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Sample records for 1h 2h 3h

  1. One dimensional 1H, 2H and 3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, A. J.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Vranješ Markić, L.; Boronat, J.

    2016-05-01

    The ground-state properties of one-dimensional electron-spin-polarized hydrogen 1H, deuterium 2H, and tritium 3H are obtained by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. The equations of state of the three isotopes are calculated for a wide range of linear densities. The pair correlation function and the static structure factor are obtained and interpreted within the framework of the Luttinger liquid theory. We report the density dependence of the Luttinger parameter and use it to identify different physical regimes: Bogoliubov Bose gas, super-Tonks-Girardeau gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for bosons; repulsive, attractive Fermi gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for fermions. We find that the tritium isotope is the one with the richest behavior. Our results show unambiguously the relevant role of the isotope mass in the properties of this quantum system.

  2. Method for determination of .sup.18 O/.sup.16 O and .sup.2 H/.sup.1 H ratios and .sup.3 H (tritium) concentrations of xylem waters and subsurface waters using time series sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian; Menchaca, Leticia

    1999-01-01

    A method for determination of .sup.18 O/.sup.16 O and .sup.2 H/.sup.1 H ratios and .sup.3 H concentrations of xylem and subsurface waters using time series sampling, insulating sampling chambers, and combined .sup.18 O/.sup.16 O, .sup.2 H/.sup.1 H and .sup.3 H concentration data on transpired water. The method involves collecting water samples transpired from living plants and correcting the measured isotopic compositions of oxygen (.sup.18 O/.sup.16 O) and hydrogen (.sup.2 H/.sup.1 H and/or .sup.3 H concentrations) to account for evaporative isotopic fractionation in the leafy material of the plant.

  3. Method for determination of {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratios and {sup 3}H (tritium) concentrations of xylem waters and subsurface waters using time-series sampling

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-09

    This application describes a method for the determination of {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratios and {sup 3}H concentrations of xylem and subsurface waters using time-series sampling, insulating sampling chambers, and combined {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H and {sup 3}H concentration data on transpired water. The method involves collecting water samples transpired from living plants and correcting the measured isotopic compositions of oxygen ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) and hydrogen ({sup 2}H/{sup 1}H and/or {sup 3}H concentrations) to account for evaporative isotopic fractionation in the leafy material of the plant.

  4. Hydration of DNA by tritiated water and isotope distribution: a study by /sup 1/H, /sup 2/H, and /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur-De Vre, R.; Grimee-Declerck, R.; Lejeune, P.; Bertinchamps, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    The hydration layer of DNA (0.75%) in tritiated water represents 3.5% of solvent /sup 3/HHO. The combined effects of temperature (-6 to -40/sup 0/C) and H/sub 2/O//sup 2/H/sub 2/O solvent composition on the spin-lattice relaxation times of water protons and deuterons suggest selective distribution of isotopes in the hydration layer. The ''hydration isotope'' effect and the localization of tritiated water molecules in the hydration layer of DNA have important implications in describing the radiobiological effects of tritiated water because the initial molecular damage caused by /sup 3/HHO (internal radiation source) localizes close to /sup 3/H due to the short range and low energy of /sup 3/H ..beta.. rays.

  5. Aminosilanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione.

    PubMed

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana; García-Báez, Efrén V; Contreras, Rosalinda; Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel

    2015-09-01

    Two new molecular structures, namely 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C13H22N2SSi2, (2), and 1-trimethylsilyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C10H14N2SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C-H···π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe3 groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R2(2)(8) rings via N-H···S interactions, along with parallel π-π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings.

  6. Amino­silanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana; García-Báez, Efrén V.; Contreras, Rosalinda; Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Two new mol­ecular structures, namely 1,3-bis­(tri­methyl­silyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C13H22N2SSi2, (2), and 1-tri­methyl­silyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C10H14N2SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C—H⋯π inter­actions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe3 groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R 2 2(8) rings via N—H⋯S inter­actions, along with parallel π–π inter­actions between imidazole and benzene rings. PMID:26322611

  7. Aminosilanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione

    SciTech Connect

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana; García-Báez, Efrén V.; Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel

    2015-08-12

    In two trimethylsilyl-substituted 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thiones, noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe{sub 3} groups form helicoidal arrangements in one, and dimerization results in the formation of R{sub s} {sup 2}(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings, in the second compound. Two new molecular structures, namely 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C{sub 13}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}SSi{sub 2}, (2), and 1-trimethylsilyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C{sub 10}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe{sub 3} groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R{sub 2}{sup 2}(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings.

  8. {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions at sub-coulomb energies

    SciTech Connect

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Typel, S.; Sparta, R.; Aliotta, M.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Mrazek, J.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.

    2012-11-20

    The {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,p{sup 3}H){sup 1}H and {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,n{sup 3}He){sup 1}H processes have been measured in quasi free kinematics to investigate for the first time the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions by means of the Trojan Horse Method. The {sup 3}He+d experiment was performed at 18 MeV, corresponding the a d-d energy range from 1.5 MeV down to 2 keV. This range overlaps with the relevant region for Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis as well as with the thermal energies of future fusion reactors and deuterium burning in the Pre Main Sequence phase of stellar evolution. This is the first pioneering experiment in quasi free regime where the charged spectator is detected. Both the energy dependence and the absolute value of the bare nucleus S(E) factors have been extracted for the first time. They deviate by more than 15% from available direct data with new S(0) values of 57.4{+-}1.8 MeVb for {sup 3}H+p and 60.1{+-}1.9 MeVb for {sup 3}He+n. None of the existing fitting curves is able to provide the correct slope of the new data in the full range, thus calling for a revision of the theoretical description. This has consequences in the calculation of the reaction rates with more than a 25% increase at the temperatures of future fusion reactors.

  9. Indirect Approach To The {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H Reaction Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sparta, R.; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Aliotta, M.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Kiss, G.; McCleskey, M.; Trache, L.

    2010-11-24

    In order to understand primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, we have studied {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H reaction at 0.4 MeV down to astrophysical energies. Knowledge of its S-factor is interesting also to plan reactions for fusion reactors to produce energy. The {sup 2}H(d,p)H reaction has been studied through the Trojan Horse Method applied to the three-body reaction {sup 2}H(He,pt)H, at beam energy of 17 MeV. Once selection of protons and tritons detected in coincidence and the selection of quasi-free events, the obtained S-factor is compared with direct measurements. Such data are in agreement with the direct ones and a pole invariance test has been obtained comparing the present results with another {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H THM measurements, where a different spectator particle was employed.

  10. New Determination of the 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He Reaction Rates at Astrophysical Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, A.; Spartà, R.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Typel, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.

    2014-04-01

    The cross sections of the 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He reactions have been measured via the Trojan Horse method applied to the quasi-free 2H(3He,p 3H)1H and 2H(3He,n 3He)1H processes at 18 MeV off the proton in 3He. For the first time, the bare nucleus S(E) factors have been determined from 1.5 MeV, across the relevant region for standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis, down to the thermal energies of deuterium burning in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase of stellar evolution, as well as of future fusion reactors. Both the energy dependence and the absolute value of the S(E) factors deviate by more than 15% from the available direct data and existing fitting curves, with substantial variations in the electron screening by more than 50%. As a consequence, the reaction rates for astrophysics experience relevant changes, with a maximum increase of up to 20% at the temperatures of the PMS phase. From a recent primordial abundance sensitivity study, it turns out that the 2H(d,n)3He reaction is quite influential on 7Li, and the present change in the reaction rate leads to a decrease in its abundance by up to 10%. The present reaction rates have also been included in an updated version of the FRANEC evolutionary code to analyze their influence on the central deuterium abundance in PMS stars with different masses. The largest variation of about 10%-15% pertains to young stars (<=1 Myr) with masses >=1 M ⊙.

  11. New determination of the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction rates at astrophysical energies

    SciTech Connect

    Tumino, A.; Spartà, R.; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Typel, S.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Lamia, L.

    2014-04-20

    The cross sections of the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions have been measured via the Trojan Horse method applied to the quasi-free {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,p {sup 3}H){sup 1}H and {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,n {sup 3}He){sup 1}H processes at 18 MeV off the proton in {sup 3}He. For the first time, the bare nucleus S(E) factors have been determined from 1.5 MeV, across the relevant region for standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis, down to the thermal energies of deuterium burning in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase of stellar evolution, as well as of future fusion reactors. Both the energy dependence and the absolute value of the S(E) factors deviate by more than 15% from the available direct data and existing fitting curves, with substantial variations in the electron screening by more than 50%. As a consequence, the reaction rates for astrophysics experience relevant changes, with a maximum increase of up to 20% at the temperatures of the PMS phase. From a recent primordial abundance sensitivity study, it turns out that the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction is quite influential on {sup 7}Li, and the present change in the reaction rate leads to a decrease in its abundance by up to 10%. The present reaction rates have also been included in an updated version of the FRANEC evolutionary code to analyze their influence on the central deuterium abundance in PMS stars with different masses. The largest variation of about 10%-15% pertains to young stars (≤1 Myr) with masses ≥1 M {sub ☉}.

  12. Infrared Predissociation Spectroscopy of the Hydrocarbon Cations C_3H^+, C_2H^+, and C_3H_2^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, Sandra; Lipparini, Filippo; Gauss, Jürgen; Stoffels, Alexander; Redlich, Britta; van der Meer, Lex; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Reactive hydrocarbon cations play an important role in the astrochemistry of the interstellar medium, but spectroscopic data, needed for their identification in astronomical observations, is sparse. Here we report the first gas-phase vibrational spectra of the linear C_3H^+ (^1 Σ), the radical cation C_2H^+ (^3 Π), and the linear-/cyclic-C_3H_2^+ (^2 Π /^2A_1, resp.). Broadband spectra were recorded by Ne- and He-messenger infrared-predissociation (IR-PD) action spectroscopy in a cryogenic (4-11 K) ion trap instrument (FELion) in the 250-3500 {wn} range using a free electron laser and a MIR-OPO at the FELIX (Free-Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments) laboratory. The band positions (determined with a precision of 1-2 wn) covering the C-H and C-C stretching as well as several bending modes are compared to high-level (CCSD(T) with large basis sets) quantum-chemical calculations with an emphasis on anharmonic effects and on the influence of the rare-gas messenger atom. The experimental and theoretical data provide a solid basis for subsequent IR high-resolution studies, with the ultimate goal to predict and measure accurate rotational spectra for a radio-astronomical search of these molecular ions in space.

  13. Formation of C3H2, C5H2, C7H2, and C9H2 from reactions of CH, C3H, C5H, and C7H radicals with C2H2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Lun; Huang, Wen-Jian; Lee, Shih-Huang

    2016-01-21

    The Cm+2H2 family can be classified into two categories - C2n+1H2 and C2n+2H2. Cm+2H2 are important intermediates in the syntheses of large carbonaceous molecules. An understanding of the formation mechanisms of both odd and even carbon-numbered Cm+2H2 is beneficial to atmospheric, astronomical, and combustion chemistry. HC2n+2H (polyynes) are believed to be producible from C2nH + C2H2 and C2H + C2nH2 reactions but C2n+1H2 (n≥ 2) attract less attention to their formation mechanisms. In the present study, we make up for the lack of knowledge on C2n+1H2 formation mechanisms by investigating the reactions C2n-1H + C2H2→ C2n+1H2 + H with n = 1-4. The dynamics of reactions of C2n-1H radicals with C2H2 are explored in crossed molecular beams using products C2n+1H2. The translational-energies and angular distributions of the hydrogen-loss channels of products are unraveled by measuring time-of-flight spectra and photoionization-efficiency spectra of C2n+1H2 with tunable synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet ionization. The C2n+1H2 product includes two isomers, c-(1)HC2n-1(C)CH and (3)HC2n+1H, which are identified by the maximal translational-energy release and the photoionization threshold. Furthermore, quantum-chemical calculations indicate that the title reactions incur a small or negligible entrance barrier and are nearly isoergic except for the barrierless exothermic reaction CH + C2H2→ C3H2 + H. We demonstrate for the first time that C5H2, C7H2, and C9H2 are producible from the title reactions. In conjunction with studies on the C2nH + C2H2 reactions, a brief picture for the CmH (m = 1-8) + C2H2→ Cm+2H2 + H reactions can be outlined.

  14. Determination of the delta(2H/1H)of Water: RSIL Lab Code 1574

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revesz, Kinga; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2008-01-01

    Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 1574 describes a method used to determine the relative hydrogen isotope-ratio delta(2H,1H), abbreviated hereafter as d2H of water. The d2H measurement of water also is a component of the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) schedules 1142 and 1172. The water is collected unfiltered in a 60-mL glass bottle and capped with a Polyseal cap. In the laboratory, the water sample is equilibrated with gaseous hydrogen using a platinum catalyst (Horita, 1988; Horita and others, 1989; Coplen and others, 1991). The reaction for the exchange of one hydrogen atom is shown in equation 1.

  15. Synthesis of (3) H, (2) H4 and (14) C-SCH 417690 (Vicriviroc).

    PubMed

    Hesk, D; Borges, S; Hendershot, S; Koharski, D; McNamara, P; Ren, S; Saluja, S; Truong, V; Voronin, K

    2016-05-15

    Vicriviroc or SCH 417690 is a potent and selective antagonist of the CCR5 receptor. CCR5 receptor antagonists have the potential for the treatment of HIV infections. Four distinct isotopically labelled forms of SCH 417690 were synthesized. Low specific activity [(3) H]SCH 417690 was prepared for a preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion evaluation of the compound and [(14) C]SCH 417690 for more definitive absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion work, including an absorption, metabolism and excretion study in man. In addition, high specific activity [(3) H]SCH 417690 was prepared for CCR5 receptor binding work and [(2) H4 ]SCH 417690 was prepared as an internal standard for a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry bioanalytical method. The paper discusses the synthesis of four isotopically labelled forms of SCH 417690.

  16. Characterization Results for the 2014 HTF 3H & 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A.

    2015-05-11

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H and 2H evaporator overhead samples for 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  17. NMR resonance splitting of urea in stretched hydrogels: proton exchange and (1)H/(2)H isotopologues.

    PubMed

    Kuchel, Philip W; Naumann, Christoph; Chapman, Bogdan E; Shishmarev, Dmitry; Håkansson, Pär; Bacskay, George; Hush, Noel S

    2014-10-01

    Urea at ∼12 M in concentrated gelatin gel, that was stretched, gave (1)H and (2)H NMR spectral splitting patterns that varied in a predictable way with changes in the relative proportions of (1)H2O and (2)H2O in the medium. This required consideration of the combinatorics of the two amide groups in urea that have a total of four protonation/deuteration sites giving rise to 16 different isotopologues, if all the atoms were separately identifiable. The rate constant that characterized the exchange of the protons with water was estimated by back-transformation analysis of 2D-EXSY spectra. There was no (1)H NMR spectral evidence that the chiral gelatin medium had caused in-equivalence in the protons bonded to each amide nitrogen atom. The spectral splitting patterns in (1)H and (2)H NMR spectra were accounted for by intra-molecular scalar and dipolar interactions, and quadrupolar interactions with the electric field gradients of the gelatin matrix, respectively.

  18. Frequency Comb Assisted IR Measurements of H_3^+, H_2D^+ and D_2H^+ Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusko, Pavol; Asvany, Oskar; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We present recent measurements of the fundamental transitions of H_3^+, H_2D^+ and D_2H^+ in a 4 K 22-pole trap by action spectroscopic techniques. Either Laser Induced Inhibition of Cluster Growth (He attachment at T≈4 K), endothermic reaction of H_3^+ with O_2, or deuterium exchange has been used as measurement scheme. We used a 3 μm optical parametric oscillator coupled to a frequency comb in order to achieve accuracy generally below 1 MHz. Five transitions of H_3^+, eleven of H_2D^+ and ten of D_2H^+ were recorder in our spectral range. We compare our H_3^+ results with two previous frequency comb assisted works. Moreover, accurate determination of the frequency allows us to predict pure rotational transitions for H_2D^+ and D_2H^+ in the THz range. P. Jusko, C. Konietzko, S. Schlemmer, O. Asvany, J. Mol. Spec. 319 (2016) 55 O. Asvany, S. Brünken, L. Kluge, S. Schlemmer, Appl. Phys. B 114 (2014) 203 O. Asvany, J. Krieg, S. Schlemmer, Rev. Sci. Instr. 83 (2012) 093110 J.N. Hodges, A.J. Perry, P.A. Jenkins, B.M. Siller, B.J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 139 (2013) 164201 H.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Hsiao, J.-L. Peng, T. Amano, J.-T. Shy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 (2012) 263002

  19. On the bonding of La(+) and La(2+) to C2H2, C2H4, and C3H6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosi, Marzio; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of La(+) and La(2+) with C2H2, C2H4, and C3H6 is studied using electronic structure calculations that include correlation. The calculations show that the bonding in the dication is electrostatic in origin, and the computed binding energies are in good agreement with experiment. The La(+) forms two chemical bonds with the hydrocarbons. Since the pi bond is weaker for C2H2 than C2H4, the La(+)-C2H2 binding energy is larger than for La(+)-C2H4, LaC3H6(+) rearranges to yield a stronger bond than in LaC2H4(+) even though both hydrocarbons have a double bond.

  20. An improved technique for the 2H/1H analysis of urines from diabetic volunteers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Harper, I.T.

    1994-01-01

    The H2-H2O ambient-temperature equilibration technique for the determination of 2H/1H ratios in urinary waters from diabetic subjects provides improved accuracy over the conventional Zn reduction technique. The standard deviation, ~ 1-2???, is at least a factor of three better than that of the Zn reduction technique on urinary waters from diabetic volunteers. Experiments with pure water and solutions containing glucose, urea and albumen indicate that there is no measurable bias in the hydrogen equilibration technique.The H2-H2O ambient-temperature equilibration technique for the determination of 2H/1H ratios in urinary waters from diabetic subjects provides improved accuracy over the conventional Zn reduction technique. The standard deviation, approximately 1-2%, is at least a factor of three better than that of the Zn reduction technique on urinary waters from diabetic volunteers. Experiments with pure water and solutions containing glucose, urea and albumen indicate that there is no measurable bias in the hydrogen equilibration technique.

  1. a Rotational Study of 2H-3H-PERFLUOROPENTANE and its Isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Chinh H.; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Novick, Stewart E.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrum of 2H-3H-perfluoropentane has been observed and assigned. Given a racemic mixture sample of the four available structural isomers, only the (S,S) structure was observed in the broadband spectrum. Attempts at observing the 13C isotopologues on a Balle-Flygare cavity type spectrometer and their assignments will be discussed, along with an examination of the theoretical predictions for the structure and rotational constants of the molecule against their experimental values. Structural results of the monomer will also be compared with those of the helical structure of C2 perfluoropentane. Joseph A. Fournier, Robert K. Bohn, John A. Montgomery Jr., Masao Onda. J. Phys. Chem. 114 (1118), 2010.

  2. (1)H-(2)H cross-polarization NMR in fast spinning solids by adiabatic sweeps.

    PubMed

    Wi, Sungsool; Schurko, Robert; Frydman, Lucio

    2017-03-14

    Cross-polarization (CP) experiments employing frequency-swept radiofrequency (rf) pulses have been successfully used in static spin systems for obtaining broadband signal enhancements. These experiments have been recently extended to heteronuclear I, S = spin-1/2 nuclides under magic-angle spinning (MAS), by applying adiabatic inversion pulses along the S (low-γ) channel while simultaneously applying a conventional spin-locking pulse on the I-channel ((1)H). This study explores an extension of this adiabatic frequency sweep concept to quadrupolar nuclei, focusing on CP from (1)H (I = 1/2) to (2)H spins (S = 1) undergoing fast MAS (νr = 60 kHz). A number of new features emerge, including zero- and double-quantum polarization transfer phenomena that depend on the frequency offsets of the swept pulses, the rf pulse powers, and the MAS spinning rate. An additional mechanism found operational in the (1)H-(2)H CP case that was absent in the spin-1/2 counterpart, concerns the onset of a pseudo-static zero-quantum CP mode, driven by a quadrupole-modulated rf/dipolar recoupling term arising under the action of MAS. The best CP conditions found at these fast spinning rates correspond to double-quantum transfers, involving weak (2)H rf field strengths. At these easily attainable (ca. 10 kHz) rf field conditions, adiabatic level-crossings among the {|1⟩,|0⟩,|-1⟩} mS energy levels, which are known to complicate the CP MAS of quadrupolar nuclei, are avoided. Moreover, the CP line shapes generated in this manner are very close to the ideal (2)H MAS spectral line shapes, facilitating the extraction of quadrupolar coupling parameters. All these features were corroborated with experiments on model compounds and justified using numerical simulations and average Hamiltonian theory models. Potential applications of these new phenomena, as well as extensions to higher spins S, are briefly discussed.

  3. 1H-2H cross-polarization NMR in fast spinning solids by adiabatic sweeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Sungsool; Schurko, Robert; Frydman, Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cross-polarization (CP) experiments employing frequency-swept radiofrequency (rf) pulses have been successfully used in static spin systems for obtaining broadband signal enhancements. These experiments have been recently extended to heteronuclear I, S = spin-1/2 nuclides under magic-angle spinning (MAS), by applying adiabatic inversion pulses along the S (low-γ) channel while simultaneously applying a conventional spin-locking pulse on the I-channel (1H). This study explores an extension of this adiabatic frequency sweep concept to quadrupolar nuclei, focusing on CP from 1H (I = 1/2) to 2H spins (S = 1) undergoing fast MAS (νr = 60 kHz). A number of new features emerge, including zero- and double-quantum polarization transfer phenomena that depend on the frequency offsets of the swept pulses, the rf pulse powers, and the MAS spinning rate. An additional mechanism found operational in the 1H-2H CP case that was absent in the spin-1/2 counterpart, concerns the onset of a pseudo-static zero-quantum CP mode, driven by a quadrupole-modulated rf/dipolar recoupling term arising under the action of MAS. The best CP conditions found at these fast spinning rates correspond to double-quantum transfers, involving weak 2H rf field strengths. At these easily attainable (ca. 10 kHz) rf field conditions, adiabatic level-crossings among the {|1 ⟩ ,|0 ⟩ ,|-1 ⟩ } mS energy levels, which are known to complicate the CP MAS of quadrupolar nuclei, are avoided. Moreover, the CP line shapes generated in this manner are very close to the ideal 2H MAS spectral line shapes, facilitating the extraction of quadrupolar coupling parameters. All these features were corroborated with experiments on model compounds and justified using numerical simulations and average Hamiltonian theory models. Potential applications of these new phenomena, as well as extensions to higher spins S, are briefly discussed.

  4. Nqrs Data for C3H12INO7 [C3H7NO2·HIO3·2(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0646)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C3H12INO7 [C3H7NO2·HIO3·2(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0646)

  5. Cometary implications of recent laboratory experiments on the photochemistry of the C2H and C3H2 radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.; Bao, Yihan; Urdahl, Randall S.; Song, Xueyu; Gosine, Jai; Lu, Chi

    1992-01-01

    Recent laboratory results on the photodissociation of the C2H and C3H2 radicals are described. These studies show that the C2 and C3 radicals are produced by the 193 nm photolysis of the C2H and C3H2 radicals, respectively. The quantum state distributions that were determined for the C2 radicals put certain constraints on the initial conditions for any models of the observed C2 cometary spectra. Experimental observations of C2 formed by the 212.8 nm photolysis of C2H are used to calculate a range of photochemical lifetimes for the C2H radical.

  6. Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase: Evaluation of 2H-Indazoles and 1H-Indazolones

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Aaron; Ott, Sean; Farber, Kelli M.; Palazzo, Teresa A.; Conrad, Wayne E.; Haddadin, Makhluf J.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Cross, Carroll E.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Kurth, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) produces hypohalous acids as a key component of the innate immune response; however, release of these acids extracellularly results in inflammatory cell and tissue damage. The two-step, one-pot Davis-Beirut reaction was used to synthesize a library of 2H-indazoles and 1H-indazolones as putative inhibitors of MPO. A structure-activity relationship study was undertaken wherein compounds were evaluated utilizing taurine-chloramine and MPO-mediated H2O2 consumption assays. Docking studies as well as toxicophore and Lipinski analyses were performed. Fourteen compounds were found to be potent inhibitors with IC50 values <1 μM, suggesting these compounds could be considered as potential modulators of pro-oxidative tissue injury pertubated by the inflammatory MPO:H2O2:HOCl/HOBr system. PMID:25438766

  7. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase: evaluation of 2H-indazoles and 1H-indazolones.

    PubMed

    Roth, Aaron; Ott, Sean; Farber, Kelli M; Palazzo, Teresa A; Conrad, Wayne E; Haddadin, Makhluf J; Tantillo, Dean J; Cross, Carroll E; Eiserich, Jason P; Kurth, Mark J

    2014-11-15

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) produces hypohalous acids as a key component of the innate immune response; however, release of these acids extracellularly results in inflammatory cell and tissue damage. The two-step, one-pot Davis-Beirut reaction was used to synthesize a library of 2H-indazoles and 1H-indazolones as putative inhibitors of MPO. A structure-activity relationship study was undertaken wherein compounds were evaluated utilizing taurine-chloramine and MPO-mediated H2O2 consumption assays. Docking studies as well as toxicophore and Lipinski analyses were performed. Fourteen compounds were found to be potent inhibitors with IC50 values <1μM, suggesting these compounds could be considered as potential modulators of pro-oxidative tissue injury pertubated by the inflammatory MPO/H2O2/HOCl/HOBr system.

  8. Equilibrium 2H/ 1H fractionations in organic molecules: I. Experimental calibration of ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L.; Nielsen, Robert J.; Goddard, William A., III

    2009-12-01

    Carbon-bound hydrogen in sedimentary organic matter can undergo exchange over geologic timescales, altering its isotopic composition. Studies investigating the natural abundance distribution of 1H and 2H in such molecules must account for this exchange, which in turn requires quantitative knowledge regarding the endpoint of exchange, i.e., the equilibrium isotopic fractionation factor ( α eq). To date, relevant data have been lacking for molecules larger than methane. Here we describe an experimental method to measure α eq for C-bound H positions adjacent to carbonyl group (H α) in ketones. H at these positions equilibrates on a timescale of days as a result of keto-enol tautomerism, allowing equilibrium 2H/ 1H distributions to be indirectly measured. Molecular vibrations for the same ketone molecules are then computed using Density Functional Theory at the B3LYP/6-311G∗∗ level and used to calculate α eq values for H α. Comparison of experimental and computational results for six different straight and branched ketones yields a temperature-dependent linear calibration curve with slope = 1.081-0.00376 T and intercept = 8.404-0.387 T, where T is temperature in degrees Celsius. Since the dominant systematic error in the calculation (omission of anharmonicity) is of the same size for ketones and C-bound H in most other linear compounds, we propose that this calibration can be applied to analogous calculations for a wide variety of organic molecules with linear carbon skeletons for temperatures below 100 °C. In a companion paper ( Wang et al., 2009) we use this new calibration dataset to calculate the temperature-dependent equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors for a range of linear hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, ketones, esters and acids.

  9. The Cac1 subunit of histone chaperone CAF-1 organizes CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture and tetramerizes histones

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wallace H; Roemer, Sarah C; Zhou, Yeyun; Shen, Zih-Jie; Dennehey, Briana K; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L; Liddle, Jennifer C; Nemkov, Travis; Ahn, Natalie G; Hansen, Kirk C; Tyler, Jessica K; Churchill, Mair EA

    2016-01-01

    The histone chaperone Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) deposits tetrameric (H3/H4)2 histones onto newly-synthesized DNA during DNA replication. To understand the mechanism of the tri-subunit CAF-1 complex in this process, we investigated the protein-protein interactions within the CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture using biophysical and biochemical approaches. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange and chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry reveal interactions that are essential for CAF-1 function in budding yeast, and importantly indicate that the Cac1 subunit functions as a scaffold within the CAF-1-H3/H4 complex. Cac1 alone not only binds H3/H4 with high affinity, but also promotes histone tetramerization independent of the other subunits. Moreover, we identify a minimal region in the C-terminus of Cac1, including the structured winged helix domain and glutamate/aspartate-rich domain, which is sufficient to induce (H3/H4)2 tetramerization. These findings reveal a key role of Cac1 in histone tetramerization, providing a new model for CAF-1-H3/H4 architecture and function during eukaryotic replication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18023.001 PMID:27690308

  10. Equilibrium 2H/1H fractionation in organic molecules: III. Cyclic ketones and hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L.; Nielsen, Robert J.; Goddard, William A.

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative interpretation of stable hydrogen isotope ratios (2H/1H) in organic compounds is greatly aided by knowledge of the relevant equilibrium fractionation factors (ɛeq). Previous efforts have combined experimental measurements and hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to accurately predict equilibrium fractionations in linear (acyclic) organic molecules (Wang et al., 2009a,b), but the calibration produced by that study is not applicable to cyclic compounds. Here we report experimental measurements of equilibrium 2H/1H fractionation in six cyclic ketones, and use those data to evaluate DFT calculations of fractionation in diverse monocyclic and polycyclic compounds commonly found in sedimentary organic matter and petroleum. At 25, 50, and 75 °C, the experimentally measured ɛeq values for secondary and tertiary Hα in isotopic equilibrium with water are in the ranges of -130‰ to -150‰ and +10‰ to -40‰ respectively. Measured data are similar to DFT calculations of ɛeq for axial Hα but not equatorial Hα. In tertiary Cα positions with methyl substituents, this can be understood as a result of the methyl group forcing Hα atoms into a dominantly axial position. For secondary Cα positions containing both axial and equatorial Hα atoms, we propose that axial Hα exchanges with water significantly faster than the equatorial Hα does, due to the hyperconjugation-stabilized transition state. Interconversion of axial and equatorial positions via ring flipping is much faster than isotopic exchange at either position, and as a result the steady-state isotopic composition of both H's is strongly weighted toward that of axial Hα. Based on comparison with measured ɛeq values, a total uncertainty of 10-30‰ remains for theoretical ɛeq values. Using DFT, we systematically estimated the ɛeq values for individual H positions in various cyclic structures. By summing over all individual H positions, the molecular equilibrium fractionation was

  11. Hydrochemistry and 18O/16O and 2H/1H Ratios of Ugandan Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M. G.; Jasechko, S.

    2013-12-01

    Today, 70% of the 35 million people living in Uganda have access to an improved water source, ranking Uganda 148 out of 179 nations reporting in 2010 (Millennium Development Goals Indicators). 80% of Ugandans rely on groundwater as their primary drinking water source, collecting at springs or from shallow wells. Similarly, 80% of Ugandans rely upon agriculture - usually rain fed - as their primary income source. Despite lack of access to protected water sources faced by 10 million Ugandans, and the importance of the blue economy to Uganda's continued development, a country-wide investigation of the chemistry and the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of waters has yet to be completed. Here we present 250 analyses of 18O/16O, 2H/1H and dissolved ion concentrations of Ugandan lakes, rivers, groundwaters and springs collected during July, 2013. We use the new data to characterize regional scale groundwater recharge sources, advection pathways and interactions with surface waters. Large lakes - Albert, Edward and Victoria - show increases in 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios consistent with open water evaporation, and are shown to be distinct from nearby groundwaters, suggesting minimal recharge from large lakes to the subsurface. Salinities of eastern Ugandan groundwaters are elevated relative to samples collected from the central and western regions, suggesting that longer groundwater residence times and enhanced water-rock interactions characterize these waters. Springs from western Uganda show a shift in 18O/16O to higher values as a result of hydrothermal water-rock exchanges. Dissolved ion and noble gas concentrations show potential for use in assessing geothermal energy resources, perhaps aiding the Ugandan Ministry for Energy, Minerals and Development to meet their goal of increasing renewable energy from 4% (current) to 61% of total use by 2017 (Nyakabwa-Atwoki, 2013). Millennium Development Goals Indicators. mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/data.aspx Nyakabwa

  12. Ligand-promoted alkylation of C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Yi; He, Jian; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2014-09-24

    9-Methylacridine was identified as a generally effective ligand to promote a Pd(II)-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H and C(sp(2))-H alkylation of simple amides with various alkyl iodides. This alkylation reaction was applied to the preparation of unnatural amino acids and geometrically controlled tri- and tetrasubstituted acrylic acids.

  13. Ab initio study of {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He, {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 4}He reactions and the tensor force

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, K.; Aoyama, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D.

    2012-11-12

    The {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He, and {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He reactions at low energies are studied with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions in an ab initio approach. The obtained astrophysical S-factors are all in very good agreement with experiment. The most important channels for both transfer and radiative capture are all found to dominate thanks to the tensor force.

  14. Photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of NH3, PH3, H2S, C2H2, and C2H4 in the VUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, T. J.; Chien, T. S.; Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation as a continuum light source, the photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of NH3, PH3, H2S, C2H2, and C2H4 have been measured from their respective ionization thresholds to 1060 A. The vibrational constants associated with the nu(2) totally symmetric, out-of-plane bending vibration of the ground electronic state of PH3(+) have been obtained. The cross sections and quantum yields for producing neutral products through photoexcitation of these molecules in the given spectral regions have also been determined. In the present work, autoionization processes were found to be less important than dissociation and predissociation processes in NH3, PH3, and C2H4. Several experimental techniques have been employed in order to examine the various possible systematic errors critically.

  15. Alkylation of 2,4-(1H,3H)-quinazolinediones with dialkyl carbonates under microwave irradiations.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Ignacio Alfredo; Guerrero, Leticia; Espinoza, Karla Alejandra; Meza, Martha Cecilia; Rodríguez, Jesús Ramón

    2009-05-20

    Alkylation is a very important chemical reaction which modifies the biological properties of drugs. Quinazolinedione derivatives are of considerable interest due to their wide array of pharmacological properties.We now report application of a practical alkylation procedure to several quinazolinediones, including pelanserine (5f), which shows antihypertensive properties, 1-methyl-3-(2'-phenylethyl)-1H,3H-quinazoline-2,4-dione (1ab) and 1-methyl-3-[2'-(4'-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-lH,3H-quinazoline-2,4-dione (1ae), which had been isolated from natural sources. The alkylation was optimized using dimethyl and diethyl carbonates under microwave irradiations.

  16. 1-Allyl-3-benzyl-1H-benzimidazol-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Kandri Rodi, Youssef; Haoudi, Amal; Capet, Frédéric; Mazzah, Ahmed; Essassi, El Mokhtar; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C17H16N2O, the fused benzimidazol-2(3H)-one system is essentially planar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.006 (2) Å for the carbonyl C atom. Its mean plane is almost perpendicular to the benzyl plane and to the allyl group, making dihedral angles of 80.6 (1) and 77.4 (3)°, respectively. The benzyl group and the allyl subsituent lie on opposite sides of the fused ring system. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by bifurcated C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in which the carbonyl O atom acts as accepter to two aromatic C—H groups, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). PMID:24427099

  17. Understanding 2H/1H systematics of leaf wax n-alkanes in coastal plants at Stiffkey saltmarsh, Norfolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Yvette; Dawson, Lorna; Black, Stuart; Andrews, Julian; Pedentchouk, Nikolai

    2014-03-01

    Interpretation of sedimentary n-alkyl lipid δ2H data is complicated by a limited understanding of factors controlling interspecies variation in biomarker 2H/1H composition. To distinguish between the effects of interrelated environmental, physical and biochemical controls on the hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkyl lipids, we conducted linked δ2H analyses of soil water, xylem water, leaf water and n-alkanes from a range of C3 and C4 plants growing at a UK saltmarsh (i) across multiple sampling sites, (ii) throughout the 2012 growing season, and (iii) at different times of the day. Soil waters varied isotopically by up to 35‰ depending on marsh sub-environment, and exhibited site-specific seasonal shifts in δ2H up to a maximum of 31‰. Maximum interspecies variation in xylem water was 38‰, while leaf waters differed seasonally by a maximum of 29‰. Leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H, however, consistently varied by over 100‰ throughout the 2012 growing season, resulting in an interspecies range in the ɛwax/leaf water values of -79‰ to -227‰. From the discrepancy in the magnitude of these isotopic differences, we conclude that mechanisms driving variation in the 2H/1H composition of leaf water, including (i) spatial changes in soil water 2H/1H, (ii) temporal changes in soil water 2H/1H, (iii) differences in xylem water 2H/1H, and (iv) differences in leaf water evaporative 2H-enrichment due to varied plant life forms, cannot explain the range of n-alkane δ2H values we observed. Results from this study suggests that accurate reconstructions of palaeoclimate regimes from sedimentary n-alkane δ2H require further research to constrain those biological mechanisms influencing species-specific differences in 2H/1H fractionation during lipid biosynthesis, in particular where plants have developed biochemical adaptations to water-stressed conditions. Understanding how these mechanisms interact with environmental conditions will be crucial to ensure accurate

  18. (2)H-decoupling-accelerated (1)H spin diffusion in dynamic nuclear polarization with photoexcited triplet electrons.

    PubMed

    Negoro, M; Nakayama, K; Tateishi, K; Kagawa, A; Takeda, K; Kitagawa, M

    2010-10-21

    In dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments applied to organic solids for creating nonequilibrium, high (1)H spin polarization, an efficient buildup of (1)H polarization is attained by partially deuterating the material of interest with an appropriate (1)H concentration. In such a dilute (1)H spin system, it is shown that the (1)H spin diffusion rate and thereby the buildup efficiency of (1)H polarization can further be enhanced by continually applying radiofrequency irradiation for deuterium decoupling during the DNP process. As experimentally confirmed in this work, the electron spin polarization of the photoexcited triplet state is mainly transferred only to those (1)H spins, which are in the vicinity of the electron spins, and (1)H spin diffusion transports the localized (1)H polarization over the whole sample volume. The (1)H spin diffusion coefficients are estimated from DNP repetition interval dependence of the initial buildup rate of (1)H polarization, and the result indicates that the spin diffusion coefficient is enhanced by a factor of 2 compared to that without (2)H decoupling.

  19. Controls on compound specific 2H/1H of leaf waxes along a North American monsoonal transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Tipple, B. J.; Hambach, B.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The use of hydrogen isotope ratios of sedimentary n-alkanes from leaf waxes has become an important method for the reconstruction of paleohydrologic conditions. Ideally, the relationship between lipid 2H/1H values and source water is one-to-one. But the extent to which the 2H/1H values are altered between initial source water and lipid 2H/1H values varies by plant type and environment. Additionally, these variables may be confounded by use of varied source waters by plants in the same ecosystem. Here, we use a transect study across the arid southwestern landscape of the United States, which is heavily influenced by the North American Monsoon, to study the variability in 2H/1H values of leaf waxes in co-occurring plants from Tucson, Arizona to Salt Lake City, Utah. Perennials, including rabbit brush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) and an annual plant, sunflower (Helianthus annuus), were chosen for their wide geographic distribution along the entire transect. Our results indicate that n-alkane distribution for each plant was similar and generally showed no relationship to environmental variables (elevation, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and temperature). However, we find evidence of n-alkane 2H/1H value relating to transect latitude, a relationship that is weaker for all samples combined than the strong individual correlation for each plant species. Further, these 2H/1H values suggest that not all plants in the monsoon region utilize monsoon-delivered precipitation. These results imply an adaptation to discontinuous spatial coverage and amount of monsoonal precipitation and suggest care must be taken when assuming consistent source water for different plants, particularly in regions with highly seasonal precipitation delivery.

  20. Microcanonical statistical study of ortho-para conversion in the reaction H3+ + H2-->(H5+)*-->H3+ + H2 at very low energies.

    PubMed

    Park, Kisam; Light, John C

    2007-01-28

    The ortho-para conversion of H(3) (+) and H(2) in the reaction H(3) (+)+H(2)-->(H(5) (+))(*)-->H(3) (+)+H(2) in interstellar space is possible by scrambling the five protons via (H(5) (+))(*) complex formation. The product distribution of the ortho-para conversion reaction can be given by ratios of cumulative reaction probabilities (CRP) calculated by microcanonical statistical theory with conservation of energy, motional angular momentum, nuclear spin, and parity. A statistical method to calculate the state-to-state reaction probabilities for given initial nuclear spin species, rotational states, and collision energies is developed using a simple semiclassical approximation of tunneling and above-barrier reflection. A new calculation method of branching ratios for given total nuclear spins and scrambling mechanisms is also developed. The anisotropic long-range electrostatic interaction potential of H(2) in the Coulomb field of H(3) (+) is taken into account using the first-order perturbation theory in forming the complex. The CRPs and the product distribution of the ortho-para conversion reaction at very low energies with reactants in their ground vibronic and lowest rotational states for given initial nuclear spin species are presented as a function of collision energy assuming complete proton scrambling or incomplete proton scrambling. The authors show that the product distribution at very low energies (or very low temperatures) differs substantially from the high energy (or high temperature) limit branching ratios.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one.

    PubMed

    Chilin, Adriana; Marzano, Christine; Guiotto, Adriano; Baccichetti, Francarosa; Carlassare, Francesco; Bordin, Franco

    2002-02-28

    A new furoquinolinone derivative, namely 4-hydroxymethyl-1,6,8-trimethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one (HOFQ), was synthesized and its biological activity studied. By UVA activation, HOFQ induced strong antiproliferative effects in Ehrlich ascite cells, which lost their ability to transmit the tumor by transplantation. HOFQ exhibited poor genotoxicity and absence of skin phototoxicity. Actually, HOFQ sensitization forms DNA-protein cross-linkages but not interstrands cross-links. Therefore, HOFQ appears to be a new promising drug for PUVA photochemotherapy and photopheresis.

  2. 6-Bromo-3-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Ghacham, Hend Bel; Rodi, Youssef Kandri; Capet, Frédéric; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C7H6BrN3O, was obtained from the reaction of 6-bromo-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one with methyl iodide. All non-H atoms lie in a common plane [r.m.s deviation = 0.017 (1) Å]. The amino group is a hydrogen-bond donor to the carbonyl group of an inversion-related mol­ecule, the pair of hydrogen bonds giving rise to a hydrogen-bonded dimer. PMID:21579134

  3. Measurement of the 2H(d ,p ) 3H reaction at astrophysical energies via the Trojan-horse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengbo; Wen, Qungang; Fu, Yuanyong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shuhua; Meng, Qiuying; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Lamia, L.

    2015-08-01

    The study of the 2H(d ,p ) 3H reaction is very important for the nucleosynthesis in both the standard Big Bang and stellar evolution, as well as for the future fusion reactor's planning of energy production. The 2H(d ,p ) 3H bare nucleus astrophysical S (E ) factor has been measured indirectly at energies from about 400 keV down to several keV by means of the Trojan-horse method applied to the quasifree process 2H(6Li ,p t ) 4He induced at a lithium beam energy of 9.5 MeV, which is closer to the zero-quasifree-energy point. An accurate analysis leads to the determination of the Sbare(0 ) =56.7 ±2.0 keV b and of the corresponding electron screening potential Ue=13.2 ±4.3 eV. In addition, this work gives an updated test for the Trojan-horse nucleus invariance by comparing with previous indirect investigations using the 3He=(d +p ) breakup.

  4. Osmium(IV) complexes with 1H- and 2H-indazoles: tautomer identity versus spectroscopic properties and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Stepanenko, Iryna N; Hejl, Michaela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Arion, Vladimir B

    2012-08-01

    A one-pot synthesis of osmium(IV) complexes with two different tautomers of indazole, 1H-indazole and 2H-indazole, namely (H(2)ind)[Os(IV)Cl(5)(2H-ind)] (1) and (H(2)ind)[Os(IV)Cl(5)(1H-ind)] (2) is reported. Both compounds have been comprehensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy, ESI (electrospray ionization) mass spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and tested for antiproliferative activity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines, CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), A549 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SW480 (colon carcinoma), as well as in vivo in a Hep3B SCID mouse xeno-transplantation model. 2H-Indazole tautomer stabilization in 1 has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction.

  5. Abstraction and addition kinetics of C2H radicals with CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C2H4, and C3H6: CVT/SCT/ISPE and hybrid meta-DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Dash, Manas Ranjan; Rajakumar, B

    2015-02-07

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H radicals with methane (k1), ethane (k2), propane (k3), ethylene (k4), and propylene (k5) were computed using canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) coupled with hybrid-meta density functional theory (DFT) over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 5000 K. The quantum chemical tunneling effect was corrected by the small curvature tunneling (SCT) method. The dynamic calculations are performed using the variational transition state theory (VTST) with the interpolated single-point energies (ISPE) method at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations were performed to verify that the transition states are connected to the reactants and products. The rate coefficients obtained over the studied temperature range yield the following Arrhenius expressions (cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k1 = 4.69 × 10(-19)T(2.44) exp[331/T], k2 = 4.29 × 10(-17)T(2.11) exp[432/T], k3 = 4.81 × 10(-17)T(1.98) exp[697/T], k4 = 7.54 × 10(-21)T(2.96) exp[1942/T], and k5 = 8.04 × 10(-23)T(3.44) exp[3011/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Branching ratio calculation for the reactions of C2H radicals with ethylene and propylene shows that the abstraction reactions are not important at lower temperatures. However, as the temperature increases, abstraction reactions become more important.

  6. Tensor Force Manifestations in Ab Initio Study of the {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He, {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, K.; Aoyama, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D.

    2011-09-23

    The {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He, and {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He reactions are studied at low energies in a multichannel ab initio model that takes into account the distortions of the nuclei. The internal wave functions of these nuclei are given by the stochastic variational method with the AV8{sup '} realistic interaction and a phenomenological three-body force included to reproduce the two-body thresholds. The obtained astrophysical S factors are all in very good agreement with the experiment. The most important channels for both transfer and radiative capture are identified by comparing to calculations with an effective central force. They are all found to dominate thanks to the tensor force.

  7. Syntheses of (3) H-labeled, (14) C-labeled, and (2) H4 -labeled SCH 444877, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Sumei; Hesk, David; McNamara, Paul; Koharski, David; Hendershot, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The syntheses of [(3) H]SCH 444877, [(2) H4 ]SCH 444877, and [(14) C]SCH 444877 are described. [(3) H]SCH 444877 was prepared in three steps from tritium gas. [(2) H4 ]SCH 444877 was synthesized from [(2) H4 ]ethanolamine in four steps with an overall yield of 40%. [(14) C]SCH 444877 was prepared from barium [(14) C]cyanamide in 10 steps with an overall yield of 8.1%.

  8. Effect of light on 2H/1H fractionation in lipids from continuous cultures of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Julian P.; Maloney, Ashley E.; Gregersen, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Continuous cultures of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana were grown at irradiances between 6 and 47 μmol m-2 s-1 in order to evaluate the effect of light on hydrogen isotope fractionation in lipids. δ2H values increased with irradiance in phytol by 1.1‰ (μmol m-2 s-1)-1 and by 0.3‰ (μmol m-2 s-1)-1 in the C14:0 fatty acid, but decreased by 0.8‰ (μmol m-2 s-1)-1 in the sterol 24-methyl-cholesta-5,24(28)-dien-3β-ol (C28Δ5,24(28)). The anticorrelation between δ2H values in C28Δ5,24(28) and irradiance is attributed to enhanced sterol precursor synthesis via the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway at high irradiance, relative to the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway, and the supposition that MEP precursors are 2H-depleted compared to MVA precursors because they incorporate a greater proportion of hydrogen from photosynthetically produced NADPH. Increasing δ2H values of phytol and C14:0 with irradiance is attributed to a greater proportion of pyruvate, the last common precursor to both lipids, being sourced from glycolysis in the mitochondria and cytosol, where enhanced incorporation of metabolic NADPH and further hydrogen exchange with cell water can enrich pyruvate with 2H relative to pyruvate from the chloroplast. Irrespective of the biosynthetic mechanisms responsible for the 2H/1H fractionation response to light, the high sensitivity of lipid δ2H values in T. pseudonana continuous cultures would result in -30‰ to +40‰ variations in δ2H over a 40 μmol m-2 s-1 range in sub-saturating irradiance if expressed in the environment, depending on the lipid.

  9. Background considerations for the 2H(7Be,3H)6Be experimental data II: Three-body continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K. Y.; Guimarães, V.

    2015-11-01

    The present article reports second background considerations for the experimentally obtained 2H(7Be,3H)6Be differential cross sections. The one-neutron transfer reaction was measured in inverse kinematics by using radioactive 7Be ( t 1/2 = 53.2 days) beams at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 in order to search for the resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus. Resonances in this nucleus would affect the 3He(3He,2 p)4He reaction rate of the proton-proton chain occurring in stars such as our sun. The result shows, however, that the direct transfer to 6Be resonances is not particularly strong compared to other reaction channels that can produce tritons in the exit channels. The goals of the present work is to better understand the cross section data from transfer reaction measurements by adopting background considerations using the three-body continuum.

  10. Observation of enhanced rate coefficients in the H2 + + H 2 → H3 + + H reaction at low collision energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allmendinger, Pitt; Deiglmayr, Johannes; Höveler, Katharina; Schullian, Otto; Merkt, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    The energy dependence of the rate coefficient of the H2 + + H 2 → H3 + + H reaction has been measured in the range of collision energies between k B ṡ 10 K and k B ṡ 300 mK . A clear deviation of the rate coefficient from the value expected on the basis of the classical Langevin-capture behavior has been observed at collision energies below k B ṡ 1 K , which is attributed to the joint effects of the ion-quadrupole and Coriolis interactions in collisions involving ortho-H2 molecules in the j = 1 rotational level, which make up 75% of the population of the neutral H2 molecules in the experiments. The experimental results are compared to very recent predictions by Dashevskaya et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 244315 (2016)], with which they are in agreement.

  11. Homocatenation of aluminum: alkane-like structures of Li2Al2H6 and Li3Al3H8.

    PubMed

    Gish, J Tyler; Popov, Ivan A; Boldyrev, Alexander I

    2015-03-27

    A new class of aluminum homocatenated compounds (LinAlnH2n+2) is proposed based on quantum chemical calculations. In these compounds, Al abstracts an electron from Li, becoming valence isoelectronic with C, Si, and Ge, thus mimicking respective structural features of Group 14 hydrides. Using the Coalescence Kick search program coupled with density functional theory calculations, we investigated the potential energy surfaces of Li2Al2 H6 and Li3Al3H6 . Then single-point-energy coupled-cluster calculations were performed for the lowest energy structures found. Indeed, the global minima established for Li2 Al2 H6 and Li3 Al3 H6 contain the Al2 H6(2-) and Al3H6(3-) kernels, which are isostructural with ethane (C2H6), disilane (Si2H6), digermane (Ge2 H6) and propane (C3H8), trisilane (Si3H8), trigermane (Ge3H8) molecules, respectively. Structural, energetic, and electronic characteristics of the Li2 Al2 H6 and Li3 Al3 H8 compounds are presented and the viability of their synthesis is discussed.

  12. In-silico docking based design and synthesis of [1H,3H] imidazo[4,5-b] pyridines as lumazine synthase inhibitors for their effective antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Harer, Sunil L.; Bhatia, Manish S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The imidazopyridine moiety is important pharmacophore that has proven to be useful for a number of biologically relevant targets, also reported to display antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral properties. Riboflavin biosynthesis involving catalytic step of Lumazine synthase is absent in animals and human, but present in microorganism, one of marked advantage of this study. Still, this path is not exploited as antiinfective target. Here, we proposed different interactions between [1H,3H] imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine test ligands and target protein Lumazine synthase (protein Data Bank 2C92), one-step synthesis of title compounds and further evaluation of them for in vitro antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods: Active pocket of the target protein involved in the interaction with the test ligands molecules was found using Biopredicta tools in VLifeMDS 4.3 Suite. In-silico docking suggests H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction, charge interaction, aromatic interaction, and Vanderwaal forces responsible for stabilizing enzyme-inhibitor complex. Disc diffusion assay method was used for in vitro antimicrobial screening. Results and Discussion: Investigation of possible interaction between test ligands and target lumazine synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggested 1i and 2f as best fit candidates showing hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic, aromatic and Vanderwaal's forces. Among all derivatives 1g, 1j, 1k, 1l, 2a, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2h, and 2j exhibited potent activities against bacteria and fungi compared to the standard Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole, respectively. The superiority of 1H imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine compounds having R’ = Cl >No2 > NH2 at the phenyl/aliphatic moiety resident on the imidazopyridine, whereas leading 3H imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine compounds containing R/Ar = Cl > No2 > NH2> OCH3 substituents on the 2nd position of imidazole. PMID:25400412

  13. 40 CFR 721.5540 - 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo [3,4-c] oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5540 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl-. (a) Chemical...-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl- (PMN P-91-1324) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5540 - 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo [3,4-c] oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5540 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl-. (a) Chemical...-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl- (PMN P-91-1324) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5540 - 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo [3,4-c] oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5540 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl-. (a) Chemical...-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl- (PMN P-91-1324) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5540 - 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo [3,4-c] oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5540 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl-. (a) Chemical...-oxazolo oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl- (PMN P-91-1324) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. Specific nonpeptide inhibitors of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase with a 2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione skeleton.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Hiroki; Tanatani, Aya; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Yuichi

    2003-11-01

    Potent, specific, chemically stable and non-peptide/small-molecular inhibitors of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, such as 3-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione (PAQ-22, 5), were prepared by the structural development of a potent PSA inhibitor, 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1,3-dione (PIQ-22, 4). The design was carried out partly by applying electrostatic potential field information obtained from PIQ-22 (4) and its derivatives based on thalidomide (2). This information revealed that a positive electrostatic potential field around the benzylic methylene in the tetrahydroisoquinoline ring is necessary for potent activity. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis showed that PAQ-22 (5) and its derivatives inhibit puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) in a non-competitive manner. These potent and specific PSA inhibitors showed dose-dependent cell invasion-inhibitory activity in a Matrigel assay using mouse melanoma B16F10/L5 cells, in spite of their low cell toxicity.

  18. Measurements of intracellular volumes by 59Co and 2H/1H NMR and their physiological applications.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Nadir; Navon, Gil

    2005-04-01

    Determination of the intracellular water volumes using NMR spectroscopy was performed using the NMR-visible nuclei: 59Co and 2H or 1H. Accurate measurement of intracellular water in cell suspensions and perfused organs is an important physiological parameter in the context of electrolyte homeostasis and energy metabolism, in particular when these parameters are monitored by non-invasive NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, repeated or continuous monitoring of intracellular water provided significant insights into the physiology of cardiac muscle and sarcolemmal membrane permeability and integrity.

  19. 2H/1H fractionation in lipids of the mangrove Bruguiera gymnorhiza increases with salinity in marine lakes of Palau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, S. Nemiah; Sachs, Julian P.

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (2H/1H or D/H) of sedimentary mangrove lipid biomarkers can be exploited as a quantitative proxy of past salinity and water isotopes. This approach is based on the observation that apparent 2H/1H fractionation between surface water and mangrove leaf lipids increases with surface water salinity. In order to better understand the mechanisms responsible for this empirical relationship, we analyzed the isotopic composition of surface water, xylem water, leaf water and leaf lipids from Bruguiera gymnorhiza mangroves growing around eleven marine lakes and a lagoon on the rock islands of Palau, spanning a salinity range of 5-32 parts per thousand (ppt). Net fractionation increased with increasing salinity for both nC31-alkane (0.7 ± 0.1‰ ppt-1) and for the pentacyclic triterpenoid lupeol (0.5 ± 0.2‰ ppt-1). These trends could not be attributed to changes in biosynthetic fractionation with salinity, but seem more likely to be due to increasing disequilibrium between xylem water and water vapor as salinity increases. In Palau's humid climate, this most likely causes leaf water to become less 2H-enriched relative to surface water and to xylem water as salinity increases. This supposition is supported not only by measurements of leaf water 2H enrichment, but also by the correlation (R2 = 0.66) between leaf water isotopes and those of rain water, which are assumed to be in equilibrium with water vapor isotopes, and by the dependence of leaf water isotopes on water vapor isotopes in a Péclet-modified Craig-Gordon model. These results should inform the application of sedimentary mangrove lipid hydrogen isotope ratios to infer past hydroclimatic changes.

