B. Acquired: (a) Local abnormalities. (b) False passages. (c) Disturbance of innervation. Anatomy of sphincteric mechanism in male and female. Diagnosis: Need for careful investigation including cysto-urethroscopy, cysto-urethrography, and cysto-manometry. Treatment: A. Physiotherapy. B. Direct surgical repair. C. Surgical diversion of urine. Types of true incontinence amenable to direct surgical repair: A. Epispadias. B. Aberrant ureteric ostia. C. Fistulæ. D. Congenital or acquired defective sphincteric mechanism. Operative treatment of vesico-vaginal fistulæ. Transvesical operation for cure of congenitally defective sphincteric mechanism—report of seven cases. Stress incontinence.—Value of urethrograms to ascertain nature of defect. Operative treatment. Incontinence following prostatic surgery.—Types of operation advocated. New operative procedure utilizing ribbon catgut with demonstrative moving picture. ImagesFig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19991939

  4. Proteolytic processing of a coleopteran-specific delta-endotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J; Li, J; Ellar, D J

    1989-01-01

    Insecticidal protein delta-endotoxin crystals harvested from sporulated cultures of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis contain a major polypeptide of 67 kDa and minor polypeptides of 73, 72, 55 and 46 kDa. During sporulation, only the 73 kDa polypeptide could be detected at stage I. The 67 kDa polypeptide was first detected at stage II and increased in concentration throughout the later stages of sporulation and after crystal release, with a concomitant decrease in the 73 kDa polypeptide. This change could be blocked by the addition of proteinase inhibitors. Trypsin or insect-gut-extract treatment of the delta-endotoxin crystals after solubilization resulted in a cleavage product of 55 kDa with asparagine-159 of the deduced amino acid sequence of the toxin [Höfte, Seurinck, van Houtven & Vaeck (1987) Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 71-83; Sekar, Thompson, Maroney, Bookland & Adang (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 7036-7040; McPherson, Perlak, Fuchs, Marrone, Lavrik & Fischhoff (1988) Biotechnology 6, 61-66] at the N-terminus. This polypeptide was found to be as toxic in vivo as native delta-endotoxin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2549968

  5. Development of the chick thymus microenvironment: a study by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, J G; Sanchez, A J; Melcon, C; Chamorro, C A; Garcia, C; Paz, P

    1994-01-01

    The microenvironment of the chick thymus has been examined during development using lectin histochemistry. We have assayed WGA, Con A, RCA-I and TPA on thymic sections from 13, 15, 17 and 19 d chick embryos and 0, 5, 10 and 15 d chicks. All lectins were immunoperoxidase and colloidal gold-conjugated for transmission electron microscope observations. WGA labelled both the cortical and medullary thymic stroma at all the stages analysed. An intense reaction to WGA was observed in the subcortical region from stage 18 embryos to 5 d chicks. On the other hand, WGA did not stain medullary areas of the chick thymus. Con A lectin detected several cell clusters of stromal cells and thymocytes in cortical regions. These clusters could represent a lymphostromal complex with which Con A receptors are associated, probably in relation to cell adhesion. The residues detected by RCA were distributed both in stromal cells and thymocytes of the developing chick thymus. There was an increase of the reaction to RCA between the 19 d embryos and the 5 d chicks. This increase might be interpreted in terms of the secretion of thymic humoral factors at these stages. The thymic stromal cells stained with immunoperoxidase conjugated-TPA showed a reticular pattern in the medulla. There is a possibility that the fucosyl residues may be expressed in the Ia antigen as has previously been suggested in other species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7512541

  6. Apple fruit pectic substances

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A. J.; Northcote, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. The pectic substances of apple have been extracted and separated into a pure pectinic acid and a neutral arabinan–galactan complex by precipitation of the acidic component with ethanol and with cetylpyridinium chloride. 2. The composition of the fractions has been determined. The pectinic acid contained galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose and several trace sugars. 3. Transelimination degradation of the pectinic acid gave rise to two components completely separable by zone electrophoresis and by Sephadex gel filtration. Analysis of these components confirmed that the pectinic acid molecules contained long chains of esterified galacturonosyl residues, but showed in addition that more neutral portions containing a high proportion of arabinofuranose residues were attached to them. 4. The identification of rhamnose, galactose and xylose in aldobiouronic acids obtained from a partial hydrolysate of pectinic acid has shown that these sugars are covalently linked in the molecule, and it is suggested that the galacturonosyl-(1→2)-rhamnose link is a general feature of pectinic acid structure. 5. The possible biological significance of pectinic acid structure has been discussed. 6. The arabinan–galactan complex contained nearly equal quantities of arabinose and galactose residues and some of its physical properties have been investigated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 9. PMID:14340052

  7. Characterization of subtype-specific antibodies to the human D5 dopamine receptor: studies in primate brain and transfected mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bergson, C; Mrzljak, L; Lidow, M S; Goldman-Rakic, P S; Levenson, R

    1995-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of how D5 dopamine receptors mediate the actions of dopamine in brain, we have developed antibodies specific for the D5 receptor. D5 antibodies reacted with recombinant baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells expressing the D5 receptor but not with the D1 receptor or a variety of other catecholaminergic and muscarinic receptors. Epitope-tagged D5 receptors expressed in mammalian cells were reactive with both D5 antibodies and an epitope-specific probe. A mixture of N-linked glycosylated polypeptides and higher molecular-mass species was detected on immunoblots of membrane fractions of D5-transfected cells and also of primate brain. D5 receptor antibodies intensely labeled pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex, whereas spiny medium-sized neurons and aspiny large interneurons of the caudate nucleus were relatively lightly labeled. Antibodies to the D5 dopamine receptor should prove important in experimentally determining specific roles for the D5 and D1 receptors in cortical processes and diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7536933

  8. The structure and development of dopaminergic interplexiform cells in the retina of the brown trout, Salmo trutta fario: a tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, M; Manso, M J; Rodriguez-Moldes, M I; Anadón, R

    1994-01-01

    The organisation and development of the dopaminergic (DA) system in the retina of the adult brown trout were studied with tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemical techniques. Adult DA cells are rather homogeneous in appearance and possess thick dendritic processes running to the ganglion cell layer and thinner axonal processes which run to the horizontal cell layer, where they form a rich plexus of varicose fibres closely associated with the surface of these cells. Contact of DA fibres with photoreceptor processes was not observed. We therefore consider this DA population to consist mainly of interplexiform cells. These cells appear late in development, being first observed in prehatching (16 mm) embryos (after photoreceptors have begun to differentiate). DA cells increased in number throughout the fry and juvenile stages, but even in the largest juveniles studied (30-35 mm) the size of the DA cell population was only about 20% of that in adults. DA cells appear to arise in the marginal retina. In developing stages (embryos and fry) only inner nuclear layer processes were observed, the horizontal cell layer DA plexus appearing late in development (28 mm juveniles). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7961143

  9. The yeast nuclear import receptor is required for mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, J D; Schlenstedt, G; Pellman, D; Kornitzer, D; Silver, P A; Fink, G R

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear import system is highly conserved among eukaryotes. Here we report the effects of a conditional mutation in SRP1, which encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of the vertebrate nuclear import receptor importin. Importin was isolated as a factor required for the initial targeting step of a nuclear import substrate to the nuclear envelope in a mammalian in vitro assay. We show that yeast Srp1 is similarly required for protein import. In addition, Srp1 is also required for the execution of mitosis: we demonstrate that cells containing a conditional mutation of SRP1 arrest with a G2/M phenotype in a manner analogous to classic cdc mutants. This defect may be due to the failure of the mutant to degrade the mitotic cyclin Clb2 and other proteins required for mitosis. The requirement of a nuclear import receptor for cell cycle-regulated proteolysis implies that import of cell cycle regulators into the nucleus is critical for cell cycle progression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7644471

  10. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Julianne E.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1984-01-01

    Cross and longitudinal sections were prepared for light microscopy from vertical control plants (Xanthium strumarium L. Chicago strain), free-bending horizontal stems, plants restrained 48 hours in a horizontal position, and plants restrained 48 hours and then released, bending immediately about 130°. Top cells of free-bending stems shrink or elongate little; bottom cells continue to elongate. In restrained stems, bottom cells elongate some and increase in diameter; top cells elongate about as much but decrease in diameter. Upon release, bottom cells elongate more and decrease in diameter, while top cells shorten and increase in diameter, accounting for the bend. During restraint, bottom cells take up water while tissue pressures increase; top cells fail to take up water although tissue pressures are decreasing. Settling of amyloplasts was observed in cells of the starch sheath. Removal of different amounts of stem (Xanthium; Lycopersicon esculentum Miller, cv Bonny Best; Ricinus communis L. cv Yolo Wonder) showed that perception of gravity occurs in the bending (elongation) zone, although bending of fourth and fifth internodes from the top was less than in uncut controls. Uniform application of 1% indoleacetic acid in lanolin to cut stem surfaces partially restored bending. Reversing the gradient in tension/compression in horizontal stems (top under compression, bottom under tension) did not affect gravitropic bending. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:16663939

  11. Mapping striate and extrastriate visual areas in human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    DeYoe, E A; Carman, G J; Bandettini, P; Glickman, S; Wieser, J; Cox, R; Miller, D; Neitz, J

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and map the representation of the visual field in seven areas of human cerebral cortex and to identify at least two additional visually responsive regions. The cortical locations of neurons responding to stimulation along the vertical or horizontal visual field meridia were charted on three-dimensional models of the cortex and on unfolded maps of the cortical surface. These maps were used to identify the borders among areas that would be topographically homologous to areas V1, V2, V3, VP, and parts of V3A and V4 of the macaque monkey. Visually responsive areas homologous to the middle temporal/medial superior temporal area complex and unidentified parietal visual areas were also observed. The topography of the visual areas identified thus far is consistent with the organization in macaque monkeys. However, these and other findings suggest that human and simian cortical organization may begin to differ in extrastriate cortex at, or beyond, V3A and V4. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8637882

  12. The spatial and temporal pattern of beta NGF receptor expression in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Raivich, G; Zimmermann, A; Sutter, A

    1985-01-01

    To gain insight into the developmental program of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor expression, the binding of [125I] beta NGF to frozen chick sections was investigated autorradiographically between embryonic day 3 (E3) and post-hatching day 3. Strong NGF receptor expression was observed as early as E4, throughout embryonic development and in the post-hatching period at the classical NGF target sites: the paravertebral sensory and sympathetic ganglia, the paraaortal sympathetic ganglia as well as the cranial sensory ganglia with neurons of neural crest origin and their respective nerves. Only weak [125I] beta NGF binding was observed during a restricted time span in the parasympathetic ciliary ganglion. Clear differences were observed in the intensity and in the developmental time course of [125I] beta NGF binding to the dorsomedial and ventrolateral aspects of the dorsal root ganglia. NGF receptors were also found to be expressed on central axons of the dorsal root entry zone and the dorsal tract in the spinal cord. A transient expression of specific NGF binding sites of the same high affinity as measured at the classical NGF targets, was detected in the lateral motor column and in muscle at the time of motoneuron synapse formation and elimination. Images Fig. 1.,Fig. 2., Fig. 3 Fig. 4.,Fig. 5., Fig. 6. Fig. 7., Fig. 8. PMID:2988932

  13. Percutaneous transhepatic management of complex biliary problems.

    PubMed Central

    Zuidema, G D; Cameron, J L; Sitzmann, J V; Kadir, S; Smith, G W; Kaufman, S L; White, R I

    1983-01-01

    A series of 27 patients with complex biliary problems secondary to previous biliary operations is presented. The patients are divided into two groups: (1) patients with acute perioperative biliary problems; all had biliary leak with abscess, biliary cutaneous fistula, and/or stricture following cholecystectomy or common duct exploration and (2) patients with chronic postoperative biliary problems; all had previous repair of biliary stricture or injuries with late stricture formation. Early management of all patients included placement of a percutaneous biliary stent. Abscesses were drained operatively, and biliary leaks or fistulas were allowed to close spontaneously. Jaundice and cholangitis were allowed to resolve. Following stabilization, management of stricture, if present, was addressed. Eight acute patients had strictures, of which four were partial and three were dilated percutaneously. Four were complete and required operative repair. All 12 chronic patients had strictures, of which six were partial and successfully managed with percutaneous dilatation. Four patients also had common duct stones which were successfully crushed percutaneously. The authors conclude that percutaneous transhepatic drainage offers significant advantages in the early stabilization and treatment of patients with complex biliary problems, and that partial strictures of the biliary tree may be managed successfully by percutaneous dilatation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:6847278

  14. The Implantable Cardiac Pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, A. S.; Heimbecker, R. O.; Bigelow, W. G.

    1964-01-01

    The transistorized implanted pacemaker is proving to be an effective and reliable method for long-term pacing of the heart. All patients suffering from Stokes-Adams seizures were first given a trial period of conservative therapy, including isoproterenol (Isuprel), ephedrine, atropine and steroids. Twenty-four pacemaker implants were performed on 23 patients over a 21-month period. The preoperative insertion of a pacemaker cardiac catheter was a very valuable safety precaution. In this way the heart could be safely and reliably paced during the period of preoperative assessment and during the critical periods of anesthetic induction and thoracotomy. Infection did not occur, probably because of careful gas sterilization of the units. Various models of pacemakers are compared, and the reasons for two pacemaker failures are presented. There were two early deaths and one late death in the series. The relationship of progressive coronary disease to recent infarction is stressed. Patients having intermittent heart block frequently showed the picture of “competing pacemakers” postoperatively, but without deleterious effect. Twenty patients, between 54 and 88 years of age, are alive and well at the time of reporting, with excellent pacemaker response and no further Stokes-Adams attacks. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14118681

  15. A morphological study of experimental rabbit staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis. I. Formation and effect of infected and uninfected vegetations on the aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; McColm, A. A.; Savage, T. J.; Ryan, D. M.; Acred, P.

    1986-01-01

    In this study the development of sterile thrombic vegetations on the aorta resulting from catheterization and the effect of subsequent infection with Staphylococcus aureus were examined by light and electron microscopy. Thrombi of various sizes, comprising fibrin, platelets and a few leucocytes and erythrocytes, develop on the damaged surface of the aorta with minimal changes in the underlying aortic wall. After intravenous inoculation of Staph. aureus most vegetations become infected, as shown by the presence of bacterial colonies, and the underlying aortic wall is markedly inflamed. The inflammatory cells invade the wall from the base of the aorta and cause swelling plus disruption of the elastic laminae with ulceration of the luminal surface in some cases. This structural damage appears to be a direct result of the bacterial infection of the lesions on the luminal surface. Images Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3790427

  16. Targeted overexpression of androgen receptor with a liver-specific promoter in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, B; Song, C S; Jung, M H; Chen, S; Walter, C A; Herbert, D C; Weaker, F J; Mancini, M A; Roy, A K

    1996-01-01

    The rodent liver displays marked age- and sex-dependent changes in androgen sensitivity due to the sexually dimorphic and temporally programmed expression of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We have altered this normal phenotype by constitutive overexpression of the rat AR transgene in the mouse liver by targeting it via the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (hPAH) gene promoter. These transgenic animals in their heterozygous state produce an approximately 30-fold higher level of the AR in the liver as compared with the nontransgenic control. Androgen inactivation via sulfonation of the hormone by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DST), an androgen-repressible enzyme, also contributes to the age- and sex-dependent regulation of hepatic androgen sensitivity. DST has a broad range of substrate specificity and is responsible for the age- and sex-specific activation of certain polycyclic aromatic hepatocarcinogens as well, by converting them to electrophilic sulfonated derivatives. In the transgenic female, the hepatic expression of DST was approximately 4-fold lower than in normal females, a level comparable to that in normal males. The hPAH-AR mice will serve as a valuable model for studying the sex- and age-invariant expression of liver-specific genes, particularly those involved in the activation of environmental hepatocarcinogens such as the aromatic hydrocarbons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8570624

  17. TATA-binding protein and the retinoblastoma gene product bind to overlapping epitopes on c-Myc and adenovirus E1A protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hateboer, G; Timmers, H T; Rustgi, A K; Billaud, M; van 't Veer, L J; Bernards, R

    1993-01-01

    Using a protein binding assay, we show that the amino-terminal 204 amino acids of the c-Myc protein interact directly with a key component of the basal transcription factor TFIID, the TATA box-binding protein (TBP). Essentially the same region of the c-Myc protein also binds the product of the retinoblastoma gene, the RB protein. c-Myc protein coimmunoprecipitates with TBP in lysates of mammalian cells, demonstrating that the proteins are also complexed in vivo. A short peptide that spans the RB binding site of the E7 protein of human papilloma virus type 16 interferes with the binding of c-Myc to TBP. The same peptide also blocks binding of adenovirus E1A protein to TBP, suggesting that c-Myc and E1A bind to RB and TBP through overlapping epitopes. Furthermore, we show that binding of RB to E1A prevents association of E1A with TBP. Our data suggest that one of the functions of RB and RB-like proteins is to prevent interaction of viral and cellular oncoproteins, such as c-Myc and E1A, with TBP. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7690963

  18. An immunohistochemical study of the middle ear muscles of some carnivores and primates, with special reference to the IIM and slow-tonic fibre types.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A; Cerpenè, E; Rowlerson, A

    1983-01-01

    The middle ear muscles of several species of carnivores (cat, dog, fox, ferret and stone-marten) and some New World monkeys (Callithrix, Saimiri) and Old World monkeys (Cercopithecus, Macaca) were examined. The fibre type compositions of these muscles were determined by a combination of the standard histochemical myofibrillar ATPase method, and immunohistochemical techniques using myosintype-specific antisera. Immunohistochemically slow-tonic fibres were found in the stapedius muscles of only two carnivores, the ferret and stone-marten. In all the carnivores and the New World monkeys, tensor tympani muscle contained IIM, slow-tonic and slow-twitch fibres, but in the Old World monkeys it resembled stapedius muscle, and contained only Type I (slow-twitch) and IIA fibres. Thus, because all the species examined had IIM fibres in the jaw-closer muscles, this means that the common embryological origin of tensor tympani muscle and the jaw-closers does not necessarily result in tensor tympani muscle containing this fibre type even though IIM fibres occur only in first branchial arch muscles. This fact, together with other species differences in the fibre type composition of these muscles, shows that there is no typical composition of middle ear muscles in general, and suggests that the differences are related to very different functional requirements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6415024

  19. Spatial arrangement of the heart muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue in the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurlé, J M

    1994-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119

  20. Embryo resorption following administration of steroidal compounds to rats in mid pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, K; Kinson, G A; Rowsell, H C

    1986-01-01

    In the course of experiments on the effects of anabolic steroids on the myocardium of rat conceptuses, we found that subcutaneous implantation of 10 mg of estradiol, Dianabol or testosterone to rats in mid pregnancy, resulted in embryo resorption. Placental tissue was identified only in estradiol-treated rats which also demonstrated a large amount of serosanguineous fluid that dilated the horns considerably. The yellow nodules of placental attachment sites were represented histologically by cellular and vascular proliferations between the inner and outer layers of the myometrium. The nodular aggregates of cells had variable features according to the steroid administered. Neither decidual cells nor metrial glands that are reported to be the constituents of placental attachment sites were seen in our material. We conclude that anabolic steroids are potent agents for embryo resorption, and that the cells in the nodules of placental attachment sites are likely to be derived from the myometrium. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3742378

  1. Venous gangrene of the upper extremity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B M; Shield, G W; Riddell, D H; Snell, J D

    1985-01-01

    Gangrene of the hand associated with acute upper extremity venous insufficiency has been seen in four limbs in three patients treated at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. All three patients had life-threatening illnesses associated with diminished tissue perfusion, hypercoagulability, and venous injury. One patient progressed to above-elbow amputation, but venous thrombectomy in one limb and thrombolytic therapy in two others were successful in preventing major tissue loss. All three patients eventually died from their underlying illness. Thirteen previously reported patients with "venous gangrene" of the upper extremity have been analyzed. An underlying life-threatening illness was present in the majority of these patients (7/13, 54%) and, like the Vanderbilt series, amputations were frequent (7/13, 54%) and mortality (5/13, 38%) was high. This unusual form of ischemia appears to be produced by permutations of global circulatory stasis, subclavian or axillary vein occlusion, and peripheral venous thrombosis. Early, aggressive restoration of adequate cardiac output and thrombectomy and/or thrombolytic therapy may provide the best chance for tissue salvage and survival in this group of patients. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIGS. 6A and B. FIGS. 7A and B. FIG. 8. PMID:3977453

  2. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy of dog and guinea-pig hyaline articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D L; O'Connor, P; Oates, K

    1981-01-01

    Fifty seven blocks of cartilage excised from the femoral condyles of 20 beagle dogs, and whole lower ends of 5 guinea-pig femora, were examined at -195 degrees (78 K), by scanning electron microscopy. The unfixed tissue, taken into slushy nitrogen at -210 degrees (63 K), was not exposed to atmospheric air after quenching and remained fully hydrated throughout long periods of observation. Images susceptible to analysis were obtained from washed and from unwashed cartilage surfaces. Preliminary coating with gold or with aluminium, known to be possible without exposing cold cartilage surfaces to changes in temperature likely to cause water loss by sublimation, was valuable in minimising charging and in facilitating the recording of electron images at higher magnifications. Although examination was possible without coating, the resultant images were of low resolution. Microscopy revealed a pattern of secondary surface irregularities of tertiary elevations closely resembling those seen by the conventional scanning electron microscopy of fixed, dehydrated hyaline cartilage. However, the pattern of tertiary surface structures was predominantly that of elevations, not of hollows. Quaternary surface ridges were common on the surfaces of excised dog cartilage blocks and were not seen on the surfaces of guinea-pig cartilage which remained on the femoral condyles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7024225

  3. The fine structure of proliferating cartilage cells: structural changes in an experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Scheck, M; Parker, J; Sakovich, L

    1975-01-01

    Extensive development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and comparatively less developed Golgi membranes were seen in the cells of chondrocyte clusters which had formed in the vicinity of cartilage defects produced by intra-articular papain and cortisone injections. These cells frequently showed myelin-like membranous figures. These figures were seen either close to the cell membrane, or between cells, or connected to the nuclear envelope or the endoplasmic reticulum. The hypothesis is advanced that the myelin figures are made from redundant material which was not used for membrane formation. Cortisone, which is known to interfere with mitochondrial function and general metabolic processes, could have been responsible for the deficiency in membrane differentiation and transfer. This investigation was supported by grants from the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and from the Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee of the School of Medicine, Univeristy of California, San Francisco. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7, 8 and 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Figs. 16 and 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 PMID:1141047

  4. Pericellular mobilization of the tissue-destructive cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B, L, and S, by human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V Y; Zhang, Q Y; Weiss, S J

    1995-01-01

    Human macrophages are believed to damage host tissues in chronic inflammatory disease states, but these cells have been reported to express only modest degradative activity in vitro. However, while examining the ability of human monocytes to degrade the extracellular matrix component elastin, we identified culture conditions under which the cells matured into a macrophage population that displayed a degradative phenotype hundreds of times more destructive than that previously ascribed to any other cell population. The monocyte-derived macrophages synthesized elastinolytic matrix metalloproteinases (i.e., gelatinase B and matrilysin) as well as cysteine proteinases (i.e., cathepsins B, L, and S), but only the cathepsins were detected in the extracellular milieu as fully processed, mature enzymes by either vital fluorescence or active-site labeling. Consistent with these observations, macrophage-mediated elastinolytic activity was not affected by matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors but could be almost completely abrogated by inhibiting cathepsins L and S. These data demonstrate that human macrophages mobilize cysteine proteinases to arm themselves with a powerful effector mechanism that can participate in the pathophysiologic remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7731994

  5. Non-myelinated nerve fibres and their terminals in the sub-odontoblastic plexus of the feline dental pulp.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G R

    1980-01-01

    Serial thin sections of the coronal dental pulp of the cat's canine tooth were cut. Parts of the sub-odontoblastic neural plexus were photographed from 100 of the sections. The plexus consists of many slender, predominantly unmyelinated nerve fibres. Many axons are incompletely sheathed by their Schwann cell. Some axons leave the Schwann cell sheath and either end in the extracellar space or return to the Schwann cell after traveling a short distance. Several axons are often seen in close contact within a single invagination of the Schwann cell. They remain in contact for up to 7 micrometer.l Both Schwann cells and axons are see to branch in this region. These features may be characteristic of nerve fibres and terminals which respond to noxious stimuli. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7-8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:7410190

  6. Susceptibility of goats and calves after experimental inoculation or contact exposure to a Canadian strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides isolated from a goat.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S

    1983-01-01

    Transmissibility of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides infection from experimentally inoculated goats to other goats and calves was studied. Eight goats and six calves were housed in an 18 m2 room. Six of the goats were inoculated endobronchially with strain D44 isolated from a natural case of polyarthritis in Ontario. These six goats died within a week of Mycoplasma septicemia. The two contact goats or the six calves never showed signs of disease and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered from these animals. The contact goats and four calves were killed 25 days after exposure. They were all seronegative, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered at necropsy and none had pathomorphological changes attributable to this Mycoplasma. The two remaining calves were inoculated endobronchially with 10(9) CFU of strain D44 and observed for 20 days. They never showed signs of disease and did not have significant lesions at necropsy. Both developed a significant serological response to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, although this organism was not recovered during the experimental period or at necropsy. This study did not provide evidence for transmission of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides from endobronchially inoculated goats to contact goats or calves and endobronchially inoculated calves did not develop pneumonia. This would suggest that the infection of the goat population in Canada with this pathogen would not be a significant threat to the cattle population. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6365296

  7. Development of the vomeronasal organ in Rousettus leschenaulti (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae).

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, K P; Wible, J R; Karim, K B

    1996-01-01

    A functional vomeronasal organ (VNO) is known to be lacking in adult bats of the suborder Megachiroptera, family Pteropodidae, studied to date. However, whether the VNO every forms during ontogeny in megachiropterans has not been addressed. We report here on the development of the VNO in megachiropterans via study of 8 stages of rousette fruit bat Rousettus leschenaulti, ranging from an early limb bud embryo to a young specimen attached to the nipple. A vomeronasal primordium appears in the 4 youngest stages (7-14 mm crown-rump length), but there is no sign of any of the components of the vomeronasal system (neuroepithelial tube, nerves, sinuses, glands, or trough-like cartilage) in the septal region of the 4 oldest stages examined, or in the adult. Given the number of genera investigated to date and their taxonomic diversity, a conclusion that a VNO is entirely lacking in Megachiroptera seems reasonable. However, final confirmation awaits study of the additional 27 genera not yet reported (out of a total of 41). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8655399

  8. Ultrastructure of Leydig cells in human ageing testes.

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, R; Amat, P; Nistal, M; Martin, A

    1986-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of Leydig cells in elderly men revealed the following Leydig cell types: (1) ultrastructurally normal Leydig cells (46.2%); (2) Leydig cells either with multiple cytoplasmic or intranuclear Reinke crystals or with numerous para-crystalline inclusions (6.1%); (3) multivacuolated Leydig cells with the cytoplasm almost filled by lipid droplets (16.7%; (4) dedifferentiated Leydig cells with poor development of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and increased amounts of lipofuscin granules (22.3%); and (5) bi- or trinucleate Leydig cells (8.7%) showing either a normal (2.8%) or dedifferentiated (5.9%) cytoplasm. These results suggest an involution of Leydig cells with advancing age. A correlation between the proportion of altered Leydig cells and the decrease in testosterone and increase in luteinising hormone levels could be observed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Figs. 6-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693056

  9. A procedure for the harvesting of mammalian plasmodia*

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Avivah; Spira, Dan; Hamburger, Joseph

    1967-01-01

    Immunochemical research into the antigenic structure of a given disease agent presupposes the availability of undegraded antigen. Some types of immunochemical studies of plasmodia can be carried out with the intracellular parasites in situ in the host cell (for example, studies using the fluorescent antibody technique). In other techniques (such as double diffusion in gel, disc electrophoresis) the presence of host cell contaminants is undesirable, and these require to be reduced to a minimum. A method is described for harvesting mammalian (rodent, simian, and human) plasmodia. Plasmodia in the product are significantly concentrated as compared with the original samples. This point is particularly important in harvesting human plasmodia, in which parasitaemias tend to be very low. Significant reduction of red- and white-cell contaminants is achieved. Antigens in the cell-free plasmodial products obtained are apparently in their native state, and give replicable results in studies of double diffusion in gel, immunoelectrophoresis and disc electrophoresis, passive haemagglutination and vaccination. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4968349

  10. "Labrador lung": an unusual mixed dust pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Edstrom, H. W.; Rice, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Forty-eight workers involved for various periods from 1962 in mining and milling iron-containing rock in the Carol Lake area of western Labrador were found in late 1974 and early 1975 to have pneumoconiosis. Their annual chest roentgenograms demonstrated irregular nodular densities, and several revealed mild hilar lymphadenopathy or pleural thickening. All 48 workers were asymptomatic and had normal pulmonary function; their average age was 38 years. At work they had been exposed to high levels of dust containing iron, silica and anthophyllite, a type of asbestos. Lung biopsy specimens from 13 of them showed widespread focal fibrosis, large amounts of hemosiderin and silica and many ferruginous bodies; one ferruginous body was identified as having a core of anthophyllite. A granulomatous reaction was seen in two biopsy specimens and typical silicotic nodules were found in two others. The relatively brief exposure, especially in ones case (11 months), and the short latent interval before the development of the pneumoconiosis are reasons for concern for the health of iron ore workers. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:6277443

  11. The Possible Role of Hypnosis in Homograft Retention

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Sydney; Knight, Charles R.

    1965-01-01

    Hypnosis was used to alter body image in an attempt to enable a woman to retain a skin homograft from an unrelated male donor. The man also acted as a nonhypnotized control by receiving a homograft from the hypnotized woman. Oneinch square full-thickness skin homografts were exchanged between the upper arms of the two volunteers. The homograft on the arm of the woman is still viable after eight months; the homograft on the man was rejected within two weeks. A second experiment in which the same subject was told under hypnosis to reject the homograft failed to produce rejection. Definite conclusions are not yet justified. Among factors to be considered in the present case are an unusual compatibility, schizophrenia as an inhibitor of the rejection mechanism, hypnotically induced irreversible acceptance, or other unknown mechanisms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:14339293

  12. Membrane proteins in senescent erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Dale, G L

    1989-01-01

    The examination of erythrocyte senescence has been facilitated by recent advances in techniques for the isolation of aged red cells. One of these methods, which uses biotinylated rabbit erythrocytes, has been used to examine the state of membrane proteins in effete cells. These aged red cells were found to have normal ratios of alpha-spectrin and beta-spectrin as well as normal levels of ankyrin. The observation concerning ankyrin is particularly important due to the sensitivity of this protein to proteolysis and the postulated action of proteinases in the aging process. The senescent erythrocytes were also found to have an altered ratio of bands 4.1a and 4.1b without any apparent change in the total level of 4.1. In addition, the analysis of the aged cell membranes did not show any large-molecular-mass aggregated protein at the origin of the SDS/polyacrylamide gels, indicating a lack of transglutaminase activity in the senescence process for rabbit erythrocytes. These results indicate that aging of the rabbit erythrocyte is not accompanied by gross proteolytic degradation or transglutaminase-catalysed cross-linking of membrane components. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2522000

  13. Clinical evaluation of fibre-optic sigmoidoscopy employing the Olympus CF-SB colonoscope

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, P. R.; Branch, R. A.; Collins, C.; Espiner, H.; Read, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with large bowel disease were examined with the Olympus CF-SB fibreoptic colonoscope. With adequate bowel preparation and employing inhalational analgesia administered by a self-demand valve the whole sigmoid colon could be examined in the majority of patients within 30 minutes. In 23% of cases (12/51) the diagnosis was either made or confirmed by this procedure alone. Fibreoptic sigmoidoscopy is especially helpful in patients with either equivocal or failed barium enemas and is indicated in patients with unexplained rectal bleeding, extending the search for polyps and cancer, and studying patients with inflammatory bowel disease. About one quarter of biopsies taken from a flat mucosal surface with the Olympus flexible biopsy forceps may be insufficient for detailed histology due to their small size. For this reason multiple biopsies may be taken. Adequate biopsies were always obtained from projecting lesions and could be very accurately sited. Colour photography employing automatic exposure control is used to supplement the information obtained. It is concluded that fibreoptic sigmoidoscopy is a valuable additional investigation in selected patients with suspected disease of the large bowel and to date has been without complications. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:5315423

  14. Cell death in the embryonic brain of Gallotia galloti (Reptilia; Lacertidae): a structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, C M; Yanes, C M; Marrero, A; Perez, M A; Martin, J M

    1987-01-01

    In the striatum, thalamus and cerebellum of a Lacertid reptile, we have found three types of cellular death during embryonic development, both at the light and electron microscopic level. The first affects the undifferentiated neuro-epithelial cells and is commonest during the early stages (E. 32-E. 36). The second corresponds to the type of 'nuclear' death described in the bibliography and reaches a maximum in the middle embryonic period (E. 37-E. 39); nevertheless important variations were observed in different zones. The third is the same as the 'cytoplasmic' death type and appears in the perinatal stages. Phagocytosis involved in the elimination of dead cells is of two types. One is associated with early death and is carried out by undifferentiated neuro-epithelial cells. The other is carried out by microglial cells which appear around Stage 37. Much cellular debris was observed in the intermediate zone and this was associated with the second type of phagocytosis. In both cases lipid production was associated with the degenerative process. Comparison of the temporal cellular death pattern with synaptogenesis, gliogenesis and maturation of neuronal processes is consistent with the view that the various types of cellular death found by us had different causes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:3654326

  15. Atypical Teratomas of the Pineal

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, I.; Baxter, D. W.; Stratford, J. G.

    1963-01-01

    Atypical teratomas of the pineal were studied pathologically and clinically, and five illustrative cases are described. The results of three postmortem examinations are available, while two of the patients are living, one leading a normal life. Pathological verification revealed that two had suprasellar “ectopic” pinealomas. One neoplasm was located in the pineal (collicular) region. The histology of the tumours was identical, consisting of small cells resembling lymphocytes and large cells with prominent nucleoli and mitoses. This feature plus the midline location led to adoption of the term “atypical teratoma”. Patients with collicular pinealomas presented with headache, vomiting, papilledema, Parinaud's syndrome and, rarely, nystagmus retractorius. Diabetes insipidus, visual difficulty and hypopituitarism were characteristic features in those with suprasellar neoplasms. Treatment of collicular pinealoma has consisted of the use of a palliative shunt followed by a course of radiation. Chiasmal decompression and radiation have produced favourable results in patients with suprasellar pinealoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:20327617

  16. Nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts before and after DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, C; Gutierrez, C; Burhans, W C; DePamphilis, M L; Koller, T; Sogo, J M

    1990-01-01

    Protein-free DNA in a cytosolic extract supplemented with SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag), is assembled into chromatin structure when nuclear extract is added. This assembly was monitored by topoisomer formation, micrococcal nuclease digestion and psoralen crosslinking of the DNA. Plasmids containing SV40 sequences (ori- and ori+) were assembled into chromatin with similar efficiencies whether T-Ag was present or not. Approximately 50-80% of the number of nucleosomes in vivo could be assembled in vitro; however, the kinetics of assembly differed on replicated and unreplicated molecules. In replicative intermediates, nucleosomes were observed on both the pre-replicated and post-replicated portions. We conclude that the extent of nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts is not dependent upon DNA replication, in contrast to previous suggestions. However, the highly sensitive psoralen assay revealed that DNA replication appears to facilitate precise folding of DNA in the nucleosome. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2167837

  17. Immunological studies of human placentae: complement components in immature and mature chorionic villi.

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, W P; Jarret, R; Keane, M; Johnson, P M; Boackle, R J

    1980-01-01

    The localization and distribution of complement components in term and pre-term normal human placentae have been studied by using haemadsorption and immunofluorescence experiments. The components Clq, C4, C5, C6 and C9 were identified in characteristic locations. Receptors for C3 and C4 were not found. Complement was associated with certain stromal cells, areas of fibrinoid necrosis within the trophoblastic mantle, and in the walls and endothelia of foetal stem vessels. Activation of the complement system on trophoblastic basement membranes (TBM) did not appear to involve the early reacting components of the classical pathway of complement activation, because C1q, C4 and C2 could not be identified on TBM. The C6 component was identified within cytoplasmic granules of foetal stem vessel endothelia, suggesting that it may be synthesized by these cells. These findings put forward the possibility that complement may play an immunobiological role in the materno-foetal relationship during normal human pregnancy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7002386

  18. Isoform-specific interaction of the alpha1A subunits of brain Ca2+ channels with the presynaptic proteins syntaxin and SNAP-25.

    PubMed Central

    Rettig, J; Sheng, Z H; Kim, D K; Hodson, C D; Snutch, T P; Catterall, W A

    1996-01-01

    Presynaptic Ca2+ channels are crucial elements in neuronal excitation-secretion coupling. In addition to mediating Ca2+ entry to initiate transmitter release, they are thought to interact directly with proteins of the synaptic vesicle docking/fusion machinery. Here we report isoform-specific, stoichiometric interaction of the BI and rbA isoforms of the alpha1A subunit of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels with the presynaptic membrane proteins syntaxin and SNAP-25 in vitro and in rat brain membranes. The BI isoform binds to both proteins, while only interaction with SNAP-25 can be detected in vitro for the rbA isoform. The synaptic protein interaction ("synprint") site involves two adjacent segments of the intracellular loop connecting domains II and III between amino acid residues 722 and 1036 of the BI sequence. This interaction is competitively blocked by the corresponding region of the N-type Ca2+ channel, indicating that these two channels bind to overlapping regions of syntaxin and SNAP-25. Our results provide a molecular basis for a physical link between Ca2+ influx into nerve terminals and subsequent exocytosis of neurotransmitters at synapses that have presynaptic Ca2+ channels containing alpha1A subunits. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692999

  19. Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans from sclera examined by rotary shadowing and electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, N P; Scott, J E; Cöster, L

    1987-01-01

    Two dermatan sulphate-containing proteoglycans from bovine sclera were examined by rotary shadowing and electron microscopy, and the results were compared with previous biochemical findings. Both the large iduronate-poor proteoglycan (PGI) and the small iduronate-rich proteoglycan (PGII) possessed a globular proteinaceous region. Whereas PGI had a branched extension from the globular region, with five to eight side chains attached to it, PGII had only a single tail, which was of glycosaminoglycuronan. PGII aggregated via globular-region interactions, which were much diminished by reduction and alkylation. PGI aggregated via side chains and globular-region interactions. Although a few PGI aggregates were large, and similar to the hyaluronan-cartilage proteoglycan aggregates [Weidemann, Paulsson, Timpl, Engel & Heinegård (1984) Biochem. J. 224, 331-333], hyaluronan did not cause enhanced aggregation. PGII is very similar in shape to the small cartilage chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, whereas PGI somewhat resembles the large cartilage chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, although with many fewer glycosaminoglycan side chains, and probably only one globular region as opposed to two in the cartilage proteoglycan. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3593274

  20. Mechanical exsufflation, noninvasive ventilation, and new strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation and sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Manual and mechanical exsufflation are important but underutilized ways to clear airway secretions. These methods are especially useful when used in concert with noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance to facilitate extubation and ventilator weaning. This can be used as much as 24 hours a day as an alternative to tracheostomy ventilation or body ventilator use for patients with paralytic restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. These techniques expedite community management of ventilator assisted individuals by avoiding tracheostomy and need for invasive suctioning and ongoing wound care. For these techniques to be effective and to prevent further suppression of ventilatory drive, supplemental oxygen administration must be avoided unless pO2 is less than 60 mm Hg despite normalization of pCO2. Custom molded interfaces for the delivery of noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance can also be used to facilitate the delivery of variable inspiratory expiratory positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance or body ventilator use can rest the respiratory muscles of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This and pulmonary rehabilitation programs geared to exercise reconditioning are therapeutic options that significantly improve the quality of life of these patients. For both paralytic restrictive and obstructive pulmonary patients, these techniques decrease cost and frequency of hospitalizations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1586868

  1. Nodule-Specific Polypeptides from Effective Alfalfa Root Nodules and from Ineffective Nodules Lacking Nitrogenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Lang-Unnasch, Naomi; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to leghemoglobin, at least nine nodule-specific polypeptides from the alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Rhizobium meliloti symbiosis were identified by immune assay. Some of these polypeptides may be subunits of larger proteins but none appeared to be subunits of the same multimeric protein. All nine of the nodule-specific polypeptides were localized to within the plant cytosol; they were not found in extracts of bacteroids or in the peribacteroid space. At least one of these nodule-specific polypeptides was found to be antigenically related to nodule-specific polypeptides in pea and/or soybean. Ineffective nodules elicited by R. meliloti strains containing mutations in four different genes required for nitrogenase synthesis contained reduced concentrations of leghemoglobin and of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. Other nodule-specific polypeptides were unaltered or actually enriched in the ineffective nodules. Many of the differences between the ineffective and effective nodules were apparent in nodules harvested shortly after the nodules became visible. These differences were greatly amplified in older nodules. When the four ineffective nodule types were compared to one another, there were clear quantitative differences in the concentrations of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. These differences suggest that lack of a functional nitrogenase does not have a single direct effect on nodule development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664146

  2. A major thyroid hormone response element in the third intron of the rat growth hormone gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sap, J; de Magistris, L; Stunnenberg, H; Vennström, B

    1990-01-01

    The rat growth hormone (RGH) gene constitutes a well-documented model system for the direct regulation of transcription by thyroid hormones. In order to analyse its interaction with sequences in the RGH gene, we have overproduced the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (c-erbA) protein using a vaccinia virus expression system. The expressed protein bound T3 and DNA-cellulose with expected affinities, and the major binding site for the receptor protein was found to be located in the third intron of the RGH gene. This site displayed significantly higher affinity for the receptor protein than a previously described thyroid hormone response element (TRE) in the promoter of this gene, and also conferred stronger hormone responsiveness in vivo to a heterologous promoter. The data suggest that this novel TRE plays a major role in the regulation of rat growth hormone gene expression by thyroid hormones. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2155782

  3. Neural tube defects and abnormal brain development in F52-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M; Chen, D F; Sasaoka, T; Tonegawa, S

    1996-01-01

    F52 is a myristoylated, alanine-rich substrate for protein kinase C. We have generated F52-deficient mice by the gene targeting technique. These mutant mice manifest severe neural tube defects that are not associated with other complex malformations, a phenotype reminiscent of common human neural tube defects. The neural tube defects observed include both exencephaly and spina bifida, and the phenotype exhibits partial penetrance with about 60% of homozygous embryos developing neural tube defects. Exencephaly is the prominent type of defect and leads to high prenatal lethality. Neural tube defects are observed in a smaller percentage of heterozygous embryos (about 10%). Abnormal brain development and tail formation occur in homozygous mutants and are likely to be secondary to the neural tube defects. Disruption of F52 in mice therefore identifies a gene whose mutation results in isolated neural tube defects and may provide an animal model for common human neural tube defects. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8700893

  4. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  5. The ultrastructure of the sensory nerve endings in the articular capsule of the knee joint of the domestic cat (Ruffini corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles).

    PubMed Central

    Halata, Z

    1977-01-01

    Two types of mechanoreceptor have been found in the articular capsule of the knee joint of the domestic cat--Ruffini corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. Ruffini corpuscles are situated in the stratum fibrosum and consist of 2 to 6 cylinders. Each cylinder is made up of an afferent axon (diameter 3-4 micrometer), its swellings and terminal processes, Schwann cells enveloping the nerve swellings and terminal processes, endoneural connective tissue and a perineural capsule. The perineural capsule is incomplete in Ruffini corpuscles. The Pacinian corpuscles are 20 to 40 micrometer wide and 150-250 micrometer long. They are situated in groups of up to five at the boundary between the stratum synoviale and the stratum fibrosum. The afferent axon is myelinated (diameter 3-5 micrometer). Its terminal portion is inside the inner bulb which is formed of modified Schwann cells. Each corpuscle is enveloped by a perineural capsule (4-8 layers). The ultrastructure of the Pacinian corpuscles is compared with the ultrastructure of the skin receptors in the cat. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:604339

  6. Expression of T cell receptors by thymocytes: in situ staining and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Cristanti, A; Colantoni, A; Snodgrass, R; von Boehmer, H

    1986-01-01

    We have examined the in situ expression of T cell receptor (TCR) V beta 8 protein in murine thymus during ontogeny using the monoclonal antibody F23.1. Positive cells were first detected at day 15 of gestation (0.6%). By day 16 the frequency of positive cells increased dramatically (4.18%). From day 16 to day 17 positive cells doubled (8.17%). The first clusters of F23.1 positive cells were seen at day 17. In the cortex, positive cells decreased from 14% in the newborn mice to 9.8% in 8-week-old mice, whereas in the medulla the frequency remained unchanged at 20%. The antibody F23.1, as well as an antiserum raised against the constant region of the beta chain, immunoprecipitated receptor dimers from highly purified Lyt2+, L3T4+ thymocytes and from two thymic lymphomas of cortical phenotype which express full size alpha and beta mRNA. The receptor dimer could not be precipitated from Lyt2-, L3T4- thymocytes. The results are discussed with regard to intrathymic T cell repertoire selection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2431899

  7. New surgical concepts resulting from cranio-orbito-facial surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Edgerton, M T; Jane, J A; Berry, F A; Marshall, K A

    1975-01-01

    The authors have defined the subspecialty of craniofacial surgery and described the organization of the multi-disciplinary team required to care for such patients. Common features of the craniofacial patient have been summarized and three major categories of patients have been proposed. These are: I. Syndromes associated with hypertelorism; II. Syndromes associated with premature synostoses or growth arrests; III. Syndromes associated with primarily mid- and lower face anomalies. Growing out of an experience with 242 operations on 106 patients, the authors have listed 9 relatively new surgical "principles." Each has led to a current surgical approach that is now being employed by the craniofacial team at The University of Virginia. A number of examples are given to show ways in which the lessons learned from the craniofacial patients are now being applied, with improved results, to patients with neoplasms, traumatic injuries, or other conditions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. Fig. 22. PMID:1099994

  8. Serological classification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, M R; Buchanan, T M; Sandström, E G; Holmes, K K; Knapp, J S; Siadak, A W; Nowinski, R C

    1982-01-01

    Hybrid cells producing monoclonal antibodies against antigens of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were obtained by the polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of mouse myeloma cells and lymphocytes from mice immunized with gonococcal protein I or outer membrane proteins. From four fusions, 16 phenotypically stable, independently cloned hybrid cell lines were selected for continued study. Each of the cell lines produced a characteristically different monoclonal antibody which reacted in immunoprecipitation assays with a unique antigenic determinant on protein I of the outer membrane complex of the bacteria. In antibody binding, immunofluorescence, and coagglutination assays these antibodies each reacted with a restricted group of N. gonorrhoeae strains. None of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with 17 other different species of Neisseria or with Branhamella catarrhalis. When tested on 34 N. gonorrhoeae reference serotyping strains, the monoclonal antibodies demonstrated serological relationships between the strains which paralleled those observed with conventional polyvalent antisera. These antibodies now provide standardized reagents for the rapid and precise serological characterization of many strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:6807844

  9. Nonhepatic Thioacetamide Injury

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Edward A.; Smuckler, Edward A.

    1974-01-01

    Thioacetamide given orally to rats produces centrolobular hepatic necrosis and also causes death of the cells in the terminal portion of the proximal renal tubule. The morphologic changes observed during the course of the renal toxicity include the early and transient appearance of apical dense bodies, which appear to fuse to form large lysosomes, and the appearance of nucleolar hypertrophy, reminiscent of the same change seen in the hepatocytes. In addition a variety of changes described in lethally injured tubular cells in other toxicities appear. A diuresis, which lasts for 5 days, coincides with the appearance of tubular cell destruction. The mechanism of cell injury due to thioacetamide is not identified, but the temporal sequence of morphologic and physiologic change is consistent with both a relative concentration of the thioacetamide in the proximal tubule and its potential conversion to a putative proximate toxin. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:4814902

  10. Disruption of prosomes by some bivalent metal ions results in the loss of their multicatalytic proteinase activity and cancels the nuclease resistance of prosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nothwang, H G; Coux, O; Bey, F; Scherrer, K

    1992-01-01

    Prosomes are ribonucleoprotein particles constituted by a variable set of about 20 proteins found associated with untranslated mRNA. In addition, they contain a small RNA, the presence of which has been an issue of controversy for a long time. The intact particles have a multicatalytic proteinase (MCP) activity and are very stable; we have never observed autodigestion of the particle by its intrinsic proteinase activity. Surprisingly it was found that Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions at concentrations of 0.1-1 mM disrupt the prosome particles isolated from HeLa cells and duck erythroblasts and abolish instantaneously its MCP activity, without altering the two-dimensional electrophoretic pattern of the constituent proteins. Fe2+, however, seems to induce autodegradation rather than dissociation of the prosome constituents. Most interestingly, protein or oligopeptide substrates protect the particle and its proteinase activity from disruption by Zn2+ or Cu2+. Nuclease-digestion assays reveal that the prosomal RNA, which is largely resistant in the intact particle, becomes digestible after dissociation of prosomes by Zn2+. These data give, for the first time, unambiguous proof of the presence of an RNA in the particle. Furthermore, they demonstrate a structure-function relationship between the complex and its enzyme activity, which seems to be based on the particle as an entity and not on the single constituent proteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:1445237

  11. Early Pathological Changes Associated with Fasciola hepatica Infection in White-tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Presidente, P. J. A.; McCraw, B. M.; Lumsden, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with 1000 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica and examined on days 7, 14, and 28 postinoculation to determine the early response of a resistant host to this infection. It was concluded that only small numbers of the metacercariae penetrated the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. Flukes that migrated to the liver penetrated through Glisson's capsule, primarily on the parietal surface. Marked fibroplasia and cellular infiltration of the capsule were induced and flukes were killed and destroyed in granulomas immediately beneath the capsule. Migration in hepatic parenchyma was minimal and immature flukes or migratory tracks were not found. There were infiltrations of eosinophils and mononuclear cells, bile duct hyperplasia and fibroplasia in portal areas. A few flukes penetrated through the diaphragm within 14 days postinoculation and on day 28 granulomas were observed on the dorsal surface of the lung where F. hepatica had penetrated this organ. The early reaction of Glisson's capsule to F. hepatica infection in white-tailed deer has not been described in cattle, sheep or swine infected with this fluke. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:4277445

  12. An abundant and ubiquitous homo-oligomeric ring-shaped ATPase particle related to the putative vesicle fusion proteins Sec18p and NSF.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J M; Walsh, M J; Franke, W W

    1990-01-01

    We have discovered a ring-shaped particle of 12.5 nm diameter, 14.5S and apparent molecular weight of approximately 570,000 that displays 6-fold radial symmetry and is composed of a single kind of an acidic (pI approximately 5.5) polypeptide of Mr 97,000 (p97). Using antibodies to this protein we have detected its occurrence in a wide range of cells and tissues of diverse species from frog to man, including highly specialized cells such as mammalian erythrocytes and spermatozoa. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, the particle is found in both isolated nuclei and in manually enucleated ooplasms, which corresponds to immunofluorescence staining dispersed over both nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The particle has a N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-inhibitable Mg2(+)-ATPase activity, and its amino acid sequence, as deduced from cDNA clones, displays considerable homology to the mammalian NEM-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and yeast Sec18p believed to be essential for vesicle fusion in secretory processes, indicating that these three proteins belong to the same multigene family. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2140770

  13. Intrapulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: ultrastructural features.

    PubMed Central

    Oghiso, Y.; Kagan, E.; Brody, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Although all commercial types of asbestos can cause pulmonary fibrosis, little is known about ultrastructural differences in the evolution of pulmonary lesions induced by amphiboles and serpentines. The present study was designed to compare the histological and ultrastructural effects produced by chronic inhalation of either crocidolite (amphibole) or chrysotile (serpentine) asbestos in the rat. Animals, exposed by intermittent inhalation for 3 months, were killed after 2 to 16 months. When inhaled, both types of asbestos caused thickened alveolar duct bifurcations associated with macrophage aggregates. Crocidolite inhalation also produced subpleural collections of alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed some similarities, but also distinct differences, in the pulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite. Whereas both asbestos varieties were identified within the pulmonary interstitium, only crocidolite was detected inside alveolar macrophages. Chrysotile fibres were seen infrequently within the vascular compartment. Microcalcifications were noted after chrysotile inhalation, but were never observed following crocidolite exposure. Both asbestos types induced slight pulmonary fibrosis. These findings indicate that crocidolite and chrysotile produce different pathogenetic features, although both are fibrogenic. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:6087872

  14. Evaluation of Filters for Removal of Bacteriophages from Air1

    PubMed Central

    Washam, C. J.; Black, C. H.; Sandine, W. E.; Elliker, P. R.

    1966-01-01

    Glass wool, nonabsorbent cotton, fiberglass filter medium, and a commercial absolute filter were tested for effectiveness in removing aerosolized bacterial viruses under low flow rate (1 ft3/min) and high flow rate (10 to 25 ft3/min) air-flow conditions. Special equipment was designed for measurement of filter efficiencies under the two air-flow conditions. Under low air-flow rate test conditions, glass wool was only 98.543 to 99.83% efficient, whereas cotton (five layers), fiberglass medium (three layers), and the commercial absolute filter were at least 99.900, 99.999, and 99.999 efficient, respectively. Glass wool and cotton were not used under higher air-flow conditions because they were difficult to assemble in leak-tight filters. The commercial absolute filter and fiberglass medium (three layers) were at least 99.990 and 99.999% efficient, respectively, under the higher air flow conditions. A stainless-steel filter of simple design and fitted with three layers of fiberglass medium was found to be greater than 99.999% efficient in removing high concentrations (20,000 to 70,000 plaque-forming units per cubic foot) of aerosolized bacteriophages from air moving at a low flow rate (1 ft3/min). Use of this filter on pressure-vacuum tanks in the fermentation industry is suggested. Several other uses of such a filter are proposed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:5927020

  15. Photoregulated gene expression may involve ubiquitous DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, U; Cashmore, A R

    1990-01-01

    Several promoter elements have previously been shown to influence the expression of the cab-E gene in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Here we demonstrate, by electrophoretic mobility shift and methylation interference assays, that a complex pattern of protein-DNA interactions characterizes this promoter. Among the multiple proteins identified, we focused on five different factors which either occupied important regulatory elements and/or were present in relatively large amounts in nuclear extracts. All of these proteins were distinguished on the basis of their recognition sequence and other biochemical parameters. One, GBF, interacted with a single sequence within the cab-E promoter homologous to the G-box found in many photoregulated and other plant promoters. A second factor, GA-1, bound to the GATA element which is located between the CAAT and TATA boxes of the cab-E and all other LHCII Type I CAB promoters. GA-1 also interacted in vitro with the I-boxes of the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter and the as-2 site of the CaMV 35S promoter. Two other factors, GC-1 and AT-1, bound to multiple recognition sites localized within the GC-rich and AT-rich elements, respectively. GT-1, a protein which interacts with promoters of other light-regulated genes, bound to seven distinct sites distributed throughout the cab-E promoter. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 PMID:2209551

  16. Formation of synapses in cerebellar explants by axons from co-cultured medulla.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, M M

    1990-01-01

    Explants of cerebellum from E12-E14 chick embryos were co-cultured with pieces of medulla from the same embryos for periods of up to 4 weeks and examined by EM with or without prior transection of the fibre bundles that formed rapidly between the co-cultured explants. The cerebellar explants developed a rich and complex neuropil within which a variety of presynaptic endings could be recognised, including some resembling climbing fibre endings and some mossy fibre endings. Four to six hours after transection of linking fibre bundles about 5% of preterminal and terminal profiles were undergoing intense degeneration indicating their origin from cell bodies in the adjacent explant of medulla and showing that most of the synaptic contacts are of intrinsic origin. The degenerating terminals contained spherical synaptic vesicles and made Gray Type I synaptic contacts. They appeared to be predominantly small-medium sized en passant terminals from long, thin, branched preterminal axons, and most closely resembled climbing fibre terminals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7-8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2074232

  17. Electron microscopic studies of macrophages in Wallerian degeneration of rat optic nerve after intravenous injection of colloidal carbon.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1978-01-01

    The origin of macrophages in the degenerating optic nerve of rats after eye enucleation was investigated electron microscopically following intravenous labelling of mononuclear leucoytes with colloidal carbon. In the various post-operative periods studied carbon-labelled macrophages were seen at the site of lesion. At 4 and 7 days after enucleation carbon-labelled cells were seen at the site of Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve over 4 mm distal to the site of the lesion. In the electron microscope these cells showed a flattened nucleus bearing coarse chromatin clumps, their cytoplasm contained a prominent Golgi complex and long isolate profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Clusters of carbon particles in the cytoplasms were membrane-bound. Lysosomal bodies embedded with carbon particles were also observed. In relation to the blood vessels of the optic nerve, endothelial cells and pericytes with ingested carbon were seen. Macrophages in the meninges covering the optic nerve were also labelled. The results suggest that some macrophages in the region of Wallerian degeneration in the optic nerve, as well as those at the actual site of the lesion, were transformed blood leucocytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:649492

  18. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  19. A scanning electron microscope study of the pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans): possible involvement of melanosomes in protecting the pecten against damage by ultraviolet light.

    PubMed Central

    Kiama, S G; Bhattacharjee, J; Maina, J N; Weyrauch, K D

    1994-01-01

    The pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans), a diurnally active bird of prey, has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. In this species the pecten consists of 12 highly vascularised pleats, held together apically by a heavily pigmented 'bridge' and projects freely into the vitreous body in the ventral part of the eye cup. Ascending and descending blood vessels of varying calibre, together with a profuse network of capillaries, essentially constitute the vascular framework of the pecten. A distinct distribution of melanosomes is discernible on the pecten, the concentration being highest at its apical end, moderate at the crest of the pleats and least at the basal and lateral margins. Overlying and within the vascular network, a close association between blood vessels and melanocytes is evident. It is conjectured that such an association may have evolved to augment the structural reinforcement of this nutritive organ in order to keep it firmly erectile within the gel-like vitreous. Such erectility may be an essential prerequisite for its optimal functioning, as well as in its overt use as a protective shield against the effects of ultraviolet light, which otherwise might lead to damage of the pectineal vessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7649799

  20. Immune complex glomerulonephritis in experimental kala-azar. II: Detection and characterization of parasite antigens and antibodies eluted from kidneys of Leishmania donovani-infected hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, A; Roque-Barreira, M C; Coe, J; Campos-Neto, A

    1992-01-01

    In a previous report analysing kidney sections by immunofluorescence we showed that hamsters infected with L. donovani develop a glomerulonephritis (GN) associated with deposition of hamster immunoglobulins and parasite antigens in the glomeruli. In this study we characterize these immune components eluted from the kidneys. The eluted immunoglobulins showed specificity for L. donovani antigens and hamster immunoglobulins (rheumatoid factor-like activity). The four isotypes IgG1, IgG2, IgA and IgM were detected. Several L. donovani antigens were detected in the renal eluates by Western blot and immunoprecipitation using 125I-labelled eluates. Proteins with mol. wt of 134, 82, 52, 31, and 26 kD were detected by Western blot and proteins with 134, 110, 93, 89 and 48 kD were detected by immunoprecipitation. With the exception of the 134 kD protein which was recognized by both rabbit anti-promastigote and rabbit anti-amastigote sera all the others were recognized only by the anti-amastigote serum. The 134 kD protein was the only one isolated from the kidneys of infected hamster immunocomplexed with IgG and was the only one detected in a promastigote lysate using IgG from L. donovani-infected hamsters. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1544224

  1. The orbital glands of the terrapin Pseudemys scripta in response to osmotic stress: a light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Baccari, G C; Minucci, S; Di Matteo, L

    1993-01-01

    The histochemical and ultrastructural features of both orbital glands--the anterior lacrimal and harderian glands--were compared in the terrapin Pseudemys scripta following adaptation either to distilled water or to seawater. Seawater adaptation activated the harderian gland and caused a major structural reorganisation. Type I cells increased in number, whereas type II cells became smaller and less numerous. The most striking change was shown by the type IV cells which display the features of a salt-secreting cell. This cell type increased in number and changed from a unicellular form to multicellular complexes. Transfer from fresh water to distilled water caused a decrease in alcianophilia in type I and type III glandular cells and degenerative phenomena were often seen in type I and type IV cells. The anterior lacrimal gland showed only minor changes either in distilled or seawater adapted terrapins. Transfer to distilled water also caused degenerative phenomena in the lacrimal gland. These results establish for the first time the involvement of the harderian gland of a terrapin in osmoregulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:8270473

  2. Systematic distribution of muscle fibre types in the rat and rabbit diaphragm: a morphometric and ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Kilarski, W; Sjöström, M

    1990-01-01

    The histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of the adult rat and rabbit costal diaphragm were investigated. On the basis of enzyme histochemistry, the rat diaphragm was found to contain 42% and 39% Type I, 24% and 25% Type II A and 33% and 34% Type II B fibres on the thoracic and abdominal surfaces respectively. The rabbit costal diaphragm contained 18% and 26% Type I, 46% and 39% Type II A and 35% and 34% Type II B fibres on the thoracic and abdominal surfaces respectively. Differences in the proportion of each muscle fibre type were also observed between diaphragmatic regions (ventral, medial and dorsal) in the rat as well as in the rabbit. Differences in muscle architecture were also noted on the basis of stereological analysis in estimation of volume density, surface density, numerical density and cross-sectional areas of each muscle fibre type. The fine structural analysis of all three fibre types also showed significant differences in the width of the A-bands and Z-lines between the muscle fibre types of the rat and rabbit costal diaphragm. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2139020

  3. Drosophila chaoptin, a member of the leucine-rich repeat family, is a photoreceptor cell-specific adhesion molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, D E; Zipursky, S L

    1990-01-01

    Drosophila chaoptin, required for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis, is a member of the leucine-rich repeat family of proteins. On the basis of biochemical and genetic analyses we previously proposed that chaoptin might function as a cell adhesion molecule. To test this hypothesis, chaoptin cDNA driven by the hsp 70 promoter was transfected into non-self-adherent Drosophila Schneider line 2 (S2) cells. Following heat shock induction of chaoptin expression, the transfected S2 cells formed multicellular aggregates. Mixing experiments of chaoptin expressing and non-expressing cells suggest that chaoptin expressing cells adhere homotypically. Previously it was shown that chaoptin is exclusively localized to photoreceptor cells. Thus, chaoptin is a cell-type-specific adhesion molecule. Biochemical analyses presented in this paper demonstrate that chaoptin is linked to the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane by covalent attachment to glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol. We propose that chaoptin and several other members of the leucine-rich repeat family of proteins define a new class of cell adhesion molecules. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2189727

  4. The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzing, J E

    1984-01-01

    The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species were studied by light and electron microscopy. The species studied were the honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus), the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and the agile wallaby (Macropus agilis). Glands were grouped and described according to their location. Those of general distribution (goblet cells and olfactory glands) were similar in structures and distribution in all specimens. Glands of the lateral nasal wall include the lateral nasal, maxillary sinus and turbinate glands. The lateral nasal and maxillary sinus glands were absent in the adult koala but occupied large areas in the other species. Turbinate glands were best developed rostrally and ventrally in the nasal cavity. On the nasal septum, Tarsipes and Isoodon had well developed glands associated with vascular 'swell bodies'. These were poorly developed to Macropus though septal glands were abundant. 'Swell bodies' were absent in Phascolarctos and glands were sparse. Tubular vomeronasal glands were present in all species and most extensive in Tarsipes. In Isoodon, there was a posterior ventral septal gland associated with the septal olfactory organ. The fine structural features of secretory cells and ducts are described and their potential role discussed in terms of chemoreception and temperature and humidity control. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6490535

  5. Insulin and rabbit anti-insulin receptor antibodies stimulate additively the intrinsic receptor kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ponzio, G; Dolais-Kitabgi, J; Louvard, D; Gautier, N; Rossi, B

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the properties of rabbit polyclonal antibodies directed against purified human insulin receptor which strongly stimulate the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. The stimulatory effect of the antibodies on the kinase activity was obtained on the insulin receptor autophosphorylation as well as on the kinase activity towards a synthetic substrate. This stimulation is additive to that induced by insulin. Moreover, rabbit antibodies do not impair insulin binding. These data strongly suggest that antibodies and insulin act through separate pathways. This conclusion is reinforced by the differences observed on the phosphopeptide maps of the receptor's beta subunit whose phosphorylation was performed either in the presence of insulin or rabbit antibodies. Interestingly, these polyclonal antibodies can also induce an activation of the receptor autophosphorylation by interacting only with extracellular determinants. The anti-insulin receptor antibodies mimic insulin in their stimulatory effect on amino acid (AIB) uptake, but they have a different effect to that found on the kinase activity; the simultaneous addition of the antiserum and insulin failed to stimulate this amino acid transport over the level induced by a saturating concentration of hormone. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3034584

  6. Mice lacking N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I activity die at mid-gestation, revealing an essential role for complex or hybrid N-linked carbohydrates.

    PubMed Central

    Ioffe, E; Stanley, P

    1994-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells require N-linked carbohydrates for survival. However, the biosynthetic intermediate Man5GlcNAc2Asn, in place of mature N-linked structures, allows glycoprotein synthesis and somatic cell growth to proceed normally. To determine whether the same would be true in a complex biological situation, the gene Mgat-1 was disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and transmitted to the germ line. The Mgat-1 gene encodes N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I [GlcNAc-TI; alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:glycoprotein (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to alpha-D-mannosyl-1,3-(R1)-beta-D-mannosyl-R2) beta-1,2-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.101], the transferase that initiates synthesis of hybrid and complex N-linked carbohydrates from Man5GlcNAc2Asn. Mice lacking GlcNAc-TI activity did not survive to term. Biochemical and morphological analyses of embryos from 8.5 to 13.5 days of gestation showed that Mgat-1-/-embryos are developmentally retarded, most noticeably in neural tissue, and die between 9.5 and 10.5 days of development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8290590

  7. An electron microscopical study of chronic ulcers of the colon in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic colonic ulcers in the rat were produced by the administration of a hydrogen peroxide enema. Lesions of up to 10 months' duration were obtained by this method and a selection was examined ultrastructurally. It was hoped that the study would reveal causes for the chronicity of the lesions. From previous work it appeared that there was no failure of epithelial migration from the edge of the wound. The majority of cells at the ulcer margins demonstrated features of regeneration similar to those seen in other tissues, and that there were no specific changes concomitant with chronic ulceration. The majority of epithelial cells at the ulcer edge showed features of differentiation which indicated that there was no obvious fault in this process so essential to the basic requirements of tissue repair. It is possible that chronicity is produced by a failure of the epithelio-mesenchymal interaction mechanisms which, potentiated by an ischaemia resulting from submucosal vascular damage, results in the consequential death of migrating epithelial cells. This hypothesis is supported by the appearance of a squamous metaplasia in the healing lesions, a process which is commonly attributed to a chronic inflammatory response which may be induced by a relative vascular insufficiency. Images Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:836769

  8. The new stem cell biology.

    PubMed Central

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem cells express a wide variety of adhesion and cytokine receptors and respond quickly with migration and podia extensions on exposure to cytokines. These data suggest an "Open Chromatin" model of stem cell regulation in which there is a fluctuating continuum in the stem cell/progenitor cell compartments, rather than a hierarchical relationship. These observations, along with progress in using low dose treatments and tolerization approaches, suggest many new therapeutic strategies involving stem cells and the creation of a new medical specialty; stemology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:12053709

  9. A histological and immunohistochemical study of the changes induced in the brains of white mice by infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Kittas, S.; Kittas, C.; Paizi-Biza, P.; Henry, L.

    1984-01-01

    The topography and the severity of the brain lesions induced in male and female white mice 1-6 weeks following inoculation with Toxoplasma gondii were studied by conventional histological and peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemical techniques. The medulla oblongata and fourth ventricle were the most severely damaged areas of the brain, while the cerebellum was only minimally involved in this only in the later stages of the disease. Toxoplasma cysts were revealed by the PAP method as early as 2 weeks after infection. The number of cysts and the severity of the lesions increased gradually each week following inoculation. The lymphoplasmacytic element in the lesions was less intense in male than in female mice. The significance of these findings in respect to the possible immunological pathogenesis of CNS toxoplasmic changes is discussed. A correlation of the experimental findings with the known neurologic manifestations of the disease is also attempted. The advantage of the PAP method in the study of toxoplasmic infection is stressed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6365146

  10. Ultrastructural study of macrophages in the rat thymus, with special reference to the cortico-medullary zone.

    PubMed Central

    Milićević, N M; Milićević, Z; Colic, M; Mujović, S

    1987-01-01

    Electron microscopic study of the normal rat thymus has demonstrated that macrophages with different ultrastructural features are positioned in the thymic cortex, in the cortico-medullary zone and in the medulla. Phagocytic cells, containing necrotic lymphocytes in various stages of degradation, are distributed throughout the thymic cortex. The cortico-medullary zone, in contrast, is populated with macrophages displaying specific ultrastructural features. These cells contain numerous vacuolar inclusions of different size, filled with homogeneous, flocculent material of very low electron density. The dense bodies, occasionally positioned to the inner side of the vacuolar membrane, selectively contrast with silver methenamine and contain polysaccharides, as demonstrated by the thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate method. Very rarely, these cells contain phagocytosed lymphocyte remnants. The predominant type of mononuclear phagocytic cells in the thymic medulla are the interdigitating cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3654343

  11. The Role of Surgery and Hyperalimentation in Therapy of Gastrointestinal-Cutaneous Fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Alfonso; Fischer, Josef E.; Welch, Claude E.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with external gastrointestinal fistulas arising from different levels of the gastrointestinal tract, observed and treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital, from December 1970 to April 1973, are analyzed. Surgical complications were the causes of fistulization in 77% of the cases. The treatment program included parenteral nutrition through a subclavian line in all cases. The 38 patients were fed parenterally for a total of 2311 days. Spontaneous fistula closure occurred in only 11 of the 38 patients. Surgical procedures were necessary in 71.05% of the cases to control fistula complications or persistent fistula drainage. Operative success rate was 70.4%. Parenteral nutrition effects on metabolic parameters, fistula secretion, nutritional status, morbidity and mortality of fistulas are discussed. Parenteral nutrition hazards are also presented. Overall mortality in this series was 21%. Roles of parenteral nutrition and surgery in the total management of external gastrointestinal fistulas are suggested. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4213479

  12. Stimulation of human monocytes with macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces a Grb2-mediated association of the focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK and dynamin.

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, S; Saleem, A; Yuan, Z; Emoto, Y; Prasad, K V; Kufe, D

    1995-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is required for the growth and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. In the present studies using human monocytes, we show that M-CSF induces interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with the focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK. The results demonstrate that tyrosine-phosphorylated pp125FAK directly interacts with the SH2 domain of Grb2. The findings indicate that a pYENV site at Tyr-925 in pp125FAK is responsible for this interaction. We also demonstrate that the Grb2-FAK complex associates with the GTPase dynamin. Dynamin interacts with the SH3 domains of Grb2 and exhibits M-CSF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation in association with pp125FAK. These findings suggest that M-CSF-induced signaling involves independent Grb2-mediated pathways, one leading to Ras activation and another involving pp125FAK and a GTPase implicated in receptor internalization. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7597091

  13. Elevated levels of a specific class of nuclear phosphoproteins in cells transformed with v-ras and v-mos oncogenes and by cotransfection with c-myc and polyoma middle T genes.

    PubMed Central

    Giancotti, V; Pani, B; D'Andrea, P; Berlingieri, M T; Di Fiore, P P; Fusco, A; Vecchio, G; Philp, R; Crane-Robinson, C; Nicolas, R H

    1987-01-01

    Transformation of a rat thyroid epithelial cell line (FRTL5-C12) with Kirsten and Harvey murine sarcoma viruses (carrying the ras oncogenes) results in elevated levels of three perchloric acid-soluble nuclear phosphoproteins. These three proteins are also induced to high levels in the PC-C13 thyroid epithelial cell line when transformed by the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (carrying the v-mos oncogene) and when transformed by transfection with the c-myc proto-oncogene followed by infection with the polyoma leukaemia virus (PyMuLV) carry the polyoma middle T antigen gene. Neither c-myc or PyMuLV alone induced high levels of the three nuclear proteins. Untransformed thyroid fibroblasts have high levels of two of the three proteins and can be transformed by PyMuLV alone resulting in the appearance of the third protein. Transformation with Harvey sarcoma virus also results in the induction of the third protein. The three phosphoproteins have been purified by h.p.l.c. and shown to be related to the HeLa protein HMGI already described. The results of these studies indicate that elevated levels of these HMGI-like proteins are associated with neoplastic transformation and/or with an undifferentiated phenotype. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2820715

  14. Scanning electron microscopy of the endometrium during the secretory phase.

    PubMed Central

    Motta, P M; Andrews, P M

    1976-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the rabbit endometrium during the secretory phase of the oestrous cycle. The free surfaces of ciliated and of inactive active secretory cells are described. Changes in secretory cell surface morphology resulting from accumulation and secretion of material involve the apparent retraction of microvilli and the formation of one or more bulbous protrusions of the cell's apical surface. These protrusions may be relatively smooth surfaced or exhibit long slender micro-extensions. The protrusions grow in size and are eventually pinched off. Loss of the bulbous protrusions often leaves behind crater-like invaginations of the cell's surface. Secretory cells adjacent to the endometrial glands are the first to exhibit signs of mucin accumulation and secretion. The single cilium of a secretory cell is not apparently affected by the secretory process. Signs of ciliated and secretory cell degeneration, and possible sloughing, are also described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1033932

  15. Experimental aflatoxicosis in swine: morphological and clinical pathological results.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D M; Stuart, B P; Crowell, W A

    1981-01-01

    The morphological changes in livers of 30 feeder pigs fed diets containing corn contaminated by aflatoxins (0.0 microgram aflatoxins/g feed, 0.4 microgram aflatoxin/g feed, and 0.8 microgram aflatoxin/g feed) were compared with changes in hematology, liver specific serum enzymes, serum proteins, and lymphocyte stimulation indices. Histologically, the livers were classified into five groups. Pigs fed the 0.8 microgram/g diets had the most severe histological lesions of karyomegaly, bile ductule proliferation and hepatocellular degeneration plus elevated gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. This group also had significantly lower total protein and albumin values compared to the control pigs. Variation in the severity of the histological lesions was seen in pigs fed 0.4 microgram/g diets as well as variation in lymphocyte indices, liver specific serum enzymes, and electrophoretic results in the affected pigs in that group. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:7337866

  16. Neuronal localization of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA in normal human brain and in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, M

    1987-01-01

    Clones for the amyloid beta protein precursor gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from the frontal cortex of a patient who had died with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease; they were used to investigate the tissue and cellular distribution of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA in brain tissues from control patients and from Alzheimer's disease patients. Amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA was expressed in similar amounts in all control human brain regions examined, but a reduction of the mRNA level was observed in the frontal cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease. By in situ hybridization amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA was present in granule and pyramidal cell bodies in the hippocampal formation and in pyramidal cell bodies in the cerebral cortex. No specific labelling of glial cells or endothelial cells was found. The same qualitative distribution was observed in tissues from control patients and from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Senile plaque amyloid thus probably derives from neurones. The tissue distribution of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA and its cellular localization demonstrate that its expression is not confined to the brain regions and cells that exhibit the selective neuronal death characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3322812

  17. The embryological development of primary visual centres in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J

    1993-01-01

    The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing into internal and external sheaves, are involved in the formation of the structures of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. The primary visual centres, which comprise 2 hypothalamic, 5 thalamic and 5 pretectal zones of retinal projections, together with the 2 superficial layers of the tectum and a single tegmental projection zone, all have their origin in the external sheaf of the 1st wave of migration. The finding that the adult nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, pars ventralis arises from one of the migrations of the dorsal thalamus is discussed in the context of the debate over the possible homologues of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 (cont.) Fig. 5 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 (cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 (cont.) Fig. 9 Fig. 10 (cont.) Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8300423

  18. Isolation of a class C transcription factor which forms a stable complex with tRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruet, A; Camier, S; Smagowicz, W; Sentenac, A; Fromageot, P

    1984-01-01

    A yeast extract was fractionated to resolve the factors involved in the transcription of yeast tRNA genes. An in vitro transcription system was reconstituted with two separate protein fractions and purified RNA polymerase C (III). Optimal conditions for tRNA synthesis have been determined. One essential component, termed tau factor, was partially purified by conventional chromatographic methods on heparin-agarose and DEAE-Sephadex; it sedimented as a large macromolecule in glycerol gradients (mol. wt. approximately 300 000). tau factor was found to form a stable complex with the tRNA gene in the absence of other transcriptional components. Complex formation is very fast, is not temperature dependent between 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C and does not require divalent cations. The factor-DNA complex is stable for at least 30 min at high salt concentration (0.1 M ammonium sulfate). These results indicate that gene recognition by a specific factor is a primary event in tRNA synthesis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6370678

  19. A novel mRNA and a low molecular weight polypeptide encoded in the transforming region of adenovirus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Katze, M G; Persson, H; Philipson, L

    1982-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation was used to identify adenovirus type 2 (ad2) tumor antigens synthesized in vivo. The antisera, prepared from tumor-bearing animals, reacted with a wide spectrum of ad2 early proteins including a 11 000-dalton (11 K) polypeptide. The gene for this polypeptide was mapped to the transforming region of the viral genome by hybridization selection followed by in vitro translation and immunoprecipitation. Hybrid arrest translation revealed that the 11 K RNA was transcribed from the leftward reading strand (1-strand) in contrast to other mRNAs from this region. Sucrose gradient analysis of the selected 11 K mRNA revealed that the size of the mRNA was 20S corresponding to approximately 2000 nucleotides. Novel 1-strand transcripts of this length from the transforming region were identified by S1 endonuclease analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that both strands of the transforming region of ad2 DNA are actively transcribed into functional mRNA early after viral infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6985356

  20. A cellular protein phosphorylated by the avian sarcoma virus transforming gene product is associated with ribonucleoprotein particles.