  20. Synthesis of 3H, 13C,2H3,15N and 14C-labelled SCH 466036, a histamine 3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Hesk, D; Borges, S; Dumpit, R; Hendershot, S; Koharski, D; Lavey, C; McNamara, P; Voronin, K

    2015-02-01

    The synthesis of [(3)H]SCH 466036, [Me-(3)H3]SCH 466036, [(13)C,(2)H3,(15)N]SCH 466036 and [(14)C]SCH 466036 is described. [(3)H]SCH 466036 was prepared in two steps via Raney Ni-catalysed exchange with tritiated water. [Me-(3)H3]SCH 466036 was prepared in a single step from [(3)H]methyl iodide in 45% yield. [(13)C,(2)H3,(15)N]SCH 466036 was prepared in two steps from [(15)N]hydroxylamine and [(13)C,(2)H3]methyl iodide with an overall yield of 16%. [(14)C]SCH 466036 was prepared in seven steps from [(14)C]potassium cyanide in an overall yield of 13%.

  1. New modification of the Perkow reaction: halocarboxylate anions as leaving groups in 3-acyloxyquinoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione compounds

    PubMed Central

    Paleta, Oldřich; Pomeisl, Karel; Kafka, Stanislav; Klásek, Antonín; Kubelka, Vladislav

    2005-01-01

    Substituted 3-(fluoroacyloxy)quinoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones including 3-(fluoroiodoacetoxy) derivatives react with triethyl phosphite to afford either the product of the Perkow reaction or the corresponding 4-ethoxyquinolin-2(1H)-one. In both reactions, the fluorocarboxylate anion acts as the first observed leaving group. This observation restricts the application of the intramolecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons synthesis to modify quinoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones by the annulation of fluorinated but-2-enolide rings. PMID:16551375

  2. 2H,3H-Decafluoropentane-Based Nanodroplets: New Perspectives for Oxygen Delivery to Hypoxic Cutaneous Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Jithin; Khadjavi, Amina; Cavallo, Federica; Quaglino, Elena; Panariti, Alice; Rivolta, Ilaria; Benintende, Emilio; Varetto, Gianfranco; Argenziano, Monica; Troia, Adriano; Cavalli, Roberta; Guiot, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoropentane (PFP)-based oxygen-loaded nanobubbles (OLNBs) were previously proposed as adjuvant therapeutic tools for pathologies of different etiology sharing hypoxia as a common feature, including cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. Here we introduce a new platform of oxygen nanocarriers, based on 2H,3H-decafluoropentane (DFP) as core fluorocarbon. These new nanocarriers have been named oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs) since DFP is liquid at body temperature, unlike gaseous PFP. Dextran-shelled OLNDs, available either in liquid or gel formulations, display spherical morphology, ~600 nm diameters, anionic charge, good oxygen carrying capacity, and no toxic effects on human keratinocytes after cell internalization. In vitro OLNDs result more effective in releasing oxygen to hypoxic environments than former OLNBs, as demonstrated by analysis through oxymetry. In vivo, OLNDs effectively enhance oxy-hemoglobin levels, as emerged from investigation by photoacoustic imaging. Interestingly, ultrasound (US) treatment further improves transdermal oxygen release from OLNDs. Taken together, these data suggest that US-activated, DFP-based OLNDs might be innovative, suitable and cost-effective devices to topically treat hypoxia-associated pathologies of the cutaneous tissues. PMID:25781463

  3. 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based nanodroplets: new perspectives for oxygen delivery to hypoxic cutaneous tissues.

    PubMed

    Prato, Mauro; Magnetto, Chiara; Jose, Jithin; Khadjavi, Amina; Cavallo, Federica; Quaglino, Elena; Panariti, Alice; Rivolta, Ilaria; Benintende, Emilio; Varetto, Gianfranco; Argenziano, Monica; Troia, Adriano; Cavalli, Roberta; Guiot, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoropentane (PFP)-based oxygen-loaded nanobubbles (OLNBs) were previously proposed as adjuvant therapeutic tools for pathologies of different etiology sharing hypoxia as a common feature, including cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. Here we introduce a new platform of oxygen nanocarriers, based on 2H,3H-decafluoropentane (DFP) as core fluorocarbon. These new nanocarriers have been named oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs) since DFP is liquid at body temperature, unlike gaseous PFP. Dextran-shelled OLNDs, available either in liquid or gel formulations, display spherical morphology, ~600 nm diameters, anionic charge, good oxygen carrying capacity, and no toxic effects on human keratinocytes after cell internalization. In vitro OLNDs result more effective in releasing oxygen to hypoxic environments than former OLNBs, as demonstrated by analysis through oxymetry. In vivo, OLNDs effectively enhance oxy-hemoglobin levels, as emerged from investigation by photoacoustic imaging. Interestingly, ultrasound (US) treatment further improves transdermal oxygen release from OLNDs. Taken together, these data suggest that US-activated, DFP-based OLNDs might be innovative, suitable and cost-effective devices to topically treat hypoxia-associated pathologies of the cutaneous tissues.

  4. Fabrication of Indocyanine Green and 2H, 3H-perfluoropentane loaded microbubbles for fluorescence and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yutong; Wu, Qiang; Ma, Rong; Chang, Shufang; Shao, Pengfei; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    As a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence dye, Indocyanine Green (ICG) has not gained broader clinical applications, owing to its multiple limitations such as concentration-dependent aggregation, low fluorescence quantum yield, poor physicochemical stability and rapid elimination from the body. In the meanwhile, 2H,3H-perfluoropentane (H-PFP) has been widely studied in ultrasound imaging as a vehicle for targeted delivery of contrast agents and drugs. We synthesized a novel dual-modal fluorescence and ultrasound contrast agent by encapsulating ICG and H-PFP in lipid microbubbles using a liquid-driven coaxial flow focusing (LDCFF) process. Uniform microbubbles with the sizes ranging from 1-10um and great ICG loading efficiency was achieved by this method. Our benchtop experiments showed that ICG/H-PFP microbubbles exhibited less aggregation, increased fluorescence intensity and more stable photostability compared to free ICG aqueous solution. Our phantom experiments demonstrated that ICG/H-PFP microbubbles enhanced the imaging contrasts in fluorescence imaging and ultrasonography. Our animal experiments indicated that ICG/H-PFP microbubbles extended the ICG life time and facilitated dual mode fluorescence and ultrasound imaging in vivo.

  5. Equilibrium 2H/ 1H fractionations in organic molecules. II: Linear alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L.; Nielsen, Robert J.; Goddard, William A., III

    2009-12-01

    Equilibrium 2H/ 1H fractionation factors (α eq) for various H positions in alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols, and ethers were calculated between 0 and 100 °C using vibrational frequencies from ab initio QM calculations (B3LYP/6-311G**). Results were then corrected using a temperature-dependent linear calibration curve based on experimental data for H α in ketones ( Wang et al., 2009). The total uncertainty in reported α eq values is estimated at 10-20‰. The effects of functional groups were found to increase the value of α eq for H next to electron-donating groups, e.g. sbnd OR, sbnd OH or sbnd O(C dbnd O)R, and to decrease the value of α eq for H next to electron-withdrawing groups, e.g. sbnd (C dbnd O)R or sbnd (C dbnd O)OR. Smaller but significant functional group effects are also observed for H β and sometimes H γ. By summing over individual H positions, we estimate the equilibrium fractionation relative to water to be -90‰ to -70‰ for n-alkanes and around -100‰ for pristane and phytane. The temperature dependence of these fractionations is very weak between 0 and 100 °C. Our estimates of α eq agree well with field data for thermally mature hydrocarbons (δ 2H values between -80‰ and -110‰ relative to water). Therefore the observed δ 2H increase of individual hydrocarbons and the disappearance of the biosynthetic δ 2H offset between n-alkyl and linear isoprenoid lipids during maturation of organic matter can be confidently attributed to H exchange towards an equilibrium state. Our results also indicate that many n-alkyl lipids are biosynthesized with δ 2H values that are close to equilibrium with water. In these cases, constant down-core δ 2H values for n-alkyl lipids cannot be reliably used to infer a lack of isotopic exchange.

  6. The {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H Reaction At Astrophysical Energies Studied Via The Trojan Horse Method And Pole Approximation Validity Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sparta, R.; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Aliotta, M.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Kiss, G.; McCleskey, M.; Trache, L.

    2010-03-01

    In order to understand primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, we have studied {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H reaction at 0, 4 MeV down to astrophysical energies. Knowledge of this S-factor is interesting also to plan reactions for fusion reactors to produce energy. {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H has been studied through the Trojan Horse Method applied to the three-body reaction {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,pt)H, at a beam energy of 17 MeV. Once protons and tritons are detected in coincidence and the quasi-free events are selected, the obtained S-factor has been compared with direct reactions results. Such data are in agreement with the direct ones, and a pole invariance test has been obtained comparing the present result with another {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H THM one, performed with a different spectator particle (see fig. 1).

  7. Derivatives of 1,3-disubstituted 2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinediones as possible peripheral vasodilators or antihypertensive agents.

    PubMed

    Havera, H J; Vidrio, H

    1979-12-01

    A series of 1,3-disubstituted 2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinediones was prepared from the 3-substituted 2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinediones by treatment with sodium hydride and the desired alkyl halide in xylene. These compounds showed varying degrees of vasodilation and antihypertensive activity without significant blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors. 1-[3-(N,N-Dimethylamino)propyl]-3-[3-(4-phenyl1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione, which was selected for further studies, was more potent than papaverine in inducing vasodilation and induced a prolonged decrease in systolic blood pressure of hypertensive rats upon oral administration.

  8. Nqrs Data for C3H10INO6 [C3H7NO2·HIO3·(1/2)(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0642)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C3H10INO6 [C3H7NO2·HIO3·(1/2)(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0642)

  9. Water - Isotope - Map (δ 18O, δ 2H, 3H) of Austria: Applications, Extremes and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyhlidal, Stefan; Kralik, Martin; Benischke, Ralf; Leis, Albrecht; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    The isotopic ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) are important tools to characterise waters and their cycles. This starts in the atmosphere as rain or snow and continues in surface water and ends in shallow groundwater as well as in deep groundwater. Tritium formed by natural cosmic radiation in the upper atmosphere and in the last century by tests of thermonuclear bombs in the atmosphere, is characterised by its radioactive decay with a half-life of 12.32 years and is an ideal age-marker during the last 60 years. To determine the origin and mean age of waters in many projects concerning water supply, engineering and scientific projects in the last 45 years on more than 1,350 sites, more than 40,000 isotope measurements were performed in Austria. The median value of all sites of oxygen-18 is δ 18O -10.7 ‰ and for hydrogen-2 δ 2H -75 ‰. As the fractionation is mainly temperature dependent the lowest negative values are observed in winter precipitation (oxygen-18 as low as δ 18O -23 ‰) and in springs in the mountain regions (δ 18O -15.1 ‰). In contrast the highest values were observed in summer precipitation (up to δ 18O - 0.5 ‰) and in shallow lakes in the Seewinkel (up to δ 18O + 5 ‰). The isotopic ratios of the Austrian waters are also influenced by the origin of the evaporated water masses. Therefore the precipitation in the region south of the main Alpine crest (East-Tyrol, Carinthia and South-East Styria) is approximately 1 ‰ higher in δ 18O-values than sites at the same altitude in the northern part. This is most probably caused by the stronger influence of precipitation from the mediterranean area. The median value of all 1,120 sampling sites of decay corrected (2015) tritium measurements is 6.2 tritium units (TU). This is somewhat smaller than the median value of all precipitation stations with 7.2 TU. This can be explained by the fact that in most cases in groundwater the median value has been reduced by decay

  10. Copper-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H functionalization of ketones with vinyl azides: synthesis of substituted-1H-pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Donthiri, Ramachandra Reddy; Samanta, Supravat; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa

    2015-10-28

    Copper-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H functionalization of ketones with vinyl azides for the synthesis of substituted pyrroles has been developed. The method is a straightforward and efficient way to access a series of 2,3,5-trisubstituted-1H-pyrroles in modest to excellent yields with broad functional group tolerance under mild conditions.

  11. Effect of salinity on 2H/1H fractionation in lipids from continuous cultures of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Julian P.; Maloney, Ashley E.; Gregersen, Josh; Paschall, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    Salinity and temperature dictate the buoyancy of seawater, and by extension, ocean circulation and heat transport. Yet there remain few widely applicable proxies for salinity with the precision necessary to infer all but the largest hydrographic variations in the past. In the last decade the hydrogen isotope composition (2H/1H or δ2H) of microalgal lipids has been shown to increase systematically with salinity, providing a foundation for its use as a paleosalinity proxy. Culture and field studies have indicated a wide range of sensitivities for this response, ranging from about 0.6-3.3‰ ppt-1 depending on the lipid, location and/or culturing conditions. Lacking in these studies has been the controlled conditions necessary to isolate the response to salinity while keeping all other growth parameters constant. Here we show that the hydrogen isotope composition of lipids in the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi grown in chemostats increased by 1.6 ± 0.3‰ ppt-1 (p < 0.05) in eight individual alkenones and by 2.0 ± 0.1‰ ppt-1 (p < 0.05) in three individual fatty acids over the salinity range 20-42 ppt. Hydrogen isotope ratios of phytol and the sterol 24-methyl-cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (brassicasterol) also increased with salinity but correlations were weaker than for the acetogenic lipids. For eight individual alkenones, linear regression analyses of the fractionation factors on salinity yielded slopes of 1.2-2.2‰ ppt-1. This sensitivity of δ2Halkenone to salinity is 45-71% of that previously reported for E. huxleyi, which can be attributed to the fact that previous experiments were performed with batch cultures in which growth rates and other parameters differed between salinity treatments. The underlying cause of this response to salinity remains unknown, but may result from changes in (1) the proportion of lipid hydrogen derived from NADPH versus water, (2) the proportion of lipid hydrogen derived from NADPH from Photosystem I versus the oxidative

  12. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the aluminum hydride anions: AlH2-, AlH3-, Al2H6-, Al3H9-, and Al4H12-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Collins, Evan; Lim, Alane; Ganteför, Gerd; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan; Bowen, Kit

    2013-03-01

    We report measurements of the negative ion photoelectron spectra of the simple aluminum hydride anions: AlH2-, AlH3-, Al2H6-, Al3H9-, and Al4H12-. From these spectra, we measured the vertical detachment energies of the anions, and we estimated the electron affinities of their neutral counterparts. Our results for AlH2-, AlH3-, and Al2H6- were also compared with previous predictions by theory.

  13. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Collins, Evan; Lim, Alane; Ganteför, Gerd; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan; Bowen, Kit

    2013-03-28

    We report measurements of the negative ion photoelectron spectra of the simple aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-). From these spectra, we measured the vertical detachment energies of the anions, and we estimated the electron affinities of their neutral counterparts. Our results for AlH2(-), AlH3(-), and Al2H6(-) were also compared with previous predictions by theory.

  14. Halilectin 1 (H-1) and Halilectin 2 (H-2): two new lectins isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona caerulea.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Rômulo Farias; de Melo, Arthur Alves; Nascimento, Fernando Edson Pessoa do; Simplicio, Clareane Avelino; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago do; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias da; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Moura, Raniere da Mata; Mota, Sula Salani; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda

    2013-01-01

    Two new lectins named Halilectin 1 (H-1) and Halilectin 2 (H-2) were isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona caerulea using a combination of affinity chromatography on stroma fixed onto Sephadex G-25 and cation and anion exchange chromatography. H-1 is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 40 kDa estimated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 15 kDa estimated using a TSK gel. Conversely, H-2 is a homodimeric protein with 15 kDa monomers linked via weak interactions. H-1 more effectively agglutinates trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes, whereas H-2 more effectively agglutinates native rabbit erythrocytes. The hemagglutinating activity of H-1 could be not inhibited by any tested sugars, but H-2 was inhibited by orosomucoid and porcine stomach mucin. Neither lectin was dependent on divalent ions. H-1 was stable at basic pH range and temperatures up to 50 °C, whereas H-2 was stable at acid pH range and temperatures up to 80 °C. The H. caerulea lectins exhibited dose-dependent toxicity against Artemia nauplii. Additionally, 76% of the primary structure of H-2 was determined using tandem mass spectrometry to contain a unique amino acid sequence with no similarity to any members of the animal lectin family. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 40 CFR 721.9078 - 6-Methoxy-1H-benz[de]isoquinoline-2 [3H]-dione derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 6-Methoxy-1H-benz isoquinoline-2 -dione derivative (generic). 721.9078 Section 721.9078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9078 - 6-Methoxy-1H-benz[de]isoquinoline-2 [3H]-dione derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 6-Methoxy-1H-benz isoquinoline-2 -dione derivative (generic). 721.9078 Section 721.9078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9078 - 6-Methoxy-1H-benz[de]isoquinoline-2 [3H]-dione derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 6-Methoxy-1H-benz isoquinoline-2 -dione derivative (generic). 721.9078 Section 721.9078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9078 - 6-Methoxy-1H-benz[de]isoquinoline-2 [3H]-dione derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 6-Methoxy-1H-benz isoquinoline-2 -dione derivative (generic). 721.9078 Section 721.9078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9078 - 6-Methoxy-1H-benz[de]isoquinoline-2 [3H]-dione derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 6-Methoxy-1H-benz isoquinoline-2 -dione derivative (generic). 721.9078 Section 721.9078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  20. New pyrazole derivative 5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2H-tetrazole: synthesis and assessment of some biological activities.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lanussy Porfiro; da Silva, Daiany Priscilla Bueno; Florentino, Iziara Ferreira; Fajemiroye, James Oluwagbamigbe; de Oliveira, Thiago Sardinha; Marcelino, Renato Ivan de Ávila; Pazini, Francine; Lião, Luciano Morais; Ghedini, Paulo César; de Moura, Soraia Santana; Valadares, Marize Campos; de Carvalho, Verônica Vale; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; Menegatti, Ricardo; Costa, Elson Alves

    2017-01-01

    The molecular modification and synthesis of compounds is vital to discovering drugs with desirable pharmacological and toxicity profiles. In response to pyrazole compounds' antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects, this study sought to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and vasorelaxant effects, as well as the mechanisms of action, of a new pyrazole derivative, 5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2H-tetrazole. During the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, treatments with 5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2H-tetrazole reduced abdominal writhing, while during the formalin test, 5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2H-tetrazole reduced licking times in response to both neurogenic pain and inflammatory pain, all without demonstrating any antinociceptive effects, as revealed during the tail flick test. 5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2H-tetrazole also reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema and cell migration during the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test. As demonstrated by the model of the isolated organ, 5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2H-tetrazole exhibits a vasorelaxant effect attenuated by Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one, tetraethylammonium or glibenclamide. 5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2H-tetrazole also blocked CaCl2 -induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner. Suggesting a safe toxicity profile, 5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2H-tetrazole reduced the viability of 3T3 cells at higher concentrations and was orally tolerated, despite signs of toxicity in doses of 2000 mg/kg. Lastly, the compounds' analgesic activity might be attributed to the involvement of the NO/cGMP pathway and K(+) channels observed in the vasorelaxant effect.

  1. Heats of formation and thermodynamic functions for C2H, C3H, and C4H from 300 K to 6000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saturno, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the energy level and heat of formation data for the species C2H, C3H, and C4H is given. The procedure for computing thermochemical data from partition function is also reviewed. Working expressions for approximate partition functions, free-energy function, enthalpy function, and heat capacity for a linear polyatomic species are presented.

  2. 1-(4-Methyl­benz­yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Belaziz, Dounia; Kandri Rodi, Youssef; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H14N2O, the fused five- and six-membered ring system is essentially planar, the maximum deviation from the mean plane being 0.009 (1) Å. The benzimidazol-2(3H)-one residue is nearly perpendicular to the benzyl ring, forming a dihedral angle of 77.41 (6)°. In the crystal, inversion dimers are formed by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds; these dimers are linked by weak C—H⋯O inter­actions into a two-dimensional array in the (102) plane. PMID:23476384

  3. 4-Hydroxymethyl- and 4-methoxymethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-ones: synthesis and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Chilin, Adriana; Marzano, Cristina; Baccichetti, Francarosa; Simonato, Morena; Guiotto, Adriano

    2003-04-03

    4-Hydroxymethyl-1,6,8-trimethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one (HOFQ) was prepared by a new profitable way, which allowed to synthesize also 4-methoxymethyl-1,6,8-trimethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one (MOFQ), and 4-hydroxymethyl-6,8-dimethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one (HOHFQ). Some biological activities of the three compounds were studied in comparison with 8-MOP. In the dark, they inhibited topoisomerase II, leading to a moderate antiproliferative activity in mammalian cells. The antiproliferative activity was also tested upon UVA irradiation in mammalian cells: all compounds showed higher activity than 8-MOP, without mutagenicity and skin phototoxicity, with the best results for HOFQ. Photobinding to DNA was investigated, demonstrating a different sequence specificity for these furoquinolinones in comparison with furocoumarins. For all these features, HOFQ and the other analogues appeared very promising photochemotherapeutic agents, whose mechanism of action will be further investigated.

  4. 2H/(1)H and (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of trans-anethole using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bilke, Steffi; Mosandl, Armin

    2002-07-03

    Authenticity assessment of trans-anethole is deduced from (2)H/(1)H and (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios, determined by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). For that purpose, self-prepared anise and fennel oils, and synthetic and "natural" samples of trans-anethole, as well as commercially available anise and fennel oils have been investigated. Authenticity ranges of (2)H/(1)H and (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of trans-anethole were defined. Scope and limitations of the applied online GC-IRMS techniques are discussed.

  5. Secondary isotope effects in liquid chromatography behaviour of 2H and 3H labelled solutes and solvents.

    PubMed

    Valleix, Alain; Carrat, Sandrine; Caussignac, Céline; Léonce, Estelle; Tchapla, Alain

    2006-05-26

    water in mobile phases of the same composition (%, w/w) is compared. Independent of the nature of the organic modifier (methanol, acetonitrile or ethanol), the effect of replacing H2O with 2H2O in the mobile phase, is an increase in the retention factors and an improvement in the chromatographic resolution of isotopologue pairs. This increase in the resolution is not accompanied by a change in the chromatographic selectivity. The measurement of liquid-liquid extraction coefficients proves that the effect is mainly due to the modification of the phase ratio. In general the effect of 2H-labelled solvents (2H2O and C2H3CN) as mobile phase components, compared to their isotopically non-modified isomers, can be rationalized on the basis of their lower polarisabilities. Overall the use of perdeuterated rather than isotopically non-modified solvents as mobile phase components leads to the most efficient separation systems.

  6. Ab initio chemical kinetics for SiH2 + Si2H6 and SiH3 + Si2H5 reactions and the related unimolecular decomposition of Si3H8 under a-Si/H CVD conditions.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, P; Lin, M C

    2013-10-24

    The kinetics and mechanisms for SiH2 + Si2H6 and SiH3 + Si2H5 reactions and the related unimolecular decomposition of Si3H8 have been investigated by ab initio molecular orbital theory based on the QCISD(T)/CBS//QCISD/6-311++G(d,p) method in conjunction with quantum statistical variational Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) calculations. For the barrierless radical association processes, their variational transition states have been characterized by the CASPT2//CASSCF method. The species involved in the study are known to coexist under CVD conditions. The results show that the association reaction of SiH2 and Si2H6 producing Si3H8 occurs by insertion via its lowest-energy path forming a loose hydrogen-bonding molecular complex with 8.3 kcal/mol binding energy; the reaction is exothermic by 55.0 kcal/mol. The chemically activated Si3H8 adduct can fragment by several paths, producing SiH4 + SiH3SiH (-0.7 kcal/mol), Si(SiH3)2 + H2 (-1.4 kcal/mol), and SiH3SiH2SiH + H2 (-1.4 kcal/mol). The predicted enthalpy changes as given agree well with available thermochemical data. Three other decomposition channels of Si3H8 occurring by Si-H or Si-Si breaking were found to be highly endothermic, and the reactions take place without a well-defined barrier. The heats of formation of Si3H8, SiH2SiH, Si2H4, i-Si3H7, n-Si3H7, Si(SiH3)2, and SiH3SiH2SiH have been predicted and found to be in close agreement with those available data in the literature. The product branching rate constants for SiH2 + Si2H6 and SiH3 + Si2H5 reactions and the thermal unimolecular decomposition of Si3H8 for all low-energy paths have been calculated with multichannel variational RRKM theory covering varying P,T conditions typically employed in PECVD and Cat-CVD processes for hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si/H) film growth. The results were also found to be in good agreement with available kinetic data. Our kinetic results may be employed to model and control very large-area a-Si/H film growth for a

  7. A general and efficient approach to 2H-indazoles and 1H-pyrazoles through copper-catalyzed intramolecular N-N bond formation under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiantao; Cheng, Yongfeng; Yang, Yiqing; Rao, Yu

    2011-09-28

    A new efficient copper-catalyzed intramolecular amination reaction has been developed to readily synthesise a wide variety of multi-substituted 2H-indazole and 1H-pyrazole derivatives from easily accessible starting materials under mild conditions. A highly selective ligand for estrogen receptor β was prepared in three steps by employing this method.

  8. Mass of {sup 11}Li from the {sup 1}H({sup 11}Li,{sup 9}Li){sup 3}H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Roger, T.; Savajols, H.; Mittig, W.; Caamano, M.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Tanihata, I.; Alcorta, M.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Bieri, R.; Buchmann, L.; Davids, B.; Galinski, N.; Howell, D.; Mills, W.; Mythili, S.; Openshaw, R.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Ruprecht, G.; Sheffer, G.; Shotter, A. C.

    2009-03-15

    The mass of {sup 11}Li has been determined from Q-value measurements of the {sup 1}H({sup 11}Li,{sup 9}Li){sup 3}H reaction. The experiment was performed at TRIUMF laboratory with the GANIL active target MAYA. Energy-energy and angle-angle kinematics reconstruction give a Q value of 8.119(22) MeV for the reaction. The derived {sup 11}Li two-neutron separation energy is S{sub 2n}=363(22) keV.

  9. A study of dipolar interactions and dynamic processes of water molecules in tendon by 1H and 2H homonuclear and heteronuclear multiple-quantum-filtered NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eliav, U; Navon, G

    1999-04-01

    The effect of proton exchange on the measurement of 1H-1H, 1H-2H, and 2H-2H residual dipolar interactions in water molecules in bovine Achilles tendons was investigated using double-quantum-filtered (DQF) NMR and new pulse sequences based on heteronuclear and homonuclear multiple-quantum filtering (MQF). Derivation of theoretical expressions for these techniques allowed evaluation of the 1H-1H and 1H-2H residual dipolar interactions and the proton exchange rate at a temperature of 24 degrees C and above, where no dipolar splitting is evident. The values obtained for these parameters at 24 degrees C were 300 and 50 Hz and 3000 s-1, respectively. The results for the residual dipolar interactions were verified by repeating the above measurements at a temperature of 1.5 degrees C, where the spectra of the H2O molecules were well resolved, so that the 1H-1H dipolar interaction could be determined directly from the observed splitting. Analysis of the MQF experiments at 1.5 degrees C, where the proton exchange was in the intermediate regime for the 1H-2H dipolar interaction, confirmed the result obtained at 24 degrees C for this interaction. A strong dependence of the intensities of the MQF signals on the proton exchange rate, in the intermediate and the fast exchange regimes, was observed and theoretically interpreted. This leads to the conclusion that the MQF techniques are mostly useful for tissues where the residual dipolar interaction is not significantly smaller than the proton exchange rate. Dependence of the relaxation times and signal intensities of the MQF experiments on the orientation of the tendon with respect to the magnetic field was observed and analyzed. One of the results of the theoretical analysis is that, in the fast exchange regime, the signal decay rates in the MQF experiments as well as in the spin echo or CPMG pulse sequences (T2) depend on the orientation as the square of the second-rank Legendre polynomial.

  10. The {sup 3}He(e,e'p){sup 2}H and {sup 4}He(e,e'p){sup 3}H reactions at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, William P.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Van Orden, J. W.

    2014-03-01

    We present updated calculations for observables in the processes {sup 3}He(e,e'p){sup 2}H, {sup 4}He(e,e'p){sup 3}H and {sup 4}He(e-vector, e'p-vector){sup 3}H. This update entails the implementation of improved nucleon-nucleon (NN) amplitudes to describe final state interactions (FSI) within a Glauber approximation and includes full spin-isospin dependence in the profile operator. In addition, an optical potential, which has also been updated since previous work, is utilized to treat FSI for the {sup 4}He(e,e'p){sup 3}H and {sup 4}He(e-vector, e'p-vector){sup 3}H reactions. The calculations are compared with experimental data and show good agreement between theory and experiment. Comparisons are made between the various approximations in the Glauber treatment, including model dependence due to the NN scattering amplitudes, rescattering contributions, and spin dependence. We also analyze the validity of the Glauber approximation at the kinematics the data is available, by comparing to the results obtained with the optical potential.

  11. Synthesis and chemiluminescence of copolymers of 5-amino-8-vinyl-phthalazine-1,4(2H,3H)-dione with methyl methacrylate or styrene, and of alpha, omega-bis[5-amino-phthalazine-1,4(2H,3H)-dion-]8-yl alkanes [= alpha, omega-bis(6-luminyl) alkanes]: investigations on an intramolecular 'distance effect'.

    PubMed

    Gundermann, K D; Lieske, D; Haase, B; Hartmann-Azanza Baca, B

    1987-09-01

    Oligomers of 5-amino-8-vinyl-phthalazine-1,4(2H,3H)-dione exhibit about 0.05% of the chemiluminescence quantum yield of the corresponding 'monomer unit', i.e. 5-amino-8-ethyl-phthalazine-1,4(2H,3H)-dione which has a similar quantum yield to luminol. The quantum yields of copolymers of 5-amino-8-vinyl-phthalazine-1,4(2H,3H)-dione (1a) with methyl methacrylate or with styrene increase up to 1000-fold, relative to the quantum yield of oligomers of (1a). Thus the monomer units of methyl methacrylate or styrene appear to act as 'spacers' between the lumigenic groups. alpha, omega-Bis[(5-amino-phthalazine-1,4(2H,3H)-dion-)8-yl] alkanes show an analogue 'distance' effect: the chemiluminescence quantum yield increases with increasing alkane chain length. As the fluorescence of the corresponding amino phthalates (which are intermediates in the synthesis of the phthalazine diones) is only slightly influenced by the distance between the lumigenic groups it is suggested that a mainly chemical 'distance effect' is working here: the smaller the intramolecular distance between the hydrazide groups the more inhibition exists in respect of the oxidative reaction producing the luminol-type chemiluminescence.

  12. Calculation of low energy 2H(d,p)3H reaction by the four-body Faddeev-Yakubovsky equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzu, Eizo; Oryu, Shinsho; Tanifuji, Makoto

    2001-06-01

    Cross sections and analyzing powers for 2H(d,p)3H reactions are calculated at Ed=30 keV by the four-body Faddeev-Yakubovsky equation. The PEST potential is adopted for inter-nucleon forces. New results for the vector and tensor analyzing powers are similar to our previous ones which employ the Yamaguchi potentials. However, the new calculation gives larger differential cross section, improving the agreement with the experimental data. By the use of the solution, the polarization transfer coefficients Kyy', Kxzy', Kxxy', Kyyy' and Kzzy', and the suppression ratio σpol/σ0 are calculated. .

  13. 1H and 2H NMR spin-lattice relaxation probing water: PEG molecular dynamics in solution.

    PubMed

    Clop, Eduardo M; Perillo, María A; Chattah, Ana K

    2012-10-04

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) measurements were performed in aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of 6000 Da molecular mass to study the dynamical relation between PEG and water molecules at different solute concentrations. (1)H-T(1) experiments were carried on at a low magnetic field in the time domain (20 MHz) and at a high field (400 MHz) to obtain spectral resolution. Two contributing components were identified in each proton system, PEG and water, presenting values of T(1) with very different orders of magnitude. The approximate matching between the shorter (1)H-T(1) values associated with water and PEG has lead us to conclude that there exists a network of interactions (hydrogen bonds) between the solute and the solvent, which results in the presence of an ordered and dehydrated structure of PEG folded or self-assembled in equilibrium with a more flexible monomer structure. Dynamic light scattering results were consistent with the formation of PEG aggregates, showing a mean size between 40 and 100 nm.

  14. Search for protons from the 2H(d,p)3H reaction in an electrolytic cell with Pd-Pt electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, K. E.; Kutschera, W.; Perlow, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    The production of protons from the 2H(d,p)3H reaction was investigated using an electrolytic cell and a proportional counter. The cathode, consisting of a 30.5-mg/cm2-thick Pd foil, separated the gas in the counter from the electrolyte (0.1M LiOD in D2O). The efficiency for proton detection was 28%. The electrolytic cell was operated with current densities up to 650 mA/cm2. Several runs with the current switched on and off and with different Pd foils have been performed with the longest run lasting more than 10 days. No difference in the count rate was observed when the electrolytic cell was on or off. From the high-energy part of the particle spectrum we obtain an upper limit for the proton production from the fusion reaction 2H(d,p)3H of 4×10-23 fusion/(dd pair/sec).

  15. The Influence of Growth Rate on 2H/1H Fractionation in Continuous Cultures of the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Julian P; Kawka, Orest E

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope (2H/1H) ratio of lipids from phytoplankton is a powerful new tool for reconstructing hydroclimate variations in the geologic past from marine and lacustrine sediments. Water 2H/1H changes are reflected in lipid 2H/1H changes with R2 > 0.99, and salinity variations have been shown to cause about a 1‰ change in lipid δ2H values per unit (ppt) change in salinity. Less understood are the effects of growth rate, nutrient limitation and light on 2H/1H fractionation in phytoplankton. Here we present the first published study of growth rate effects on 2H/1H fractionation in the lipids of coccolithophorids grown in continuous cultures. Emiliania huxleyi was cultivated in steady state at four growth rates and the δ2H value of individual alkenones (C37:2, C37:3, C38:2, C38:3), fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0), and 24-methyl cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (brassicasterol) were measured. 2H/1H fractionation increased in all lipids as growth rate increased by 24‰ to 79‰ (div d-1)-1. We attribute this response to a proportional increase in the fraction of NADPH from Photosystem I (PS1) of photosynthesis relative to NADPH from the cytosolic oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway in the synthesis of lipids as growth rate increases. A 3-endmember model is presented in which lipid hydrogen comes from NADPH produced in PS1, NADPH produced by OPP, and intracellular water. With published values or best estimates of the fractionation factors for these sources (αPS1 = 0.4, αOPP = 0.75, and αH2O = 0) and half of the hydrogen in a lipid derived from water the model indicates αlipid = 0.79. This value is within the range measured for alkenones (αalkenone = 0.77 to 0.81) and fatty acids (αFA = 0.75 to 0.82) in the chemostat cultures, but is greater than the range for brassicasterol (αbrassicasterol = 0.68 to 0.72). The latter is attributed to a greater proportion of hydrogen from NADPH relative to water in isoprenoid lipids. The model successfully explains

  16. The Influence of Growth Rate on 2H/1H Fractionation in Continuous Cultures of the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Julian P.; Kawka, Orest E.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope (2H/1H) ratio of lipids from phytoplankton is a powerful new tool for reconstructing hydroclimate variations in the geologic past from marine and lacustrine sediments. Water 2H/1H changes are reflected in lipid 2H/1H changes with R2 > 0.99, and salinity variations have been shown to cause about a 1‰ change in lipid δ2H values per unit (ppt) change in salinity. Less understood are the effects of growth rate, nutrient limitation and light on 2H/1H fractionation in phytoplankton. Here we present the first published study of growth rate effects on 2H/1H fractionation in the lipids of coccolithophorids grown in continuous cultures. Emiliania huxleyi was cultivated in steady state at four growth rates and the δ2H value of individual alkenones (C37:2, C37:3, C38:2, C38:3), fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0), and 24-methyl cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (brassicasterol) were measured. 2H/1H fractionation increased in all lipids as growth rate increased by 24‰ to 79‰ (div d-1)-1. We attribute this response to a proportional increase in the fraction of NADPH from Photosystem I (PS1) of photosynthesis relative to NADPH from the cytosolic oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway in the synthesis of lipids as growth rate increases. A 3-endmember model is presented in which lipid hydrogen comes from NADPH produced in PS1, NADPH produced by OPP, and intracellular water. With published values or best estimates of the fractionation factors for these sources (αPS1 = 0.4, αOPP = 0.75, and αH2O = 0) and half of the hydrogen in a lipid derived from water the model indicates αlipid = 0.79. This value is within the range measured for alkenones (αalkenone = 0.77 to 0.81) and fatty acids (αFA = 0.75 to 0.82) in the chemostat cultures, but is greater than the range for brassicasterol (αbrassicasterol = 0.68 to 0.72). The latter is attributed to a greater proportion of hydrogen from NADPH relative to water in isoprenoid lipids. The model successfully explains

  17. (2) H/(1) H measurements of amphiboles and nominally anhydrous minerals (clinopyroxene, garnetand diamond)usinghigh-temperatureCF-EA-PY-IRMS.

    PubMed

    Fourel, François; Lécuyer, Christophe; Demeny, Attila; Boulvais, Philippe; Lange, Lutz; Jacob, Dorrit E; Kovacs, Istvan

    2017-09-20

    We have used ahigh-precision, high efficiency method for themeasurementof the(2) H/(1) H ratios of hydrous silicates (amphiboles) and nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as clinopyroxene, garnet and diamond, which are usually extremely resistant to pyrolysis. This opens up new fields of investigation to better understand the conditionsof formation fordeep-Earth minerals. The technique described hereinvolvesIsotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) online in continuous flow mode with an Elemental Analyzer (EA) using"purge and trap" technology rather than conventional packed column-GC gas separation. The system is equipped with a special high temperature furnace reaching 1500°C, with a longer hot zone and improved temperature stability. Emphasis is put on the efficiency of the system to reliably pyrolyserefractory minerals difficult to analyse with other conventional systems. While conventional systems usually fail to generate hydrogen suitable for isotopic analyses, with the technique presented here we were able to measure (2) H/(1) H ratios from 4diamond samples (δ(2) H= -60, -77, -84 and -79‰ V-SMOW; average SD =4.5‰; n=2),3 garnet samples (δ(2) Hfrom -70 to -63‰), and 9 clinopyroxenes (δ(2) H from -92 to -58‰) associated with7 amphiboles (δ(2) Hfrom -76 to -27‰) from single mantle rock. The possibility of using such a system to reliably measure (2) H/(1) H ratios from refractory minerals, which are usually extremely difficult to analyse, offers a new tool of investigation for giving us unrivaled clues to study the Earth's deep interiors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Histamine excites neurones in the human submucous plexus through activation of H1, H2, H3 and H4 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Breunig, Eva; Michel, Klaus; Zeller, Florian; Seidl, Stefan; v Weyhern, Claus Werner Hann; Schemann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Histamine is a major mast cell mediator of immunoneural signalling in the gut and mast cells play a role in the pathophysiology of functional and inflammatory bowel diseases. Histamine receptors are therefore promising drug targets to treat gut disorders. We aimed to study the so far unknown effect of histamine on neural activity in the human enteric nervous system (ENS) and to identify the pharmacology of histamine response. We used fast imaging techniques in combination with the potentiometric dye di-8-ANEPPS to monitor directly membrane potential changes and thereby neuronal excitability in the human submucous plexus from surgical specimens of 110 patients (2137 neurones, 273 ganglia). Local microejection of histamine resulted in action potential discharge in 37% of neurones. This excitatory effect was mimicked by the H1 agonist HTMT-dimaleat, H2 agonist dimaprit, H3 agonist (R)-(−)-α-methylhistamine and H4 agonist 4-methylhistamine. The excitatory actions of the agonists were specifically and selectively blocked by the H1, H2, H3 or H4 receptor antagonists pyrilamine, ranitidine, clobenpropit or J1-[(5-chloro-1H-indol-2-yl)carbonyl]-4-methylpiperazine (JNJ 7777120), respectively. Clobenproprit reduced the excitatory response to histamine. Unlike in the guinea-pig ENS (R)-(−)-α-methylhistamine had no presynaptic actions in human submucous plexus. Application of agonists revealed receptor clustering which was as follows: 29% H1/H3, 27% H2, 20% H1/H2/H3, 10% H3, 7% H1/H2 and 7% H2/H3. Histamine excites human enteric neurones and this effect involves all four histamine receptors; most striking was the identification of an excitatory H3 mediated component and the discovery of H4 mediated neuronal excitation. These data may form the basis of identification of new targets to treat inflammatory and functional gut disorders. PMID:17627982

  19. Synthesis and SAR of 1-Hydroxy-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones as Inhibitors of d-Amino Acid Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A series of 1-hydroxy-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit human and porcine forms of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO). The inhibitory potency is largely dependent on the size and position of substituents on the benzene ring with IC50 values of the compounds ranging from 70 nM to greater than 100 μM. Structure–activity relationships of this new class of DAAO inhibitors will be presented in detail along with comparisons to previously published SAR data from other classes of DAAO inhibitors. Two of these compounds were given to mice orally together with d-serine to assess their effects on plasma d-serine pharmacokinetics. PMID:23243487

  20. Synthesis and Antitumor Evaluation of Novel 5-Hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Guang; Tong, Rongsheng; Li, Jinqi; Bai, Lan; Ouyang, Liang; Duan, Xingmei; Li, Fengqiong; He, Pin; Shi, Jianyou; He, Yuxin

    2016-04-20

    A series of novel 5-hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one derivatives bearing natural product substructures has been successfully synthesized and their antitumor activity studied. These newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and high resolution mass spectral data, then screened as antitumor agents against the A549, HCC1937, and MDA-MB-468 human tumor cell lines using MTT cell proliferation assays. The results show that some of these compounds can effectively inhibit the growth of these cancerous cells, with compound 5b being the best one (IC50 = 2.6 μM). Flow cytometry data revealed that compound 5b induced apoptosis of HCC1937 cells with increased solution concentration. The structure and activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds is summarized.

  1. The structure-activity relationships of 2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione derivatives as potent HIV type 1 and type 2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Robert W; Hartman, Tracy L; Watson, Karen M; Kwon, Ho Seok; Lee, Sun Hwan; Lee, Jae Woong; Kang, Dong Wook; Chung, Sun Gan; Cho, Eui Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Since the discovery of the 2,4 (1H,3H)-pyrimidinediones as potent non-nucleoside inhibitors of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) this class of compounds has yielded a number of N-1 acyclic substituted pyrimidinediones with substantial antiviral activity, which is highly dependent upon their molecular fit into the binding pocket common to this inhibitory class. We have specifically examined the structure activity relationships of compounds with chemical modification made by substituting homocyclic rather than acyclic moieties at N-1 of the pyrimidinedione. Seventy-four compounds were synthesized and evaluated for antiviral activity against HIV-1 and HIV-2. The homocyclic modifications resulted in compounds with significant activity against both HIV-1 and HIV-2, suggesting these compounds represent a new class of non-nucleoside RT inhibitors. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) evaluations indicated that cyclopropyl, phenyl and 1- or 3-cyclopenten-1-yl substitutions at the N-1 of the pyrimidinedione, the addition of a methyl linker between the cyclic moiety and the N-1 and the addition of a benzoyl group at the C-6 of the pyrimidinedione had the greatest contribution to antiviral activity. Five pyrimidinedione analogues with therapeutic indexes (TIs) > 450,000 and a specific analogue (1-cyclopropylmethyl-5-isopropyl-6-(3,5-dimethylbenzoyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione), which exhibited a TI of > 2,000,000, were identified. None of the analogues were cytotoxic to target cells at the highest in vitro test concentration, which is the upper limit of compound solubility of the analogues in aqueous solution. Thus, we have identified a series of pyrimidinediones with substantially improved antiviral efficacy and range of action and with significantly reduced cellular cytotoxicity.

  2. 2H/1H composition of soil n-alkanes along two altitudinal transects in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Bergonzini, Laurent; Wagner, Thomas; Derenne, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Long chains n-alkanes are components of terrestrial plant leaf waxes that are ubiquitously found in geological archives. They have been extensively used to track environmental and ecological variations in the past, notably changes in vegetation communities. Recent analytical developments led to the possibility of measuring their deuterium to hydrogen isotopic ratio (δ2Hwax). This parameter is suggested to be linked to hydrogen isotope ratio of precipitations (δ2Hp). In 2008, Jia et al. proposed to use soil derived δ2 Hwax as a paleoelevation proxy since precipitations are known to get more depleted in deuterium with altitude. They found a linear correlation (R2 0.73) between δ2Hwax in surface soils and altitude along Mt. Gongga (China). Since then, the correlation between δ2Hwax and δ2Hp was shown for several other altitudinal transects. Contrary to these previous observations, however, no trend with altitude was observed in East Africa along an altitudinal gradient in Mt. Kilimanjaro (North eastern, Tanzania, Peterse et al., 2009 and Zech et al., 2014). What is the reason for this absence of trend? Is it because of a difference between African and Asian soils? Or is it specific to Mt. Kilimanjaro? To get an insight into this problem, we determined δ2Hwax in 41 surface soils sampled along two altitudinal transects: from 500 to 2800 m in Mt. Rungwe (South-western Tanzania) and from 1897 to 3268 m in Mt. Kenya (Central Kenya). The goal of the study was to further investigate the conditions of applicability of this proxy in East Africa. A correlation between soil derived δ2Hwax and altitude was observed along Mt. Kenya (δ2Hwax=20.2*ALT-88.0, R2=0.51) but not along Mt. Rungwe - similarly to Mt. Kilimanjaro (Peterse et al., 2009; Zech et al., 2014). This contrast between Mt. Kenya on one hand and Mts. Rungwe and Kilimanjaro on the other hand may be explained by differences in topography. These results highlight the complexity of the signal recorded by δ2H, and

  3. Ethyl 3-(2,4-dioxocyclohexyl)propanoate as a novel precursor for N-substituted 4,4a,5,6-tetrahydroquinoline-2,7(1H,3H)-diones and their corresponding 3,4-dihydro-7-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-ones and 7-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-ones synthesis.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Vandna; Sharma, Dharminder; Das, Pralay

    2016-02-01

    Ethyl 3-(2,4-dioxocyclohexyl)propanoate has been explored as a precursor for the synthesis of N-substituted 4,4a,5,6-tetrahydroquinoline-2,7(1H,3H)-diones following conventional protecvtion, selective amidation, and deprotective-cyclization approaches. Moreover, a facile process for the selective dehydrogenative aromatization of these diones was developed to afford the corresponding N-substituted 3,4-dihydro-7-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-ones and N-substituted 7-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-ones under mild conditions.

  4. DNA damage induced by 4,6,8,9-tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-one, a new furocoumarin analog: photochemical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bordin, F; Baccichetti, F; Marzano, C; Carlassare, F; Miolo, G; Chilin, A; Guiotto, A

    2000-03-01

    Some photochemical and photobiological properties of 4,6,8,9-tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-one (HFQ) were studied in comparison with its isomer 1,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-one (FQ) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The HFQ photobinds to DNA forming furan-side monoadducts (MAHFQ) that have molecular structure very similar to those of FQ (MAFQ). Unlike MA8-MOP and MAFQ, MAHFQ no longer photoreact. The HFQ, like FQ, produces moderate amounts of singlet oxygen but no superoxide anions. The HFQ and FQ induce numbers of DNA-protein cross-links (DPC), much more plentiful than those of 8-MOP (about two and seven times, respectively) but no interstrand cross-links. The mechanism of DPC formation was studied in vivo in mammalian cells by alkaline elution and in vitro using a new test mixing histones and DNA from calf thymus. The latter is a very useful technique for the double irradiation protocol. The DNA (or histones) are separately exposed to a first UVA dose in the presence of the sensitizer; then, after its unbound molecules have been removed, histones (or DNA) are added to assemble the chromatin-like complex that is irradiated again. According to in vitro and in vivo methods, DPC appear to be formed by FQ and 8-MOP by a biphotonic process that starts with monoadduct induction in DNA, followed by their conversion into DPC. In the resulting lesions, the sensitizer molecule forms a covalent bridge between the two macromolecules (DPC at length greater than zero). Instead, HFQ induces DPC by a monophotonic process; thus, HFQ is probably not a physical part of the bridge between DNA and proteins, which may be linked together directly, like DPC at zero length induced by UVC.

  5. DNA damage induced by 4,6,8,9-tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-one, a new furocoumarin analog: biological consequences.

    PubMed

    Marzano, C; Baccichetti, F; Carlassare, F; Chilin, A; Lora, S; Bordin, F

    2000-03-01

    4,6,8,9-Tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-one (HFQ) and its isomer FQ (1,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-one) showed very strong antiproliferative activity in mammalian cells, about two times greater than 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). Both compounds induced DNA-protein cross-links (DPC) but not interstrand cross-links. The FQ generated DPC in a biphotonic process, yielding a new kind of diadduct, whereas HFQ induced DPC by a monophotonic one, probably without its physical participation in the covalent bridge. These lesions gave different toxic responses. Sensitization of FQ led to extensive DNA fragmentation and to a number of chromosomal aberrations. Conversely, HFQ seemed to be completely inactive and 8-MOP gave intermediate results. A strict relationship between DPC formation and induction of chromosomal aberrations was observed. The HFQ did not induce light skin erythemas, whereas FQ was more phototoxic than 8-MOP, thus suggesting that FQ lesions, DPC in particular, may be implicated in skin phototoxicity. Ehrlich ascites cells, a transplantable mouse tumor, inactivated by furoquinolinone sensitization and injected into healthy mice, protected them from a successive challenge by viable tumor cells. This response appeared to be based on an immune mechanism. Comparable amounts of base substitution revertants were scored when testing furoquinolinones and 8-MOP in bacteria but no DPC were detected. This suggests that classic mutagenesis tests on bacteria are insufficient to give adequate information on furocoumarin genotoxicity. Given its features, HFQ can be regarded as an interesting new agent for psoralen plus UVA photochemotherapy and photopheresis.

  6. Precision measurements of {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He total cross sections at Big Bang nucleosynthesis energies

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.S.; Karwowski, H.J.; Brune, C.R.; Fisher, B.M.; Ludwig, E.J.

    2006-04-15

    Recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) measurements have determined the baryon density of the Universe {omega}{sub b} with a precision of about 4%. With {omega}{sub b} tightly constrained, comparisons of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) abundance predictions to primordial abundance observations can be made and used to test BBN models and/or to further constrain abundances of isotopes with weak observational limits. To push the limits and improve constraints on BBN models, uncertainties in key nuclear reaction rates must be minimized. To this end, we made new precise measurements of the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He total cross sections at lab energies from 110 to 650 keV. A complete fit was performed in energy and angle to both angular distribution and normalization data for both reactions simultaneously. By including parameters for experimental variables in the fit, error correlations between detectors, reactions, and reaction energies were accurately tabulated by computational methods. With uncertainties around 2%{+-}1% scale error, these new measurements significantly improve on the existing data set. At relevant temperatures, by using the data of the present work, both reaction rates are found to be about 7% higher than those in the widely used NACRE (nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates) database. These data will thus lead not only to reduced uncertainties, but also to modifications in the BBN abundance predictions.

  7. Hysteresis effect of ammonium and water protons by 1H MAS NMR in (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Cho, Jiung

    2017-10-01

    The chemical shifts, linewidths, and spin-lattice relaxation times for ammonium and water protons in (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O were investigated by 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) with a focus on the roles of NH4+ and H2O at high temperatures. The changes in the temperature dependence of the data near Td (=360 K) were related to variations of the H environments; the mechanism above Td was related to hydrogen-bond transfer involving breakage of the weak part of the hydrogen bond. The hysteresis effects for the ammonium and water protons in (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O by MAS NMR were described with respect to heating and cooling.

  8. The Davis-Beirut reaction: N1,N2-disubstituted-1H-indazolones via 1,6-electrophilic addition to 3-alkoxy-2H-indazoles.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Wayne E; Fukazawa, Ryo; Haddadin, Makhluf J; Kurth, Mark J

    2011-06-17

    A variety of electrophiles (anhydrides, acid chlorides, carbonochloridates, sulfonyl chlorides, and alkyl bromides) react with 3-methoxy-2H-indazole (1a), benzoxazin[3,2-b]indazole (1d), and oxazolino[3,2-b]indazole (1e) - substrates available by the Davis-Beirut reaction - to yield a diverse set of N(1),N(2)-disubstituted-1H-indazolones. With certain electrophiles, an AERORC (Addition of the Electrophile, Ring Opening, and Ring Closure) process on indazole 1d results in indazoloindazolone formation. An intriguing aspect of these N(1),N(2)-disubstituted-1H-indazolones is that they are poised for diversification through, for example, azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry reported here.

  9. Synthesis and complete assignment of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of 6-substituted and 2,6-disubstituted pyridazin-3(2H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Besada, Pedro; Costas, Tamara; Vila, Noemi; Chessa, Carla; Terán, Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Several pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives were synthesized starting from alkyl furans using oxidation with singlet oxygen to give 4-methoxy or 4-hydroxybutenolides, key intermediates of the synthetic strategy followed. For all pyridazinones reported, a complete assignment of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods, which included NOE, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments, was accomplished. Correlations between the chemical shifts of the heterocyclic ring atoms and substituents at N-2 and C-6 were analyzed.

  10. Orthogonal hydrogen/halogen bonding in 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazole-2(3H)-thione-I2 adduct: An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sheshtawy, Hamdy S.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; El-Mehasseb, Ibrahim; El-Kemary, Maged

    2015-05-01

    The molecular complex between 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazole-2(3H)-thione (HmimOMe) and iodine (I2) was investigated. Single crystal of [(HmimOMe)radI2] adduct was grown by slow evaporation technique from chloroform at room temperature. Spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR and Raman techniques, as well as elemental and thermal analysis were used to characterize the complex. The crystal structure shows that the formed adduct stabilized by two noncovalent interactions, namely, hydrogen bond (HB) and halogen bond (XB). Orthogonal HB/XB associated with iodine atom (I) was observed and fully characterized. The ability of iodine to behave as hydrogen bond acceptor and halogen bond donor was held responsible for the orthogonal HB/XB presence. In addition, the structure of HmimOMeradI2 was investigated theoretically using MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. Natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) was used to investigate the molecular orbitals interactions and orbitals stabilization energies.

  11. DNA damage and biological effects induced by photosensitization with new N(1)-unsubstituted furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Chilin, Adriana; Bordin, Franco; Baccichetti, Francarosa; Guiotto, Adriano

    2002-09-01

    New furoquinolinones unsubstituted at the N(1) position were prepared and their photobiological activities were studied in comparison with 4,6,8,9-tetramethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one (HFQ) and 8-MOP. The anti-proliferative activity of furoquinolinones 3a-f was tested upon UVA irradiation in mammalian cells, studying DNA synthesis and clonal growth capacity, and in micro-organisms, evaluating T2 infectivity. Almost all compounds appeared to be more active than 8-MOP, and free of any mutagenic activity and skin phototoxicity. Among them, compound 3b was the most effective one. Similarly to HFQ, compound 3b appeared to be very active also in DNA damaging, forming monoadducts and DPC(L=0), but no ISC and DPC(L>0), both responsible for furocoumarin genotoxicity and phototoxicity. Moreover, Ehrlich ascites cells, photoinactivated by the new furoquinolinone 3b and injected into recipient mice, proved to be capable of inducing protection against a successive challenge performed with the same tumor cells. For all these features, 3b seemed to be a new promising potential drug for PUVA therapy and photopheresis.