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, A P; Darlix, J L; Spahr, P F

    1983-01-01

    In chick embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) the tyrosine phosphorylation of a cellular protein of 34,000 daltons mol. wt. (34 kd) is greatly enhanced; this was shown to be catalyzed by the phosphotransferase activity of RSV transforming protein pp60src. We report here that in cytoplasmic extracts of both normal and transformed cells, in the presence of magnesium ions, the majority of the 34-kd protein is associated with large structures and that a fraction of 34 kd appears to be associated with ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). In addition, upon u.v. light cross-linking of RNA to protein in normal or transformed cells, an anti-34 kd serum immunoprecipitates RNA fragments of apparent low sequence complexity as detected by T1 fingerprint analysis. Our results indicate that the 34-kd protein may play a role in the cell at the level of RNPs. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:11894943

  1. The seeding of human aortic endothelial cells on the extra-cellular matrix of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    A post confluent layer (6th passage) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was treated with 3 mM ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) to expose the subendothelial extra-cellular matrix (ECM). Normal human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) harvested by mechanical scraping were seeded onto the ECM of the HUVECs. The cells quickly attached and proliferated with normal morphology. To ensure confluency the HAECs were pooled after a brief trypsin/EDTA incubation and seeded onto the ECM of the same HUVECs (6th passage) cell line. They attached within 2 hours, and the cells grew to confluence displaying cobblestone morphology characteristic of phenotypic endothelium. HUVECs (11th passage) were seeded onto (6th passage) HUVECs ECM. The cells attached, proliferated to confluence within the normal time interval (7-8 days) and were positively characterized. A Corvita 6mm graft supplied with a gelatin/heparin matrix was densely seeded with HUVECs (6th passage). These cells also proliferated to confluence. The implications for improving the design of arterial grafts are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1390196

  2. Human intestinal alkaline phosphatase-binding IgG in patients with severe bacterial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Mäder, M; Kolbus, N; Meihorst, D; Köhn, A; Beuche, W; Felgenhauer, K

    1994-01-01

    Patterns of alkaline phosphatase (AP)-binding proteins were observed in the alkaline pH range of 6.5-9.5 upon isoelectric focusing and blotting of serum from patients with inflammatory diseases. After isolation using affinity chromatography on protein A or immunoaffinity chromatography on AP coupled to cyanogen bromide (CNBr)-activated Sepharose, the AP-binding protein was identified as IgG on Western blots and in ELISA using human IgG-specific antibodies. It was shown that this IgG binds to AP from both calf (bovine) and human intestine. However, it binds neither to the human liver-bone-kidney (LBK) isoform nor to bacterial AP. Moderate reaction was observed with human placental AP. Comparing patients with various diagnoses (n = 284), AP-binding antibodies were mainly found in severe bacterial infections. They were not detected in serum from healthy blood donors (n = 300). The presence of AP-binding IgG was independent of the infected organ and the bacterial species causing infection. This antibody may be useful for discriminating bacterial from viral infection and for indicating severe bacterial inflammation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8287614

  3. Natural History of Mouse Syngeneic Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Jurin, Mislav; Drewinko, Benjamin

    1974-01-01

    The morphologic changes in lymphoreticular tissues and development of antitumor immune reactions of specific pathogen-free mice injected with syngeneic lymphoma cells were sequentially analyzed. The regional (right inguinal) lymph node demonstrated mild changes indicative of immunologic response. Systemic lymph nodes revealed a moderate degree of immune response on morphologic basis. The spleen was the site of marked activity, characterized by the presence of large pyroninophilic cells and germinal centers. Foci of necrosis in the local tumor accompanied by mature lymphocytes suggested cell-mediated immune rejection. Mice developed circulating antibodies 2 days after implantation. No antibodies were demonstrated attached to fresh tumor cells. Lymphocyte cytotoxic activity was demonstrated beginning on day 4. Both cytotoxic activity and circulating antibodies were no longer detectable after the third week following tumor implantation. Tumor-bearing mice also had an impaired capacity to mount a primary immune reaction to sheep red blood cells. The spleen demonstrated a marked loss of lymphocytes and the subsequent appearance of masses of amyloid material. It is suggested that amyloidosis in lymphoreticular organs is the result of a derangement in the immune response of the host following a prolonged and sustained antigenic stimulation. It appears that in syngeneic pathogen-free mice the spleen plays the major role in immune rejection mechanisms while the draining node only plays a modest role. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 1Fig 2 PMID:4614670

  4. The pathogenesis of leptospirosis I. Hemorrhages in experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R; Cousineau, G

    1977-01-01

    In experimental infections of guinea pigs with a virulent strain of Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae widespread hemorrhages were observed. Thrombocytopenia, prolongation of prothrombin, thrombin, partial thromboplastin and coagulation times, decrease of plasma fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII and the presence of fibrinogen degradation products were demonstrated. Treatment of infected guinea pigs with heparin prolonged life for two to three days. The histological observations revealed that the main lesion is a severe injury of the vasculature, mainly arteries, arterioles and capillaries. Most of the endothelial cells are affected or destroyed and the muscular fibers of arteries and arterioles are injured. With Martius-Scarlet-Blue, Weigert or Picro-Mallory stains it was demonstrated that the organization seen in the vessels is not all made of fibrin. The conclusion reached was that the hemorrhages observed in experimental leptospirosis in guines pigs are due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:861835

  5. Innervation of vasculature and microvasculature of the human vagina by NOS and neuropeptide-containing nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, C H; Stones, R W; Robson, T; Whitley, K; Burnstock, G

    1996-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether nerves that contain nitric oxide synthase (NOS), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or substance P (SP) are present in the human vagina and, if so, to determine the pattern of innervation relative to that of other neurotransmitters, particularly vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Surgical specimens of vaginal tissue (n = 10) from pre- and postmenopausal women were fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry of peptides and NOS and for histochemistry of NADPH-diaphorase. SP-immunoreactive nerves were very sparse, being absent from 9 of the 10 tissue samples. For other peptides and NOS, the innervation of the deep arteries and veins was greater than that of blood vessels in the propria. Capillaries in the epithelial papillae also appeared to be innervated by nerves containing NOS, CGRP, NPY and VIP. Beneath the epithelium nerve fibres formed a subepithelial plexus; no nerve cell bodies were seen. The relative density of innervation by immunoreactive fibres was PGP-9.5 > NPY > VIP >> NOS > CGRP > SP. These results imply that nerves that utilise nitric oxide or NPY, VIP or CGRP as a neurotransmitter may play a role in controlling blood flow and capillary permeability in the human vagina. The origin and function of all these nerves is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8763480

  6. Spontaneous diabetes mellitus in transgenic mice expressing human islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Janson, J; Soeller, W C; Roche, P C; Nelson, R T; Torchia, A J; Kreutter, D K; Butler, P C

    1996-01-01

    The islet in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is characterized by loss of beta cells and large local deposits of amyloid derived from the 37-amino acid protein, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). We have hypothesized that IAPP amyloid forms intracellularly causing beta-cell destruction under conditions of high rates of expression. To test this we developed a homozygous transgenic mouse model with high rates of expression of human IAPP. Male transgenic mice spontaneously developed diabetes mellitus by 8 weeks of age, which was associated with selective beta-cell death and impaired insulin secretion. Small intra- and extracellular amorphous IAPP aggregates were present in islets of transgenic mice during the development of diabetes mellitus. However, IAPP derived amyloid deposits were found in only a minority of islets at approximately 20 weeks of age, notably after development of diabetes mellitus in male transgenic mice. Approximately 20% of female transgenic mice spontaneously developed diabetes mellitus at 30+ weeks of age, when beta-cell degeneration and both amorphous and amyloid deposits of IAPP were present. We conclude that overexpression of human IAPP causes beta-cell death, impaired insulin secretion, and diabetes mellitus. Large deposits of IAPP derived amyloid do not appear to be important in this cytotoxicity, but early, small amorphous intra- and extracellular aggregates of human IAPP were consistently present at the time of beta-cell death and therefore may be the most cytotoxic form of IAPP. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692984

  7. Muc1, a mucin-like protein that is regulated by Mss10, is critical for pseudohyphal differentiation in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, M G; Bauer, F F; Marmur, J; Pretorius, I S

    1996-01-01

    Pseudohyphal differentiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was first described as a response of diploid cells to nitrogen limitation. Here we report that haploid and diploid starch-degrading S. cerevisiae strains were able to switch from a yeast form to a filamentous pseudohyphal form in response to carbon limitation in the presence of an ample supply of nitrogen. Two genes, MSS10 and MUC1, were cloned and shown to be involved in pseudohyphal differentiation and invasive growth. The deletion of MSS10 resulted in extremely reduced amounts of pseudohyphal differentiation and invasive growth, whereas the deletion of MUC1 abolished pseudohyphal differentiation and invasive growth completely. Mss10 appears to be a transcriptional activator that responds to nutrient limitation and coregulates the expression of MUC1 and the STA1-3 glucoamylase genes, which are involved in starch degradation. MUC1 encodes a 1367-amino acid protein, containing several serine/threonine-rich repeats. Muc1 is a putative integral membrane-bound protein, similar to mammalian mucin-like membrane proteins that have been implicated to play a role in the ability of cancer cells to invade other tissues. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8710886

  8. Rat hippocampal neurons express genes for both rod retinal and olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channels: novel targets for cAMP/cGMP function.

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, P A; Zufall, F; Barnstable, C J

    1996-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are Ca(2+)-permeable, nonspecific cation channels that can be activated through direct interaction with cAMP and/or cGMP. Recent electrophysiological evidence for these channels in cultured hippocampal neurons prompted us to investigate the expression of CNG channel genes in hippocampus. PCR amplification detected the expression of transcripts for subunit 1 of both the rod photoreceptor (RCNGC1) and the olfactory receptor cell (OCNGC1) subtype of CNG channel in adult rat hippocampus. In situ hybridization detected expression of both channel subtypes in most principal neurons, including pyramidal cells of the CA1 through CA3 regions and granule cells of the dentate gyrus. From the hybridization patterns, we conclude that the two genes are colocalized in individual neurons. Comparison of the patterns of expression of type 1 cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the CNG channels suggests that hippocampal neurons can respond to changes in cGMP levels with both rapid changes in CNG channel activity and slower changes induced by phosphorylation. Future models of hippocampal function should include CNG channels and their effects on both electrical responses and intracellular Ca2+ levels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8816819

  9. Lipid thioesters derived from acylated proteins accumulate in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: correction of the defect in lymphoblasts by recombinant palmitoyl-protein thioesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J Y; Verkruyse, L A; Hofmann, S L

    1996-01-01

    Palmitoyl-protein thioesterase is a lysosomal long-chain fatty acyl hydrolase that removes fatty acyl groups from modified cysteine residues in proteins. Mutations in palmitoyl-protein thioesterase were recently found to cause the neurodegenerative disorder infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a disease characterized by accumulation of amorphous granular deposits in cortical neurons, leading to blindness, seizures, and brain death by the age of three. In the current study, we demonstrate that [35S]cysteine-labeled lipid thioesters accumulate in immortalized lymphoblasts of patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. The accumulation in cultured cells is reversed by the addition of recombinant palmitoyl-protein thioesterase that is competent for lysosomal uptake through the mannose-6-phosphate receptor. The [35S]cysteine-labeled lipids are substrates for palmitoyl-protein thioesterase in vitro, and their formation requires prior protein synthesis. These data support a role for palmitoyl-protein thioesterase in the lysosomal degradation of S-acylated proteins and define a major new pathway for the catabolism of acylated proteins in the lysosome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8816748

  10. A structure-based catalytic mechanism for the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, R; Hof, P; Duarte, R O; Moura, J J; Moura, I; Liu, M Y; LeGall, J; Hille, R; Archer, M; Romão, M J

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related molybdenum-iron protein aldehyde oxido-reductase from the sulfate reducing anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas (Mop) was analyzed in its desulfo-, sulfo-, oxidized, reduced, and alcohol-bound forms at 1.8-A resolution. In the sulfo-form the molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor has a dithiolene-bound fac-[Mo, = O, = S, ---(OH2)] substructure. Bound inhibitory isopropanol in the inner compartment of the substrate binding tunnel is a model for the Michaelis complex of the reaction with aldehydes (H-C = O,-R). The reaction is proposed to proceed by transfer of the molybdenum-bound water molecule as OH- after proton transfer to Glu-869 to the carbonyl carbon of the substrate in concert with hydride transfer to the sulfido group to generate [MoIV, = O, -SH, ---(O-C = O, -R)). Dissociation of the carboxylic acid product may be facilitated by transient binding of Glu-869 to the molybdenum. The metal-bound water is replenished from a chain of internal water molecules. A second alcohol binding site in the spacious outer compartment may cause the strong substrate inhibition observed. This compartment is the putative binding site of large inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8799115

  11. A polypeptide of 59 kDa is associated with bundles of cytoplasmic filaments in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, A L; Alvarez, M E; Lawson, D; Maccioni, H J

    1990-01-01

    Complex arrangements of filamentous structures have been isolated from vegetative cells of the fungus Neurospora crassa. They were enriched by differential centrifugation and purified by permeation chromatography. The filamentous structures are made up of units of 8-10 nm diameter and were isolated in bundles of up to six to nine units. The main constituent of these structures is a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 59 kDa (P59Nc), which represents 4-5% of the total N. crassa proteins. The filamentous structures are cold-stable and are not affected by high-ionic-strength solutions or by the presence of 10 mM-EDTA or 1% (w/v) Triton X-100; they were disassembled by raising the pH of the solution or by using Tris-based buffers. The disassembled form assembled into structures sedimentable at 105,000 g after dialysis against the isolation buffer. The sedimentable structures were organized in the form of regular aggregates of 42-45 nm polypeptides and reacted weakly with anti-IFA, a monoclonal antibody which recognizes an epitope common to many of the higher-eukaryote intermediate-filament polypeptides. Immunofluorescence examination of wall-digested hyphae of N. crassa using affinity-purified antibodies prepared against P59Nc showed immunostaining of abundant filamentous and dot-shaped structures distributed in the cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2141976

  12. Null mutation of endothelin receptor type B gene in spotting lethal rats causes aganglionic megacolon and white coat color.

    PubMed Central

    Gariepy, C E; Cass, D T; Yanagisawa, M

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) produce congenital aganglionic megacolon and pigment abnormalities in mice and humans. Here we report a naturally occurring null mutation of the EDNRB gene in spotting lethal (sl) rats, which exhibit aganglionic megacolon associated with white coat color. We found a 301-bp deletion spanning the exon 1-intron 1 junction of the EDNRB gene in sl rats. A restriction fragment length polymorphism caused by this deletion perfectly cosegregates with the sl phenotype. The deletion leads to production of an aberrantly spliced EDNRB mRNA that lacks the coding sequence for the first and second putative transmembrane domains of the G-protein-coupled receptor. Radioligand binding assays revealed undetectable levels of functional EDNRB in tissues from homozygous sl/sl rats. We conclude that EDNRB plays an essential role in the normal development of two neural crest-derived cell lineages, epidermal melanocytes and enteric neurons, in three mammalian species--humans, mice, and rats. The EDNRB-deficient rat may also prove valuable in defining the postnatal physiologic role of this receptor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8570650

  13. Immunocytochemical features of obstructed saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J I; Pickering, N J; Fink, G B

    1989-01-01

    The peroxidase-immunoperoxidase immunocytochemical method was used on 27 saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts, which had been resected because of recurrent angina, to identify in situ cellular and humoral elements possibly associated with graft occlusion. Immunostaining was performed on paraffin wax embedded control saphenous vein and graft sections incubated directly with primary antibodies against von Willebrand antigen (vWFAg), fibronectin, fibrinogen, leucocyte common antigen (LCA), lysozyme, vimentin, desmin, platelet factor 4, and thrombospondin. Antigens were visualised by a chromogen providing an orange-red immunoprecipitate at the site of epitope localisation. The intraluminal, amorphous exudate present in most grafts was not composed simply of fibrin or fibrinogen, as previously thought, but was a multiprotein complex including wWFAg, fibronectin, thrombospondin and platelet factor 4. Along with macrophages, these components probably enter the graft after haemodynamic, physical, and chemical injury to, and disruption of, the endothelial cell. Progressive myointimal proliferation and fibrosis of these grafts may be local repetitive responses to macrophages and platelets, cells previously known to participate in vascular disease. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2659629

  14. Portasystemic shunting versus liver transplantation for the Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bismuth, H; Sherlock, D J

    1991-01-01

    Over 12 years, 22 patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome were treated surgically. Eighteen underwent a mesenterico-caval shunt (MCS); two, a side-to-side portacaval shunt; one, a mesenterico-atrial shunt (MAS); and one, a liver transplantation (OLT). One patient died after operation from the precipitating condition, and two MCS grafts that thrombosed were restored. All 21 surviving patients remain well, free from ascites, and all shunts are patent after a mean follow-up of 5.6 +/- 1 years, five patients with more than 10 years' follow-up. This long-term survival achieved by portasystemic shunts suggests that they have a major role in the treatment of the Budd-Chiari syndrome. The authors prefer the mesenterico-caval shunt using a jugular graft. This ensures a total portasystemic shunt, avoids subhepatic surgery, and reduces the long-term risk of prosthetic graft thrombosis. The MAS was reserved for cases with complete caval thrombosis. Patients with significant degrees of caval compression were satisfactorily decompressed by MCS. In patients not promptly treated, the disease progresses to cirrhosis, and such patients must be evaluated for transplantation similarly to those with other hepatopathies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5A and B. PMID:1953111

  15. Experimental Calcification of the Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Bonucci, Ermanno; Sadun, Raffaele

    1973-01-01

    Focal areas of calcification are frequent in rat myocardium 30 and 60 days after administration of dihydrotachysterol. These areas are PAS-positive, stain deeply with alcian blue and show high affinity for colloidal iron. Calcification is almost completely confined to intracellular structures. Small clusters of needle-shaped crystals are first found in apparently undamaged mitochondria in undamaged myocardial cells. When all the mitochondria are calcified, the cell degenerates, and inorganic crystals are laid down in relationship with its myofilaments. In other myocardial cells, clusters of amorphous or finely granular inorganic substance are found in both mitochondria and myofibrils. Both structures show signs of advanced degeneration. Inorganic substance has only occasionally been found within the structures of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These structures do not seem to be involved in myocardial calcification under the present experimental conditions. Calcification of myocardial cells gives rise to a cellular reaction. Many macrophagic cells surround the calcified areas, which are rapidly reabsorbed. The present results show that myocardial mitochondria are actively engaged in controlling the intracellular concentration and movement of calcium ions. Their role in the myocardial contraction-relaxation cycle and the possible mechanism of myocardial calcification are discussed. ImagesFig 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13 PMID:4197422

  16. Morphology of the dorsal lingual papillae in the lesser mouse deer, Tragulus javanicus.

    PubMed Central

    Agungpriyono, S; Yamada, J; Kitamura, N; Nisa, C; Sigit, K; Yamamoto, Y

    1995-01-01

    The dorsal lingual papillae of the lesser mouse deer were studied morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy. Four types of papillae, filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate, were observed. Filiform papillae consisted of larger main papillae with smaller secondary papillae on their anterolateral aspects. Secondary papillae were well distributed over the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, but were very rare or absent in the posterior third. Fungiform papillae were distributed among the filiform papillae, being larger and more abundant on the tip of the tongue. Vallate papillae were round-flat or long-flat, surrounded by a prominent circular groove and a thin annular pad. An important finding was the presence of distinct and prominent foliate papillae on the posterolateral sides of the tongue. Keratinisation of the covering stratified squamous epithelium was relatively weak. Taste buds were observed in the epithelium of the fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae. The lingual papillae of the lesser mouse deer showed some characteristics that differed from those reported for domestic ruminants. These may be related to the feeding habits and the type of food eaten by this species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8586562

  17. Morphology of the rat cochlear primary afferents during prenatal development: a Cajal's reduced silver and rapid Golgi study.

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, A; Merchán, J A; Merchán, M A

    1990-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the process of spatial organisation of the cochlear root related to the morphological and topographical changes in the CN during the prenatal development of Wistar rats, placing special emphasis on aspects of the latero-medial distribution of the cochlear afferents. A total of 35 embryos from 8 Wistar rats was employed, corresponding to embryonic days 14, 16, 18 and 20. Twenty of these embryos were studied by the Cajal's reduced silver stain and 15 by the rapid Golgi method (osmium dichromate method). The otocyst, the vestibulo-cochlear ganglion and vestibulo-cochlear nerve were first observed at embryonic Day 14 (E14). At E16, a sharp separation between the cochlear and vestibular roots was distinguished. The final position of the primary afferents and their main branches (anterior and posterior) in the CN was observed at E18 and E20, when the total number of cochlear turns had been formed. The cochlear afferents coming from the apical coil, the last to be incorporated into the cochlear root, project their posterior branches at the bifurcation towards more medial portions of the PVCN and their anterior branches towards the more lateral regions of the AVCN. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3(Cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5(Cont.) Fig. 5 PMID:1691163

  18. Hepatitis Due to Equine Abortion Virus. Comparison Between the Liver Histology in Human, Canine, Duckling, and Equine Viral Hepatitis1

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286

  19. Cyclosporin A suppresses the expression of the interleukin 2 gene by inhibiting the binding of lymphocyte-specific factors to the IL-2 enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Randak, C; Brabletz, T; Hergenröther, M; Sobotta, I; Serfling, E

    1990-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA), a powerful immunosuppressive drug, inhibits the synthesis of lymphokines in T lymphocytes at the level of gene transcription. Using protein extracts from El4 lymphoma cells we show that the binding of lymphocyte-specific factors interacting with the two so-called purine boxes (Pu-boxes) of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancer are missing in CsA-treated cells. The CsA-sensitive factors are newly synthesized upon induction. The most prominent factor consists of 45 kd polypeptides and contacts both Pu-boxes at the two central G residues within the identical core sequence AAGAGGAAAA. The CsA-mediated suppression of factor binding to the Pu-boxes correlates well with functional studies in which the inducible, T cell-restricted proto-enhancer activity of Pu-boxes was selectively repressed by CsA. These observations support the conclusion that the suppression of factor binding to the Pu-boxes by CsA impairs the activity of IL-2 and of further lymphokine genes, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of lymphokines in T lymphocytes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2369902

  20. Identification and characterization of plasmids from the western aster yellows mycoplasmalike organism.

    PubMed Central

    Kuske, C R; Kirkpatrick, B C

    1990-01-01

    Supercoiled double-stranded DNA molecules (plasmids) were isolated from plants infected with three laboratory strains of western aster yellows mycoplasma-like organism (AY-MLO) by using cesium chloride-ethidium bromide density gradients. Southern blot analysis, using plasmids from the severe strain of AY-MLO (SAY-MLO) as the probe, identified at least four plasmids in celery, aster, and periwinkle plants and in Macrosteles severini leafhopper vectors infected with either the dwarf AY-MLO, Tulelake AY-MLO, or SAY-MLO strain. Plasmids were also detected in two California field isolates of AY-MLO but not in plants infected with the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent, western X, or elm yellows MLOs. SAY-MLO plasmids were 5.2, 4.9, 3.4, and 1.7 kilobase pairs in size. Plasmids isolated from dwarf AY- and Tulelake AY-MLOs were 7.4, 5.1, 3.5, and 1.7 kilobase pairs in size. No evidence was obtained for integration of SAY-MLO plasmids into the MLO chromosome. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:2307660

  1. Translation and assembly of HLA-DR antigens in Xenopus oocytes injected with mRNA from a human B-cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Long, E O; Gross, N; Wake, C T; Mach, J P; Carrel, S; Accolla, R; Mach, B

    1982-01-01

    HLA-DR antigens are polymorphic cell surface glycoproteins, expressed primarily in B lymphocytes and macrophages, which are thought to play an important role in the immune response. Two polypeptide chains, alpha and beta, are associated at the cell surface, and a third chain associates with alpha and beta intracellularly. RNA isolated from the human B-cell line Raji was injected in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Immunoprecipitates of translation products with several monoclonal antibodies revealed the presence of HLA-DR antigens similar to those synthesized in Raji cells. One monoclonal antibody was able to bind the beta chain after dissociation of the three polypeptide chains with detergent. The presence of all three chains was confirmed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The glycosylation pattern of the three chains was identical to that observed in vivo, as evidenced in studies using tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation. The presence of alpha chains assembled with beta chains in equimolar ratio was further demonstrated by amino-terminal sequencing. An RNA fraction enriched for the three mRNAs, encoding alpha, beta, and intracellular chains, was isolated. This translation-assembly system and the availability of monoclonal antibodies make it possible to assay for mRNA encoding specific molecules among the multiple human Ia-like antigens. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6821356

  2. Two types of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: immunofluorescent, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies of the antral and pancreatic gastrin cells in different clinical states

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Julia M.; Stagg, B.; Pearse, A. G. E.

    1972-01-01

    In this survey the antral, pancreatic and, where present, the neoplastic gastrin cells, were studied in eight cases of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The antral G cells alone were studied in one case of Z-E syndrome, seven cases of simple duodenal ulcer, and five cases of pernicious anaemia. The Z-E cases were divided into two numerically equal groups. The first group had `short' histories, high serum gastrin levels, and profound antral G cell hyperplasia. The second group had `long' histories, relatively lower serum gastrin levels, normal antral G cells, and either pancreatic D cell hyperplasia or gastrinoma. Antral G cell hyperplasia, with maximal gastrin storage and normal serum gastrin levels, was found in the duodenal ulcer cases. Antral G cell hyperplasia with minimal storage and high serum gastrin levels was observed in the cases of pernicious anaemia. On the basis of our findings we propose that there exist at least two distinct types (or perhaps stages) of the Z-E syndrome. Suggestions for their pathogenesis are offered. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4560738

  3. Preliminary studies on the development of a live oral vaccine for anti-cholera immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mukerjee, S.

    1963-01-01

    Since humoral anti-O antibodies play little part in protective immunity against cholera, and the infecting organisms remain limited in the gut, effective prophylaxis will require the production of active immunity in cells of the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal. It has not been possible to achieve this objective satisfactorily by injections of killed cholera cultures. In laboratory studies for a solution of the problem it has been shown that Vibrio cholerae and V. El Tor strains possess identical somatic antigens. El Tor vibrio strains isolated from surface water in an area free from cholera were found to be of low pathogenicity while retaining full antigenicity. Administration of these strains to mice and rabbits was shown to confer protection against subsequent challenge with both V. cholerae and pathogenic V. El Tor strains. On the basis of the data presented a case has been made for a viable vaccine prepared from a suitable non-pathogenic El Tor strain, for administration by the oral route. It may be expected that such a vaccine will establish an effective immunity through protection of the local susceptible cells of the intestines as a result of subclinical infection. The safety and protective value of the vaccine remain to be verified in human volunteers before it can be chosen for field trials. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:14107748

  4. Simultaneous rapid chemical synthesis of over one hundred oligonucleotides on a microscale

    PubMed Central

    Matthes, Hans W.D.; Zenke, W. Martin; Grundström, Thomas; Staub, Adrien; Wintzerith, Marguerite; Chambon, Pierre

    1984-01-01

    An inexpensive, extremely rapid manual method for simultaneous synthesis of large numbers of oligodeoxyribonucleotides on 50 or 150 nanomole scale is described. The oligonucleotides are assembled in parallel by the phosphotriester method on small cellulose paper disks in a simple gas pressure-controlled continuous-flow system. For each addition of a nucleotide the disks are sorted into four sets which are placed in four columns for addition of A, C, G and T, respectively. During one 2-week period, three rounds of synthesis by this method yielded 254 oligomers (8- to 22-mers), many of which were also purified during this time. Using 50 nanomole scale reactions the yields for 17-mers, for example, were in the range of 0.5 O.D.260 units (˜5 nmol, i.e., ˜10% yield), an amount sufficient for most purposes. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and for the most part usually already available in molecular biology laboratories. All chemicals are commercially available and the current reagent cost per oligonucleotide (25 μg, average length 17-mer) is ˜3 US dollars. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16453516

  5. Fine Structural Aspects of Lymphoedema in Various Tissues and the Effects of Treatment with Coumarin and Troxerutin

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1974-01-01

    The fine structural changes produced by lymphoedema, and by its treatment by coumarin and rutin were studied in the facial skin, parotid glands, ciliary bodies and cerebral cortices of rats, after the ligation of their cervical lymphatics. Both the true initial lymphatics (in the first two sites) and the prelymphatics (in the other two) behaved similarly, as did the tissue around them. There was much protein and oedema fluid during lymphoedema, which were markedly reduced by the drugs, separately and in combination. The very dilated lymphatics in the facial skin had many open endothelial intercellular junctions: the better supported ones in the parotid did not dilate so much and had no open junctions, although they normally possess some. It is suggested that the raised intralymphatic pressures, plus the smaller amount of dilatation permitted in this site, caused the junctions to be sealed closed. Fenestrae seemed to have little effect on the amount of lymphoedema, nor did it appear to affect their numbers. ImagesFigs. 10-11Fig. 1Figs. 5-7Figs. 2-3Fig. 4Figs. 8-9 PMID:4835800

  6. A fine structural study of the removal of the effectiveness of benzo-pyrone treatment of lymphoedema by the destruction of the macrophages by silica.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1978-01-01

    Macroscopical, light microscopical and electronmicroscopical observations were made of the diaphragm, skin and brain of rats, some of which were treated with intraperitoneal silica for 8 days (after being given it i.v. for 2 days). The diaphragms showed a most remarkable increase in fibroblast activity and fibrosis beneath the peritoneal mesothelium (which was disintegrating). Deep to this there were many disintegrating macrophages, and much oedema and increased protein concentration. Ligation of the cervical lymphatics produced the usual changes of lymphoedema in the skin and brain. This was greatly reduced in the animals treated with a mixture of benzo-pyrones. However, in those animals also treated with silica, the benzo-pyrones had no effect on the amount of oedema or of protein. In all the animals except those treated with silica, lymphoedema was accompanied by considerable numbers of macrophages entering the affected tissues; in those treated with silica, these numbers were greatly reduced. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:207299

  7. Double-stranded cleavage of pBR322 by a diiron complex via a "hydrolytic" mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Schnaith, L M; Hanson, R S; Que, L

    1994-01-01

    Treatment of plasmid pBR322 with Fe2-(HPTB)(OH)(NO3)4(HPTB = N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)-2-hydroxy-1,3-diaminopr opane) and H2O2 or O2 and a reductant (dithiothreitol or ascorbate) results in double-stranded cleavage of the plasmid. The linearization of supercoiled pBR322 by this complex is not inhibited by hydroxyl radical scavengers. On the other hand, the linearized pBR322 is efficiently religated by T4 DNA ligase, and the presence of 3'-OH and 5'-OPO3 ends is corroborated by 3'- and 5'-end-labeling studies. These observations indicate that cleavage results from hydrolysis of the DNA-phosphate backbone, which is proposed to occur by nucleophilic attack of the bound peroxide on the phosphodiester. Double-stranded cleavage by the Fe2(HPTB)(OH)(NO3)4/H2O2 adduct preferentially occurs between bp 3489 and 3485 of pBR322. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8290564

  8. Exocrine and endocrine stomach after gastrobulbar preserving pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H C; Suzuki, T; Kajiwara, T; Miyashita, T; Imamura, M; Tobe, T

    1987-01-01

    Exocrine and endocrine stomach was studied serially in 13 patients who had gastrobulbar preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (GPPD). In most of them, acid output temporarily increased just after operation but recovered. Gastrin response level decreased transiently but returned to the preoperative level. A negative correlation was observed between the acid and gastrin levels, which suggests that the negative feedback mechanism between parietal cells and G cells was maintained. Acid and gastrin levels in GPPD were higher than those in conventional pancreatoduodenectomy (cPD) but not remarkably different from those of the controls. No peptic ulcer was detected after the operation. These findings indicated that GPPD poses little problem concerning offensive factors. Postoperative ulcer formation is considered to be prevented by the authors' procedure, which is devised to best preserve defensive mechanisms so that duodenectomy is minimized and the gastrointestinal continuity is reconstructed physiologically from mouth to anus by end-to-end duodenoduodenestomy, end-to-side pancreatojejunostomy, and end-to-side choledochojejunostomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 11. PMID:3689008

  9. Morphology of nasal-cavity tumours in rats after chronic inhalation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, G.; Reznik-Schüller, H.; Ward, J. M.; Stinson, S. F.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of 50 F344 rats of each sex sere exposed to 0.6 or 3.0 pts/10(6) of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 103 weeks. Fifty rats of each sex inhaling filtered air were used as unexposed controls. All survivors were killed at 104 weeks. Up to 93% of the male and female rats developed neoplasms of the nasal cavity. Most of the tumours were adenomas, squamous-cell papillomas, squamous-cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas. In the low-dose group 78% of the tumours in males and 66% in females were benign, whereas in the high-dose groups 89% in males and 76% in females were malignant. Invasion through the cribriform plate into the cerebrum or metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was found in 73% of the carcinomas in males and 51% in females. Electron-microscopic examination suggested that the basal cells of the olfactory epithelium were the site of origin of the poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7459212

  10. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, H C; Andresen, L O; Bille-Hansen, V

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal changes when injected in experimental piglets. The results showed that both virulent and avirulent strains were present simultaneously on diseased piglets. This constitutes a diagnostic problem. Concentrated culture supernatants from nine virulent strains injected in the skin of healthy piglets produced a crusting reaction in all piglets. Acanthosis was observed in the histopathological examination of the crustaceous skin. Concentrated culture supernatants from nine avirulent strains produced no macroscopic or microscopic skin changes. Protein profiles from all virulent strains and seven out of nine avirulent strains showed a high degree of protein band homology. An approximately 30 kDa protein present in all concentrated culture supernatants capable of producing skin changes, could not be detected in samples that did not produce skin changes. No other protein showed a similar association. It is concluded that crusting reaction of piglet skin is a suitable indicator of virulence in S. hyicus in relation to exudative epidermitis, and that virulent strains produce a 30 kDa protein, absent in concentrated culture supernatants from avirulent strains. This 30 kDa protein might be an exfoliative toxin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:8490806

  11. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus infected cells with cloned DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, E

    1992-01-01

    A genomic library of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) DNA BamH1 fragments was prepared and two cloned fragments were evaluated for their potential as probes for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The virus was purified by a modified sucrose density gradient procedure for the isolation of pure ILTV DNA. A genomic library was constructed using BamH1-digested ILTV DNA and pGEM7 as a vector. A 1.1 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA was tested in a slot or dot blot assay for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The limit of detection for this probe was at least 0.12 ng of pure ILTV DNA. The probe was able to identify both chicken embryo liver (CELi) cells and choriallantoic membranes infected with ILTV. Chicken embryo liver cells infected with several field isolates and a vaccine strain of ILTV were positive by dot blot analysis using this probe. Some qualitative differences in the degree of hybridization to cells infected by different ILTV isolates were observed. Uninfected cells and cells infected with fowlpox virus, turkey herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus or Newcastle disease virus were negative by the same assay. Compared with the 1.1 kb fragment, a larger 6 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA showed a stronger hybridization signal to DNA from ILTV infected cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1316798

  12. 125I-labeled peptide mapping of some heat-modifiable proteins of the gonococcal outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, J

    1980-01-01

    Gonococci from opaque colonies have cell wall outer membrane proteins that are lacking from organisms which form transparent colonies. These "colony opacity-associated" proteins are among a group of "minor" proteins that exhibit heat modification of their apparent subunit molecular sizes, are easily extracted by deoxycholate, have apparent subunit molecular weights varying from 24,000 to 29,000 and are exposed on the surfaces of gonococci. Other minor proteins found on gonococci are the "leukocyte association proteins," whose presence correlates with reactivities of gonococci with human neutrophils. Several of the colony opacity-associated proteins and leukocyte association proteins were subjected to 125I-peptide mapping of protein bands separated by polyacrylamide electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The structural similarities and differences among these heat-modifiable surface proteins were studied, as well as their similarities with the major protein of the gonococcal outer membrane. A relatively high apparent degree of structural homology is found among the heat-modifiable proteins from different strains of opaque colony gonococcal forms. There is also some apparent structural homology for 125I-peptides of heat-modifiable versus major proteins of the gonococcal outer membrane. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6769820

  13. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  14. Fine structure of vesiculated nerve profiles in the human lumbar facet joint.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, F; Creemers, J; Lambrichts, I; Robberechts, W

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of vesiculated nerve profiles were examined within a perivascular plexus of unmyelinated nerve fibres around small arteries and arterioles in the posterior facet joint capsule. Such profiles were exclusively observed in the dense fibrous layer and the adjacent part of the subintimal layer. The ligamentum flavum lacked any type of innervation. The vesiculated nerve profiles were tentatively classified on the basis of the fine structural appearances of their vesicular content. Two major types of nerve profiles could readily be distinguished in the capsular tissue. Both displayed a variable number of mitochondria, neurotubules and neurofilaments. The first type, containing predominantly small vesicles with an electron-dense granule or core, was frequently encountered and considered to be adrenergic in function. Profiles similar in morphology were also observed in the synovial plical tissue. A second type of profile, found in the joint capsule, contained varying proportions of small agranular (clear) vesicles and mitochondria. Some of these profiles exhibited an accumulation of mitochondria and were considered to be sensory in function. Nerve profiles filled with predominantly small flattened vesicles were occasionally encountered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8586567

  15. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve: an analysis of echocardiographic variables related to outcome and the mechanism of dilatation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, G T; Weyman, A E; Abascal, V M; Block, P C; Palacios, I F

    1988-01-01

    Twenty two patients (four men, 18 women, mean age 56 years, range 21 to 88 years) with a history of rheumatic mitral stenosis were studied by cross sectional echocardiography before and after balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. The appearance of the mitral valve on the pre-dilatation echocardiogram was scored for leaflet mobility, leaflet thickening, subvalvar thickening, and calcification. Mitral valve area, left atrial volume, transmitral pressure difference, pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, cardiac rhythm, New York Heart Association functional class, age, and sex were also studied. Because there was some increase in valve area in almost all patients the results were classified as optimal or suboptimal (final valve area less than 1.0 cm2, final left atrial pressure greater than 10 mm Hg, or final valve area less than 25% greater than the initial area). The best multiple logistic regression fit was found with the total echocardiographic score alone. A high score (advanced leaflet deformity) was associated with a suboptimal outcome while a low score (a mobile valve with limited thickening) was associated with an optimal outcome. No other haemodynamic or clinical variables emerged as predictors of outcome in this analysis. Examination of pre-dilatation and post-dilatation echocardiograms showed that balloon dilatation reliably resulted in cleavage of the commissural plane and thus an increase in valve area. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 PMID:3190958

  16. Glomerulonephritis with mesangial deposits of IgA unassociated with systemic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.; Underdown, B. J.; Minta, J. O.; Lepow, I. H.

    1976-01-01

    Typical features of IgA-associated nephritis were found in renal biopsies from 16 of 355 consecutive patients. Generalized segmental mesangial proliferation was noted in biopsies from most patients, and dense deposits were detected by electron microscopy in mesangial regions of approximately 50% of biopsies. Immunofluorescent studies showed IgA to be the predominant immunoglobulin in glomueruli; IgG was present in less than 50% of biopsies and IgM in only 12%. The serum IgA value was significantly increased (P les than 0.001) in 50% of patients and the mean IgA/IgG ratio was significantly increase (P less than 0.001) for the patient group as a whole, which suggests a selective increase in IgA. Mesangial deposits of C3 were present in 15 of 16 biopsies and properdin was noted in all biopsies tested; C4 was not demonstrated in any biopsy. This suggests activation of the alternative complement pathway. The results of this study support the concept that IgA-associated nephritis is a unique condition that in some patients gives rise to idiopathic recurrent hematuria. Although the prognosis is good in the majority of patients, the renal disease may progress. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:801796

  17. New Ventilated Isolation Cage

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Reginald O.

    1968-01-01

    A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

  18. Disruption of the keratin filament network during epithelial cell division.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, E B; Goodman, S L; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of keratin filaments during cell division was examined in a wide range of epithelial lines from several species. Almost half of them show keratin disruption as described previously: by immunofluorescence, filaments are replaced during mitosis by a 'speckled' pattern of discrete cytoplasmic dots. In the electron microscope these ' speckles ' are seen as granules around the cell periphery, just below the actin cortical mesh, with no detectable 10 nm filament structure inside them and no keratin filament bundles in the rest of the cytoplasm. A time course of the filament reorganization was constructed from double immunofluorescence data; filaments are disrupted in prophase, and the filament network is intact again by cytokinesis. The phenomenon is restricted to cells rich in keratin filaments, such as keratinocytes; it is unrelated to the co-existence of vimentin in many of these cells, and vimentin is generally maintained as filaments while the keratin is restructured. Some resistance to the effect may be conferred by an extended cycle time. Filament reorganization takes place within minutes, so that a reversible mechanism seems more likely than one involving de novo protein synthesis, at this metabolically quiet stage of the cell cycle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6202508

  19. A nutritional study of Irish athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barry, A.; Cantwell, T.; Doherty, F.; Folan, Jean C.; Ingoldsby, M.; Kevany, J. P.; O'Broin, J. D.; O'Connor, H.; O'Shea, B.; Ryan, B. A.; Vaughan, J.

    1981-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to carry out a nutritional assessment of selected Irish athletes and (2) to provide individual results and specific advice to each athlete on how to achieve an optimum diet. Dietary intakes were measured by a three-day weighed dietary record technique designed to evaluate each athlete's usual eating habits. The results were evaluated against a set of dietary standards in order to determine adequacy. Nutritional status was also assessed in a limited form by selected anthropometric and biochemical measurements. A total of 148 subjects took part in the assessment which began in May, 1979 and continued until April, 1980. The sports involved included: canoeing, cycling, rowing, swimming, hockey, squash and track and field events. The results indicated a range of sub-optimal dietary patterns relating in particular to abnormal intakes of folate, iron, pyridoxine and calcium. The significance and applications of these findings are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:7023594

  20. Inverse regulation of human ERBB2 and epidermal growth factor receptors by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Kalthoff, H; Roeder, C; Gieseking, J; Humburg, I; Schmiegel, W

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha decreased the expression of ERBB2 mRNA by stimulating p55 TNF receptors of pancreatic tumor cells. This decrease contrasts with an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. Both effects were selectively achieved by TNF-alpha or -beta, whereas interferon alpha or gamma or transforming growth factor beta showed no such effects. The inverse regulatory effects of TNF on ERBB2 and EGFR mRNA levels were evoked by different signaling pathways of p55 TNF receptors. The TNF-mediated ERBB2 mRNA decrease was followed by a reduction in protein. Four of five pancreatic tumor cell lines exhibited this down-regulation. This decrease of ERBB2 is a singular example of a modulation of this growth factor receptor by TNF. Overexpression of ERBB2 has been reported to cause resistance to TNF and other cytotoxic cytokines. In our study we show that the TNF-mediated down-regulation of ERBB2 in pancreatic tumor cells is accompanied by an increase in growth inhibition at low doses of TNF. The simultaneous alteration of the ERBB2/EGFR balance by TNF represents a striking model of cytokine receptor transregulation in the growth control of malignant pancreatic epithelial cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8105469

  1. Sequence of cellular responses in rabbit aortas following one and two injuries with a balloon catheter.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, L.; Grøthe, A. G.; Groves, H. M.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R. L.; Richardson, M.; Mustard, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of intimal proliferation and increased thrombogenesis following repeated arterial injuries we studied the sequence of the cellular changes following two injuries of rabbit aortas with a balloon catheter. Following the first injury, the de-endothelialized surface was covered by a platelet monolayer. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes adhered to the inner surface of this monolayer and did not appear to penetrate the vessel wall. By 4 to 7 days, areas of neointima had formed. Within seconds after the reinjury at 7 days after the de-endothelialization small platelet aggregates formed on injured neointimal smooth muscle cells. Within I min platelet thrombi and fibrin strands formed. At 30 min most of the platelet thrombi had become fibrin-rich. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes had accumulated and many had begun to penetrate into the neointimal tissue. The number and extent of penetration of leucocytes into the inner parts of the arterial wall increased with time. Four days after the injury the neointimal cushions were restored and thickened. Both following the first and second injury the formation of neointimal cushions was accompanied by a change in the polarity of the inner layers of medial smooth muscle cells, some of which appeared to have migrated into the neointima. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:3179197

  2. Differential subcellular mRNA targeting: deletion of a single nucleotide prevents the transport to axons but not to dendrites of rat hypothalamic magnocellular neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, E; Morris, J F; Richter, D

    1995-01-01

    It has previously been shown that mRNA encoding the arginine vasopressin (AVP) precursor is targeted to axons of rat magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract. In the homozygous Brattle-boro rat, which has a G nucleotide deletion in the coding region of the AVP gene, no such targeting is observed although the gene is transcribed. RNase protection and heteroduplex analyses demonstrate that, in heterozygous animals, which express both alleles of the AVP gene, the wild-type but not the mutant transcript is subject to axonal compartmentation. In contrast, wild-type and mutant AVP mRNAs are present in dendrites. These data suggest the existence of different mechanisms for mRNA targeting to the two subcellular compartments. Axonal mRNA localization appears to take place after protein synthesis; the mutant transcript is not available for axonal targeting because it lacks a stop codon preventing its release from ribosomes. Dendritic compartmentation, on the other hand, is likely to precede translation and, thus, would be unable to discriminate between the two mRNAs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753814

  3. Experimental pigbel: the production and pathology of necrotizing enteritis due to Clostridium welchii type C in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, G.; Cooke, R.

    1980-01-01

    An animal model for pigbel in man was developed using guinea-pigs. Intragastric dosing with growing cultures of Clostridium welchii Type C only produced necrotic lesions if protease inhibitors were given as well. beta toxin, which is made by the Type C organism, causes the intestinal damage and is very easily destroyed by proteases. Protease inhibitors in soybean and aprotinin were effectively in inducing disease in animals on a normal diet, while inhibitors in sweet potato, which inhibit only trypsin, were only effective in animals on a low-protein diet. In experiments using intragastric dosing, and in those where cultures and toxic filtrates were injected directly into the jejunum, the animals could be protected with an excess of pancreatic enzymes or by active or passive immunization against beta toxin. The pathology off Type C necrotizing enteritis in guinea-pigs had the macroscopic and microscopic features of pigbel in man. These experiments suggested the basic importance of a low-protein diet and dietary trypsin inhibitors in the pathogenesis of pigbel in man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6252934

  4. Ontogeny of four blood-brain barrier markers: an immunocytochemical comparison of pial and cerebral cortical microvessels.

    PubMed Central

    Cassella, J P; Lawrenson, J G; Allt, G; Firth, J A

    1996-01-01

    Pial and cortical microvessels possess many blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties in common, including impermeability to electron dense tracers, high transendothelial electrical resistance and specialised endothelial cell ultrastructural features. To compare pial and cortical microvessels further, a developmental, immunocytochemical study was undertaken of 4 BBB markers in the rat: OX-47, EBA, GLUT-1 and s-laminin. The appearance of the markers was monitored from embryonic d 16, to postnatal and adult stages. Each of the 4 markers appeared simultaneously in both pial and cortical vessels. GLUT-1 and OX-47 were present in endothelial cells of the BBB from E 16 to the adult. EBA and s-laminin appeared from postnatal d 7 through to the adult. Pial microvessels lack the ensheathment of astrocytes which may be involved in the induction and/or maintenance of BBB markers in the cortex. It is possible that astrocyte-derived factors diffusing from the brain surface are responsible for induction of BBB properties in the pial microvessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8886962

  5. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  6. A new mechanical device for circular compression anastomosis. Preliminary results of animal and clinical experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, R; Rebuffat, C; Pezzuoli, G

    1988-01-01

    The authors report the preliminary results obtained in animal and clinical experimentation of a new mechanical device for circular anastomosis which they have developed. It is a gun that places an apparatus consisting of three polypropylene rings that, through the compression among them of the severed edges of the bowel, realize a sutureless anastomosis and are spontaneously evacuated. Fifty-eight colonic anastomoses were performed in dogs with this device; 23 stapled colonic anastomoses were also executed concurrently. Forty-four animals underwent a relaparotomy to remove the colonic specimen containing the anastomoses. Bursting pressure and the histologic features of the anastomoses were evaluated at different time intervals after operation. A good healing of all compression anastomoses was observed, thereby allowing them to initiate the experience in humans. Thirteen anastomoses (6 colorectal extraperitoneal, 1 colorectal intraperitoneal, 5 colocolonic, 1 ileorectal) were performed at the 1st Surgical Department, Milan University. One subclinical leakage (7.7%) spontaneously healed in a few days. No stenoses were observed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2., Fig. 4., Fig. 6. Fig. 3., Fig. 5., Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3345111

  7. The ultrastructure of bovine ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells during the perinatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Asari, M; Kano, Y; Wakui, S; Nishita, T; Matsushita, H; Oshige, H

    1989-01-01

    The ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells in bovine fetuses and neonates were examined by light and electron microscopy. In 7-9 months old fetuses (68, 82 and 86 cm CRL) the dome epithelium was usually a little thinner than elsewhere and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. FAE cells were already distinguishable by their being more cuboidal and eosinophilic than the other epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of the FAE cells bulged noticeably into the lumen and contained numerous mitochondria and vacuoles. At 18 hours and 21 hours after birth, the dome epithelium was more columnar and eosinophilic than previously and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. The FAE cells showed characteristic bulging of large cytoplasmic processes into the lumen, as seen in the previous stage. In the cytoplasm, moderate numbers of mitochondria, numerous vesicles and microtubules could be seen. Frequently degenerated FAE cells could also be found among normal FAE cells in the epithelium. After this stage the cytoplasmic processes almost disappeared but distribution of the other organelles was similar to that seen at the previous stage except that multivesicular bodies were frequently seen in the apical cytoplasm. These histological results suggest that bovine ileal FAE cells are histologically and functionally mature by birth and that at birth they seem to be able to react against the penetration of pathogenic substances from the extrauterine environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2606783

  8. The ultrastructure of the centroacinar cells within the pancreas of the starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D W; Kendall, M D

    1982-01-01

    Tissues from the dorsal lobe of the pancreas of 8 starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were examined electron microscopically using conventionally prepared samples. Centroacinar cells were distinguished from exocrine pancreas cells by differences in size, shape, distribution, position and zymogen granule content. The centroacinar cells closely resembled ductal cells and were separated from them only by position. Both electron-lucent and electron-dense forms of centroacinar cells were observed. Centroacinar cells show a prominent single nucleus, often displaying at least one nucleolus, surrounded by cytoplasm in which lies a spectrum of both primary and secondary lysosomes, mitochondria which appear to have some tubulovesicular cristae amongst the predominating transverse cristae, a sparse para- or supranuclear Golgi apparatus, and variable populations of ribosomes and profiles of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Cell surface features include microvilli, 'blebs' and the occasional single cilium. Centroacinar cells are believed to be involved in electrolyte secretion although, from a study of their ultrastructure, the absence of beta cytomembranes with numerous mitochondria in their neighbourhood, would appear to contra-indicate the maintenance of an osmotic gradient between the extracellular fluid and any secretory product. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7130051

  9. Biosynthesis of secreted beta-hexosaminidase in Tetrahymena thermophila. A comparison of the wild type with a secretory mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Hünseler, P; Tiedtke, A; von Figura, K

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis and secretion of beta-hexosaminidase was studied in wild type and secretion-deficient Tetrahymena thermophila cells by metabolic labelling and immunoprecipitation. beta-Hexosaminidase is synthesized as a Mr 79,000 polypeptide which is within 10 min converted into a Mr 59,000 form. The Mr 59,000 polypeptide is further processed (within 20 min) into at least three major mature forms of Mr 58,000-54,000, which are almost quantitatively secreted into the culture medium within 1-2 h after their synthesis. Both precursor and mature forms contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains which are cleavable by endoglucosaminidase F, but not by endoglucosaminidase H. Neither [32P]orthophosphate nor [35S]sulphate are incorporated into immunoprecipitable precursor and mature beta-hexosaminidases, suggesting the absence of a phosphorylated recognition marker. Biosynthesis and processing of beta-hexosaminidase is apparently unaltered in the secretory mutant MS-1; however the processed polypeptides remain cellular bound in the mutant, indicating that the mutation affects a late event in the secretion pathway of lysosomal enzymes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2971351

  10. Antiplasmodial activity of novel stilbene derivatives isolated from Parthenocissus tricuspidata from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Il Hong; Chung, Ill-Min; Lee, Sun-Joo; Moon, Hyung-In

    2007-06-01

    New stilbene glycoside, piceid-(1-->6)-beta-D -glucopyranoside (compound 2, Fig. 1), was isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Vitaceae) together with four known compounds, piceid (compound 1, Fig. 1), resveratrol (compound 3, Fig. 1), longistylin A (compound 4, Fig. 1), and longistylin C (compound 5, Fig. 1). Their structures were determined spectroscopically, particularly by 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and chemical analysis. The antiplasmodial activity of isolated compounds were determined in vitro against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10). Among the compounds isolated, piceid-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) had the most potential inhibition, with inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 5.3 microM. To our knowledge, antiplasmodial activity of functional group position of stilbene is now being reported for the first time in this study. The result shows that the 3, 4'-position in stilbenes might play an essential role in antiplasmodial activity. PMID:17211658

  11. The extent of the odontoblast process in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G R

    1976-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that in the dentine of cats perfused with aldehyde fixatives for short periods the odontoblast process seems to be limited to inner dentine. This could possibly have been an artefact due either to inadequate penetration of the fixative or shrinkage of the cells. Experiments prolonging the duration of the fixation and raising the concentration of the fixatives, examining dentine from regions and species where it is narrow and more accessible to fixatives, and looking at dentine fixed by immersion both in situ and after excision, all showed the process to be limited to inner dentine. Measruing glutaraldehyde penetration through model dentine and also through dentine in the perfused animal showed that this fixative penetrates the dentine well. Variations in fixative osmotic pressure, while having a profound effect on cells and processes in vitro and causing changes in cell shape in the intact animal, do not neasurably alter the extent of the odontoblast process. The conclusion is that the odontoblast process in the cat is limited to the pulpal half of the dentine. As a consequence, no cellular mechanism can be involved in the transmission of stimuli across the outer dentine. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:815232

  12. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  13. Purification and properties of an esterase from organophosphate-resistant strain of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed Central

    Merryweather, A T; Crampton, J M; Townson, H

    1990-01-01

    Organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible strains of Culex quinquefasciatus (mosquito) have been compared on the basis of their esterase activities. The homozygous resistant strain (Dar) shows two highly active esterases after starch-gel electrophoresis, of Rm 0.2 and 0.4, which are absent from susceptible strains (Apo, Mon), and which previous selection studies have shown to be inseparable from organophosphate resistance. After SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and silver staining of total C. quinquefasciatus proteins, a 62 kDa band is observed in strain Dar at high concentrations, and in susceptible strains in trace amounts. After Western blotting, this 62 kDa protein is recognized by antisera raised against the two esterases eluted from starch gels. After chromatofocusing of Dar proteins, the 62 kDa protein is seen to be associated with esterase activity, and of a similar pI to that observed for esterases after isoelectric focusing. Post-translational modification is not required for recognition of the 62 kDa putative esterase, since the protein is immunoprecipitated by the anti-esterase serum from products of translation of Dar mRNA in vitro. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2178604

  14. The variable surface glycoproteins of Trypanosoma equiperdum are phosphorylated.

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, T; Giroud, C; Baltz, D; Duvillier, G; Degand, P; Demaille, J; Pautrizel, R

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoproteins from three Trypanosoma equiperdum variants were studied by labelling the parasites in vivo with 32P. Phosphoprotein analysis reveals the presence of a 58 000 mol. wt. phosphoprotein ( pp58 ) which is absent when live trypanosomes are pre-treated with proteinase K under conditions where only the surface coat containing the variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) is removed. Immunological and fingerprint analysis on labelled pp58 , purified from these variants by affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A-Sepharose, clearly identify this component as the VSG. Furthermore, the VSGs seem to be phosphorylated to the extent of 1 mol phosphate per mol glycoprotein. The phosphorylated region is located in the extreme C-terminal region representing approximately 10% of the total molecule. The phosphorylated residue is not an aliphatic or aromatic ester of serine, threonine, or tyrosine, nor an acyl phosphate involving an aspartyl or glutamyl residue, nor phosphohistidine. The evidence that VSGs are phosphorylated could have considerable implications for the transfer and function of these structures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6821334

  15. Microfabricated structures for integrated DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, M A; Mastrangelo, C H; Sammarco, T S; Man, F P; Webster, J R; Johnsons, B N; Foerster, B; Jones, D; Fields, Y; Kaiser, A R; Burke, D T

    1996-01-01

    Photolithographic micromachining of silicon is a candidate technology for the construction of high-throughput DNA analysis devices. However, the development of complex silicon microfabricated systems has been hindered in part by the lack of a simple, versatile pumping method for integrating individual components. Here we describe a surface-tension-based pump able to move discrete nanoliter drops through enclosed channels using only local heating. This thermocapillary pump can accurately mix, measure, and divide drops by simple electronic control. In addition, we have constructed thermal-cycling chambers, gel electrophoresis channels, and radiolabeled DNA detectors that are compatible with the fabrication of thermocapillary pump channels. Since all of the components are made by conventional photolithographic techniques, they can be assembled into more complex integrated systems. The combination of pump and components into self-contained miniaturized devices may provide significant improvements in DNA analysis speed, portability, and cost. The potential of microfabricated systems lies in the low unit cost of silicon-based construction and in the efficient sample handling afforded by component integration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643614

  16. Fine Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Childhood Malignant Disease in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, I. T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred aspirations using a fine needle have been performed on 94 patients with a suspected diagnosis of malignant tumour, 31 of which were in patients with recurrent tumour. In 90 aspirates where histology was also available there was agreement between histological and cytological diagnosis in 81 (90%). This percentage was identical when only previously undiagnosed tumours were considered (60). In 4 aspirates no cells were obtained from tumours in which a diagnosis was made histologically and in 5 there was disagreement with histology, either regarding the presence of malignancy, or tumour type. The technique of fine needle aspiration is simple, rapid, safe and reliable. It is particularly valuable when emergency treatment is required, necessitating a very rapid diagnosis, or when the tumour is entirely intra-abdominal and the patient is unfit for laparotomy. Repeat aspirates may be performed to assess progress following treatment, or multiple suspected tumour sites may be aspirated to assist staging. The technique may be used to confirm the presence of relapsing tumour. Aspiration cytology may prove valuable as a further dimension in the interpretation of histological sections in a variety of childhood tumours, and in some circumstances may be sufficient in itself to establish a diagnosis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4131498

  17. Histology of breast development in early life.

    PubMed Central

    McKiernan, J; Coyne, J; Cahalane, S

    1988-01-01

    Histological examination of the breasts of 26 infants and young children who died suddenly between the ages of 3 weeks and 2 years was performed. The glands were composed of well formed lobules surrounded by dense interlobular stroma, while within the lobules there was looser connective tissue. The lobules contained ducts, many of which were dilated and contained secretions. Foci of extramedullary haematopoiesis were found, and in the older infants, fat was prominent within the connective tissue of the breast. Myoepithelial cells were regularly present. No sex differences in breast development at this time were noted. Newborn breast development did not regress rapidly after birth and secretory activity continued for many months in both sexes. This study shows that the human mammary gland remains active for many months after birth and may continue to grow and secrete. The findings are not consistent with the current view that breast development in infancy results from stimulation from 'pregnancy hormones.' It is more likely that the infant's own gonadal secretions are responsible. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3348660

  18. Pediatric osteomyelitis and septic arthritis: the pathology of neonatal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The morphologic and histologic examination of over fifty-five foci of metaphyseal/epiphyseal osteomyelitis and eleven septic joints from five cases of neonatal osteomyelitis and joint sepsis are described in detail. The severity of the bone and joint involvement varied considerably, allowing a better understanding of the pathophysiologic sequence of events in the disease in the neonatal time period. Of particular importance were (1) the multifocal nature of the disease, (2) the highly variable destruction of the growth plate (physis) by several discrete mechanisms, and (3) the invasion of the chondroepiphysis through the cartilage canal systems. Two of the cases died from respiratory complications several months following presumed successful treatment of their skeletal infections. S&pecimens showed significant growth plate damage continuing beyond the neonatal period. These findings support the need for rapid diagnosis and drainage, whenever feasible, to prevent long-term skeletal growth damage. The severity of involvement also should emphasize that this disease, especially in the neonate, is not an innocuous condition, as a recent review suggested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 14 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 18 FIG. 19 FIG. 20 PMID:524924

  19. Comparison of Escherichia coli fimbrial antigen F7 with type 1 fimbriae.

    PubMed Central

    Orskov, I; Orskov, F; Birch-Andersen, A

    1980-01-01

    Two Escherichia coli O6:K2:H1 strains, C1212 and C1214, isolated from urinary tract infections, were compared for their capacity to adhere to various cells. After growth on solid medium, only C1212 bacteria agglutinate human erythrocytes and attach to urinary epithelial cells. Both of these reactions are mannose resistant. In contrast, C1214 bacteria cause a mannose-sensitive agglutination of guinea pig erythrocytes, show a mannose-sensitive attachment to buccal epithelial cells, and attach to urinary mucus. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that C1214 bacteria possess type 1 fimbriae (mannose sensitive), which are not present in C1212 bacteria when this strain is grown on solid medium. The fimbriae of C1212 (mannose resistant) were also demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy. We call these fimbriae demonstrated in C1212 the E. coli F7 antigen. Urinary mucus, and probably mucous material elsewhere, may function as a trap for Enterobacteriaceae with type 1 fimbriae by the specific adherence of such bacteria. We consider this a nonimmune resistance mechanism against disease caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6103872

  20. Identification and molecular analysis of a multigene family encoding calliphorin, the major larval serum protein of Calliphora vicina

    PubMed Central

    Schenkel, Heide; Kejzlarová-Lepesant, Jana; Berreur, Paul; Moreau, Jacques; Scheller, Klaus; Brègègére, François; Lepesant, Jean-Antoine

    1985-01-01

    A library of Calliphora vicina genomic DNA was constructed in the λEMBL3 vector and screened for recombinant phages containing chromosomal segments encoding calliphorin, the major larval serum protein (LSP) of Calliphora. A large series of recombinants hybridizing with in vitro labelled poly(A)+ RNA from Calliphora larval fat bodies and with specific probes derived from the LSP-1 genes of Drosophila melanogaster was isolated. Five of these phages, chosen at random, were shown by hybrid selection to retain calliphorin mRNA specifically. Eleven calliphorin mRNA-homologous regions were located on restriction maps of these phages by hybridization with 5' end-labelled poly(A)+ RNA from Calliphora larval fat bodies. Each phage contains at least two calliphorin genes arranged in direct repeat orientation and seperated by 3.5–5 kb intergenic regions. The genes display similar but not identical restriction patterns. Filter hybridization and heteroduplex analysis indicate that they share a detectable homology with the LSP-1β gene of D. melanogaster. Whole genome Southern analysis showed that these genes belong to a large family of closely related calliphorin genes which were found by in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes of trichogen cells to be clustered in region 4a of chromosome 2 of Calliphora vicina. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:16453643

  1. Cardiac achalasia in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harjit; Sethi, R. S.; Gupta, H. L.; Khetarpal, S. K.

    1969-01-01

    Cardiac achalasia is a disorder not unknown in the paediatric age-group and may occur even in the neonatal period. This disorder should, therefore, be considered in all cases presenting with persistent vomiting, as well as in those with chronic respiratory disease in whom more common causes have been excluded. It is almost universally accepted that the disorder results from a disturbed function of ganglion cells in the distal oesophagus, as the disease has been reproduced in laboratory animals by denervation of the distal oesophagus. The exact pathogenesis of this degenerative change is not well understood. However, in at least some of the cases congenital absence of the ganglion cells may be responsible for this functional disturbance. This is inferred from the fact that the disease may be found in association with Hirschsprung disease, in which there is a congenital absence of ganglion cells in the terminal colon. Moreover, the occurrence of the disease in the neonatal period itself favours a congenital lesion. Surgery was preferred to other forms of treatment in the paediatric age-group in view of the reported equivocal response to mechanical dilatation and pre-disposition of children to respiratory complications. The results of surgery were satisfactory. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5790932

  2. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol is involved in the membrane attachment of proteins in granules of chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fouchier, F; Bastiani, P; Baltz, T; Aunis, D; Rougon, G

    1988-01-01

    Incubation at 37 degrees C or treatment of granule membranes of chromaffin cells with Staphylococcus aureus phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C converted from an amphiphilic to a hydrophilic form two proteins with molecular masses of 82 and 68 kDa respectively. Their release is time- and enzyme-concentration-dependent. We showed that they were immunoreactive with an anti-(cross-reacting determinant) antibody known to be revealed only after removal of a diacylglycerol anchor. Furthermore, the action of HNO2 suggests the presence of a non-acetylated glucosamine residue in the determinant. This is one of the first reports suggesting that a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor might exist in membranes other than the plasma membrane. We showed that the 68 kDa protein is probably not the subunit of dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) beta-hydroxylase, an enzyme present in granules in both soluble and membrane-associated forms. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2851974

  3. Plant Plasma Membrane Proteins 1

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Howard D.; Breidenbach, R. William

    1987-01-01

    A major 75 kD protein group from the tomato plasma membrane was semipurified on polyacrylamide gels and used to raise a rabbit antiserum. The resulting antiserum recognized a single 75 kilodalton band from phase partitioned tomato plasma membrane (from both suspension cells and mature, green fruit) after resolution on one-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis of proteins from tomato plasma membrane showed that the 75 kilodalton antiserum recognized a group of proteins ranging from 63.1 to 88.2 kilodaltons (mean = 75.6 kilodaltons) and with isoelectric point values ranging from 5.7 to 6.3. No other spots were visible on the two-dimensional blots. This antiserum was shown to bind protoplast surface epitopes by indirect immunofluorescence. The presence of this protein group in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants was established by immunoblotting the tomato 75 kilodalton antiserum against proteins obtained from plasma membrane-enriched fractions from corn roots and soybean roots. The data suggest that this 75 kilodalton protein group is a major proteinaceous component of the plant plasma membrane. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665801

  4. COOH-terminal processing of nascent polypeptides by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase in the presence of hydrazine is governed by the same parameters as glycosylphosphatidylinositol addition.

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, S; Maxwell, S E; Medof, M E; Chen, R; Gerber, L D; Udenfriend, S

    1996-01-01

    Proteins anchored to the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety are found in all eukaryotes. After NH2-terminal peptide cleavage of the nascent protein by the signal peptidase, a second COOH-terminal signal peptide is cleaved with the concomitant addition of the GPI unit. The proposed mechanism of the GPI transfer is a transamidation reaction that involves the formation of an activated carbonyl intermediate (enzyme-substrate complex) with the ethanolamine moiety of the preassembled GPI unit serving as a nucleophile. Other nucleophilic acceptors like hydrazine (HDZ) and hydroxylamine have been shown to be possible alternate substrates for GPI. Since GPI has yet to be purified, the use of readily available nucleophilic substitutes such as HDZ and hydroxylamine is a viable alternative to study COOH-terminal processing by the putative transamidase. As a first step in developing a soluble system to study this process, we have examined the amino acid requirements at the COOH terminus for the transamidation reaction using HDZ as the nucleophilic acceptor instead of GPI. The hydrazide-forming reaction shows identical amino acid requirement profiles to that of GPI anchor addition. Additionally, we have studied other parameters relating to the kinetics of the transamidation reaction in the context of rough microsomal membranes. The findings with HDZ provide further evidence for the transamidase nature of the enzyme and also provide a starting point for development of a soluble assay. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8755508

  5. Identification, purification, and characterization of a zyxin-related protein that binds the focal adhesion and microfilament protein VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein).

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, M; Jouvenal, K; Tripier, D; Walter, U

    1995-01-01

    VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein), an established substrate of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases in vitro and in living cells, is associated with focal adhesions, microfilaments, and membrane regions of high dynamic activity. Here, the identification of an 83-kDa protein (p83) that specifically binds VASP in blot overlays of different cell homogenates is reported. With VASP overlays as a detection tool, p83 was purified from porcine platelets and used to generate monospecific polyclonal antibodies. VASP binding to purified p83 in solid-phase binding assays and the closely matching subcellular localization in double-label immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that both proteins also directly interact as native proteins in vitro and possibly in living cells. The subcellular distribution, the biochemical properties, as well as microsequencing data revealed that porcine platelet p83 is related to chicken gizzard zyxin and most likely represents the mammalian equivalent of the chicken protein. The VASP-p83 interaction may contribute to the targeting of VASP to focal adhesions, microfilaments, and dynamic membrane regions. Together with our recent identification of VASP as a natural ligand of the profilin poly-(L-proline) binding site, our present results suggest that, by linking profilin to zyxin/p83, VASP may participate in spatially confined profilin-regulated F-actin formation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:7644520

  6. Ménétrier's disease. A trivalent gastropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Sundt, T M; Compton, C C; Malt, R A

    1988-01-01

    Current conceptions of Ménétrier's disease only obliquely resemble those originally described. Bona-fide cases are so uncommon that, of 125 cases diagnosed as Ménétier's disease, hypertrophic gastritis, or protein-losing gastropathy treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the 26-year period of 1962-1987, only six cases merited an unequivocal anatomic diagnosis. Two other cases previously described proved on review to be nondiagnostic in one instance and Campylobacter pylori gastritis in the other. Because abnormalities in the secretion of gastric acid and in the loss of protein from the stomach may coexist, a representation of each case in semiquantitative terms can be described on triaxial coordinates. Three patients had a hypercoagulable state, one in association with gastric carcinoma. One other case of gastric carcinoma and one of esophageal carcinoma coexistant with Ménétrier's disease were identified. Administration of subcutaneous heparin during the perioperative period to patients with Ménétrier's disease is appropriate regardless of whether or not hypercoagulation or carcinoma is manifest. If treatment with anticholinergic drugs and inhibitors of gastric acid secretion fails, total gastrectomy is the best solution, because it stops protein loss, eliminates hyperchlorhydria, prevents development of gastric carcinoma, and permits anastomotic reconstruction between normal esophagus and normal small bowel. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3264139

  7. Ultrastruct of the hypothalamic neurosecretory nuclei of the dormouse (Eliomys quercinus L.) in the awakening and hibernating states.

    PubMed Central

    Machín-Santamaría, C

    1978-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the chief neurosecretory nuclei, supraoptic, (SON), parventricular, (PVN) and infundibular (IN), of the dormouse (Eliomys quercinus L.) has been studied during active and hibernating states. In the active state all three nuclei contained light, dark and intermediate type neurons. In hibernation the SON showed only a single light type which differed from the light neurons of the active state; the endoplasmic reticulum was vacuolized and sometimes grouped in 'honey-comb' structures; the cytoplasm contained accumulations of filamentous 'crystalline' material. None of these features occurred in the active state neurons. In the PVN and IN during hibernation both a light and a dark type neuron were present. 'Honey-comb' structures were seen in neurons of the PVN during hibernation, but never in those of the IN. Thus specific morphological features in the SON and PVN appear to be associated with the physiological changes of hibernation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:721686

  8. In vivo disruption of Xenopus U3 snRNA affects ribosomal RNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    Savino, R; Gerbi, S A

    1990-01-01

    DNA oligonucleotide complementary to sequences in the 5' third of U3 snRNA were injected into Xenopus oocyte nuclei to disrupt endogenous U3 snRNA. The effect of this treatment on rRNA processing was examined. We found that some toads have a single rRNA processing pathway, whereas in other toads, two rRNA processing pathways can coexist in a single oocyte. U3 snRNA disruption in toads with the single rRNA processing pathway caused a reduction in 20S and '32S' pre-rRNA. In addition, in toads with two rRNA processing pathways, an increase in '36S' pre-rRNA of the second pathway is observed. This is the first in vivo demonstration that U3 snRNA plays a role in rRNA processing. Cleavage site #3 is at the boundary of ITS 1 and 5.8S and links all of the affected rRNA intermediates: 20S and '32S' are the products of site #3 cleavage in the first pathway and '36S' is the substrate for cleavage at site #3 in the second pathway. We postulate that U3 snRNP folds pre-rRNA into a conformation dictating correct cleavage at processing site #3. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2357971

  9. The fine structure of initial mineralisation during tooth development in the gummy shark, Mustelus manazo, Elasmobranchia.

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, I

    1989-01-01

    In the enameloid matrix a large number of tubular vesicles appeared around the odontoblast processes at the stage of enameloid matrix formation. The tubular vesicles were limited by unit membrane and the membrane often seemed to connect with that of the odontoblast processes. The tubular vesicles probably originated from the odontoblasts. Electron-dense granules were observed in the tubular vesicles before the appearance of crystals and then, in the stage of mineralisation, initial enameloid crystals appeared in each tubular vesicle. Parts of the odontoblast process surrounded small aggregations of tubular vesicles in the unmineralised dentine matrix. There were many multivesicular bodies and lysosomes in the odontoblasts forming the dentine. The odontoblasts probably absorb and break down the tubular vesicles after the beginning of dentinogenesis. Only in the predentine, during the enameloid maturation stage, did a few matrix vesicles appear, but no crystals were found in them. Hence, the initial mineralisation in tooth germs of the shark can be said to be different from that in teleosts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:2606790

  10. Automation in clinical microbiology: a new approach to identifying micro-organisms by automated pattern matching of proteins labelled with 35S-methionine.

    PubMed Central

    Tabaqchali, S; Silman, R; Holland, D

    1987-01-01

    A new rapid automated method for the identification and classification of microorganisms is described. It is based on the incorporation of 35S-methionine into cellular proteins and subsequent separation of the radiolabelled proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein patterns produced were species specific and reproducible, permitting discrimination between the species. A large number of Gram negative and Gram positive aerobic and anaerobic organisms were successfully tested. Furthermore, there were sufficient differences within species between the protein profiles to permit subdivision of the species. New typing schemes for Clostridium difficile, coagulase negative staphylococci, and Staphylococcus aureus, including the methicillin resistant strains, could thus be introduced; this has provided the basis for useful epidemiological studies. To standardise and automate the procedure an automated electrophoresis system and a two dimensional scanner were developed to scan the dried gels directly. The scanner is operated by a computer which also stores and analyses the scan data. Specific histograms are produced for each bacterial species. Pattern recognition software is used to construct databases and to compare data obtained from different gels: in this way duplicate "unknowns" can be identified. Specific small areas showing differences between various histograms can also be isolated and expanded to maximise the differences, thus providing differentiation between closely related bacterial species and the identification of differences within the species to provide new typing schemes. This system should be widely applied in clinical microbiology laboratories in the near future. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3312300

  11. Coexpression of NF-kappa B/Rel and Sp1 transcription factors in human immunodeficiency virus 1-induced, dendritic cell-T-cell syncytia.

    PubMed Central

    Granelli-Piperno, A; Pope, M; Inaba, K; Steinman, R M

    1995-01-01

    Productive infection of T cells with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) typically requires that the T cells be stimulated with antigens or mitogens. This requirement has been attributed to the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which synergizes with the constitutive transcription factor Sp1 to drive the HIV-1 promoter. Recently, we have found that vigorous replication of HIV-1 takes place in nonactivated memory T cells after syncytium formation with dendritic cells (DCs). These syncytia lack activated cells as determined by an absence of staining for Ki-67 cell cycle antigen. The expression and activity of NF-kappa B and Sp1 were, therefore, analyzed in isolated T cells and DCs from humans and mice. We have used immunolabeling, Western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. T cells lack active NF-kappa B but express Sp1 as expected. DCs express high levels of all known NF-kappa B and Rel proteins, with activity residing primarily within RelB, p50, and p65. However, DCs lack Sp1, which may explain the failure of HIV-1 to replicate in purified DCs. Coexpression of NF-kappa B and Sp1 occurs in the heterologous DC-T-cell syncytia that are induced by HIV-1. Therefore, HIV-1-induced cell fusion brings together factors that upregulate virus transcription. Since DCs and memory T cells frequently traffic together in situ, these unusual heterologous syncytia could develop in infected individuals and lead to chronic HIV-1 replication without ostensible immune stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479915

  12. Circulating tissue antigens. I. Tissue antigens in serum of patients with diseases involving injury of the liver and of other organs

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, E.

    1974-01-01

    Circulating tissue antigens (CTA) were investigated in 143 patients with disorders involving injury of the liver and of other organs and in forty-eight normal subjects by immunodiffusion techniques using rabbit anti-human liver serum containing antibodies to a liver-specific antigen and to tissue antigens of wide organ distribution. Analysis of serum samples by double immunodiffusion showed up to three CTA in the following cases: fifteen out of eighteen, viral hepatitis (VH), two out of thirteen, other infectious diseases, two out of ten, alcoholic cirrhosis, seven out of twenty-one, congestive heart failure (CHF), four out of fourteen, myocardial infarction, ten out of twenty-one, trauma, two out of thirteen, carcinoma and three out of thirty-three, miscellaneous diseases. Forty-eight normal subjects showed no CTA. Immunoelectrophoresis of most of the positive cases showed two to three CTA, while a few cases showed four to six. Absorption tests with organ extracts demonstrated that in most patients, CTA were substances shared by several organs. However, in two cases of VH, in two cases of CHF with liver necrosis and in two cases of trauma to the liver, one of the CTA was shown to be liver specific. The CTA were susceptible to digestion by pronase and were found to be relatively thermolabile. Positive sera showed higher glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase activities than the negative sera. These preliminary data suggest that further investigation on CTA in disease involving tissue injury and necrosis may be rewarding. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4219874

  13. An in vitro study of the properties influencing Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to prosthetic vascular graft materials.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J M; Martin, L F

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the properties of various vascular graft materials on the bacterial adherence process of two different strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (mucous and normucous producing). Dacron grafts (both knitted and woven), Teflon grafts, and Dacron grafts coated with one and two layers of silicone were studied because these materials differ significantly in porosity, hydrophobicity, and surface charge (zeta potential). Graft segments were immersed in 3H-labeled bacteria solution for periods ranging from 5 to 180 minutes and liquid scintillation techniques were used to quantify bacterial adherence. The porous knitted Dacron material had a significantly higher rate of bacterial adherence than either the woven Dacron or Teflon (p less than 0.05). Silicone coating (either one or two layers) reduced adherence by a factor of four for the knitted Dacron (p less than 0.05) and by a factor of two for woven Dacron (p less than 0.05). The mucous producing strain of S. epidermidis displayed significantly better adherence to woven and knitted Dacron than the normucous producing strain, but only when 0.25% dextrose was added to the bacteria solution. These findings indicate that the highly porous knitted Dacron grafts have the highest propensity for bacterial adhesion. Graft materials with the most negative zeta potentials are more resistant to bacterial adherence. Silicone coating of Dacron material significantly changed adherence characteristics, suggesting that this may be a viable strategy for protecting implantable medical devices containing materials to which bacteria readily adhere. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5A and B. Fig. 6A and B. Fig. 7. PMID:2960278

  14. Polypeptide heterogeneity of hamster and calf fibronectins.

    PubMed Central

    Pena, S D; Mills, G; Hughes, R C; Aplin, J D

    1980-01-01

    The adhesive glycoprotein fibronectin has been isolated from fresh hamster plasma by affinity chromatography on gelatin coupled to Sepharose beads by the method of Engvall & Ruoslahti [Int. J. Cancer (1979) 20, 1-5]. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of material heated in sodium dodecyl sulphate and 2-mercaptoethanol shows two prominent polypeptide subunits of approx. mol.wts. 215 000 and 200 000, with variable amounts of lower-molecular-weight fragments. The unexpected polypeptide heterogeneity of different preparations of hamster fibronectins and bovine serum fibronectin is shown to be partly an artefact and is generated during isolation and storage of purified fibronectin. Treatment of each hamster fibronectin subunit or a smaller fragment of approx. mol.wt. 140 000 with thermolysin or trypsin after radioiodination produces similar patterns of tyrpsine-containing peptides, indicating similar primary amino-acid sequences. Antibodies raised against the major subunits of hamster plasma fibronectin were coupled to Sepharose beads and used in conjunction with gelatin affinity chromatography to isolate fibronectins extracted with urea from baby-hamster kidney (BHK) cells and present in the long-term culture medium of these cells. The cell and medium fibronectins are similar to hamster plasma fibronectin in amino-acid and carbohydrate composition and also produce very similar peptide 'maps'. We conclude that the various forms of hamster fibronectins are structurally analogous in agreement with indistinguishable biological properties in mediating the substance adhesion of BKH cells [Pena & Hughes (1978) Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 3, 339-344]. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:7458916

  15. Isolation and characterisation of a hyaluronan binding protein, hyaluronectin, from human placenta and its colocalisation with hyaluronan.