  12. 1,4,8-trimethylfuro[2,3-H]quinolin-2(1H)-one, a new furocoumarin bioisoster.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Chilin, Adriana; Baccichetti, Francarosa; Bettio, Frazia; Guiotto, Adriano; Miolo, Giorgia; Bordin, Franco

    2004-05-01

    1,4,8-Trimethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one (compound 5a) is the most interesting derivative among some new furoquinolinones prepared with the aim of moderating the strong toxic effects of 1,4,6,8-tetramethyl derivative (FQ), a powerful potential drug for photomedicine. Compound 5a showed a photobiological activity lower than FQ, but considerable higher than 8-MOP, the furocoumarin used in clinical photomedicine; contrary to classic furocoumarins, 5a induced a strong inhibition of protein synthesis in mammalian cells. Genotoxicity and skin erythema induction, the main side effects of both FQ and 8-MOP photosensitization, are virtually absent with 5a. This behavior seems to be connected to its particular reaction mechanism: differently from furocoumarin derivatives, 5a induced low levels of DNA-protein and no inter-strands cross-links, but formed covalent RNA-protein linkages, lesions not observed with known furocoumarins. Moreover, compound 5a generated reactive oxygen species to a considerable extent. For these features, compound 5a appears to be a new photosensitizing agent whose special activity deserves to be deeply investigated.

  13. Study of the A(e,e'$\\pi^+$) Reaction on $^1$H, $^2$H, $^{12}$C, $^{27}$Al, $^{63}$Cu and $^{197}$Au

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, X; Clasie, B; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Christy, M E; Chudakov, E; Dalton, M M; Daniel, A; Day, D; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Ferrer, J; Fomin, N; Gao, H; Garrow, K; Gaskell, D; Gray, C; Huber, G M; Jones, M K; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kramer, K; Li, Y; Liang, Y; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; Matsumura, A; Meekins, D G; Mertens, T; Miyoshi, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Monson, R; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Okayasu, Y; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Punjabi, V; Rauf, A W; Rodriquez, V M; Rohe, D; Seely, J; Segbefia, E; Smith, G R; Sumihama, M; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Yuan, L; Zheng, X

    2010-05-01

    Cross sections for the p($e,e'\\pi^{+}$)n process on $^1$H, $^2$H, $^{12}$C, $^{27}$Al, $^{63}$Cu and $^{197}$Au targets were measured at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in order to extract the nuclear transparencies. Data were taken for four-momentum transfers ranging from $Q^2$=1.1 to 4.8 GeV$^2$ for a fixed center of mass energy of $W$=2.14 GeV. The ratio of $\\sigma_L$ and $\\sigma_T$ was extracted from the measured cross sections for $^1$H, $^2$H, $^{12}$C and $^{63}$Cu targets at $Q^2$ = 2.15 and 4.0 GeV$^2$ allowing for additional studies of the reaction mechanism. The experimental setup and the analysis of the data are described in detail including systematic studies needed to obtain the results. The results for the nuclear transparency and the differential cross sections as a function of the pion momentum at the different values of $Q^2$ are presented. Global features of the data are discussed and the data are compared with the results of model calculations for the p($e,e'\\pi^{+}$)n reaction from nuclear targets.

  14. [Raman spectroscopic study of the complex and quantitative analysis in the system CuCl2-H2O and FeCl3-H2O].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Xu, Wen-Yi

    2011-10-01

    In the present paper, the Raman peaks of complex in the CuCl2-H2O system and FeCl3-H2O system were studied in detail. In the CuCl2-H2O system, the superimposed characteristic peaks of various complex formed by Cu2+ and Cl- (such as [CuCl4]2- and [CuCl6]4-) may be formed the peak of 286 cm(-1), and the superimposed characteristic peaks of various complex formed by Cu2+ hydrate([Cu(H2O)4]2+ and [Cu(H2O)6]2+ based) may be formed the peak of 412 cm(-1); Through the analysis of peak parameters, we has founded two quantitative relationships: (1) The peak intensity ratio (I1 I3I 400 or I2/I3 400) of 286 cm(-1) (or 412 cm(-1)) and OH stretching Raman spectrum of water (at 3 400 cm(-1)) and concentration; (2) The integral area of 286 cm(-1) (or 412 cm(-1)) and concentration. In the FeCl3-H2O system, 173 and 331 cm(-1) might be attributed to [FeCl4]- that is the most common form of FeCl3 complex in aqueous solution. The superimposed characteristic peaks of various complex formed by Fe3+ and Cl- (such as [FeCl]2+, [FeCl2]+ etc) may be formed the broad peak of 173 cm(-1), and the superimposed characteristic peaks of various complex formed by Fe3+ hydrate([Fe(H2O)4]3+ and [Fe(H2O)6]3+ based) may be formed the broad weak peak behind of 331 cm(-1). Through the analysis of peak parameters, we has founded two quantitative relationships: (1) The integral area of 331 cm(-1) (A2) and concentration; (2) The integral area ratio of 173 and 331 cm(-1) (A1/A2) and concentration.

  15. Microwave Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond. I. N2/H2 and NH3/H2 Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Truscott, Benjamin S; Kelly, Mark W; Potter, Katie J; Johnson, Mack; Ashfold, Michael N R; Mankelevich, Yuri A

    2015-12-31

    We report a combined experimental/modeling study of microwave activated dilute N2/H2 and NH3/H2 plasmas as a precursor to diagnosis of the CH4/N2/H2 plasmas used for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of N-doped diamond. Absolute column densities of H(n = 2) atoms and NH(X(3)Σ(-), v = 0) radicals have been determined by cavity ring down spectroscopy, as a function of height (z) above a molybdenum substrate and of the plasma process conditions, i.e., total gas pressure p, input power P, and the nitrogen/hydrogen atom ratio in the source gas. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to investigate variations in the relative number densities of H(n = 3) atoms, NH(A(3)Π) radicals, and N2(C(3)Πu) molecules as functions of the same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by 2-D (r, z) coupled kinetic and transport modeling for the same process conditions, which consider variations in both the overall chemistry and plasma parameters, including the electron (Te) and gas (T) temperatures, the electron density (ne), and the plasma power density (Q). Comparisons between experiment and theory allow refinement of prior understanding of N/H plasma-chemical reactivity, and its variation with process conditions and with location within the CVD reactor, and serve to highlight the essential role of metastable N2(A(3)Σ(+)u) molecules (formed by electron impact excitation) and their hitherto underappreciated reactivity with H atoms, in converting N2 process gas into reactive NHx (x = 0-3) radical species.

  16. Binding of molybdate to uteroferrin. Hyperfine interactions of the binuclear center with /sup 95/Mo, /sup 1/H, and /sup 2/H

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, K.; McCracken, J.; Peisach, J.; Aisen, P.

    1988-04-25

    Uteroferrin, an acid phosphatase with a spin-coupled and redox-active binuclear iron center, is paramagnetic in its pink, enzymatically active, mixed-valence (S = 1/2) state. Phosphate, a product and inhibitor of the enzymatic activity of uteroferrin, converts the pink, EPR-active form of the protein to a purple, EPR-silent species. In contrast, molybdate, a tetrahedral oxyanion analog of phosphate, transforms the EPR spectrum of uteroferrin from a rhombic to an axial form. With both electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopies, we observe a hyperfine interaction of (95Mo)molybdate with the S = 1/2, Fe(II)-Fe(III) center of the protein. A pair of 95Mo resonances centered at the 95Mo Larmor frequency at the applied magnetic field and separated by a hyperfine coupling constant of 1.2 MHz is evident. Therefore, a single monomeric species of molybdate is close to, and likely a ligand of, the binuclear cluster. 1H ENDOR studies on uteroferrin reveal at least six sets of lines mirrored about the 1H Larmor frequency. Two pairs of these lines become reduced in intensity when the protein is exchanged against D2O. Moreover, ESEEM and 2H ENDOR spectra display resonances at the 2H Larmor frequency. Therefore, the metal-binding region of the protein is accessible to solvent. Additional deuterium lines observable by ESEEM spectroscopy provide evidence for a population of strongly coupled, readily exchangeable protons associated with the binuclear center. The measured hyperfine coupling constants for these deuterons are orientation-dependent with splittings of nearly 4 MHz at g3 = 1.59 and less than 1 MHz at g1 = 1.94. In the presence of molybdate, ESEEM spectra of D2O-exchanged samples reveal a resonance at the 2H Larmor frequency, with no evidence of spectral components due to strongly coupled deuterons.

  17. Asymmetry in the N-inversion of heteroarene imines: pyrimidin-4(3H)-imine, pyridin-2(1H)-imine, and 1H-purine-6(9H)-imine.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Rainer; Yin, Jian; Miller, Stephanie

    2010-02-19

    The uncatalyzed, thermal N-inversion reactions were studied of pyrimidin-4(3H)-imine (PMI), pyridin-2(1H)-imine (PYI), and 1H-purine-6(9H)-imine (PUI). Relevant regions of the potential energy surfaces were explored with second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2(full)/6-31G(d)) and with coupled cluster theory (CCSD/6-31G(d), CCSD/6-31+G(d)). The thermochemistry of stationary structures was evaluated at the MP2 level and their energies also were computed at the levels CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d,p) and CCSD(T)/6-311+G(2df,2p) and with structures optimized at lower CCSD levels. The best estimates for the (E)-preference free enthalpies DeltaG(298)(Z vs. E) are 2.6 (PMI), 2.3 (PYI), and 6.0 (PUI) kcal/mol and for the free enthalpies of activation DeltaG(298)(Z --> E) they are 21.6 (PMI), 21.1 (PYI) and 19.7 (PUI) kcal/mol. Nonplanar N-inversion transition state (ITS) structures occur along enantiomeric reaction paths and stationary structures for in-plane N-inversion correspond to second-order saddle points (SOSP) on the potential energy surface. The deformation energy DeltaE(def) = E(SOSP) - E(ITS) is less than 0.5 kcal/mol for PMI and PUI, but it is as high as DeltaE(def) approximately = 2 kcal/mol for PYI. The detailed study of structures and electronic structures along the entire N-inversion path of the isomerization (Z)-PMI <==> (E)-PMI revealed a remarkable stabilization due to asymmetry in the ascent region from the (E)-isomer to ITS. Structures in this region of the potential energy surface allow best for additional bonding overlaps in the HOMO, and this amidine effect predicts lower N-inversion barriers in analogous imines with (Z)-preference energies. The discussion of the halogen-bonded aggregate PMI x ClCH(3) exemplifies that the asymmetry in N-inversion paths is retained and perhaps even enhanced in chlorinated solvents of low polarity.

  18. Preparation of sup 2 H- and sup 3 H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G. )

    1990-05-01

    There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-({sup 2}H{sub 3})-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10{sup 5} Bq per mg of ({sup 3}H)-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C{sub 18} reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented.

  19. Antiviral interactions of combinations of highly potent 2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione congeners and other anti-HIV agents.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Tracy L; Yang, Lu; Buckheit, Robert W

    2011-12-01

    Structure-activity relationship evaluation of seventy-four 2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione derivatives identified seven lead compounds based on anti-HIV-1 potency, extended range of action to include HIV-2, virus entry inhibition, reverse transcriptase inhibition, and lack of cytotoxicity to human cells. The selected pyrimidinedione congeners are highly active inhibitors of HIV-1 with EC(50) values ranging from 0.6 to 2 nM in CEM-SS cells infected with laboratory derived viruses, 11-20 nM in fresh human PBMCs infected with subtype B (HT/92/599) virus, and 2-7 nM in PBMCs infected with the clinical subtype C (ZA/97/003) virus. Combination antiviral assays were performed using the laboratory adapted RF strain of HIV-1 in CEM-SS cells and with a clade B and C low passage clinical isolate in fresh human peripheral mononuclear cells and the compound interactions were analyzed using MacSynergy II. The seven pyrimidinedione compounds resulted in additive to synergistic interactions in combination with entry and fusion inhibitors, nonnucleoside and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and the protease inhibitors. No evidence of antagonistic antiviral activity or synergistic cytotoxicity was detected with the combinations of compounds tested. The dual mechanism of action of the pyrimidinediones resulting in inhibition of both virus entry and reverse transcription suggests excellent potential of these lead pyrimidinediones as candidates for combination therapy with other approved HIV inhibitors of varying mechanism of action. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Typing (A/B) and subtyping (H1/H3/H5) of influenza A viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Suwannakarn, Kamol; Payungporn, Sunchai; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Samransamruajkit, Rujipat; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Songserm, Thaweesak; Chaisingh, Arunee; Chamnanpood, Pornchai; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2008-09-01

    In this study, a specific and sensitive one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR was developed in two assays by using primers and a number of specific locked nucleic acid (LNA)-mediated TaqMan probes which increase the thermal stability of oligonucleotides. The first assay consisted of primers and probes specific to the matrix (M1) gene of influenza A virus, matrix (M1) gene of influenza B virus and GAPDH gene of host cells for typing of influenza virus and verification by an internal control, respectively. The other assay employed primers and probes specific to the hemagglutinin gene of H1, H3 and H5 subtypes in order to identify the three most prominent subtypes of influenza A capable of infecting humans. The specificity results did not produce any cross reactivity with other respiratory viruses or other subtypes of influenza A viruses (H2, H4 and H6-H15), indicating the high specificity of the primers and probes used. The sensitivity of the assays which depend on the type or subtype being detected was approximately 10 to 10(3)copies/microl that depended on the types or subtypes being detected. Furthermore, the assays demonstrated 100% concordance with 35 specimens infected with influenza A viruses and 34 specimens infected with other respiratory viruses, which were identified by direct nucleotide sequencing. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays have proven advantageous in terms of rapidity, specificity and sensitivity for human specimens and thus present a feasible and attractive method for large-scale detection aimed at controlling influenza outbreaks.

  1. Dynamics and ferroelectric phase transition of (C3N2H5)5Bi2Br11 by means of ac calorimetry and 1H NMR relaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przesławski, J.; Medycki, W.; Piecha, A.; Jakubas, R.; Kruk, D.

    2013-01-01

    A quite uncommon type of heat anomaly has been disclosed by calorimetric experiments in ferroelectric crystal (C3N2H5)5Bi2Br11 close to the paraelectric-ferroelectric transition. Thermal parameters (such as the excess enthalpy (ΔH) and the excess entropy (ΔS)) of the continuous ferroelectric phase transition at ca. 155 K have been estimated and discussed. The entropy transition accompanying the ferroelectric phase transition (PT) of the order of 35 J/mol K confirms an 'order-disorder' mechanism. The ferroelectric-paraelectric PT has been described by the Landau model using the specific heat data.1H spin-lattice relaxation at 25 MHz has been measured for this crystal in a very broad temperature range 90-420 K, covering two phase transitions (at 155 and 355 K). The relaxation data have been interpreted in terms of different dynamical properties of imidazolium cations put in structurally different environments.

  2. Towards understanding mechanistic linkages between climate and leaf wax biomarker 2H/1H: an elevational transect in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Tipple, B. J.; Ehleringer, J.; Roden, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Two significant challenges exist in establishing linkages between long-term biomarkers recorded in soils and sediments and often used in paleoclimatic reconstructions, and the much shorter timescale information obtained through other approaches, such as tree-ring analysis, often used in ecological reconstructions. The first of these challenges is to understand the mechanistic basis of how the biological proxy records environmental information. The second is understanding whether or not the phenological (temporal) production of a biomarker adequately integrates the climate on an annual or seasonal basis. Both aspects are of interest in climate reconstruction, but the limited temporal production of the biomarkers can result in different patterns. In order to address these questions, we analyzed the 2H/1H of long-chain n-alkanes from the leaves of Populus angustifolia (Cottonwood) along an elevational transect in Big Cottonwood Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah (40°37'N, 111°48'W to 40°38'N, 111°40'W) that spanned a relatively short distance (13 km) but included a large 810 m elevation change (1433-2243 m). We compared these leaf wax observations to 2H/1H cellulose data sets along the same elevational gradient. Riparian P. angustifolia were selected because these trees exhibit a constant water source along the entire gradient. The elevational transect was collected during several time periods in 1997, 2011, and 2012 in order to evaluate both inter- and intra-annual variability with changes in environmental conditions over this interval. Our results suggest that there may be a mismatch between the seasonally integrating values of tree rings relative to the leaf wax biomarkers that tend to record only the beginning parts of a growing season.

  3. Photolabeling of mitochondrial F1-H+ATPase by 2-azido[3H]ADP and 8-azido[3H]ADP entrapped as fluorometal complexes into the catalytic sites of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Garin, J; Vinçon, M; Gagnon, J; Vignais, P

    1994-03-29

    In the presence of ADP and fluorometals, the ATPase activity of the catalytic sector, F1, of beef heart mitochondrial ATPase is strongly inhibited; this inhibition is dependent on the entrapment of ADP-fluoroaluminate complexes into the nucleotide binding sites of F1 [Lunardi, J., Dupuis, A., Garin, J., Issartel, J. P., Michel, L., Chabre, M., & Vignais, P. V. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 8958-8962]. We described here the effect of fluoroaluminate on the binding of 2-azido[3H]ADP and 8-azido[3H]ADP to beef heart mitochondrial F1 in the absence and presence of light. When the incubation medium was supplemented with NaF and AlCl3, and maintained in the dark, both 2-azido[3H]ADP and 8-azido[3H]ADP were able to elicit inhibition of F1-ATPase activity, exactly like ADP did. Upon photoirradiation, 2-azido[3H]ADP and 8-azido[3H]ADP bound covalently to F1. Labeling was restricted to the beta subunit of F1, and the same tyrosine residue, beta-Tyr-345, was labeled by either of the photoprobes. This is in contrast with the previous findings that in the absence of fluoroaluminate both the alpha and beta subunits of F1 were photolabeled by 8-azido[3H]ADP, and that two different regions of the beta subunits were labeled, centered on beta-Tyr-345 in the case of 2-azido[3H]ADP [Garin, J., Boulay, F., Issartel, J.P., Lunardi, J., & Vignais, P. V. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 4431-4437] and beta-Tyr-311 that of 8-azido[3H]ADP [Hollemans, M., Runswick, M., Fearnley, I.H., & Walker, J.E. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 9307-9313].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Radical Rearrangement Catalysis in an Enzyme at 190-207 K: Mechanistic Features Revealed by Substrate ^1H/^2H Isotope Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Warncke, Kurt

    2009-11-01

    The decay kinetics of both the natural abundance and [1,1,2,2-^2H4]-aminoethanol generated Co^II-substrate radical pair catalytic intermediate in ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) from Salmonella typhimrium have been measured by using time-resolved, full-spectrum X-band continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in frozen aqueous solution from 190 to 207 K. The decay reaction proceeds through sequential radical covalent rearrangement and hydrogen atom transfer (HT) steps. In the temperature range from 190 to 207 K, the decay is biexponential, and the two phases correspond to distinct populations [1]. The ^1H/^2H isotope effects (IE) on the fast phase and slow phase are 1.3 and 0.8, respectively. These IE are not caused by a primary kinetic IE. Therefore, HT is rapid, relative to rearrangement. We propose that the fast phase is rate-determined by the rearrangement step, and that the slow phase is rate-determined by a step after rearrangement that is associated with protein guidance of the reactions. The results reveal microscopic features of the core reaction chemistry and protein dynamics participation in the reaction, which are not accessible at ambient temperatures.[4pt] [1] Zhu, C., Warncke, K. Biophys. J. 95, 5890 (2008). Supported by grant DK54514 from NIDDK/NIH.

  5. Molecular dynamics of poly(L-lactide) biopolymer studied by wide-line solid-state 1H and 2H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nozirov, Farhod; Nazirov, Alovidin; Jurga, Stefan; Fu, Riqiang

    2006-06-01

    The molecular dynamics of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) biopolymer was characterized through analyses of 1H and 2H NMR line-shapes and spin-lattice relaxation times at different temperatures. At low temperatures (e.g. 90 K), the methyl group rotation is dominant leading to a significant reduction in the proton second moment. Fast methyl group reorientation occurs at ca. 130 K. In additional to the fast methyl group rotation, hydroxyl groups start to reorient as the temperature increases further, eventually leading to the breakdown of the segments of the biopolymer chains above its glass transition temperature Tg of 323 K. The analyses of the 2H NMR line-shapes indicate that both the methyl and hydroxyl reorientations can be described by the so-called cone model, in which the former has three equilibrium positions with theta(C-D) = 70.5 degrees and phi = 120 degrees while the latter one exhibits two equilibrium positions with theta(O-D) = 78 degrees and phi = 180 degrees .

  6. Tracing bacterial metabolism using multi-nuclear (1H, 2H, and 13C) Solid State NMR: Realizing an Idea Initiated by James Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G.; Fogel, M. L.; Jin, K.; Griffen, P.; Steele, A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 6 years ago, while at the Geophysical Laboratory, James Scott became interested in the application of Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to study bacterial metabolism. As often happens, other experiments intervened and the NMR experiments were not pursued. We have revisited Jame's question and find that using a multi-nuclear approach (1H, 2H, and 13C Solid State NMR) on laboratory cell culture has some distinct advantages. Our experiments involved batch cultures of E. coli (MG1655) harvested at stationary phase. In all experiments the growth medium consisted of MOPS medium for enterobacteria, where the substrate is glucose. In one set of experiments, 10 % of the water was D2O; in another 10 % of the glucose was per-deuterated. The control experiment used both water and glucose at natural isotopic abundance. A kill control of dead E. coli immersed in pure D2O for an extended period exhibited no deuterium incorporation. In both deuterium enriched experiments, considerable incorporation of deuterium into E. coli's biomolecular constituents was detected via 2H Solid State NMR. In the case of the D2O enriched experiment, 58 % of the incorporated deuterium is observed in a sharp peak at a frequency of 0.31 ppm, consistent with D incorporation in the cell membrane lipids, the remainder is observed in a broad peak at a higher frequency (centered at 5.4 ppm, but spanning out to beyond 10 ppm) that is consistent with D incorporation into predominantly DNA and RNA. In the case of the D-glucose experiments, 61 % of the deuterium is observed in a sharp resonance peak at 0.34 ppm, also consistent with D incorporation into membrane lipids, the remainder of the D is observed at a broad resonance peak centered at 4.3 ppm, consistent with D enrichment in glycogen. Deuterium abundance in the E. coli cells grown in 10 % D2O is nearly 2X greater than that grown with 10 % D-glucose. Very subtle differences are observed in both the 1H and 13C solid

  7. Cardiotonic agents. 7. Prodrug derivatives of 4-ethyl-1,3-dihydro- 5-[4-(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoyl]-2H-imidazol-2-one.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K J; Erhardt, P W; Hagedorn, A A; Pease, C A; Ingebretsen, W R; Wiggins, J R

    1992-04-03

    The cardiotonic agent 4-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-5-4-(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoyl]-2H- imidazol-2-one (1) was found to have low bioavailability when administered orally to rats and dogs. A series of N-acyl derivatives, an underutilized prodrug of acidic NH compounds, has been synthesized and tested for their ability to improve the oral bioavailability of 1. Reaction of the monosodium salt of 1 with various anhydrides afforded the N-1 monoacylimidazolones with surprisingly high regioselectivity. In addition to the prodrugs, acylation of 1 with propionic or phenylacetic anhydride led to the novel 3H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-3,5(2H)-diones 6. The prodrugs showed a significant increase in the partition coefficients with a minor decrease in the aqueous solubility. The benzoyl derivative 4b exhibited the highest stability in both pH 1.5 and 7.4 buffer solutions. Further evaluation of 4b showed rapid conversion to 1 in canine plasma (t1/2 = 38 min), and human plasma (t1/2 = 10 min). Oral studies indicated that the bioavailability of 4b was increased to greater than 75% (compared to less than 20% for 1), and hemodynamic studies demonstrated that the selective inotropic profile of 1 was retained.

  8. An experimental study of the reaction kinetics of C 2(X 1Σ g+) with hydrocarbons (CH 4, C 2H 2, C 2H 4, C 2H 6 and C 3H 8) over the temperature range 24-300 K: Implications for the atmospheres of Titan and the Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canosa, André; Páramo, Alejandra; Le Picard, Sébastien D.; Sims, Ian R.

    2007-04-01

    The reactivity of C 2(X 1Σ +g) with simple saturated (CH 4, C 2H 6 and C 3H 8) and unsaturated (C 2H 2 and C 2H 4) hydrocarbons has been studied in the gas phase over the temperature range 24-300 K using the CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme or Reaction Kinetics in a Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique. All reactions have been found to be very rapid in this temperature range and the rate coefficients are typically ⩾10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 with the exception of methane for which the rate coefficient is one order of magnitude lower: ˜10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. These results have been analyzed in terms of potential destruction sources of C 2(X 1Σ +g) in the atmospheres of Titan and the Giant Planets. It appears that the rate coefficient of the reaction 1C 2 + CH 4 should be updated with our new data and that reactions with C 2H 2, C 2H 4 and C 2H 6 should also be included in the existing photochemical models.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of 17O/16O, 18O/16O and 2H/1H of gypsum hydration water by cavity ring‐down laser spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Ian; Rolfe, James; Evans, Nicholas P.; Herwartz, Daniel; Staubwasser, Michael; Hodell, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The recent development of cavity ring‐down laser spectroscopy (CRDS) instruments capable of measuring 17O‐excess in water has created new opportunities for studying the hydrologic cycle. Here we apply this new method to studying the triple oxygen (17O/16O, 18O/16O) and hydrogen (2H/1H) isotope ratios of gypsum hydration water (GHW), which can provide information about the conditions under which the mineral formed and subsequent post‐depositional interaction with other fluids. Methods We developed a semi‐automated procedure for extracting GHW by slowly heating the sample to 400°C in vacuo and cryogenically trapping the evolved water. The isotopic composition (δ17O, δ18O and δ2H values) of the GHW is subsequently measured by CRDS. The extraction apparatus allows the dehydration of five samples and one standard simultaneously, thereby increasing the long‐term precision and sample throughput compared with previous methods. The apparatus is also useful for distilling brines prior to isotopic analysis. A direct comparison is made between results of 17O‐excess in GHW obtained by CRDS and fluorination followed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) of O2. Results The long‐term analytical precision of our method of extraction and isotopic analysis of GHW by CRDS is ±0.07‰ for δ17O values, ±0.13‰ for δ18O values and ±0.49‰ for δ2H values (all ±1SD), and ±1.1‰ and ±8 per meg for the deuterium‐excess and 17O‐excess, respectively. Accurate measurement of the 17O‐excess values of GHW, of both synthetic and natural samples, requires the use of a micro‐combustion module (MCM). This accessory removes contaminants (VOCs, H2S, etc.) from the water vapour stream that interfere with the wavelengths used for spectroscopic measurement of water isotopologues. CRDS/MCM and IRMS methods yield similar isotopic results for the analysis of both synthetic and natural gypsum samples within analytical error of the two methods. Conclusions We

  10. Detection and classification of hyperfine-shifted 1H, 2H, and 15N resonances of the Rieske ferredoxin component of toluene 4-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Xia, B; Pikus, J D; Xia, W; McClay, K; Steffan, R J; Chae, Y K; Westler, W M; Markley, J L; Fox, B G

    1999-01-12

    T4MOC is a 12.3 kDa soluble Rieske ferredoxin that is obligately required for electron transfer between the oxidoreductase and diiron hydroxylase components of toluene 4-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas mendocina KR1. Our preliminary 1H NMR studies of oxidized and reduced T4MOC [Markley, J. L., Xia, B., Chae, Y. K., Cheng, H., Westler, W. M., Pikus, J. D., and Fox, B. G. (1996) in Protein Structure Function Relationships (Zaidi, Z., and Smith, D., Eds.) pp 135-146, Plenum Press, London] revealed the presence of hyperfine-shifted 1H resonances whose short relaxation times made it impractical to use nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) measurements for assignment purposes. We report here the use of selective isotopic labeling to analyze the hyperfine-shifted 1H, 2H, and 15N signals from T4MOC. Selective deuteration led to identification of signals from the four Hbeta atoms of cluster ligands C45 and C64 in the oxidized and reduced forms of T4MOC. In the reduced state, the Curie temperature dependence of the Hbeta protons corresponded to that predicted from the simple vector spin-coupling model for nuclei associated with the localized ferric site. The signal at 25.5 ppm in the 1H spectrum of reduced T4MOC was assigned on the basis of selective 2H labeling to the His Hepsilon1 atom of one of the cluster ligands (H47 or H67). This assignment was corroborated by a one bond 1H-13C correlation (at 25.39 ppm 1H and 136.11 ppm 13C) observed in spectra of [U-13C]T4MOC with a 1H-13C coupling constant of approximately 192 Hz. The carbon chemical shift and one bond coupling constant are those expected for 1Hepsilon1-13Cepsilon1 in the imidazolium ring of histidine and are inconsistent with values expected for cysteine 1Halpha-13Calpha. The His Hepsilon1 proton exhibited weak Curie temperature dependence from 283 to 303 K, contrary to the anti-Curie temperature dependence predicted from the spin coupling model for nuclei associated with the localized ferrous site. A 1H peak at -12.3 ppm

  11. Results from Boiling Temperature Measurements for Saturated Solutions in the Systems NaCl + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O, NaNO3 + KNO3 + H2O, and NaCl + KNO3 + H2O, and Dry Out Temperatures for NaCl + NaNO3 + KNO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J A

    2005-11-29

    Boiling temperature measurements have been made for saturated ternary solutions of NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O and NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O at three selected salt ratios and for NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O over the full composition range. The maximum boiling temperature found for the NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system is 164.7 {+-} 0.6 C, and the composition is estimated to occur at x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) {approx} 0.25. Experiments were also performed for the five component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O mixtures with the molar ratio of NaCl:NaNO{sub 3}:KNO{sub 3} held essentially constant at 1:0.9780:1.1468 as the solute mole fraction of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}), was varied between 0 and 0.25. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system forms low melting mixtures and thus boiling temperatures for saturated were not determined. Instead, the temperatures corresponding to the cessation of boiling (i.e., dry out temperatures) of these liquid mixtures were determined. These dry out temperatures range from {approx} 300 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0 to {ge} 400 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0.20 and 0.25. The investigated mixture compositions correspond to some of the major mineral assemblages that are predicted to control the deliquescence relative humidity of salts formed by leaching dust samples from the proposed nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  12. Synthesis and dual D2 and 5-HT1A receptor binding affinities of 5-piperidinyl and 5-piperazinyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Nisar

    2014-04-01

    A series of new 5-piperidinyl and 5-piperazinyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones have been synthesized and evaluated for dual D2 and 5-HT1A receptor binding affinities. The synthesized ligands are structurally related to bifeprunox, a potential atypical antipsychotic, having potent D2 receptor antagonist and 5-HT1A receptor agonist properties. The Suzuki-Miyaura reaction of cyclic vinyl boronate with appropriate aryl halide yielded arylpiperidine, which was eventually transformed to piperidinyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one. The reductive amination of the latter with appropriate biarylaldehdyes rendered the synthesis of 5-piperidinyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones. Likewise, the Buchwald-Hartwig coupling reactions of 1-boc-piperazine with appropriate aryl halide and subsequent removal of the boc group rendered arylpiperazine. The reductive amination of the latter with appropriate biarylaldehdyes accomplished the synthesis of 5-piperazinyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones. The structure-activity relationship studies showed that cyclopentenylpyridine and cyclopentenylbenzyl groups contribute significantly to the dual D2 and 5-HT1A receptor binding affinities of these compounds.

  13. Cometary implications of the internal energy distributions of the C2 and C3 radicals produced in the photolysis of the C2H and C3H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.; Bao, Yihan; Urdahl, Randall S.; Song, Xueyu; Gosine, Jai; Luu, Chi

    1991-01-01

    The C2 and C3 radicals are prominent emission in the visible region of cometary spectra. Observational evidence exists that suggests these radicals are formed as granddaughter fragments in the photolysis of more stable molecules. Likely candidates for these parent molecules ar C2H2, C3H4 (allene), and CH3C2H (propyne). Recent laboratory studies were performed on all of these parent molecules and they indicate that they can indeed produce the observed cometary radicals. In the case of C2H2, the laboratory evidence suggest that C2 is formed via the following mechanisms: (1) C2H2 + photon(193 nm) yields C2H + H; and (2) C2H + photon(193 nm) yields C2 + H. Evidence is presented to show that the C2 radical produced in the second reaction occurs in a variety of electronic, vibrational, and rotational states. It is argued that this is a result of conical intersections in the potential energy curves and the density of states associated with these curves. Since this is a property of the C2H radical similar initial product state distributions are expected to occur in comets. This means that any models of the C2 emission may have to start off with rotationally excited C2 radicals in both the singlet and the triplet manifolds. When C3H4 (allene) and CH3C2H (propyne) were photolyzed, the C3 radical is formed. In the allene case, laboratory evidence shows that the C3 radical is formed via the following mechanism: (1) C3H4 + photon(193 nm) yields C3H2 + H2; and (2) C3H2 + photon(193 nm) yields C3 + H2. More C3 is formed in the case of allene than in the propyne case, even though the absorption cross section for propyne is a factor of 2 larger. This suggests that competing dissociation pathways are present during the photolysis of propyne that are not available to allene. The observed quantum state distributions of the C3 product were the same for both parent molecules, indicating that the same intermediate state is involved. These observations can be understood if the excited

  14. 21 CFR 73.3123 - 6-Ethoxy-2-(6-ethoxy-3-oxobenzo[b]thien-2(3H)-ylidene) benzo[b]thiophen-3 (2H)-one.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 6-Ethoxy-2-(6-ethoxy-3-oxobenzo thien-2(3H)-ylidene) benzo thiophen-3 (2H)-one. 73.3123 Section 73.3123 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... to exceed the minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect....

  15. 21 CFR 73.3123 - 6-Ethoxy-2-(6-ethoxy-3-oxobenzo[b]thien-2(3H)-ylidene) benzo[b]thiophen-3 (2H)-one.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 6-Ethoxy-2-(6-ethoxy-3-oxobenzo thien-2(3H)-ylidene) benzo thiophen-3 (2H)-one. 73.3123 Section 73.3123 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... to exceed the minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect....

  16. Syntheses of 24R,25-dihydroxy-(6,19,19-3H)vitamin D3 and 24R,25-dihydroxy-(6,19,19-2H)vitamin D3

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S.; Shimizu, M.; Fukushima, K.; Niimura, K.; Maeda, Y. )

    1989-08-01

    24R,25-Dihydroxy-(6,19,19-3H)vitamin D3 with a specific activity of 54 Ci/mmol and 24R,25-dihydroxy-(6,19,19-2H)vitamin D3 with 2.6 deuterium atoms/mol were synthesized in four steps starting from 24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 via its sulfur dioxide adduct.

  17. Measurements of the Differential Cross Sections for the Elastic n-{sup 3}H and n-{sup 2}H Scattering at 14.1 MeV by Using an Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; McNabb, D. P.; Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.; Sangster, T. C.; Glebov, V. Yu; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2011-09-16

    For the first time the differential cross section for the elastic neutron-triton (n-{sup 3}H) and neutron-deuteron (n-{sup 2}H) scattering at 14.1 MeV has been measured by using an inertial confinement fusion facility. In these experiments, which were carried out by simultaneously measuring elastically scattered {sup 3}H and {sup 2}H ions from a deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion capsule implosion, the differential cross section for the elastic n-{sup 3}H scattering was obtained with significantly higher accuracy than achieved in previous accelerator experiments. The results compare well with calculations that combine the resonating-group method with an ab initio no-core shell model, which demonstrate that recent advances in ab initio theory can provide an accurate description of light-ion reactions.

  18. Hydrogen isotope systematics in C3 and C4 saltmarsh plants: the importance of biochemical processes in controlling interspecies variation in n-alkane 2H/1H composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Y.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2013-12-01

    Palaeohydrological studies have increasingly utilised the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax n-alkyl lipids to extract information from the geological record. Interpretation of the sedimentary biomarker δ2H signal, however, requires detailed understanding of the mechanisms controlling hydrogen isotope fractionation between source water and n-alkyl lipids (ɛl/w). The existence of large ranges in published n-alkyl δ2H and ɛl/w among modern plant species growing at a single location suggests that the lipid signal incorporated into the sedimentary record could be sensitive to relatively small-scale changes in vegetation assemblages. The mechanisms responsible for these interspecies differences are currently poorly constrained. Previous research has had limited success explaining n-alkyl δ2H by reference to physical processes controlling the movement of water inside/outside and within the leaf, while the relative importance of biochemical processes remains largely unexplored. This project aims to identify the mechanisms controlling interspecies variation in n-alkane 2H/1H among a range of C3 and C4 plants from a Norfolk saltmarsh in the UK. To distinguish between environmental, physical and biochemical controls, we conducted 2H/1H analysis of soil, xylem, and leaf waters and n-alkanes (i) across multiple sampling sites within the marsh, (ii) throughout the 2012 growth season, and (iii) at different times of the day. We also measured the 2H/1H of chloroplast phytol in 7 samples collected at the end of 2012. Leaf wax n-alkane δ2H varied among the sampled species by over 100‰ throughout the 2012 growth season. Environmental processes that could influence control source water 2H/1H did not fully account for this interspecies variation - soil water 2H/1H varied by only 35‰ with marsh sub-environment and exhibited site-specific seasonal shifts by no more than 31‰. Maximum interspecies variation in xylem water was 38‰, while leaf waters differed by only 29‰. We

  19. Homolytic, Heterolytic, Mesolytic - As You Like It: Steering the Cleavage of a HC(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) )H Bond in Bis(1H-2,1-benzazaborole) Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hejda, Martin; Lyčka, Antonín; Mikysek, Tomáš; Jambor, Roman; Růžička, Aleš; Vinklárek, Jaromír; Wilfer, Claudia; Hoffmann, Alexander; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja; Dostál, Libor

    2016-10-17

    A set of (3,3')-bis(1-Ph-2-R-1H-2,1-benzazaborole) compounds, in which R=tBu (Bab-tBu)2 , R=Dipp (Bab-Dipp)2 or R=tBu and Dipp (Bab-Dipp)(Bab-tBu), was synthesized and fully characterized using (1) H, (11) B, (13) C, and (15) N NMR spectroscopy as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The central HC(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) )H bond with restricted rotation at the junction of both 1H-2,1-benzazaborole rings displayed an intriguing reactivity. It was demonstrated that this bond is easily mesolytically cleaved using alkali metals to form the respective aromatic 1Ph-2R-1H-2,1-benzazaborolyl anions M(+) (THF)n (Bab-tBu)(-) (M=Li, Na, K) and K(+) (THF)n (Bab-Dipp)(-) . Furthermore, the central HC(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) )H bond of bis(1H-2,1-benzazaborole)s is also homolytically cleaved either by heating or photochemical means, giving corresponding 1Ph-2R-1H-2,1-benzazaborolyl radicals (Bab-tBu)(.) and (Bab-Dipp)(.) , which rapidly self-terminate. Nevertheless, their formation was unambiguously established by NMR analysis of the reaction mixtures containing products of the self-termination of the radicals after heating or irradiation. (Bab-Dipp)(.) radical was also characterized using EPR spectroscopy. Importantly, it turned out that the essentially non-polarized HC(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) )H bond in (Bab-tBu)2 is also cleaved heterolytically with 2 equiv of MeLi, giving the mixture of Li(+) (SOL)n (Bab-tBu)(-) (SOL=THF or Et2 O) and lithium methyl-substituted borate complex Li(+) (SOL)n (Bab-tBu-Me)(-) in a diastereoselective fashion.

  20. The reaction C sub 3 H sub 3 sup + + C sub 2 H sub 2 and the structural isomers of C sub 5 H sub 5 sup +

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jikang; Leszczynski, J.; Weiner, B.; Zerner, M.C. )

    1989-06-21

    The authors study here the isomers of C{sub 5}H{sub 5}{sup +} and possible reactions between C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +} and acetylene that lead to the formation of C{sub 5}H{sub 5}{sup +} using quantum chemical means. They find very many stable C{sub 5}H{sub 5}{sup +} isomers, the most stable being the vinylcyclopropenylium cation. A pyramidal form is calculated to be quite stable as are distorted planar cyclopentadienyl cations. Nonplanar distortions in these five-membered rings, however, do not appear stable. With an eye toward identification of these species in sooting flames and in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments, they report the calculated vibrational and electronic spectra of these species. They also study reactions of C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +} with acetylene, attempting to model the nucleation step in the formation of soot. They find that the cyclic form of C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +} does not react with acetylene without sizeable barrier, whereas the linear propargyl cation reacts with acetylene without barrier to form many different C{sub 5}H{sub 5+} tautomers, some of which are quite stable. They discuss these findings in conjunction with the results of experiments on these systems.

  1. Narcissus tazetta lectin shows strong inhibitory effects against respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A (H1N1, H3N2, H5N1) and B viruses.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Ho, Wing-Shan; Ngai, Karry L K; Tian, Li; Chan, Paul K S; Sun, Samuel S M; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2010-03-01

    A mannose-binding lectin (Narcissus tazetta lectin [NTL]) with potent antiviral activity was isolated and purified from the bulbs of the Chinese daffodil Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis, using ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on mannose-agarose and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-gel filtration on Superose 12. The purified lectin was shown to have an apparent molecular mass of 26 kDa by gel filtration and 13 kDa by SDS-PAGE, indicating that it is probably a dimer with two identical subunits. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence of NTL as determined by molecular cloning also reveals that NTL protein contains a mature polypeptide consisting of 105 amino acids and a C-terminal peptide extension. Three-dimensional modelling study demonstrated that the NTL primary polypeptide contains three subdomains, each with a conserved mannose-binding site. It shows a high homology of about 60%-80% similarity with the existing monocot mannose-binding lectins. NTL could significantly inhibit plaque formation by the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with an IC50 of 2.30 microg/ml and exhibit strong antiviral properties against influenza A (H1N1, H3N2, H5N1) and influenza B viruses with IC50 values ranging from 0.20 microg/ml to 1.33 microg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. It is worth noting that the modes of antiviral action of NTL against RSV and influenza A virus are significantly different. NTL is effective in the inhibition of RSV during the whole viral infection cycle, but the antiviral activity of NTL is mainly expressed at the early stage of the viral cycle of influenza A (H1N1) virus. NTL with a high selective index (SI=CC50/IC50 > or = 141) resulting from its potent antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity demonstrates a potential for biotechnological development as an antiviral agent.

  2. 6-Chloro-1-(3,5-dimethyl-phenyl-sulfon-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2(3H)-one.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Fiorella; Bombieri, Gabriella; Logoteta, Patrizia; De Luca, Laura

    2008-12-20

    The title compound, C(15)H(13)ClN(2)O(3)S, is one of a series of N(1)-benzyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one derivatives, a new class of non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The dihedral angle between the two pharmacophoric groups, the dimethyl-benzene ring and the benzimidazolone ring system, is 88 (1)°, giving a butterfly-like conformation to the mol-ecule. The mol-ecular packing is characterized by a bifurcated N-H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bond and short Cl⋯O contacts of 3.122 (2) Å. In addition, π-π stacking of the benzimidazolone rings is also present, with inter-planar separations of 3.95 (1) Å.

  3. 6-Chloro-1-(3,5-dimethyl­phenyl­sulfon­yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Meneghetti, Fiorella; Bombieri, Gabriella; Logoteta, Patrizia; De Luca, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C15H13ClN2O3S, is one of a series of N 1-benzyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one derivatives, a new class of non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The dihedral angle between the two pharmacophoric groups, the dimethyl­benzene ring and the benzimidazolone ring system, is 88 (1)°, giving a butterfly-like conformation to the mol­ecule. The mol­ecular packing is characterized by a bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bond and short Cl⋯O contacts of 3.122 (2) Å. In addition, π–π stacking of the benzimidazolone rings is also present, with inter­planar separations of 3.95 (1) Å. PMID:21581616

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-fluoro and 3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl-piperazinylalkyl derivatives of 1H-imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4(3H,8H)-dione as potential antidepressant agents.

    PubMed

    Zagórska, Agnieszka; Bucki, Adam; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Siwek, Agata; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Starowicz, Gabriela; Kazek, Grzegorz; Partyka, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Słoczyńska, Karolina; Pękala, Elżbieta; Pawłowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    A series of 2-fluoro and 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazinylalkyl derivatives of 1H-imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4(3H,8H)-dione (4-21) were synthesized and evaluated for their serotonin (5-HT1A/5-HT7) receptor affinity and phosphodiesterase (PDE4B and PDE10A) inhibitor activity. The study enabled the identification of potent 5-HT1A, 5-HT7 and mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor ligands with weak inhibitory potencies for PDE4B and PDE10A. The tests have been completed with the determination of lipophilicity and metabolic stability using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) system and human liver microsomes (HLM) model. In preliminary pharmacological in vivo studies, selected compound 8-(5-(4-(2-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)pentyl)-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4(3H,8H)-dione (9) behaved as a potential antidepressant in forced swim test (FST) in mice. Moreover, potency of antianxiety effects evoked by 9 (2.5 mg/kg) is greater than that of the reference anxiolytic drug, diazepam. Molecular modeling revealed that fluorinated arylpiperazinylalkyl derivatives of 1H-imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4(3H,8H)-dione have major significance for the provision of lead compounds for antidepressant and/or anxiolytic application.

  5. Both water source and atmospheric water impact leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H values of hydroponically grown angiosperm trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Berke, M. A.; Hambach, B.; Roden, J. S.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The extent to which both water source and leaf water 2H-enrichment affect the δ2H values of terrestrial plant leaf waxes is an area of active research as ecologists seek a mechanistic understanding of the environmental determinants of leaf wax isotope values before applying δ2H values of leaf waxes to reconstruct past hydrologic conditions. To elucidate the effects of both water source and atmospheric water vapor on δ2H values of leaf waxes for broad-leaved angiosperms, we analyzed hydrogen isotope ratios of high-molecular weight n-alkanes from two tree species that were grown throughout the spring and summer (five months) in a hydroponic system under controlled atmospheric conditions. Here, 12 subpopulations each of Populus fremontii and Betula occidentalis saplings were grown under one of six source different waters ranging in hydrogen isotope ratio values from -120 to +180 ‰ and under either 40 % or 75 % relative humidity conditions. We found n-alkane δ2H values of both species were linearly related to source water δ2H values with differences in slope associated with differing atmospheric humidity. A Craig-Gordon model was used to predict the δ2H values of leaf water and, by extension, n-alkane δ2H values under the range of growth conditions. The modeled leaf water values were found to be linearly related to observed n-alkane δ2H values with a statistically indistinguishable slope between the high and low humidity treatments. These leaf wax observations support a constant biosynthetic fractionation factor between evaporatively-enriched leaf water and n-alkanes for each species. However, we found the calculated biosynthetic fractionation between modeled leaf-water and n-alkane to be different between the two species. We submit that these dissimilarities were due to model inputs and not differences in the specific-species biochemistry. Nonetheless, these results are significant as they indicated that the δ2H value of atmospheric water vapor and

  6. Dynamics of [C{sub 3}H{sub 5}N{sub 2}]{sub 6}[Bi{sub 4}Br{sub 18}] by means of {sup 1}H NMR relaxometry and quadrupole relaxation enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Masierak, W.; Florek-Wojciechowska, M.; Oglodek, I.; Jakubas, R.; Privalov, A. F.; Kresse, B.; Fujara, F.; Kruk, D.

    2015-05-28

    {sup 1}H spin-lattice field cycling relaxation dispersion experiments in the intermediate phase II of the solid [C{sub 3}H{sub 5}N{sub 2}]{sub 6}[Bi{sub 4}Br{sub 18}] are presented. Two motional processes have been identified from the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation dispersion profiles and quantitatively described. It has been concluded that these processes are associated with anisotropic reorientations of the imidazolium ring, characterized by correlation times of the order of 10{sup −8} s-10{sup −9} s and of about 10{sup −5} s. Moreover, quadrupole relaxation enhancement (QRE) effects originating from slowly fluctuating {sup 1}H-{sup 14}N dipolar interactions have been observed. From the positions of the relaxation maxima, the quadrupole coupling parameters for the {sup 14}N nuclei in [C{sub 3}H{sub 5}N{sub 2}]{sub 6}[Bi{sub 4}Br{sub 18}] have been determined. The {sup 1}H-{sup 14}N relaxation contribution associated with the slow dynamics has been described in terms of a theory of QRE [Kruk et al., Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 40, 114 (2011)] based on the stochastic Liouville equation. The shape of the QRE maxima (often referred to as “quadrupole peaks”) has been consistently reproduced for the correlation time describing the slow dynamics and the determined quadrupole coupling parameters.

  7. Effects of distortion of the intercluster motion in {sup 2}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 9}Be on Trojan horse applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2009-08-15

    Deuteron induced quasifree scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades as well as {sup 6}Li, {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, and {sup 9}Be induced reactions. This was done not only for the investigation of nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms but also for important astrophysical applications (Trojan horse method). In particular the widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan horse method will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the nucleus is a important input for this method. This gives hints on distortion effects at low energies important for nuclear astrophysics.

  8. Naturally Occurring Antibodies in Humans Can Neutralize a Variety of Influenza Virus Strains, Including H3, H1, H2, and H5 ▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Nobuko; Iba, Yoshitaka; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Asano, Yoshizo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are classified into 16 subtypes according to the serotypes of hemagglutinin (HA). It is generally thought that neutralizing antibodies (Abs) are not broadly cross-reactive among HA subtypes. We examined the repertoire of neutralizing Abs against influenza viruses in humans. B lymphocytes were collected from donors by apheresis, and Ab libraries were constructed by using phage-display technology. Anti-HA clones were isolated by screening with H3N2 viruses. Their binding activity was examined, and four kinds of Abs showing broad strain specificity were identified from one donor. Two of the Abs, F045-092 and F026-427, were extensively analyzed. They neutralized not only H3N2 but also H1N1, H2N2, and H5N1 viruses, although the activities were largely varied. Flow cytometry suggested that they have the ability to bind to HA and HA1 artificially expressed on the cell surface. They show hemagglutination inhibition activity and do not compete with C179, an Ab thought to bind to the stalk region. F045-092 competes with Abs that recognize sites A and B for binding to HA. Furthermore, the serine at residue 136 in site A could be a part of the epitope. Thus, it is likely that F045-092 and F026-427 bind to a conserved epitope in the head region formed by HA1. Interestingly, while the VH1-69 gene can encode MAbs against the HA stem that are group 1 specific, F045-092 and its relatives that recognize the head region also use VH1-69. The possible epitope recognized by these clones is discussed. PMID:21865387

  9. Predicting leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H ratios: controlled water source and humidity experiments with hydroponically grown trees confirm predictions of Craig-Gordon model.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Brett J; Berke, Melissa A; Hambach, Bastian; Roden, John S; Ehleringer, James R

    2015-06-01

    The extent to which both water source and atmospheric humidity affect δ(2)H values of terrestrial plant leaf waxes will affect the interpretations of δ(2)H variation of leaf waxes as a proxy for hydrological conditions. To elucidate the effects of these parameters, we conducted a long-term experiment in which we grew two tree species, Populus fremontii and Betula occidentalis, hydroponically under combinations of six isotopically distinct waters and two different atmospheric humidities. We observed that leaf n-alkane δ(2)H values of both species were linearly related to source water δ(2)H values, but with slope differences associated with differing humidities. When a modified version of the Craig-Gordon model incorporating plant factors was used to predict the δ(2)H values of leaf water, all modelled leaf water values fit the same linear relationship with n-alkane δ(2)H values. These observations suggested a relatively constant biosynthetic fractionation factor between leaf water and n-alkanes. However, our calculations indicated a small difference in the biosynthetic fractionation factor between the two species, consistent with small differences calculated for species in other studies. At present, it remains unclear if these apparent interspecies differences in biosynthetic fractionation reflect species-specific biochemistry or a common biosynthetic fractionation factor with insufficient model parameterization.

  10. Isolation and structures of sulfonium salts derived from thioethers: [{o-C(6)H(4)(CH(2)SMe)(2)}H][NbF(6)] and [{[9]aneS(3)}H][NbF(6)].

    PubMed

    Jura, Marek; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Webster, Michael

    2009-10-07

    Two very unusual sulfonium salts, [{o-C(6)H(4)(CH(2)SMe)(2)}H][NbF(6)] and [{[9]aneS(3)}H][NbF(6)], obtained from reaction of the thioethers with NbF(5) in CH(2)Cl(2) solution, are reported and their structures described; the eight-coordinate tetrafluoro Nb(v) cation of the dithioether is obtained from the same reaction.

  11. Synthesis, DFT calculations of structure, vibrational and thermal decomposition studies of the metal complex Pb[Mn(C3H2O4)2(H2O)2].

    PubMed

    Gil, Diego M; Carbonio, Raúl E; Gómez, María Inés

    2015-04-15

    The metallo-organic complex Pb[Mn(C3H2O4)2(H2O)2] was synthesized and characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. The cell parameters for the complex were determined from powder X-ray diffraction using the autoindexing program TREOR, and refined by the Le Bail method with the Fullprof program. A hexagonal unit cell was determined with a=b=13.8366(7)Å, c=9.1454(1)Å, γ=120°. The DFT calculated geometry of the complex anion [Mn(C3H2O4)2(H2O)2](2-) is very close to the experimental data reported for similar systems. The IR and Raman spectra and the thermal analysis of the complex indicate that only one type of water molecules is present in the structure. The thermal decomposition of Pb[Mn(C3H2O4)2(H2O)2] at 700 °C in air produces PbO and Pb2MnO4 as final products. The crystal structure of the mixed oxide is very similar to that reported for Pb3O4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-energy SiC2H6+ and SiC3H9+ ion beam productions by the mass-selection of fragments produced from hexamethyldisilane for SiC film formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Murai, Kensuke; Kiuchi, Masato

    2016-12-01

    We have been attempting to produce low-energy ion beams from fragments produced through the decomposition of hexamethyldisilane (HMD) for silicon carbide (SiC) film formations. We mass-selected SiC2H6+ and SiC3H9+ ions from fragments produced from HMD, and finally produced low-energy SiC2H6+ and SiC3H9+ ion beams. The ion energy was approximately 100 eV. Then, the ion beams were irradiated to Si(100) substrates. The temperature of the Si substrate was 800°C during the ion irradiation. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of the substrates obtained following SiC2H6+ ion irradiation demonstrated the occurrence of 3C-SiC deposition. On the other hand, the film deposited by the irradiation of SiC3H9+ ions included diamond-like carbon in addition to 3C-SiC.

  13. One-pot synthesis and antibacterial activities of novel 1H-pyridazino[1,2-a]indazole-1,6,9(2H,11H)-triones.

    PubMed

    Sayyafi, Maryam; Soorki, Ali Abolhasani; Bazgir, Ayoob

    2008-09-01

    Synthesis of novel 1H-pyridazino[1,2-a]indazole-1,6,9(2H,11H)-triones using one-pot, three components reaction of 1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione, dimedone and aldehydes under solvent-free conditions has been reported. These products were evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial activities.