    PubMed Central

    Ponting, J M; Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix and is known to influence cell behaviour and to play a role in angiogenesis, morphogenesis and tissue remodelling, although little is known concerning the regulation of these effects. Until now its detection in the placenta has been by indirect methods, which has led to conflicting conclusions as to its distribution and hence its role. Hyaluronectin (HN) is one of a group of proteins with HA binding ability which may regulate the effects of HA. Although nervous tissue HN has been partly characterised with regard to its distribution, structure and biochemistry, little is known about the mesenchymal isoform and its distribution in placenta has not previously been reported. Using specific probes we have characterised the distribution of HA and HN in human placental tissue. At all stages of development studied (8, 10, 12, 30 and 38 wk gestation) HA and HN were unequivocally colocalised, being distributed in the extracellular matrix of stromal tissue of placental villi, chorioallantoic membranes and umbilical cord. Particularly strong immunoreactivity was observed in the villous stroma immediately adjacent to fibrinoid depositions at sites of denudation of the trophoblast layer. Extraction and characterisation of the HN from placental villi have revealed 4 major glycoproteins of 47, 52, 57 and 67 kDa, this being a different pattern and smaller molecular range than observed for the nervous tissue form. This is the first direct demonstration of the presence of HA and HN in the placenta and identifies an abundant new source of mesenchymal HN. The functions of mesenchymal HN are unknown but may include ion exchange, immunosuppression and regulation of the effects of HA in such roles as maintenance of tissue architecture, cell migration and angiogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7544332

  16. Diffusely infiltrated lymphoid areas of the bursa of Fabricius (DIA) and of the cloaca: an embryological study with morphological analogies.

    PubMed Central

    Dolfi, A; Lupetti, M; Bianchi, F; Michelucci, S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to verify whether the origin of the DIA is ectodermal or endodermal. A rabbit serum against the epithelial cells of the final portion of the cloaca was prepared. The indirect immunofluorescence method was applied to strips obtained with a cryostat, carefully cut in such a way as to include a part of the cloaca, the burso-cloacal stalk, the DIA, and the bursal plicae. In this way, it was possible to demonstrate that the epithelium of the cloaca, of the burso-cloacal stalk, and of the DIA exhibited an intense fluorescence that could not be observed at the level of the epithelium of the bursal plicae. These findings would appear to indicate that the DIA, like the cloaca and the burso-cloacal stalk, is ectodermal in origin. Furthermore, histological study revealed that the DIA exhibits close structural analogies with the dorsal wall of the cloaca. In both areas, unorganized lymphoid infiltrations of the tunica propria can be seen, and the epithelium does not show any follicle-associated epithelial cells. The glands often assume the aspect of dilated crypts containing intestinal transit material. The epithelium of these glands reveals lymphoid infiltrations at various points, and it is not uncommon to detect accumulations of cells in their lumina. Several groups of eosinophilic granulocytes can also be observed in the tunica propria of these two areas, with a clear predominance at the level of the DIA. These similarities between the cloaca and the DIA might lead one to suppose the existence of a functional as well as a morphological correspondence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3417544

  17. The histological appearance of large intestinal biopsies in dogs with clinical signs of large bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, I

    1988-01-01

    Colonic and rectal forceps and excision biopsies of 355 dogs with clinical signs of large bowel disease were investigated. Five percent of the forceps biopsies were unsuitable for examination; all excision biopsies were of good quality. Forceps biopsies were obtained from one to eight sites, up to 60 cm cranial from the anus, while excision biopsies, mostly from tumors, were from the rectoanal region. Slight to severe colitis and/or proctitis was found in 192 dogs (54%). A single type of colitis was seen in 160 dogs; in 53 cases the lesions were local, in 107 cases multiple. A combination of different types of colitis was found in 32 dogs. Atrophic colitis, diffuse colitis and canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis were the most prominent findings, followed by ulcerative, superficial and eosinophilic colitis. Follicular, hypertrophic and aspecific granulomatous colitis were found in only a few cases. Tumors were diagnosed in 57 dogs (16%). Of these tumors 50 were of epithelial and seven were of mesenchymal origin. A high percentage (61%) of the epithelial tumors consisted of adenomas of the rectoanal region. In ten other dogs (3%) a differential diagnosis of lymphosarcoma or colitis had to be made. Colitis and colorectal tumors were more prevalent in Boxers, German Shepherds, Poodles, Great Danes and Spaniels. In the Boxers simple chronic colitis, as well as canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis were more frequently found, the latter especially in females. Other biopsy findings were edema, crypt cysts, hemorrhages, an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and an increased or decreased number of goblet cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:3349403

  18. The laryngeal primordium and epithelial lamina. A new interpretation.

    PubMed Central

    Sañudo, J R; Domenech-Mateu, J M

    1990-01-01

    The laryngeal primordium is present in both the laryngotracheal sulcus (LTS) and the primitive pulmonary sac (PPS). Its early period of development may be subdivided into two phases. The first phase (Stage 11) is represented by what is traditionally referred to as the LTS, located directly beneath the PP4 on the ventral wall of the foregut (primary segment), and by the PPS which is situated at its caudal end. The LTS will represent the primordium of the upper or membranous infraglottic cavity region; whereas the PPS, will give rise not only to the bronchial tree, but also to the primordium of the trachea and the lower or cartilaginous region of the infraglottic cavity. The second phase (Stages 13 and 14) is distinguished by the cranial growth of the LTS above the PP4 and therefore by its absorption into the floor of the primitive pharynx in the mesobranchial area (secondary segment), which will develop into the primordium of the vestibule of the larynx. Similarly, we observed that in the development of the laryngeal cavity there are two temporally and spatially separate epithelial structures: the epithelial septum and the epithelial lamina. In this respect we differ from other authors who are of the opinion that there is a single structure (the epithelial lamina). The epithelial septum is a primary structure responsible for the final configuration of the LTS, as it contributes to the development of the lower end of the primary segment of the LTS and also to the creation of the secondary segment. The epithelial lamina is a secondary structure which appears inside the LTS as a result of pressure exerted by the mesenchyme on its lateral walls, without having any effect on the morphogenesis of the LTS. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2081706

  19. Normal human serum contains a natural IgM antibody cytotoxic for human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ollert, M W; David, K; Schmitt, C; Hauenschild, A; Bredehorst, R; Erttmann, R; Vogel, C W

    1996-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is characterized by the second highest spontaneous regression of any human malignant disorder, a phenomenon that remains to be elucidated. In this study, a survey of 94 normal human adult sera revealed a considerable natural humoral cytotoxicity against human NB cell lines in approximately one-third of the tested sera of both genders. Specific cell killing by these sera was in the range of 40% to 95%. Serum cytotoxicity was dependent on an intact classical pathway of complement. By several lines of evidence, IgM antibodies were identified as the cytotoxic factor in the sera. Further analyses revealed that a 260-kDa protein was recognized by natural IgM of cytotoxic sera in Western blots of NB cell extracts. The antigen was expressed on the surface of seven human NB cell lines but not on human melanoma or other control tumor cell lines derived from kidney, pancreas, colon, bone, skeletal muscle, lymphatic system, and bone marrow. Furthermore, no reactivity was observed with normal human fibroblasts, melanocytes, and epidermal keratinocytes. The antigen was expressed in vivo as detected by immunohistochemistry in both the tumor of a NB patient and NB tumors established in nude rats from human NB cell lines. Most interestingly, the IgM anti-NB antibody was absent from the sera of 11 human NB patients with active disease. The anti-NB IgM also could not be detected in tumor tissue obtained from a NB patient. Collectively, our data suggest the existence of a natural humoral immunological tumor defense mechanism, which could account for the in vivo phenomenon of spontaneous NB tumor regression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8633097

  20. Oncogenic activation of the human trk proto-oncogene by recombination with the ribosomal large subunit protein L7a.

    PubMed Central

    Ziemiecki, A; Müller, R G; Fu, X C; Hynes, N E; Kozma, S

    1990-01-01

    The trk-2h oncogene, isolated from the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB 231 by genomic DNA-transfection into NIH3T3 cells, consists of the trk proto-oncogene receptor kinase domain fused to a N-terminal 41 amino acid activating sequence (Kozma, S.C., Redmond, S.M.S., Xiao-Chang, F., Saurer, S.M., Groner, B. and Hynes, N.E. (1988) EMBO J., 7, 147-154). Antibodies raised against a bacterially produced beta gal-trk receptor kinase fusion protein recognized a 44 kd phosphoprotein phosphorylated on serine, threonine and tyrosine in extracts of trk-2h transformed NIH3T3 cells. In vitro, in the presence of Mn2+/gamma ATP, this protein became phosphorylated extensively on tyrosine. Cells transformed by trk-2h did not, however, show an elevation in total phosphotyrosine. We have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding the amino terminal activating sequences of trk-2h (Kozma et al., 1988). The encoded protein has a high basic amino acid content and the gene is expressed as an abundant 1.2 kb mRNA in human, rat and mouse cells. Antipeptide antibodies raised against a C-terminal peptide recognized specifically a 30 kd protein on Western blots of human, rat and mouse cell extracts. Immunofluorescence revealed, in addition to granular cytoplasmic fluorescence, intense nucleolar staining. The high basic amino acid content and nucleolar staining prompted us to investigate whether the 30 kd protein could be a ribosomal protein. Western immunoblotting analysis of 2D-electrophoretically resolved ribosomal proteins indicated that the 30 kd protein is the ribosomal large subunit protein L7a.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. PMID:2403926

  1. Electrical stimulation for the relief of pain.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, J.

    1984-01-01

    Electrical stimulation can relieve some severe and otherwise persisting pains. At its best it can be associated with either a gradual reduction in the pain or an increased ability by the patient to control his suffering. It seems particularly appropriate for use in the field of benign persistent pain. Equipment design and materials, particularly for implantable circuits, are not perfect. Movement towards percutaneous implantation, obviating the need for open operation, seems progressively more popular. Any unit or group using this form of treatment, must be prepared to provide major technical facilities, both in the form of people and equipment in order to cater for the many purely technical problems that occur. A great deal of knowledge both neurophysiological and neurochemical seems to be accruing from the clinical use of electrical stimulation. We would do well to take advantage of this opportunity, in the hope that it might lead us to a better understanding of the functioning of the nervous system. This consideration remarkably parallels an observation made by John Hunter in his presentation to the Royal Society in 1773 (13) which anticipated the realisation of the part played by electricity in the function of nerves. Following his description of the extraordinary innervation of the electric organs of the Torpedo fish, he wrote: 'How far this may be connected with the power of the nerves in general, or how far it may lead to an explanation of their operations, time and future discoveries alone can fully determine.' Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6608312

  2. Priming of tumor-specific T cells in the draining lymph nodes after immunization with interleukin 2-secreting tumor cells: three consecutive stages may be required for successful tumor vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Maass, G; Schmidt, W; Berger, M; Schilcher, F; Koszik, F; Schneeberger, A; Stingl, G; Birnstiel, M L; Schweighoffer, T

    1995-01-01

    Although both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are clearly required to generate long-lasting anti-tumor immunity induced by s.c. vaccination with interleukin 2 (IL-2)-transfected, irradiated M-3 clone murine melanoma cells, some controversy continues about the site and mode of T-cell activation in this system. Macrophages, granulocytes, and natural killer cells infiltrate the vaccination site early after injection into either syngeneic euthymic DBA/2 mice or athymic nude mice and eliminate the inoculum within 48 hr. We could not find T cells at the vaccination site, which argues against the concept that T-cell priming by the IL-2-secreting cancer cells occurs directly at that location. However, reverse transcription-PCR revealed transcripts indicative of T-cell activation and expansion in the draining lymph nodes of mice immunized with the IL-2-secreting vaccine but not in mice vaccinated with untransfected, irradiated M-3 cells. We therefore propose that the antigen-presenting cells, which invade the vaccination site, process tumor-derived antigens and, subsequently, initiate priming of tumor-specific T lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. These findings suggest a three-stage process for the generation of effector T cells after vaccination with IL-2-secreting tumor cells: (i) tumor-antigen uptake and processing at the site of injection by antigen-presenting cells, (ii) migration of antigen-presenting cells into the regional draining lymph nodes, where T-cell priming occurs, and (iii) circulation of activated T cells that either perform or initiate effector mechanisms leading to tumor cell destruction. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7777545

  3. A stable human-derived packaging cell line for production of high titer retrovirus/vesicular stomatitis virus G pseudotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Ory, D S; Neugeboren, B A; Mulligan, R C

    1996-01-01

    We have generated a human 293-derived retroviral packaging cell line (293GPG) capable of producing high titers of recombinant Moloney murine leukemia virus particles that have incorporated the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G) protein. To achieve expression of the retroviral gag-pol polyprotein, the precise coding sequences for gag-pol were introduced into a vector which utilizes totally nonretroviral signals for gene expression. Because constitutive expression of the VSV-G protein is toxic in 293 cells, we used the tetR/VP 16 transactivator and teto minimal promoter system for inducible, tetracycline-regulatable expression of VSV-G. After stable transfection of the 293GPG packaging cell line with the MFG.SnlsLacZ retroviral vector construct, it was possible to readily isolate stable virus-producing cell lines with titers approaching 10(7) colony-forming units/ml. Transient transfection of 293GPG cells using a modified version of MFG.SnlsLacZ, in which the cytomegalovirus IE promoter was used to drive transcription of the proviral genome, led to titers of approximately 10(6) colony-forming units/ml. The retroviral/VSV-G pseudotypes generated using 293GPG cells were significantly more resistant to human complement than commonly used amphotropic vectors and could be highly concentrated (> 1000-fold). This new packaging cell line may prove to be particularly useful for assessing the potential use of retroviral vectors for direct in vivo gene transfer. The design of the cell line also provides at least theoretical advantages over existing cell lines with regard to the possible release of replication-competent virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8876147

  4. Influence of age on the late retrograde effects of sciatic nerve section in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Kerezoudi, E; King, R H; Muddle, J R; O'Neill, J A; Thomas, P K

    1995-01-01

    The influence of age on the late retrograde effects of unilateral sciatic nerve section was investigated in rats. Operations were performed on young rats aged 3 months and older rats aged 15 and 18 months, with survival times ranging from 6 to 15 months depending upon age at the time of operation. As in previous studies, axonal atrophy was found in myelinated fibres proximal to nerve transection. This was observed to be greater in animals operated upon at 3 months of age than in those in which the sciatic nerve was transected at 15 and 18 months. In the sciatic nerve, focal intramyelinic oedema was present at a low frequency on the operated side just proximal to the section at all survival times but not on the unoperated side except in 1 old animal. Its frequency increased with age both in the dorsal and ventral roots on both sides but it was not more common on the operated side. Retrograde axonal atrophy is therefore unlikely to contribute to its occurrence. In the dorsal root ganglia the main abnormality was the presence of vacuolated neurons on the operated side. Nuclear eccentricity was also observed on the operated side in young animals in a proportion of the neurons; its frequency increased with age on the normal side and there was no difference in the older animals between operated and control sides. The possibility is discussed that growth factor deprivation secondary to axotomy is implicated in these changes. If so, there are age differences in its effect in giving rise to axonal atrophy and neuronal vacuolation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7591983

  5. Growth of Desulfovibrio on the Surface of Agar Media

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Warren P.

    1966-01-01

    Growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (API strain) was found to take place in an atmosphere of hydrogen on the agar surface of complex media, including yeast extract (Difco), and Trypticase Soy Agar (BBL) without any added reducing agents. For growth on a 2% yeast extract-agar surface in the absence of hydrogen (nitrogen atmosphere), sodium lactate was required in the medium. Growth on the surface of Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA) under nitrogen took place readily in the absence of an added hydrogen donor. A medium (TSA plus salts) is described based upon the addition of sodium lactate (4 ml per liter), magnesium sulfate (2 g per liter), and ferrous ammonium sulfate (0.05%) to TSA, which appears suitable for the isolation and growth of Desulfovibrio on the surface of agar plates in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Sodium lactate does not appear to be essential in this medium for good growth and sulfate reduction in a hydrogen atmosphere, but is essential in a nitrogen atmosphere. Growth of Desulfovibrio (hydrogen atmosphere) on the agar surface of media commonly used for its cultivation as well as on an inorganic medium containing bicarbonate as a source of carbon is poor and erratic unless inoculated (Desulfovibrio) plates of TSA plus salts are incubated in the same container with plates of these media. This stimulatory effect of incubation with inoculated plates of TSA plus salts medium appears to be due to as yet unidentified volatile material produced by D. desulfuricans when growing on this medium. Another volatile material, or possibly the identical material, appears to act similarly to a hydrogen donor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:5955798

  6. Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine articular and epiphyseal cartilage: light ane electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, R; Christian, R G; Nakano, T; Aherne, F X; Thompson, J R

    1981-01-01

    Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine were studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in articular cartilage and light microscopy and epiphyseal cartilage of swine from three days to 30 weeks of age. Thickness, cellularity and vascularity of both the epiphyseal and articular cartilage, decreased as the swine aged. Osteochondrotic changes included formation of "plugs" of cartilage indicating localized failure of ossification and separation and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage. Eosinophilic streaks and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage was observed in relation to epiphyseal separation. Electron microscopy showed a continuous fibrillar layer on the surface of the cartilage corresponding to the lamina splendens of light microscopy. This layer increased in the thickness and showed accumulation of amorphous material between the fibrils with aging. In the matrix, the orientation and distribution of the collagen fibers changed with growth and thicker fibers with clear sub banding were more common in older age groups. Also, necrotic cells, glycogen containing bodies and cellular debris were noticed in the matrix of normal cartilage in old animals. Chondrocytes in the younger cartilage showed accumulation of organelles responsible for protein synthesis; while Golgi bodies, vesicles, lysosomes, well developed foot processes and other inclusions were noticed in older cartilage. Cartilage erosions had a clumped and disrupted lamina splendens on the surface and electron lucent patches in the ground substances of the matrix and chondrocyte cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2 and 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10 and 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. PMID:7260732

  7. The sensory innervation of the nasal glabrous skin in the short-nosed bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) and the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed Central

    Loo, S K; Halata, Z

    1985-01-01

    The glabrous skin at the anterior end of the snout of the short-nosed bandicoot and the American opossum was investigated by electron microscopy. In both species of animals, this region was lined by skin with broad epidermal pegs, innervated by three types of intraepidermal nerves. These were intraepidermal nerves which penetrated the epidermis up to the level of the stratum spinosum or the stratum granulosum, intraepidermal nerves in the basal layer of the epidermis partially surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae and intraepidermal nerves associated with Merkel cells. There were two types of free nerve endings in the dermis. The first type was derived from the deep dermal nerve plexus and had the typical characteristics of nerve terminals such as mitochondria, vesicles, irregularly arranged neurotubules and neurofilaments, and glycogen granules. There was a one-to-one relationship between Schwann cell lamellae and these nerve terminals. The second type of nerve ending was brush-like and the ends of the 'brushes' were enclosed in groups by a single Schwann cell lamella. Encapsulated nerve endings in the two types of animals differed in their structure. In the bandicoot, they consisted of a nerve terminal which had one to three branches. These terminals were rounded in profile and were surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae in a stack-like arrangement. An unusual finding was that the terminal sometimes left the corpuscle and made contact with the basal lamina of the epidermis before passing into its basal layer. These corpuscles did not have a perineural capsule. In the opossum, however, simple corpuscles with inner cores completely surrounded by a perineural capsule were seen. The glabrous skin of both types of animals was innervated with Eimer's organs consisting of intraepidermal nerves, Merkel cell nerve endings and encapsulated end-organs, as well as two types of dermal nerve endings. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig

  8. Effects of oral supplementation with stable strontium

    PubMed Central

    Skoryna, Stanley C.

    1981-01-01

    calcium. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:6120036

  9. Effects of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine oviductal explants: quantitative measurement using a calmodulin assay.

    PubMed Central

    Smits, B; Rosendal, S; Ruhnke, H L; Plante, C; O'Brien, P J; Miller, R B

    1994-01-01

    Calmodulin (CAM) acts as an intracellular regulator of calcium, an important mediator of many cell processes. We used the CAM assay and electron microscopy to investigate the effects of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine oviductal explants obtained aseptically from slaughtered cows. A stock suspension of U. diversum (treated specimens) and sterile broth (controls) was added to replicates of cultured explants and incubated at 38 degrees C in an atmosphere of 5.5% CO2 for 48 hours. Explants were examined for ciliary activity, extracellular CAM loss, and for histological and ultrastructural changes. Explants and their culture media were examined for changes in CAM concentration. All experiments were replicated three times. In addition, U. diversum, medium and broth were assayed for CAM content. The concentrations of CAM in explants and media changed significantly (p < 0.05) in samples which were inoculated with U. diversum when compared to controls. The controls and infected specimens did not differ histologically or ultrastructurally, but U. diversum was seen to be closely associated with infected explant tissue. In view of this close affinity it is assumed the loss of CAM from the oviductal cells was causally related, but this was not proven. The failure to show cell membrane injury on light and electron microscopic examination was probably related to the short duration of the experiment and may only point out the sensitivity of the CAM assay in detecting early cell membrane injury. Compromise in characteristics of the medium to support both, the viability of oviductal cells and U. diversum limited the experimental time to 48 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:8004536

  10. Expression of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular antigen: immunoelectron microscopic and biochemical studies with recombinant E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kröncke, K D; Boulnois, G; Roberts, I; Bitter-Suermann, D; Golecki, J R; Jann, B; Jann, K

    1990-01-01

    The capsular K5 polysaccharide, a representative of group II capsular antigens of Escherichia coli, has been cloned previously, and three gene regions responsible for polymerization and surface expression have been defined (I. S. Roberts, R. Mountford, R. Hodge, K. B. Jann, and G. J. Boulnois, J. Bacteriol. 170:1305-1310, 1988). In this report, we describe the immunoelectron microscopic analysis of recombinant bacteria expressing the K5 antigen and of mutants defective in either region 1 or region 3 gene functions, as well as the biochemical analysis of the K5 capsular polysaccharide. Whereas the K5 clone expressed the K5 polysaccharide as a well-developed capsule in about 25% of its population, no capsule was observed in whole mount preparations and ultrathin sections of the expression mutants. Immunogold labeling of sections from the region 3 mutant revealed the capsular K5 polysaccharide in the cytoplasm. With the region 1 mutant, the capsular polysaccharide appeared associated with the cell membrane, and, unlike the region 3 mutant polysaccharide, the capsular polysaccharide could be detected in the periplasm after plasmolysis of the bacteria. Polysaccharides were isolated from the homogenized mutants with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The polysaccharide from the region 1 mutant had the same size as that isolated from the capsule of the original K5 clone, and both polysaccharides were substituted with phosphatidic acid. The polysaccharide from the region 3 mutant was smaller and was not substituted with phosphatidic acid. These results prompt us to postulate that gene region 3 products are involved in the translocation of the capsular polysaccharide across the cytoplasmic membrane and that region 1 directs the transport of the lipid-substituted capsular polysaccharide through the periplasm and across the outer membrane. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 6 PMID:2404935

  11. N2 fixation in marine heterotrophic bacteria: dynamics of environmental and molecular regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Coyer, J A; Cabello-Pasini, A; Swift, H; Alberte, R S

    1996-01-01

    Molecular and immunological techniques were used to examine N2 fixation in a ubiquitous heterotrophic marine bacterium, the facultative anaerobic Vibrio natriegens. When batch cultures were shifted from aerobic N-replete to anaerobic N-deplete conditions, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of N2 fixation was observed. Levels of nifHDK mRNA encoding the nitrogenase enzyme were highest at 140 min postshift and undetectable between 6 and 9 h later. Immunologically determined levels of nitrogenase enzyme (Fe protein) were highest between 6 and 15 h postshift, and nitrogenase activity peaked between 6 and 9 h postshift, declining by a factor of 2 after 12-15 h. Unlike their regulation in cyanobacteria, Fe protein and nitrogenase activity were present when nifHDK mRNA was absent in V. natriegens, indicating that nitrogenase is stored and stable under anaerobic conditions. Both nifHDK mRNA and Fe protein disappeared within 40 min after cultures were shifted from N2-fixing conditions (anaerobic, N-deplete) to non- N2-fixing conditions (aerobic, N-enriched) but reappeared when shifted to conditions favoring N2 fixation. Thus, unlike other N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria, nitrogenase must be resynthesized after aerobic exposure in V. natriegens. Immunological detection based on immunoblot (Western) analysis and immunogold labeling correlated positively with nitrogenase activity; no localization of nitrogenase was observed. Because V. natriegens continues to fix N2 for many hours after anaerobic induction, this species may play an important role in providing "new" nitrogen in marine ecosystems. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:11607653

  12. A new isoleucine substitution of Val-20 in transthyretin tetramers selectively impairs dimer-dimer contacts and causes systemic amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jenne, D E; Denzel, K; Blätzinger, P; Winter, P; Obermaier, B; Linke, R P; Altland, K

    1996-01-01

    The most frequent form of inherited amyloidoses is associated with mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene coding for 127-amino acid residues of four identical, noncovalently linked subunits that form a pair of dimers in the plasma protein complex. Amyloid fibrils containing the variant and to a lesser extent the wild-type form of the TTR molecule are deposited in various organs, including peripheral nerves and the myocardium, with polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy as major clinical manifestations. So far, more than 40 distinct amino acid substitutions distributed throughout the TTR sequence over 30 positions have been found to be correlated with an increased amyloidogenicity of TTR. Most of these amyloidogenic amino acid substitutions are suspected to alter the conformation and stability of the monomer. Here we identify and characterize by protein and DNA analysis a novel amyloidogenic Val-20 to Ile mutation in a German three-generation family. The index patient suffered from severe amyloid cardiomyopathy at the age of 60. Conformational stability and unfolding behavior of the Ile-20 monomer in urea gradients was found to be almost indistinguishable from that of wild-type TTR. In contrast, tetramer stability was significantly reduced in agreement with the expected change in the interactions between the two opposing dimers via the side chain of Ile-20. Our observations provide strong evidence for the view that amyloidogenic amino acid substitutions in TTR facilitate the conversion of tetrameric TTR complexes into those conformational intermediates of the TTR folding pathway that have an intrinsic amyloidogenic potential. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8692810

  13. Heterogeneity of guinea-pig caseins synthesized and sequestered by cell-free protein-synthesizing systems.

    PubMed Central

    Pascall, J C; Boulton, A P; Parker, D; Hall, L; Craig, R K

    1981-01-01

    1. Individual mRNA species encoding guinea-pigs caseins A, B and C, and alpha-lactalbumin, were purified by hydridization to recombinant milk-protein plasmid DNA immobilized on diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper or diazobenzyloxymethyl-cellulose. Addition of the purified mRNA species to a reticulocyte-lysate cell-free system, in the presence or absence of a dog pancreas microsomal membrane fraction, established a precursor-product relationship between the primary translation products and those sequestered within microsomal vesicles, as determined by polyacrylamide-gel analysis in one and two dimensions. 2. Three sequestered variants of sequestered casein A were identified, but only single forms of sequestered casein B and alpha-lactalbumin. Sequestered variants of casein C proved to be unexpectedly basic, and did not focus on the pH gradient utilized. 3. Comparative analysis of milk proteins synthesized in the reticulocyte-lysate and wheat-germ cell-free systems by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated both quantitative and qualitative differences. In particular, marked but variable heterogeneity was apparent within the primary translation products of casein A and casein B. Pre-casein C did not focus. Limited N-terminal processing of the primary translation products was also evident. These observations are discussed in relation to (i) unscheduled post-translational modifications by cell-free protein-synthesizing systems and (ii) multiplicity of signal sequences. 4. Overall we demonstrate that complex precursor-product relationships between primary translation products and their sequestered variants, programmed in vitro by a mixed mRNA population, may be readily analysed by using individual mRNA sequences purified by hybridization to immobilized cloned complementary-DNA sequences. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:7316995

  14. Role of the C2A domain of synaptotagmin in transmitter release as determined by specific antibody injection into the squid giant synapse preterminal.

    PubMed Central

    Mikoshiba, K; Fukuda, M; Moreira, J E; Lewis, F M; Sugimori, M; Niinobe, M; Llinás, R

    1995-01-01

    Squid synaptotagmin (Syt) cDNA, including its open reading frame, was cloned and polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbits immunized with glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Syt-C2A. Binding assays indicated that the antibody, anti-Syt-C2A, recognized squid Syt and inhibited the Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid binding to the C2A domain. This antibody, when injected into the preterminal at the squid giant synapse, blocked transmitter release in a manner similar to that previously reported for the presynaptic injection of members of the inositol high-polyphosphate series. The block was not accompanied by any change in the presynaptic action potential or the amplitude or voltage dependence of the presynaptic Ca2+ current. The postsynaptic potential was rather insensitive to repetitive presynaptic stimulation, indicating a direct effect of the antibody on the transmitter release system. Following block of transmitter release, confocal microscopical analysis of the preterminal junction injected with rhodamine-conjugated anti-Syt-C2A demonstrated fluorescent spots at the inner surface of the presynaptic plasmalemma next to the active zones. Structural analysis of the same preparations demonstrated an accumulation of synaptic vesicles corresponding in size and distribution to the fluorescent spots demonstrated confocally. Together with the finding that such antibody prevents Ca2+ binding to a specific receptor in the C2A domain, these results indicate that Ca2+ triggers transmitter release by activating the C2A domain of Syt. We conclude that the C2A domain is directly related to the fusion of synaptic vesicles that results in transmitter release. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7479868

  15. Gene conversions and unequal crossovers between CYP21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase gene) and CYP21P involve different mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Tusié-Luna, M T; White, P C

    1995-01-01

    Most cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, the inherited inability to synthesize cortisol, are caused by mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21). Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is unusual among genetic diseases in that approximately 95% of the mutant alleles have apparently been generated by recombination between a normally active gene (CYP21) and a linked pseudogene (CYP21P). Approximately 20% of mutant alleles carry DNA deletions of 30 kb that have presumably been generated by unequal meiotic crossing-over, whereas 75% carry one or more mutations in CYP21 that are normally found in the CYP21P pseudogene. These latter mutations are termed "gene conversions," although the mechanism by which they are generated is not well understood. To assess the frequency at which these different recombination events occur, we have used PCR to detect de novo deletions and gene conversions in matched sperm and peripheral blood leukocyte DNA samples from normal individuals. Deletions with breakpoints in a 100-bp region in intron 2 and exon 3 were detected in sperm DNA samples with frequencies of approximately 1 in 10(5)-10(6) genomes but were never detected in the matching leukocyte DNA. Gene conversions in the same region occur in approximately 1 in 10(3)-10(5) genomes in both sperm and leukocyte DNA. These data suggest that whereas deletions occur exclusively in meiosis, gene conversions occur during both meiosis and mitosis, or perhaps only during mitosis. Thus, gene conversions must occur by a mechanism distinct from unequal crossing-over. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479886

  16. The Budd-Chiari syndrome. Treatment by mesenteric-systemic venous shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J L; Herlong, H F; Sanfey, H; Boitnott, J; Kaufman, S L; Gott, V L; Maddrey, W C

    1983-01-01

    Twelve patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome have been managed surgically. Ten of the patients were female, two were male, with a mean age of 40 years. Three of the patients had polycythemia vera, two had pre-existing cirrhosis, one had ingested estrogens, one had an occult tumor, and in four there were no associated factors. Ten patients presented with ascites and two with bleeding esophageal varices. The diagnosis was confirmed in all 12 patients by liver biopsy and hepatic vein catheterization. Inferior vena cavography revealed the abdominal vena cava to be thrombosed in six patients. The superior mesenteric vein was used to decompress the congested liver in all 12 patients. In five patients, a mesocaval shunt (MCS) was performed and in seven patients, a mesoatrial shunt (MAS) was carried out. There were four hospital deaths (two MCS, two MAS). One late death (MAS) occurred from liver failure following shunt thrombosis. Two additional patients (one MCS, one MAS) re-developed ascites immediately following surgery and angiography revealed a thrombosed shunt. Ascites has been controlled with a LeVeen shunt in these two patients, but liver biopsies showed progression to cirrhosis. The remaining five patients (three MAS, two MCS) did well, and angiography revealed patent shunts. Two of these patients, however, re-developed ascites at 4 and 10 months following MAS and required a second MAS. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 68 months. In three of the patients (two MCS, one MAS) with patent shunts, liver biopsy shows a remarkable return toward normal liver architecture and histology. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6615056

  17. Metastatic colonization potential of primary tumour cells in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tarin, D.; Price, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A model has been developed for studying the capability of cells from primary murine mammary tumours to establish colonies in distant organs. The model involves the i.v. inoculation of disaggregated tumour cells into autologous and syngeneic recipients. The results show that the metastatic colonization potential of cells from a given tumour is consistent within the animals of an inoculated batch. Also, the findings are uniform in the autologous host and the syngeneic recipients. Tumours vary in their colonization potential and can be classified in 2 main groups designated high and low. These findings indicate that: (i) cells from 37% of mammary tumours can heavily colonize the lungs when inoculated i.v., even though the incidence of metastatic spread of these tumours in the undisturbed animal is almost zero. Thus, the relative infrequency of spontaneous metastasis from murine mammary tumours is not due to inability of the tumour cells to survive and colonize once free in the blood stream; and (ii) the colonization potential of the tumours is an intrinsic property of the tumour cells rather than of the host, whose prior acquaintance with the cells does not seem to confer resistance to colonization. The model presents opportunities for identification of possible differences between tumours of high and low colonization potential, and is being used to study cellular properties which favour colonization of distant organs by comparison of observations in vitro with the behaviour of cells from the same tumour in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:444412

  18. Purification of antigenically intact Ro ribonucleoproteins; biochemical and immunological evidence that the 52-kD protein is not a Ro protein.

    PubMed Central

    Boire, G; Gendron, M; Monast, N; Bastin, B; Ménard, H A

    1995-01-01

    Anti-Ro sera immunoprecipitate Ro ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) from human cell extracts. Ro RNPs are biochemically heterogeneous particles whose functions are unknown and whose exact composition remains controversial. In addition to 60-kD Ro and to La proteins, a 52-kD polypeptide (p52) has been proposed to be a stable component of the Ro RNPs. To confirm the immunological studies supporting this hypothesis, we have biochemically purified Ro RNPs from HeLa cells using non-denaturing conditions. Ro RNPs segregated into three distinct populations, one of which only contained hY5 RNA (RohY5 RNPs). No p52 co-purified with Ro RNPs. Despite the absence of p52, purified Ro RNPs had biochemical and immunological properties identical to those of unfractionated Ro RNPs. Many anti-Ro sera only recognize p52 in immunoblots, and are said to be monospecific anti-p52. Preincubation with purified RohY5 RNPs (free of p52) of all human anti-Ro (including so-called monospecific anti-p52) sera abolished their capacity to immunoprecipitate Ro RNPs from unfractionated HeLa cell extracts. Conversely, preincubation of anti-Ro sera with purified p52 protein specifically inhibited recognition of p52 in immunoblots, but did not interfere with immunoprecipitation of Ro RNPs. Our data demonstrate that anti-p52 antibodies do not target intact Ro RNPs, nor do they target the native 60-kD Ro protein. Contrary to previous reports, p52 protein is not a stable component of antigenically intact Ro RNPs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7774061

  19. Influence of Spore Moisture Content on the Dry-Heat Resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger

    PubMed Central

    Angelotti, Robert; Maryanski, James H.; Butler, Thomas F.; Peeler, James T.; Campbell, Jeptha E.

    1968-01-01

    The dry-heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores located in or on various materials was determined as D and z values in the range of 105 through 160 C. The systems tested included spores located on steel and paper strips, spores located between stainless-steel washers mated together under 150 inch-lb and 12 inch-lb of torque, and spores encapsulated in methylmethacrylate and epoxy plastics. D values for a given temperature varied with the test system. High D values were observed for the systems in which spores were encapsulated or under heavy torque, whereas lower D values were observed for the steel and paper strip systems and the lightly torqued system. Similar z values were obtained for the plastic and steel strip systems (zD = 21 C), but an unusually low z for spores on paper (zD = 12.9 C) and an unusually high z for spores on steel washers mated at 150 inch-lb of torque (zD = 32 C) were observed. The effect of spore moisture content on the D value of spores encapsulated in water-impermeable plastic was determined, and maximal resistance was observed for spores with a water activity (aw) of 0.2 to 0.4. Significantly decreased D values were observed for spores with moisture contents below aw 0.2 or above aw 0.4. The data indicate that the important factors to be considered when measuring the dry heat resistance of spores are (i) the initial moisture content of the spore, (ii) the rate of spore desiccation during heating, (iii) the water retention capacity of the material in or on which spores are located, and (iv) the relative humidity of the system at the test temperature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:4968962

  20. The detection of membrane and cytoplasmic immunoglobulins in human leucocytes by immunoperoxidase staining.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D Y; Labaume, S; Preud'homme, J L

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive immunoperoxidase technique for the detection of immunoglobulin (the peroxidase--anti-peroxidase or PAP procedure) has been applied to fixed smears of normal human white cells. IgM was detected in approximately 5% of lymphocytes from normal donors. Most positive cells showed a characteristic 'hairy' peripheral staining pattern; a similar morphological appearance was seen in samples stained for IgD. The membrane (rather than cytoplasmic) localization of this IgM was inferred from the redistribution of staining induced by preliminary incubation of cell suspensions with anti-mu antisera before smearing and staining. B cell-depleted and B cell-enriched suspensions showed, respectively, reduced and increased percentages of IgM-positive cells. IgG was detectable in approximately 25% of normal lymphoid cells. In contrast to the IgM and IgD reaction patterns, these cells commonly showed a discontinuous distribution of reactivity, often localized to the cell uropod or to small cytoplasmic vesicles. However, when cells were prepared at 0 degree C, staining tended to be diffuse. These findings suggested that the PAP procedure was detecting Fc receptor-bearing lymphoid cells which had bound serum IgG. IgG was also demonstrated in normal polymorphs and monocytes. The specificity of this reaction was confirmed by the use of immunoabsorbant-purified antibodies. The possible practical advantages of this immunoperoxidase procedure for the detection of leucocyte immunoglobulin are considered, and the relevance of the demonstration of IgG in non-lymphoid cells to recent reports of this immunoglobulin in Hodgkin's disease and malignant 'reticulum' cells is briefly discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:338219

  1. Efficient and specific ribozyme-mediated reduction of bovine alpha-lactalbumin expression in double transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    L'Huillier, P J; Soulier, S; Stinnakre, M G; Lepourry, L; Davis, S R; Mercier, J C; Vilotte, J L

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying a bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-lac) specific ribozyme gene under the transcriptional control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat were generated and cross-bred with animals that highly express a bovine alpha-lac transgene (0.4 mg of alpha-lac/ml(-1) of milk). The ribozyme contains the hammerhead catalytic domain, flanked by 12-nt sequences complementary to the 3' untranslated region of bovine alpha-lac transcript. High-level expression of the ribozyme gene was detected by Northern blot analysis in the mammary gland of 7-8 day lactating transgenic mice, from 3 of 12 lines analyzed. Heterozygous expression of the ribozyme resulted in a reduction in the levels of the target mRNA to 78, 58, and 50% of that observed in the nonribozyme transgenic littermate controls for three independent lines. The ribozyme-mediated reduction in the levels of the bovine protein paralleled that observed for the mRNA, and was positively correlated with the level of expression of the ribozyme. In nonribozyme expressing transgenic mice, the level of bovine alpha-lac mRNA and protein was not affected. The specificity of this activity is demonstrated by the absence of a reduction in the levels of the endogenous murine alpha-lac mRNA or protein. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ribozyme-mediated down-regulation of highly-expressed transcripts in transgenic animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8692881

  2. Different modes of internalization of proteins associated with adhaerens junctions and desmosomes: experimental separation of lateral contacts induces endocytosis of desmosomal plaque material.

    PubMed Central

    Kartenbeck, J; Schmid, E; Franke, W W; Geiger, B

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and fate of two junctional complexes, zonula adhaerens and desmosomes, after dissociation of cell-cell contacts is described in MDBK cells. Junctions were split between adjacent cells by treatment with EGTA and proteins associated with the plaques of zonulae adhaerentes and desmosomes were localized by immunological methods. Splitting of these junctions is accompanied by the dislocation of desmosomal plaque protein from the cell periphery and its distribution in punctate arrays over the whole cytoplasm. By contrast, vinculin associated with zonulae adhaerentes is still seen at early times (0.5-1 h) in a conspicuous belt-like structure which, however, is displaced from the plasma membrane. Strong vinculin staining is maintained on leading edges of free cell surfaces. Electron microscopy of EGTA-treated cells exposed to colloidal gold particles reveals the disappearance of junctional structures from the cell periphery and the concomitant appearance of a distinct class of gold particle-containing vesicles which are coated by dense plaques. These vesicle plaques react with antibodies to desmosomal plaque proteins and are associated with filaments of the cytokeratin type. In the same cells, extended dense aggregates are seen which are most probably the membrane-detached vinculin-rich material from the zonula adhaerens . The experiments show that, upon release from their junction-mediated connections with adjacent cells, major proteins associated with the cytoplasmic side of the junctions remain, for several hours, clustered within plaques displaced from the cell surface. While plaque material of adhaerens junctions containing vinculin is recovered in large belt-like aggregates, desmosomal plaque protein remains attached to membrane structures and appears on distinct vesicles endocytotically formed from half-desmosomal equivalents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6821357

  3. Innervation of the gall bladder and biliary pathways in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W Q; Gabella, G

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the gall bladder and the biliary pathways was studied in guinea-pigs by means of histochemical methods for catecholamines and for acetylcholinesterase on whole mount preparations, on cryostat sections and on sections of plastic-embedded tissues. The gall bladder contains on average 367 neurons in a ganglionated plexus which lies at the outer surface of the muscle coat. The overall appearance of this plexus is rather similar to that of the submucosal plexus of the duodenum. From the gall bladder the plexus extends into the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the common bile duct, but from the middle portion of the common bile duct downwards, it is positioned at or near the inner surface of the muscle coat. Concurrently with the marked increase in muscle thickness in the lower parts of the common bile duct, another ganglionated plexus appears, which is truly intramuscular. The latter plexus is highly developed, lies usually between longitudinal and circular muscle and resembles in appearance the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, with which it is in continuity. Throughout the biliary system, the extent of the ganglionated plexus is roughly related to the extent of the musculature. An exchange of adrenergic fibres between the ganglionated plexus and perivascular nerves is observed in the gall bladder. Another nerve plexus, without ganglia but rich in adrenergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive fibres, lies between the mucosa and the muscle coat. Very few nerve fibres run into the musculature of the gall bladder. On the other hand, in the thick musculature of the lower portion of the common bile duct, several intramuscular nerve fibres are found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6833124

  4. Human chromosome variation: the discriminatory power of Q-band heteromorphism (variant) analysis in distinguishing between individuals, with specific application to cases of questionable paternity.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, S B; Magenis, R E; Lovrien, E W

    1986-01-01

    The chromosomes from 57 persons were analyzed by means of quinacrine fluorescent staining in order to assess the amount of variation and the discriminatory power of Q-band heteromorphism analysis. Chromosomes 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, and Y of each person were visually compared to those of 56 others, for a total of 1,596 comparisons. No two persons were found to have the same set of variants. The number of differences between chromosomes for each comparison ranged from 2 to 12 out of a possible total of 14 for females and 15 for males. Relatives were also distinguishable, and differences ranged from two to seven. We used the frequency with which each chromosome was useful for telling two people apart, and estimated the probability of finding two persons with the same set of quinacrine variants as .0003. Distinctly different heteromorphisms were found in the 39 unrelated persons for each of the chromosomes examined. In this small population, the number of different sets of variants observed for chromosomes 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, and Y were six, seven, 27, 16, 20, 15, 24, and five, respectively, for a total number of possible combinations of 1.14 X 10(15). As a test of the usefulness of chromosome heteromorphisms in paternity cases, 12 father-mother-child trios of virtually certain paternity, owing to the father-child segregation of a rare structural rearrangement, were coded and recombined at random to produce 120 cases of uncertain paternity. When the code was broken, 108 "alleged fathers" had been excluded correctly and the 12 biological fathers had been included correctly. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3946425

  5. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  6. Haemopoietic phagocytes in the early differentiating avian retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cuadros, M A; García-Martín, M; Martin, C; Ríos, A

    1991-01-01

    The existence of specialised phagocytic cells is described in regions of the retinal neuroepithelium undergoing intense cell death during early differentiation of the avian embryo retina (2.5-5 days of incubation). These results were obtained using routine techniques for light microscopy, acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunocytochemical staining with antibodies MB-1 and QH-1, both specific for quail endothelial cells and all blood cells except mature erythrocytes. Specialised phagocytes were distinguishable from neuroepithelial cells on the basis of morphological criteria: in the former, the nucleus was not oval in shape and was not oriented perpendicular to basement membrane neuroepithelium. The cytoplasm of the specialised phagocytes was often filled with dead cell fragments. In contrast to neuroepithelial cells, the specialised phagocytes showed acid phosphatase activity and were labelled with both MB-1 and QH-1 antibodies in normal quail embryos and chick----quail yolk sac chimeras. Moreover, some acid phosphatase positive and MB-1/QH-1 positive cells also appeared in the presumptive vitreous body, at the edges of the optic cup and in the surrounding mesenchyme. As the vitreal cells and the specialised phagocytes of the neural retina were immunolabelled in chick----quail yolk sac chimeras, we conclude that they are derived from haemopoietic cells in the yolk sac. Some images suggest that these cells enter the vitreous body from the surrounding mesenchyme and traverse the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium in the optic disc region to give rise to the specialised phagocytes of the retinal neuroepithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:1769889

  7. Evidence for a haematogenous origin of some of the macrophages appearing in the spinal cord of the rat after dorsal rhizotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1979-01-01

    A single dose of colloidal carbon was given intravascularly to young adult rats in order to label circulating monocytes. Two days after injection dorsal rhizotomies were performed on the fifth to eighth cervical nerves on the right side. The rats were killed 1, 3, 4 and 8 days later. Electron microscopic examination of the spinal cord showed wide-spread tissue degeneration on the operated side in the dorsolateral fasciculus, the dorsal horn and the dorsal neuronal white column, the changes in the last named being the most severe. A variety of non-neuronal elements was found in the dorsolateral fasciculus and dorsal horn. These included astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia-like cells, plasma cells, mast cells, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, monocytes and macrophages. Monocytes and macrophages were most common 3 and 4 days after operation. Some of these cells carried intracytoplasmic carbon particles. Carbon-labelled monocytes were observed in blood vessel lumina, perivascularly and in the neuropil. Monocytes crossing blood vessel walls were also encountered, indicating that the neuropil monocytes were derived from circulating cells. Macrophages were characterized by pleomorphic phagosomes which seemed to be composed largely of myelin remnants. The presence of carbon particles in their cytoplasm, and also their general similarity to monocytes, suggested that they originated from the latter. Local microglial cells were considered to be another source of macrophages. Indeed, there were present some microglia-like cells which were regarded as 'activated microglia' as they showed morphological resemblances to microglia on the one hand and to macrophages on the other. In particular their cytoplasm always included phagosomes. It is concluded that the macrophages which appear in the altered spinal cord following rhizotomy are derived both from circulating monocytes and from indigenous microglia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10

  8. Preferential expression of an ammonium transporter and of two putative nitrate transporters in root hairs of tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Lauter, F R; Ninnemann, O; Bucher, M; Riesmeier, J W; Frommer, W B

    1996-01-01

    Root hairs as specialized epidermal cells represent part of the outermost interface between a plant and its soil environment. They make up to 70% of the root surface and, therefore, are likely to contribute significantly to nutrient uptake. To study uptake systems for mineral nitrogen, three genes homologous to Arabidopsis nitrate and ammonium transporters (AtNrt1 and AtAmt1) were isolated from a root hair-specific tomato cDNA library. Accumulation of LeNrt1-1, LeNrt1-2, and LeAmt1 transcripts was root-specific, with no detectable transcripts in stems or leaves. Expression was root cell type-specific and regulated by nitrogen availability. LeNrt1-2 mRNA accumulation was restricted to root hairs that had been exposed to nitrate. In contrast, LeNrt1-1 transcripts were detected in root hairs as well as other root tissues under all nitrogen treatments applied. Analogous to LeNrt1-1, the gene LeAmt1 was expressed under all nitrogen conditions tested, and root hair-specific mRNA accumulation was highest following exposure to ammonium. Expression of LeAMT1 in an ammonium uptake-deficient yeast strain restored growth on low ammonium medium, confirming its involvement in ammonium transport. Root hair specificity and characteristics of substrate regulation suggest an important role of the three genes in uptake of mineral nitrogen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8755617

  9. Pathology of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Valencia and Murcia, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Duignan, P J; Geraci, J R; Raga, J A; Calzada, N

    1992-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1990 hundreds of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) died in the Spanish Mediterranean as a result of morbillivirus infection. A pathological investigation was carried out on dolphins from Valencia and Murcia which were among the first to die in the epizootic. The dolphins were in poor body condition and pneumonia was the main necropsy finding. Microscopic lung lesions characterized by necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and infiltration of alveoli with macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleated syncytia were seen in most dolphins. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions were present in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and in syncytia. Focal granulomatous inflammation associated with nematodes was also present. Brain lesions included diffuse degeneration and necrosis of neurons, microgliosis, perivascular cuffing, formation of syncytia and focal demyelination. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic inclusions were present in neurons and glial cells. There was severe lymphoid necrosis and depletion of spleen and lymph nodes and syncytia also occurred in lymph nodes. Biliary and transitional epithelium contained nuclear and cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Immunoperoxidase staining using monoclonal antibodies to phocine distemper virus confirmed the presence of morbillivirus antigens in lung and brain. The distribution and severity of lesions in striped dolphins are similar to those of distemper in seals, harbor porpoises and terrestrial mammals. The formation of syncytia in the lung and brain may be a useful pathological indicator of morbillivirus infection and may be used in the investigation of pinniped and cetacean strandings in North America. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1423061

  10. Colloidal lanthanum as a marker for impaired plasma membrane permeability in ischemic dog myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffstein, S.; Gennaro, D. E.; Fox, A. C.; Hirsch, J.; Streuli, F.; Weissmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    . Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:1146960

  11. Developmental expression of the white locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fjose, A.; Polito, L. C.; Weber, U.; Gehring, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated several cDNA clones of the white locus which are derived from embryonic and pupal transcripts of Drosophila melanogaster. The cDNA sequences map within ˜7.5 kb (coordinates −3.0 to +4.6) of the genomic DNA and correspond mainly to sequences within the distal region of the gene (coordinates −0.2 to −3.0). A major RNA species of 2.6 kb was detected on Northerns of poly(A)+ RNA isolated from all developmental stages. The total accumulation of this transcript peaks in the mature third instar larva to a level of 0.003% which is about ten times higher than that observed in embryos. The spatial distribution of white locus transcripts was determined by in situ hybridization to tissue sections. In embryos, hybridization signals are restricted to the cells of the developing Malpighian tubules and the signal strength corresponds with ˜50 transcripts per cell. Before the termination of the third instar stage, hybridization signals are also detected at a comparable level in the eye antennal disks. At the same stage, a third site of labeling is observed over a small cluster of cells which seems to be associated with the larval photoreceptor organs. Thus, white locus expression is largely restricted to tissues which are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of eye pigments and these different cell types act in a temporally autonomous manner with respect to the induction of the white gene during development. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16453550

  12. Recoverin, a photoreceptor-specific calcium-binding protein, is expressed by the tumor of a patient with cancer-associated retinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Polans, A S; Witkowska, D; Haley, T L; Amundson, D; Baizer, L; Adamus, G

    1995-01-01

    Recoverin is a member of the EF-hand family of calcium-binding proteins involved in the transduction of light by vertebrate photoreceptors. Recoverin also was identified as an autoantigen in the degenerative disease of the retina known as cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), a paraneoplastic syndrome whereby immunological events lead to the degeneration of photoreceptors in some individuals with cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that recoverin is expressed in the lung tumor of a CAR patient but not in similar tumors obtained from individuals without the associated retinopathy. Recoverin was identified intially by Western blot analysis of the CAR patient's biopsy tissue by using anti-recoverin antibodies generated against different regions of the recoverin molecule. In addition, cultured cells from the biopsy tissue expressed recoverin, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR using RNA extracted from the cells. The immunodominant region of recoverin also was determined in this study by a solid-phase immunoassay employing overlapping heptapeptides encompassing the entire recoverin sequence. Two linear stretches of amino acids (residues 64-70, Lys-Ala-Tyr-Ala-Gln-His-Val; and 48-52, Gln-Phe-Gln-Ser-Ile) made up the major determinants. One of the same regions of the recoverin molecule (residues 64-70) also was uniquely immunopathogenic, causing photoreceptor degeneration upon immunization of Lewis rats with the corresponding peptide. These data demonstrate that the neural antigen recoverin more than likely is responsible for the immunological events associated with vision loss in some patients with cancer. These data also establish CAR as one of the few autoimmune-mediated diseases for which the specific self-antigen is known. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:7568096

  13. Spatial integration and cortical dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C D; Das, A; Ito, M; Kapadia, M; Westheimer, G

    1996-01-01

    Cells in adult primary visual cortex are capable of integrating information over much larger portions of the visual field than was originally thought. Moreover, their receptive field properties can be altered by the context within which local features are presented and by changes in visual experience. The substrate for both spatial integration and cortical plasticity is likely to be found in a plexus of long-range horizontal connections, formed by cortical pyramidal cells, which link cells within each cortical area over distances of 6-8 mm. The relationship between horizontal connections and cortical functional architecture suggests a role in visual segmentation and spatial integration. The distribution of lateral interactions within striate cortex was visualized with optical recording, and their functional consequences were explored by using comparable stimuli in human psychophysical experiments and in recordings from alert monkeys. They may represent the substrate for perceptual phenomena such as illusory contours, surface fill-in, and contour saliency. The dynamic nature of receptive field properties and cortical architecture has been seen over time scales ranging from seconds to months. One can induce a remapping of the topography of visual cortex by making focal binocular retinal lesions. Shorter-term plasticity of cortical receptive fields was observed following brief periods of visual stimulation. The mechanisms involved entailed, for the short-term changes, altering the effectiveness of existing cortical connections, and for the long-term changes, sprouting of axon collaterals and synaptogenesis. The mutability of cortical function implies a continual process of calibration and normalization of the perception of visual attributes that is dependent on sensory experience throughout adulthood and might further represent the mechanism of perceptual learning. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8570604

  14. Evidence for a role for the phosphotyrosine-binding domain of Shc in interleukin 2 signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, K S; Igras, V; Shoelson, S E; Fesik, S W; Burakoff, S J

    1996-01-01

    Stimulation via the T-cell growth factor interleukin 2 (IL-2) leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, the interaction of Shc with Grb2, and the Ras GTP/GDP exchange factor, mSOS. Shc also coprecipitates with the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), and therefore, may link IL-2R to Ras activation. We have further characterized the Shc-IL-2R interaction and have made the following observations. (i) Among the two phosphotyrosine-interaction domains present in Shc, the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, rather than its SH2 domain, interacts with the tyrosine-phosphorylated IL-2R beta chain. Moreover, the Shc-PTB domain binds a phosphopeptide derived from the IL-2R beta chain (corresponding to residues surrounding Y338, SCFTNQGpYFF) with high affinity. (ii) In vivo, mutant IL-2R beta chains lacking the acidic region of IL-2Rbeta (which contains Y338) fail to phosphorylate Shc. Furthermore, when wild type or mutant Shc proteins that lack the PTB domain were expressed in the IL-2-dependent CTLL-20 cell line, an intact Shc-PTB domain was required for Shc phosphorylation by the IL-2R, which provides further support for a Shc-PTB-IL-2R interaction in vivo. (iii) PTB and SH2 domains of Shc associate with different proteins in IL-2- and T-cell-receptor-stimulated lysates, suggesting that Shc, through the concurrent use of its two different phosphotyrosine-binding domains, could assemble multiple protein complexes. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that the PTB domain of Shc interacts with Y338 of the IL-2R and provide evidence for a functional role for the Shc-PTB domain in IL-2 signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643566

  15. Degenerative and regenerative changes in murine skeletal muscle after injection of venom from the snake Bothrops asper: a histochemical and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Arce, V.; Brenes, F.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The degenerative and regenerative changes in murine skeletal muscle after injection of Bothrops asper venom were studied by histological, lectin histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. According to our observations, the process was divided into four main stages: (a) During the first 3 days prominent degenerative events took place in skeletal muscle fibres, capillaries, arteries, veins and intramuscular nerves. An inflammatory infiltrate was abundant after the first day and removal of necrotic material was well advanced by the third day. (b) Muscle regeneration was evident by the fourth day. From 4 to 6 days there were two populations of regenerating muscle fibres, one of apparently normal fibres located in areas where capillary vessels were abundant, and another population of groups of regenerative fibres showing signs of degeneration. This second type of fibre was predominant in areas where the number of capillaries was greatly reduced. (c) One and 2 weeks after envenomation areas of small regenerative fibres of normal morphology and areas of degenerating regenerative fibres were observed. The latter were abundant in regions of dense fibrotic tissue and scarce capillaries. (d) Finally, at 4 and 8 weeks after envenomation there were both areas of fibrosis and areas where regenerating muscle fibres predominated. However, the diameter of these fibres was abnormally small, an indication that they may have been atrophic fibres. It is suggested that muscle regeneration is partially impaired after myonecrosis induced by Bothrops asper venom, probably due to the damage induced by this venom on muscle microvasculature and nerves. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:1707650

  16. Nuclear extracts of chicken embryos promote an active demethylation of DNA by excision repair of 5-methyldeoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Jost, J P

    1993-01-01

    Here I show that nuclear extracts of chicken embryos can promote the active demethylation of DNA. The evidence shows that in hemimethylated DNA (i.e., methylated on one strand only) demethylation of 5mCpG occurs through nucleotide excision repair. The first step of demethylation is the formation of specific nicks 5' from 5-methyldeoxycytidine. Nicks are also observed in vitro on symmetrically methylated CpGs (i.e., methylated on both strands) but they result in breakage of the oligonucleotide with no repair. No specific nicks are observed on the nonmethylated CpG. Nicks are strictly 5mCpG specific and do not occur on 5mCpC, 5mCpT, 5mCpA, or 6mApT. The effect of nonspecific nuclease(s) has been ruled out. The nicking of mCpG takes place in the presence of 20 mM EDTA irrespective of the nature of the sequence surrounding the 5mCpG. No methylcytosine glycosylase activity could be detected. The repair is aphidicolin and N-ethylmaleimide resistant, suggesting a repair action by DNA polymerase beta. In extracts of chicken embryos, the excision repair of mCpG is highest between the 6th and the 12th day of development, whereas it is barely detectable in nuclear extracts from different organs of adults. The possible implications of 5mCpG endonuclease activity in active demethylation of DNA during differentiation is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8506318

  17. Replication of avocado sunblotch viroid: evidence for a symmetric pathway with two rolling circles and hammerhead ribozyme processing.

    PubMed Central

    Daròs, J A; Marcos, J F; Hernández, C; Flores, R

    1994-01-01

    The structure of a series of RNAs extracted from avocado infected by the 247-nt avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) was investigated. The identification of multistranded complexes containing circular ASBVd RNAs of (+) and (-) polarity suggests that replication of ASBVd proceeds through a symmetric pathway with two rolling circles where these two circular RNAs are the templates. This is in contrast to the replication of potato spindle tuber viroid and probably of most of its related viroids, which proceeds via an asymmetric pathway where circular (+)-strand and linear multimeric (-)-strand RNAs are the two templates. Linear (+) and (-) ASBVd RNAs of subgenomic length (137 nt and about 148 nt, respectively) and one linear (+)-strand ASBVd RNA of supragenomic length (383-384 nt) were also found in viroid-infected tissue. The two linear (+)-strand RNAs have the same 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences, with the supragenomic species being a fusion product of the monomeric and subgenomic (+)-strand ASBVd RNAs. The 3' termini of these two (+)-strand molecules, which at least in the subgenomic RNA has an extra nontemplate cytidylate residue, could represent sites of either premature termination of the (+)-strands or specific initiation of the (-)-strands. The 5' termini of sub- and supragenomic (+)-strand and the 5' terminus of the subgenomic (-)-strand ASBVd RNA are identical to those produced in the in vitro self-cleavage reactions of (+) and (-) dimeric ASBVd RNAs, respectively. These observations strongly suggest that the hammerhead structures which mediate the in vitro self-cleavage reactions are also operative in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7809126

  18. A light and electron microscopic quantitative analysis of the innervation of axillary lymph nodes in juvenile and old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, G E; Schöttelndreier, A; Heuer, T

    1993-01-01

    The innervation of axillary lymph nodes from 20 juvenile rats (aged < 6 wk) was compared with that of 20 old rats (aged > 2 y). One half of each group was investigated by light microscopy on silver-impregnated paraffin sections, the other half by electron microscopy. The lymph nodes of the old animals were larger than those of juvenile animals, as derived from the volumes analysed by light microscopy. By both light and electron microscopy, the nerves were found to be confined almost exclusively to the medulla and were frequently associated with groups of plasma cells. Nerves identified as cortical in location were consistently found only in cortical areas adjacent to the medulla. In the old animals the nerves were thicker and more prominent in the light microscopic preparations. No such differences were noted at the ultrastructural level. Myelinated nerves were found in all lymph nodes, except in a single old animal. Quantitative analysis of the nerves revealed a significant increase in the density of innervation of the medulla in the old animals both by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy there also appeared to be a significant increase in the innervation density of the cortex, but these nerves were considered to be mislocalized because of difficulty in precise localisation at this level of magnification. On light microscopy, a significant increase in the incidence of nerve branching was found in the nodes of the old animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:8270476

  19. The neurochemical maturation of the rabbit cerebellum.

    PubMed Central

    Lossi, L; Ghidella, S; Marroni, P; Merighi, A

    1995-01-01

    the adult animal is attained. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8586569

  20. Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.

    PubMed Central

    ElHassan, A M; Gaafar, A; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    In this study biopsies from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major were examined by immunohistochemistry, and by light and electron microscopy to identify the types of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and their location. APC, identified morphologically and by their expression of specific cell markers, included Langerhans cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells, and interdigitating reticulum cells of the paracortex of lymph nodes. These cells expressed MHC class II antigens and contained Leishmania antigen. Since some keratinocytes and endothelial cells also showed these characteristics, they may also act as APC. By examining tissue samples from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes it was possible to follow the probable route of trafficking of various inflammatory cells between the skin lesion and lymph nodes. Leishmania antigen containing Langerhans cells were found in the epidermis, dermis and the regional lymph nodes. We believe these cells translocate from the epidermis to the dermis, where they take up antigen and migrate to the paracortex of the regional lymph nodes. There they are intimately associated with cells of the paracortex, and could be involved in the generation of Leishmania-specific T memory cells. LFA-1-positive T cells of the CD45RO phenotype were found in the skin lesion. Venular endothelium in the skin lesions expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is the ligand for LFA-1. The migration of lymphocytes from the vascular lumen to the site of inflammation is possibly a result of the interaction of these two adhesion molecules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7882568

  1. Regulatory arrestin cycle secures the fidelity and maintenance of the fly photoreceptor cell.

    PubMed Central

    Byk, T; Bar-Yaacov, M; Doza, Y N; Minke, B; Selinger, Z

    1993-01-01

    Excitation of fly photoreceptor cells is initiated by photoisomerization of rhodopsin to the active form of metarhodopsin. Fly metarhodopsin is thermostable, does not bleach, and does not regenerate spontaneously to rhodopsin. For this reason, the activity of metarhodopsin must be stopped by an effective termination reaction. On the other hand, there is also a need to restore the inactivated photopigment to an excitable state in order to keep a sufficient number of photopigment molecules available for excitation. The following findings reveal how these demands are met. The photopigment undergoes rapid phosphorylation upon photoconversion of rhodopsin to metarhodopsin and an efficient Ca2+ dependent dephosphorylation upon regeneration of metarhodopsin to rhodopsin. Phosphorylation decreases the ability of metarhodopsin to activate the guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Binding of 49-kDa arrestin further quenches the activity of metarhodopsin and protects it from dephosphorylation. Light-dependent binding and release of 49-kDa arrestin from metarhodopsin- and rhodopsin-containing membranes, respectively, directs the dephosphorylation reaction toward rhodopsin. This ensures the return of phosphorylated metarhodopsin to the rhodopsin pool without initiating transduction in the dark. Assays of rhodopsin dephosphorylation in the Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) mutant, a mutant in a gene previously cloned and predicted to encode a serine/threonine protein phosphatase, reveal that phosphorylated rhodopsin is a major substrate for the rdgC phosphatase. We propose that mutations resulting in either a decrease or an improper regulation of rhodopsin phosphatase activity bring about degeneration of the fly photoreceptor cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8446607

  2. Ultrastructure of the human spinal arachnoid mater and dura mater.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, F; Creemers, J; Lambrichts, I

    1996-01-01

    of an artifactual subdural space at spinal levels is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8886963

  3. Role of actin and myosin in the control of paracellular permeability in pig, rat and human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schnittler, H J; Wilke, A; Gress, T; Suttorp, N; Drenckhahn, D

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the endothelial actomyosin system with particular emphasis on its possible role in actively opening a paracellular route for permeability. 2. Actin and myosin comprised 16% of total endothelial protein with a molar actin/myosin ratio of 16.2 which is close to the actin/myosin ratio of muscle (studies on freshly isolated pig pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, PAEC). 3. By immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels the bulk of actin and myosin was colocalized in close vicinity to the intercellular clefts of both micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells in situ and in vitro. 4. Calcium-ionophore-induced rise in permeability of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and PAEC monolayers grown on filters in a two-chamber permeability system was caused by opening of intercellular gaps. Gap formation depended on the rise in intracellular Ca2+ and could be blocked by the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluperazine (TFP) and W7. 5. In skinned monolayers of cultured PAEC and in isolated sheets of HUVEC gap formation was shown to require ATP and occurred only when free myosin binding sites were available on endothelial actin filaments (experiments with myosin subfragment 1 modified by N-ethylmaleimide, S1-NEM). 6. These experiments suggest that actin and myosin in endothelial cells play a central role in regulating the width of the intercellular clefts, thereby controlling the paracellular pathway of vascular permeability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2100310

  4. Occurrence, distribution and origin of peptide-containing nerves of guinea-pig and rat male genitalia and the effects of denervation on sperm characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, T L; Hodson, N P; Blank, M A; Watson, P F; Mulderry, P K; Bishop, A E; Gu, J; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1986-01-01

    A systematic immunohistochemical and radio-immunological survey of the occurrence, distribution and origin of the peptidergic nerve supply in guinea-pig and rat male genitalia is presented. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), substance P and CGRP were detected in the genital organs of both species. The densities and distribution patterns of the peptidergic nerves were compared with those of the adrenergic nerves, as revealed by antibodies raised against dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the general neuronal component, as revealed by antibodies raised against neurofilament proteins (NF). Bilateral transection of the hypogastric nerves, in the guinea-pig, resulted in a decrease of substance P-containing nerves in the vas deferens and of NPY-, PHI- and VIP-containing nerves in the seminal vesicle. Unilateral disconnection of the pelvic nerves caused a decrease of VIP, PHI, substance P and CGRP nerve supply in the ipsilateral vas deferens and cauda epididymidis in the guinea-pig. A marked reduction of noradrenergic and NPY-containing nerves was observed in the vas deferens and sexual accessory glands of rats, chemically sympathectomised by chronic injection of low doses of guanethidine. Conversely, increase of substance P and CGRP immunoreactivities were observed, particularly in the vas deferens. After guanethidine, the cauda epididymidis and vas deferens were distended with spermatozoa, suggesting paralysis of the ducts. Spermatozoa had a decreased percentage of attached cytoplasmic droplets, indicating prolonged retention in the ducts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693101

  5. An ultrastructural study of the stellate ganglion of the pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed Central

    Leong, S K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    The stellate ganglia of Macaca nemestrina were studied with the electron microscope, using the conventional and chromate-dichromate methods of aldehyde fixation. The principal neurons are multipolar and mostly mononucleated. They measure between 10 and 50 microns in their average somal diameters. The organelles of the perikaryon are arranged in perinuclear, intermediate and peripheral zones. Unusual organelles consisting of stacks of closely apposed paired membranes, with or without dense bodies studded on their surfaces, are encountered. Nuclear eccentricity is a regular feature of the neuron and the nuclear membrane shows a varying degree of invagination. All parts of the neurons are surrounded by satellite or Schwann cells though dendritic surfaces in direct contact with the basal lamina associated with the satellite cells are not uncommonly seen. Features peculiar to dendrites have been described. Structures resembling dendritic growth cones are present in abundance. Most synapses are axodendritic; axosomatic synapses are much less frequently encountered. While most synapses are of the simple type, complex types are also present. Desmosome-like junctional complexes exist between dendrites, dendrites and somata and axons and dendrites. Differences between Schwann cells of myelinated axons and those of myelinated axons and satellite cells have been noted. In addition to an abundance of macrophages, other connective tissue cells such as mast cells, fibroblasts and plasma cells are also present. Degenerative profiles observed include neuronal cell bodies and cell processes, especially dendrites. They are phagocytosed by the satellite cells and macrophages. The presence of degenerative profiles, chromatolytic neurons and structures resembling dendritic growth cones in the normal stellate ganglion has been discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Figs. 19

  6. Localization of vasopressin mRNA and immunoreactivity in pituicytes of pituitary stalk-transected rats after osmotic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Pu, L P; Van Leeuwen, F W; Tracer, H L; Sonnemans, M A; Loh, Y P

    1995-01-01

    The presence of [arginine] vasopressin (AVP) mRNA and AVP immunoreactivity in pituicytes of the neural lobe (NL) of intact and pituitary stalk-transected rats, with and without osmotic stimulation, was examined. AVP mRNA was analyzed by Northern blotting, as well as by in situ hybridization in combination with immunocytochemistry using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as a marker for pituicytes. In intact rats, a poly(A) tail-truncated 0.62-kb AVP mRNA was detected in the NL and was found to increase 10-fold with 7 days of continuous salt loading. Morphological analysis of the NL of 7-day salt-loaded rats revealed the presence of AVP mRNA in a significant number of GFAP-positive pituicytes in the NL and in areas most probably containing nerve fibers. Eight days after pituitary stalk transection the NL AVP mRNA diminished in animals given water to drink, whereas in those given 2% saline for 18 h followed by 6 h of water, a treatment repeated on 6 successive days beginning 2 days after surgery, the 0.62-kb AVP mRNA was present. The AVP mRNA in the pituitary stalk-transected, salt-loaded rats showed an exclusive cellular distribution in the NL, indicative of localization in pituicytes. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the presence of AVP immunoreactivity in a subpopulation of pituicytes 7 and 10 days after pituitary stalk transection in salt-loaded animals, when almost all AVP fibers had disappeared from the NL. These data show that a subset of pituicytes in the NL is activated to synthesize AVP mRNA and AVP in response to osmotic stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479859

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis in a dog: clinical, hematological and pathological observations.