  14. Gas-phase reactions of the bare Th2+ and U2+ ions with small alkanes, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8: experimental and theoretical study of elementary organoactinide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Di Santo, Emanuela; Santos, Marta; Michelini, Maria C; Marçalo, Joaquim; Russo, Nino; Gibson, John K

    2011-02-16

    The gas-phase reactions of two dipositive actinide ions, Th(2+) and U(2+), with CH(4), C(2)H(6), and C(3)H(8) were studied by both experiment and theory. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the bimolecular ion-molecule reactions; the potential energy profiles (PEPs) for the reactions, both observed and nonobserved, were computed by density functional theory (DFT). The experiments revealed that Th(2+) reacts with all three alkanes, including CH(4) to produce ThCH(2)(2+), whereas U(2+) reacts with C(2)H(6) and C(3)H(8), with different product distributions than for Th(2+). The comparative reactivities of Th(2+) and U(2+) toward CH(4) are well explained by the computed PEPs. The PEPs for the reactions with C(2)H(6) effectively rationalize the observed reaction products, ThC(2)H(2)(2+) and UC(2)H(4)(2+). For C(3)H(8) several reaction products were experimentally observed; these and additional potential reaction pathways were computed. The DFT results for the reactions with C(3)H(8) are consistent with the observed reactions and the different products observed for Th(2+) and U(2+); however, several exothermic products which emerge from energetically favorable PEPs were not experimentally observed. The comparison between experiment and theory reveals that DFT can effectively exclude unfavorable reaction pathways, due to energetic barriers and/or endothermic products, and can predict energetic differences in similar reaction pathways for different ions. However, and not surprisingly, a simple evaluation of the PEP features is insufficient to reliably exclude energetically favorable pathways. The computed PEPs, which all proceed by insertion, were used to evaluate the relationship between the energetics of the bare Th(2+) and U(2+) ions and the energies for C-H and C-C activation. It was found that the computed energetics for insertion are entirely consistent with the empirical model which relates insertion efficiency to the

  15. Identification and correction of spectral contamination in 2H/1H and 18O/16O measured in leaf, stem, and soil water.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Natalie M; Griffis, Timothy J; Lee, Xuhui; Baker, John M

    2011-11-15

    Plant water extracts typically contain organic materials that may cause spectral interference when using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS), resulting in errors in the measured isotope ratios. Manufacturers of IRIS instruments have developed post-processing software to identify the degree of contamination in water samples, and potentially correct the isotope ratios of water with known contaminants. Here, the correction method proposed by an IRIS manufacturer, Los Gatos Research, Inc., was employed and the results were compared with those obtained from isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Deionized water was spiked with methanol and ethanol to create correction curves for δ(18)O and δ(2)H. The contamination effects of different sample types (leaf, stem, soil) and different species from agricultural fields, grasslands, and forests were compared. The average corrections in leaf samples ranged from 0.35 to 15.73‰ for δ(2)H and 0.28 to 9.27‰ for δ(18)O. The average corrections in stem samples ranged from 1.17 to 13.70‰ for δ(2)H and 0.47 to 7.97‰ for δ(18)O. There was no contamination observed in soil water. Cleaning plant samples with activated charcoal had minimal effects on the degree of spectral contamination, reducing the corrections, by on average, 0.44‰ for δ(2)H and 0.25‰ for δ(18)O. The correction method eliminated the discrepancies between IRMS and IRIS for δ(18)O, and greatly reduced the discrepancies for δ(2)H. The mean differences in isotope ratios between IRMS and the corrected IRIS method were 0.18‰ for δ(18)O, and -3.39‰ for δ(2)H. The inability to create an ethanol correction curve for δ(2)H probably caused the larger discrepancies. We conclude that ethanol and methanol are the primary compounds causing interference in IRIS analyzers, and that each individual analyzer will probably require customized correction curves.

  16. Localization of tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)-/sup 1/H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ((/sup 3/H) AF 1890) in rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Hilderbrandt-Stark, H.E.; Mills, J.W.; Fawcett, D.W.

    1982-09-01

    Tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)-/sup 1/H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ((/sup 3/H)AF 1890) was localized within rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiographic techniques. Ligated seminiferous tubule preparations were exposed in vitro to 80 microCi of (/sup 3/H)AF 1890 in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled AF 1890 for 30 min at 31 degrees C. Autoradiographs showed a generalized distribution of silver grains over the seminiferous epithelium, in the tubular lumen, and in the interstitial spaces. In addition, clusters of grains were concentrated over the seminiferous epithelium in regions of spermatid heads and tails and in the basal portion of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, and over Leydig cells in the interstitial space. The generalized distribution was reduced and the grain clusters eliminated by incubation in an excess of unlabeled AF 1890. (/sup 3/H)inulin was used to assess the effectiveness of the tubular ligation because inulin does not normally penetrate the blood-testis barrier. This extracellular marker was not localized in the tubular lumen or in the seminiferous epithelium. Therefore, the labeling observed with (/sup 3/H)AF 1890 indicates that this compound crosses the blood-testis barrier.

  17. Quantum mechanical and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman,1H,13C NMR, UV-Vis) studies, NBO, NLO, HOMO, LUMO and Fukui function analysis of 5-Methoxy-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2(3H)-thione by DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Manju; Muthu, S.; Nanje Gowda, N. M.

    2017-02-01

    Theoretical analysis of the molecular structure, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR, UV-Vis) studies, and thermodynamic characteristics of 5-Methoxy-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2(3H)-thione (5MBIT) molecule were done by DFT/B3LYP using 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. Theoretical parameters were compared with experimental data. The dipole moment (μ), polarizability (Δα) and first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule were calculated. Thermodynamic properties, HOMO and LUMO energies were determined. Global reactivity parameters and Fukui function of the 5MBIT molecule were predicted.

  18. Synthesis of New 2-Halo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-azirines via a Non-Classical Wittig Reaction.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana L; Sousa, Carmo; Henriques, Marta S C; Paixão, José A; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M V D

    2015-12-12

    The synthesis and reactivity of tetrazol-5-yl-phosphorus ylides towards N-halosuccinimide/TMSN₃ reagent systems was explored, opening the way to new haloazidoalkenes bearing a tetrazol-5-yl substituent. These compounds were obtained as single isomers, except in one case. X-ray crystal structures were determined for three derivatives, establishing that the non-classical Wittig reaction leads to the selective synthesis of haloazidoalkenes with (Z)-configuration. The thermolysis of the haloazidoalkenes afforded new 2-halo-2-(tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-azirines in high yields. Thus, the reported synthetic methodologies gave access to important building blocks in organic synthesis, vinyl tetrazoles and 2-halo-2-(tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-azirine derivatives.

  19. Toxicological study of the high-explosive formulation imidazo(4,5-d)imidazole-2,5(1H,3H)-dione, tetrahydro-1,4-dinitro

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50/ values for the high-explosive formulation imidazo(4,5-d)imidazole-2,5(1H,3H)-dione, tetrahydro-1,4-dinitro (DINGU) for mice and rats are greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the mixture would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit with DINGU demonstrated that it was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in rabbit eye application studies. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show DINGU to be deleterious in this regard.

  20. 1,3-Bis[3-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)prop­yl]-1H-anthra[1,2-d]imidazole-2,6,11(3H)-trione

    PubMed Central

    Afrakssou, Zahra; Rodi, Youssef Kandri; Capet, Frédéric; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C37H26N4O7, is a 1H-anthra[2,1-d]imidazole-2,6,11(3H)-trione derivative having isoindolindionylpropyl substitutents attached to the imidazole N atoms. The anthraquinone fragment is buckled, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings being 1.6 (1)°. The two isoindoline rings of the substituents of the imidazole ring are positioned on opposite sides of the five-membered ring; these are nearly mutually perpendicular [dihedral angle between isoindoline rings = 88.3 (1)°]. PMID:22091154

  1. Study of E/Z isomerization of (arylamino)methylidenefuran-2(3H)-ones by (1) H, (13) C, (15) N spectroscopy and DFT calculations in different solvents.

    PubMed

    Osipov, Alexander K; Anis'kov, Alexander A; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Yegorova, Alevtina Yu

    2017-08-01

    The structure and configuration of the series of previously unknown arylaminomethylidenefuran-2(3H)-ones have been determined in solution by (1) H, (13) C, (15) N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy including two-dimensional experiments such as (1) H─(1) H COSY, dqCOSY, (1) H─(13) C HSQC, (1) H─(13) C HMBC. It was found that synthesized substances exist as an equilibrium mixture of E- and Z-enamines in solution. It was established on the basis of density functional theory calculations that the exchange between the two push-pull enamines is a simple rotation around an exocyclic partial double bond that depends on the effect of the solvents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. First discovery of novel 3-hydroxy-quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones as specific anti-vaccinia and adenovirus agents via 'privileged scaffold' refining approach.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwei; Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Zhongxia; Huang, Boshi; Naesens, Lieve; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-11-01

    A series of 1,2,3-triazolyl 3-hydroxy-quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones was constructed utilizing Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) method. The biological significance of the novel synthesized quinazolines was highlighted by evaluating them in vitro for antiviral activity, wherein several compounds exhibited excellent activity specifically against vaccinia and adenovirus. Especially, 24b11 displayed the most potent inhibitory activity against vaccinia with an EC50 value of 1.7μM, which was 15 fold than that of the reference drug Cidofovir (EC50=25μM). 24b13 was the most potent compound against adenovirus-2 with an EC50 value of 6.2μM, which proved lower than all the reference drugs. Preliminary structure-activity relationships were also discussed. To the best of our knowledge, no data are present in the literature on antiviral activity of 3-hydroxy-quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones against DNA-viruses. Thus, these findings warrant further investigations (library expansion and compound refinement) on this novel class of antiviral agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intermolecular interactions in crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface, characterization, DFT and thermal analysis of 5-((5-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione indole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Assem; Soliman, Saied M.; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Ali, M.; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Zarrouk, Abdelkader; Warad, Ismail

    2017-06-01

    Condensation reaction of 5-bromo-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde and 1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione in ethanol under reflux conditions furnished the formation of 5-((5-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione indole in a very good yield. The desired compound is characterized by spectroscopic and thermal tools, additionally the structure was confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Visually analysis of desired crystal structure using Hirshfeld surface revealed several short intermolecular connections on the molecule surface while the 2D finger-print draw evaluated the atom-to-atom interactions percentages. The structures of the monomer and the dimer of the product that are obtained from the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) molecular geometry optimizations were compared with the XRD experimental one. Electronic spectra are assigned on the basis of the TD-DFT results and the molecular orbital (MO) energy level diagrams showing the different MOs included in these transitions are explored. The electrophilic and nucleophilic regions are shown using molecular electrostatic potential map. The GIAO method is used to compute and compare the NMR chemical shifts. The desired organic compound revealed a good thermal stability up to 215 °C.

  4. The neural inductive signal is transferred to ectoblast in 1-2 h but a continued contact with mesoblast for 2-3 h is essential for neuralization in the chick area pellucida.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Banka, D; Deshmukh, S; Modak, S P

    2001-09-01

    In the area pellucida of the chick gastrula, the Hensen's node (HN) graft must contact the competent ectoblast for at least 4 h to promote neural induction. When we removed the grafted HN after 1 to 3 h and replaced it by a non-inducing post nodal (PN) fragment, a 1-2 h contact with HN was found to be sufficient to promote neural induction. When HN graft was removed after 3 or 4 h and replaced by PN, the neural inductive response was substantially improved towards formation of archencephalic structures. Thus, our results indicate that neural induction takes place in two steps. In the first step, a contact with HN for 1-2 h is sufficient to transferthe inductive signal which is stabilized through a second step involving continued cell-cell contact with even non-inducing PN mesoblast.

  5. A new neutron polarimeter and measurement of {sup n}{sub E} from the {sup 2}H(e [downward right arrow] e' n [downward right arrow]){sup 1}H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Madey; A. Lai; Tom Eden

    1994-09-01

    In a continuing effort to improve the quality of measurements for extracting the neutron electronic form factor (G{sup n}{sub E} from the {sup 2}H[downward right arrow]e'n[downward right arrow]) {sup 1}H reaction, one of us (RM) proposed a new configuration for a neutron polarimeter (NPOL) to measure G{sup n}{sub E}from the {sup 2}H (e[downward right arrow], e'n[downward right arrow]){sup 1}H reaction in Bates E89-04 and CEBAF E93-038. Substantially higher count rates with this new neutron polarimeter reduce the uncertainties in G{sup n}{sub E}. A description of the new NPOL is given here followed by an outline of the experiment with projections of uncertainties in G{sup n}{sub E}.

  6. Tamsulosin: assessment of affinity of 3H-prazosin bindings to two alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha1H and alpha1L) in bovine prostate and rat heart and brain.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Nakamura, T; Yoshihara, T; Fukutomi, J; Sugiyama, K; Hattorim, K; Ohnuki, T; Watanabe, K; Nagatomo, T

    1998-10-01

    1. The present study was designed to assess the displacement potencies of tamsulosin to 3H-prazosin bindings in two alpha1-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes (alpha1H and alpha1L) in bovine prostate, rat heart and brain compared with those of amosulalol, labetalol, ketanserin, clonidine and propranolol. 2. The pKi values of tamsulosin to alpha1H and alpha1L subtypes in bovine prostate were 9.13 and 8.99 and these values were almost the same as those of prazosin. On the other hand, low pKi binding values of amosulalol, labetalol, ketanserin, clonidine and propranolol to these subtypes were observed. 3. Low pKi values of tamsulosin to alpha2- and beta-ARs and muscarinic and 5HT2 receptors in the rat brain were observed. 4. These results suggest that tamsulosin has high affinities to alpha1L-AR subtypes in bovine prostate and rat hearts as well as alpha1H-AR subtypes, implying an inhibitory effect of this drug on the contraction of the prostate.

  7. Copper-catalyzed domino synthesis of 2-imino-1H-imidazol-5(2H)-ones and quinoxalines involving C-C bond cleavage with a 1,3-dicarbonyl unit as a leaving group.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Ni, Fan; Shu, Wen-Ming; Wu, An-Xin

    2014-09-08

    Although 2-imino-1H-imidazol-5(2H)-ones have important biological activities in metabolism, their synthesis has rarely been investigated. Quinoxalines as "privileged scaffolds" in medicinal chemistry have been extensively investigated, but the development of novel and efficient synthetic methods remains very attractive. Herein, we have developed two copper-catalyzed domino reactions for the synthesis of 2-imino-1H-imidazol-5(2H)-ones and quinoxalines involving CC bond-cleavage with a 1,3-dicarbonyl unit as a leaving group. The domino sequence for the synthesis of 2-imino-1H-imidazol-5(2H)-ones includes aza-Michael addition, intramolecular cyclization, CC bond-cleavage, 1,2-rearrangement, and aerobic dehydrogenation reaction, whereas the domino sequence for the synthesis of quinoxalines includes aza-Michael addition, intramolecular cyclization, elimination reaction, and CC bond-cleavage reaction. The two domino reactions have significant advantages including high efficiency, mild reaction conditions, and high tolerance of various functional groups. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Metal phosphonates based on aminomethylenediphosphonate: Syntheses and characterization of Na 4Zn{NH 3CH(PO 3) 2} 2·4H 2O, Ni{NH 3CH(PO 3H) 2} 2· xH 2O and NaNi 2{NH 3CH(PO 3)(PO 3H 0.5)} 2(H 2O) 2·2H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Song-Song; Wang, Tian-Wei; Li, Yi-Zhi; Zheng, Li-Min

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the syntheses of three transition metal diphosphonate compounds: Na 4Zn{NH 3CH(PO 3) 2} 2·4H 2O ( 1), Ni{NH 3CH(PO 3H) 2} 2· xH 2O ( 2) and NaNi 2{NH 3CH(PO 3)(PO 3H 0.5)} 2(H 2O) 2·2H 2O ( 3). Compound 1 contains chains of [Zn{NHCH(PO)2}2]n4n- made up of corner-sharing ZnO 6 octahedra and CPO 3 tetrahedra, which are further connected by tetramers of edge-sharing NaO 6 octahedra, forming a three-dimensional open-framework structure. Compound 2 shows a square-grid layer structure where the NiO 6 octahedra are corner shared with CPO 3 tetrahedra. The adjacent layers are linked by strong inter-layer hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional open-network structure with channels where the lattice water molecules reside. The structure of compound 3 is analogous to that of NaCo 2{NH 3CH(PO 3)(PO 3H 0.5)} 2(H 2O) 2· xH 2O in which layers of Ni 2{NH 3CH(PO 3)(PO 3H 0.5)} 2(H 2O) 2 are connected by NaO 6 linkages into an open-framework structure. The magnetic studies show that weak antiferromagnetic interactions are mediated between the nickel ions in compounds 2 and 3. Crystal data for 1: triclinic, space group P-1, a=5.551(2) Å, b=6.166(2) Å, c=12.424(4) Å, α=92.422(6)°, β=92.687(7)°, γ=93.926(6)°, V=423.3(2) Å3, Z=2. For 2: triclinic, space group P-1, a=9.043(1) Å, b=9.180(1) Å, c=9.271(1) Å, α=89.693(3)°, β=70.202(3)°, γ=89.530(3)°, V=724.1(2) Å3, Z=2.

  9. Study of the tau- ---> pi- pi- pi+ pi0 pi0 nu/tau and tau- --> 3h- 2h+ nu/tau Decays Using the BaBar Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sobie, R.; /Victoria U.

    2005-06-21

    The {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {tau}{sup -} {yields} 3h{sup -} 2h{sup +} {nu}{sub {tau}} decays have been studied using the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. Preliminary branching fractions are given for the {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}} and to the sub-channels {tau}{sup -} {yields} {eta}{pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {omega}(782){pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}}. A preliminary upper limit is given on the branching fraction for the {phi}(1020){pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}} mode. In addition a preliminary measurement of the branching fraction of the {tau}{sup -} {yields} 3h{sup -}2h{sup +} {nu}{sub {tau}} decay (h = {pi}, K) is presented.

  10. Sauna, sweat and science - quantifying the proportion of condensation water versus sweat using a stable water isotope ((2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O) tracer experiment.

    PubMed

    Zech, Michael; Bösel, Stefanie; Tuthorn, Mario; Benesch, Marianne; Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most visitors of a sauna appreciate the heat pulse that is perceived when water is poured on the stones of a sauna stove. However, probably only few bathers are aware that this pleasant heat pulse is caused by latent heat being released onto our skin due to condensation of water vapour. In order to quantify the proportion of condensation water versus sweat to dripping water of test persons we conducted sauna experiments using isotopically labelled (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) thrown water as tracer. This allows differentiating between 'pure sweat' and 'condensation water'. Two ways of isotope mass balance calculations were applied and yielded similar results for both water isotopes. Accordingly, condensation contributed considerably to dripping water with mean proportions of 52 ± 12 and 54 ± 7% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2011/12 and 30 ± 13 and 33 ± 6% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2012/13, respectively, depending on the way of calculating the isotope mass balance. It can be concluded from the results of our dual isotope labelling sauna experiment that it is not all about sweat in the sauna.

  11. On the Formation and Isomer Specific Detection of Propenal (C2H3CHO) and Cyclopropanone (c-C3H4O) in Interstellar Model Ices - A Combined FTIR and Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectroscopic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Borsuk, Aleca; Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2015-11-01

    The formation routes of two structural isomers—propenal (C2H3CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C3H4O)—were investigated experimentally by exposing ices of astrophysical interest to energetic electrons at 5.5 K thus mimicking the interaction of ionizing radiation with interstellar ices in cold molecular clouds. The radiation-induced processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and via temperature programmed desorption exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with single photon ionization in the post irradiation phase. To selectively probe which isomer(s) is/are formed, the photoionization experiments were conducted with 10.49 and 9.60 eV photons. Our studies provided compelling evidence on the formation of both isomers—propenal (C2H3CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C3H4O)—in ethylene (C2H4)—carbon monoxide (CO) ices forming propenal and cyclopropanone at a ratio of (4.5 ± 0.9):1. Based on the extracted reaction pathways, the cyclopropanone molecule can be classified as a tracer of a low temperature non-equilibrium chemistry within interstellar ices involving most likely excited triplet states, whereas propenal can be formed at ultralow temperatures, but also during the annealing phase via non-equilibrium as well as thermal chemistry (radical recombination). Since propenal has been detected in the interstellar medium and our laboratory experiments demonstrate that both isomers originated from identical precursor molecules our study predicts that the hitherto elusive second isomer—cyclopropanone—should also be observable toward those astronomical sources such as Sgr B2(N) in which propenal has been detected.

  12. 1,3-Bis(naphthalen-2-ylmeth­yl)-1H-anthra[1,2-d]imidazole-2,6,11(3H)-trione

    PubMed Central

    Afrakssou, Zahra; Rodi, Youssef Kandri; Capet, Frédéric; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C37H24N2O3, is a 1H-anthra[2,1-d]imidazole-2,6,11(3H)-trione derivative having naphthyl­methyl substitutents attached to the imidazole N atoms. The anthraquinone part of the mol­ecule is somewhat folded along the the line connecting the carbonyl bonds. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 7.8 (1)°. The two naphthyl systems of the substituents of the imidazole ring are positioned on the same side of the five-membered ring; these are approximately coplanar, the dihedral angle between the napthyl systems being 4.3 (2)°. PMID:22091155

  13. Peptide-nucleic acids (PNAs) with pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine-2,4,5,7-(1H,3H,6H,8H)-tetraone (PPT) as a universal base: their synthesis and binding affinity for oligodeoxyribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Taisuke; Kuroda, Kenji; Kataoka, Masanori; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro

    2009-07-21

    Peptide-nucleic acids (PNAs) including pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine-2,4,5,7-(1H,3H,6H,8H)-tetraone (PPT) as a nucleobase were synthesized, and their binding affinity for the complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotides was investigated. We found that PNAs with one or two PPT(s) and natural nucleobases (i.e., adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine) have excellent binding affinity for oligodeoxyribonucleotides with complementary bases at the positions facing the natural nucleobases, and with adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine at the positions opposite PPT in PNAs. The binding affinity of the PPT-containing PNA is higher than or comparable to that of a PNA consisting of all complementary natural nucleobases, viz. a PNA with a suitable natural nucleobase in place of PPT in the PPT-containing PNA. Consequently, it was concluded that PPT serves as a useful universal base that can recognize all natural nucleobases.

  14. Structure-5-HT/D2 Receptor Affinity Relationship in a New Group of 1-Arylpiperazynylalkyl Derivatives of 8-Dialkylamino-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione.

    PubMed

    Żmudzki, Paweł; Satała, Grzegorz; Chłoń-Rzepa, Grażyna; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Kazek, Grzegorz; Siwek, Agata; Gryboś, Anna; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Wesołowska, Anna; Pawłowski, Maciej

    2016-10-01

    In our previous papers, we have reported that some 8-amino-1,3-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione derivatives possessed high affinity and displayed agonistic, partial agonistic, or antagonistic activity for serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors. In order to examine further the influence of the substituent in the position 8 of the purine moiety and the influence of the xanthine core on the affinity for serotonin 5-HT1A , 5-HT2A , 5-HT6 , 5-HT7 , and dopamine D2 receptors, two series of 1-arylpiperazynylalkyl derivatives of 8-amino-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione were synthesized. All the final compounds were investigated in in vitro competition binding experiments for the serotonin 5-HT1A , 5-HT2A , 5-HT6 , 5-HT7 , and dopamine D2 receptors. The structure-affinity relationships for this group of compounds were discussed. For selected compounds, the functional assays for the 5-HT1A and D2 receptors were carried out. The results of the assays indicated that these groups of derivatives possessed antagonistic activity for 5-HT1A receptors and agonistic, partial agonistic, or antagonistic activity for D2 receptors. In total, 26 new compounds were synthesized, 20 of which were tested in in vitro binding experiments and 5 were tested in in vitro functional assays. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Mechanism of action of 4-hydroxymethyl-1,6,8-trimethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one, a very active angular furocoumarin-like sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Bettio, Frazia; Chilin, Adriana; Caffieri, Sergio; Reddi, Elena; Bordin, Franco

    2005-01-01

    The molecular structure of 1,4,6,8-tetramethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one (FQ), a recent furocoumarin-like photosensitizer, has been modified with the aim of reducing its strong genotoxicity, by replacing the methyl group at 4 position with a hydroxymethyl one, and so obtaining 4-hydroxymethyl-1,6,8-trimethylfuro[2,3-h]quinolin-2(1H)-one (HOFQ). This modification gave rise to a strong reduction of lipophilicity and dark interaction with DNA. The formation of monoadducts (MA) was deeply affected, whereas the induction of bifunctional adducts between DNA and proteins (DPC(L>0)) was replaced by an efficient production of DNA-protein cross-links at zero length (DPC(L=0)), probably via guanine damage. Because of its angular molecular structure, HOFQ does not form interstrand cross-links (ISC): therefore, DPC(L=0) and MA represent the main lesions induced by HOFQ in DNA. In comparison with FQ (which induces MA and DPC(L>0)) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) (MA, ISC, DPC(L>0)), HOFQ seems to be a more selective agent. In fact, contrary to FQ and 8-MOP, HOFQ, together with a noticeable antiproliferative activity, shows low levels of point mutations in bacteria and of clastogenic effects in mammalian cells. HOFQ is also an efficient apoptosis inducer, especially in comparison with 8-MOP, when tested at equitoxic experimental conditions; this property might be correlated with the complete HOFQ inability of inducing skin erythemas, a well-known side effect of classic furocoumarin photosensitization.

  16. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydro-1,2-oxazepin-5(2H)-ones and 2,3-Dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones from β-Substituted β-Hydroxyaminoaldehydes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-1,2-oxazepin-5(2H)-ones and 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones from β-substituted β-hydroxyaminoaldehydes is reported. The β-hydroxyaminoaldehydes were prepared by enantioselective organocatalytic 1,4-addition of N-tert-butyl (tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxycarbamate to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (MacMillan protocol). Alkyne addition to the aldehydes followed by alcohol oxidation furnished N-Boc O-TBS-protected β-aminoynones. Removal of the TBS protecting group initiated a 7-endo-dig cyclization to yield previously unknown 3,4-dihydro-1,2-oxazepin-5(2H)-ones. Reductive cleavage of the N–O bond of the oxazepinones and Boc-deprotection provided 2-substituted 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones via 6-endo-trig cyclization. 2,3-Dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones are versatile intermediates that have been used for the synthesis of many alkaloids. The new protocol allows the synthesis of 3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones carrying an array of substituents at C2 that cannot be prepared from commercial β-amino acids or by one-carbon homologation of proteinogenic amino acids. The use of readily available β-hydroxylaminoaldehydes expands the utility of our previously reported method to prepare 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones from β-amino acids as the source of diversity and chirality. A broad substrate scope is possible because β-aminoaldehydes can be prepared from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes by an enantioselective organocatalytic process. PMID:24785413

  17. Organotin(IV) carboxylates based on 2-(1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)acetic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures, luminescent properties and antitumor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiao; Liang, Jingwen; Xie, Jingyi; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Dongsheng; Dong, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Organotin carboxylates based on an amide carboxylic acid 2-(1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)acetic acid (HL): [(Bn2Sn)2O2L]2·2C6H6 (1) (Bn = benzyl group) and (Ph2Sn)(L)2 (2) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H, 13C, 119Sn NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography diffraction analysis. Complex 1 is dimeric carboxylate tetraorganodistannoxane and show a ;ladder-like; molecular structure. Complex 2 is a dialkyltin carboxylate monomer possessing crystallographically imposed two-fold symmetry. Ligand in 1 and 2 adopts unidentate and bidentate coordination respectively. Both 1 and 2 form 1D, 2D and 3D supramolecular organizations in the solid state mediated through Csbnd H⋯O and π⋯π interactions which are discussed in detail. The luminescent properties and preliminary antitumor activities about this series of complexes were also studied.

  18. The crystal and molecular structure of N{sub 2}H{sub 5}[M(N{sub 2}H{sub 3}COO){sub 3}].H{sub 2}O (M-bar {l_brace}Co, Zn{r_brace}) isomorphic compounds-an X-ray crystallographic, vibrational spectroscopic and quantum-chemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jesih, Adolf; Rahten, Anka; Benkic, Primoz; Skapin, Tomaz; Pejov, Ljupco . E-mail: ljupcop@iunona.pmf.ukim.edu.mk; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.

    2004-12-01

    A systematic study of N{sub 2}H{sub 5}[M(N{sub 2}H{sub 3}COO){sub 3}].H{sub 2}O (M-bar {l_brace}Co, Zn{r_brace}) type of compounds, which are typical model systems for transition metal complexes with {alpha}-amino acids (the latter are not obtainable in crystalline form), was carried out. The crystal structures of these compounds were solved by X-ray crystallographic methods. FTIR spectra at room and low temperature ({approx}100K) as well as Raman spectra at room temperature were recorded, and analyzed in details. Also, the geometries of the Zn(N{sub 2}H{sub 3}COO){sub 3}{sup -} and N{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup +} species were fully optimized at ab initio HF and B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, and subsequent vibrational analyses were performed on the basis of which several important reassignments of the IR and Raman bands were proposed. In order to study the binding energetics and the ligand-cation charge-transfer interactions within the Zn(N{sub 2}H{sub 3}COO){sub 3}{sup -} complex, NBO analysis was carried out, employing the second-order perturbation theory analysis of the Fock matrix (i.e., its Kohn-Sham analog) within the NBO basis.

  19. Examination of halogen substituent effects on HIV-1 integrase inhibitors derived from 2,3-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1H-isoindol-1-ones and 4,5-dihydroxy-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-diones

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue Zhi; Maddali, Kasthuraiah; Vu, B. Christie; Marchand, Christophe; Hughes, Stephen H.; Pommier, Yves; Burke, Terrence R.

    2009-01-01

    Using 2,3-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1H-isoindol-1-one and 4,5-dihydroxy-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione based HIV-1 integrase inhibitors as display platforms, we undertook a thorough examination of the effects of modifying the halogen substituents on a key benzyl ring that is hypothesized to bind in a hydrophobic pocket of the integrase•DNA complex. Data from this study suggest that in general dihalo – substituted analogues have higher potency than monohalo – substituted compounds, but that further addition of halogens is not beneficial. PMID:19364649

  20. Molecular Motions in Halogen-Bridged One-Dimensional Pt Complexes, [PtII(en)2][PtIVX2(en)2](ClO4)4 (X = Cl, Br) Studied by 2H and 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Noriyoshi; Hachisuka, Toru; Nakano, Yukitaka; Ikeda, Ryuichi

    2002-07-01

    2H and 1H NMR measurements were performed on crystalline [Pt(en)2][PtX2(en)2](ClO4)4 (X = Cl, Br), where the protonated and partially deuterated ethylenediamines (en's), NH2(CH2)2NH2, NH2(CD2)2NH2 and ND2(CH2)2ND2 were used as ligands. Measurements of 2H and 1H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times showed the presence of motions of en chelate rings at the temperatures near the phase transitions, whereas broad 2H NMR spectra and the reported X-ray diffraction data showed no marked motions. These results were consistently explained by introducing the en puckering motion between highly asymmetric potential wells with an energy difference of 10 - 13 kJ mol-1. This difference was shown to be much larger than 2 - 5 kJ mol-1, reported for the iodo-complex, [Pt(en)2][PtI2(en)2](ClO4)4

  1. Epitaxy of Si1- x C x via ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition using Si2H6, Si3H8, or Si4H10 as Si precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Sangmo; Jang, Hyunchul; Ko, Dae-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In this study, disilane (Si2H6), trisilane (Si3H8), and tetrasilane (Si4H10) were used as Si precursors for the growth of Si1- x C x epilayers, and the growth properties of the layers were compared. The use of a higher-order silane significantly increased the growth rates of the Si1- x C x epilayers at a processing temperature of 650 °C. In addition, a higher growth rate realized by using a higher-order silane promoted an increase in the substitutional carbon concentration in the Si1- x C x epilayers owing to the additional injection of a C-source gas (SiH3CH3) and the incorporation of C atoms into substitutional sites. The differences in growth properties between Si precursors were explained on the basis of reaction mechanisms.

  2. Ab initio studies on cyanoacetylenes of astrochemical interest: [Y(Ctbnd C)CN, Y dbnd C2H5, C3H7, C4H9, F, Cl, Br and CN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodi Ramanah, D.; Surajbali, P.; Rhyman, L.; Alswaidan, I. A.; Fun, H.-K.; Somanah, R.; Ramasami, P.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical studies were performed on seven potential interstellar and circumstellar substituted cyanoacetylenes, Y(Ctbnd C)CN [Y = C2H5, C3H7, C4H9, F, Cl, Br and CN]. Geometry optimizations were carried out using the DFT/B3LYP, the CCSD and CCSD(T) levels of theory. The cc-pVTZ basis set was used for all atoms. Frequency computations were also carried out at the same level of theory as for the optimization to check the nature of the stationary points. The molecular and spectroscopic parameters of the cyanoacetylenes were computed. An analysis of these parameters is in line with the satisfactory performance of the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level compared to the golden standard, the CCSD(T) level. The theoretical data reported in this work should facilitate future identifications of these cyanoacetylenes in extraterrestrial locations. Plausible mechanisms for the formation of these molecules have been proposed.

  3. ACE-FTS Observation of a Young Biomass Burning Plume: First Reported Measurements of C2H4, C3H6O, H2CO and PAN by Infrared Occultation from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Herbin, Herve; Clerbaux, Cathy; Hurtmans, Daniel; Wespes, Catherine; Carleer, Michel; Turquety, Solene; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Remedios, John; Hauglustaine, Didier; hide

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our study of the upper tropospheric composition with the infrared 35 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE FTS), we 36 found an occultation sequence that on 8 October 2005, sampled a remarkable plume near the 37 east coast of Tanzania. Model simulations of the CO distribution in the Southern hemisphere 38 are performed for this period and they demonstrate that the emissions for this event originated 39 from a nearby forest fire, after which the plume was transported from the source region to the 40 upper troposphere. Taking advantage of the very high signal-to-noise ratio of the ACE FTS 41 spectra over a wide wavenumber range (750-4400 cm(exp -1), we present in-depth analyses of the 42 chemical composition of this plume in the middle and upper troposphere, focusing on the 43 measurements of weakly absorbing pollutants. For this specific biomass burning event, we 44 report simultaneous observations of an unprecedented number of organic species. 45 Measurements of C2H4 (ethene), C3H4 (propyne), H2CO (formaldehyde), C3H6O (acetone) 46 and CH3COO2NO2 (perxoxyacetylnitrate, abbreviated as PAN) are the first reported 47 detections using infrared occultation spectroscopy from satellites. Based on the lifetime of the 48 emitted species, we discuss the photochemical age of the plume and also report, whenever 49 possible, the enhancement ratios relative to CO.

  4. Beam-energy dependence and updated test of the Trojan-horse nucleus invariance via a measurement of the 2H(d ,p )3H reaction at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengbo; Wen, Qungang; Tumino, A.; Fu, Yuanyong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shuhua; Meng, Qiuying; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; Lamia, L.

    2017-03-01

    The 2H(d ,p )3H bare nucleus astrophysical S (E ) factor has been measured indirectly at energies from about 500 keV down to several keV by means of the Trojan-horse method applied to the 2H(6Li,p t )4He quasifree reaction induced at 11 MeV. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigation of the same binary reactions. It shows that the precision of S (E ) data in the low-energy range extracted via the same Trojan-horse nuclei [6Li=(d ⊕α )] becomes better when the incident energy of the virtual binary process decreases from high value down to the lower Gamow energy range, which near the zero-quasi-free-energy point. The very good agreement between data extracted from different Trojan-horse nuclei [6Li=(d ⊕α ) vs 3He=(d ⊕p )] gives a strong updated test for the independence of the binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan-horse nucleus at low energies.

  5. Acid-base properties of xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) and of some related nucleobase derivatives in aqueous solution: micro acidity constant evaluations of the (N1)H versus the (N3)H deprotonation ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Salah S; Corfù, Nicolas A; Griesser, Rolf; Sigel, Helmut

    2004-10-11

    The first acidity constant of fully protonated xanthosine 5'-monophosphate, that is, of H3(XMP)+, was estimated by means of a micro acidity constant scheme and the following three deprotonations of the H2(XMP)+/- (pKa=0.97), H(XMP)- (5.30), and XMP2- (6.45) species were determined by potentiometric pH titrations; further deprotonation of (XMP-H)3- is possible only with pKa>12. The most important results are that the xanthine residue is deprotonated before the P(O)2(OH)- group loses its final proton; that is, twofold negatively charged XMP carries one negative charge in the pyrimidine ring and one at the phosphate group. Micro acidity constant evaluations reveal that this latter mentioned species occurs with a formation degree of 88 %, whereas its tautomer with a neutral xanthine moiety and a PO3(2-) group is formed only to 12 %; this distinguishes XMP from its related nucleoside 5'-monophosphates, like guanosine 5'-monophosphate. At the physiological pH of about 7.5 mainly (XMP-H)3- exists. The question, which of the purine sites, (N1)H or (N3)H, is deprotonated in this species cannot be answered unequivocally, though it appears that the (N3)H site is more acidic. By application of several methylated xanthine species intrinsic micro acidity constants are calculated and it is shown that, for example, for 7-methylxanthine the N1-deprotonated tautomer occurs with a formation degree of about 5 %; a small but significant amount that, as is discussed, may possibly be enhanced by metal ion coordination to N7, which is known to occur preferably to this site.

  6. Synthesis, NMR, FT-IR, X-ray structural characterization, DFT analysis and isomerism aspects of 5-(2,6-dichlorobenzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Assem; Al-Najjar, Hany J; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Soliman, Saied M; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-08-05

    The synthesis and spectral characterization of the 5-(2,6-dichlorobenzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione;3 was reported. The solid state molecular structure of 3 was studied using X-ray crystallography. The relative stabilities of the seven possible isomers of 3 were calculated by DFT/B3LYP method using 6-311 G(d,p) basis set. The calculated total energies and thermodynamic parameters were used to predict the relative stabilities of these isomers. The effect of solvent polarity on the relative stability of these isomers was studied at the same level of theory using PCM. It was found that the keto form, (T0), is the most stable isomer both in the gaseous state and solution. In solution, the calculated total energies of all isomers are decreased indicating that all isomers are stabilized by the solvent effect. The vibrational spectra of the most stable isomer, 3(T0) are calculated using the same level of theory and the results are compared with the experimentally measured FTIR spectra. Good correlation was obtained between the experimental and calculated vibrational frequencies (R(2)=0.9992). The electronic spectra of 3(T0) in gas phase as well as in solutions were calculated using the TD-DFT method. All the predicted electronic transitions showed very little spectral shifts and increase in the intensity of absorption due to solvent effect. Also the (1)H- and (13)C-NMR chemical shifts of the stable isomer were calculated and the results were correlated with the experimental data. Good correlations between the experimental and calculated chemical shifts were obtained.

  7. Synthesis, NMR, FT-IR, X-ray structural characterization, DFT analysis and isomerism aspects of 5-(2,6-dichlorobenzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Assem; Al-Najjar, Hany J.; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Soliman, Saied M.; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis and spectral characterization of the 5-(2,6-dichlorobenzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione;3 was reported. The solid state molecular structure of 3 was studied using X-ray crystallography. The relative stabilities of the seven possible isomers of 3 were calculated by DFT/B3LYP method using 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The calculated total energies and thermodynamic parameters were used to predict the relative stabilities of these isomers. The effect of solvent polarity on the relative stability of these isomers was studied at the same level of theory using PCM. It was found that the keto form, (T0), is the most stable isomer both in the gaseous state and solution. In solution, the calculated total energies of all isomers are decreased indicating that all isomers are stabilized by the solvent effect. The vibrational spectra of the most stable isomer, 3(T0) are calculated using the same level of theory and the results are compared with the experimentally measured FTIR spectra. Good correlation was obtained between the experimental and calculated vibrational frequencies (R2 = 0.9992). The electronic spectra of 3(T0) in gas phase as well as in solutions were calculated using the TD-DFT method. All the predicted electronic transitions showed very little spectral shifts and increase in the intensity of absorption due to solvent effect. Also the 1H- and 13C-NMR chemical shifts of the stable isomer were calculated and the results were correlated with the experimental data. Good correlations between the experimental and calculated chemical shifts were obtained.

  8. Synthesis and molecular characterization of 5,5‧-((2,4-dichlorophenyl)methylene)bis(1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Assem; Al-Najjar, Hany J.; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Soliman, Saied M.; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-03-01

    A simple, economical, and green approach to the synthesis of 5,5‧-((2,4-dichlorophenyl)methylene)bis(1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione) 4 using a tandem Aldol condensation-Michael addition process in aqueous diethylamine medium was described. The 3D structure of the latter was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray structure determination. The molecular structure of the titled compound was calculated using DFT B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. The calculated geometric parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from our reported X-ay structure. The two pyrimidinetrione rings have C16 and C20 atoms deviated significantly from the ring plane. The electronic spectra of the studied compound have been calculated using the TD-DFT method. The longest wavelength band (257.8 nm, f = 0.0276) occurs due to H → L (86%) transition. The 1H and 13C NMR calculated chemical shifts using GIAO method showed good correlation with the experimental data. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) showed that the most reactive sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks are the carbonyl oxygen (O5) and the H21 atoms, respectively. The NBO calculations were performed to predict the natural atomic charges at the different atomic sites and to study the different intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interactions occurring in the studied system. Interestingly, there is some delocalization of electron densities from the occupied σ-type NBO of the C20sbnd H21 to the unoccupied π∗-NBO of the two adjacent carbonyl groups.

  9. Synthesis of opioidmimetics, 3-[H-Dmt-NH(CH(2))(m)]-6-[H-Dmt-NH(CH(2))(n)]-2(1H)-pyrazinones, and studies on structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Anna; Li, Tingyou; Tsuda, Yuko; Yokoi, Toshio; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Okada, Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Opioidmimetics containing 3-[H-Dmt-NH-(CH(2))(m)]-6-[H-Dmt-NH-(CH(2))(n)]-2(1H)-pyrazinone symmetric (m = n, 1-4) (1 - 4) and asymmetric (m, n = 1 - 4) aliphatic chains (5 - 16) were synthesized using dipeptidyl chloromethylketone intermediates. They had high mu-affinity (K(i)mu = 0.021 - 2.94 nM), delta-affinity (K(i)delta = 1.06 - 152.6 nM), and mu selectivity (K(i)delta/K(i)mu = 14 - 3,126). The opioidmimetics (1 - 16) exhibited mu agonism in proportion to their mu-receptor affinity. delta-Agonism was essentially lacking in the compounds except (4) and (16), and (1) and (2) indicated weak delta antagonism (pA(2) = 6.47 and 6.56, respectively). The data verify that a specific length of aliphatic linker is required between the Dmt pharmacophore and the pyrazinone ring to produce unique mu-opioid receptor ligands.

  10. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1M HCl by D-glucose derivatives of dihydropyrido [2,3-d:6,5-d′] dipyrimidine-2, 4, 6, 8(1H,3H, 5H,7H)-tetraone

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Chandrabhan; Quraishi, M. A.; Kluza, K.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2017-01-01

    D-glucose derivatives of dihydropyrido-[2,3-d:6,5-d′]-dipyrimidine-2, 4, 6, 8(1H,3H, 5H,7H)-tetraone (GPHs) have been synthesized and investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1M HCl solution using gravimetric, electrochemical, surface, quantum chemical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations methods. The order of inhibition efficiencies is GPH-3 > GPH-2 > GPH-1. The results further showed that the inhibitor molecules with electron releasing (-OH, -OCH3) substituents exhibit higher efficiency than the parent molecule without any substituents. Polarization study suggests that the studied compounds are mixed-type but exhibited predominantly cathodic inhibitive effect. The adsorption of these compounds on mild steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM, EDX and AFM analyses were used to confirm the inhibitive actions of the molecules on mild steel surface. Quantum chemical (QC) calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations studies were undertaken to further corroborate the experimental results. PMID:28317849

  11. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1M HCl by D-glucose derivatives of dihydropyrido [2,3-d:6,5-d‧] dipyrimidine-2, 4, 6, 8(1H,3H, 5H,7H)-tetraone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Chandrabhan; Quraishi, M. A.; Kluza, K.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2017-03-01

    D-glucose derivatives of dihydropyrido-[2,3-d:6,5-d‧]-dipyrimidine-2, 4, 6, 8(1H,3H, 5H,7H)-tetraone (GPHs) have been synthesized and investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1M HCl solution using gravimetric, electrochemical, surface, quantum chemical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations methods. The order of inhibition efficiencies is GPH-3 > GPH-2 > GPH-1. The results further showed that the inhibitor molecules with electron releasing (-OH, -OCH3) substituents exhibit higher efficiency than the parent molecule without any substituents. Polarization study suggests that the studied compounds are mixed-type but exhibited predominantly cathodic inhibitive effect. The adsorption of these compounds on mild steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM, EDX and AFM analyses were used to confirm the inhibitive actions of the molecules on mild steel surface. Quantum chemical (QC) calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations studies were undertaken to further corroborate the experimental results.

  12. Electrochromic Type E-Paper Using Poly(1H-Thieno[3,4-d]Imidazol-2(3H)-One) Derivatives by a Novel Printing Fabrication Process

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Yoshiro; Tanabe, Hirofumi; Kudo, Hidetoshi; Nakano, Kirihiro; Otake, Tomiaki

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report poly(1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-2(3H)-one) (pTIO) derivatives for an electrochromic (EC) type e-paper and its novel printing fabrication process. pTIO is a kind of conductive polymer (CP) s which are known as one of the EC materials. The electrochromism of pTIO is unique, because its color in doped state is almost transparent (pale gray). A transparent state is required to show a white color in a see-through view of an EC type e-paper. An electrochromism of CP has a good memory effect which is applicable for e-paper. The corresponding monomers of CP are able to be polymerized with an electrochemical method, which be made good use of for the fabrication process of e-paper. pTIO derivatives are copolymerized with other pi-conjugated X unit, which adjusts the color of electrochromism. Finally, we fabricated a segment matrix EC display using pTIO derivatives by ink-jet printing. PMID:28824131

  13. Molecular modeling studies of 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h] quinazoline derivatives as potent CDK2/Cyclin a inhibitors using 3D-QSAR and docking.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yong; Wang, Shao-Teng; Sun, Ping-Hua; Song, Fa-Jun

    2010-09-28

    CDK2/cyclin A has appeared as an attractive drug targets over the years with diverse therapeutic potentials. A computational strategy based on comparative molecular fields analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) followed by molecular docking studies were performed on a series of 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivatives as potent CDK2/cyclin A inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models, using 38 molecules in the training set, gave r(2) (cv) values of 0.747 and 0.518 and r(2) values of 0.970 and 0.934, respectively. 3D contour maps generated by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models were used to identify the key structural requirements responsible for the biological activity. Molecular docking was applied to explore the binding mode between the ligands and the receptor. The information obtained from molecular modeling studies may be helpful to design novel inhibitors of CDK2/cyclin A with desired activity.

  14. Synthesis, anticonvulsant, antioxidant and binding interaction of novel N-substituted methylquinazoline-2,4(1H, 3H)-dione derivatives to bovine serum albumin: A structure-activity relationship study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashanth, M. K.; Madaiah, M.; Revanasiddappa, H. D.; Veeresh, B.

    2013-06-01

    A novel class of N-substituted glycosmicine derivatives was synthesized, and their anticonvulsant, antioxidant activity and interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were evaluated. The synthesized compounds 4a-j were examined for anticonvulsant activity by maximal electroshock induced seizures (MESs) test and their neurotoxic effects were determined by rotorod test in mice. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these compounds were also investigated. Compounds 4d, 4g, 4i and 4j were found to have good protective effect from seizure. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging assay. The interaction between novel N-substituted methylquinazoline-2,4(1H, 3H)-dione (NMQ) and BSA was analyzed by fluorescence and ultraviolet spectroscopy at 304 K under simulative physiological conditions. BSA fluorescence quenched by NMQ is discussed according to the Stern-Volmer equation. The binding constant and binding sites of NMQ with BSA were calculated. According to Forster non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance (r) between NMQ and BSA was calculated.

  15. Molecular Modeling Studies of 4,5-Dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h] quinazoline Derivatives as Potent CDK2/Cyclin A Inhibitors Using 3D-QSAR and Docking

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Yong; Wang, Shao-Teng; Sun, Ping-Hua; Song, Fa-Jun

    2010-01-01

    CDK2/cyclin A has appeared as an attractive drug targets over the years with diverse therapeutic potentials. A computational strategy based on comparative molecular fields analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) followed by molecular docking studies were performed on a series of 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivatives as potent CDK2/cyclin A inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models, using 38 molecules in the training set, gave r2cv values of 0.747 and 0.518 and r2 values of 0.970 and 0.934, respectively. 3D contour maps generated by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models were used to identify the key structural requirements responsible for the biological activity. Molecular docking was applied to explore the binding mode between the ligands and the receptor. The information obtained from molecular modeling studies may be helpful to design novel inhibitors of CDK2/cyclin A with desired activity. PMID:21152296

  16. Capture and dissociation in the complex-forming CH(v = 0,1) + D2 → CHD + D, CD2 + H, CD + HD reactions and comparison with CH(v = 0,1) + H2.

    PubMed

    González, Miguel; Mayneris-Perxachs, Jordi; Saracibar, Amaia; Garcia, Ernesto

    2011-08-14

    Rate coefficients for the CH(v = 0,1) + D(2) reaction have been determined for all possible channels (T: 200-1200 K), using the quasiclassical trajectory method and a suitable treatment of the zero point energy. Calculations have also been performed on the CH(v = 1) + H(2) reaction and the CH(v = 1) + D(2) → CH(v = 0) + D(2) process. Most of the results can be understood considering the key role played by the deep minimum of the potential energy surface (PES), the barrierless character of the PES, the energy of the reaction channels, and the kinematics. The good agreement found between theory and experiment for the rate coefficients of the capture process of CH(v = 0) + D(2), the total reactivity of CH(v = 1) + D(2), H(2), as well as the good agreement observed for the related CH(v = 0) + H(2) system (capture and abstraction), gives confidence on the theoretical rate coefficients obtained for the capture processes of CH(v = 1) + D(2), H(2), the individual reactive processes of CH(v = 1) + D(2), H(2), the abstraction and abstraction-exchange reactions for CH(v = 0) + D(2), and the inelastic process mentioned above, for which there are no experimental data available, and that can be useful in combustion chemistry and astrochemistry.

  17. Interaction Study of an Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Cyclosporin A in Poly-Alpha-Cyclodextrin with Model Membranes by (1)H-, (2)H-, (31)P-NMR and Electron Spin Resonance.

    PubMed

    Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Crouzier, David; Bourbon, Fréderic; Lahiani-Skiba, Malika; Skiba, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The properties of an amorphous solid dispersion of cyclosporine A (ASD) prepared with the copolymer alpha cyclodextrin (POLYA) and cyclosporine A (CYSP) were investigated by (1)H-NMR in solution and its membrane interactions were studied by (1)H-NMR in small unilamellar vesicles and by (31)P (2)H NMR in phospholipidic dispersions of DMPC (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) in comparison with those of POLYA and CYSP alone. (1)H-NMR chemical shift variations showed that CYSP really interacts with POLYA, with possible adduct formation, dispersion in the solid matrix of the POLYA, and also complex formation. A coarse approach to the latter mechanism was tested using the continuous variations method, indicating an apparent 1 : 1 stoichiometry. Calculations gave an apparent association constant of log Ka = 4.5. A study of the interactions with phospholipidic dispersions of DMPC showed that only limited interactions occurred at the polar head group level ((31)P). Conversely, by comparison with the expected chain rigidification induced by CYSP, POLYA induced an increase in the fluidity of the layer while ASD formation led to these effects almost being overcome at 298 K. At higher temperature, while the effect of CYSP seems to vanish, a resulting global increase in chain fluidity was found in the presence of ASD.

  18. Identification of ligand efficient, fragment-like hits from an HTS library: structure-based virtual screening and docking investigations of 2 H- and 3 H-pyrazolo tautomers for Aurora kinase A selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvagalla, Sailu; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Ke, Yi-Yu; Shiao, Hui-Yi; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Hsu, John T. A.; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    Furanopyrimidine 1 (IC50 = 273 nM, LE = 0.36, LELP = 10.28) was recently identified by high-throughput screening (HTS) of an in-house library (125,000 compounds) as an Aurora kinase inhibitor. Structure-based hit optimization resulted in lead molecules with in vivo efficacy in a mouse tumour xenograft model, but no oral bioavailability. This is attributed to "molecular obesity", a common problem during hit to lead evolution during which degradation of important molecular properties such as molecular weight (MW) and lipophilicity occurs. This could be effectively tackled by the right choice of hit compounds for optimization. In this regard, ligand efficiency (LE) and ligand efficiency dependent lipophilicity (LELP) indices are more often used to choose fragment-like hits for optimization. To identify hits with appropriate LE, we used a MW cut-off <250, and pyrazole structure to filter HTS library. Next, structure-based virtual screening using software (Libdock and Glide) in the Aurora A crystal structure (PDB ID: 3E5A) was carried out, and the top scoring 18 compounds tested for Aurora A enzyme inhibition. This resulted in the identification of a novel tetrahydro-pyrazolo-isoquinoline hit 7 (IC50 = 852 nM, LE = 0.44, LELP = 8.36) with fragment-like properties suitable for further hit optimization. Moreover, hit 7 was found to be selective for Aurora A (Aurora B IC50 = 35,150 nM) and the possible reasons for selectivity investigated by docking two tautomeric forms (2 H- and 3 H-pyrazole) of 7 in Auroras A and B (PDB ID: 4AF3) crystal structures. This docking study shows that the major 3 H-pyrazole tautomer of 7 binds in Aurora A stronger than in Aurora B.

  19. Identification of ligand efficient, fragment-like hits from an HTS library: structure-based virtual screening and docking investigations of 2H- and 3H-pyrazolo tautomers for Aurora kinase A selectivity.

    PubMed

    Sarvagalla, Sailu; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Ke, Yi-Yu; Shiao, Hui-Yi; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Hsu, John T A; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    Furanopyrimidine 1 (IC50 = 273 nM, LE = 0.36, LELP = 10.28) was recently identified by high-throughput screening (HTS) of an in-house library (125,000 compounds) as an Aurora kinase inhibitor. Structure-based hit optimization resulted in lead molecules with in vivo efficacy in a mouse tumour xenograft model, but no oral bioavailability. This is attributed to "molecular obesity", a common problem during hit to lead evolution during which degradation of important molecular properties such as molecular weight (MW) and lipophilicity occurs. This could be effectively tackled by the right choice of hit compounds for optimization. In this regard, ligand efficiency (LE) and ligand efficiency dependent lipophilicity (LELP) indices are more often used to choose fragment-like hits for optimization. To identify hits with appropriate LE, we used a MW cut-off <250, and pyrazole structure to filter HTS library. Next, structure-based virtual screening using software (Libdock and Glide) in the Aurora A crystal structure (PDB ID: 3E5A) was carried out, and the top scoring 18 compounds tested for Aurora A enzyme inhibition. This resulted in the identification of a novel tetrahydro-pyrazolo-isoquinoline hit 7 (IC50 = 852 nM, LE = 0.44, LELP = 8.36) with fragment-like properties suitable for further hit optimization. Moreover, hit 7 was found to be selective for Aurora A (Aurora B IC50 = 35,150 nM) and the possible reasons for selectivity investigated by docking two tautomeric forms (2H- and 3H-pyrazole) of 7 in Auroras A and B (PDB ID: 4AF3) crystal structures. This docking study shows that the major 3H-pyrazole tautomer of 7 binds in Aurora A stronger than in Aurora B.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of the open-framework barium bisphosphonate [Ba3(O3PCH2NH2CH2PO3)2(H2O)4].3H2O.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian; Müller, Helen; Bein, Thomas; Stock, Norbert

    2005-12-12

    Following the strategy of using polyfunctional phosphonic acids for the synthesis of open-framework metal phosphonates, the phosphonocarboxylic acid (H2O3PCH2)2NCH2C6H4COOH was used in the hydrothermal synthesis of new Ba phosphonates. Its decomposition led to the first open-framework barium phosphonate [Ba3(O3PCH2NH2CH2PO3)2(H2O)4].3H2O. The synthesis was also successfully performed using iminobis(methylphosphonic acid), (H2O3PCH2)2NH, as a starting material, and the synthesis was optimized to obtain as a pure material. The reaction setup as well as the pH are the dominant parameters, and only a diffusion-controlled reaction led to the desired compound. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal data: monoclinic; C2/c; a=2328.7(2), b=1359.95(7), and c=718.62(6) pm; beta=98.732(10) degrees ; V=2249.5(3)x10(6) pm3; Z=4; R1=0.036; and wR2=0.072 (all data). The structure of [Ba3(O3PCH2NH2CH2PO3)2(H2O)4].3H2O is built up from BaO8 and BaO10 polyhedra forming BaO chains and layers, respectively. These are connected to a three-dimensional metal-oxygen-metal framework with the iminobis(methylphosphonic acid) formally coating the inner walls of the pores. The one-dimensional pores (3.6x4 A) are filled with H2O molecules that can be thermally removed. Thermogravimetric investigations and temperature-dependent X-ray powder diffraction demonstrate the stability of the crystal structure up to 240 degrees C. The uptake of N,N-dimethylformamide and H2O by dehydrated samples is demonstrated. Furthermore, IR, Raman, and 31P magic-angle-spinning NMR data are also presented.

  1. Iridium complexes containing mesoionic C donors: selective C(sp3)-H versus C(sp2)-H bond activation, reactivity towards acids and bases, and catalytic oxidation of silanes and water.

    PubMed

    Petronilho, Ana; Woods, James A; Mueller-Bunz, Helge; Bernhard, Stefan; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-11-24

    Metalation of a C2-methylated pyridylimidazolium salt with [IrCp*Cl2]2 affords either an ylidic complex, resulting from C(sp(3))-H bond activation of the C2-bound CH3 group if the metalation is performed in the presence of a base, such as AgO2 or Na2CO3, or a mesoionic complex via cyclometalation and thermally induced heterocyclic C(sp(2))-H bond activation, if the reaction is performed in the absence of a base. Similar cyclometalation and complex formation via C(sp(2))-H bond activation is observed when the heterocyclic ligand precursor consists of the analogous pyridyltriazolium salt, that is, when the metal bonding at the C2 position is blocked by a nitrogen rather than a methyl substituent. Despite the strongly mesoionic character of both the imidazolylidene and the triazolylidene, the former reacts rapidly with D(+) and undergoes isotope exchange at the heterocyclic C5 position, whereas the triazolylidene ligand is stable and only undergoes H/D exchange under basic conditions, where the imidazolylidene is essentially unreactive. The high stability of the Ir-C bond in aqueous solution over a broad pH range was exploited in catalytic water oxidation and silane oxidation. The catalytic hydrosilylation of ketones proceeds with turnover frequencies as high as 6,000 h(-1) with both the imidazolylidene and the triazolylidene system, whereas water oxidation is enhanced by the stronger donor properties of the imidazol-4-ylidene ligands and is more than three times faster than with the triazolylidene analogue. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Towards an understanding of adsorption behaviour in non-aqueous systems: adsorption of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and poly(ethylene glycol) onto silica from 2H, 3H-perfluoropentane.

    PubMed

    Paul, Alison; Griffiths, Peter C; Rogueda, Philippe G

    2005-11-01

    The adsorption behaviour of low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 600) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP K25) to silica particles has been investigated at room temperature (21 degrees C) in the partially fluorinated solvent 2H,3H-perfluoropentane (HPFP). PVP (absorbed amount, Gamma = 12 mg g(-1)) was found to adsorb more strongly than PEG (Gamma = 4 mg g(-1)). Both of these values were higher than observed in water. In a further distinction to the aqueous case, where PVP displaces PEG from the interface, no competitive adsorption effects were observed between these two polymers in HPFP, with the adsorbed amounts of each polymer being unchanged by the presence of the other. The stability of silica suspensions in HPFP was primarily dependent on the presence of PVP; PEG/silica systems were unstable, but PVP/silica and PEG/PVP/silica systems formed stable suspensions. All suspensions were destabilized by the addition of small (0.15 wt%) amounts of water. The observations made in this work would point to a flocculation phenomenon due to the addition of water, and not Ostwald ripening. The mechanism of this destabilization is likely to be water acting as a flocculation bridge between particles.

  3. Difference between ²JC2H3 and ²JC3H2 spin-spin couplings in heterocyclic five- and six-membered rings as a probe for studying σ-ring currents: a quantum chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Rubén H; dos Santos, Francisco P; Ducati, Lucas C; Tormena, Cláudio F

    2010-12-01

    Adequate analyses of canonical molecular orbitals (CMOs) can provide rather detailed information on the importance of different σ-Fermi contact (FC) coupling pathways (FC term transmitted through the σ-skeleton). Knowledge of the spatial distribution of CMOs is obtained by expanding them in terms of natural bond orbitals (NBOs). Their relative importance for transmitting the σ-FC contribution to a given spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs) is estimated by resorting to the expression of the FC term given by the polarisation propagator formalism. In this way, it is possible to classify the effects affecting such couplings in two different ways: delocalisation interactions taking place in the neighbourhood of the coupling nuclei and 'round the ring' effects. The latter, associated with σ-ring currents, are observed to yield significant differences between the FC terms of (2)J(C2H3) and (2)J(C3H2) SSCCs which, consequently, are taken as probes to gauge the differences in σ-ring currents for the five-membered rings (furan, thiophene, selenophene and pyrrol) and also for the six-membered rings (benzene, pyridine, protonated pyridine and N-oxide pyridine) used in the present study. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Characterization, molecular modeling and antimicrobial activity of metal complexes of tridentate Schiff base derived from 5-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2H-1,3-thiazine-2,6(3H)-dione and 2-aminophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adly, Omima M. I.

    Metal complexes of Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), VO(IV) and UO2(VI) as well as several Cu(II) salts, including Cl,NO3-,AcO,ClO4- and SO4-2 with a tridentate O2N donor Schiff base ligand (H2L), synthesized by condensation of 5-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2H-1,3-thiazine-2,6(3H)-dione with 2-aminophenol, were prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, spectral, magnetic, molar conductance and thermal gravimetric analysis. Square planar, tetrahedral and octahedral geometries have been assigned to the prepared complexes. Molecular parameters of the ligand and its metal complexes have been calculated and correlated with the experimental data, and the changes of bond lengths are linearly correlated with IR data. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized compounds were tested in vitro against the sensitive organisms Staphylococcus aureus as Gram positive bacteria, Proteus vulgaris as Gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans as fungus strain, and the results are discussed.

  5. Effects of oxygen tension and dextran-shelled/2H,3H-decafluoropentane-cored oxygen-loaded nanodroplets on secretion of gelatinases and their inhibitors in term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Prato, Mauro; Khadjavi, Amina; Magnetto, Chiara; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia; Cavalli, Roberta; Guiot, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) need to be finely modulated in physiological processes. However, oxygen tension influences MMP/TIMP balances, potentially leading to pathology. Intriguingly, new 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs) have proven effective in abrogating hypoxia-dependent dysregulation of MMP and TIMP secretion by single cell populations. This work explored the effects of different oxygen tensions and dextran-shelled OLNDs on MMP/TIMP production in an organized and multicellular tissue (term human placenta). Chorionic villous explants from normal third-trimester pregnancies were incubated with/without OLNDs in 3 or 20% O2. Explants cultured at higher oxygen tension released constitutive proMMP-2, proMMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. Hypoxia significantly altered MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios enhancing TIMP-2 and reducing proMMP-2, proMMP-9, and TIMP-1 levels. Intriguingly, OLNDs effectively counteracted the effects of low oxygen tension. Collectively, these data support OLND potential as innovative, nonconventional, and cost-effective tools to counteract hypoxia-dependent dysregulation of MMP/TIMP balances in human tissues.

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparison of the active site structures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase isoenzymes H2, H3, H4, H5, H8, and H10.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Copeland, B; Yamazaki, I; Powers, L

    1995-10-10

    The iron heme and its immediate environment can provide information that is pivotal to our understanding of the structural and mechanistic features that confer unusual properties to the heme peroxidases. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which is ideally suited for the investigation of the local environment and electronic structure of the heme iron of hemeproteins, has been used to characterize a variety of lignin peroxidase and manganese-dependent peroxidase isoenzymes produced by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The data suggest no differences within the error in the first coordination shell of iron for the isoenzymes H2, H3, H4, H5, H8, and H10 examined in this study. The pyrrole nitrogens are at a distance of 2.05 +/- 0.015 A, and the proximal histidine nitrogens are at 1.93 +/- 0.02 A, while the sixth ligands are located at 2.17 +/- 0.03 A. Significant differences are observed in higher coordination shells which may be related to conformational differences in the heme.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 5-alkyl-2-arylthio-6-((3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)methyl)pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhan, Peng; Wu, Jingde; Li, Zhenyu; Jiang, Yan; Ge, Weiying; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Liu, Xinyong

    2011-07-15

    A series of novel S-DABO analogues of 5-alkyl-2-arylthio-6-((3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)methyl)pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Among them, the most potent HIV-1 inhibitors were compounds 6c1,6c6, and 6b1 (EC(50)=0.24 ± 0.05, 0.38 ± 0.13, 0.39 ± 0.05 μM, respectively), which possess improved or similar HIV-1 inhibitory activity compared with nevirapine (NVP) (EC(50)=0.21 μM) and delavirdine (DLV) (EC(50)=0.32 μM). None of these compounds were active against HIV-2 replication. Furthermore, enzyme inhibitory assays were performed with selected derivatives against HIV-1 wtRT, confirming that the main target of these compounds is the HIV-1 RT and these new S-DABOs are acting as NNRTIs. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these new congeners is discussed briefly and rationalized by docking studies.

  8. Molecular conformational analysis, reactivity, vibrational spectral analysis and molecular dynamics and docking studies of 6-chloro-5-isopropylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, a potential precursor to bioactive agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Omary, Fatmah A. M.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Beegum, Shargina; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Al-Shehri, Mona M.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2017-01-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 6-chloro-5-isopropylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wavenumbers were computed using DFT quantum chemical calculations and the data obtained from wavenumber calculations are used to assign the experimentally obtained bands. Potential energy distribution was done using GAR2PED software. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with the XRD results. NBO analysis, frontier molecular orbital and first and second hyperpolarizability and molecular electrostatic potential results are also reported. The possible electrophile attacking sites of the title compound is identified using MEP surface plot study. Molecule sites prone to electrophilic attacks were identified using average local ionization energy surfaces, while further insight into the local reactivity properties of the title molecule has been gained by calculation of Fukui functions. Intra-molecular non-covalent interactions have been detected and visualized. Degradation properties based on autoxidation and hydrolysis have been investigated by calculation of bond dissociation energies and radial distribution functions, respectively. From the molecular docking study, the ligand binds at the active site of the substrate by weak non-covalent interactions and amino acids Leu89 forms alkyl interaction with the CH3 groups and Glu90 amino acid forms π-anion interaction with the pyrimidine ring and Thr369 and Ser366 amino acids form H-bond interaction with the Cdbnd O and NH group, respectively. From the conformational analysis, the calculated structures show that the C6C9C10 angle in the most stable form is about 8° smaller compared to the C8C9C10 angle, indicating a higher repulsive force between the (CH3)2HC- moiety and the chlorine atom due to the size of chlorine compared to oxygen atoms.

  9. Inhibitory effect of medicinal plant-derived carboxylic acids on the human transporters hOAT1, hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP2B1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Si, Duan-Yun; Yi, Xiu-Lin; Liu, Chang-Xiao

    2014-02-01

    A significant number of organic carboxylic acids have been shown to influence the absorption and distribution of drugs mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs). In this study, uptake experiments were performed to assess the inhibitory effects of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, oleanolic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cynarin on hOAT1, hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP2B1. After a drug-drug interaction (DDI) investigation, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cynarin were found and validated to inhibit hOAT1 in a competitive manner, and deoxycholic acid was found to be an inhibitor of all four transporters. The apparent 50% inhibitory concentrations of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cynarin were estimated to be 133.87, 3.69, 90.03 and 6.03 μmol·L(-1) for hOAT1, respectively. The apparent 50% inhibitory concentrations of deoxycholic acid were estimated to be 9.57 μmol·L(-1) for hOAT3, 70.54 μmol·L(-1) for hOATP1B1, and 168.27 μmol·L(-1) for hOATP2B1. Because cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and cynarin are ingredients of food or food additives, the present study suggests there are new food-drug interactions to be disclosed. In addition, deoxycholic acid may be used as a probe for studying the correlation of OATs and OATPs.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure and vibrational spectroscopic analysis of tetrakis(5-amino-1-H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium) decachlorodibismuthate(III):[C2H5N4]4Bi2Cl10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Z.; Ferretti, V.; Abid, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Rzaigui, M.; Nasr, C. Ben

    2015-10-01

    Physico-chemical properties of a new organic bismuthate(III), [C2H5N4]4Bi2Cl10 are discussed on the basis of X-ray crystal structure investigation. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with a = 16.3622(3), b = 12.7941(2), c = 14.8178(2) Å, β = 98.5660(10)°, V = 3067.35(8) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure consists of discrete binuclear [Bi2Cl10]4- anions and 3-amino-1-H-1,2,4-triazolium cations. The crystal packing is governed by strong Nsbnd H⋯N and weak Nsbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and Π-Π stacking interactions to form three-dimensional network. The 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum is in agreement with the X-ray structure. The infrared study confirms the presence of the organic cation [C2H5N4]+. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculations allowed their attribution.

  11. An experimental and DFT computational study on 4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-methyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4H)-one monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanak, Hasan; Köysal, Yavuz; Ünver, Yasemin; Yavuz, Metin; Işık, Şamil; Sancak, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    The triazole compound 4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-methyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4H)-one monohydrate has been synthesised and characterised by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, and X-ray single-crystal determination. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group ? with a = 9.0366(7) Å, b = 11.5690(8) Å, c = 12.0571(9) Å, α = 110.733(6)°, β = 94.172(6)°, γ = 98.085(6)° and Z = 4. In addition to the molecular geometry from X-ray determination, the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge, including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H- and 13C-NMR chemical shift values of the title compound in the ground state, were calculated using the density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The calculated results show that the optimised geometries can well reproduce the crystal structure, and the theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shift values show good agreement with experimental values. The energetic behaviour of the title compound in solvent media was examined using the B3LYP method with the 6-31G(d) basis set by applying the Onsager model. The total energy of the title compound decreases with increasing polarity of the solvent. The predicted nonlinear optical properties of the title compound are greater than those of urea. In addition, DFT calculations of the molecular electrostatic potentials, frontier molecular orbitals and thermodynamic properties of the title compound were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory.

  12. Dynamics of H abstraction from alcohols (CH3OH, C2H5OH and 2-C3H7OH) using velocity map imaging in crossed molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.; Peterka, D.S.; Suits, A.G.

    1999-09-01

    The crossed beam reactions of ground state Cl ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms with alcohols (CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH and 2-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OH) have been studied using the technique of velocity map imaging (VELMI). The corresponding hydroxyalkyl radical was detected via single photon ionization using 157 nm laser light. The double differential cross sections were obtained at collision energies of 8.7 kcal/mol for methanol, 6.0 and 9.7 kcal/mol for ethanol, and 11.9 kcal/mol for 2-propanol. In all cases, the scattering was predominantly in the backward-sideways direction suggesting direct rebound dynamics, with varying amounts of sideways-scattering. In the case of methanol, the angular distributions were predominantly in the sideways-backward direction with respect to the incoming alcohol beam. Scattering was into the backward hemisphere at the lower collision energy for ethanol, with enhancement of sideways scattering with an increase in collision energy. Isoropanol gave scattering predominantly in the backward direction. Coupling between the translational energy and angular distributions was particularly significant for ethanol at the lower collision energy. All of the translational energy distributions peaked at about 6 kcal/mol and on average 30-40% of the available energy was deposited into product translation for all the alcohols studied. These results are contrasted with previous H abstraction studies performed on Cl-hydrocarbon systems. A case is made for the technique of vacuum ultraviolet one-photon ionization in conjunction with VELMI being useful in studying the reaction dynamics for many polyatomic systems.

  13. Solute-fluid coupling and energy dissipation in supercritical fluids: 9-cyanoanthracene in C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CO{sub 2}, and CF{sub 3}H

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J.K.; Niemeyer, E.D.; Bright, F.V.

    1996-05-16

    We report on the coupling and dissipation of energy between a model fluorescent solute, 9-cyanoanthracene (9CA), and several supercritical fluid solvents. To this end, we have determined experimentally the fluorescence quantum yields and excited-state fluorescence lifetimes for dilute solutions of 9CA in supercritical C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CO{sub 2}, and CF{sub 3}H. The 9CA quantum yield is substantially less than unity at lower fluid densities; it approaches unity only at the high-density, liquid-like region. The 9CA excited-state lifetime is also shortened significantly in the low-density region. The radiative (k{sub r}) and nonradiative (k{sub nr}) decay rates for 9CA are found to be strongly density dependent. In the low-density region, the nonradiative rate dominates; however, in the high-density region the 9CA de-excitation follows the radiative pathway. To yield agreement between the experimental k{sub r} data and the Strickler-Berg predictions, we require there to be changes in the total 9CA molar absorptivity with denisity. Recent experiments on anthracene and pyrene in supercritical CO{sub 2} demonstrate that the average solute molar absorptivity is indeed a function of fluid density. The strong density dependence of the nonradiative decay rate is interpreted in terms of an increase in fluid density leading to an increase in the energy gap ({Delta}E) between T{sub 2} and S{sub 1} states. 69 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Spectroscopic and structural studies of new mononucleating tetradentate Schiff base metal chelates derived from 5-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2H-1,3-thiazine-2,6(3H)-dione and 1,3-diaminopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adly, Omima M. I.; Taha, Ali; Fahmy, Shery A.

    2015-08-01

    Metal complexes with the general formula Some newly transition metal complexes, [ML(H2O)x(NO3)y], x = 1-2 and y = 0-1, [M = Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ce(III), Cd(II), Zn(II) or UO2(VI)], L= of the Schiff base (H2L) derived from the reaction of 5-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2H-1,3-thiazine-2,6(3H)-dione with 1,3-diaminopropane have been prepared and characterized by physical, spectral and analytical data. The structure of the Schiff - base acts as dibasic tetradentate N2O2 for the complexation reaction with Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Ce(III), Cd(II), and UO2(II) ions via phenolates oxygen and nitrogen of azomethine groups. Based on spectral data and magnetic moments, an octahedral geometry may be proposed for the synthesized complexes except cerium(III) complex which has pentagonal bipyramidal arrangement. The low values of the molar conductance indicate non-electrolyte nature of complexes, while 1:1 electrolyte for cerium(III)- and chromium(III)-complexes. The Coats-Redfern equation was used to calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different thermal decomposition steps of some complexes. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungus. Molecular structure of the Schiff base ligand and its complexes were optimized for the proposed structures on the basis of semiempirical PM3 method.

  15. Difference between 2 h and 3 h 75 g glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): results from a national survey on prevalence of GDM.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue-Lian; Wei, Yu-Mei; Yang, Hui-Xia; Xu, Xian-Ming; Fan, Ling; He, Jing; Liu, Ning; Zhao, San-Cun; Hu, Ya-Li; Yang, Zi; Zhang, Yun-Ping; Liu, Xing-Hui; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Gou, Wen-Li; Xiao, Mei; Wu, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Mei-Hua

    2010-09-01

    The possibility of the 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as an alternative to the 3 h OGTT was investigated based on data from a national survey on pregnancy-associated diabetes. Data were retrieved from 4179 pregnant women who had OGTT performed after an abnormal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT). All of the 4 glucose levels during their OGTT were collected and analyzed. According to American Diabetes Association (ADA) gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnostic criteria, among the 4179 pregnant women who required OGTT, 3429 (82.1%) were normal and 750 (17.9%) were diagnosed as GDM. If the 3rd h glucose levels were omitted from OGTT, 79 cases of GDM (10.5%) would be overlooked. No trend was shown where women with more risk factors were more likely to be overlooked if the 3rd h test was omitted (χ2 for trend=0.038, P>0.05). No significant differences were found in the rate of cesarean section (CS), preterm births or macrosomia between the 79 cases and those with normal OGTT results and in the gestational weeks when OGTT was performed. It shows that in order to diagnose one woman with GDM, another 52 pregnant women would have an innocent 3rd h glucose test. Omission of the 3rd h glucose test in OGTT might be reasonable due to its convenience, better compliance and a small number of possibly miss-diagnosed cases, and their pregnancy outcomes have no significant difference from those of normal pregnant women.

  16. Crystal structure of 3-{1-[(1-allyl-1H-indazol-6-yl)amino]­ethyl­idene}-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dione

    PubMed Central

    El Ghozlani, Mohamed; Rakib, El Mostapha; Gamouh, Ahmed; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C18H17N3O3, the dihedral angle between the planes of the indazole ring system [maximum deviation = 0.012 (1) Å] and the pyran-2,4-dione ring is 54.03 (6)°. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond closes an S(6) ring. The same H atom also participates in an inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates an inversion dimer. The dimers are linked by weak C—H⋯O contacts, thereby forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:25553030

  17. Layered hybrid organic-inorganic Co(II) alkylphosphonates. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetism of the first two members of the series: Co[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)] and Co[(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Elvira M.; Bellitto, Carlo . E-mail: carlo.bellitto@ism.cnr.it; Colapietro, Marcello . E-mail: m.colapietro@caspur.it; Ibrahim, Said A.; Mahmoud, Mohamed R.; Portalone, Gustavo; Righini, Guido

    2006-02-15

    Co[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)] (1) and Co[(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)] (2) were prepared by the hydrothermal method and isolated as blue-violet platelet crystals. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, TGA-DSC techniques and their magnetic properties studied by a dc-SQUID magnetometer. Compound (1) shows an hybrid layered structure, made of alternating inorganic and organic layers along the a-direction of the unit cell. The inorganic layers contain Co(II) ions six-coordinated by five phosphonate oxygen atoms and one from the water molecule. These layers are separated by bi-layers of methyl groups and van der Waals contacts are established between them. In compound (2), the layered hybrid structure is rather similar to that described for compound (1), but the alternation of the inorganic and organic layers is along the b-direction of the unit cell. The magnetic behavior of (1) and (2) as function of temperature and magnetic field was studied. The compounds obey the Curie-Weiss law at temperatures above 100K, the Curie C, and Weiss {theta} constants for the methyl derivative being C=3.36cm{sup 3}Kmol{sup -1} and {theta}=-53K and for the ethyl derivative C=3.62cm{sup 3}Kmol{sup -1} and {theta}=-75K, respectively. The observed magnetic moments for Co atom at room temperature (i.e. {mu}{sub eff}=5.18 and 5.38 BM, respectively) are higher than those expected for a spin-only value for high spin Co(II) (S=3/2), revealing a substantial orbital contribution to the magnetic moment. The negative values of {theta} are an indication of the presence of antiferromagnetic exchange couplings between the near-neighbors Co(II) ions, within the layers. [Co(C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)] (n=1,2) are 2D Ising antiferromagnets at low temperatures.

  18. Protective Efficacy of an H5N1 Inactivated Vaccine Against Challenge with Lethal H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 Influenza Viruses in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianying; Chen, Pucheng; Liu, Liling; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Kong, Huihui; Feng, Huapeng; Bai, Jie; Li, Xin; Shi, Wenjun; Tian, Guobin; Chen, Hualan

    2016-05-01

    The Goose/Guangdong-lineage H5 viruses have evolved into diverse clades and subclades based on their hemagglutinin (HA) gene during their circulation in wild birds and poultry. Since late 2013, the clade 2.3.4.4 viruses have become widespread in poultry and wild bird populations around the world. Different subtypes of the clade 2.3.4.4 H5 viruses, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8, have caused vast disease outbreaks in poultry in Asia, Europe, and North America. In this study, we developed a new H5N1 inactivated vaccine by using a seed virus (designated as Re-8) that contains the HA and NA genes from a clade 2.3.4.4 virus, A/chicken/Guizhou/4/13(H5N1) (CK/GZ/4/13), and its six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. We evaluated the protective efficacy of this vaccine in chickens challenged with one H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1b virus and six different subtypes of clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 strains. In the clade 2.3.2.1b virus DK/GX/S1017/13-challenged groups, half of the vaccinated chickens shed virus through the oropharynx and two birds (20%) died during the observation period. All of the control chickens shed viruses and died within 6 days of infection with challenge virus. All of the vaccinated chickens remained healthy following challenge with the six clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, and virus shedding was not detected from any of these birds; however, all of the control birds shed viruses and died within 4 days of challenge with the clade 2.3.4.4 viruses. Our results indicate that the Re-8 vaccine provides protection against different subtypes of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 viruses.

  19. Entecavir Interacts with Influx Transporters hOAT1, hCNT2, hCNT3, but Not with hOCT2: The Potential for Renal Transporter-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Drug–Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mandíková, Jana; Volková, Marie; Pávek, Petr; Navrátilová, Lucie; Hyršová, Lucie; Janeba, Zlatko; Pavlík, Jan; Bárta, Pavel; Trejtnar, František

    2016-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) is one of the most potent agents for the treatment of the hepatitis B viral infection. The drug is principally eliminated by the kidney. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of ETV to interact in vitro with the renal SLC transporters hOAT1, hOCT2, hCNT2 and hCNT3. Potential drug–drug interactions of ETV at the renal transporters with antiviral drugs known to be excreted by the kidney (adefovir, tenofovir, cidofovir) as well as transporter-dependent cytotoxicity were also examined. Interactions with the selected transporters along with cytotoxicity were studied in several transiently transfected cellular models using specific substrates and inhibitors. ETV was found to be both a substrate and inhibitor of hOAT1 (IC50 = 175.3 μM), hCNT2 (IC50 = 241.9 μM) and hCNT3 (IC50 = 278.4 μM) transporters, although it interacted with the transporters with relatively low affinities. ETV inhibited the cellular uptake of adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir by hOAT1; however, effective inhibition was shown at ETV concentrations exceeding therapeutic levels. In comparison with adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir, ETV displayed no transporter-mediated cytotoxicity in cells transfected with hOAT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3. No significant interaction of ETV with hOCT2 was detected. The study demonstrates interactions of ETV with several human renal transporters. For the first time, an interaction of ETV with the hCNTs was proved. We show that the potency of ETV to cause nephrotoxicity and/or clinically significant drug-drug interactions related to the tested transporters is considerably lower than that of adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir. PMID:26779022

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of a copper complex with (E)-2-(4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)benzylidene)-3, 4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Shu-Wen; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Gao-Feng

    2015-12-15

    The title compound, C{sub 35}H{sub 23}CuF{sub 6}N{sub 3}O{sub 5}S{sub 2} (1), was synthesized by the reaction of Cu(tta){sub 2} and L{sup 1}, (L{sup 1} = (E)-2-(4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)benzylidene)-3, 4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one) in the dichloromethane solution. It crystallizes in the monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/c with a = 33.8388(5), b = 9.3874(2), c = 21.8194(4) Å, β = 95.522(2), V = 6898.9(2) Å{sup 3}, Z = 8, D{sub x} = 1.554 Mg/m{sup 3}, F(000) = 3272, µ = 0.834 mm{sup –1}, R{sub 1} = 0.0639, wR{sub 2} = 0.1637. The copper(II) ion of 1 is in a distorted square-pyramidal environment with four O atoms of the two tta ligands and one N atom of triazole ligand L{sup 1}. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealed that the hydrogen bonds, weak C–H···π and π···π interactions in the crystals link the coordination units to form 3D supramolecular structures.

  1. Spectral (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, and fluorescence), DFT, and solid state interaction analyses of (E)-4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylideneamino)-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammad Sayed; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2017-01-01

    Here, the authors report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational spectral analyses of (E)-4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylideneamino)-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one (DMBADPP), a pyrazolone-based bioactive molecule. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to obtain the ground state optimized geometry of the molecule using the B3LYP method and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Calculated results agreed well with X-ray data. The vibrational spectra of DMBADPP were calculated at the same level of theory and theoretical scaled vibrational frequencies and assignments were found to agree well with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman values. Partial atomic charge and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface map analyses were performed to study reactive sites. Calculated frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) energies and chemical reactivity parameters indicated that the DMBADPP exhibits high polarizability and low kinetic susceptibility. Excitation energy, wavelength, and oscillator strength were calculated using the Time Dependant-DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method and compared with experimental UV-Vis spectra obtained in ethanol. However, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic experiments showed that DMBADPP has good absorption and fluorescent properties and a large Stokes shift. In addition, the solid state behaviors of molecules in crystals were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using 3D Hirshfeld surface analysis and associated 2D fingerprint plots.

  2. Pressure and temperature effects on 2H spin-lattice relaxation times and 1H chemical shifts in tert-butyl alcohol- and urea-D2O solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Koji; Ibuki, Kazuyasu; Ueno, Masakatsu

    1998-01-01

    The pressure and temperature effects of hydrophobic hydration were studied by NMR spectroscopy. The 1H chemical shifts (δ) were measured at 7.7, 29.9, and 48.4 °C under high pressure up to 294 MPa for HDO contained as impurity in neat D2O, 1 mol kg-1 tert-butyl alcohol (TBA)-D2O, and 1 mol kg-1 urea-D2O solutions, for the methyl group of TBA in the TBA-D2O solution, and for the amino group of urea in the urea-D2O solution. The 2H spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) were measured under the same conditions as the chemical shift measurements for D2O in neat D2O, TBA-D2O and urea-D2O solutions with organic contents up to 8 mol%. The following features are observed for the pressure effect on δ (HDO) and 2H-T1 in TBA-D2O solutions: (1) The δ (HDO) exhibits a downfield shift relative to that in neat D2O, and the difference of δ (HDO) between TBA solution and neat D2O becomes larger with increasing pressure at lower temperature. (2) The decrement of the rotational correlation time of water in the hydration shell of TBA (τcs) relative to the value at atmospheric pressure is smaller than that in the bulk (τc0). (3) The pressure coefficients of T1 are positive in dilute solutions but are negative in more than 4 to 5 mol% solutions. These results suggest that the hydrophobic hydration shell of TBA is different than the open structure of water present in bulk, and resists pressure more strongly than the open structure of water in the bulk. In solutions of 4 to 5 mol%, the hydration shell collapses. On the other hand, the τcs in the hydration shell of urea is slightly larger than that in bulk water at lower pressure, but is obviously larger at higher pressure. In view of the rotational motion of water molecules, urea seems to strengthen the water structure slightly rather than weaken it, although δ (HDO) approaches that in the bulk with pressure. It is difficult to classify urea into a structure maker or a breaker.

  3. Kinetic isotope effects and tunneling in cyclic double and triple proton transfer between acetic acid and methanol in tetrahydrofuran studied by dynamic /sup 1/H and /sup 2/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritzen, D.; Limbach, H.H.

    1984-02-22

    Previous studies of proton exchange and hydrogen bonding between acetic acid (A) and methanol (B) in tetrahydrofuran-d/sub 8/ have been extended to the study of the primary kinetic H/D isotope effects of the exchange. For this purpose a new combination of dynamic /sup 1/H and /sup 2/H NMR spectroscopy has been used to perform an ''NMR proton inventory''. The following rate law was obtained at deuterium fractions D=0 and D=1 of the exchangeable protonic sites: NU=k/sup LL/ C/sub A/C/sub B/+k/sub LLL/C/sub A//sup 2/C/sub B/ (L=H,D). This was attributed to a superposition of cyclic double and triple proton exchange involving one and two molecules of acetic acid and one molecule of methanol. Additional experiments were carried out at intermediate deuterium fractions. Thus, the kinetic HH/HD/DD and HHH/HHD/DDD isotope effects of the exchange as a function of the temperature was measured successfully. This has been achieved for the first time for well-defined intermolecular multiple-proton-transfer reactions. The possibility of determining the number of protons transferred in a chemical reaction by performing an NMR proton inventory is discussed. The rule of the geometric mean (RGM) is fulfilled for the kinetic isotope effects of the LLL process, which are almost independent of temperature within the margin of error. By contrast, the RGM is not fullfilled for the LL process, and the kinetic isotope effects depend strongly on the temperature. The energies of activation and frequency factors fit Bell's criteria of tunneling. The kinetic results are in good agreement with predictions of transition-state theory but can be explained by an intermolecular tunneling model. The results are proof that acetic acid and methanol form cyclic hydrogen-bonded 1:1 and 2:1 complexes which have very low concentration in tetrahydrofuran.

  4. Human PIV-2 recombinant Sendai virus (rSeV) elicits durable immunity and combines with two additional rSeVs to protect against hPIV-1, hPIV-2, hPIV-3, and RSV.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bart; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Mishin, Vasiliy; Slobod, Karen S; Surman, Sherri; Russell, Charles J; Portner, Allen; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2009-03-13

    The human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs) and respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs) are the leading causes of hospitalizations due to respiratory viral disease in infants and young children, but no vaccines are yet available. Here we describe the use of recombinant Sendai viruses (rSeVs) as candidate vaccine vectors for these respiratory viruses in a cotton rat model. Two new Sendai virus (SeV)-based hPIV-2 vaccine constructs were generated by inserting the fusion (F) gene or the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene from hPIV-2 into the rSeV genome. The inoculation of either vaccine into cotton rats elicited neutralizing antibodies toward both homologous and heterologous hPIV-2 virus isolates. The vaccines elicited robust and durable antibodies toward hPIV-2, and cotton rats immunized with individual or mixed vaccines were fully protected against hPIV-2 infections of the lower respiratory tract. The immune responses toward a single inoculation with rSeV vaccines were long-lasting and cotton rats were protected against viral challenge for as long as 11 months after vaccination. One inoculation with a mixture of the hPIV-2-HN-expressing construct and two additional rSeVs (expressing the F protein of RSV and the HN protein of hPIV-3) resulted in protection against challenge viruses hPIV-1, hPIV-2, hPIV-3, and RSV. Results identify SeV vectors as promising vaccine candidates for four different paramyxoviruses, each responsible for serious respiratory infections in children.

  5. trans-Diaqua{5,5'-[(E,E)-pyridine-2,6-diylbis(methylidynenitrilo)]bis[pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione]}zinc(II) nitrate hexafluorophosphate trihydrate.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Namik; Dinçer, Muharrem; Doğaner, Gamze; Astley, Demet; Astley, Stephen T

    2007-04-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C(15)H(11)N(7)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))(PF(6)).3H(2)O, contains a mononuclear zinc(II) complex. The Zn(2+) centre is seven-coordinated in a slightly distorted pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry, with the two water O atoms located in the apical positions, and the pyridine N atom, the two imine N atoms and two carbonyl O atoms of the uracil groups located in the equatorial plane. The charge is balanced by PF(6)(-) and NO(3)(-) anions.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed through-space C(sp(3))-H and C(sp(2))-H bond activation by 1,4-palladium migration: efficient synthesis of [3,4]-fused oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Piou, Tiffany; Bunescu, Ala; Wang, Qian; Neuville, Luc; Zhu, Jieping

    2013-11-18

    Palladium two step: Linear anilides were converted into the title compounds in good to excellent yields through a palladium-catalyzed domino carbopalladation/1,4-palladium shift sequence. The C(sp(3) )-H activation involves a seven-membered palladacycle, and is chemoselective in the presence of competitive C(sp(2) )H bonds. DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide, OPiv=pivalate.

  7. The discovery of Polo-like kinase 4 inhibitors: design and optimization of spiro[cyclopropane-1,3'[3H]indol]-2'(1'H).ones as orally bioavailable antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Peter B; Liu, Yong; Patel, Narendra Kumar; Feher, Miklos; Forrest, Bryan; Li, Sze-Wan; Edwards, Louise; Laufer, Radoslaw; Lang, Yunhui; Ban, Fuqiang; Awrey, Donald E; Mao, Guodong; Plotnikova, Olga; Leung, Genie; Hodgson, Richard; Mason, Jacqueline M; Wei, Xin; Kiarash, Reza; Green, Erin; Qiu, Wei; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y; Mak, Tak W; Pan, Guohua; Pauls, Henry W

    2015-01-08

    Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), a unique member of the polo-like kinase family of serine-threonine kinases, is a master regulator of centriole duplication that is important for maintaining genome integrity. Overexpression of PLK4 is found in several human cancers and is linked with a predisposition to tumorigenesis. Previous efforts to identify potent and efficacious PLK4 inhibitors resulted in the discovery of (E)-3-((1H-indazol-6-yl)methylene)indolin-2-ones, which are superseded by the bioisosteric 2-(1H-indazol-6-yl)spiro[cyclopropane-1,3′-indolin]-2′-ones reported herein. Optimization of this new cyclopropane-linked series was based on a computational model of a PLK4 X-ray structure and SAR attained from the analogous alkenelinked series. The racemic cyclopropane-linked compounds showed PLK4 affinity and antiproliferative activity comparable to their alkene-linked congeners with improved hysicochemical, ADME, and pharmacokinetic properties. Positive xenograft results from the MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer xenograft model for compound 18 support the investigation of PLK4 inhibitors as anticancer therapeutics. A PLK4 X-ray co-structure with racemate 18 revealed preferential binding of the 1R,2S enantiomer to the PLK4 kinase domain.

  8. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Series of 2-((1-substituted-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylthio)-6-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)pyrimidin-4(3H)-one As Potential HIV-1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zengjun; Kang, Dongwei; Zhang, Lingzi; Huang, Boshi; Liu, Huiqing; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2015-10-01

    A series of novel S-DABO derivatives with the substituted 1,2,3-triazole moiety on the C-2 side chain were synthesized using the simple and efficient CuAAC reaction, and biologically evaluated as inhibitors of HIV-1. Among them, the most active HIV-1 inhibitor was compound 4-((4-((4-(2,6-dichlorobenzyl)-5-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidin-2-ylthio)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)benzenesulfonamide (B5b7), which exhibited similar HIV-1 inhibitory potency (EC50  = 3.22 μm) compared with 3TC (EC50  = 2.24 μm). None of these compounds demonstrated inhibition against HIV-2 replication. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these new derivatives was discussed briefly. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Surface and catalytic elucidation of Rh/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts during NO reduction by C3H8 in the presence of excess O2, H2O, and SO2.

    PubMed

    Pekridis, G; Kaklidis, N; Komvokis, V; Athanasiou, C; Konsolakis, M; Yentekakis, I V; Marnellos, G E

    2010-03-25

    The present study aims at exploring the surface and catalytic behavior of Rh/gamma-Al(2)O(3) catalysts during the selective reduction of NO by C(3)H(8) in the presence of excess oxygen, H(2)O, and SO(2) with particular emphasis on identifying the elementary steps that describe the reaction mechanism. To this end, detailed activity and stability tests were employed and a precise kinetic analysis was carried out at differential conditions to elucidate the effect of each reactant, including H(2)O and SO(2), on the total reaction rate. At the same time, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies in combination with in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy were carried out under various reaction conditions to correlate the catalytic performance of Rh/gamma-Al(2)O(3) catalyst with its corresponding surface chemistry. The results reveal that in the absence of H(2)O and SO(2), the reaction follows a typical "reduction" type mechanism, where the active intermediates (NO(X), carboxylates, isocyanates) are interacting to yield the final products. In this reaction sequence the formation of carboxylate (C(x)H(y)O(z)) species is considered as the rate determining step. Water affects in a different way the NO and C(3)H(8) conversion performance of Rh/gamma-Al(2)O(3) catalyst; its effect is totally reversible in the case of C(3)H(8) oxidation, while the NO reduction was permanently affected mainly due to the oxidation of Rh active sites. In contrast, SO(2) poisons both reactions irreversibly via the formation of strongly adsorbed sulfate compounds, which hinder the adsorption and consequently the activation of reactants.

  10. Shaken not stirred: a facile synthesis of 1,4-bis(furo[2,3-d]-pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione-5-yl)benzenes by one-pot reaction of isocyanides, N,N'-dimethylbarbituric acid, and terephthaldialdehyde.

    PubMed

    Teimouri, Mohammad Bagher; Bazhrang, Reihaneh

    2006-07-15

    A simple and efficient synthesis of 1,4-bis(furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione-5-yl)benzene derivatives was achieved via a one-pot three-component reaction of isocyanides, N,N'-dimethylbarbituric acid, and terephthaldialdehyde in DMF at room temperature for 30 min. These improved reaction conditions allow the preparation of highly substituted furopyrimidinones in high yields and purity under mild reaction conditions.

  11. Synthesis of pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-ones: Rearrangement of pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,3,4]oxadiazines and regioselective intramolecular cyclization of 1,2-biscarbamoyl-substituted 1H-pyrroles

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kkonnip

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-ones 12 have been easily prepared via nucleophile-induced rearrangement of pyrrolooxadiazines 11 and regioselective intramolecular cyclization of 1,2-biscarbamoyl-substituted 1H-pyrroles 10. In this work, we demonstrated that the described synthetic approaches can be considered to be more facile and practical than previously reported procedures. PMID:27829885

  12. Solubility Report of 1-Methyl-3,5-Dinitro-1H-1,2,4-Triazole (MDNT) and 2-Methyl-4,5-Dinitro-2H-1,2,3-Triazole 1-Oxide (MDNTO) for Co-Crystallization Screen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    2-METHYL-4,5-DINITRO-2H-1,2,3-TRIAZOLE 1-OXIDE (MDNTO) FOR CO- CRYSTALLIZATION SCREEN Kelley C. Caflin Peggy Sanchez...AND 2-METHYL-4,5-DINITRO-2H-1,2,3- TRIAZOLE 1-OXIDE (MDNTO) FOR CO- CRYSTALLIZATION SCREEN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...triazole 1- oxide (MDNTO) in a range of organic solvents were studied in an Avantium Crystal16™ parallel crystallizer in preparation for co

  13. [Bis((2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolin-3-yl)alkyl)disulfane and 3-(mercaptoalkyl)quinazolin-2,4(1H,3H)-dione: synthesis by ring transformation and antiviral activity. 42. Heterocyclic azines with heteroatoms in the 1- and 3- positions].

    PubMed

    Gütschow, M; Tonew, E; Leistner, S

    1995-10-01

    Reaction of N-(sulfonyloxy)phtalimide derivatives 1, 2, with cystamine and homocystamine, respectively, affords bis[2,4-dioxol-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydroquinazolin-3-yl)alkyl] disulfanes [sequence: see text] 3, which could be reduced to 3-(mercaptoalkyl)quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones. 5. (3-(2-Mercaptoethyl)quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (5a) was also obtained in a one-pot reaction from 1 or 2 and cysteamine. 2-Ethoxy-4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones 4a-c were converted with cysteamine to 3-(mercaptoethyl)quinazoline-2,4-diones 5a-c by a new ringtransformation reaction. 3-(2-Mercaptoethyl)quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)dione (5a) and the corresponding disulfane 3a were evaluated for antiviral activity in vitro. Compounds 3a and 5a showed significant antiviral activity against some DNA- and RNA-viruses (vaccinia-, herpes simplex virus type 1; influenza A virus) at concentrations that were nontoxic to the host cell cultures.

  14. Structure vs. composition: A solid-state 1H and 29Si NMR study of quenched glasses along the Na 2O-SiO 2-H 2O join

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, George D.; Mysen, Bjorn O.; Lee, Sung Keun

    2005-05-01

    A suite of six hydrous (7 wt.% H 2O) sodium silicate glasses spanning sodium octasilicate to sodium disilicate in composition were analyzed using 29Si single pulse (SP) magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, 1H- 29Si cross polarization (CP) MAS NMR, and fast MAS 1H-NMR. From the 29Si SPMAS data it is observed that at low sodium compositions dissolved water significantly depolymerizes the silicate network. At higher sodium contents, however, dissolved H 2O does not affect a significant increase in depolymerization over that predicted based on the Na/Si ratio alone. The fast MAS 1H-NMR data reveal considerable complexity in proton environments in each of the glasses studied. The fast MAS 1H-NMR spectra of the highest sodium concentration glasses do not exhibit evidence of signficantly greater fractions of dissolved water as molecular H 2O than the lower sodium concentration glasses requiring that the decrease in polymerization at high sodium contents involves a change in sodium solution mechanism. Variable contact time 1H- 29Si cross polarization (CP) MAS NMR data reveal an increase in the rotating frame spin lattice relaxation rate constant ( T1ρ*) for various Q n species with increasing sodium content that correlates with a reduction in the average 1H- 29Si coupling strength. At the highest sodium concentration, however, T1ρ* drops significantly, consistent with a change in the Na 2O solution mechanism.

  15. Microcrystalline phase transformation from ZrF4·HF·2H2O to ZrO2 through the intermediate phases ZrF4·3H2O, ZrF4·H2O, Zr2OF6·H2O and ZrF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, C. C.

    2014-09-01

    The behavior of hydrated zirconium fluoride has been studied by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. It is found that the crystalline compound ZrF4·HF·2H2O, formed initially by drying solution of Zr metal in concentrated HF, transforms spontaneously to ZrF4·3H2O. This trihydrated compound dehydrates to ZrF4 through the intermediate monohydrates ZrF4·H2O and Zr2OF6·H2O. The compound ZrF4 finally transforms to ZrO2 at ∼343 K. Different crystalline phases of ZrF4·HF·2H2O, ZrF4·3H2O, ZrF4·H2O, Zr2OF6·H2O, ZrF4 and ZrO2 have been identified and characterized by PAC spectroscopy. From previous PAC measurements, the intermediate ZrF4·H2O and Zr2OF6·H2O were not observed and the dehydration from ZrF4·3H2O to ZrF4 was found to be routed directly. Present measurements by PAC exhibits dissimilar crystal structures for ZrF4·3H2O and ZrF4·H2O unlike the crystal structures found in hafnium analogous compounds.

  16. Copper diphosphonates with zero-, one- and two-dimensional structures: ferrimagnetism in layer compound Cu3(ImhedpH)(2).2H2O [ImhedpH4=(1-C3H3N2)CH2C(OH)(PO3H2)2].

    PubMed

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Xie, Xiao-Ji; Li, Yi-Zhi; Zheng, Li-Min

    2008-10-07

    Reactions of CuSO4 with 2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxy-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonic acid (ImhedpH4) under hydrothermal conditions at different temperatures lead to four new metal phosphonates: Cu(ImhedpH3)2(H2O).2H2O (), Cu(ImhedpH3)2 (), Cu3(ImhedpH2)2(ImhedpH3)(2).4H2O (), and Cu3(ImhedpH)(2).2H2O (). Compounds and have mononuclear structures in which the Cu atoms adopt square pyramidal and square planar geometries, respectively. In compound , a chain structure is observed where the Cu3(ImhedpH2)2(ImhedpH3)2 trimer units are connected by edge-sharing of the {Cu2O5} square pyramids. Compound exhibits a layer structure made up of Cu3(ImhedpH)2 trimer units. The connection of trimers through corner-sharing of {Cu1O4} and {CPO3} tetrahedra results in a two-dimensional layer containing 8- and 16-membered rings. The imidazole groups are grafted on the two sides of the layer. Magnetic studies reveal that ferromagnetic interactions are mediated in , while for compound , ferrimagnetism is observed below 5.8 K.

  17. Analytical aspects of measuring (2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O ratios in urine from doubly labelled water studies by high-temperature conversion elemental analyser-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chery, I; Zahariev, A; Simon, C; Blanc, S

    2015-04-15

    Total Body Water (TBW) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) are routinely measured in free-living conditions by the (2)H2(18)O method. Isotope eliminations can be measured from spot urine samples by HTC-EA IRMS, but only after cumbersome cryogenic distillation to extract water. Distillation may, however, be replaced by charcoal treatment and filtration. This study tested (1) the effect of sample treatments (filtration versus distillation) on the isotope ratios, (2) the effect of different ways of normalization that respect or not the principle of identical treatment of the sample and references, and (3) the impact on the biological outcomes. Two filters (PES membrane; 10 kDa) accepting volumes of urine samples (V500: 0.5 mL versus V6: 3.0 mL) were tested. In-house water standards and in-house urine standards were prepared and normalized against the international scale to calibrate the urine samples. The δ(2)H and δ(18)O values from water in the urine were measured by HTC-EA IRMS. Filtered urine normalized with water standards showed a bias in the δ(2)H values that was corrected when calibration was performed with urine standards. At a δ(2)H value of 1101.4‰, the accuracy increased from -11.9 to -0.2 δ‰ (V500) and from -3.8 to 0.4 δ‰ (V6). The TBW errors were greatest with V500 and water calibration (1.20%) and lowest with V6 and urine calibration (0.34%; preparation-by-calibration interaction p = 0.027). For the δ(18)O values the accuracy of enrichments and TBW were not affected whatever preparations and normalization were used. The average TEE was not affected but the variability increased from 0.6 to 2.7% versus cryogenic distillation. Cryogenic distillation remains the gold standard for small sample size experiments where small changes in TEE are to be detected. Filtration offers an alternative for large-scale experiments. When the body composition is derived from (2)H2O dilution, it is strongly recommended that urine standards should be used to

  18. Metal phosphonates based on aminomethylenediphosphonate: Syntheses and characterization of Na{sub 4}Zn{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O, Ni{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3}H){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O and NaNi{sub 2}{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H{sub 0.5}){r_brace}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Bao Songsong; Wang Tianwei; Li Yizhi; Zheng Limin . E-mail: lmzheng@nju.edu.cn

    2006-02-15

    This paper describes the syntheses of three transition metal diphosphonate compounds: Na{sub 4}Zn{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (1), Ni{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3}H){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O (2) and NaNi{sub 2}{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H{sub 0.5}){r_brace}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (3). Compound 1 contains chains of [Zn{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}]{sub n}{sup 4n-} made up of corner-sharing ZnO{sub 6} octahedra and CPO{sub 3} tetrahedra, which are further connected by tetramers of edge-sharing NaO{sub 6} octahedra, forming a three-dimensional open-framework structure. Compound 2 shows a square-grid layer structure where the NiO{sub 6} octahedra are corner shared with CPO{sub 3} tetrahedra. The adjacent layers are linked by strong inter-layer hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional open-network structure with channels where the lattice water molecules reside. The structure of compound 3 is analogous to that of NaCo{sub 2}{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H{sub 0.5}){r_brace}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O in which layers of Ni{sub 2}{l_brace}NH{sub 3}CH(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H{sub 0.5}){r_brace}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} are connected by NaO{sub 6} linkages into an open-framework structure. The magnetic studies show that weak antiferromagnetic interactions are mediated between the nickel ions in compounds 2 and 3. Crystal data for 1: triclinic, space group P-1, a=5.551(2)A, b=6.166(2)A, c=12.424(4)A, {alpha}=92.422(6){sup o}, {beta}=92.687(7){sup o}, {gamma}=93.926(6){sup o}, V=423.3(2)A{sup 3}, Z=2. For 2: triclinic, space group P-1, a=9.043(1)A, b=9.180(1)A, c=9.271(1)A, {alpha}=89.693(3){sup o}, {beta}=70.202(3){sup o}, {gamma}=89.530(3){sup o}, V=724.1(2)A{sup 3}, Z=2.

  19. Determination of the 2H/1H and 15N/14N ratios of Alkylpyrazines from coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephoravar. robusta) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Richling, Elke; Preston, Christina; Kavvadias, Dominique; Kahle, Kathrin; Heppel, Christopher; Hummel, Silvia; König, Thorsten; Schreier, Peter

    2005-10-05

    The delta15N(AIR) and delta2H(VSMOW) data for several alkylpyrazines formed during the roasting process of coffee are reported. Samples of commercially available roasted (n = 9) as well as self-roasted (n = 8) coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora var. robusta) of different origins were investigated. By use of extracts prepared by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and subsequently fractionated by liquid chromatography on silica gel, on-line capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was employed in the combustion (C) and pyrolysis (P) modes (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) to determine the delta15N(AIR) and delta2H(VSMOW) values, respectively. In addition to the constituents of coffee beans, data for commercial synthetic alkylpyrazines and substances declared to be "natural" were determined. The delta15N(AIR) data for coffee alkylpyrazines under study-2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine (1) and 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine (2) (measured as sum 1/2), 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine (3), 2-methylpyrazine (4), 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (5) and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (6) (measured as sum 5/6), and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (7), as well as 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (8)-varied in the range from +8.3 to -10.2 per thousand, thus revealing their biogeneration from amino acids (delta15N(AIR) ranging from +8 per thousand to -10 per thousand). The delta2H(VSMOW) values were determined in the range from -5 per thousand to -127 per thousand. Owing to the analytical differentiation observed between coffee alkylpyrazines and synthetic/"natural" samples of 3, 4, and 7, authenticity assessment of coffee-flavored products seems to be promising, provided that extended data will be available in the future. In the literature, there were no IRMS data available for the alkylpyrazines (1-8) under study.

  20. [Polycyclic azines with heteroatoms in the 1- and 3-position. 40. Synthesis of heterocyclic immunomodulators. 3. Synthesis of n-1 substituted 3-(2-mercaptoethyl)quinazoline-2,4-(1H,3H)-diones from bis(2-(2-aminobenzoylamino)ethyl)disulfane and testing of immunostimulant activity].

    PubMed

    Gütschow, M; Drössler, K; Leistner, S

    1995-03-01

    A 3-step synthesis, starting from substituted isatoic anhydride was used to prepare substituted 3-(2-mercaptoethyl)quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones 4. Reaction of 1 with cystamine afforded bis[2-(2-amino-benzoyl-amino)ethyl]disulfanes 2. Reaction of 2 with ethyl chloroformate and subsequent reduction of the heterocyclic disulfanes 3 gave mercaptoethylquinazoline-2,4-diones 4a-f.N-1 methyl and benzyl substituted derivatives 4b and 4c, respectively, show immuno-stimulating activity in various tests.

  1. N-(4-Nitrobenzoyl)-N'-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-1H-3(2H)-pyrazolyl)-thiourea hydrate: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray structure and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, N. Burcu; Kazak, Canan; Aydın, Fatma

    2012-04-01

    The title molecule (C19H17N5O4S·H2O) was synthesized and characterized by IR-NMR spectroscopy, MS and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values of the compound in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) method with 6-31G(d) basis set, and compared with the experimental data. All the assignments of the theoretical frequencies were performed by potential energy distributions using VEDA 4 program. The calculated results show that the optimized geometries can well reproduce the crystal structural parameters, and the theoretical vibrational frequencies and 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values show good agreement with experimental data. To determine conformational flexibility, the molecular energy profile of the title compound was obtained with respect to the selected torsion angle, which was varied from -180° to +180° in steps of 10°. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) analysis and thermodynamic properties of the compound were investigated by theoretical calculations.

  2. Serological comparison of antibodies to avian influenza viruses, subtypes H5N2, H6N1, H7N3 and H7N9 between poultry workers and non-poultry workers in Taiwan in 2012.

    PubMed

    Huang, S Y; Yang, J R; Lin, Y J; Yang, C H; Cheng, M C; Liu, M T; Wu, H S; Chang, F Y

    2015-10-01

    In Taiwan, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N2, H6N1 and H7N3 have been identified in domestic poultry, and several strains of these subtypes have become endemic in poultry. To evaluate the potential of avian-to-human transmission due to occupational exposure, an exploratory analysis of AIV antibody status in poultry workers was conducted. We enrolled 670 poultry workers, including 335 live poultry vendors (LPVs), 335 poultry farmers (PFs), and 577 non-poultry workers (NPWs). Serum antibody titres against various subtypes of viruses were analysed and compared. The overall seropositivity rates in LPVs and PFs were 2·99% (10/335) and 1·79% (6/335), respectively, against H5N2; and 0·6% (2/335) and 1·19% (4/335), respectively, for H7N3 virus. Of NPWs, 0·35% (2/577) and 0·17% (1/577) were seropositive for H5N2 and H7N3, respectively. Geographical analysis revealed that poultry workers whose workplaces were near locations where H5N2 outbreaks in poultry have been reported face greater risks of being exposed to viruses that result in elevated H5N2 antibody titres. H6N1 antibodies were detected in only one PF, and no H7N9 antibodies were found in the study subjects. Subclinical infections caused by H5N2, H6N1 and H7N3 viruses were thus identified in poultry workers in Taiwan. Occupational exposure is associated with a high risk of AIV infection, and the seroprevalence of particular avian influenza strains in humans reflects the endemic strains in poultry in this region.