    PubMed Central

    Tryphonas, L; Zawidzka, Z; Bernard, M A; Janzen, E A

    1977-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed in a dog that had been living with his owners in Spain for two years. Clinical diagnosis was somewhat delayed as the disease is largely unknown to Canada and was manifested by a nonresponsive anemia which was not easily explained on peripheral blood evaluation alone, and concomitant interstitial nephritis. On post mortem examination splenomegaly was the main gross pathological finding. Light microscopic examination of bone marrow aspirates and subsequent electron microscopic examination of splenic and hepatic tissues revealed numerous Leishman-Donovan bodies in cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Parasitized reticuloendothelial cells were seen singly or forming granulomata. These latter did not contain giant cells and were confined mainly to the liver and spleen, being sparse and single in the first but extremely numerous and coalescing in the latter. Accumulation of intrafollicular hyaline material was seen in a small number of splenic follicles. Leishman-Donovan bodies on electron microscopic examination had a trilaminar periplast, a large round nucleus with heavy blocks of marginated chromatin and two nucleoli, a short flagellum and a kinetoplast. Lymph nodes and bone marrow had numerous parasitized macrophages but no granulomata. Leishman-Donovan bodies were not detected in the lungs and kidneys both of which exhibited a chronic intersitital reaction. The comparative hematological profile as well as the importance of bone marrow and electron microscopic examinations of the spleen and liver in diagnosis are discussed. The potential public health hazard of leishmaniasis to North America and particularly to Canada is considered. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. PMID:832183

  8. Observations on Diseased Pigs with High Sulfate Intake and Normal Tissue Copper Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K. W. F.; Strausz, K. I.; Martin, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Disease in a large pig herd reared intensively and kept on sulfate-rich drinking water is described. It is the first report of diseased progeny of sows with high sulfate intake. Results of two surveys are presented, one for water with sulfate in excess of 2000 ppm and one for water with less than 1000 ppm. The management practices are described in detail. Disease of Survey I was manifested by high morbidity and mortality (50% of 600) in piglets, incoordination in piglets and some adult stock and osteopathy in piglets and weaners. In Survey II disease was less severe and restricted to piglets. Detailed histopathological studies revealed myelin deficiency in brain and spinal cord of sows and piglets, interferred endochondreal ossification of long bones of piglets and weaners, fatty changes of livers and interstitial nephritis in piglets and weaners. The changes in the nervous tissue were considered due to delayed fixation as tissue was only immersed in fixative and not perfused with it immediately after death. Similar changes have been described for pigs deficient in copper. Copper content of tissue and body fluids of pigs of this study were normal, as were the serum inorganic phosphate and total calcium levels. The bone changes observed have also been reported for rats given dextran sulfate injections, for pigs on experimental low-copper sulfate-enriched diet and for pigs reported low in copper and fed a diet supplemented with sulfide. The cause of the locomotor disturbance and mortality in piglets was not established. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4270430

  9. Comparative anatomy and significance of the sesamoid bone of the peroneus longus muscle (os peroneum).

    PubMed Central

    Le Minor, J M

    1987-01-01

    The os peroneum is found in only a few primate families and seems to be completely absent in the non-primate pentadactyl mammals, in the Prosimii and in the Platyrrhinii (New World monkeys). In the Cercopithecidae (Catarrhinii, Old World monkeys) and the Hylobatidae, the os peroneum is a coffee bean-shaped constant, large and regular bone. The lateral surface of the bone is convex in all directions and non-articular. The medial surface is covered with hyaline cartilage and articulates by means of a synovial joint with the corresponding facet of the cuboid bone. The histological structure and the mode of ossification of the os peroneum are identical to that of other short bones of the skeleton. The os peroneum of the Cercopithecidae and Hylobatidae is an example of a new skeletal element that has appeared in a tendon subject to unusual mechanical stress. In the case of the peroneus longus tendon the stress is due to repetitive friction because of the functional importance of this muscle in the adduction and pseudo-opposability of the hallux. This osseous element is genetically fixed and hereditarily transmitted. Its mode of appearance is analogous to that accepted for the origin of the patella. In the Pongidae, the os peroneum is absent or rare. In man, this bone is relatively infrequent (approx 20% of mature individuals) and its shape is most irregular. In this case, the os peroneum appears as a regressive form of the typical bone observed in the above families, which is in the process of disappearing. Besides fundamental genetical factors, this regression is probably in relation to the disappearance of the functional importance of the peroneus longus muscle to the loss of the hallux opposability. Thus the mechanical factors cannot be dissociated from the genetic and phylogenetic factors in explaining the appearance and the regression of the os peroneum. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3654363

  10. Brush border myosin-I truncated in the motor domain impairs the distribution and the function of endocytic compartments in an hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Durrbach, A; Collins, K; Matsudaira, P; Louvard, D; Coudrier, E

    1996-01-01

    Myosins I, a ubiquitous monomeric class of myosins that exhibits actin-based motor properties, are associated with plasma and/or vesicular membranes and have been suggested as players for trafficking events between cell surface and intracellular membranous structures. To investigate the function of myosins 1, we have transfected a mouse hepatoma cell line (BWTG3) with cDNAs encoding the chicken brush border myosin-I (BBMI) and two variants truncated in the motor domain. One variant is deleted of the first 446 amino acids and thereby lacks the ATP binding site, whereas the other is deleted of the entire motor domain and lacks the ATP and actin binding sites. We have observed (i) that significant amounts of the truncated variants are recovered with membrane fractions after cell fractionation, (ii) that they codistribute with a compartment containing alpha2-macroglobulin internalized for 30 min as determined by fluorescent microscopy, (iii) that the production of BBMI-truncated variants impairs the distribution of the acidic compartment and ligands internalized for 30 min, and (iv) that the production of the truncated variant containing the actin binding site decreases the rate of alpha2-macroglobulin degradation whereas the production of the variant lacking the ATP binding site and the actin binding site increases the rate of a2-macroglobulin degradation. These observations indicate that the two truncated variants have a dominant negative effect on the distribution and the function of the endocytic compartments. We propose that an unidentified myosin-I might contribute to the distribution of endocytic compartments in a juxtanuclear position and/or to the regulation of the delivery of ligands to the degradative compartment in BWTG3 cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692943

  11. The Hamster Cheek Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1973-01-01

    To gain insight into factors that might be responsible for the normal avascularity of the cornea and for its vascularization in certain pathologic states, an experimental model was designed in which corneal vascularization could be studied under controlled conditions in hamster cheek pouch chambers. Normal corneal tissue, as well as corneas that had been altered in a variety of ways (eg, boiled, autoclaved, freeze-thawed) were implanted into hamster cheek pouch chambers. The fate of the transplanted tissue was observed at regular intervals by direct visualization within the hamster cheek pouch at various magnifications and by light and electron microscopy. This report reviews observations on more than 300 such experiments. Normal and injured corneal autografts, allografts and xenografts and nonviable (autoclaved, boiled or freeze-thawed) corneas commonly became vascularized in the cheek pouch. When this occurred, a similar morphologic sequence of events preceded and accompanied the growth of blood vessels into the cornea. Vascular invasion was generally preceded by the formation of granulation tissue around the cornea. This was followed by a leukocytic, and frequently a fibroblastic, infiltration of the cornea. When cells did not invade the transplanted cornea, the cornea invariably remained avascular. In the present model, a swollen cornea was not a sufficient stimulus for corneal vascularization. The data suggest that under certain circumstances leukocytes may produce one or more factors which stimulate directional vascular growth. The findings are viewed in terms of current concepts on corneal vascularization. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14 PMID:4271966

  12. Ultrastructural observations on the terminal segment epithelium of the seminiferous tubule of West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeasor, D N

    1986-01-01

    In the testes of West African dwarf goats, modified Sertoli cells comprise the major component of the terminal segment epithelium. They resemble Sertoli cells proper but differ in the paucity of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets. Cell attachment devices present include rudimentary desmosomes and occasional multiple contacts of opposing plasma membranes, interrupted by segments of slightly expanded intercellular space. A few generative cells are present in the proximal zone of the epithelium, but their development appears to terminate as early spermatids which hang loosely on the luminal surface. The middle zone epithelium comprises vacuolated cells lying among other cells containing abundant microtubules in their subapical cytoplasm. Globular expansions of the intercellular space are also apparent. The terminal plug contains two cell types. Type I are inclined, columnar cells which contain profuse arrays of agranular endoplasmic reticulum in their apical cytoplasm. Type II are smaller cells located at the apex of the plug. Each possesses cytoplasmic processes, which surround the apices of Type I cells. The modified Sertoli cells of all zones and the Type II plug cells contain remnants of spermatozoa at different stages of degradation. The general absence of developing generative cells in the terminal segment epithelium may be related to the paucity of agranular endoplasmic reticulum in the basal cytoplasm of modified Sertoli cells and the absence of typical Sertoli-Sertoli junctional specialisations. Structural modifications evident in the middle and distal zones facilitate distalward movement of materials, while the attenuation and modification of the lumen distally may facilitate phagocytosis of abnormal spermatozoa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3693043

  13. Cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling in the mouse uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Das, S K; Paria, B C; Chakraborty, I; Dey, S K

    1995-01-01

    Using RNA (Northern) blot hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR, we demonstrate that the brain-type cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) mRNA, but not the spleen-type cannabinoid receptor (CB2-R) mRNA, is expressed in the mouse uterus and that this organ has the capacity to synthesize the putative endogenous cannabinoid ligand, anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide). The psychoactive cannabinoid component of marijuana--delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)--or anandamide, but not the inactive and nonpsychoactive cannabidiol (CBD), inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP formation in the mouse uterus, which was prevented by pertussis toxin pretreatment. These results suggest that uterine CB1-R is coupled to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and is biologically active. Autoradiographic studies identified ligand binding sites ([3H]anandamide) in the uterine epithelium and stromal cells, suggesting that these cells are perhaps the targets for cannabinoid action. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [3H]WIN 55212-2, another cannabinoid receptor ligand, showed a single class of high-affinity binding sites in the endometrium with an apparent Kd of 2.4 nM and Bmax of 5.4 x 10(9) molecules per mg of protein. The gene encoding lactoferrin is an estrogen-responsive gene in the mouse uterus that was rapidly and transiently up-regulated by THC, but not by CBD, in ovariectomized mice in the absence of ovarian steroids. This effect, unlike that of 17 beta-estradiol (E2), was not influenced by a pure antiestrogen, ICI 182780, suggesting that the THC-induced uterine lactoferrin gene expression does not involve estrogen receptors. We propose that the uterus is a new target for cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7753807

  14. Characterization and localization of the putative 'link' component in rat small-intestinal mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, R E; Specian, R D; Forstner, G G; Forstner, J F

    1987-01-01

    Rat intestinal mucin is polymerized by a putative 'link' component of Mr 118,000 that can be released from the native mucin by thiol reduction [Fahim, Forstner & Forstner (1983) Biochem. J. 209, 117-124]. To confirm that this component is an integral part of the mucin and independent of the mucin purification technique, rat mucin was purified in the present study by three independent techniques. In all cases, the 118,000-Mr component was released after reduction. The 118 kDa band was electroeluted from SDS/polyacrylamide gels and its composition shown to resemble closely that of the link component of human intestinal mucin [Mantle, Forstner & Forstner (1984) Biochem. J. 224, 345-354]. Carbohydrates were present, including significant (10 mol/100 mol) amounts of mannose, suggesting the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides. Monospecific antibodies prepared against the rat 118,000-Mr component established its tissue localization in intestinal goblet cells. Mucins subjected to SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and Western blots using the same antibody, established that the link components of rat and human intestinal mucin are similar antigenically. Brief exposure (10 min) of native rat mucin to trypsin or Pronase (enzyme/mucin protein, 1:500, w/w) also released a 118,000-Mr component that reacted with the monospecific antibody. Thus the 118,000-Mr component is an integral part of the mucin and, although linked to large glycopeptides by disulphide bonds, this component also has proteinase-sensitive peptide bonds, presumably at terminal locations such that brief treatment with proteinases releases the molecule in a reasonably intact form. Under physiological conditions, therefore, one might expect that, after mucin is secreted into the intestinal lumen, luminal proteinases would rapidly remove the link component, thereby causing the mucin to depolymerize. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3311021

  15. Expression of human inducible nitric oxide synthase in a tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B)-deficient cell line: H4B promotes assembly of enzyme subunits into an active dimer.

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, E; Billiar, T R; Robbins, P D; Loftus, M; Stuehr, D J

    1995-01-01

    Murine inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) is catalytically active only in dimeric form. Assembly of its purified subunits into a dimer requires H4B. To understand the structure-activity relationships of human iNOS, we constitutively expressed recombinant human iNOS in NIH 3T3 cells by using a retroviral vector. These cells are deficient in de novo H4B biosynthesis and the role of H4B in the expression and assembly of active iNOS in an intact cell system could be studied. In the absence of added H4B, NO synthesis by the cells was minimal, whereas cells grown with supplemental H4B or the H4B precursor sepiapterin generated NO (74.1 and 63.3 nmol of nitrite per 10(6) cells per 24 h, respectively). NO synthesis correlated with an increase in intracellular H4B but no increase in iNOS protein. Instead, an increased percentage of dimeric iNOS was observed, rising from 20% in cytosols from unsupplemented cells to 66% in H4B-supplemented cell cytosols. In all cases, only dimeric iNOS displayed catalytic activity. Cytosols prepared from H4B-deficient cells exhibited little iNOS activity but acquired activity during a 60- to 120-min incubation with H4B, reaching final activities of 60-72 pmol of citrulline per mg of protein per min. Reconstitution of cytosolic NO synthesis activity was associated with conversion of monomers into dimeric iNOS during the incubation. Thus, human iNOS subunits dimerize to form an active enzyme, and H4B plays a critical role in promoting dimerization in intact cells. This reveals a post-translational mechanism by which intracellular H4B can regulate iNOS expression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8524846

  16. The putative 'link' glycopeptide associated with mucus glycoproteins. Composition and properties of preparations from the gastrointestinal tracts of several mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Roberton, A M; Mantle, M; Fahim, R E; Specian, R D; Bennick, A; Kawagishi, S; Sherman, P; Forstner, J F

    1989-01-01

    The existence of a discrete 'link' peptide in epithelial mucins has been debated for many years. There is evidence that at least some mucins contain a specific 'link' peptide (or glycopeptide) that enhances mucin polymerization by forming disulphide bridges to large mucin glycoprotein subunits. A major difficulty has been to know whether the reported differences in putative 'link' components represent artifacts generated by inter-laboratory differences in technical procedures used in mucin purification. The present paper outlines the results of a collaborative study involving five laboratories and 53 samples of purified gastrointestinal mucins (including salivary, gastric, small-intestinal and colonic mucins) prepared by five techniques from four different animal species. An early step in mucin purification in all cases was the addition of proteinase inhibitors. Representative mucins were analysed for their composition, electrophoretic mobility in SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis before and after disulphide-bond reduction, and for their reactivity with monospecific antibodies developed against the 118 kDa putative 'link' glycopeptide isolated from either rat or human small-intestinal mucins. Our results indicate that, despite differences in laboratory techniques, preparative procedures, organs and species, each of the purified mucins contained a 'link' component that was released by disulphide-bond reduction and produced a band on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at a position of approx. 118 kDa. After electroelution and analyses, the 118 kDa bands from the different mucins were found to have similar amino acid profiles and to contain carbohydrate. It would appear therefore that a 'link' glycopeptide of molecular mass approx. 118 kDa is common to all of the gastrointestinal mucins studied. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2775239

  17. Structure of an invertebrate gene encoding cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins: implications for the origin and the diversification of IF proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Dodemont, H; Riemer, D; Weber, K

    1990-01-01

    The structure of the single gene encoding the cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins in non-neuronal cells of the gastropod Helix aspersa is described. Genomic and cDNA sequences show that the gene is composed of 10 introns and 11 exons, spanning greater than 60 kb of DNA. Alternative RNA processing accounts for two mRNA families which encode two IF proteins differing only in their C-terminal sequence. The intron/exon organization of the Helix rod domain is identical to that of the vertebrate type III IF genes in spite of low overall protein sequence homology and the presence of an additional 42 residues in coil 1b of the invertebrate sequence. Intron position homology extends to the entire coding sequence comprising both the rod and tail domains when the invertebrate IF gene is compared with the nuclear lamin LIII gene of Xenopus laevis presented in the accompanying report of Döring and Stick. In contrast the intron patterns of the tail domains of the invertebrate IF and the lamin genes differ from those of the vertebrate type III genes. The combined data are in line with an evolutionary descent of cytoplasmic IF proteins from a nuclear lamin-like progenitor and suggest a mechanism for this derivation. The unique position of intron 7 in the Helix IF gene indicates that the archetype IF gene arose by the elimination of the nuclear localization sequence due to the recruitment of a novel splice site. The presumptive structural organization of the archetype IF gene allows predictions with respect to the later diversification of metazoan IF genes. Whereas models proposing a direct derivation of neurofilament genes seem unlikely, the earlier speculation of an mRNA transposition mechanism is compatible with current results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2249666

  18. Histochemical Phosphatases and Metachromasia in Murine Tumours Induced by Bone Seeking Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Bland, M. R.; Loutit, J. F.; Sansom, Janet M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours induced in mice, either CBA normal and chimaerical, or C3H, by 90Sr or 226Ra or plutonium have been examined histochemically with (1) diazotate fast red violet LB salt in naphthol AS-MX phosphate buffer at pH 8·6 and 5·2, (2) 1: 9 dimethyl methylene blue (Taylor). It is concluded: (a) The diagnosis of osteosarcoma is facilitated with Taylor's Blue which stains osteoid metachromatically. Cells of osteosarcoma, like normal osteoblasts, contain alkaline phosphatase but this may be lost by mutation either in the original tumour or subsequently on passage of the tumour serially to compatible hosts. (b) Osteosarcomata may contain giant-cells of two forms, bizarre tumour cells and osteoclasts; the latter contain acid phosphatase. Osteosarcomata which retain their osteoid on serial passage have few cells containing acid phosphatases. (c) Primitive mesenchymal cell tumours of angiomatous form may occur, if the bone marrow is irradiated, e.g. by 90Sr-90Y and Pu. These tumours lack osteoid and cells interpretable as osteoblasts or osteoclasts (though they destroy bone). (d) Tumours classifiable as fibrosarcomata occur rarely, and may be truly of fibroblastic origin or be mutated osteosarcomata. (e) Lymphomata also occur when the marrow is irradiated (90Sr-90Y and Pu). They may be generalized, when their cells may contain alkaline phosphatase or lack it. They may be localized to abdominal viscera, the reticulo-sarcomatous form, in which case the cells lack alkaline phosphatase. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 2Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 12 PMID:4133784

  19. Identification of a 46-kD latex protein allergen in health care workers.

    PubMed Central

    Beezhold, D H; Sussman, G L; Kostyal, D A; Chang, N S

    1994-01-01

    Latex allergy is an occupational hazard for health care workers. Extractable latex proteins are known to be allergenic, but most latex allergens have not been specifically identified. The purpose of this study was to characterize the IgE response of latex-allergic patients to latex proteins and to identify common protein allergens. Serum was obtained from 40 individuals who were skin test-positive to latex; 85% were health care workers. Western blots for IgE reactivity were performed using both ammoniated (AL) and non-ammoniated (NAL) latex proteins and IgE-reactive NAL proteins were analysed by microsequence analysis. The patients were grouped according to common patterns of reactivity. Pattern 1, the most common pattern of reactivity (9/40 patients) recognized two protein bands in both NAL and AL at 46 and 110 kD. A second, heterogeneous pattern of reactivity (pattern 2) recognized a diffuse pattern of polypeptides in the AL preparation. The n-terminal amino acid sequences for allergens at 14, 18, 29, 46 and 110 kD were determined. Sequence analysis identified the 14-kD and 18-kD allergens as the hevein proprotein. The 46-kD and 110-kD had identical sequences which were unique from known latex proteins. We conclude that multiple latex proteins are allergens with hevein preprotein and a previously unidentified 46/110-kD protein being commonly recognized in health care workers. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7994905

  20. cAMP- and rapamycin-sensitive regulation of the association of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E and the translational regulator PHAS-I in aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, L M; Bornfeldt, K E; Argast, G M; Krebs, E G; Kong, X; Lin, T A; Lawrence, J C

    1995-01-01

    Incubating rat aortic smooth muscle cells with either platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF) or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased the phosphorylation of PHAS-I, an inhibitor of the mRNA cap binding protein, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E. Phosphorylation of PHAS-I promoted dissociation of the PHAS-I-eIF-4E complex, an effect that could partly explain the stimulation of protein synthesis by the two growth factors. Increasing cAMP with forskolin decreased PHAS-I phosphorylation and markedly increased the amount of eIF-4E bound to PHAS-I, effects consistent with an action of cAMP to inhibit protein synthesis. Both PDGF and IGF-I activated p70S6K, but only PDGF increased mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. Forskolin decreased by 50% the effect of PDGF on increasing p70S6K, and forskolin abolished the effect of IGF-I on the kinase. The effects of PDGF and IGF-I on increasing PHAS-I phosphorylation, on dissociating the PHAS-I-eIF-4E complex, and on increasing p70S6K were abolished by rapamycin. The results indicate that IGF-I and PDGF increase PHAS-I phosphorylation in smooth muscle cells by the same rapamycin-sensitive pathway that leads to activation of p70S6K. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7638171

  1. Human spleen tyrosine kinase p72Syk associates with the Src-family kinase p53/56Lyn and a 120-kDa phosphoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Sidorenko, S P; Law, C L; Chandran, K A; Clark, E A

    1995-01-01

    The 72-kDa spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Src-family kinase p53/56Lyn (Lyn) contribute to signaling via the B-cell antigen receptor complex. Here we show that Syk and Lyn from human B lymphocytes can interact directly. Syk and Lyn coimmunoprecipitated from mature and activated B-cell lines, and gel-purified Syk and Lyn reassociated in vitro, demonstrating their direct interaction. This Syk-Lyn interaction may be dependent on the stage of B-cell differentiation, since Syk-Lyn associations were not detected in pre-B and myeloma cell lines and Syk from an immature B-cell line did not reassociate with Lyn in vitro. Serine/threonine kinase activity was also associated with Syk. Crosslinking of cell surface IgM led to rapid activation of both tyrosine and serine/threonine protein kinase activities that resulted in phosphorylation in vitro of proteins coprecipitating with Syk--in particular, a serine/threonine phosphorylated protein 120 kDa in size (pp120). Several phosphoproteins, including one of 72 kDa and one of 120 kDa, coprecipitated with phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1). Sequential immunoprecipitation identified the 72-kDa protein associated with PLC gamma 1 as Syk. The 120-kDa serine/threonine phosphorylated protein that coprecipitated with PLC gamma 1 resembled the Syk-associated pp120 by several criteria. Thus, pp120 may serve as a link between Syk and PLC gamma 1, coupling the B-cell antigen receptor to the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7831290

  2. Distribution of endogenous type B and type D sheep retrovirus sequences in ungulates and other mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S J; Stedman, K E; Carlson, J O; DeMartini, J C

    1996-01-01

    The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and various mammal groups for sequences related to JSRV. Probes prepared from the envelope (SU) region of JSRV and the capsid (CA) region of a Peruvian type D virus related to JSRV were used in Southern blot hybridization with genomic DNA followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Fifteen to 20 CA and SU bands were found in all members of the 13 breeds of domestic sheep and 6 breeds of goats tested. There were similar findings in 6 wild Ovis and Capra genera. Within 22 other genera of Bovidae including domestic cattle, and 7 other families of Artiodactyla including Cervidae, there were usually a few CA or SU bands at low stringency and rare bands at high stringency. Among 16 phylogenetically distant genera, there were generally fewer bands hybridizing with either probe. These results reveal wide-spread phylogenetic distribution of endogenous type B and type D retroviral sequences related to JSRV among mammals and argue for further investigation of their potential role in disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8622932

  3. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218

  4. The Ventilation, Heating and Lighting of Hospital Wards

    PubMed Central

    Watt, James

    1933-01-01

    History of ventilation in last 100 years, showing reversal of ideas and influence of sanatorium idea. Physiology of cool moving air. How it affects metabolism, heat-loss and heat-production. Relation to sunlight. Reactive capacity of the individual. Practice of these teachings, as illustrated by sanatorium treatment of tuberculosis and by open-air schools. Exposure to cooling air a powerful therapeutic agent. Infrequent occurrence in sanatoria of diseases or complications often ascribed to cold. Dilution of infection. Applicability to diseases other than tuberculosis. Shock and old age. Perflation and diffusion, their relative values. Uniformity or variability of effect desirable? Incompatibility of good ventilation and ordinary standards of heating. Former the more important. Conclusion that ward temperatures may be lowered without harm. Measures necessary to compensate, clothing, classification of patients, small wards. Changing standards of comfort. Psychological effects. Systems of ventilation in hospital wards. Mechanical by propulsion or extraction being displaced by natural system, usually by cross-window ventilation. Supplementary ventilators. Objection to heating of incoming air. Fallibility of human factor in management. Sash versus casement windows. Hoppers. Austral window. Orientation and exposure of wards. Ventilation of small wards. Proportion of window space to solid wall. Balconies. Floor space. Heating of wards. Heating of air or floor or walls. Open fires. Value of radiant heat. Steam or water under low or high pressure. Radiators or pipes. Lighting. Avoidance of glare from windows. Arrangement of beds in wards. Colour of walls. Blinds and curtains. Artificial lighting. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:19989481

  5. The ultrastructure of the epithelium of the ductuli efferentes testis in the common starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, S J; Kendall, M D

    1985-01-01

    The ductuli efferentes of male common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were prepared for light and electron microscopy. The epithelium of breeding birds was pseudostratified, consisting of ciliated cells, which were of the same type throughout the ductules, and of two types of non-ciliated cells: an electron-dense form with complex lateral invaginations, long microvilli and apical invaginations found in proximal ductuli efferentes (Type 1 a) and a less dense, taller, seemingly more secretory cell found distally (Type 1 b). Both types contained crystal-like structures in granular and transitional endoplasmic reticulum, which were occasionally seen in ciliated cells and not elsewhere. These 'intracisternal bodies' were probably proteinaceous in nature. The ciliated cells were typically more electron-lucent than the non-ciliated cells. They adopted the height and interdigitation characteristics of the surrounding epithelium. Occasional annulate lamellae were encountered. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were seen occasionally, notably in non-breeding birds. The epithelial morphology of the non-breeding common starling is briefly mentioned. The tubules were collapsed and apparently inactive, although signs of proliferative activity were seen in birds killed in February. The distinction of the epithelial cells into one ciliated and two non-ciliated types in this study is discussed in the light of previous work, as differences were found to exist. It is suggested that care should be taken in the use of mammalian tubule nomenclature when it is applied to birds. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4077685

  6. Myeloperoxidase is synthesized as larger phosphorylated precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Hasilik, A; Pohlmann, R; Olsen, R L; von Figura, K

    1984-01-01

    Synthesis and processing of myeloperoxidase were examined in metabolically labeled cells of the human promyelocyte line HL-60 and in an in vitro rabbit reticulocyte lysate system directed with HL-60 mRNA. Radioactivity labeled products were isolated by immunoprecipitation and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and fluorography. In vivo, myeloperoxidase was labeled initially as a 85-K glycosylated polypeptide (75 K after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H). This polypeptide was soon processed to an 81-K intermediate and to smaller mature fragments of 60 K and 13 K within approximately 1 day. A minor portion of the precursor was converted to fragments of 40 K and 43 K. The pattern of labeled polypeptides of mature myeloperoxidase was similar to that of the enzyme purified from human leucocytes. The modifications of the polypeptide and of the oligosaccharide side chains in myeloperoxidase resembled those known to occur during the processing of lysosomal enzymes. In the absence or presence of dog pancreas membranes, myeloperoxidase was synthesized in vitro as a 76-K polypeptide or a 87-K glycosylated polypeptide, respectively. In HL-60 cells [32P]phosphate was incorporated into endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-sensitive oligosaccharides. The presence of phosphorylated oligosaccharides was inferred from the fact that endocytosis of leucocyte myeloperoxidase in fibroblasts was sensitive to mannose 6-phosphate. It is suggested that myeloperoxidase is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum as a precursor of larger molecular mass and that the oligosaccharide side chains in the precursor are modified to contain mannose 6-phosphate residues which may be involved in the segregation and transport of the precursor. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6096138

  7. GTP-dependent association of Raf-1 with Ha-Ras: identification of Raf as a target downstream of Ras in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Koide, H; Satoh, T; Nakafuku, M; Kaziro, Y

    1993-01-01

    Ras is involved in signal transduction of various factors for growth, differentiation, and oncogenesis. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that function upstream and downstream of the Ras signaling pathway. However, its immediate downstream target molecular has not yet been identified. In an effort to identify the Ras-associated downstream proteins, we added recombinant Ha-Ras in a GTP-bound form to cell-free lysates and used several antibodies against Ras to immunoprecipitate Ras complexes. We found that a serine/threonine kinase, Raf-1, was coimmunoprecipitated with Ha-Ras by two anti-Ras antibodies (LA069 and Y13-238), whereas a neutralizing antibody against Ras (Y13-259) could not precipitate Raf-1. The coimmunoprecipitation was observed with a complex of Ras and guanosine 5'-[gamma- thio]triphosphate but not with a complex of Ras and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. The GTP-dependent association of Ha-Ras with Raf-1 was observed with lysates of various types of cultured cells, including NIH 3T3, pheochromocytoma (PC) 12, Ba/F3, and Jurkat T cells, and also with crude extracts from rat brain. Furthermore, Raf-1 was precipitated with a transforming Ha-Ras mutant ([Val12]Ras) and wild-type Ha-Ras but not with an effector-region mutant ([Leu35,ARg37]Ras) that lacks transforming activity. These results indicate that Ras.GTP physically associates with Raf either directly or through other component(s) and strongly suggest that Raf functions in close downstream proximity to Ras in mammalian cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8378348

  8. Insulin-like growth factor II mediates epidermal growth factor-induced mitogenesis in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Steller, M A; Delgado, C H; Zou, Z

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that activation of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor plays a major role in the control of cellular proliferation of many cell types. We studied the mitogenic effects of IGF-I, IGF-II, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on growth-arrested HT-3 cells, a human cervical cancer cell line. All three growth factors promoted dose-dependent increases in cell proliferation. In untransformed cells, EGF usually requires stimulation by a "progression" factor such as IGF-I, IGF-II, or insulin (in supraphysiologic concentrations) in order to exert a mitogenic effect. Accordingly, we investigated whether an autocrine pathway involving IGF-I or IGF-II participated in the EGF-induced mitogenesis of HT-3 cells. With the RNase protection assay, IGF-I mRNA was not detected. However, IGF-II mRNA increased in a time-dependent manner following EGF stimulation. The EGF-induced mitogenesis was abrogated in a dose-dependent manner by IGF-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5), which binds to IGF-II and neutralizes it. An antisense oligonucleotide to IGF-II also inhibited the proliferative response to EGF. In addition, prolonged, but not short-term, stimulation with EGF resulted in autophosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor, and coincubations with both EGF and IGFBP-5 attenuated this effect. These data demonstrate that autocrine secretion of IGF-II in HT-3 cervical cancer cells can participate in EGF-induced mitogenesis and suggest that autocrine signals involving the IGF-I receptor occur "downstream" of competence growth factor receptors such as the EGF receptor. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8618825

  9. Rate and severity of HIV-associated dementia (HAD): correlations with Gp41 and iNOS.

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, D. C.; McArthur, J. C.; Dawson, T. M.; Dawson, V. L.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fifteen to thirty percent of AIDS patients develop some type of neurologic disorder during the course of their illness and the vast majority of these neurologic disorders will be HIV-associated dementia (HAD). These patients can exhibit varying degrees of severity and rates of progression of HAD. Neuropathologic variables that are associated with the rate of progression of HAD are not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue was collected at autopsy from the Johns Hopkins University HIV Neurology Program. Seventy-one AIDS patients of this prospectively characterized population were followed until death to obtain information on dementia severity and the rate of neurological progression. Immunoblot analysis of immunological nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), HAM56, gp41, p24, gp120, and beta-tubulin was performed and the levels of iNOS, HAM56, gp41, and p24 were normalized to beta-tubulin and analyzed for significance by means of the Kruskal-Wallis test for multiple groups. RESULTS: We have identified unique groups within this spectrum and designated them slow, moderate, and rapid progressors. Slow and moderate progressors' neurological progression occurs over a course of months to years, whereas the rapid progressors' disease shows rapid increases in severity over weeks to months. In the present study we demonstrate that the severity and rate of progression of HAD correlates significantly with levels of the HIV-1 coat protein, gp41, iNOS, and HAM56, a marker of microglial/macrophage activation. CONCLUSION: The severity and rate of progression of HAD correlates with indices of immune activation as well as levels of iNOS and gp41. There appears to be a threshold effect in which high levels of gp41, iNOS, and immune activation are particularly associated with severe (Memorial Sloan-Kettering score 3 to 4) and rapidly progressive HAD. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:10203575

  10. The Sertoli cell of the water buffalo--an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, T I; Bongso, T A; Harisah, M; Basrur, P K

    1990-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of water buffaloes before and during sexual maturity was studied by transmission electron microscopy, with emphasis on the intranucleolar vesicular elements. Sertoli cells of animals under 12 months of age were distinguished from the germ cells by the presence of electron dense membrane bound bodies within their cytoplasm. These cells, referred to as basal indifferent supporting cells, were probably involved in the phagocytosis and elimination of degenerating spermatocytes, which failed to differentiate into spermatids and spermatozoa in animals under one year of age. In 12 month old animals, a few Sertoli cells exhibiting the vesicular elements appeared in the nucleolar region while in animals over 15 months of age Sertoli cells could be positively identified by the characteristic cytoplasm containing microtubules, elongated and electron dense mitochondria, extensive granular endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of spermatids in various stages of spermiogenesis. The vesicular elements in the nucleolar region of the Sertoli cells were most prominent at this stage. Ultrastructural features of the Sertoli cells revealed an abundance of ribosome-like particles surrounding the vesicles of varying size. Some of these vesicular elements contained amorphous material suggesting that they represent the products sequestered in the nuclear region for transport to the cytoplasm and that the process of spermiogenesis may be dependent on the ability of Sertoli cells to generate these products at sexual maturity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:2306676

  11. The effect of measles on the thymus and other lymphoid tissues

    PubMed Central

    White, R. G.; Boyd, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The histological changes in the thymus and other lymphoid tissues in cases of severe measles resulting in death during the acute phase or at sometime afterwards (from a presumably unrelated cause) have been surveyed and compared with cases of similar age and duration of illnesses other than measles which were admitted to the same infectious diseases hospital. Severe changes of aggregation and formation of large syncytia of thymocytes which progressed to cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction were observed early in the disease (at 4 days). These `giant-cells' failed to show either nuclear or cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Such cases when seen at a later stage had total loss of thymic cortex. After measles the cortex of the thymus can be absent for at least 2 months. Thus no cortex was discernible in cases of post-measles death at 28 and 64 days; recovery of cortex was seen at 91 and 122 days. Other cases of severe systemic disease entering the same hospital also showed loss of thymic cortex from 6 days of illness. Thus, although measles-determined aggregative destruction of thymocytes can cause rapid loss of cortex, the final histological picture of the latter need not necessarily have been preceded by the same type of measles-dependent thymocyte destruction. Although thymocyte aggregation and secondary depletion were the most obvious histological result, a careful quantitation of the medulla and of HassalFs corpuscles showed a small decrease in both tissues in the acute phase. Cases recovering from measles showed a small decrease in the number of Hassall's corpuscles. Measles-specific changes were not found in lymphoid tissues other than the thymus of these cases. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 PMID:4701743

  12. Contact-dependent regulation of vinculin expression in cultured fibroblasts: a study with vinculin-specific cDNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Bendori, R; Salomon, D; Geiger, B

    1987-01-01

    Vinculin specific cDNA clones were isolated from chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cDNA library in lambda gt11. The clones, ranging in size from 2.8 to 5.0 kb, were initially selected by rabbit antibodies to vinculin. Their identity was further confirmed by their specific reactivities with a battery of different vinculin-specific monoclonal antibodies. Southern blot analysis of restriction enzyme digested chicken spleen DNA suggested that all the isolated cDNA clones correspond to the same gene(s). Northern blot hybridization revealed that the vinculin-specific cDNA clones react with a single 6.5 kb mRNA in total cellular RNA preparations of CEF, whole chicken embryos and chicken gizzard smooth muscle. Moreover, fractionation of CEF poly(A)+ RNA by sucrose gradient centrifugation followed by translation in cell free system indicated that the mRNA coding for vinculin has a size of about 6.0-7.0 kb. The identity of these clones was finally confirmed by selection hybridization assay. The isolated vinculin-specific cDNA probes were subsequently used in order to study the effect of substrate adhesiveness on the expression of vinculin. We show here that cells cultured on highly adhesive substrate, such as endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM), form large vinculin-rich focal contacts, while cells grown on poorly adhesive substrate poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [poly(HEMA)] contain only small distorted vinculin spots. These morphological differences were accompanied by over 5-fold reduction in vinculin synthesis in cells growing on poly(HEMA), compared to those cultured on the ECM and over 7.5-fold decrease in the levels of vinculin-specific mRNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3121302

  13. Intestinal obstruction by an unusual foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Deitel, Mervyn; Syed, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    The case is described of a patient with complete small bowel obstruction 13 days after swallowing a condom containing hashish. Treatment by enzymatic dissolution was obviously impossible. The small bowel was emptied preoperatively by a Dennis long-tube, and the impacted bolus was removed by enterotomy. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4728949

  14. Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

  15. The Art of Local Treatment (Or Laying it on Right)

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of formulating a topical prescription are given. Indications for the use of the range of applications in the treatment of skin disease are described. Techniques of local application, dressing materials, and methods are reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21308023

  16. Serial Radiohippurate Renal Scintiphotography

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthall, Leonard; Greyson, N. David; Martin, Robert H.

    1970-01-01

    The results of serial radiohippurate scintiphotography in 222 patients are analyzed. The findings in various renal diseases are discussed and compared with those obtained from the excretory urogram, BUN, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4aFIG. 4bFIG. 5aFIG. 5b PMID:5536740

  17. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  18. Burned—But Not in a Major Way

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Walter J.

    1981-01-01

    Most minor burns can be expected to heal uneventfully if certain principles of management are followed. Prompt assessment of the etiology and classification of the burn will reveal which burns can be treated on an outpatient basis. This article outlines the principles of such treatment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469345

  19. Cutaneous Sarcoidosis in Blood Donation Venepuncture Sites

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Six patients were studied in whom sarcoidosis first showed itself by the development of granulomata at the site of previous venepunctures. The diagnosis was histologically confirmed in all cases. The treatment of the lesions with triamcinolone did not seem to hasten resolution. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4p708-a PMID:4646848

  20. Cutaneous Anthrax—the Non-industrial Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Knight, A. H.; Wynne-Williams, C. J. E.; Willis, A. T.

    1969-01-01

    Two patients contracted cutaneous anthrax after contact with infected bone meal. Awareness of the risk of infection from this source may help in achieving early clinical diagnosis and a low fatality rate following effective antibiotic therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4974297

  1. Total or near total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation for treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Najarian, J S; Sutherland, D E; Baumgartner, D; Burke, B; Rynasiewicz, J J; Matas, A J; Goetz, F C

    1980-01-01

    or equal to 6 microU/ml. In the other two patients, the increase in insulin concentration was not sustained. Islet tissue preparation from a diseased pancreas is difficult. The surgeon and the patient must still be willing to accept diabetes for relief of pain when performing this operation. In some patients, however, islet autotransplantation can prevent or partially ameliorate diabetes after pancreatectomy, and preservation of endocrine function is worthwhile. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7A. Fig. 7B. PMID:6775603

  2. Real Time PCR Using Molecular Beacons : A New Tool to Identify Point Mutations and to Analyze Gene Expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, R; Tyagi, S; Smith, I

    2001-01-01

    Molecular beacons are a novel family of hybridization probes, which emit fluorescence upon interaction with their target. They are hairpin-shaped oligonucleotides with a central part complementary to the target, flanked by two 5 6 base pair (bp) inverted repeats, which can form a stable stem. A fluorescent moiety is covalently linked to the 5' end of the molecule, whereas the quenching moiety, 4-(4'-dimethylaminophenylazo)benzoic acid (DABCYL), is covalently linked to the 3' end. The stem keeps the two moieties in close proximity to each other, causing the fluorescence of the fluorophore to be quenched by energy transfer. When molecular beacons bind to their target, they undergo a conformational change that results in the restoration of fluorescence of the internally quenched fluorophore (1) (Fig. 1). Molecular beacons are extremely specific, and can clearly discriminate between targets differing only by a single nucleotide (2,3). When present in a PCR reaction where their target is the amplification product, molecular beacons can form a stable hybrid with the amplicon during the annealing step. The intensity of fluorescence at the annealing step in each amplification cycle is a direct measure of amplicon concentration (2,4) (Fig. 2). Another interesting feature of molecular beacons is that they can be coupled to a variety of differently colored fluorophores. This allows multiplex PCR reactions where different DNA fragments can be amplified and detected simultaneously in the same tube (2,3). Fig. 1. Operation of molecular beacons. On their own, these molecules are nonfluorescent, because the stem hybrid keeps the fluorophore (◯) close to the quencher (•). When the probe sequence in the loop hybridizes to its target, forming a rigid double helix, a conformational reorganization occurs that separates the quencher from the fluorophore, restoring fluorescence (1). Fig. 2. Real time measurement of amplicon synthesis during PCR using molecular beacons. (A) Four PCR

  3. Sex Chromatin Positive Metastatic Melanoma in a Male with a Favourable Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, N. B.

    1971-01-01

    The presence of sex chromatin in a metastatic malignant melanoma from a male patient aged 26 who showed no evidence of any constitutional chromosome anomaly is described. A possible association between the apparently “female” origin of the tumour and the good response to therapy is considered. ImagesFig. 2p488-5-aFig. 4Fig. 3Fig. 1p488-9-a PMID:5144523

  4. Occlusive Peripheral Arteriosclerosis: Treatment by Percutaneous Transluminal Recanalization—“The Dotter Procedure”

    PubMed Central

    Palayew, M. J.; Sedlezky, I.; Sigman, H. H.; Sheiner, N. M.

    1969-01-01

    We have performed 17 percutaneous transluminal dilatations in 15 patients with segmental stenoses of the femoral and popliteal arteries. Initial success was achieved in 14 instances. This technique must be considered a useful adjunct in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease in selected patients. Its use along with endarterectomy has not been previously reported and warrants further investigation. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11 PMID:5353151

  5. Absorption and Transport of Fluorescent Brighteners by Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Darken, Marjorie A.

    1962-01-01

    The absorption of brighteners by living cells and their transport to subsequent growth is described. Brighteners are highly fluorescent, ultraviolet-absorbing compounds which appear to be essentially nontoxic, stable biological markers. They have been effectively absorbed by growing cultures of bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes, and higher fungi, with active growth centers evidencing the greatest flourescence. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10-11 PMID:14025111

  6. Intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. D.; Kraszewski, A.; Gordon, J.; Howie, J. G. R.; McSeveney, D.; Harland, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    An abnormal condition of the large intestine is described in which the surface epithelium is infested by short spirochaetes. Diagnosis can be made by light microscopy. A review of 14 cases diagnosed by rectal biopsy and 62 cases involving the appendix shows no consistent symptom complex. The possible significance is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1 PMID:5548558

  7. The peripheral retinal 'map'.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of the periphery of the retinal field of the human eye is of considerable significance, it is suggested, to those participating in various sporting activities. Its boundaries shrink and expand depending upon the physiological conditions imposed both upon the eye and upon the organism as a whole. Consequently its message to the brain may be impaired under stress with resulting danger owing to delayed response. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1148574

  8. Clonal Evolution in Two Patients with Autoimmune Disease and Lymphoreticular Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M.; Thorburn, Marigold J.; Gibbs, W. N.; Brooks, S. E. H.; Hanchard, B.