  3. In Silico Identification of Highly Conserved Epitopes of Influenza A H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, and H5N1 with Diagnostic and Vaccination Potential

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Medina, José Esteban; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos Javier; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Monroy-Muñoz, Irma Eloísa; Angeles-Martínez, Javier; Santos Coy-Arechavaleta, Andrea; Santacruz-Tinoco, Clara Esperanza; González-Ibarra, Joaquín; Anguiano-Hernández, Yu-Mei; González-Bonilla, César Raúl; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable, evolutionary nature of the influenza A virus (IAV) is the primary problem when generating a vaccine and when designing diagnostic strategies; thus, it is necessary to determine the constant regions in viral proteins. In this study, we completed an in silico analysis of the reported epitopes of the 4 IAV proteins that are antigenically most significant (HA, NA, NP, and M2) in the 3 strains with the greatest world circulation in the last century (H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2) and in one of the main aviary subtypes responsible for zoonosis (H5N1). For this purpose, the HMMER program was used to align 3,016 epitopes reported in the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) and distributed in 34,294 stored sequences in the Pfam database. Eighteen epitopes were identified: 8 in HA, 5 in NA, 3 in NP, and 2 in M2. These epitopes have remained constant since they were first identified (~91 years) and are present in strains that have circulated on 5 continents. These sites could be targets for vaccination design strategies based on epitopes and/or as markers in the implementation of diagnostic techniques. PMID:26346523

  4. In Silico Identification of Highly Conserved Epitopes of Influenza A H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, and H5N1 with Diagnostic and Vaccination Potential.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Medina, José Esteban; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos Javier; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Monroy-Muñoz, Irma Eloísa; Angeles-Martínez, Javier; Santos Coy-Arechavaleta, Andrea; Santacruz-Tinoco, Clara Esperanza; González-Ibarra, Joaquín; Anguiano-Hernández, Yu-Mei; González-Bonilla, César Raúl; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable, evolutionary nature of the influenza A virus (IAV) is the primary problem when generating a vaccine and when designing diagnostic strategies; thus, it is necessary to determine the constant regions in viral proteins. In this study, we completed an in silico analysis of the reported epitopes of the 4 IAV proteins that are antigenically most significant (HA, NA, NP, and M2) in the 3 strains with the greatest world circulation in the last century (H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2) and in one of the main aviary subtypes responsible for zoonosis (H5N1). For this purpose, the HMMER program was used to align 3,016 epitopes reported in the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) and distributed in 34,294 stored sequences in the Pfam database. Eighteen epitopes were identified: 8 in HA, 5 in NA, 3 in NP, and 2 in M2. These epitopes have remained constant since they were first identified (~91 years) and are present in strains that have circulated on 5 continents. These sites could be targets for vaccination design strategies based on epitopes and/or as markers in the implementation of diagnostic techniques.

  5. Onflow liquid chromatography at critical conditions coupled to (1)H and (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance as powerful tools for the separation of poly(methylmethacrylate) according to isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Hehn, Mathias; Sinha, Pritish; Pasch, Harald; Hiller, Wolf

    2015-03-27

    The present work addresses a major challenge in polymer chromatography by developing a method to separate and analyze polymers with identical molar masses, chemical structures and tacticities that is solely based on differences in isotope composition. For the first time, liquid chromatography at critical conditions (LCCC) was used to separate PMMA regarding the H and D isotopes. At critical conditions of H-PMMA, D-PMMA eluted in the adsorption mode and vice versa. By online onflow LCCC-NMR, both PMMA species were clearly identified. Different from other detectors, NMR can distinguish between H and D. Onflow LCCC-H/NMR and LCCC-D/NMR measurements were carried out and the H/D-blend components were detected. (1)H and (13)C NMR provided the tacticity of protonated PMMA. Double resonance (13)C{H} and triple resonance (13)C{H,D} provided the tacticity of the deuterated samples. Samples with similar tacticities were used to ensure that separation occurs solely regarding the isotope labeling.

  6. Chloro-fac-tricarbonylrhenium(I) complexes of asymmetric azines derived from 6-acetyl-1,3,7-trimethylpteridine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione with hydrazine and aromatic aldehydes: preparation, structural characterization and biological activity against several human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Picón-Ferrer, Inmaculada; Hueso-Ureña, Francisco; Illán-Cabeza, Nuria A; Jiménez-Pulido, Sonia B; Martínez-Martos, José M; Ramírez-Expósito, María J; Moreno-Carretero, Miguel N

    2009-01-01

    A number of new asymmetric azines derived from hydrazine and 6-acetyl-1,3,7-trimethyllumazine (lumazine=pteridine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) and its derivatives with several aromatic aldehydes have been prepared and characterized by usual procedures (XRD, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR). These were reacted with [ReCl(CO)(5)] to give the corresponding mononuclear chloro-fac-tricarbonylrhenium(I) [ReCl(CO)(3)L] compounds. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR. Furthermore, single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies have also allowed to report two different coordination modes of the ligands, which are strongly influenced by the basicity of the heteroatoms on the aromatic aldehyde; thus, the hydrazones derived from hydrazine and hydroxyaldehydes are linked to Re(I) through N5 atom from the pyrazine ring and the N61 one from the hydrazino group, whereas with the ligand derived from pyridin-2-carbaldehyde, the N62 atom of the hydrazino group and the N1 from the pyridine moiety are preferred ligand-to-metal binding sites. The study of the effects of the compounds on the growth of four human tumor cell lines (neuroblastoma NB69, glioma U373, and breast cancer MCF-7 and EVSA-T) suggests a modulator behaviour, according to the concentration, of cell growth due to their estrogen-like characteristics.

  7. ON THE FORMATION AND ISOMER SPECIFIC DETECTION OF PROPENAL (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}CHO) AND CYCLOPROPANONE (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O) IN INTERSTELLAR MODEL ICES—A COMBINED FTIR AND REFLECTRON TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Borsuk, Aleca; Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2015-11-20

    The formation routes of two structural isomers—propenal (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O)—were investigated experimentally by exposing ices of astrophysical interest to energetic electrons at 5.5 K thus mimicking the interaction of ionizing radiation with interstellar ices in cold molecular clouds. The radiation-induced processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and via temperature programmed desorption exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with single photon ionization in the post irradiation phase. To selectively probe which isomer(s) is/are formed, the photoionization experiments were conducted with 10.49 and 9.60 eV photons. Our studies provided compelling evidence on the formation of both isomers—propenal (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O)—in ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4})—carbon monoxide (CO) ices forming propenal and cyclopropanone at a ratio of (4.5 ± 0.9):1. Based on the extracted reaction pathways, the cyclopropanone molecule can be classified as a tracer of a low temperature non-equilibrium chemistry within interstellar ices involving most likely excited triplet states, whereas propenal can be formed at ultralow temperatures, but also during the annealing phase via non-equilibrium as well as thermal chemistry (radical recombination). Since propenal has been detected in the interstellar medium and our laboratory experiments demonstrate that both isomers originated from identical precursor molecules our study predicts that the hitherto elusive second isomer—cyclopropanone—should also be observable toward those astronomical sources such as Sgr B2(N) in which propenal has been detected.

  8. Eco-friendly methodology to prepare N-heterocycles related to dihydropyridines: microwave-assisted synthesis of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate and 4-arylsubstituted-4,7-dihydrofuro[3,4-b]pyridine-2,5(1H,3H)-dione.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Hortensia; Martin, Osnieski; Suarez, Margarita; Martín, Nazario; Albericio, Fernando

    2011-11-21

    Here we describe the efficient synthesis of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates and 4-arylsubstituted-4,7-dihydro-furo[3,4-b]pyridine-2,5(1H,3H)-diones via microwave-accelerated reaction of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylates with the appropriate reagents. This eco-friendly approach to these valuable dihydropyridine derivatives does not involve the harsh or highly contaminating conditions common in classical heating and offers a reduction or even elimination of solvent use and recovery, simplification of the work-up procedures, facility of scale up, and low energy consumption, in addition to moderate to higher yields.

  9. CAF-1-induced oligomerization of histones H3/H4 and mutually exclusive interactions with Asf1 guide H3/H4 transitions among histone chaperones and DNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wallace H; Roemer, Sarah C; Port, Alex M; Churchill, Mair E A

    2012-12-01

    Anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1) and Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) chaperone histones H3/H4 during the assembly of nucleosomes on newly replicated DNA. To understand the mechanism of histone H3/H4 transfer among Asf1, CAF-1 and DNA from a thermodynamic perspective, we developed and employed biophysical approaches using full-length proteins in the budding yeast system. We find that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 enhances the interaction of Asf1 with CAF-1. Surprisingly, although H3/H4 also enhances the interaction of Asf1 with the CAF-1 subunit Cac2, H3/H4 forms a tight complex with CAF-1 exclusive of Asf1, with an affinity weaker than Asf1-H3/H4 or H3/H4-DNA interactions. Unlike Asf1, monomeric CAF-1 binds to multiple H3/H4 dimers, which ultimately promotes the formation of (H3/H4)(2) tetramers on DNA. Thus, transition of H3/H4 from the Asf1-associated dimer to the DNA-associated tetramer is promoted by CAF-1-induced H3/H4 oligomerization.

  10. Antitumor activity of 6-(cyclohexylamino)-1, 3-dimethyl-5(2-pyridyl)furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and Its Ti(IV), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Pd(II) complexes on K562 and Jurkat cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Fahmideh; Ghammamy, Shahriar; Mehrani, Khayroallah; Teimouri, Mohammad Bagher; Soleimani, Masoud; Kaviani, Saeid

    2008-01-01

    (6-(cyclohexylamino)-1,3-dimethyl-5(2-pyridyl)furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) abbreviated as CDP was synthesized and characterized. Ti(IV), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Pd(II) metal complexes of this ligand are prepared by the reaction of salts of Ti(IV), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Pd(II) with CDP in acetonitrile. Characterization of the ligand and its complexes was made by microanalyses, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. All complexes were characterized by several techniques using elemental analysis (C, H, N), FT-IR, electronic spectra, and molar conductance measurements. The elemental analysis data suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:1 [M:L] ratio formation. The molar conductance measurements reveal the presence of 1:1 electrolytic nature complexes. These new complexes showed excellent antitumor activity against two kinds of cancer cells that are K562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia) cells and Jurkat (human T lymphocyte carcinoma) cells.

  11. Electronic structures and selective fluoride sensing features of Os(bpy)2(HL(2-)) and [{Os(bpy)2}2(μ-HL(2-))](2+) (H3L: 5-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid).

    PubMed

    Das, Ankita; Agarwala, Hemlata; Kundu, Tanaya; Ghosh, Prabir; Mondal, Sudipta; Mobin, Shaikh M; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2014-10-07

    The article deals with the newly designed mononuclear and asymmetric dinuclear osmium(ii) complexes Os(II)(bpy)2(HL(2-)) (1) and [(bpy)2Os(II)(μ-HL(2-))Os(II)(bpy)2](Cl)2 ([2](Cl)2)/[(bpy)2Os(II)(μ-HL(2-))Os(II)(bpy)2](ClO4)2 ([2](ClO4)2), respectively, (H3L = 5-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid and bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine). The identity of 1 has been established by its single crystal X-ray structure. The ligand (HL(2-))-based primary oxidation process (E, 0.23 V versus SCE) along with the partial metal contribution (∼20%) in 1 has been revealed by the ligand-dominated HOMO of 1 (HL(2-): 88%, Os: 8%), as well as by the Mulliken spin density distribution of 1(+) (HL(2-): 0.878, Os: 0.220). Accordingly, 1(+) exhibits a free radical type EPR at 77 K with a partial metal-based anisotropic feature (g1 = 2.127, g2 = 2.096, g3 = 2.046; = 2.089; Δg = 0.08). (1)H-NMR of the dinuclear 2(2+) in CDCl3 suggests an intimate mixture of two diastereomeric forms in a 1 : 1 ratio. The DFT-supported predominantly Os(ii)/Os(iii)-based couples of asymmetric 2(2+) at 0.24 V and 0.50 V versus SCE result in a comproportionation constant (Kc) value of 8.2 × 10(4). The class I mixed valent state of 2(3+) (S = 1/2) has, however, been corroborated by the Mulliken spin density distribution of Os1: 0.887, Os2: 0.005, HL(2-): 0.117, as well as by the absence of a low-energy IVCT (intervalence charge transfer) band in the near-IR region (up to 2000 nm). The appreciable spin accumulation on the bridge in 2(3+) or 2(4+) (S = 1, Os1: 0.915, Os2: 0.811 and HL(2-): 0.275) implies a mixed electronic structural form of [(bpy)2Os(III)(μ-HL(2-))Os(II)(bpy)2](3+)(major)/[(bpy)2Os(II)(μ-HL˙(-))Os(II)(bpy)2](3+)(minor) or [(bpy)2Os(III)(μ-HL(2-))Os(III)(bpy)2](4+)(major)/[(bpy)2Os(III)(μ-HL˙(-))Os(II)(bpy)2](4+) (minor), respectively. The mixed valent {Os(III)(μ-HL(2-))Os(II)} state in 2(3+), however, fails to show EPR at 77 K due to the rapid spin relaxation

  12. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ in rice and vegetal samples with dimethyl-spiro[isobenzofurane-1,6'-pyrorolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine]-2',3,4,5'(1'H,3'H,7'H)tetraone using wavelet transformation-feed forward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Tarighat, Maryam Abbasi; Mohammadizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Abdi, Gholamreza

    2013-07-17

    A multicomponent analysis method for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of the Cd(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) based on complex formation with dimethyl-spiro[isobenzofurane-1,6'-pyrorolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine]-2',3,4,5'(1'H,3'H,7'H)tetraone using wavelet transformation-feed forward neural network is proposed. The analytical data showed that metal to ligand ratios in all metal complexes was 1:1. The absorption spectra were evaluated with respect to synthetic ligand concentration and pH. It was found that, at pH 6.7, the complexation reactions were completed. Spectral data were reduced using continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) and subjected to artificial neural networks. The presence of nonlinearities was confirmed by a partial response plot. The structures of the CWT-feed forward neural networks (WT-FFNN) were simplified using the corresponding wavelet coefficients of mother wavelets. Once the optimal wavelet coefficients are selected, different ANN models can be employed for the calculation of the final calibration model. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of Cd(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) in rice, dill, tomato, and lettuce samples.

  13. Crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-bromopyridin-3-yl)methyl-idene]-6-meth-oxy-3,4-di-hydro-naphthalen-1(2H)-one and 3-[(E)-(6-meth-oxy-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-naphthalen-2-ylidene)meth-yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one.

    PubMed

    Zingales, Sarah K; Moore, Morgan E; Goetz, Andrew D; Padgett, Clifford W

    2016-07-01

    The title compounds C17H14BrNO2, (I), and C17H15NO3, (II), were obtained from the reaction of 6-meth-oxy-3,4-di-hydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one and 2-bromo-nicotinaldehyde in ethanol. Compound (I) was the expected product and compound (II) was the oxidation product from air exposure. In the crystal structure of compound (I), there are no short contacts or hydrogen bonds. The structure does display π-π inter-actions between adjacent benzene rings and adjacent pyridyl rings. Compound (II) contains two independent mol-ecules, A and B, in the asymmetric unit; both are non-planar, the dihedral angles between the meth-oxy-benzene and 1H-pyridin-2-one mean planes being 35.07 (9)° in A and 35.28 (9)°in B. In each mol-ecule, the 1H-pyridin-2-one unit participates in inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding to another mol-ecule of the same type (A to A or B to B). The structure also displays π-π inter-actions between the pyridyl and the benzene rings of non-equivalent mol-ecules (viz., A to B and B to A).

  14. 7-Chloro-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one (Bz-423), a benzodiazepine, suppresses keratinocyte proliferation and has antipsoriatic activity in the human skin-severe, combined immunodeficient mouse transplant model.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Nerusu, Kamalakar C; Hanosh, Andrew; Aslam, Muhammad N; Sundberg, Thomas B; Opipari, Anthony W; Johnson, Kent; Kang, Sewon; Glick, Gary D; Varani, James

    2008-03-01

    7-Chloro-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one (Bz-423) is a benzodiazepine that has cytotoxic and cytostatic activity against a variety of cells in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that Bz-423 (formulated for topical delivery) reduces epidermal hyperplasia in human psoriatic skin after transplantation to severe, combined immunodeficient (scid) mice. Bz-423 also suppresses the hyperplasia that develops in nonpsoriatic human skin as a consequence of transplantation to scid mice. Proliferation of human epidermal keratinocytes in monolayer culture was suppressed by Bz-423 at concentrations of 0.5 to 2.0 muM (noncytotoxic concentrations). Keratinocyte growth inhibition was accompanied by increased oxidant generation in Bz-423-treated cells, and treatment with vitamin E along with Bz-423 reversed the growth inhibition. Growth inhibition was accompanied by a redistribution of beta-catenin from a cytoplasmic pool to the cell membrane and by reduced levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 (two molecules associated with Wnt pathway signaling). Several analogs of Bz-423 were examined for antiproliferative activity against human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts in monolayer culture. Each of the analogs tested suppressed growth of both cell types, but in all cases, keratinocytes were more sensitive than fibroblasts. Two of the compounds were found to suppress epidermal hyperplasia induced with all-trans retinoic acid in organ cultures of human skin. Taken together, these data show that Bz-423 and certain analogs produce biological responses in skin cells in vitro and in vivo that are consistent with therapeutic goals for treating psoriasis or epidermal hyperplasia resulting from other causes.

  15. Determination of the rate constants for the NH2(X2B1) + NH2(X2B1) and NH2(X2B1) + H Recombination reactions with collision partners CH4, C2H6, CO2, CF4, and SF6 at low pressures and 296 K. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Altinay, Gokhan; Macdonald, R Glen

    2012-03-08

    The recombination rate constants for the reactions NH2(X2B1) + NH2(X2B1) + M → N2H4 + M and NH2(X2B1) + H + M → NH3 + M, where M was CH4, C2H6, CO2, CF4, or SF6, were measured in the same experiment over presseure ranges of 1-20 and 7-20 Torr, respectively, at 296 ± 2 K. The NH2 radical was produced by the 193 nm laser photolysis of NH3. Both NH2 and NH3 were monitored simultaneously following the photolysis laser pulse. High-resolution time-resolved absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the temporal dependence of both species: NH2 on the (1)2(21) ← (1)3(31) rotational transition of the (0,7,0)A2A1 ← (0,0,0)X2B1 electronic transition near 675 nm and NH3 in the IR on either of the inversion doublets of the qQ3(3) rotational transition of the ν1 fundamental near 2999 nm. The NH2 self-recombination clearly exhibited falloff behavior for the third-body collision partners used in this work. The pressure dependences of the NH2 self-recombination rate constants were fit using Troe’s parametrization scheme, k(inf), k(0), and F(cent), with k(inf) = 7.9 × 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), the theoretical value calculated by Klippenstein et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A113, 113, 10241). The individual Troe parameters were CH4, k(0)(CH4) = 9.4 × 10(-29) and F(cent)(CH4) = 0.61; C2H6, k(0)(C2H6) = 1.5 × 10(-28) and F(cent)(C2H6) = 0.80; CO2, k(0)(CO2) = 8.6 × 10(-29) and F(cent)(CO2) = 0.66; CF4, k(0)(CF4) = 1.1 × 10(-28) and F(cent)(CF4) = 0.55; and SF6, k(0)(SF6) = 1.9 × 10(-28) and F(cent)(SF6) = 0.52, where the units of k0 are cm6 molecule(-2) s(-1). The NH2 + H + M reaction rate constant was assumed to be in the three-body pressure regime, and the association rate constants were CH4, (6.0 ± 1.8) × 10(-30); C2H6, (1.1 ± 0.41) × 10(-29); CO2, (6.5 ± 1.8) × 10(-30); CF4, (8.3 ± 1.7) × 10(-30); and SF6, (1.4 ± 0.30) × 10(-29), with units cm6 molecule(-1) s,(-1) and the systematic and experimental errors are given at the 2σ confidence level.

  16. The Hydrothermal NH 4/V/P/H 2O and K/v/p/n(c 2H 5) 3/H 2O Systems at 473 K and the Crystal Structures of NH 4VOPO 4and (nh 4) 3V 2O 3(VO)(PO 4) 2(HPO 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Michael; Joswig, Werner; Baur, Werner H.

    1997-12-01

    An examination of the NH 4/VO 5/P/H 2O system at 473 K under hydrothermal conditions yielded the (NH 4) 3V 2O 3(VO)(PO 4) 2(HPO 4) and NH 4VOPO 4phases. The crystal structure of the first compound is isotypical with the corresponding Tl +and K +phases. The cations NH +4and Tl +have similar coordinations against oxygen. The investigation of the crystal structure of the second compound (space group Pn2 n) shows it to be related to other ABO TO 4phases of the potassium titanyl phosphate type with A=Na +, Ag +, NH +4, Rb +, K +, and Tl +, and B=Ti 4+, V 4+, Sn 4+, Fe 4+, Ge 4+, Ga 3+, Zr 4+, Sb 5+, and Nb 5+, and T=P 5+, Ge 4+, Si 4+, and As 5+, but none of them crystallize in space group Pn2 n. In the K/V/P/N(C 2H 5) 3/H 2O system, three different K phases were found: K 0.5VOPO 4·1.5H 2O, KVOPO 4, and K-FVP-1 (Frankfurt vanadium phosphate, one, or for short, FVP-1). The microporous K-FVP-1 compound was synthesized in a similar pH range as the isotypic Na-FVP-1 phase. The V 4+/V 5+ratio of K-FVP-1 varies from 3.5(1)/1.5(1) to 1.6(1)/3.4(1) and the corresponding lattice constants range from 16.0013(6) to 15.7665(4) Å.

  17. Protective activity of probiotic bacteria against 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Czyżowska, Agata; Stańczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogenic compounds present in a typical Western diet rich in thermally processed meat. These nutritional factors can modulate the cytotoxicity of faecal water (FW) and induce tumours in the human gastrointestinal tract. Supplementation with probiotics is promising in terms of reducing the harmful effects of HAAs in the human body. The aim of the study was in vitro assessment of the protective activity of the probiotic strains Lb. rhamnosus 0900, Lb. rhamnosus 0908, Lb. casei 0919 and Lb. casei DN 114001 against IQ (2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) after incubation with faeces from 15 persons aged 4 months to 82 years (children, adults and the elderly). The highest mean cytotoxicity of FW was observed for the elderly (63.2% ± 3.7%) and the lowest for children (28.0% ± 9.5%), as estimated by a neutral red uptake assay. The probiotics lowered the average cytotoxicity of FW exposed to IQ or PhIP. The concentration of IQ and PhIP in FW was most effectively reduced by Lb. rhamnosus 0900 (47.5%) and Lb. casei 0919 (45.8%), respectively, as determined by high -performance liquid chromatography. All the tested strains bound PhIP to a higher extent than IQ. In an alkaline comet assay, Lb. casei 0919 and Lb. rhamnosus 0908 displayed the strongest protective effect against IQ and PhIP (up to 80% reduction of DNA damage). Also in a comet assay, Lb. rhamnosus 0908 exhibited antioxidative activity toward H2O2 and PhIP (up to 63% and 69.5% reduction of oxidative DNA damage, respectively). The protective activity of the probiotic strains was specific to a given person's FW, which implies the involvement of intestinal microbiota in the process.

  18. Isolation, characterization, crystal structure, free radical scavenging- and computational studies of 9-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione from Garcinia kola seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agunbiade, Rachael Y.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Millikan, Sean P.; Sanusi, Kayode; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Ceylan, Ümit; Fadare, Olatomide A.; Obafemi, Craig A.

    2017-09-01

    A new crystallographic form of a pure xanthenedione derivative (11‧), C22H24O3, was isolated from the hexane extract of the seeds of Garcinia kola. The structure of the compound was determined on the basis of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound crystallized as C22H24O3 H2O H3O+ Cl-, as the result of the extraction process, adopts monoclinic, space group P21/n (no. 14) and is stabilized by OWsbnd H⋯OW, OWsbnd H⋯Cl, Csbnd H⋯OW, Csbnd H⋯Cl intramolecular hydrogen bonds and weak OWsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O, intermolecular interactions forming a 3-D supramolecular structure. The molecular property of the pure xanthene derivative, C22H24O3, has also been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The calculated IR, 1H and 13C data were found to be in good agreement with experimental values. The compound C22H24O3 showed weak DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 2.37 ± 0.08 mg/ml.

  19. (3aS,7aS)-5-[(S)-3,3,3-Trifluoro-2-meth-oxy-2-phenyl-propano-yl]-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexa-hydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridin-3(2H)-one monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huichun; Plewe, Michael B; Rheingold, Arnold L; Moore, Curtis; Yanovsky, Alex

    2009-12-16

    rac-Benzyl 3-oxohexa-hydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridine-5(6H)-carboxyl-ate was separated by chiral chromatography, and one of the enanti-omers ([α](22) (D) = +10°) was hydrogenated in the presence of Pd/C in methanol, producing octa-hydro-3H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridin-3-one. The latter was reacted with (2R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-meth-oxy-2-phenyl-propanoyl chloride [(R)-(-)-Mosher acid chloride], giving rise to the title compound, C(17)H(19)F(3)N(2)O(3)·H(2)O. The present structure established the absolute configuration of the pyrrolopiperidine fragment based on the known configuration of the (R)-Mosher acid chloride. The piperidine ring has a somewhat distorted chair conformation and is cis-fused with the five-membered envelope-shaped ring; the plane of the exocyclic amide bond is approximately orthogonal to the plane of the phenyl ring, making a dihedral angle of 82.31 (3)°. The water mol-ecule acts as an acceptor to the proton of the amino group in an N-H⋯O inter-action, and as a double proton donor in O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating infinite bands along the a axis.

  20. Discovery of N-[(4R)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl]-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (MK-5596) as a novel cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonist for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Huo, Pei; Debenham, John S; Madsen-Duggan, Christina B; Lao, Julie; Chen, Richard Z; Xiao, Jing Chen; Shen, Chun-Pyn; Stribling, D Sloan; Shearman, Lauren P; Strack, Alison M; Tsou, Nancy; Ball, Richard G; Wang, Junying; Tong, Xinchun; Bateman, Thomas J; Reddy, Vijay B G; Fong, Tung M; Hale, Jeffrey J

    2010-05-27

    This paper describes the discovery of N-[(4R)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl]-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (MK-5596, 12c) as a novel cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonist for the treatment of obesity. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of lead compound 3, which had off-target hERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene) inhibition activity, led to the identification of several compounds that not only had attenuated hERG inhibition activity but also were subject to glucuronidation in vitro providing the potential for multiple metabolic clearance pathways. Among them, pyrazole 12c was found to be a highly selective CB1R inverse agonist that reduced body weight and food intake in a DIO (diet-induced obese) rat model through a CB1R-mediated mechanism. Although 12c was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter, its high in vivo efficacy in rodents, good pharmacokinetic properties in preclinical species, good safety margins, and its potential for a balanced metabolism profile in man allowed for the further evaluation of this compound in the clinic.

  1. Crystal structures of three indole derivatives: 3-ethnyl-2-methyl-1-phenyl­sulfonyl-1H-indole, 4-phenyl­sulfonyl-3H,4H-cyclo­penta­[b]indol-1(2H)-one and 1-{2-[(E)-2-(5-chloro-2-nitro­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1-phenyl­sulfonyl-1H-indol-3-yl}ethan-1-one chloro­form monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, S.; Sethusankar, K.; Ramalingam, Bose Muthu; Mohanakrishnan, Arasambattu K.

    2015-01-01

    The title compounds, C17H13NO2S, (I), C17H13NO3S, (II), and C24H17ClN2O5S·CHCl3, (III), are indole derivatives. Compounds (I) and (II) crystalize with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The indole ring systems in all three structures deviate only slightly from planarity, with dihedral angles between the planes of the pyrrole and benzene rings spanning the tight range 0.20 (9)–1.65 (9)°. These indole ring systems, in turn, are almost orthogonal to the phenyl­sulfonyl rings [range of dihedral angles between mean planes = 77.21 (8)–89.26 (8)°]. In the three compounds, the mol­ecular structure is stabilized by intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating S(6) ring motifs with the sulfone O atom. In compounds (I) and (II), the two independent mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions, while in compound (III), the mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating R 2 2(22) inversion dimers. PMID:26396842

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Organohydrazino Complexes of Technetium, Rhenium, and Molybdenum with the {M(eta(1)-H(x)()NNR)(eta(2)-H(y)()NNR)} Core and Their Relationship to Radiolabeled Organohydrazine-Derivatized Chemotactic Peptides with Diagnostic Applications.

    PubMed

    Rose, David J.; Maresca, Kevin P.; Nicholson, Terrence; Davison, Alan; Jones, Alun G.; Babich, John; Fischman, Alan; Graham, Wendy; DeBord, Jeffery R. D.; Zubieta, Jon

    1998-06-01

    The reduction of perrhenate, molybdate and pertechnetate with 2-hydrazinopyridine dihydrochloride in methanol has led to the preparation of a class of complexes containing the {M(eta(1)-NNC(5)H(4)NH(x)())(eta(2)-HNNH(y)()C(5)H(4)N)} core, represented by [TcCl(3)(NNC(5)H(4)NH)(HNNC(5)H(4)N)] (2), [ReCl(3)(NNC(5)H(4)NH)(HNNC(5)H(4)N)] (3), and [MoCl(3)(NNC(5)H(4)NH)(HNNHC(5)H(4)N)] (6). The reaction of 3 with NEt(3) results in the formation of [HNEt(3)][[ReCl(3)(NNC(5)H(4)N)(HNNC(5)H(4)N)].H(2)O (4) by deprotonation of the pyridine nitrogen site. Similarly, the reduction of perrhenate with 2-hydrazino-2-imidazoline hydrobromide has led to the preparation of the analogous [ReCl(3)(NNC(3)H(4)N(2)H)(HNNHC(3)H(4)N(2)H)] (5). Reaction of 3 with pyridine-2-thiol and pyrimidine-2-thiol yields two structurally characterized derivatives with a modified {Re(eta(1)-NNC(5)H(4)N)(eta(2)-HNNC(5)H(4)N)} core, [Re(C(5)H(4)NS)(2)(NNC(5)H(4)N)(HNNC(5)H(4)N)] (8) and [Re(C(4)H(3)N(2)S)(2)(NNC(5)H(4)N)(HNNC(5)H(4)N)] (9), respectively. Reaction of 6 with pyrimidine-2-thiol led to the isolation of the analogous [Mo(C(4)H(3)N(2)S)(2)(NNC(5)H(4)N)(HNNHC(5)H(4)N)] (11) and the seven-coordinate monohydrazine core complex [Mo(C(4)H(3)N(2)S)(3)(NNC(5)H(4)N)].CH(2)Cl(2) (12). In similar fashion, the reaction of 2 with pyridine-2-thiol yielded a complex structurally analogous to 8, [Tc(C(5)H(4)NS)(2)(NNC(5)H(4)N)(HNNC(5)H(4)N)] (7). Crystal data for 3, C(10)H(10)Cl(3)N(6)Re: triclinic, P&onemacr;, a = 7.527(2) Å, b = 7.599(2) Å, c = 13.118(3) Å, alpha = 106.55(3) degrees, beta = 90.28(3) degrees, gamma = 93.83(3) degrees, V = 717.4(4) Å(3), Z = 2. For 4, C(16)H(27)Cl(3)N(7)ORe: orthorhombic, P2(1)2(1)2(1), a = 7.503(2) Å, b = 10.3643(2) Å, c = 30.1590(5) Å, V = 2345.20(6) Å(3), Z = 2. For 5, C(6)H(12)Cl(3)N(8)Re: monoclinic, P2(1)/n, a = 9.093(2) Å, b = 11.105(2) Å, c = 14.295(3) Å, beta = 94.71(3) degrees, V = 1438.6(7) Å(3), Z = 4. For 6, C(10)H(11)Cl(3)N(6)Mo: monoclinic, P2(1)/c

  3. /sup 2/H-NMR studies of hypocotyl cell walls of germinating beams supplied with perdeuterated myo-inositol

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, K.; Wallace, J.C.; MacKay, A.L.; Balza, F.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1987-04-01

    When myo-(2-/sup 3/H) inositol (MI) was supplied to bean seeds by imbibition, only uronic acid, arabinose and xylose residues of cell wall polysaccharides were labeled. To study the structural mobility of the uronic acid- and/or pentose-rich polysaccharides in cell wall using /sup 2/H-NMR, the authors supplied perdeuterated MI with (2-/sup 3/H) MI to germinating bean seeds. Perdeuterated MI was prepared by the /sup 1/H-/sup 2/H exchange reaction of MI in deuterium oxide with Raney nickel. During the exchange reaction, extensive epimerization occurred and at least 6 inositol epimers in addition to MI were identified in the reaction mixture of GC/MS. The perdeuterated MI was completely resolved from other inositol epimers and purified by anion-exchange chromatography using Dowex 1 (borate form) and by crystallization. The /sup 2/H-NMR analysis resolved the /sup 2/H-labeled hypocotyl cell walls into two components (rigid and mobile components). They also report the distribution of /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H from perdeuterated and (2-/sup 3/H) MI in the cell wall sugar residues.

  4. Washout of tritium from 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-L-aspartate in the aspartase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.M.; Cook, P.F.

    1987-05-01

    Bacterial aspartase catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. Recent studies that made use of deuterium and /sup 15/N isotope effects suggested a carbanion intermediate mechanism in which C-N bond cleavage is rate determining. This could result in removal of a proton from the 3R position of aspartate at a rate of faster than the elimination of ammonia. 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-Aspartate was prepared enzymatically using aspartase from fumarate, ammonia and /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and aspartate isolated via chromatography on Dowex 50W x 8 at pH 1, eluting with 2N pyridine. The rate of /sup 3/H washout from this aspartate was then measured as a function of aspartate concentration and compared to the rate of production of fumarate. Tritium does washout of aspartate at a rate faster than fumarate is formed but the proton is apparently not rapidly equilibrated with solvent. The tritium washout experiments were supplemented using 3R-3(/sup 2/H)-aspartate prepared as above with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O replacing /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and monitoring the appearance of 3R-3(/sup 1/H)-aspartate via /sup 1/H-NMR. Results confirm the tritium washout results. Data are discussed in terms of the carbanion mechanism.

  5. Oxidation of potentials of the Me(IV)-Me(III) couple and the thermodynamics of the reactions Me/sup 3 +/ + H/sup +/ reversible Me/sup 4 +/ + 1/2H/sub 2/ (Me = Bk, Ce) in different media

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, G.A.; Chistyakov, V.M.; Erin, E.A.; Baranov, A.A.

    1987-11-01

    The values of the real oxidation potentials E/sub p//sup 0/ of the couples Bk(IV)-Bk(III) in solutions of perchloric, nitric, and phosphoric acids, potassium phosphotungstate, and sodium and potassium carbonates are measured by differential coulopotentiometry. It is shown that when solutions of sulfuric acid phosphoric acids, potassium phosphotungstate, and sodium and potassium carbonates are used in place of perchloric and nitric acids the E/sub p//sup 0/ value moves in the negative direction for both berkelium and cerium, which indicates strong complexation of ions of these elements. The thermodynamic parameters ..delta..G, ..delta..H, and ..delta..S of the reaction Me/sup 3 +/ + H/sup +/ reversible Me/sup 4 +/ + 12 H/sub 2/ (Me = Bk, Ce) are determined

  6. Metal ion interactions with nucleobases in the tetradentate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen)-ligand system: Crystal structures of [Cu(cyclen)(adeninato)]·ClO 4·2H 2O, [{Cu(cyclen)} 2(hypoxanthinato)]·(ClO 4) 3, [Cu(cyclen)(theophyllinato)] 3·(ClO 4) 3·2H 2O, and [Cu(cyclen)(xanthinato)]·(0.7ClO 4)·(0.3ClO 4)·3H 2O·(0.5H 2O) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Shahidur; Yuan, Hou Qun; Kikuchi, Takanori; Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Aoki, Katsuyuki

    2010-03-01

    Reaction of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen) and Cu(ClO 4) 2·6H 2O with nucleobases (adenine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, theophylline, cytosine, or uracil) under alkaline conditions gave four ternary cyclen-metal-nucleobase complexes, [Cu(cyclen)(adeninato)]·ClO 4·2H 2O ( 1), [{Cu(cyclen)} 2(hypoxanthinato)]·(ClO 4) 3 ( 2), [Cu(cyclen)(theophyllinato)] 3·(ClO 4) 3·2H 2O ( 3), and [Cu(cyclen)(xanthinato)]·(0.7ClO 4)·(0.3ClO 4)·3H 2O·(0.5H 2O) 3 ( 4), whose crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. In the adenine complex 1, a cyclen-capped square-pyramidal Cu 2+ ion binds to an adeninato ligand through N(9) with the formation of an intramolecular interligand hydrogen bond between the secondary amino nitrogen of cyclen and N(3) of the base. In the hypoxanthine complex 2, two cyclen-capped Cu 2+ ions bind to a hypoxanthinato ligand, one through N(7) with the formation of an intramolecular N(cyclen)-H···O(6) hydrogen bond and the other through N(9) to form an intramolecular N(cyclen)-H···N(3) hydrogen bond. Similarly, in both the theophylline complex 3 and the xanthine complex 4, each cyclen-capped Cu 2+ ion binds to a theophyllinato or xanthinato ligand through N(7) with the formation of an intramolecular N(cyclen)-H···O(6) hydrogen bond. However, unlike in 2, steric constraints between amino group(s) of cyclen and the methyl group at N(3) of theophylline in 3 or the proton attached to N(9) of xanthine in 4 preclude the metal bonding to N(9) in 3 or N(3) in 4. The significance of intramolecular interligand interaction as a factor that affects metal-binding site(s) on nucleobases is emphasized.

  7. Crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-bromopyridin-3-yl)methyl­idene]-6-meth­oxy-3,4-di­hydro­naphthalen-1(2H)-one and 3-[(E)-(6-meth­oxy-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­naphthalen-2-ylidene)meth­yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Zingales, Sarah K.; Moore, Morgan E.; Goetz, Andrew D.; Padgett, Clifford W.

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds C17H14BrNO2, (I), and C17H15NO3, (II), were obtained from the reaction of 6-meth­oxy-3,4-di­hydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one and 2-bromo­nicotinaldehyde in ethanol. Compound (I) was the expected product and compound (II) was the oxidation product from air exposure. In the crystal structure of compound (I), there are no short contacts or hydrogen bonds. The structure does display π–π inter­actions between adjacent benzene rings and adjacent pyridyl rings. Compound (II) contains two independent mol­ecules, A and B, in the asymmetric unit; both are non-planar, the dihedral angles between the meth­oxy­benzene and 1H-pyridin-2-one mean planes being 35.07 (9)° in A and 35.28 (9)°in B. In each mol­ecule, the 1H-pyridin-2-one unit participates in inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding to another mol­ecule of the same type (A to A or B to B). The structure also displays π–π inter­actions between the pyridyl and the benzene rings of non-equivalent mol­ecules (viz., A to B and B to A). PMID:27555939

  8. Viscosity, Second pVT-Virial Coefficient, and Diffusion of Pure and Mixed Small Alkanes CH4, C2H6, C3H8, n-C4H10, i-C4H10, n-C5H12, i-C5H12, and C(CH3)4 Calculated by Means of an Isotropic Temperature-Dependent Potential. I. Pure Alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkova, L.; Hohm, U.; Damyanova, M.

    2006-09-01

    Reference tables of second pVT-virial coefficients B(T ), viscosity η(T ), and self-diffusion ρD(T ) are given for all neat alkanes CnH2n+2, n <6, for temperatures T ⩽1200K starting at 100K for CH4, 150K for C2H6, and 180K for C3H8, n-C4H10, i-C4H10, n-C5H12, i-C5H12, and C(CH3)4. Restricting ourselves to low densities the thermophysical properties are calculated by means of an isotropic (n-6) Lennard-Jones temperature dependent potential (LJTDP). In this model the potential well depth ɛeff(T ) and the separation at minimum energy Rm(eff)(T) are explicitly temperature dependent, whereas the repulsive term n >12 is independent of T. The LJTDP has been used before in order to construct reference tables of thermophysical properties of neat gases [Zarkova and Hohm, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31, 183 (2002)] and binary mixtures [Zarkova, Hohm, and Damyanova, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 32, 1591 (2003)]. However, those studies were restricted to atoms and globularly shaped nondipolar molecules. Here the approach is extended to elongated, not necessarily spherically symmetric, and in part slightly dipolar molecules. As in previous works the potential parameters ɛ(eff)(T), Rm(eff)(T), and n are determined by minimizing the root-mean-square deviation between calculated and experimentally obtained thermophysical properties B(T ), η(T ), ρD(T ), and the second acoustic virial coefficient β(T ) normalized to their experimental error. In extension of our previous efforts we present a thorough statistical analysis of the experimental input data which gives us the possibility to select primary data which could be used to build up a database.

  9. Observation of the pi...H hydrogen-bonded ternary complex, (C(2)H(4))(2)H(2)O, using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew G K; Lewars, Errol G; Parnis, J Mark

    2005-10-27

    FTIR absorption spectra of water-containing ethene:Ar matrices, with compositions of ethene up to 1:10 ethene:Ar, have been recorded. Systematically increasing the concentration of ethene reveals features in the spectra consistent with the known 1:1 ethene:water complex, which subsequently disappear on further increase in ethene concentration. At high concentrations of ethene, new features are observed at 3669 and 3585 cm(-1), which are red-shifted with respect to matrix-isolated nu(3) and nu(1) O-H stretching modes of water and the 1:1 ethene:water complex. These shifts are consistent with a pi...H interaction of a 2:1 ethene:water complex of the form (C(2)H(4)...H-O-H...C(2)H(4)). The analogous (C(2)D(4))(2)H(2)O complex shows little shifting from positions associated with (C(2)H(4))(2)H(2)O, while the (C(2)H(4))(2)D(2)O isotopomer shows large shifts to 2722.3 and 2617.2 cm(-1), having identical nu(3)(H(2)O)/nu(3)(D(2)O) and nu(1)(H(2)O)/nu(1)(D(2)O) values when compared with monomeric water isotopomers. Features at 3626.1 and 2666.2 cm(-1) are also observed and are attributed to (C(2)H(4))(2)HDO. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level for each isotopomer are presented, and the predicted vibrational frequencies are directly compared with experimental values. The interaction energy for the formation of the 2:1 ethene:water complex from the 1:1 ethene:water complex is also presented.

  10. U1h Superstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Glen Sykes

    2000-11-01

    The U1H Shaft Project is a design build subcontract to supply the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) a 1,045 ft. deep, 20 ft. diameter, concrete lined shaft for unspecified purposes. The subcontract awarded to Atkinson Construction by Bechtel Nevada to design and construct the shaft for the DOE has been split into phases with portions of the work being released as dictated by available funding. The first portion released included the design for the shaft, permanent hoist, headframe, and collar arrangement. The second release consisted of constructing the shaft collar to a depth of 110 ft., the service entry, utility trenches, and installation of the temporary sinking plant. The temporary sinking plant included the installation of the sinking headframe, the sinking hoist, two deck winches, the shaft form, the sinking work deck, and temporary utilities required to sink the shaft. Both the design and collar construction were completed on schedule. The third release consisted of excavating and lining the shaft to the station depth of approximately 950 feet. Work is currently proceeding on this production sinking phase. At a depth of approximately 600 feet, Atkinson has surpassed production expectation and is more than 3 months ahead of schedule. Atkinson has employed the use of a Bobcat 331 excavator as the primary means of excavation. the shaft is being excavated entirely in an alluvial deposit with varying degrees of calcium carbonate cementation. Several more work packages are expected to be released in the near future. The remaining work packages include, construction of the shaft station a depth of 975 ft. and construction of the shaft sump to a depth of 1,045 ft., installation of the loading pocket and station steel and equipment, installation of the shaft steel and guides, installation of the shaft utilities, and installation of the permanent headframe, hoist, collar utilities, and facilities.

  11. C3H4ArN2 1H-Imidazole - argon (1/1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.

    This document is part of Part 2 of Subvolume D 'Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  12. C3H4ArN2 1H-Pyrazole - argon (1/1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.

    This document is part of Part 2 of Subvolume D 'Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  13. UV/vis, 1H, and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies to determine mangiferin pKa values.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Zaleta, Berenice; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Gutiérrez, Atilano; González-Vergara, Enrique; Güizado-Rodríguez, Marisol; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

    2006-07-01

    The acid constants of mangiferin (a natural xanthonoid) in aqueous solution were determined through an UV/vis spectroscopic study employing the SQUAD program as a computational tool. A NMR study complements the pK(a) values assignment and evidences a H-bridge presence on 1-C. The chemical model used was consistent with the experimental data obtained. The pK(a) values determined with this procedure were as follows: H(4)(MGF)=H(3)(MGF)(-)+H(+), pKa1 (6-H)=6.52+/-0.06; H(3)(MGF)(-)=H(2)(MGF)(2-)+H(+), pKa2 (3-H)=7.97+/-0.06; H(2)(MGF)(2-)=H(MGF)(3-)+H(+), pKa3 (7-H)=9.44+/-0.04; H(MGF)(3-)=(MGF)(4-)+H(+), pKa4 (1-H)=12.10+/-0.01; where it has been considered mangiferin C(19)H(18)O(11) as H(4)(MGF). Mangiferin UV/vis spectral behavior, stability study in aqueous solution as well as NMR spectroscopy studies: one-dimensional (1)H,(13)C, 2D correlated (1)H/(13)C performed by (g)-HSQC and (g)-HMBC methods; are also presented. pK(a) values determination of H(4)(MGF) in aqueous solution is a necessary contribution to subsequent pharmacokinetic study, and a step towards the understanding of its biological effects.

  14. Muon Capture on ^3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golak, Jacek; Skibiński, Roman; Witała, Henryk; Topolnicki, Kacper; Kamada, Hiroyuki; Nogga, Andreas; Marcucci, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    The μ ^- + ^3H → ν _μ + n + n + n capture reaction is studied under full inclusion of final-state interactions with the AV18 nucleon-nucleon potential and the Urbana IX three-nucleon force. We employ the single nucleon weak current operator comprising the dominant relativistic corrections to obtain first estimates of the total capture rates based on realistic forces. Our results are compared with older theoretical predictions.

  15. 1H and 2H NMR studies of water in work-free wheat flour doughs.

    PubMed

    d'Avignon, D A; Hung, C C; Pagel, M T; Hart, B; Bretthorst, G L; Ackerman, J J

    1991-01-01

    Proton and deuterium NMR relaxation methods were used to characterize water compartmentalization and hydration in work-free wheat flour doughs. Transverse (spin-spin) relaxation measurements define three motionally unique water compartments in the work-free dough preparations. The apparent occupancy fraction and relative mobility of each water domain are found to be functions of moisture content, temperature, and flour type. Additionally, the number of relaxation-resolved water compartments and their characteristic relaxation rate constants are found to depend critically on both moisture content and the interpulse-delay employed for the multi-pulse relaxation experiments. Under controlled experimental conditions, dynamics between the three water compartments can be observed to be consistent with the onset of flour hydration. The most notable observation during the initial period of hydration is a loss of "free" or "loosely bound" water to environments characterized by less mobility. Freezing studies show that hard wheat doughs have slightly less amorphous, non-freezable water than do soft wheat flour doughs prepared under similar conditions.

  16. Theoretical exploration of hydrogen loss from Al3H9.

    PubMed

    Nold, Christopher P; Head, John D

    2012-05-03

    The Al(3)H(9) and Al(3)H(7) potential energy surfaces were explored using quantum chemistry calculations to investigate the H(2) loss mechanism from Al(3)H(9), which provide new insights into hydrogen production from bulk alane, [AlH(3)](x), a possible energy storage material. We present results of B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations for the various Al(3)H(9) and Al(3)H(7) optimized local minima and transition state structures along with some reaction pathways for their interconversion. We find the energy for Al(3)H(9) decomposition into Al(2)H(6) and AlH(3) is slightly lower than that for H(2) loss and Al(3)H(7) formation, but the calculations show that H(2) loss from Al(3)H(9) is a lower energy process than for losing hydrogen from either Al(2)H(6) or AlH(3). We found four transition state structures and reaction pathways for Al(3)H(9) → Al(3)H(7) + H(2), where the lowest energy activation barrier is around 25-73 kJ/mol greater than the experimental value for H(2) loss from bulk alane. Intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations show that the H(2) loss pathway involves considerable rearrangement of the H atom positions around a single Al center. Three of the pathways start with the formation of an AlH(3) moiety, which then enables a terminal H on the AlH(3) to get within 1.1 to 1.2 Å of a nearby bridging H atom. The bridging and terminal H atoms eventually combine to form H(2) and leave Al(3)H(9). One implication of these H(2) loss reaction pathways is that, since the H atoms in bulk alanes are all at bridging positions, if a similar H(2) loss mechanism were to apply to bulk alane, then H(2) loss would most likely occur on the bulk alane surface or at a defect site where there should be more terminal H atoms available for reaction with nearby bridging H atoms.

  17. Effect of sequence of administration on the pharmacokinetic interaction between the anticholinergic drug biperiden and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate or [3H]N-methylscopolamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, J; Yokogawa, K; Nakashima, E; Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T; Ichimura, F

    1998-02-01

    In rats the pharmacokinetic interactions between the anticholinergic drug biperiden and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate ([3H]QNB) or [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) is affected by the sequence in which the drugs are administered. Drug concentrations in various tissues were determined after intravenous administration of [3H]QNB or [3H]NMS (325 ng kg(-1)). Biperiden (6.4 mg kg(-1)) was administered either 5 min before, concomitantly with or 20 min after injection of [3H]QNB or [3H]NMS. When biperiden was administered concomitantly with or before [3H]QNB, distribution of [3H]QNB among the regions of the brain and other tissues was reduced; at 4 h the ratio of the distribution of [3H]QNB for experimental animals to that for control animals ranged from 0.15 to 0.9. When biperiden was administered after [3H]QNB, the distribution of [3H]QNB in the brain and other tissues was significantly higher than for the other two treatments (P < 0.01). However, for [3H]NMS the sequence of administration had no effect on the distribution of the drug in the brain and other tissues except for the kidney. In-vitro, in crude synaptosomal membranes, the amount of [3H]QNB at 2 h relative to the control concentration at equilibrium was 87% when biperiden was added before [3H]QNB and 56% when biperiden was added after [3H]QNB. In both instances the concentration of [3H]NMS reached equilibrium within 30 min. These findings suggest that the difference between the rate constant of association and dissociation at the possible site of action gives rise to the effect of the sequence of administration on the pharmacokinetic interaction.

  18. Ion-neutral reaction of the C2H2N+ cation with C2H2: An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, P.; Geppert, W. D.; Kaiser, A.; Ascenzi, D.

    2016-03-01

    The ion-neutral reactions of the C2H2N+ cation with C2H2 have been investigated using a Guided Ion Beam Mass Spectrometer (GIB-MS). The following ionic products were observed: CH3+, C2H2+, C2H3+, HNC+ /HCN+ , HCNH+, C3H+ , C2N+ , C3H3+, HCCN+ and C4H2N+ . Theoretical calculations have been carried out to propose reaction pathways leading to the observed products. These processes are of relevance for the generation of long chain nitrogen-containing species and they may be of interest for the chemistry of Titan's ionosphere or circumstellar envelopes.

  19. Synthesis of stereospecifically deuterated desoxypodophyllotoxins and 1H-nmr assignment of desoxypodophyllotoxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pullockaran, A. J.; Kingston, D. G.; Lewis, N. G.

    1989-01-01

    [4 beta- 2H1]Desoxypodophyllotoxin [3], [4 alpha- 2H1]desoxypodophyllotoxin [4], and [4, 4- 2 H2]desoxypodophyllotoxin [9] were prepared from podophyllotoxin [1] via its chloride [5]. A complete assignment of the 1H-nmr spectrum of desoxypodophyllotoxin [2] was made on the basis of the spectra of the deuterated compounds [3] and [4].

  20. Synthesis of stereospecifically deuterated desoxypodophyllotoxins and 1H-nmr assignment of desoxypodophyllotoxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pullockaran, A. J.; Kingston, D. G.; Lewis, N. G.

    1989-01-01

    [4 beta- 2H1]Desoxypodophyllotoxin [3], [4 alpha- 2H1]desoxypodophyllotoxin [4], and [4, 4- 2 H2]desoxypodophyllotoxin [9] were prepared from podophyllotoxin [1] via its chloride [5]. A complete assignment of the 1H-nmr spectrum of desoxypodophyllotoxin [2] was made on the basis of the spectra of the deuterated compounds [3] and [4].

  1. Determination of muscle protein synthesis rates in fish using (2)H2O and (2)H NMR analysis of alanine.

    PubMed

    Marques, Cátia; Viegas, Filipa; Rito, João; Jones, John; Viegas, Ivan

    2016-09-15

    Following administration of deuterated water ((2)H2O), the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of a given endogenous protein can be estimated by (2)H-enrichment quantification of its alanine residues. Currently, this is measured by mass spectrometry following a derivatization procedure. Muscle FSR was measured by (1)H/(2)H NMR analysis of alanine from seabass kept for 6 days in 5% (2)H-enriched saltwater, following acid hydrolysis and amino acid isolation by cation-exchange chromatography of muscle tissue. The analysis is simple and robust, and provides precise measurements of excess alanine (2)H-enrichment in the 0.1-0.4% range from 50 mmol of alanine recovered from muscle protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CAF-1-induced oligomerization of histones H3/H4 and mutually exclusive interactions with Asf1 guide H3/H4 transitions among histone chaperones and DNA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wallace H.; Roemer, Sarah C.; Port, Alex M.; Churchill, Mair E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1) and Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) chaperone histones H3/H4 during the assembly of nucleosomes on newly replicated DNA. To understand the mechanism of histone H3/H4 transfer among Asf1, CAF-1 and DNA from a thermodynamic perspective, we developed and employed biophysical approaches using full-length proteins in the budding yeast system. We find that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 enhances the interaction of Asf1 with CAF-1. Surprisingly, although H3/H4 also enhances the interaction of Asf1 with the CAF-1 subunit Cac2, H3/H4 forms a tight complex with CAF-1 exclusive of Asf1, with an affinity weaker than Asf1–H3/H4 or H3/H4–DNA interactions. Unlike Asf1, monomeric CAF-1 binds to multiple H3/H4 dimers, which ultimately promotes the formation of (H3/H4)2 tetramers on DNA. Thus, transition of H3/H4 from the Asf1-associated dimer to the DNA-associated tetramer is promoted by CAF-1-induced H3/H4 oligomerization. PMID:23034810

  3. Dimethyl-ammonium 5,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-(3,3,6,6-tetra-methyl-1,8-dioxo-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9-octa-hydro-1H-xanthen-9-yl)cyclo-hex-1-enolate 9-(2-hydr-oxy-4,4-dimethyl-6-oxocyclo-hex-1-en-yl)-3,3,6,6-tetra-methyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexa-hydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione n-hexane hemisolvate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Hasanudin, Noorhafizah; Abdul Rahim, Aisyah Saad; Muhamad Salhimi, Salizawati; Goh, Jia Hao; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-30

    The main mol-ecule of the title compound, C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(25)H(31)O(5) (-)·C(25)H(32)O(5)·0.5C(6)H(14)·H(2)O, exists as two crystallographically independent mol-ecules, the hydr-oxy group of one being deprotonated. The pyran rings of both independent units adopt boat conformations. One of the two cyclo-hexene rings of the xanthene unit adopts an envelope conformation whereas the other is in a half-chair conformation. The cyclo-hexene ring attached to the xanthene unit adopts an envelope conformation. The n-hexane solvent mol-ecule is disordered about a crystallographic glide plane and the symmetry-independent components are again disordered over two positions, each with an occupancy of 0.25. In the crystal structure, the xanthene derivatives are linked by O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network with channels along the a axis. The dimethyl-ammonium cations and water mol-ecules lie in small channels and are linked to the framework via O-H.·O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The n-hexane solvent mol-ecules occupy large channels.

  4. Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling Tensors of 2H in the a-Alum RbAl(SO4)2 · 12D2O and the Dynamical Behaviour of the D2O Molecules. An Investigation by NMR and IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, J.; Weiden, Norbert; Weiss, Alarich

    1990-04-01

    By single crystal NMR the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants eQΦzz h-1 (2H), the asymmetry parameters η(2H) and the direction cosines of the principal axes of the electric field gradient tensors of the 2H atoms of the two kinds of D2O molecules have been determined at 295 K in RbAl(SO4)2 · 12D2O. The results show that the D2O molecules surrounding the ion Al3+ are "static" within the time scale of the 2H nuclear quadrupole interaction while the D2O belonging to the octahedron around the Rb+ undergoes fast reorientations around the twofold molecular axis. For the two kinds of D2O in the alum we found: eQΦzz(1)h-1 (2H) = 186.5 kHz, η(1),(2H) = 0.1234; eQΦzz(2)h-1 (2H) = 169.7 kHz,η (2)(2H) = 0.1297; eQΦzz(3)h-1(2H) = 122.1 kHz, (2H) = 0.8087. eQΦzz(1) and eQΦzz(2) belong to the "static" D2O molecules and an assignment to the two different 2H atoms has been performed. The IR spectra of RbAl(SO4)2 · 12(H1-xDx)2O have been investigated, and for the O - D stretching frequencies values of 2145 cm-1 , 2235 cm-1 , 2470 cm-1 and 2525 cm -1 have been obtained. They agree well with the relations between ṽOD and eQΦzz h-1(2H) given in the literature.

  5. Dynamically biased statistical model for the ortho/para conversion in the H2+H3+ --> H3++ H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Carrasco, Susana; González-Sánchez, Lola; Aguado, Alfredo; Sanz-Sanz, Cristina; Zanchet, Alexandre; Roncero, Octavio

    2012-09-01

    In this work we present a dynamically biased statistical model to describe the evolution of the title reaction from statistical to a more direct mechanism, using quasi-classical trajectories (QCT). The method is based on the one previously proposed by Park and Light [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 044305 (2007), 10.1063/1.2430711]. A recent global potential energy surface is used here to calculate the capture probabilities, instead of the long-range ion-induced dipole interactions. The dynamical constraints are introduced by considering a scrambling matrix which depends on energy and determine the probability of the identity/hop/exchange mechanisms. These probabilities are calculated using QCT. It is found that the high zero-point energy of the fragments is transferred to the rest of the degrees of freedom, what shortens the lifetime of H_5^+ complexes and, as a consequence, the exchange mechanism is produced with lower proportion. The zero-point energy (ZPE) is not properly described in quasi-classical trajectory calculations and an approximation is done in which the initial ZPE of the reactants is reduced in QCT calculations to obtain a new ZPE-biased scrambling matrix. This reduction of the ZPE is explained by the need of correcting the pure classical level number of the H_5^+ complex, as done in classical simulations of unimolecular processes and to get equivalent quantum and classical rate constants using Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory. This matrix allows to obtain a ratio of hop/exchange mechanisms, α(T), in rather good agreement with recent experimental results by Crabtree et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 194311 (2011), 10.1063/1.3587246] at room temperature. At lower temperatures, however, the present simulations predict too high ratios because the biased scrambling matrix is not statistical enough. This demonstrates the importance of applying quantum methods to simulate this reaction at the low temperatures of astrophysical interest.

  6. Immobilization of Ag(i) into a metal-organic framework with -SO3H sites for highly selective olefin-paraffin separation at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ganggang; Huang, Minhui; Su, Ye; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong; Bao, Zongbi; Chen, Banglin

    2015-02-18

    Introduction of Ag(i) ions into a sulfonic acid functionalized MOF ((Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H) significantly enhances its interactions with olefin double bonds, leading to its much higher selectivities for the separation of C2H4-C2H6 and C3H6-C3H8 at room temperature over the original (Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H and other adsorbents at room temperature.

  7. Diaqua-bis-(4-carb-oxy-2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-5-carboxyl-ato-κN,O)zinc N,N-dimethyl-formamide disolvate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Cheng-Jun; Xie, Hui

    2011-05-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C(7)H(7)N(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·2C(3)H(7)NO, the Zn(II) ion, which lies on a center of inversion, is coordinated by two O atoms and two N atoms from two 4-carboxy-2-ethyl-1H-imid-azole-5-carboxyl-ato anions and two water O atoms in an octa-hedral environment, Each 4-carboxy-2-ethyl-1H-imid-azole-5-carboxyl-ato ligand adopts a bidentate chelating mode to the Zn(II) ion, forming two five-membered metalla rings. In the crystal, a two-dimensional framework parallel to (010) is formed by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  8. The interstellar chemistry of C3H and C3H2 isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Wakelam, Valentine; Roueff, Evelyne; Gratier, Pierre; Marcelino, Núria; Reyes, Dianailys Nuñez; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne

    2017-10-01

    We report the detection of linear and cyclic isomers of C3H and C3H2 towards various starless cores and review the corresponding chemical pathways involving neutral (C3Hx with x = 1,2) and ionic (C3Hx+ with x = 1,2,3) isomers. We highlight the role of the branching ratio of electronic dissociative recombination (DR) reactions of C3H2+ and C3H3+ isomers, showing that the statistical treatment of the relaxation of C3H* and C3H2* produced in these DR reactions may explain the relative c,l-C3H and c,l-C3H2 abundances. We have also introduced in the model the third isomer of C3H2 (HCCCH). The observed cyclic-to-linear C3H2 ratio varies from 110 ± 30 for molecular clouds with a total density of about 1 × 104 molecules cm-3 to 30 ± 10 for molecular clouds with a total density of about 4 × 105 molecules cm-3, a trend well reproduced with our updated model. The higher ratio for molecular clouds with low densities is determined mainly by the importance of the H + l-C3H2 → H + c-C3H2 and H + t-C3H2 → H + c-C3H2 isomerization reactions.

  9. Hydrogen dynamics in soil organic matter as determined by 13C and 2H labeling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Alexia; Hatté, Christine; Pastor, Lucie; Thiry, Yves; Siclet, Françoise; Balesdent, Jérôme

    2016-12-01

    Understanding hydrogen dynamics in soil organic matter is important to predict the fate of 3H in terrestrial environments. One way to determine hydrogen fate and to point out processes is to examine the isotopic signature of the element in soil. However, the non-exchangeable hydrogen isotopic signal in soil is complex and depends on the fate of organic compounds and microbial biosyntheses that incorporate water-derived hydrogen. To decipher this complex system and to understand the close link between hydrogen and carbon cycles, we followed labeled hydrogen and labeled carbon throughout near-natural soil incubations. We performed incubation experiments with three labeling conditions: 1 - 13C2H double-labeled molecules in the presence of 1H2O; 2 - 13C-labeled molecules in the presence of 2H2O; 3 - no molecule addition in the presence of 2H2O. The preservation of substrate-derived hydrogen after 1 year of incubation (ca. 5 % in most cases) was lower than the preservation of substrate-derived carbon (30 % in average). We highlighted that 70 % of the C-H bonds are broken during the degradation of the molecule, which permits the exchange with water hydrogen. Added molecules are used more for trophic resources. The isotopic composition of the non-exchangeable hydrogen was mainly driven by the incorporation of water hydrogen during microbial biosynthesis. It is linearly correlated with the amount of carbon that is degraded in the soil. The quantitative incorporation of water hydrogen in bulk material and lipids demonstrates that non-exchangeable hydrogen exists in both organic and mineral-bound forms. The proportion of the latter depends on soil type and minerals. This experiment quantified the processes affecting the isotopic composition of non-exchangeable hydrogen, and the results can be used to predict the fate of tritium in the ecosystem or the water deuterium signature in organic matter.

  10. C3H8 and C3H4 in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maguire, W. C.; Hanel, R. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Four bands of propane C3H8 and two of methyl acetylene C3H4 have been identified in the Voyager IR spectrum of Titan. Stratospheric abundances of 2 x 10 to the -5 for C3H8 and 3 x 10 to the -8 for C3H4 have been determined for the mid-latitude region. A feature at 1,154/cm, previously assigned solely to CH3D, is now identified at least in part due to C3H8.

  11. An oxazolo[3,2-b]indazole route to 1H-indazolones.

    PubMed

    Oakdale, James S; Solano, Danielle M; Fettinger, James C; Haddadin, Makhluf J; Kurth, Mark J

    2009-07-02

    The novel heterocycle 2,3-dihydrooxazolo[3,2-b]indazole has been synthesized and utilized to provide easy access to 1H-indazolones, particularly the previously unreported 2-(2-alkoxyethyl)-1H-indazol-3(2H)-ones. Mechanistic as well as optimization and reaction scope studies are reported.

  12. 3-Benzyl-6-bromo-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Kandri Rodi, Youssef; Haoudi, Amal; Capet, Frédéric; Mazzah, Ahmed; Essassi, El Mokhtar; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    The fused imidazole and pyridine rings in the title compound, C13H10BrN3O, are linked to a benzyl group. The fused ring system is essentially planar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.006 (2) Å. The phenyl ring is not coplanar with the fused ring system, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 67.04 (12)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. PMID:23795120

  13. Experimental Measurements of the H3+ + H2 → H3+ + H2 Reaction in a Hollow Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Carrie A.; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Tom, Brian A.; Beçka, Eftalda; McCall, Benjamin, J.

    2010-11-01

    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and as a result, molecular hydrogen and the H3+ ion play a pivotal role in interstellar chemistry. Like H2, H3+ exists in two nuclear spin configurations, ortho (I = 3/2) and para (I = 1/2), which are unique molecules that can only interconvert through a chemical reaction. The reaction between these species, H3+ + H2 → H3+ + H2, is the dominant means by which the nuclear spin of H3+ can be changed. It is also the most commonly occuring bimolecular reaction in the universe, and therefore it is important to understand how this reaction influences the ortho/para ratio of H3+ . We have studied the nuclear spin dependence of the H3+ + H2 proton-scrambling reaction by probing ν2 fundamental band of H3+ using multipass direct absorption spectroscopy. We have monitored the ortho/para ratio of H3+ in a variety of hydrogenic plasmas consisting of different ortho/para-H2 ratios. To deduce the temperature dependence of this reaction, we have performed these experiements in an uncooled hollow cathode and, for the first time at low temperature, in a liquid nitrogen cooled hollow cathode. Finally, we have also studied the pressure dependence of the chemistry in order to elucidate any three-body processes that may be occuring in our plasmas.

  14. The Photon Polarization Parameter of 2H(n, γ)3H reaction with Inclusion of the Electric Quadrupole Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, H.; Mosavi-Khansari, M.

    2014-09-01

    We use effective field theory (EFT) for the calculation of neutron—deuteron radiative capture at very low energies. We present here the use of EFT to calculate a low-energy photo-nuclear observable in three-body systems, the photon polarization parameter and fore—aft asymmetry at thermal neutron energies up to next-to-next to leading order (N2LO), with inclusion of the electric quadrupole contribution. The photon polarization parameter in total is found to be Rc = -0.421 ± 0.003 and is in good agreement with the other modern theoretical calculations based on modern nucleon—nucleon potentials. In comparison with our previous work, a satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data is found by inclusion of the electric quadrupole contribution.

  15. Investigations of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in three types of Schiff bases by 2H and 3H NMR isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Schilf, Wojciech; Bloxsidge, James P; Jones, John R; Lu, Shui-Yu

    2004-06-01

    Hydrogen bonding within the structures of three Schiff bases (1-3), obtained by condensation of 4-methoxy-, 5-methoxy- and 4,6-dimethoxysalicylaldehyde with methylamine, was investigated by measuring deuterium and tritium NMR isotope effects. The primary deuterium and tritium isotope effects (delta(XH)-delta(XD/T)) and secondary one-bond nitrogen deuterium effect appear to be very useful parameters for defining the character of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The tritium isotope effects were also determined for nitrogen-hydrogen one-bond coupling constants for both 4-methoxy and 4,6-dimethoxy derivatives. These parameters are seen to be highly sensitive to hydrogen bond characteristics and can be used to distinguish localized and tautomeric hydrogen bonds.

  16. Natural-abundance solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy at high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Mann, Sam E; Iuga, Dinu; Hughes, Colan E; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2011-06-09

    High-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy provides a method for measuring (1)H NMR chemical shifts in solids and is advantageous over the direct measurement of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR spectra, as it requires only the application of routine magic angle sample spinning (MAS) and routine (1)H decoupling methods, in contrast to the requirement for complex pulse sequences for homonuclear (1)H decoupling and ultrafast MAS in the case of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR. However, a significant obstacle to the routine application of high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR is the very low natural abundance of (2)H, with the consequent problem of inherently low sensitivity. Here, we explore the feasibility of measuring (2)H MAS NMR spectra of various solids with natural isotopic abundances at high magnetic field (850 MHz), focusing on samples of amino acids, peptides, collagen, and various organic solids. The results show that high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR can be used successfully to measure isotropic (1)H chemical shifts in favorable cases, particularly for mobile functional groups, such as methyl and -N(+)H(3) groups, and in some cases phenyl groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate that routine (2)H MAS NMR measurements can be exploited for assessing the relative dynamics of different functional groups in a molecule and for assessing whole-molecule motions in the solid state. The magnitude and field-dependence of second-order shifts due to the (2)H quadrupole interaction are also investigated, on the basis of analysis of simulated and experimental (1)H and (2)H MAS NMR spectra of fully deuterated and selectively deuterated samples of the α polymorph of glycine at two different magnetic field strengths.

  17. HIST1H2AA — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    HIST1H2AA, a member of the histone 2A family, is a core component of the nucleosome. The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template (the octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA). Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. The HIST1H2AA gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2A family. Transcripts from this gene contain a palindromic termination element.

  18. Biodistribution of radiolabeled [(3)H] CMT-3 in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Bookbinder, M; Ryan, M E; Golub, L M; Ashley, R; Ramamurthy, N S

    2001-02-01

    CMT-3 is a NON-ANTIMICROBIAL tetracycline (TC), chemically modified to enhance its collagenase-inhibitory property. This property is therapeutically useful in treating diseases such as periodontitis, cancer and arthritis. CMT-3 was labeled with tritium [(3)H] at Carbon 7. Four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (350--400 g body weight) were gavaged once with a mixture of cold CMT-3 and [(3)H] CMT-3 (750 microCi). An additional four rats were gavaged for 2 days with cold CMT-3(15 mg/Kg/day) and on the third day the rats were gavaged with a mixture of cold and [(2)H] CMT-3 (750 microCi); and all 8 rats were placed in the metabolic cages. Blood samples were collected from the tail at multiple intervals from 1--14 hr after [(3)H] CMT-3 administration. At 14 hr, the rats were anesthetized, euthanized and various tissues including visceral organs were removed and weighed. The contents of GI tracts were emptied and added to the fecal pellets and weighed. The urine samples were collected and volume measured. Each tissue or organ was minced finely with scissors and 100 mg of tissue was digested in 1 ml of Tissue-solv (Packard Lab), for 4 hrs at 37 degrees C and each sample was diluted up to 10 ml of distilled water. A 100 microl aliquot was taken and diluted with an equal volume of glacial acetic acid, 10 ml of Atom-lite was added and counted for radioactivity in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. This biodistribution study revealed that over 14 hrs, 54% and 3% of [(3)H] CMT-3 were excreted in the feces and urine, respectively. The serum [(3)H] CMT-3 count reached its maximum value at about 12 hours. The tissues retained the CMTs as follow: muscle (23%); skin (2.41%); bone (1.72%); and the brain retained 0.21% of the label. The radioactive CMT-3 in the visceral organs is as follows: GI tract - its contents (8.9%); heart (0.41%), testis (0.41%); lungs >(0.16%); spleen (0.08%); liver (0.03%); kidneys > (0.02%).

  19. Environmental, trophic, and ecological factors influencing bone collagen δ2H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topalov, Katarina; Schimmelmann, Arndt; David Polly, P.; Sauer, Peter E.; Lowry, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Organic deuterium/hydrogen stable isotope ratios (i.e., 2H/1H, expressed as δ2H value in ‰) in animal tissues are related to the 2H/1H in diet and ingested water. Bone collagen preserves the biochemical 2H/1H isotopic signal in the δ2H value of collagen's non-exchangeable hydrogen. Therefore, δ2H preserved in bone collagen has the potential to constrain environmental and trophic conditions, which is of interest to researchers studying of both living and fossil vertebrates. Our data examine the relationship of δ2H values of collagen with geographic variation in δ2H of meteoric waters, with local variations in the ecology and trophic level of species, and with the transition from mother's milk to adult diet. Based on 97 individuals from 22 marine and terrestrial vertebrates (predominately mammals), we found the relationships of collagen δ2H to both geographic variation in meteoric water δ2H (R2 = 0.55) and to δ15N in bone collagen (R2 = 0.17) statistically significant but weaker than previously reported. The second strongest control on collagen δ2H in our data is dietary, with nearly 50 percent of the variance in δ2H explained by trophic level (R2 = 0.47). Trophic level effects potentially confound the local meteoric signal if not held constant: herbivores tend to have the lowest δ2H values, omnivores have intermediate ones, and carnivores have the highest values. Body size (most likely related to mass-specific metabolic rates) has a strong influence on collagen δ2H (R2 = 0.30), by causing greater sensitivity in smaller animals to seasonal climate variations and/or high evapotranspiration leading to 2H-enrichment in tissues. In marine mammals weaning produces a dramatic effect on collagen δ2H with adult values being universally higher than pup values (R2 = 0.79). Interestingly, the shift in δ15N at weaning is downward, even though normally hydrogen and nitrogen isotope ratios are positively correlated with one another in respect to trophic level. Our

  20. Thermal decomposition of (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O: Influence on structure, microstructure and hydrofluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Rivenet, M.; Berrier, E.; de Waele, I.; Arab, M.; Amaraggi, D.; Morel, B.; Abraham, F.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of uranyl peroxide tetrahydrate, (UO2)O2(H2O)2.2H2O, was studied by combining high temperature powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analyses and spectroscopic techniques (Raman, IR and 1H NMR). In situ analyses reveal that intermediates and final uranium oxides obtained upon heating are different from that obtained after cooling at room temperature and that the uranyl precursor used to synthesize (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O, sulfate or nitrate, has a strong influence on the peroxide thermal behavior and morphology. The decomposition of (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O ex sulfate is pseudomorphic and leads to needle-like shaped particles of metastudtite, (UO2)O2(H2O)2, and UO3-x(OH)2x·zH2O, an amorphous phase found in air in the following of (UO2)O2(H2O)2 dehydration. (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O and the compounds resulting from its thermal decomposition are very reactive towards hydrofluorination as long as their needle-like morphology is kept.

  1. Di-n-butyltin(IV) complexes derived from heterocyclic beta-diketones and N-phthaloyl amino acids: preparation, biological evaluation, structural elucidation based upon spectral [IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 19F and 119Sn)] studies.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anurag; Verma, Shashi; Gaurb, R B; Sharma, R R

    2005-01-01

    Stable, six coordinated Bu(2)SnLA type complexes have been prepared [where LH = RCOC:C(OH)N(C(6) H(5))N:CCH(3); R = -4-F-C(6)H(4)-(L(1)H), R = -4-Cl-C(6)H(4)-(L(2)H), R= -4-Br-C(6)H(4)-(L(3)H), R=-CF(3)(L(4)H) and AH = C(O)C(6) H(4) C(O)NCHR'COOH; R'= -H(A(1)H), -CH(3)(A(2)H), -CH(CH(3))(2)(A(3)H)] by the interaction of 1:1:1 molar ratios of di-n-butyltin(IV) dichloride with corresponding organic moieties in refluxing benzene using two moles of Et(3)N as a base. In these complexes LH and AH behave as bidentate and coordination is taking place through oxygen, this is inferred from IR and (13)C NMR studies. These complexes possess tin atoms in skew trapezoidal bipyramidal geometry with the C-Sn-C angles ranging from 149.88( degrees ) to 156.84( degrees ). Some of these complexes with their corresponding organic moieties (LH, AH) were tested for their antimicrobial activities.

  2. Di-n-butyltin(IV) Complexes Derived from Heterocyclic β-diketones and N-Phthaloyl Amino Acids: Preparation, Biological Evaluation, Structural Elucidation Based upon Spectral [IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 19F and 119Sn)] Studies

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shashi; Gaurb, R. B.; Sharma, R. R.

    2005-01-01

    Stable, six coordinated Bu2SnLA type complexes have been prepared [where LH = RCOC:C(OH)N(C6 H5)N:CCH3; R = -4-F-C6H4-(L1H), R = -4-Cl-C6H4-(L2H), R= -4-Br-C6H4-(L3H), R=-CF3(L4H) and AH = C(O)C6 H4 C(O)NCHR'COOH; R'= -H(A1H), -CH3(A2H), -CH(CH3)2(A3H)] by the interaction of 1:1:1 molar ratios of di-n-butyltin(IV) dichloride with corresponding organic moieties in refluxing benzene using two moles of Et3N as a base. In these complexes LH and AH behave as bidentate and coordination is taking place through oxygen, this is inferred from IR and 13C NMR studies. These complexes possess tin atoms in skew trapezoidal bipyramidal geometry with the C-Sn-C angles ranging from 149.88° to 156.84°. Some of these complexes with their corresponding organic moieties (LH, AH) were tested for their antimicrobial activities. PMID:18365100

  3. Adrenergic receptor and catecholamine distribution in rat cerebral cortex: binding studies with [3H]prazosin, [3H]idazoxan and [3H]dihydroalprenolol.

    PubMed

    Diop, L; Brière, R; Grondin, L; Reader, T A

    1987-02-03

    The tritiated adrenergic antagonists [3H]dihydroalprenolol ([3H]DHA; beta-receptors), [3H]prazosin ([3H]PRZ; alpha 1-receptors), and [3H]idazoxan ([3H]IDA; alpha 2-receptors) were used to determine the distribution of these sites in 5 defined areas of the adult rat cerebral cortex. The highest density of [3H]PRZ binding was found in the prefrontal cortex, with a lower and homogeneous distribution for the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal areas. The [3H]IDA binding sites were fairly uniform for all areas, except for the temporal cortex where it was very dense. In contrast, beta-adrenoceptors labelled by [3H]DHA were very homogeneous for all the regions examined. The functional significance of the distribution of alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta-adrenoceptors is discussed in relation to the catecholamine innervation and monoamine contents measured by high performance liquid chromatography.

  4. Galápagos hydroclimate of the Common Era from paired microalgal and mangrove biomarker 2H/1H values.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Daniel B; Sachs, Julian P

    2016-03-29

    Tropical maritime precipitation affects global atmospheric circulation, influencing storm tracks and the size and location of subtropical deserts. Paleoclimate evidence suggests centuries-long changes in rainfall in the tropical Pacific over the past 2,000 y, but these remain poorly characterized across most of the ocean where long, continuous proxy records capable of resolving decadal-to-centennial climate changes are still virtually nonexistent despite substantial efforts to develop them. Here we apply a new climate proxy based on paired hydrogen isotope ratios from microalgal and mangrove-derived sedimentary lipids in the Galápagos to reconstruct maritime precipitation changes during the Common Era. We show that increased rainfall during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (∼1400-1850 CE) was likely caused by a southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and that this shift occurred later than previously recognized, coeval with dynamically linked precipitation changes in South America and the western tropical Pacific. Before the LIA, we show that drier conditions at the onset of the Medieval Warm Period (∼800-1300 CE) and wetter conditions ca. 2 ka were caused by changes in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Collectively, the large natural variations in tropical rainfall we detect, each linked to a multicentury perturbation of either ENSO-like variability or the ITCZ, imply a high sensitivity of tropical Pacific rainfall to climate forcings.

  5. Environmental controls on the 2H/1H values of terrestrial leaf waxes in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Ampel, Linda; Sauer, Peter E.; Fornace, Kyrstin

    2013-10-01

    The hydrogen isotope composition of plant waxes preserved in lacustrine sediments is a potentially valuable tool for reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes in the Arctic. However, in contrast to the mid- and low-latitudes, significantly less effort has been directed towards understanding the factors controlling D/H fractionation in high latitude plant waxes and the impact of these processes on the interpretation of sedimentary leaf wax δD records. To better understand these processes, we examined the D/H ratios of long chain fatty acids in lake surface sediments spanning a temperature and precipitation gradient on Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. D/H ratios of plant waxes increase with increasing temperature and aridity, with values ranging from -240‰ to -160‰ over the study area. Apparent fractionation factors between n-alkanoic acids in Arctic lake sediments and precipitation(εFA-ppt) are less negative than those of mid-latitude lakes and modern plants by 25‰ to 65‰, consistent with n-alkane data from modern Arctic plants (Yang et al., 2011). Furthermore, εFA-ppt values from Arctic lakes become systematically more positive with increasing evaporation, in contrast to mid-latitude sites, which show little to no change in fractionation with aridity. These data are consistent with enhanced water loss and isotope fractionation at higher latitude in the Arctic summer, when continuous sunlight supports increased daily photosynthesis. The dominant control on δDFA variations on Baffin Island is temperature. However, changing εFA-ppt result in steeper δDFA-temperature relationships than observed for modern precipitation. The application of this δDFA-based paleotemperature calibration to existing δDFA records from Baffin Island produces much more realistic changes in late Holocene temperature and highlights the importance of these effects in influencing the interpretation of Arctic δDFA records. A better understanding of the controls on hydrogen isotope fractionation in high latitude leaf waxes will be essential to the proper interpretation of isotope records from sedimentary plant waxes in the Arctic.

  6. Galápagos hydroclimate of the Common Era from paired microalgal and mangrove biomarker 2H/1H values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2016-03-01

    Tropical maritime precipitation affects global atmospheric circulation, influencing storm tracks and the size and location of subtropical deserts. Paleoclimate evidence suggests centuries-long changes in rainfall in the tropical Pacific over the past 2,000 y, but these remain poorly characterized across most of the ocean where long, continuous proxy records capable of resolving decadal-to-centennial climate changes are still virtually nonexistent despite substantial efforts to develop them. Here we apply a new climate proxy based on paired hydrogen isotope ratios from microalgal and mangrove-derived sedimentary lipids in the Galápagos to reconstruct maritime precipitation changes during the Common Era. We show that increased rainfall during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (∼1400-1850 CE) was likely caused by a southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and that this shift occurred later than previously recognized, coeval with dynamically linked precipitation changes in South America and the western tropical Pacific. Before the LIA, we show that drier conditions at the onset of the Medieval Warm Period (∼800-1300 CE) and wetter conditions ca. 2 ka were caused by changes in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Collectively, the large natural variations in tropical rainfall we detect, each linked to a multicentury perturbation of either ENSO-like variability or the ITCZ, imply a high sensitivity of tropical Pacific rainfall to climate forcings.

  7. Galápagos hydroclimate of the Common Era from paired microalgal and mangrove biomarker 2H/1H values

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Julian P.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical maritime precipitation affects global atmospheric circulation, influencing storm tracks and the size and location of subtropical deserts. Paleoclimate evidence suggests centuries-long changes in rainfall in the tropical Pacific over the past 2,000 y, but these remain poorly characterized across most of the ocean where long, continuous proxy records capable of resolving decadal-to-centennial climate changes are still virtually nonexistent despite substantial efforts to develop them. Here we apply a new climate proxy based on paired hydrogen isotope ratios from microalgal and mangrove-derived sedimentary lipids in the Galápagos to reconstruct maritime precipitation changes during the Common Era. We show that increased rainfall during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (∼1400–1850 CE) was likely caused by a southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and that this shift occurred later than previously recognized, coeval with dynamically linked precipitation changes in South America and the western tropical Pacific. Before the LIA, we show that drier conditions at the onset of the Medieval Warm Period (∼800–1300 CE) and wetter conditions ca. 2 ka were caused by changes in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Collectively, the large natural variations in tropical rainfall we detect, each linked to a multicentury perturbation of either ENSO-like variability or the ITCZ, imply a high sensitivity of tropical Pacific rainfall to climate forcings. PMID:26976574

  8. catena-Poly[[[aqua-chlorido-manganese(II)]-bis-[μ-1,1'-(oxydi-p-phenyl-ene)di-1H-imidazole-κN:N

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiao-Long

    2011-01-15

    The title coordination polymer, {[MnCl(C(18)H(14)N(4)O)(2)(H(2)O)]Cl·C(3)H(7)NO·H(2)O}(n), obtained by the solvothermal reaction of BIDPE and manganese(II) salt in H(2)O/DMF (DMF is dimethyl-formamide), is composed of a chain of [Mn(2)(BIDPE)(2)] [BIDPE is 1,1'-(oxydi-p-phenyl-ene)di-1H-imidazole] metallocyclic rings that exhibit inversion symmetry. The coordination about the Mn(II) ions is distorted octahedral with a MnClN(4)O coordination set. In the crystal, the polymeric chains are linked by O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (100). A number of C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯O inter-actions are also present.

  9. [3H]Ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([3H]EBOB) binding in recombinant GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Yagle, Monica A; Martin, Michael W; de Fiebre, Christopher M; de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; Drewe, John A; Dillon, Glenn H

    2003-12-01

    Ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate (EBOB) is a recently developed ligand that binds to the convulsant site of the GABAA receptor. While a few studies have examined the binding of [3H]EBOB in vertebrate brain tissue and insect preparations, none have examined [3H]EBOB binding in preparations that express known configurations of the GABAA receptor. We have thus examined [3H]EBOB binding in HEK293 cells stably expressing human alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha2beta2gamma2 GABAA receptors, and the effects of CNS convulsants on its binding. The ability of the CNS convulsants to displace the prototypical convulsant site ligand, [35S]TBPS, was also assessed. Saturation analysis revealed [3H]EBOB binding at a single site, with a K(d) of approximately 9 nM in alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha2beta2gamma2 receptors. Binding of both [3H]EBOB and [35S]TBPS was inhibited by dieldrin, lindane, tert-butylbicycloorthobenzoate (TBOB), PTX, TBPS, and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) at one site in a concentration-dependent fashion. Affinities were in the high nM to low microM range for all compounds except PTZ (low mM range), and the rank order of potency for these convulsants to displace [3H]EBOB and [35S]TBPS was the same. Low [GABA] stimulated [3H]EBOB binding, while higher [GABA] (greater than 10 microM) inhibited [3H]EBOB binding. Overall, our data demonstrate that [3H]EBOB binds to a single, high affinity site in alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha2beta2gamma2 GABAA receptors, and modulation of its binding is similar to that seen with [35S]TBPS. [3H]EBOB has a number of desirable traits that may make it preferable to [35S]TBPS for analysis of the convulsant site of the GABAA receptor.

  10. Dehydrocoupling of dimethylamine borane catalyzed by Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Laura J; Huertos, Miguel A; Dickinson, Molly E; Weller, Andrew S; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C

    2013-04-15

    The Rh(III) species Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl is an effective catalyst (2 mol %, 298 K) for the dehydrogenation of H3B·NMe2H (0.072 M in 1,2-F2C6H4 solvent) to ultimately afford the dimeric aminoborane [H2BNMe2]2. Mechanistic studies on the early stages in the consumption of H3B·NMe2H, using initial rate and H/D exchange experiments, indicate possible dehydrogenation mechanisms that invoke turnover-limiting N-H activation, which either precedes or follows B-H activation, to form H2B═NMe2, which then dimerizes to give [H2BNMe2]2. An additional detail is that the active catalyst Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl is in rapid equilibrium with an inactive dimeric species, [Rh(PCy3)H2Cl]2. The reaction of Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl with [Rh(PCy3)H2(H2)2][BAr(F)4] forms the halide-bridged adduct [Rh(PCy3)2H2(μ-Cl)H2(PCy3)2Rh][BAr(F)4] (Ar(F) = 3,5-(CF3)2C6H3), which has been crystallographically characterized. This dinuclear cation dissociates on addition of H3B·NMe2H to re-form Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl and generate [Rh(PCy3)2H2(η(2)-H3B·NMe2H)][BAr(F)4]. The fate of the catalyst at low catalyst loadings (0.5 mol %) is also addressed, with the formation of an inactive borohydride species, Rh(PCy3)2H2(η(2)-H2BH2), observed. On addition of H3B·NMe2H to Ir(PCy3)2H2Cl, the Ir congener Ir(PCy3)2H2(η(2)-H2BH2) is formed, with concomitant generation of the salt [H2B(NMe2H)2]Cl.

  11. Ultrasonic degradation of 1-H-benzotriazole in water.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Benítez, Henry; Soltan, Jafar; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of different parameters of ultrasonic power, pollutant initial concentration, pH and the presence of co-existing chemical species (oxygen, nitrogen, ozone, and radical scavengers) on the ultrasonic degradation of the endocrine disruptor 1-H-benzotriazole. Increasing the 1-H-benzotriazole initial concentration from 41.97 to 167.88 μM increased the pollutant degradation rate by 40%. Likewise, a high applied ultrasonic power enhanced the extent of 1-H-benzotriazole removal and its initial degradation rate, which was accelerated in the presence of ozone and oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. The most favorable pH for the ultrasonic degradation was acidic media, reaching ∼90% pollutant removal in 2 h. The hydroxyl free radical concentration in the reaction medium was proportional to the ultrasound power and the irradiation time. Kinetic models based on a Langmuir-type mechanism were used to predict the pollutant sonochemical degradation. It was concluded that degradation takes place at both the bubble-liquid interfacial region and in the bulk solution, and OH radicals were the main species responsible for the reaction. Hydroxyl free radicals were generated by water pyrolysis and then diffused into the interfacial region and the bulk solution where most of the solute molecules were present.

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling of the SRS Evaporators: Part II. The 3H System

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2001-10-02

    Accumulations of two solid phases have formed scale deposits in the Savannah River Site 2H Evaporator system since late 1996. The aluminosilicate scale deposits caused the evaporator pot to become inoperable in October 1999. Accumulations of the diuranate phase have caused criticality concerns in the SRS 2H Evaporator. In order to ensure that similar deposits are not and will not form in the SRS 3H Evaporator, thermodynamically derived activity diagrams specific to the feeds processed from Tanks 30 and 32 are evaluated in this report.

  13. Avian influenza virus hemagglutinins H2, H4, H8, and H14 support a highly pathogenic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Veits, Jutta; Weber, Siegfried; Stech, Olga; Breithaupt, Angele; Gräber, Marcus; Gohrbandt, Sandra; Bogs, Jessica; Hundt, Jana; Teifke, Jens P.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Stech, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    High-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) evolve from low-pathogenic precursors specifying the HA serotypes H5 or H7 by acquisition of a polybasic HA cleavage site. As the reason for this serotype restriction has remained unclear, we aimed to distinguish between compatibility of a polybasic cleavage site with H5/H7 HA only and unique predisposition of these two serotypes for insertion mutations. To this end, we introduced a polybasic cleavage site into the HA of several low-pathogenic avian strains with serotypes H1, H2, H3, H4, H6, H8, H10, H11, H14, or H15, and rescued HA reassortants after cotransfection with the genes from either a low-pathogenic H9N2 or high-pathogenic H5N1 strain. Oculonasal inoculation with those reassortants resulted in varying pathogenicity in chicken. Recombinants containing the engineered H2, H4, H8, or H14 in the HPAIV background were lethal and exhibited i.v. pathogenicity indices of 2.79, 2.37, 2.85, and 2.61, respectively, equivalent to naturally occurring H5 or H7 HPAIV. Moreover, the H2, H4, and H8 reassortants were transmitted to some contact chickens. The H2 reassortant gained two mutations in the M2 proton channel gate region, which is affected in some HPAIVs of various origins. Taken together, in the presence of a polybasic HA cleavage site, non-H5/H7 HA can support a highly pathogenic phenotype in the appropriate viral background, indicating requirement for further adaptation. Therefore, the restriction of natural HPAIV to serotypes H5 and H7 is likely a result of their unique predisposition for acquisition of a polybasic HA cleavage site. PMID:22308331

  14. FTIR, magnetic, 1H NMR spectral and thermal studies of some chelates of caproic acid: Inhibitory effect on different kinds of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; El-Korashy, Sabry A.; Kumar, Deo Nandan; Ahmed, Ahmed S.

    2008-06-01

    A convenient method for the preparation of complexes of the Cr 3+, Mn 2+, Fe 3+, Co 2+, Ni 2+, Zn 2+, ZrO 2+, UO 22+, Zr 4+ and Th 4+ ions with caproic acid (Hcap) is reported and this has enabled 10 complexes of caproate anion to be formulated: [Cr(cap) 3]·5H 2O, [Mn(cap) 2(H 2O) 2], [Fe(cap) 3]·12H 2O, [Co(cap) 2(H 2O) 2]·4H 2O, [Ni(cap) 2(H 2O) 2]·3H 2O, [Zn(cap) 2], [ZrO(cap) 2]·3H 2O, [UO 2(cap)(NO 3)], [Zr(cap) 2(Cl) 2] and [Th(cap) 4]. These new complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic measurements, spectral methods (mid infrared, 1H NMR and UV-vis spectra) and simultaneous thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques. It has been found from the elemental analysis as well as thermal studies that the caproate ligand behaves as bidentate ligand and forming chelates with 1:1 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry for UO 22+, 1:2 for (Mn 2+, Co 2+, Ni 2+, Zn 2+, ZrO 2+ and Zr 4+), 1:3 stoichiometry for (Cr 3+ and Fe 3+) and 1:4 for Th 4+ caproate complexes, respectively, as bidentate chelating. The molar conductance measurements proved that the caproate complexes are non-electrolytes. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E*, Δ H*, Δ S* and Δ G* are estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial activity of the caproic acid and their complexes was evaluated against some gram positive/negative bacteria.

  15. A Quantum Chemical Study of the Dissociative Recombination of C3H3+ - The Formation of Interstellar C3H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, D.

    Quantum chemical calculations: Talbi & all (1993), Talbi & Ellinger (1998), Hickman & all (2005) have proven to be extremely useful for the understanding of electronic dissociative recombination processes (hereafter DR). Such processes may occur by direct and/or indirect mechanism; while the former involves a direct transition from the ionic state to the final neutral dissociative state, the second one is a two step process involving the formation of a vibrationally (rotationally) excited state of the neutral molecule. For this last case, either autoionization takes place or the state obtained after binding of the electron relaxes to lower energy states, leading if they have a dissociative charactere, to fragmentation of the molecule. Understanding such processes requires the knowledge of the potential energy surfaces governing the corresponding mechanism i.e. the potential energy surfaces of the ionic, excited and dissociative states of the parent neutral molecule. The difficulty in treating such problems resides in, first of all, the description of excited and dissociative states along the dissociative coordinate. This is not a trivial task because, very often, the nature of the states changes along such channels; carefully designed wavefunctions are thus necessary to follow those transformations. But the difficulty is also in the even handed treatment required for all the states involved in the mechanism. State of the art ab-initio quantum chemical methods are needed for a quantitative study of this kind of processes. To illustrate this matter, a quantum chemical investigation undertaken on the DR of the ion thought to be the source of the ubiquitous linear and cyclic C3H2 in diffuse and dense clouds : the C3H3+ ion, will be presented Our quantum chemical study of the c-C3H3+ + e- → c-C3H2 + H and l-C3H3+ + e- → l-C3H2 + H processes shows that while, for the first process, there is an efficient curve crossing (i.e for v = 0) between the ionic state of c-C3H3

  16. Uptake of [3H]-nicotine and [3H]-noradrenaline by cultured chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ceña, V.; García, A. G.; Montiel, C.; Sánchez-García, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three day-old cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells incubated at room temperature with Krebs-HEPES solution containing different concentrations of [3H]-nicotine, took up and retained increasing amounts of the drug by a mechanism that did not saturate. Concentrations of cold nicotine as high as 100 microM did not alter the amount of [3H]-nicotine retained by cells. Imipramine, cocaine, tetracaine or mecamylamine, at concentrations (10 microM) that blocked the catecholamine secretory effects of nicotine completely, did not modify the uptake of [3H]-nicotine. Both imipramine and cocaine drastically inhibited [3H]-noradrenaline uptake by cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50S of 0.08 and 1 microM, respectively). These data indicate that the secretory effects of nicotine are not coupled to its previous uptake into cells, and are evidence in favour of a site of action for nicotine located in or at the surface of the chromaffin cell membrane. PMID:6704577

  17. 1H-detected 1H- 1H correlation spectroscopy of a stereo-array isotope labeled amino acid under fast magic-angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Kainosho, Masatsune; Akutsu, Hideo; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2010-04-01

    The combined use of selective deuteration, stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL), and fast magic-angle spinning effectively suppresses the 1H-1H dipolar couplings in organic solids. This method provided the high-field 1H NMR linewidths comparable to those achieved by combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy. This technique was applied to two-dimensional 1H-detected 1H-1H polarization transfer CHH experiments of valine. The signal sensitivity for the 1H-detected CHH experiments was greater than that for the 13C-detected 1H-1H polarization transfer experiments by a factor of 2-4. We obtained the 1H-1H distances in SAIL valine by CHH experiments with an accuracy of about 0.2 Å by using a theory developed for 1H-1H polarization transfer in 13C-labeled organic compounds.

  18. Vicinal 1H-1H NMR coupling constants from density functional theory as reliable tools for stereochemical analysis of highly flexible multichiral center molecules.

    PubMed

    López-Vallejo, Fabian; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Suárez-Ortiz, Gloria Alejandra; Hernández-Rojas, Adriana C; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2011-08-05

    A protocol for stereochemical analysis, based on the systematic comparison between theoretical and experimental vicinal (1)H-(1)H NMR coupling constants, was developed and applied to a series of flexible compounds (1-8) derived from the 6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one framework. The method included a broad conformational search, followed by geometry optimization at the DFT B3LYP/DGDZVP level, calculation of the vibrational frequencies, thermochemical parameters, magnetic shielding tensors, and the total NMR spin-spin coupling constants. Three scaling factors, depending on the carbon atom hybridizations, were found for the (1)H-C-C-(1)H vicinal coupling constants: f((sp3)-(sp3)) = 0.910, f((sp3)-(sp2)) = 0.929, and f((sp2)-(sp2))= 0.977. A remarkable correlation between the theoretical (J(pre)) and experimental (1)H-(1)H NMR (J(exp)) coupling constants for spicigerolide (1), a cytotoxic natural product, and some of its synthetic stereoisomers (2-4) demonstrated the predictive value of this approach for the stereochemical assignment of highly flexible compounds containing multiple chiral centers. The stereochemistry of two natural 6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-ones (14 and 15) containing diverse functional groups in the heptenyl side chain was also analyzed by application of this combined theoretical and experimental approach, confirming its reliability. Additionally, a geometrical analysis for the conformations of 1-8 revealed that weak hydrogen bonds substantially guide the conformational behavior of the tetraacyloxy-6-heptenyl-2H-pyran-2-ones.

  19. Simple Approaches for Estimating Vicinal 1H- 1H Coupling-Constants and for Obtaining Stereospecific Resonance Assignments in Leucine Side Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, K. L.; Friedrichs, M. S.; Mueller, L.

    An approach for deriving stereospecific δ-methyl assignments and χ 2 dihedral angle constraints for leucine residues, based on easily recognized patterns of 1H- 1H spin-spin coupling constants and intraresidue nuclear-Overhauser-effect spectroscopy (NOESY) cross-peak intensities, is described. The approach depends on resolved H γ and/or δ-methyl resonances and on initially obtaining stereospecific assignments for H β2 and H β3. As part of the overall strategy, a method is presented for obtaining qualitative or, in favorable cases, semiquantitative estimates of vicinal 1H- 1H coupling constants from peak intensities measured in a short-mixing-time 1H- 1H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiment. This method of estimating 1H- 1H spin-spin coupling constants is generally applicable to all side-chain types. The approach is illustrated for several leucine residues within uniformly 15N-labeled and 15N/ 13C-double-labeled isolated light-chain variable domain of the anti-digoxin antibody 26-10. Estimates of 3Jαβ and 3Jβγ coupling constants are derived from a three-dimensional (3D) 13C-edited TOCSY-heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) spectrum. These data are combined with information from 3D 15N-edited NOESY and 3D 13C-edited NOESY spectra to yield stereospecific H β2, H β3, and δ-methyl assignments, as well as constraints on χ (1) and χ 2 dihedral angles. Although the overall approach is illustrated using 3D 15N-edited and 13C-edited data, it is equally applicable to analysis of two-dimensional 1H- 1H NOESY and TOCSY spectra.

  20. Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted. H1 was further purified. Their activities against fungi with varying degrees of wheat pathogenicity were determined. They included Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. graminearu...

  1. Low-lying states of Li 3H: Is there an ion-pair minimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, Dahbia; Saxon, Roberta P.

    1989-05-01

    The 1 1A', 1 1A″, 1 3A', and 1 3A″ states of Li 3H have been investigated at the MCSCF/SOCI level. The global minimum is a planar conformation of 1A' symmetry. A local minimum on the same potential surface at a C 3v pyramidal geometry, of mixed ion-pair and covalent character, is found at a relative energy of 20.30 kcal/mol. The barrier height for isomerization is predicted to be 1.3 kcal/mol. The correlation diagram linking states of Li 3H to those of Li 3 + H, LiH + Li 2 and Li 2H + Li is presented.

  2. Partitioning of [methyl-3H]methionine to methylated products and protein is altered during high methyl demand conditions in young Yucatan miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; McGowan, Ross A; Brunton, Janet A; Bertolo, Robert F

    2013-06-01

    Methionine is the main source of methyl groups that are partitioned to synthesize various methylated products including creatine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and methylated DNA. Whether increased methylation of 1 product can divert methionine from protein synthesis or other methylation products was the aim of this experiment. We used an excess of guanidinoacetate (GAA) to synthesize creatine to create a higher demand for available methyl groups in normal-weight (NW) (n = 10) and intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) (n = 10) piglets. Anesthetized piglets (15-18 d old) were intraportally infused with either GAA or saline for 2 h. A bolus of l-[methyl-(3)H]methionine was intraportally infused at 1 h, and hepatic metabolites were analyzed for methyl-(3)H incorporation 1 h later. Overall, 50-75% of label was recovered in creatine and PC with negligible amounts in DNA. In both NW and IUGR piglets, excess GAA led to an ≈ 80-120% increase in methyl incorporation into creatine (P < 0.05) with a concomitant decrease by ≈ 75-85% in methyl incorporation into PC (P < 0.05) as well as a 40% decrease in methyl incorporation into protein (P < 0.05), suggesting methyl groups were limited for PC synthesis and that methionine was diverted from protein synthesis. Compared with NW piglets, IUGR piglets had lower methyl incorporation into PC (P < 0.05), but not DNA or protein, suggesting IUGR affects methyl metabolism and could potentially impact lipid metabolism. The partitioning of methionine is sensitive to methyl supply in neonates, which has implications in infant diet composition and growth.

  3. Characterization of heroin samples by 1H NMR and 2D DOSY 1H NMR.

    PubMed

    Balayssac, Stéphane; Retailleau, Emmanuel; Bertrand, Geneviève; Escot, Marie-Pierre; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Gilard, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four samples of heroin from different illicit drug seizures were analyzed using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and two-dimensional diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (2D DOSY) (1)H NMR. A careful assignment and quantification of (1)H signals enabled a comprehensive characterization of the substances present in the samples investigated: heroin, its main related impurities (6-acetylmorphine, acetylcodeine, morphine, noscapine and papaverine) and cutting agents (caffeine and acetaminophen in nearly all samples as well as lactose, lidocaine, mannitol, piracetam in one sample only), and hence to establish their spectral signatures. The good agreement between the amounts of heroin, noscapine, caffeine and acetaminophen determined by (1)H NMR and gas chromatography, the reference method in forensic laboratories, demonstrates the validity of the (1)H NMR technique. In this paper, 2D DOSY (1)H NMR offers a new approach for a whole characterization of the various components of these complex mixtures.

  4. Enhanced Y1H Assays for Arabidopis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcription regulation plays a key role in development and response to environment. To understand this mechanism, we need to know which transcription factor (TFs) would bind to which promoter, thus regulate their target gene expression. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) technique can be used to map this kind...

  5. Differential binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin in rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dumbrille-Ross, A.; Tang, S.W.; Coscina, D.V.

    1981-11-16

    Drug competition profiles, effect of raphe lesion, and sodium dependency of the binding of two antidepressant drugs /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin to rat cerebral cortex homogenate were compared to examine whether the drugs bound to a common ''antidepressant receptor.'' Of the neurotransmitters tested, only serotonin displaced binding of both /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binding was potently displaced by serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonists and exhibited a profile similar to that of /sup 3/H-spiperone binding. In the presence of the serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonist spiperone, antihistamines (H/sub 1/) potently displaced /sup 3/H-mianserin binding. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binding was displaced potently by serotonin uptake inhibitors. The order of potency of serotonergic drugs in displacing /sup 3/H-imipramine binding was not similar to their order in displacing /sup 3/H-spiperone or -3H-serotonin binding. Prior midbrain raphe lesions greatly decreased the binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but did not alter binding of /sup 3/H-mianserin. Binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but not /sup 3/H-mianserin was sodium dependent. These results show that /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin bind to different receptors. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binds to a presynaptic serotonin receptor which is probably related to a serotonin uptake recognition site, the binding of which is sodium dependent. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binds to postsynaptic receptors, possibly both serotonin S/sub 2/ and histamine H/sub 1/ receptors, the binding of which is sodium independent.

  6. Synthetic studies towards putative yuremamine using an iterative C(sp(3))-H arylation strategy.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Matthew B; Sperry, Jonathan

    2016-06-28

    An overview of an iterative, 8-aminoquinoline (AQ)-directed C(sp(3))-H arylation strategy towards the pyrroloindole structure initially assigned to the alkaloid yuremamine is described. During initial efforts using a model indane system, it was discovered that the iodoresorcinol unit was not a viable C(sp(3))-H arylation partner when masked as its dimethyl ether but upon switching to a MOM group, the ether oxygen served to stabilise the high valent Pd intermediate during the reaction, thus promoting reductive elimination and leading to acceptable yields of the C(sp(3))-H arylation product. The second C(sp(3))-H arylation with an iodopyrogallol gave a 1,3-diarylated model yuremamine system possessing the desired 1,3-cis relationship. When the successful model studies were applied to a pyrroloindole system in pursuit of yuremamine, it became apparent that C9 underwent competing C(sp(2))-H arylation if left vacant, but installing a tryptamine side chain at this site prevented the desired C(sp(3))-H arylation from occurring altogether. However, a C9-methyl pyrroloindole underwent iterative C(sp(3))-H arylation at C1 with an iodoresorcinol followed by C3 with an iodopyrogallol to give a diarylated product with the aryl groups in the undesired 1,3-trans-relationship, arising from epimerisation at C1 during the second C(sp(3))-H arylation event. Although the synthesis of putative yuremamine was not accomplished, several findings are disclosed that will serve as useful additions to the burgeoning field of directed C(sp(3))-H arylations and related C-H functionalization reactions.

  7. Photodisintegration of /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He. [Threshold to 25 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Faul, D.D.

    1980-09-01

    The photoneutron cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He have been measured from threshold to approx. 25 MeV with monoenergetic photons from the annihilation in flight of fast positrons at the LLL Electron-Positron Linear Accelerator facility. These reactions include the two-body breakup of /sup 3/H and the three-body breakup of both /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He; these measurements for /sup 3/H are the first to span the energy region across the peaks of the cross sections. An efficient BF/sub 3/-tube-and-paraffin neutron detector and high-pressure gaseous samples of several moles each (the activity of the /sup 3/H sample was approx. 200,000 Ci) were employed in these measurements. Measurements on /sup 16/O and /sup 2/H also were performed to verify the absolute cross-section scale. The results, when compared with each other and with results for the two-body breakup cross section for /sup 3/He from the literature, show that the two-body breakup cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He have nearly the same shape, but the one for /sup 3/He lies lower in magnitude; the three-body breakup cross section for /sup 3/He lies higher in magnitude and is broader in the peak region and also rises less sharply from threshold than that for /sup 3/H; and these measured differences between the cross sections for the breakup modes largely compensate in their sum, so that the total photon absorption cross sections for /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He are nearly the same in both size and shape at energies near and above their peaks. Theoretical results from the literature disagree with the experimental results to a certain extent over the entire photon-energy region for which the photoneutron cross sections were measured. 50 figures, 7 tables.

  8. Differential effects of triethyllead on synaptosomal [3H]dopamine vs. [3H]acetylcholine and [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid release.

    PubMed

    Minnema, D J; Cooper, G P; Schamer, M M

    1991-01-01

    In vitro exposure to tetraethyllead (Et4Pb, 10 microM) did not alter the release of [3H] dopamine (DA), [3H]acetylcholine (ACh), or [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from superfused synaptosomes isolated from rat brain striatum, hippocampus, and cortex, respectively. On the other hand, a concentration-dependent increase in the spontaneous release of these transmitters was observed following exposure to triethyllead (Et3Pb, 0.1-10 microM). The magnitude of 1 microM Et3Pb-induced [3H]DA release was 5-fold greater than that observed for [3H]ACh or [3H]GABA release. Removal of [Ca2+]e did not alter the Et3Pb-induced increase in the release of these three transmitter substances, nor did Et3Pb alter synaptosomal 45Ca efflux. EtePb-induced [3H]ACh and [3H]GABA release, but not [3H]DA release, was blocked by lowering [Na+]e from 140 to 50 mM. Similarly, the release of [3H]ACh and [3H]GABA, but not [3H]DA, induced by either Na,K-ATPase inhibition or veratridine (a Na(+)-ionophore), was attenuated by lowering [Na+]e from 140 to 50 mM. However, Et3Pb did not inhibit isolated synaptic membrane Na,K-ATPase, nor did the magnitude or temporal patterns of Et3Pb-induced transmitter release resemble transmitter release induced by Na,K-ATPase inhibition. Et3Pb and veratridine, but not Na,K-ATPase inhibition, produced an increase in synaptosomal [3H] deoxyglucose phosphate (dGluP) efflux, suggesting that both compounds increase membrane permeability. A Et3Pb-induced increase in membrane permeability is further supported by electrophysiological studies using the frog neuromuscular junction in which Et3Pb was found to reduce both the input resistance and membrane potential of muscle cells. As with [3H]ACh and [3H]GABA release, the Et3Pb-induced increase in synaptosomal [3H]dGluP efflux was attenuated by lowering [Na+]e.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of 2-phosphonoethanesulfonic acid and a barium-hydrogenphosphonatoethanesulfonate - BaH(O{sub 3}P-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnauer, Andreas

    2008-03-15

    Following the strategy of using polyfunctional phosphonic acids for the synthesis of new metal phosphonates, the organic linker molecule 2-phosphonoethanesulfonic acid, H{sub 2}O{sub 3}P-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3}H (1) (H{sub 3}L), was synthesized and characterized in detail. The acid was used in a high-throughput (HT) investigation of the system BaCl{sub 2}/H{sub 3}L/NaOH/H{sub 2}O. The HT experiments comprising 48 individual hydrothermal reactions were performed to systematically investigate the influence of pH of the starting mixture as well as the molar ratio Ba{sup 2+}: H{sub 3}L. Only two reaction products were observed: small amounts of BaCO{sub 3} under basic conditions and BaH(O{sub 3}P-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3}) (2). For compounds 1 and 2 the crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (H{sub 2}O{sub 3}P-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3}H: trigonal, P3{sub 2}, a=814.58(1), c=861.20(2) pm, Z=3, R1=0.0254, wR{sub 2}=0.0758 for I>2{sigma}(I); BaH(O{sub 3}P-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3}): orthorhombic, Ibam, a=953.39(19), b=855.55(17), c=867.82(17) pm, Z=4, R1=0.0162, wR{sub 2}=0.0417 for I>2{sigma}(I)). The structure of H{sub 3}L (1) is stabilized exclusively by strong hydrogen bonds. Compound 2 is built up by chains of edge sharing BaO{sub 8} polyhedra. These chains are connected to a three-dimensional network by the -CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}- linker of the ligand. Thermogravimetric investigation of compound 2, as well as IR spectra of 1 and 2 are presented. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis of the ligand H{sub 2}O{sub 3}P-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3}H and its use in the systematic investigation in the system BaCl{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 3}P-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3}H/NaOH/H{sub 2}O led to the new barium phosphonatosulfonate BaH(O{sub 3}P-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 3}H)

  10. Unusual Properties of Al_2H_6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganteför, G.; Burkart, S.; Seifert, G.; Rao, B. K.; Jena, P.