    1970-01-01

    Two cases are described, one with proven lymphosarcoma and doubtful autoimmune disease, and the second with the reverse situation, in which circulating abnormal mononuclear cells showed PHA responsiveness and an abnormal chromosomal constitution (clonal evolution). These findings are discussed in the light of previous cytogenetic studies of lymphoreticular neoplasia and autoimmune disease and the relationship between these two conditions. ImagesFigs. 2-3Fig. 9Fig. 4Figs. 6-7Figs. 1,5Fig. 8 PMID:4393772

  9. Properties of a cell-wall-defective variant of Brucella abortus of bovine origin.

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.; Scott, A. C.; Ross, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The properties of an atypical Brucella strain isolated from lymph node tissue of a cow slaughtered as a brucellosis reactor were examined. The organism was Gram negative and highly pleomorphic, existing as cocci, coccobacilli, rods, branched and irregular forms which stained with fluorescent antibody conjugates prepared against rough and smooth Brucella abortus strains. It produced lecithinase and required at least 15% v/v equine or bovine serum for growth. It did not need supplementary CO2 for growth, produced H2S and was inhibited by brucella dyes and partially by i-erythritol. Growth inhibition or lysis was produced by brucella-phages. The organism was not pathogenic for guinea-pigs or mice but evoked antibodies mainly to rough Brucella antigens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6820027

  10. Ultrastructural changes in the parenchymal liver cells of rats treated with high doses of rifampicin.

    PubMed Central

    Piriou, A.; Maissiat, R.; Jacqueson, A.; Warnet, J. M.; Claude, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of hepatic parenchyma was carried out in female Wistar rats after they had received high doses (400 mg X kg-1) of rifampicin for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Morphological changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were observed as early as day 1 of intoxication. These changes corroborate the biochemical data available regarding RFP-induced fatty liver. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 & 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3580280

  11. Osteomalacia following vagotomy and pyloroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, A. B. S.; Glass, D.; Gill, A. Morton

    1971-01-01

    Osteomalacia, due to defective absorption of adequate dietary vitamin D, has been found in a 79-year-old woman, 5 years after an anterior selective vagotomy and pyloroplasty. The evolution of the recognition of postgastrectomy osteomalacia is reviewed, and reasons are advanced why similar problems are to be expected following vagotomy and pyloroplasty. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5576492

  12. The avian egg and the retina

    PubMed Central

    MALCOLM, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for study of blood flow has been derived from the avian egg, utilizing the theories of crystallography and photosynthesis. The model is employed to explain the form of the eye and the function of the cells of the human retina, with special reference to colour vision and the pathology of migraine. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4736600

  13. Differential regulation of the p21/WAF-1 and mdm2 genes after high-dose UV irradiation: p53-dependent and p53-independent regulation of the mdm2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L.; Levine, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DNA damage in mammalian cells stabilizes the p53 protein which then functions as a cell cycle checkpoint by leading to growth arrest or apoptosis. p53 is a transcription factor and positively regulates the expression of the p21/WAF-1 gene and the mdm2 gene. After high-dose UV irradiation, p53 increases the expression of the p21/WAF-1 gene immediately (2 to 5 hours after irradiation) while the induction of the mdm2 gene is delayed (8 to 12 hours after irradiation). Experiments presented here explore this differential expression of two different p53-regulated genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IP-Western (protein) and Northern (mRNA) blot experiments are used to follow mdm2 and p21/WAF-1 expression in primary rat or mouse cells after a low-dose (4 J/m2) or a high-dose (20 J/M2) of UV irradiation. Northern blot and nuclear run-on experiments are employed to study mRNA stability as well as transcription rates of selected genes. RESULTS: After high-dose UV irradiation, p53 is rapidly stabilized and the expression of p21/WAF1 is immediately increased. By contrast, both protein and mRNA levels of mdm2 first decrease in a p53-independent manner, and later increase in a p53-dependent manner. The initial decline of mdm2 expression following high-dose UV irradiation is UV-dosage dependent and regulated at the level of transcription. CONCLUSION: p53 regulates two genes, p21/WAF1 (blocks cell cycle progression) and mdm2 (reverses p53 activity), that mediate opposite actions. This process is regulated in a temporal fashion after high-dose UV irradiation, so that cell cycle progression can be halted while DNA repair continues prior to reversal of p53-mediated arrest by mdm2. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:9260156

  14. Pathogenesis of myonecrosis induced by coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) venom in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Arroyo, O.; Chaves, F.; Lomonte, B.; Cerdas, L.

    1986-01-01

    levels of lactate dehydrogenase. Isozymes LDH-3, LDH-4, and LDH-5 increased markedly, suggesting that the systemic pathology of coral snake envenoming may be more complex than previously thought. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 PMID:3947530

  15. The morphology of the lung of the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis (Reptilia: Ophidia: Elapidae). A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1989-01-01

    evolution of the lungs of the air-breathing vertebrates from lower through to higher vertebrates. The gross and ultrastructural heterogeneity of the organisation of the ophidian lung is illustrated and the dearth of pulmonary morphological data in this taxon is pointed out. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2630539

  16. Biosynthesis and regulation of rat alpha 1-inhibitor3, a negative acute-phase reactant of the macroglobulin family.

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, T; Lamri, Y; Tran-Thi, T A; Gauthier, F; Feldmann, G; Decker, K; Heinrich, P C

    1987-01-01

    with an apparent Mr of 154,000 was found in cells and in the medium. In a pulse-chase experiment it was shown that inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin resulted in a marked delay of secretion of alpha 1-inhibitor3. Thus the oligosaccharide side chains of alpha 1-inhibitor3 play an important role during its transport into the medium. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3499144

  17. The harderian gland of desert rodents: a histological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Djeridane, Y

    1992-01-01

    . Mast cells, plasma cells, macrophages, fenestrated capillaries and unmyelinated nerve endings with clear or dense-cored vesicles are present in the connective tissue. Melanocytes are very numerous in the interstices of the Gerbillidae harderian gland. The gland is surrounded by a collagenous capsule and an outer layer of endothelial cells derived from the orbital venous sinus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 PMID:1487439

  18. Rat and human neutrophil N-formyl-peptide chemotactic receptors. Species difference in the glycosylation of similar 35-38 kDa polypeptide cores.

    PubMed Central

    Remes, J J; Petäjä-Repo, U E; Rajaniemi, H J

    1991-01-01

    both receptors contains the ligand-binding site. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1854349

  19. Developmental expression of wild-type and mutant presenilin-1 in hippocampal neurons from transgenic mice: evidence for novel species-specific properties of human presenilin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, L.; Annaert, W.; Craessaerts, K.; Mathews, P. M.; Seeger, M.; Nixon, R. A.; Van Leuven, F.; Gandy, S.; Westaway, D.; St George-Hyslop, P.; De Strooper, B.; Fraser, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    transfection systems. Our data also suggest that the molecular pathology associated with PS1 mutations results from subtle alterations in presenilin function, which can be further investigated using these transgenic neuronal cell culture models. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:10501657

  20. Ultrastructural and Metabolic Determinants of Resistance to Azo-dye and Susceptibility to Nitrosamine Carcinogenesis of the Guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, G. M.; Sohal, R. S.; Argus, M. F.; Arcos, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    -dye reductase in the guinea-pig which appears to be unregulated by glucose repression, since starvation brings about no change in this activity. Starvation-induced increase of azo-dye reductase in the rat is not influenced by administration of 3′-Me-DAB and only slightly by DEN. The starvation-induced increase of nitrosamine dealkylation is abolished, however, in both species by administration of DEN but only slightly decreased by 3′-Me-DAB. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:413561

  1. Generation of a high-titer retroviral vector capable of expressing high levels of the human beta-globin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sadelain, M; Wang, C H; Antoniou, M; Grosveld, F; Mulligan, R C

    1995-01-01

    retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624311

  2. Immunocytological and biochemical characterization of a new neuronal cell surface component (L1 antigen) which is involved in cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Rathjen, F G; Schachner, M

    1984-01-01

    neuroblastoma C1300 is inhibited by Fab fragments of the polyclonal, but not of monoclonal antibody, both of which are known to react with the surface membrane of these cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6368220

  3. Transgenic mouse model of malignant skin melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, B; Silvers, W K

    1993-01-01

    mice all make them an excellent model of the disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8415613

  4. The cranial cartilages of teleosts and their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M

    1990-01-01

    The structure and distribution of cartilages has been studied in 45 species from 24 families. The resulting data have been used as a basis for establishing a new classification. A cartilage is regarded as 'cell-rich' if its cells or their lacunae occupy more than half of the tissue volume. Five classes of cell-rich cartilage are recognised (a) hyaline-cell cartilage (common in the lips of bottom-dwelling cyprinids) and its subtypes fibro/hyaline-cell cartilage, elastic/hyaline-cell cartilage and lipo/hyaline-cell cartilage, (b) Schaffer's Zellknorpel, typified by the cartilage in the gill filaments of most teleosts examined, (c) elastic/cell-rich cartilage, such as that which supports the barbels and oral valves of catfish, e.g. Corydoras metae, (d) fibro/cell-rich cartilage, as in the submaxillary meniscus of Sphaerichthys osphromenoides, (e) cell-rich hyaline and (f) matrix-rich hyaline cartilage--both of which are common in the neurocranium and gill arches of most teleosts. The range of cartilages seen, and the predominant cartilage type, is recorded for each species and a list is provided of the tissues that most typify different organs or regions of the head. As a preliminary pointer to developmental relationships between the cartilages, note was taken of gradual transitions between one cartilage and another. It is suggested that hyaline-cell cartilage occupies a key position in teleosts as the most labile of the supporting tissues and is highly characteristic of Cypriniformes. The cartilage that best resembles mammalian hyaline cartilage (matrix-rich hyaline cartilage) has a very conservative distribution in different skeletal elements and the least number of associations with other tissues. It is well represented in Siluriformes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 PMID:2384333

  5. The non-ligand binding beta-isoform of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR beta): tissue levels, mechanism of action, and potential physiologic role.

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, M.; Elliot, S.; Kino, T.; Bamberger, C.; Karl, M.; Webster, E.; Chrousos, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:8898375

  6. Biophysical and immunological studies on bovine immune globulins with evidence for selective transport within the mammary gland from maternal plasma to colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, A. E.; Feinstein, A.

    1965-01-01

    heterogeneity of bovine immune globulins and show that the calf receives into its circulation from ingested colostrum selected maternal serum immune globulins. This selection of proteins from maternal plasma, for admission to the calf's circulation, occurs within the mammary gland during the formation of colostrum but not during absorption across the calf's intestinal mucosa. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 8FIG. 4FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14 PMID:14245307

  7. Development of a single probe for documentation of chimerism following bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Yam, P; Petz, L D; Ali, S; Stock, A D; Wallace, R B

    1987-01-01

    discriminate approximately 98% of sibling donor/recipient pairs. This would be accomplished using only one restriction-endonuclease digestion and only one gel electrophoresis. Since other genetic markers, e.g., red blood cell antigens, immunoglobulin allotypes, and chromosome analysis, are not uniformly informative and, in some cases, cannot be used in the early posttransplantation period, the use of synthetic oligonucleotide probes for analysis of DNA RFLP is emerging as the method of choice for studies of post-BMT chimerism. This method will allow for the development of new knowledge that has not been possible with previous methods. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2890295

  8. NO-Evoked macrophage apoptosis is attenuated by cAMP-induced gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    von Knethen, A.; Brockhaus, F.; Kleiter, I.; Brüne, B.

    1999-01-01

    inflammatory conditions in humans when macrophages become activated in close association with innate immune responses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:10602776

  9. Morphological and functional interrelationships of articular cartilage matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C A; Flint, M H; Beaumont, B W

    1984-01-01

    synergistically to produce an integrated, biological, hydro-elastic suspension system capable of resisting physiological compression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:6706831

  10. Immunochemical analysis of cartilage proteoglycans. Antigenic determinants of substructures.

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, J; Heinegård, D

    1979-01-01

    sulphate-peptides. Trypsin digestion of the link-proteins destroyed the antigenic site and the reactivity with the antibodies. By combining immunoassay of proteoglycan preparations before and after trypsin digestion it is feasible to quantitatively determine its substructures by using the antisera described above. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:89842

  11. Proteasome inhibitors prevent the degradation of familial Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin 1 and potentiate A beta 42 recovery from human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marambaud, P.; Ancolio, K.; Lopez-Perez, E.; Checler, F.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that most of the early-onset forms of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) are due to inherited mutations borne by a chromosome 14-encoded protein, presenilin 1 (PS1). This is likely related to an increased production of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) 42, one of the main components of the extracellular deposits called senile plaques that invade human cortical areas during the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We set up stably transfected HEK293 cells overexpressing wild-type (wt) and various FAD-linked mutated PS1. By Western blot analysis, we examined the influence of specific proteasome inhibitors on PS1-like immunoreactivities. Furthermore, by means of metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation with A beta 40 and A beta 42-directed specific antibodies, we assessed the effect of the inhibitors on the production of A beta s by wt and mutated PS1-expressing cells transiently transfected with beta APP751. RESULTS: We show that two distinct proteasome inhibitors, Z-IE (Ot-Bu)A-Leucinal and lactacystin, increase in a time- and dose-dependent manner the immunoreactivities of both wt and mutated PS1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PS1 is polyubiquitinated in these cells. Other inhibitors, ineffective on the proteasome, fail to protect wt and mutated PS1-like immunoreactivities. We also establish that the FAD-linked mutations of PS1 trigger a selective increased formation of A beta 42 as reflected by higher A beta 42 over total A beta ratios when compared with wtPS1-expressing cells. Interestingly, this augmentation was further amplified by proteasome inhibitors in cells expressing mutated but not wtPS1. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our data indicate that PS1 undergoes polyubiquitination in HEK293 cells and that the proteasome contributes to the degradation of wt and FAD-linked PS1, thereby directly influencing the A beta production in human cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:9562973

  12. Development of peptide-containing nerves in the human fetal prostate gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jen, P Y; Dixon, J S

    1995-01-01

    -ENK-IR nerves together with a few m-ENK-IR nerves. Occasional smooth muscle-associated varicose nerve fibres showed immunoreactivity for SP, CGRP, VIP or BOM although the majority of these types of nerve formed perivascular plexuses. Also at 26 wk numerous varicose nerve fibres were observed in association with the prostatic acini, the majority of such nerves containing NPY with a few showing immunoreactivity to VIP, l-ENK, SP or CGRP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7591978

  13. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.

    1956-01-01

    A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470

  14. Splenic trauma. Choice of management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, C E

    1991-01-01

    severely shattered spleen; these patients usually are treated best by early operative intervention. Following splenectomy for injury, polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine decreases the likelihood of OPSI and should be used routinely. The role of prophylactic penicillin is uncertain but the use of antibiotics for minor infectious problems is indicated after splenectomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:1992948

  15. Lipocortin 1 mediates the inhibition by dexamethasone of the induction by endotoxin of nitric oxide synthase in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C C; Croxtall, J D; Perretti, M; Bryant, C E; Thiemermann, C; Flower, R J; Vane, J R

    1995-01-01

    Administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg/kg i.v.) to male Wistar rats caused within 240 min (i) a sustained fall (approximately 30 mmHg) in mean arterial blood pressure, (ii) a reduction (> 75%) in the pressor responses to norepinephrine (1 microgram/kg i.v.), and (iii) an induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as measured in the lung. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg i.p. at 2 h prior to LPS) attenuated the hypotension and the vascular hyporeactivity to norepinephrine and reduced (by approximately 77%) the expression of iNOS in the lung. These effects of dexamethasone were prevented by pretreatment of LPS-treated rats with a neutralizing antiserum to lipocortin 1 (anti-LC1; 60 mg/kg s.c. at 24 h prior to LPS) but not by a control nonimmune sheep serum. Stimulation of J774.2 macrophages with LPS (1 microgram/ml for 24 h) caused the expression of iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein and significantly increased nitrite generation; this was prevented by dexamethasone (0.1 microM at 1 h prior to LPS), which also increased cell surface lipocortin 1. Pretreatment of J774.2 cells with anti-LC1 (1:60 dilution at 4 h prior to LPS) also abolished the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on iNOS expression and nitrite accumulation but not that on COX-2 expression. A lipocortin 1 fragment (residues 1-188 of human lipocortin 1; 20 micrograms/ml at 1 h prior to LPS) also blocked iNOS in J774.2 macrophages activated by LPS (approximately 78% inhibition), and this too was prevented by anti-LC1. We conclude that the extracellular release of endogenous lipocortin 1 (i) mediates the inhibition by dexamethasone of the expression of iNOS, but not of COX-2, and (ii) contributes substantially to the beneficial actions of dexamethasone in rats with endotoxic shock. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7536934

  16. Molecular cloning of chicken aggrecan. Structural analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L

    1992-01-01

    domain. Thus different variants of chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate domains may have evolved separately to fulfil specific biochemical and physiological functions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1339285

  17. Perturbations in maturation of secretory proteins and their association with endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in a cell culture model for epithelial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, G; Bush, K T; Zhang, P L; Nigam, S K

    1996-01-01

    demonstrated that Tg stably associates with BiP, grp94, and ERp72. Together, our results suggest that a key cellular lesion in ischemia is the misfolding of secretory proteins as they transit the ER, and this leads not only to increased expression of ER chaperones but also to their stable association with and the subsequent retention of at least some misfolded secretory proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8710914

  18. Pacesetters of the American image or (a case for a pleasant diversion).

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Regardless of how you resolve the morality of our history, the fact is that Currier and Ives documented in their own special and often biased way the iconography of the growth and development of the United States of America (Fig. 88) in some of the most eventful years of its history from about 1840 through 1895. Now, as we near our 500th anniversary commemoration of Columbus' voyage to the Americas, it seems especially appropriate to review--to think about all of this. I think you have sensed, as we have gone along, that learning about Currier and his colleagues--these pacesetters of the American Image--has meant, as Osler predicted, a pleasant diversion for me. These activities have carried me into new areas of interest, expanding my perspective of the American Image--of people, of medicine, of life in general, and aiding in the identification of values, my own, as well as those of others. All along, my knowledge has been enhanced, especially of the history of this wonderful complex country of ours. Furthermore, and of considerable importance, this endeavor has sharpened my power of observation. I have, like a good doctor should do, learned to look better! Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 18 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. 27 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54 Fig. 55 Fig. 56 Fig. 57 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 Fig. 60 Fig. 61 Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 68 Fig. 67 Fig. 69 Fig. 70 Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73 Fig. 74 Fig. 75 Fig. 76 Fig. 77 Fig. 78 Fig. 79 Fig. 80 Fig. 82 Fig. 81 Fig. 83 Fig. 84 Fig. 85 Fig. 86 Fig. 87 Fig. 88 PMID:1413369

  19. An Experimental Investigation of the Lymphatic System of the Teeth and Jaws

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Alexander

    1936-01-01

    are given, and the lines on which further experiments are being continued are indicated. Finally, the application of the results to the pathology of infection in this region, particularly paradontal disease, is given, and also their application to the phenomena of injection anæsthesia. ImagesFig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19990818

  20. The monoptychic glands of the jugulo-sternal scent gland field of Tupaia: a TEM and SEM study.

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, U; Richter, J

    1990-01-01

    exocrine glands according to the nature of the secretory epithelium into monoptychic and polyptychic glands. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:2272906

  1. The Otosclerosis Problem: including Reports of Two Cases Pathologically Examined (Dalby Memorial Lecture)

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Albert A.

    1934-01-01

    other nerve-structures in the body. If, therefore, structural changes occur as a result of defective functioning of those nerves, such structural changes will naturally be bilaterally symmetrical in their distribution. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19989872

  2. Priority targeting of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins to the bile-canalicular (apical) plasma membrane of hepatocytes. Involvement of 'late' endosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N; Evans, W H

    1990-01-01

    results suggest that a junction where exocytic and endocytic traffic routes meet occurs in a 'late' endocytic compartment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2171497

  3. Acute hepatic failure in children.

    PubMed Central

    Riely, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Many diseases may present as acute hepatic failure in the pediatric age group, including viral hepatitis A and B, adverse drug reactions, both toxic and "hepatitic," and inherited metabolic disorders such as tyrosinemia, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Management is primarily supportive, with care taken to anticipate the known complications of hepatic failure. Few "curative" therapies are known, although attempts at stimulating hepatic regeneration may be helpful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6433587

  4. A preliminary investigation into the effect of thyroid hormones on the metamorphic changes in Meckel's cartilage in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, D A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of short-term dosage with thyroid powder on the metamorphic changes in Meckel's cartilage in Xenopus laevis are described. The Lag phase of development appears to be by-passed, and the usual sequential arrangement of the Division and Synthesis phases is disrupted, the processes of normal metamorphic changes being considerably accelerated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2808112

  5. Influence of carbon tetrachloride on induction of tumours of the liver and kidneys in mice by netrosamines.

    PubMed Central

    Pound, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    Mice were given a single dose of nitrosolimethylamine, nitrosoliethylamine or nitrosomethylethylamine and the yield of tumours and related lesions in the livers determined 12 months later. A hepatonecrotic dose of CCl4 24 or 48 h before the nitrosamines, increased the yields of hepatocellular tumours and proliferative foci in the livers, whereas when given 60 h before the nitrosamines there was no significant effect. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:619958

  6. Milton C. Winternitz and the Yale Institute of Human Relations: a brief chapter in the history of social medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the antecedent events that led to the development of Yale's Institute of Human Relations, the program of interdisciplinary research and teaching established, and the principal protagonists, James Rowland Angell, President of Yale University, and Milton C. Winternitz, Dean of the School of Medicine, both of whom were committed to the concept that medicine is a social science. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6399650

  7. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  8. Echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, J. B.; Monaghan, M. J.; Jackson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging echocardiography is an important extension of the clinical examination and will answer most questions in an emergency-for example, whether an enlarged cardiac shadow on the chest radiograph represents ventricular dilatation or an effusion. Doppler ultrasonography is essential for hospitals with an interest in cardiology because it provides direct haemodynamic data that are complementary to imaging. It requires more skill than imaging and may also be time consuming. Colour flow Doppler mapping is speedy and simple to use and aids the interpretation of continuous wave Doppler. It is therefore a natural companion to conventional Doppler, but there would have to be a high clinical load to justify its purchase. Images FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:3143434

  9. The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm—a diagnostic problem

    PubMed Central

    Chung, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm continues to be a diagnostic problem. Review of 187 cases admitted to the Vancouver General Hospital showed that 92 cases were operated on. Of this surgical group, the diagnosis was correct in 61 and missed in 31 (34%). In the group which did not come to operation the condition was diagnosed correctly in 38, while in 57 (60%) it was completely unsuspected. The effects of early and late diagnosis and misdiagnosis were reflected in the increasing mortality rate of 46, 55 and 100% respectively. Means of improving the accuracy of diagnosis in this condition are discussed. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:5162405

  10. The contributions of infection control to a century of surgical progress.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J W

    1985-01-01

    Although many surgical procedures were well-developed in principle before 1867, their application for the treatment of human disease was limited because of a mortality rate from postoperative infection alone of about 50%. It was the eventual acceptance of Lister's work and the development of the aseptic-antiseptic ritual that allowed operative therapy to be successful and made modern surgery possible. The background leading to the development of aseptic-antiseptic rituals is discussed. Images FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. PMID:3883923

  11. Studies of Escherichia coli Infection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R. B.; Lopez-Alvarez, J.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The pathogenesis of infection with Escherichia coli was studied in chickens using live O78:K80 cells and a heat-labile chick lethal toxin. The results obtained were compared with those observed in field outbreaks. The common histological findings of subepicardial edema and congestion, focal necrosis in the spleen and focal necrosis, congestion, edema and accumulation of fibrin in the liver support an active role for chick lethal toxin in the pathogenesis of E. coli disease. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4274822

  12. The chromosomal integration site determines the tissue-specific methylation of mouse mammary tumour virus proviral genes.

    PubMed Central

    Günzburg, W H; Groner, B

    1984-01-01

    Multiple endogenous mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) proviral genes are present at different chromosomal locations in inbred mouse strains. Proviral DNA methylation is location and tissue specific. The methylation patterns are stably inherited and appear to be conferred upon the viral DNA by the flanking mouse genomic DNA. In transformed cells, either mammary carcinoma cells, or cells immortalized by SV40 in vitro, the stable pattern of methylation is lost. Although hypomethylation of proviral genes, both in normal and in transformed tissue, accompanies MMTV-specific RNA expression, it is also observed in non-expressing tissues. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6329738

  13. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:6490523

  14. Perhexiline maleate toxicity on human liver cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, J Y; Guillouzo, A; Glaise, D; Deugnier, Y; Messner, M; Bourel, M

    1980-01-01

    When added to the culture medium of human liver cell lines, perhexiline maleate induced formation of numerous myeloid bodies containing unicentric or multicentric smooth membranes within a few days. The nine lysosomal enzyme activities studied, except for beta-galactosidase which decreased, remained unchanged. These results indicate that on cultured human liver cells perhexiline maleate has an effect similar to that described on hepatocytes of some patients treated with this drug and suggest that myeloid body formation is not due to impairment of lysosomal enzyme activities. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7192674

  15. Glomus tissue in the vicinity of the human carotid sinus.

    PubMed Central

    Garfia, A

    1980-01-01

    Three of 60 cadavers have shown, in the adventitia or in the adipose tissue from the human carotid sinus region, small islands of tissue richly and typically vascularized and with nerve endings contacting cells like the tissue of the principal carotid body. In two of the cases such 'miniglomera' were single but in the third there were several all on the same side. A modified en bloc silver nitrate reduction stain was used to demonstrate the microvascular arrangements and the nerve endings by light microscopy of serial tangential sections of the carotid bifurcation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7364653

  16. Absence of endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the kidneys of sheep, cattle and pig.

    PubMed Central

    Song, Z W; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    1987-01-01

    The kidneys of man, sheep, cattle and pig were all found to contain 1-aspartamido-beta-acetylglucosamine amidohydrolase activity. However, among these, only human kidney was found to contain endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. The absence of this enzyme in the kidneys of sheep and cattle explains why the oligosaccharides accumulated in, and excreted by, sheep and cattle afflicted with disorders of glycoprotein catabolism (i.e. alpha-mannosidosis and beta-mannosidosis) contain two N-acetylglucosamine residues at the reducing terminus instead of one, as is the case for human patients afflicted with similar disorders. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3124807

  17. Prevention of induced atherosclerosis by diversion of bile or blockade of intestinal lymphatics in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, P J; Karipineni, R C; Pertsemlidis, D; Danese, C A

    1976-01-01

    The prevention of induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis was studied by means of intestinal lymphatic blockade and of bile diversion in the dog. Hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were produced by high cholesterol feeding after induction of hypothyroidism with radio-iodine plus thiouracil. Complete diversion of bile, by shunting all bile into the urinary bladder, effectively prevented hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis; in contrast, blockade of the intestinal lymphatics failed to prevent the consequences of the atherogenic regimen, because of the development of collateral lymphatic channels. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:817679

  18. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Ray N.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1965-01-01

    New knowledge of temperature irregularities associated with various disease states has resulted in increasing interest in the recording of heat radiation from the human body. Infrared radiation from the skin is a surface phenomenon and the amount of such radiation increases with temperature. Previous recording techniques have been not only crude but difficult and expensive. An unconventional thermal imaging system is described which gives superior temperature patterns and is also simpler and cheaper than any of the other available procedures. This system is based on the employment of thermally sensitive phosphors which glow when exposed to ultraviolet illumination, in inverse proportion to the underlying temperature. The thermal image can be directly observed or more critically analyzed and photographed on a simple closed-circuit television monitor. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14270208

  19. Transcription of the Drosophila white locus and some of its mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Pirrotta, V; Bröckl, C

    1984-01-01

    The white locus produces one major, though rare, RNA of 2.6 kb, found throughout development. Minor species of lower mol. wt. are also produced. One of these is male specific. Transcription was analysed by Northern blot hybridisation in the wild-type and several mutants: wa, w67c23, we, wsp and zeste. These and the results of S1 mapping reveal the presence of at least four introns. One of these, a micro-intron of 30-50 nucleotides contains the site of copia insertion in the wa mutant. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6425054

  20. Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with functioning metastases and clinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    McConnon, J. K.; von Westarp, C.; Mitchell, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism associated with metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare. In one patient the mass of functioning follicular tissue in the primary and metastatic tumour was so great that excessive amounts of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were produced and, as a result, clinical hyperthyroidism developed. This was in spite of the fact that the activity per unit of tissue was not supranormal and may even have been slightly subnormal. The initial response of the metastases to 131I ablative therapy was excellent. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3A FIG. 3B FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:1122444

  1. The Family Physician's Role During Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, John

    1986-01-01

    Family physicians can encourage disaster planning and mock disaster exercises in their community. If involved in an actual disaster, the family physician can be helpful as a triage officer in emergency, in initial resuscitation, in minor treatment, in discharging stable patients, and in counselling victims of post-traumatic shock syndrome. The key to effective performance is being prepared beforehand to cope with the stress and confusion of the incident. Use of laboratory and diagnostic imaging must be curtailed until all severely injured patients are treated. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21267128

  2. William Halsted and Theodor Kocher: "an exquisite friendship".

    PubMed Central

    Rutkow, I M

    1978-01-01

    William Halsted and Theodor Kocher were friends on both a professional and personal level. They greatly admired each other's surgical skills and judgment, and Halsted was a frequent visitor to Kocher in Switzerland. This is of interest in that both men have been described as introverted personalities with very few intimate acquaintances. An analysis of their personal correspondence, which has not been previously published, clearly demonstrates this unique relationship between the two reknowned surgeons. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:363073

  3. Electronically Controlled Continuous Culture Device

    PubMed Central

    Eisler, William J.; Webb, Robert B.

    1968-01-01

    A photocell-controlled continuous culture device, a Nephelostat, is described that maintains a wide variety of cultures of microorganisms in balanced growth. This Nephelostat controls concentrations of bacteria within ±3% over a cell concentration range of 106 to 109 cells per ml. Growth rates are recorded so that changes in the growth rate are observed over small increments of time. Spontaneous and caffeine-induced mutation rates of two strains of Escherichia coli were compared under Nephelostat and chemostat conditions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:4877660

  4. Residues in the pathway through a membrane transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, R T; Maloney, P C

    1995-01-01

    The structure of solute transporters is understood largely from analysis of their amino acid sequences, and more direct information is greatly needed. Here we report work that applies cysteine scanning mutagenesis to describe structure-function relations in UhpT, a bacterial membrane transporter. By using an impermeant SH-reactive agent to probe single-cysteine variants, we show that UhpT transmembrane segment 7 spans the membrane as an alpha-helix and that the central portion of this helix is exposed to both membrane surfaces, forming part of the translocation pathway through this transporter. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7597063

  5. Diagnosis of Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Non-invasive techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Valecillos, R.; Hirschhaut, E.; Giordano, H.; Boccalandro, I.; Suárez, C.; Aparicio, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The natural history of Chagas' disease and its manifestations when the heart is involved are detailed clinically and pathologically. Three phases are recognized: the acute phase, lasting from 1-3 months, the latent phase, which may last from 10-20 years, and the chronic phase, which has the most serious manifestations. This phase is subdivided into three clinical stages. An analysis of the varied cardiac manifestations on 235 patients is included. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:412174

  6. Fine structure of astrocytic mitochondria in the hypothalamus of the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, B; Suarez, I; Gianonatti, C

    1983-01-01

    Astrocytic mitochondria in the hypothalamic region of the adult hamster brain have been studied by electron microscopy. Mitochondria showing triangular prismatic cristae, as seen in transverse section, and other unusual forms of mitochondrial cristae, are described and illustrated. Such mitochondria occur primarily in the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei, especially in perivascular astrocytic processes. The possibility that these atypical mitochondria might develop a specific function is discussed. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6654741

  7. Atrial natriuretic factor mRNA and binding sites in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, D J; Davenport, A P; Brown, M J

    1990-01-01

    The factor inhibiting aldosterone secretion produced by the adrenal medulla may be atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), since the latter abolishes aldosterone release in response to a number of secretagogues, including angiotensin II and K+. In this study we have shown that cells in the adrenal medulla contain ANF mRNA and therefore have the potential to synthesize this peptide. The presence of binding sites for ANF predominantly in the adrenal zona glomerulosa suggests that, if ANF is synthesized in the medulla and transferred to the cortex, it may affect mineralocorticoid status. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2146954

  8. Recombination walking: genetic selection of clones from pooled libraries of yeast artificial chromosomes by homologous recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A M; Savinelli, E A; Couture, S M; Hannigan, G M; Han, Z; Selden, R F; Treco, D A

    1993-01-01

    Recombination walking is based on the genetic selection of specific human clones from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library by homologous recombination. The desired clone is selected from a pooled (unordered) YAC library, eliminating labor-intensive steps typically used in organizing and maintaining ordered YAC libraries. Recombination walking represents an efficient approach to library screening and is well suited for chromosome-walking approaches to the isolation of genes associated with common diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8367472

  9. Endoscopic transthoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, R A; Banerjee, A K; Rennie, J A

    1992-01-01

    A 5-year experience of 50 endoscopic transaxillary dorsal sympathectomies is presented. The procedure was successful in either curing or improving the symptoms of hyperhidrosis in the great majority of patients. The commonest side effects were compensatory sweating (75%) and gustatory sweating (48%); despite this, there was an extremely high level of patient satisfaction. Permanent Horner's syndrome did not occur. The procedure is effective, simple, cheap, and requires only an overnight stay; and is recommended as the method of choice for the surgical treatment of upper limb hyperhidrosis. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. PMID:1543403

  10. Photocontrol of Sorghum Leaf Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Martine; Crétin, Claude; Keryer, Eliane; Vidal, Jean; Gadal, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the light effect on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from the C4 plant sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers., var Tamaran) leaves was investigated. Following exposure to light a new isozyme of PEPC, specific for the green leaf and responsible for primary CO2 fixation in photosynthesis, was established. Northern blot experiments revealed the presence of PEPC mRNA showing a molecular weight of 3.4 kilobases. During the greening process, concomitant to enzyme activity, PEPC protein and PEPC messenger RNA amounts increased considerably. This photoresponse was shown to be under phytochrome control. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665664

  11. Disruption of the adenosine deaminase gene causes hepatocellular impairment and perinatal lethality in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wakamiya, M; Blackburn, M R; Jurecic, R; McArthur, M J; Geske, R S; Cartwright, J; Mitani, K; Vaishnav, S; Belmont, J W; Kellems, R E

    1995-01-01

    We have generated mice with a null mutation at the Ada locus, which encodes the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4.4). ADA-deficient fetuses exhibited hepatocellular impairment and died perinatally. Their lymphoid tissues were not largely affected. Accumulation of ADA substrates was detectable in ADA-deficient conceptuses as early as 12.5 days postcoitum, dramatically increasing during late in utero development, and is the likely cause of liver damage and fetal death. The results presented here demonstrate that ADA is important for the homeostatic maintenance of purines in mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7731963

  12. Role of T lymphocytes in collagen II-induced arthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Klareskog, L.; Holmdahl, R.; Larsson, E.; Wigzell, H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of T lymphocytes in collagen II induced arthritis in rats has been investigated. Functional T cells were needed for the development of arthritis since none out of 14 nude rats injected with collagen type II developed arthritis, whereas 11 out of 14 of their normal counterparts did. With the help of antibodies specific for Ia antigens and different T cell subsets in the rats, an immunohistochemical method was used to demonstrate that T cells, predominantly of `helper' type and anti-Ia reactive non-T cells were abundant in the arthritic synovial tissue. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:6219836

  13. Phenotypic variation amongst genotypically homogeneous Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates: implications for the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, T. G.; Saunders, N. A.; Haththotuwa, A.; Hallas, G.; Birtles, R. J.; Taylor, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, obtained from a site associated with an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, were examined by monoclonal antibody subgrouping, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, restriction endonuclease analysis and plasmid content. Nine distinct phenotypes were detected but at the genotypic level all strains were closely related. The data presented indicate that phenotypic variation of a single parent strain can occur within an environmental site. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1969803

  14. Soft Tissue Tumours: Their Natural History and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Stanford

    1951-01-01

    A series of 153 patients, the largest yet recorded from a single source, suffering from soft tissue sarcoma is discussed. References to the literature show the rarity of such tumours, the vagueness of the nomenclature and the disappointing results of treatment. Of the 153 patients only 7 have no histological confirmation of the diagnosis. In 146, sections and histological reports are available. 148 patients have been followed up either to death or to date. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14808223

  15. Internal mammary lymph node biopsy guided by computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Henry C.; Hardy, Graham J.

    1982-01-01

    Internal mammary lymph node enlargement may be demonstrated using computed tomography (CT), and a confirmatory tissue diagnosis of metastatic involvement may be obtained using fine needle aspiration biopsy with needle tip placement guided by the CT scanner. A case history is described to illustrate how a patient presented 9 years after mastectomy with an internal mammary lymph node metastasis and how cytopathological diagnosis of this metastasis was achieved by CT guided biopsy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:7145793

  16. Agrocinopine A, a phosphorylated opine is secreted from crown gall cells

    PubMed Central

    Messens, E.; Lenaerts, A.; Hedges, R. W.; Montagu, M. Van

    1985-01-01

    We showed that phosphorus-containing metabolites of crown gall tissues were all taken up by appropriate pTi+ agrobacteria. All but one were also taken up by pTi- bacteria. This one compound, produced by nopaline-, but not by octopine-type tumours, was the only phosphorylated organic compound actively secreted by healthy crown gall cells, and it appears to be agrocinopine A. Testing crown gall cell exudates may be a general procedure for the identification of opines by transformed plant cells. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:15926217

  17. Osteoid osteoma and benign osteoblastoma in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Levick, R K; Sharrard, W J

    1979-01-01

    Three cases of osteoid osteoma and one of benign osteoblastoma in children are described. The main complaint was severe pain which was worse at night; it was relieved by aspirin or other analgesics. The diagnosis was made on clinical and radiological grounds and was confirmed on histological examination of the central nidus removed at operation. The pain was relieved in the patients with osteoid osteoma, and it was very much less after operative removal of the benign osteoblastoma. Both conditions are probably variations of the same disease process, depending on the anatomical site and the type of bone affected. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:475430

  18. Esophageal achalasia associated with gastric carcinoma: lack of evidence for widespread plexus destruction.

    PubMed Central

    Shulze, K. S.; Goresky, C. A.; Jabbari, M.; Lough, J. O.

    1975-01-01

    Achalasia of the esophagus occurred in association with gastric carcinoma involving the cardia. Except in a limited area subjacent to the squamocolumnar junction, the pathologic findings were unusual in that the myenteric plexus of the body of the esophagus was intact and apparently uninvolved. The hypothesis is advanced that, in this instance, the achalasia could be classified as a tumour-associated funnctional disorder due to distant neural involvement rather than to local invasion with plexus destruction. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1122459

  19. Alterations of p16-pRb pathway and chromosome locus 9p21-22 in sporadic invasive breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Gorgoulis, V. G.; Koutroumbi, E. N.; Kotsinas, A.; Zacharatos, P.; Markopoulos, C.; Giannikos, L.; Kyriakou, V.; Voulgaris, Z.; Gogas, I.; Kittas, C.

    1998-01-01

    revealed two significant correlations: one between normal pRb expression and lymph node involvement (p = 0.0263), and the other between microsatellite alterations (LOH and or MI) and tumor size (p = 9.2 x 10(-3)). In view of the heterogenous nature of breast cancer, we suggest that in a significant proportion of breast carcinomas, deregulation of the p16-pRb pathway in association with another, as-yet unidentified, TSG(s) of the 9p21-22 region may play a role in initiating or progressing the oncogenic procedure, while in other subgroups, alternative molecules may play this role. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:9990866

  20. Tissue-specific distribution of cross-linked somatostatin receptor proteins in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Srikant, C B; Murthy, K K; Patel, Y C

    1992-01-01

    labelled protein of 42 kDa was observed in the pancreas. The labelling pattern obtained with LTT*-SS-28 was identical to that observed with T*-SS-14. Labelling of the 27 kDa band by either ligand was inhibited by SS-14 and SS-28 in a dose-dependent manner. Densitometric quantification showed that SS-14 exhibited greater than 2-fold greater potency than SS-28 for inhibiting the labelling of the 27 kDa species. These findings emphasize the need for careful interpretation of cross-linking data obtained for SS receptors, and provide evidence for molecular heterogeneity and for a tissue-specific distribution of the two principal SS receptor proteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1312325