    2000-03-01

    Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory and generalized gradient approximation reveal the structure of Al_2H6 to be that of di-borane (B_2H_6) even though the chemistry of Al and B clusters are different. With an electron affinity of 0.44 eV and ionization potential of 10.14 eV, Al_2H6 bears the signature of a "magic" cluster. Unlike magic clusters in metallic systems, Al_2H6 is born out of the coalescence of two AlH3 which are also "magic" by themselves as dictated by their low electron affinity (0.28 eV) and high ionization potential (11.43 eV). The most striking property of Al_2H_6, however, is that its vertical electron detachment energy is about 2 eV higher than its adiabatic electron affinity signifying vast changes between the geometries of the anion and the neutral cluster. These predictions are verified experimentally by photodetachment spectroscopy.

  11. Pressure Effects on Product Channels of the Allyl Radical Reactions; C3H5+C3H5 and C3H5+CH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. B.; N'Doumi, M.; Fahr, A.

    2011-12-01

    Relatively large hydrocarbon molecules (C4, C6 and larger) have been detected in several planetary environments. The mechanism for the formation of such large molecular species and detailed mechanism for their potential destruction are not well understood and are of considerable current interest. Previously we have studied the kinetics and product channels of small unsaturated hydrocarbon radical (C2 and C3s) reactions relevant to planetary atmospheric modeling. Reactions of C2 radicals (such as vinyl, H2CCH and ethynyl C2H) and C3 radicals (such as propargyl, HCCCH2) can affect the abundances of a large number of stable observable C3, C4, C5, C6 and larger molecules, including linear, aromatic and even poly aromatic molecules. Pressure-dependent product yields have been determined experimentally for the self- and cross-radical reactions performed at 298 K and at pressures between ~4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Final reaction products were quantitatively determined using a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID). In some cases complementary computational studies extended the pressure and temperature range of the experiments and provided valuable information on the complex reaction mechanisms. Theses studies provide a systematic framework so that important energetic and structural parameters for radical-radical reactions can be assessed. Here we report recent results for the allyl radical reactions H2CCCH3+ H2CCCH3 and H2CCCH3+CH3. For the allyl radical self-reaction, at high pressures the "head -to-head", combination channel forming 1,5-hexadiene is dominant with a combination/disproportionation = 1,5-hexadiene/propyne ratio of about 24 at 500 Torr (67 kPa, T=298K). At low pressures the ratio is substantially reduced to about 1.2 (at 0.3 kPa) and other major products are observed including allene, propene, 1-butene and propyne.

  12. A 3D microporous covalent organic framework with exceedingly high C3H8/CH4 and C2 hydrocarbon/CH4 selectivity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Heping; Ren, Hao; Meng, Shuang; Yan, Zhuojun; Zhao, Huanyu; Sun, Fuxing; Zhu, Guangshan

    2013-10-28

    Here we present a new 3D microporous COF with a uniform pore size (0.64 nm). MCOF-1 exhibits high adsorption selectivity towards C3H8, C2H6 and C2H4 over CH4 owing to the pore size and preferential adsorption.

  13. THz spectroscopy of D2H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Pearson, J. C.; Amano, T.; Matsushima, F.

    2017-01-01

    We extended the measurements of the rotational transitions of D2H+ up to 3 THz by using the JPL frequency multiplier chains and a TuFIR system at Toyama. D2H+ was generated in an extended negative glow discharge cell cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. We observed five new THz lines. All the available rotational transition frequencies together with the combination differences derived from the three fundamental bands were subject to least square analysis to determine the molecular constants. New THz measurements are definitely useful for better characterization of spectroscopic properties. The improved molecular constants provide better predictions of other unobserved rotational transitions.

  14. An iron(III) complex salt containing pyrazole as both ligand and counter-ion: bis(1H-pyrazol-2-ium) pentacyanido(1H-pyrazole-κN(2))ferrate(III).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Yu, Chun-Hua; Zhu, Run-Qiang

    2014-05-01

    The title compound, (C3H5N2)2[Fe(CN)5(C3H4N2)], is composed of a mononuclear [Fe(CN)5(pyrazole)](2-) dianion and two 1H-pyrazol-2-ium cations. A three-dimensional supramolecular network is formed through a rich scheme of N-H...N hydrogen bonds and C-H...π interactions among the cations and anions.

  15. Complete (1) H NMR assignment of cedranolides.

    PubMed

    Perez-Hernandez, Nury; Gordillo-Roman, Barbara; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Cerda-Garcia-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Complete and unambiguous (1) H NMR chemical shift assignment of α-cedrene (2) and cedrol (9), as well as for α-pipitzol (1), isocedrol (10), and the six related compounds 3-8 has been established by iterative full spin analysis using the PERCH NMR software (PERCH Solutions Ltd., Kuopio, Finland). The total sets of coupling constants are described and correlated with the conformational equilibria of the five-membered ring of 1-10, which were calculated using the complete basis set method. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Distribution of [1,2-3H]cholesterol in mouse brain after injection in the suckling period

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde-carbohydrazide polymer (GACH) was used to embed olfactory tracts, trapezoid body, and sciatic nerves of 9-, 10-, and 49- day old mice 2 h, 24 h, and 6 wk (respectively) after the intraperitoneal administration of [1,2-3H]cholesterol. Greater than 94% of radioactive cholesterol was retained in the GACH-infiltrated brain 24 h or more after injection. The fine structural preservation of both central and peripheral nervous tissues was excellent. Quantitative analysis of electron microscope autoradiographs demonstrated that [1,2- 3H]cholesterol is limited to blood vessel walls and lumen within the central nervous system at 2 h and 6 wk postinjection, but neurons and neuropil also contain the labeled cholesterol. The thickest myelin sheaths in the adult mice appear to be uniformly labeled throughout their width. No relationship of the retained [1,2-3H]cholesterol to the node of Ranvier was found in the adult sciatic nerve. PMID:806602

  17. Comparison of (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding in mouse brain: regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sershen, H.; Reith, M.E.; Hashim, A.; Lajtha, A.

    1985-06-01

    In a continuing study of nicotine binding sites, the authors determined the relative amount of nicotine binding and acetylcholine binding in various brain regions of C57/BL and of DBA mice. Although midbrain showed the highest and cerebellum the lowest binding for both (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine, the ratio of nicotine to acetylcholine binding showed a three-fold regional variation. Acetylcholine inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding indicated that a portion of nicotine binding was not inhibited by acetylcholine. These results indicate important differences between the binding of (+/-)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine and that of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine.

  18. Binding of [3H]-prazosin and [3H]-dihydroergocryptine to rat cardiac alpha-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Guicheney, P.; Meyer, P.

    1981-01-01

    1 [3H]-prazosin binds specifically to a single class of alpha-adrenoceptors in rat cardiac membranes (KD25 degrees C = 0.2 nM). 2 That these receptors are of the alpha 1-type was indicated by competition studies, i.e. alpha 1-antagonists such as prazosin and (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1, 4-benzodioxane (WB 4101) were more potent than the alpha 2-antagonists, yohimbine and piperoxan in inhibiting [3H]-prazosin binding. 3 A comparative study of [3H]-prazosin binding and [3H]-dihydroergocryptine binding to cardiac membranes showed that both [3H]-prazosin and [3H]-dihydroergocryptine (at low concentrations) bind to alpha 2-adrenoceptors, while [3H]-dihydroergocryptine (at higher concentrations) also binds to another class of sites. PMID:6269682

  19. Anthropomorphic 1H MRS head phantom.

    PubMed

    Rice, J R; Milbrandt, R H; Madsen, E L; Frank, G R; Boote, E J; Blechinger, J C

    1998-07-01

    An anthropomorphic 1H MRS head phantom has been developed which mimics the in vivo structure, metabolite concentrations, and relaxation times (for both water and metabolites) of human brain tissue. Different brain regions and two tumor types, fluid-containing ventricles, and air-filled sinus, and subcutaneous fat are all simulated. The main tissue-mimicking materials are gelatin/agar mixtures with metabolites and several other ingredients added. Their composition and method of production are thoroughly described. T1's and T2's of water in the phantom are very close to in vivo values, and metabolite T1's and T2's are considerably more realistic than those in aqueous solutions. Spectra and relaxation times for the pig brain were also acquired and compare well with those of the phantom. The realistic properties of this phantom should be useful for testing spectral quantitation and localization.

  20. Diaqua­bis­(5-carb­oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 3,O 4)cadmium N,N-dimethyl­formamide disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shao-Wei; Li, Shi-Jie; Song, Wen-Dong; Miao, Dong-Liang; An, Jing-Bo

    2011-01-01

    In the title complex, [Cd(C8H9N2O4)2(H2O)2]·2C3H7NO, the six-coordinate CdII ion is in a slightly distorted octa­hedral environment, defined by two O atoms from two coordinated water mol­ecules and two carboxyl­ate O atoms and two N atoms from two N,O-bidentate 5-carb­oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl­ate ligands. In the crystal, complex mol­ecules and dimethyl­formamide solvent mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional supra­molecular structure. The propyl groups of the ligands are disordered over two conformations with refined occupancies of 0.680 (7) and 0.320 (7). PMID:22199635

  1. Anionic ordering and thermal properties of FeF3·3H2O.

    PubMed

    Burbano, Mario; Duttine, Mathieu; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Wattiaux, Alain; Demourgues, Alain; Salanne, Mathieu; Groult, Henri; Dambournet, Damien

    2015-10-05

    Iron fluoride trihydrate can be used to prepare iron hydroxyfluoride with the hexagonal-tungsten-bronze (HTB) type structure, a potential cathode material for batteries. To understand this phase transformation, a structural description of β-FeF3·3H2O is first performed by means of DFT calculations and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The structure of this compound consists of infinite chains of [FeF6]n and [FeF2(H2O)4]n. The decomposition of FeF3·3H2O induces a collapse and condensation of these chains, which lead to the stabilization, under specific conditions, of a hydroxyfluoride network FeF3-x(OH)x with the HTB structure. The release of H2O and HF was monitored by thermal analysis and physical characterizations during the decomposition of FeF3·3H2O. An average distribution of FeF4(OH)2 distorted octahedra in HTB-FeF3-x(OH)x was obtained subsequent to the thermal hydrolysis/olation of equatorial anionic positions involving F(-) and H2O. This study provides a clear understanding of the structure and thermal properties of FeF3·3H2O, a material that can potentially bridge the recycling of pickling sludge from the steel industry by preparing battery electrodes.

  2. Anionic ordering and thermal properties of FeF3·3H2O

    DOE PAGES

    Burbano, Mario; Duttine, Mathieu; Borkiewicz, Olaf; ...

    2015-09-17

    In this study, iron fluoride tri-hydrate can be used to prepare iron hydroxyfluoride with the Hexagonal-Tungsten-Bronze (HTB) type structure, a potential cathode material for batteries. To understand this phase transformation, a structural description of β-FeF3·3H2O is first performed by means of DFT calculations and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The structure of this compound consists of infinite chains of [FeF6]n and [FeF2(H2O)4]n. The decomposition of FeF3·3H2O induces a collapse and condensation of these chains, which lead to the stabilization, under specific conditions, of a hydroxyfluoride network FeF3-x(OH)x with the HTB structure. The release of H2O and HF was monitored by thermal analysis andmore » physical characterizations during the decomposition of FeF3·3H2O. An average distribution of FeF4(OH)2 distorted octahedra in HTB-FeF3-x(OH)x was obtained subsequent to the thermal hydrolysis/olation of equatorial anionic positions involving F- and H2O. This study provides a clear understanding of the structure and thermal properties of FeF3·3H2O, a material that can potentially bridge the recycling of pickling sludge from the steel industry by preparing battery electrodes.« less

  3. Expeditious diastereoselective synthesis of elaborated ketones via remote Csp3-H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Wei; Lorente, Adriana; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Nevado, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The quest for selective C-H functionalization reactions, able to provide new strategic opportunities for the rapid assembly of molecular complexity, represents a major focus of the chemical community. Examples of non-directed, remote Csp3-H activation to forge complex carbon frameworks remain scarce due to the kinetic stability and thus intrinsic challenge associated to the chemo-, regio- and stereoselective functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds. Here we describe a radical-mediated, directing-group-free regioselective 1,5-hydrogen transfer of unactivated Csp3-H bonds followed by a second Csp2-H functionalization to produce, with exquisite stereoselectivity, a variety of elaborated fused ketones. This study demonstrates that aliphatic acids can be strategically harnessed as 1,2-diradical synthons and that secondary aliphatic C-H bonds can be engaged in stereoselective C-C bond-forming reactions, highlighting the potential of this protocol for target-oriented natural product and pharmaceutical synthesis.

  4. Expeditious diastereoselective synthesis of elaborated ketones via remote Csp(3)-H functionalization.

    PubMed

    Shu, Wei; Lorente, Adriana; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Nevado, Cristina

    2017-01-13

    The quest for selective C-H functionalization reactions, able to provide new strategic opportunities for the rapid assembly of molecular complexity, represents a major focus of the chemical community. Examples of non-directed, remote Csp(3)-H activation to forge complex carbon frameworks remain scarce due to the kinetic stability and thus intrinsic challenge associated to the chemo-, regio- and stereoselective functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds. Here we describe a radical-mediated, directing-group-free regioselective 1,5-hydrogen transfer of unactivated Csp(3)-H bonds followed by a second Csp(2)-H functionalization to produce, with exquisite stereoselectivity, a variety of elaborated fused ketones. This study demonstrates that aliphatic acids can be strategically harnessed as 1,2-diradical synthons and that secondary aliphatic C-H bonds can be engaged in stereoselective C-C bond-forming reactions, highlighting the potential of this protocol for target-oriented natural product and pharmaceutical synthesis.

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of dihydrofurobenzoxazolin-2(3H)-ones and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bhalerao, U T; Gawali, B B; Annapurna, J

    1994-09-01

    A series of dihydrofurobenzoxazolin-2(3H)-ones and their derivatives were synthesized. The structures of the compounds have been elucidated by IR, mass, 1H-NMR spectra and elementary analysis. The in vitro activity of these compounds was investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and also against Candida albicans. 7,7-Dimethyl-7,8-dihydro-furo[2,3-g]benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (compound 2) proved to be more potent than compound 1. Compound 3 also showed significant activity against all the microbes tested. Compounds 4 and 5 were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria but inactive against C. albicans.

  6. Partial chemical characterization of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone) and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam) binding site: Differences

    SciTech Connect

    Zundel, J.L.; Blanchard, J.C.; Julou, L.

    1985-06-10

    Rat hippocampus membranes were treated with several protein modifying reagents (iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, tetranitromethane and N-acetylimidazole). The effects of these treatments on the binding sites of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone), a new chemical family of minor tranquilizers, and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam) were investigated. Here the authors show that both ligands are similarly sensitive to cysteine alkylation: (/sup 3/H) suriclone and (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding are reduced by iodoacetamide and slightly increased by N-ethylmaleimide. On the contrary they are clearly differentiated by tyrosine modification: (/sup 3/H) suriclone binding is not changed whereas (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding is increased by tetranitromethane and decreased by N-acetylimidazole. The present findings and published evidence suggest cyclopyrrolones and benzodiazepines bind to distinct sites or to different allosteric forms of the benzodiazepine receptor. 28 references, 6 figures.

  7. Effects of delta9-THC on the synaptosomal uptake of 3H-tryptophan and 3H-choline.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K M; Dewey, W L

    1978-01-01

    The in vitro addition of (-)-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) resulted in a dose-responsive inhibition of the high-affinity specific synaptosomal uptake of both 3H-tryptophan and 3H-choline in mouse forebrain crude synaptosomal preparations. The approximate concentrations of delta9-THC required to cause a 50% inhibition of the uptake of 3H-tryptophan and 3H-choline were 33 and 16 muM, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that inhibition of both compounds were consistent with a noncompetitive mechanism. The pretreatment of mice with doses of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg delta9-THC had no effect on the subsequent in vitro synaptosomal uptake of either 3H-tryptophan or 3H-choline into forebrain synaptosomes.

  8. An elevated 1-h post- load glucose level during the oral glucose tolerance test detects prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Buysschaert, Martin; Bergman, Michael; Yanogo, Donald; Jagannathan, Ram; Buysschaert, Benoit; Preumont, Vanessa

    The objective of the study was to compare the diagnosis of dysglycemic states by conventional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) criteria (fasting and 2-h plasma glucose) with the 1-h post-load plasma glucose level. 34 individuals (mean age: 55±13years; BMI: 27.7±6.3kg/m(2)) at risk for prediabetes were administered a 75g OGTT. Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes were identified according to fasting and/or 2-h plasma glucose (PG) concentrations. Subsequently, subjects were divided in 2 groups: group 1 (n=21) with a 1-h PG<155mg/dl and group 2 (n=13) with a 1-h PG≥155mg/dl. HOMA was performed to assess β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. NGT or prediabetes based on conventional criteria correlated with the 1-h PG1-h PG≥155mg/dl was associated with higher HbA1c levels (6.1±0.5 vs. 5.5±0.3%, p<0.001) and significantly impaired insulin secretion and hyperbolic product (BxS) on HOMA test vs. 1-h PG<155mg/dl. The 1-h post-load plasma glucose value ≥155mg/dl is strongly associated with conventional criteria for (pre)diabetes and alterations of β-cell function. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Reactions of C2H2 and CH3C2H on Ag Powder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    Ag microclusters . This powder is then exposed to subsequent pulses of 20 or CH"C2H (3.7% in NP). The surface enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra...pulsing it with NO 2 gas which forms fresh Ag microclusters . This powder is then exposed to subsequent pulses of C2H2 or CH3 C2H (3.7% in N2). The surface...gas. The Ag imbedded in the AgNO migrates to sites where Ag microclusters are formed. These microstructures are a necessary part of the SERS enhancement

  10. Parkinson's disease: decreased density of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites in putamen

    SciTech Connect

    Raisman, R.; Cash, R.; Agid, Y.

    1986-04-01

    The density of high-affinity /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites (two serotonin-uptake blockers) was decreased in the putamen of parkinsonian patients. The correlation between serotonin levels and the number of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-paroxetine binding sites suggests that they are located on serotoninergic nerve terminals and could be used to study serotoninergic innervation in the human brain. Since imipramine and paroxetine are powerful antidepressants, these results furthermore suggest that decreased serotoninergic transmission may be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Comparison of ( sup 3 H)Phencyclidine (( sup 3 H)PCP) and ( sup 3 H) N-(1-(2-thienyl) cyclohexyl)piperidine (( sup 3 H)TCP) binding properties to rat and human brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vignon, J.; Chaudieu, I.; Allaoua, H.; Journod, L.; Javoy-Agid, F.; Agid, Y.; Chicheportiche, R.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation of ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP binding properties to rat cerebrum and cerebellum resulted in the demonstration of multiple binding sites for the two drugs. In the two tissue preparations PCP had a lower affinity than TCP. In membranes from the cerebrum an equal number of high affinity binding sites were present for ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP. However, low affinity binding sites were two times more numerous for ({sup 3}H)PCP than for ({sup 3}H)TCP. In the cerebellum, the number of high and low affinity sites labeled by the two radioligands was identical, but the number of high affinity sites was about 7 fold lower than in cerebrum. In human cerebral cortex samples ({sup 3}H)TCP also bound to two different sites. The number of high and low affinity sites were 12 and 3 times, respectively, less abundant than in the rat cerebrum. Low affinity sites were of higher affinity than corresponding sites in the rat brain. In the human cerebellum ({sup 3}H)TCP binding parameters were identical to those measured in the same region in the rat.

  12. Binding of [3H]idazoxan and of its methoxy derivative [3H] RX821002 in human fat cells: [3H]idazoxan but not [3H] RX821002 labels additional non-alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites.

    PubMed

    Langin, D; Paris, H; Lafontan, M

    1990-06-01

    Binding studies were carried out in human fat cell membranes with two alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists, [3H]idazoxan and its methoxy derivative [3H]RX821002. Inhibition studies with epinephrine enantiomers indicate that [3H]RX821002 only binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors, whereas [3H]idazoxan labels alpha 2-adrenoceptors and additional nonadrenergic sites (NAIBS). NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors display different affinities towards drugs from various chemical families. Imidazoline and some guanidine derivatives exhibit a high affinity for NAIBS. Pharmacological studies of human NAIBS indicate that they are slightly different from those previously reported in the rabbit, suggesting the existence of several subtypes of NAIBS. Furthermore, NAIBS are different from the previously described "imidazoline-preferring sites." [3H]idazoxan and [3H]RX821002 saturation analyses were performed in human adipocytes from different anatomical locations, in order to compare the number of NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Although there was an important variation in NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptor numbers in the studied samples, a very poor correlation was obtained between the Bmax values of the two sites. Moreover, alkylation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors by phenoxybenzamine produces a 90% reduction in accessible [3H]RX821002 binding sites, without modification of [3H]idazoxan binding. These data show that NAIBS are not closely related to the alpha 2-adrenergic molecule. In addition, benextramine appears to be a reversible competitor at NAIBS. [3H]idazoxan binding, but not [3H]RX821002 binding, is sensitive to K+, suggesting that the domains involved in the ligand-NAIBS interaction are different from those involved in the ligand-alpha 2-adrenoceptor interaction.

  13. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  14. Thermolysis and solid state NMR studies of NaB3H8, NH3B3H7, and NH4B3H8.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenguo; Eagles, Mitch; Porter, Spencer; Sorte, Eric G; Billet, Beau; Corey, Robert L; Conradi, Mark S; Zhao, Ji-Cheng

    2013-01-21

    In an effort to broaden the search for high-capacity hydrogen storage materials, three triborane compounds, NaB(3)H(8), NH(3)B(3)H(7), and NH(4)B(3)H(8), were studied. In addition to hydrogen, thermal decomposition also releases volatile boranes, and the relative amounts and species depend on the cations (Na(+), NH(4)(+)) and the Lewis base (NH(3)). Static-sample hydrogen NMR is used to probe molecular motion in the three solids. In each case, the line width decreases from low temperatures to room temperature in accordance with a model of isotropic or nearly isotropic reorientations. Such motions also explain a deep minimum in the relaxation time T(1). Translational diffusion never appears to be rapid on the 10(-5) s time scale of NMR.

  15. Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Benzylic C(sp(3))-H Functionalization for the Concise Synthesis of Heterocycles and Its Applications.

    PubMed

    Tsukano, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    C-H functionalization reactions involve the activation of otherwise unreactive C-H bonds, and represent atom economical methods for the direct transformation of simple substrates to complex molecules. While transition metal-catalyzed C(sp(2))-H functionalization reactions are regularly used in synthesis, C(sp(3))-H functionalization is rarely applied to the synthesis of complex natural products because of the difficulties associated with controlling selectivity. With this in mind, we focused on the development of new palladium (Pd)(0)-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H functionalization reactions for the synthesis of complex molecules, resulting in several new methods capable of solving these problems. We initially developed a concise synthetic method for the facile construction of oxindoles and spirooxindoles via a Pd-catalyzed benzylic C(sp(3))-H functionalization reaction. This method was subsequently extended to the synthesis of various heterocycles, including 2-arylindoles, benzocarbazole, indolocarbazole, indoloquinazolinone, and indoloquinazolinedione, as well as the total synthesis of several pyrrolophenanthridine alkaloids without the need for any protecting groups. This method was also successfully applied to the synthesis of the right-hand fragment of benzohopane from tetrahydro-2H-fluorene, which was constructed by a Pd-catalyzed benzylic C(sp(3))-H functionalization. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion of our most recent investigations pertaining to Pd(0)-catalyzed benzylic C(sp(3))-H functionalization.

  16. Thz Spectroscopy of D_2H^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John; Amano, Takayoshi

    2015-06-01

    Pure rotational transitions of D_2H^+ observed by high-resolution spectroscopy have been limited so far to the J = 110-101 transition at 691.7 GHz, J=220-211 at 1.370 THz, and J=111-000 at 1.477 THz. As this ion is a light asymmetric-top molecule, spectroscopic characterization and prediction of other rotational transition frequencies are not straightforward. In this presentation, we extended the measurements up to 2 THz by using the JPL frequency multiplier chains, and observed three new THz lines and re-measured the three known transitions. D_2H^+ was generated in an extended negative glow discharge cell cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. Six rotational transition frequencies together with the combination differences derived from three fundamental bands were subject to least square analysis to determine the molecular constants. New THz measurements are definitely useful for better characterization of spectroscopic properties. The improved molecular constants provide better predictions of other unobserved rotational transitions. T. Hirao and T. Amano, Ap. J.,597, L85 (2003) K. M. Evenson et al cited by O. L. Polyansky and A. R. W. McKellar, J. Chem. Phys., 92, 4039 (1990) O. Asvany et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 233004 (2008)

  17. /sup 3/H-imipramine uptake into rat striatal slices and imipramine-induced /sup 3/H-dopamine efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, R.; Kawasaki, K.; Ono, N.; Kamiya, H.

    1983-04-01

    The effect of imipramine on spontaneous efflux of radiolabelled dopamine (DA) from slices of rat striatum was examined by a superfusion method. Imipramine at concentrations of 10 - 100 microM enhanced the efflux of DA accumulated in a high-affinity uptake system in a concentration-dependent manner. This efflux of /sup 3/H-DA was not affected by conditions (Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium, 100 microM bretylium and 30 microM tetrodotoxin) which inhibited the release of /sup 3/H-DA by electrical stimulation. Furthermore, this imipramine-induced /sup 3/H-DA efflux was temperature-dependent. The uptake of /sup 3/H-imipramine into striatal slices was determined. This uptake was concentration- and temperature-dependent and increased linearly. These results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that /sup 3/H-DA efflux by imipramine is connected with uptake of imipramine.

  18. Assimilation of 3H in photosynthesizing leaves exposed to HTO.

    PubMed

    Guenot, J; Belot, Y

    1984-12-01

    Potato and wine grape plants were exposed for a period of 4 h to tritiated water vapor, and simultaneously to 14CO2 which served as a tracer for photosynthetic assimilation. During and after exposure, foliar samples were collected in which the exchangeable and nonexchangeable fractions of organic 3H were determined, taking care that the exchangeable fraction should not be lost to atmosphere. It was demonstrated that about 20% of the organic H in vegetation could be exchanged with 3H of tissue water, and that nonexchangeable 3H was fixed by photosynthesis. The kinetic behavior of the 2 forms was very different.

  19. Fast and simultaneous determination of (1) H-(1) H and (1) H-(19) F scalar couplings in complex spin systems: Application of PSYCHE homonuclear broadband decoupling.

    PubMed

    Kakita, Veera Mohana Rao; Rachineni, Kavitha; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2017-07-21

    The present manuscript focuses on fast and simultaneous determination of (1) H-(1) H and (1) H-(19) F scalar couplings in fluorinated complex steroid molecules. Incorporation of broadband PSYCHE homonuclear decoupling in the indirect dimension of zero-quantum filtered diagonal experiments (F1-PSYCHE-DIAG) suppresses (1) H-(1) H scalar couplings; however, it retains (1) H-(19) F scalar couplings (along F1 dimension) for the (19) F coupled protons while preserving the pure-shift nature for (1) H resonances uncoupled to (19) F. In such cases, along the direct dimensions, (1) H-(1) H scalar coupling multiplets deconvolute and they appear as duplicated multiplets for the (19) F coupled protons, which facilitates unambiguous discrimination of (19) F coupled (1) H chemical sites from the others. Further, as an added advantage, data acquisition has been accelerated by invoking the known ideas of spectral aliasing in the F1-PSYCHE-DIAG scheme and experiments demand only ~10 min of spectrometer times. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. High resolution, low temperature photoabsorption cross-section of C2H2 with application to Saturn's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, John; Wu, C. Y. R.; Xia, T. J.; Judge, D. L.; Wagener, R.

    1990-01-01

    New laboratory observations of the VUV absorption cross-section of C2H2, obtained under physical conditions approximating stratospheres of the giant planets, were combined with IUE observations of the albedo of Saturn, for which improved data reduction techniques have been used, to produce new models for that atmosphere. When the effects of C2H2 absorption are accounted for, additional absorption by other molecules is required. The best-fitting model also includes absorption by PH3, H2O, C2H6 and CH4. A small residual disagreement near 1600 A suggests that an additional trace species may be required to complete the model.

  1. Fallout sup 3 H in human tissue at Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Itoh, M.; Ueno, K.; Katsumata, T.; Sakanoue, M. )

    1989-10-01

    The {sup 3}H concentration in Japanese human tissue samples is reported in this paper. Four brain, 10 liver, and nine lung samples from 11 cases were collected from Akita Prefecture in northern Japan from January to July 1986. The median of free-water {sup 3}H concentration was similar in these tissues and agreed well with the concentrations in the diet, including tap water. The median specific activity ratio of tissue-bound {sup 3}H to free-water {sup 3}H was 1.1 and was slightly lower than that in the diet. The specific activity ratio was also lower than that reported in the United States and significantly lower than in Italy.

  2. (/sup 3/H) clonidine binding to rat hippocampal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.R.

    1982-02-01

    Alpha adrenergic receptor subtypes in rat hippocampal membranes were studied, using (/sup 3/H) clonidine as the radioactive ligand. On the basis of competitive binding studies, using the selective antagonist-prazosin, WB-4101, and yohimbine, (/sup 3/H) clonidine appeared to bind to a population of presynaptic sites that are pharmacologically similar to receptors previously classified as alpha 2. A computerized model that linearized and produced the best possible fit to the experimental data points indicated that (/sup 3/H) clonidine binds to a single population of receptors possessing equal affinity for the ligand. Binding data also indicated that rat hippo-campus contains significantly fewer (/sup 3/H)clonidine binding sites than rat cortex.

  3. Renal Aldosterone Receptors: Studies with [3H]Aldosterone and the Anti-Mineralocorticoid [3H]Spirolactone (SC-26304)

    PubMed Central

    Marver, Diana; Stewart, John; Funder, John W.; Feldman, David; Edelman, Isidore S.

    1974-01-01

    In vivo, a spirolactone (SC-26304) inhibited the effects of aldosterone on urinary K+:Na+ ratios and the binding of [3H]aldosterone to renal cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors. Cytoplasmic binding of [3H]aldosterone and [3H]spirolactone (SC-26304) was similar in magnitude and involved the same set of sites. Under three sets of conditions—(i) in the intact rat, (ii) in kidney slices, and (iii) in reconstitution studies (mixing prelabeled cytoplasm with either purified renal nuclei or chromatin), [3H]spirolactone (SC-26304) did not yield specific nuclear complexes in contrast to the reproducible generation of these complexes with [3H]aldosterone. In glycerol density gradients, cytoplasmic [3H]aldosterone receptor complexes sedimented at 8.5 S and 4 S in low concentrations of salt and at 4.5 S in high concentrations of salt. Cytoplasmic [3H]spirolactone (SC-26304) receptor complexes sedimented at 3 S in low concentrations of salt and 4 S in high concentrations of salt. These results are discussed in terms of an allosteric model of the receptor system. Images PMID:4364539

  4. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  5. (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the /sup 3/H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo.

  6. Photochemical Modeling of the Distribution of C3H8 in the Atmosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, S. G.; Simon-Miller, A.; Jennings, D.; Bjoraker, G.; Romani, P.; Achterberg, R.; Orton, G.; Flasar, M.; Cassini CIRS Team

    2005-08-01

    Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has measured the abundance of C2H2 and C3H8 (Propane) at several latitudes in the Southern hemisphere. An increase of radiance with latitude towards the pole has been observed, possibly implying a corresponding increase of C3H8. In an effort explain the observed distribution of both species, it is important to model the creation, destruction, and transport of these chemical species. Furthermore, since both molecules have overlapping absorption features in the same spectral region near 748 cm-1, such modeling will aid in refining derived abundances and separating temperature effects. The photochemistry model used in Edgington et al. (1998, 1999, 2000) to model simultaneously hydrocarbons, ammonia, and phosphine is updated and expanded to include paths relevant to the creation of C3H8. Destruction occurs through photolysis, while transport would tend to spread C3H8 from its source regions. With a series of exercises in 1- and 2- dimensions, we explore the extent to which photolysis, vertical, and/or meridional transport impacts the distribution of C2H2 and C3H8 with latitude. Thermal profiles derived from CIRS observations versus latitude are used as they have an impact on numerous reaction rates. We then compare these results with abundances derived from observations taken with the CIRS instrument. Edgington, S.G., West, R.A., Friedson, A.J., Atreya, S.K., 2000. A 2-D photochemical model with meridional circulation. Bull. American. Astron. Soc., 32, 1013. Edgington, S.G., S.K. Atreya, L.M. Trafton, J.J. Caldwell, R.F. Beebe, A.A. Simon, and R.A. West, 1999. Ammonia and eddy mixing variations in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter from HST Faint Object Spectrograph Observations. Icarus, 142, 342-357. Edgington, S.G., S.K. Atreya, L.M. Trafton, J.J. Caldwell, R.F. Beebe, A.A. Simon, R.A. West, and C. Barnet, 1998. On the latitude variation of ammonia, acetylene, and phosphine altitude profiles on Jupiter from HST Faint

  7. Pelanserin: 3-[3-(4-phenyl­piperazin-1-yl)prop­yl]quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre Hernández, Gerardo; Somanathan, Ratnasamy; Bernès, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C21H24N4O2, is a potent serotonin 5-HT2 and α1-adrenoceptor antagonist. The n-propyl chain links the quinazolinedione heterocycle and the phenyl­piperazine group in which the benzene ring is equatorially located and the piperazine ring has the expected chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene ring and the quinazolinedione ring system is 74.1 (1)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules form centrosymmetric dimers through R 2 2(8) hydrogen-bonded rings involving the amine and one carbonyl group of the quinazolinedione moiety. These dimers are extended into chains extending along the a-axis direction through expanded centrosymmetric cyclic C—H⋯O associations involving the second carbonyl group, giving R 2 2(20) and R 1 2(7) motifs. PMID:25249922

  8. 3-Ethyl-3-hy-droxy-8-meth-oxy-quinoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Stanislav; Pevec, Andrej; Proisl, Karel; Kimmel, Roman; Košmrlj, Janez

    2012-11-01

    In the title hydrate, C(12)H(13)NO(4)·H(2)O, the piperidine ring that is fused to the benzene ring is in a sofa conformation with the chiral C atom lying 0.4084 (18) Å out of the plane of the nine fused-ring atoms. In the crystal, O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the organic mol-ecules and water mol-ecules into chains running along the b-axis direction. The chains are further connected into layers parallel to the bc plane by π-π inter-actions between inversion-related benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.8846 (9) Å].

  9. Discovery of (E)-5-(benzylideneamino)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one derivatives as inhibitors for PTK6.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyun Jae; Yang, Hye Ran; Kim, Han Ie; Kang, Shin-Ae; No, Kyoung Tai; Jung, Young Hoon; Lee, Seung-Taek

    2014-10-01

    A lead compound 1, which inhibits the catalytic activity of PTK6, was selected from a chemical library. Derivatives of compound 1 were synthesized and analyzed for inhibitory activity against PTK6 in vitro and at the cellular level. Selected compounds were analyzed for cytotoxicity in human foreskin fibroblasts using MTT assays and for selectivity towards PTK members in HEK 293 cells. Compounds 20 (in vitro IC50=0.12μM) and 21 (in vitro IC50=0.52μM) showed little cytotoxicity, excellent inhibition of PTK6 in vitro and at the cellular level, and selectivity for PTK6. Compounds 20 and 21 inhibited phosphorylation of specific PTK6 substrates in HEK293 cells. Thus, we have identified novel PTK6 inhibitors that may be used as treatments for PTK6-positive carcinomas, including breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 3-Ethyl-3-hy­droxy-8-meth­oxy­quinoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Kafka, Stanislav; Pevec, Andrej; Proisl, Karel; Kimmel, Roman; Košmrlj, Janez

    2012-01-01

    In the title hydrate, C12H13NO4·H2O, the piperidine ring that is fused to the benzene ring is in a sofa conformation with the chiral C atom lying 0.4084 (18) Å out of the plane of the nine fused-ring atoms. In the crystal, O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the organic mol­ecules and water mol­ecules into chains running along the b-axis direction. The chains are further connected into layers parallel to the bc plane by π–π inter­actions between inversion-related benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8846 (9) Å]. PMID:23284509

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of LOX inhibitory activity of 2-(1,3-Dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)-N-phenylacetamide derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Farani, Ahmad; Haqiqi, Arash; Navid, Sahar Jamshidy; Aliabadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    A family of structurally related LOX enzymes present in human cells which catalyse the metabolism of released arachidonic acid from phospholipids by inflammatory stimuli, to biologically active mediators. Mainly, expression of three types of LOXs occurs in cells, which catalyse the insertion of molecular oxygen into the molecule of arachidonic acid at carbon 5, 12, and 15. According to this chemical reaction, the LOXs are named 5-, 12-, and 15-LOX, amongst which, 15-LOX with isoforms 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 have critical role in neoplastic diseases. 15-LOX-1 is overexpressed in some neoplastic conditions. Hence, in this research, we focused on the synthesis of naphthalimide analogs as potential 15-LOX-1 inhibitors. Fortunately, the most of synthesized compounds demonstrated remarkable inhibitory potency towards 15-LOX-1 in nanomolar ranges. Naphthalimide derivatives could be suggested as potential LOX inhibitors with likely applications of anticancer activity. PMID:27651806

  12. 40 CFR 721.5540 - 1H,3H,5H-oxazolo [3,4-c] oxazole, dihydro-7a-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Protection in the workplace. Requirements as specified in § 721.63 (a)(2)(iii) and (a)(3). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and (c)(4) (where N = 500 ppb). (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart A of this part apply to this section except as modified...

  13. Crystal structure of (3E)-5-nitro-3-(2-phenyl-hydrazinyl-idene)-1H-indol-2(3H)-one.

    PubMed

    Velasques, Jecika Maciel; Gervini, Vanessa Carratu; Bortoluzzi, Adaílton João; de Farias, Renan Lira; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2017-02-01

    The reaction between 5-nitro-isatin and phenyl-hydrazine in acidic ethanol yields the title compound, C14H10N4O3, whose mol-ecular structure deviates slightly from a planar geometry (r.m.s. deviation = 0.065 Å for the mean plane through all non-H atoms). An intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond is present, forming a ring of graph-set motif S(6). In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions into a two-dimensional network along (120), and rings of graph-set motif R2(2)(8), R2(2)(26) and R4(4)(32) are observed. Additionally, a Hirshfeld surface analysis suggests that the mol-ecules are stacked along [100] through C=O⋯Cg inter-actions and indicates that the most important contributions for the crystal structure are O⋯H (28.5%) and H⋯H (26.7%) inter-actions. An in silico evaluation of the title compound with the DHFR enzyme (di-hydro-folate reductase) was performed. The isatin-hydrazone derivative and the active site of the selected enzyme show N-H⋯O(ASP29), N-H⋯O(ILE96) and Cg⋯Cg(PHE33) inter-actions.

  14. Crystal structure of (3E)-5-nitro-3-(2-phenyl­hydrazinyl­idene)-1H-indol-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Velasques, Jecika Maciel; Gervini, Vanessa Carratu; Bortoluzzi, Adaílton João; de Farias, Renan Lira; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2017-01-01

    The reaction between 5-nitro­isatin and phenyl­hydrazine in acidic ethanol yields the title compound, C14H10N4O3, whose mol­ecular structure deviates slightly from a planar geometry (r.m.s. deviation = 0.065 Å for the mean plane through all non-H atoms). An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond is present, forming a ring of graph-set motif S(6). In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions into a two-dimensional network along (120), and rings of graph-set motif R 2 2(8), R 2 2(26) and R 4 4(32) are observed. Additionally, a Hirshfeld surface analysis suggests that the mol­ecules are stacked along [100] through C=O⋯Cg inter­actions and indicates that the most important contributions for the crystal structure are O⋯H (28.5%) and H⋯H (26.7%) inter­actions. An in silico evaluation of the title compound with the DHFR enzyme (di­hydro­folate reductase) was performed. The isatin–hydrazone derivative and the active site of the selected enzyme show N—H⋯O(ASP29), N—H⋯O(ILE96) and Cg⋯Cg(PHE33) inter­actions. PMID:28217335

  15. Optical and electrochemical dual channel sensing of Cu2 + using functionalized furo[2,3-d]pyrimidines-2,4[1H,3H]-diones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Kumawat, Lokesh Kumar; Bhatt, Priyanka; Jha, Anjali; Agarwal, Shilpi; Sharma, Anuj; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Owing to their easy accessibility and high degree of structural and functional diversity, many multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have been a rich source of conjugate π-systems, functionalised chromophores (or fluorophore) and redox active molecules. Despite their high explorative potential and practical benefits, only a few MCR products have been so far investigated for their metal sensing abilities. In the present report, two furopyrimidinones (FPys) based molecular systems have been synthesized by [4 + 1] cycloaddition based MCR sequence. Designed chemosensors displayed optic (absorption spectra) as well as electroanalytical (ion selective electrode) response toward Cu2 + ion in solution and membrane phase respectively (dual channel sensing). Different aspects of both the sensing phenomena such as selectivity, association constants, detection limit, membrane composition etc. were studied in detail using UV-Vis spectroscopy, NMR titration and cell assembly. Both the compounds showed excellent performance characteristics such as high selectivity, acceptable affinity and low detection limits (10- 7 M) in both sensing assays with potential utility in the area of sample monitoring.

  16. 1,3-Dibenzyl-6-bromo-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Dahmani, S.; Kandri Rodi, Y.; Capet, F.; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The imidazopyridine fused-ring in the title compound, C20H16BrN3O, is planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.011 Å). The phenyl rings of the benzyl substitutents twist away from the central five-membered ring in opposite directions; the rings are aligned at 61.3 (1) and 71.2 (1)° with respect to this ring. PMID:21580599

  17. 1,3-Bis(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1H-anthra[1,2-d]imidazole-2,6,11(3H)-trione

    PubMed Central

    Afrakssou, Zahra; Haoudi, Amal; Capet, Frédéric; Mazzah, Ahmed; Rolando, Christian; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C21H12N2O3, the fused-ring system is roughly planar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.084 (2) Å. The two prop-2-yn-1-yl groups are almost perpendicular to the fused ring plane, making C—C—N—C torsion angles of −103.4 (2) and −105.3 (2)°, and point in opposite directions with respect to the plane. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:23795107

  18. 1,3-Dibenzyl-1H-anthra[1,2-d]imidazole-2,6,11(3H)-trione

    PubMed Central

    Afrakssou, Zahra; Kandri Rodi, Youssef; Capet, Frédéric; Essassi, El Mokhtar; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2011-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C29H20N2O3, contains four fused rings, three are six-membered rings and one is the five-membered imidazole ring. The fused-ring system is linked to two benzyl groups. The four fused rings are folded around the O=C⋯C=O direction of the anthraquinone, with a dihedral angle of 16.36 (8)° between the two terminal rings (A and D). The imidazole ring (D) is almost perpendicular to the two benzyl groups (E and F) with dihedral angles of 86.69 (17) and 83.15 (13)°, respectively. In the crystal, adjacent mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. PMID:21754544

  19. 6-Bromo-1,3-di-2-propynyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Dahmani, S.; Haoudi, A.; Capet, F.; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The room-temperature reaction of propargyl bromide and 6-bromo-1,3-dihydro­imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-one in dimethyl­formamide yields the title compound, C12H8BrN3O, which features nitro­gen-bound propynyl substituents. The imidazopyridine fused ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.011 Å); the propynyl chains point in opposite directions relative to the fused ring. One acetyl­enic H atom is hydrogen bonded to the carbonyl O atom of an inversion-related mol­ecule, forming a dimer; adjacent dimers are linked by a second acetyl­ene–pyridine C—H⋯N inter­action, forming a layer motif. PMID:21580601

  20. Crystal structure of 1,5-diethyl-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine-2,4(3H,5H)-di­thione

    PubMed Central

    Lamkaddem, Abderrahman; Harcharras, Mohamed; Shaim, Abdelillah; Zouihri, Hafid; Echchahed, Bousselham; Bi, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H16N2S2, the seven-membered ring adopts a boat conformation, with the two phenyl­ene C atoms representing the stern and the methyl­ene C atom as the prow. The thione S atoms and N-bound ethyl groups lie on the opposite side of the mol­ecule to the phenyl­ene ring so that the mol­ecule approximates mirror symmetry. In the crystal, supra­molecular layers in the bc plane are sustained by a pair of C—H⋯S inter­actions to the same S atom acceptor. PMID:25878883

  1. 3-Benzyl-1-{[3-(4-chloro-phen-yl)isoxazol-5-yl]meth-yl}-1H-benzimidazol-2(3H)-one.

    PubMed

    Kandri Rodi, Youssef; Haoudi, Amal; Capet, Frédéric; Rolando, Christian; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C24H18ClN3O2, the benzimidazole plane is nearly perpendicular to the phenyl ring and to the isoxazole ring, making dihedral angles of 75.95 (7) and 73.04 (8)°, respectively, but the two residues point in opposite directions with respect to the benzimidazole plane. The dihedral angle between the chloro-phenyl and isoxazole rings is 7.95 (8)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into inversion dimers.

  2. The structure and properties of 5,6-dinitro-1H-benzotriazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa María, Dolores; Claramunt, Rosa M.; Torralba, M. Carmen; Torres, M. Rosario; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2016-06-01

    5,6-Dinitro-1H-benzotriazole crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/c. The asymmetric unit contains the planar 1H-tautomer together with a water molecule of crystallization. Each water molecule is hydrogen bonded to three adjacent 5,6-dinitrobenzotriazoles forming a tape along the b-axis of the crystal. These tapes stack along the c-axis through hydrogen bonds involving the water molecules and one of the nitro groups leading to a bidimensional structure. Solid-state 13C and 15N CPMAS NMR allow to confirm that the tautomer present is the 1H one. In DMSO-d6 solution the results are quite different and, based on GIAO/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations, lead us to conclude that the major tautomer is the 5,6-dinitro-2H-benzotriazole, a surprising result that contradicts the rule that the major tautomer in solution coincides with the one present in the crystal. An anhydrous pseudopolymorph of 5,6-dinitro-1H-benzotriazole has been obtained as a non-crystalline form and from solid-state NMR and theoretical calculations, we conclude that it is an 1H-tautomer.

  3. Stimulation of [3H] GABA and beta-[3H] alanine release from rat brain slices by cis-4-aminocrotonic acid.

    PubMed

    Chebib, M; Johnston, G A

    1997-02-01

    cis-4-Aminocrotonic acid (CACA; 100 microM), an analogue of GABA in a folded conformation, stimulated the passive release of [3H] GABA from slices of rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex, retina, and spinal cord and of beta-[3H]alanine from slices of cerebellum and spinal cord without influencing potassium-evoked release. In contrast, CACA (100 microM) did not stimulate the passive release of [3H]taurine from slices of cerebellum and spinal cord or of D-[3H]aspartate from slices of cerebellum and did not influence potassium-evoked release of [3H]-taurine from the cerebellum and spinal cord and D-[3H]-aspartate from the cerebellum. These results suggest that the effects of CACA on GABA and beta-alanine release are due to CACA acting as a substrate for a beta-alanine-sensitive GABA transport system, consistent with CACA inhibiting the uptake of beta-[3H]alanine into slices of rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex. The observed Ki for CACA against beta-[3H]alanine uptake in the cerebellum was 750 +/- 60 microM. CACA appears to be 10-fold weaker as a substrate for the transporter system than as an agonist for the GABAc receptor. The effects of CACA on GABA and beta-alanine release provide indirect evidence for a GABA transporter in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, retina, and spinal cord that transports GABA, beta-alanine, CACA, and nipecotic acid that has a similar pharmacological profile to that of the GABA transporter, GAT-3, cloned from rat CNS. The structural similarities of GABA, beta-alanine, CACA, and nipecotic acid are demonstrated by computer-aided molecular modeling, providing information on the possible conformations of these substances being transported by a common carrier protein.

  4. Uptake of /sup 3/H-choline and synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine by human penile corpus cavernosum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, R.; Saenz de Tejada, I.; Azadzoi, K.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    The neuroeffectors which relax penile smooth muscle and lead to erection are unknown; physiological studies of human corpus cavernosum, in vitro, have suggested a significant role of cholinergic neurotransmission. To further characterize the importance of cholinergic nerves, biopsies of human corpus cavernosum were obtained at the time of penile prosthesis implantation. Tissues were incubated in /sup 3/H-choline (10/sup -5/M, 80 Ci/mmol) in oxygenated physiological salt solution at 37/sup 0/C, pH 7.4 for 1 hour. Radiolabelled compounds were extracted with perchloric acid (0.4 M) and acetylcholine and choline were separated by HPLC; /sup 14/C-acetylcholine was used as internal standard. /sup 3/H-choline was accumulated by the tissues (20 +/- 1.9 fmol/mg), and /sup 3/H-acetylcholine was synthesized (4.0 +/- 1.1 fmol/mg). In control experiments, heating of the tissue blocked synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine. Inhibition of high affinity choline transport by hemicholinium-3 (10/sup -5/M) diminished tissue accumulation of /sup 3/H-choline and significantly reduced the synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (0.5 +/ 0.2 fmol/mg, p < 0.05). These results provide direct evidence of neuronal accumulation of choline and enzymatic conversion to acetylcholine in human corpus cavernosum. Taken together with the physiological studies, it can be concluded that cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum plays a role in penile erection.

  5. Analysis of C2H4 in C2H6 and C2H5D with VUV absorption spectroscopy and a method to remove C2H4 from C2H6 and C2H5D.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Hong-Kai; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2004-10-01

    The photoabsorption cross section of C2H4 was measured in the spectral region 107-183 nm and those of C2H6 and C2H5D were accurately determined in the spectral region 107-162 nm using radiation from a synchrotron as source of VUV light. Typically, C2H4 present as a minor impurity in samples of C2H6 and C2H5D distorted the absorption cross section in curves of C2H6 and C2H5D in the onset region. We completely eliminated C2H4 from C2H6 and C2H5D using adsorption on activated Pd/charcoal at 195 K. By this means, we detected no C2H4 in samples of C2H6 and C2H5D according to their absorption spectra. The detection limit of C2H4 in C2H6 and C2H5D is less than 0.03 ppm with VUV absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of human platelet and rabbit kidney. cap alpha. -adrenoceptors with (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Raymond, J.R.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; DeMarinis, R.M.

    1986-06-13

    A newly developed ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic photoaffinity ligand, 3-methyl-6-chloro-9-azido-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepine (SKF 102229), has been radiolabeled with tritium to a specific activity of approx. 80 Ci/mmol. Using membranes prepared from human platelets and from rabbit kidney, ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors have been covalently labeled following photolysis in the presence of (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229. As determined by SDS-PAGE, the apparent molecular weight of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors from both of these tissues was 64,000. The yield of covalent insertion of (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229 into the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor was very good. Thus, following photolysis up to 90% of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors could be irreversibly labeled with (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229.

  7. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate [3H]prostaglandins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jones, M A; Harper, M J

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with 3H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of [3H]PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of [3H]PGE2 and [3H]PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the [3H]PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. We conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  8. Modulation of [3H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murray, F; Kennedy, J; Hutson, P H; Elliot, J; Huscroft, I; Mohnen, K; Russell, M G; Grimwood, S

    2000-06-02

    [3H]MK-801 binding in vivo was used to determine the occupancy of NMDA receptor ligands shown to allosterically modulate binding in vitro. ED(50) values (mg/kg) were obtained for the channel blockers (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5,4-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate ((+)-MK-801, 0.2), 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (phencyclidine, PCP, 1.7) and ketamine (4.4). Antagonists at the glutamate (DL-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (DL-CPP, 5.7)) and glycine site (7-Chloro-4-hydroxy-3-(3-phenoxy)-phenyl-2(H)quinolinone (L-701,324, 14.1), 3R(+)cis-4-methyl-pyrrollid-2-one (L-687,414, 15.1)) inhibited [3H]MK-801 binding in vivo to varying maximum levels (69%, 103% and 45%, respectively). NR2B subunit-selective compounds acting at the ifenprodil site inhibited [3H]MK-801 in vivo by a maximum of 52-72% and gave ED(50) values (mg/kg) of: (+/-)-(1S*, 2S*)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-4-phenylpiperidino)-1-propanol ((+/-)CP-101,606), 1.9; (+/-)-(3R, 4S)-3-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]chroman-4,7-diol ((+/-)CP-283,097), 1.8; (+/-)-(R*, S*)-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperidine propanol ((+/-)Ro 25-6981), 1.0; ifenprodil, 6.0. The glycine site agonist D-serine stimulated binding to 151% of control with an ED(50) of 1.7 mg/kg. Results show that [3H]MK-801 binding in vivo may be used to measure receptor occupancy of ligands acting not only within the ion channel but also at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptor complex.

  9. Some properties of the sum C1(h, k)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Elif

    2017-07-01

    In [10], we have investigated properties of the sum C1(h, k). In this paper, we will give some other arithmetic properties of the sum C1(h, k). Moreover, in the light of the sum B1(h, k), which has also defined in [10], we will give specific values of the sum C1(h, k) when h + k is an odd number. Finally, we will give a relation between the sum C1(h, k) and the Hardy-Berndt sum s5(h, k) for a special case.

  10. Detection of Apoptosis and Necrosis in Normal Human Lung Cells Using 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chwen-Ming; Ko, Wun-Chang; Yang, Liang-Yo; Lin, Chien-Ju; Wu, Jui-Sheng; Lo, Tsui-Yun; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Chen, Chien-Tsu

    2005-05-01

    This study aimed to detect apoptosis and necrosis in MRC-5, a normal human lung cell line, by using noninvasive proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Live MRC-5 cells were processed first for 1H NMR spectroscopy; subsequently their types and the percentage of cell death were assessed on a flow cytometer. Cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) induced apoptosis and necrosis in MRC-5 cells, respectively, as revealed by phosphatidylserine externalization on a flow cytometer. The spectral intensity ratio of methylene (CH2) resonance (at 1.3 ppm) to methyl (CH3) resonance (at 0.9 ppm) was directly proportional to the percentage of apoptosis and strongly and positively correlated with PI staining after Cd treatment (r2 = 0.9868, P < 0.01). In contrast, this ratio only increased slightly within 2-h Hg treatment, and longer Hg exposure failed to produce further increase. Following 2-h Hg exposure, the spectral intensity of choline resonance (at 3.2 ppm) was abolished, but this phenomenon was absent in Cd-induced apoptosis. These findings together demonstrate that 1H NMR is a novel tool with a quantitative potential to distinguish apoptosis from necrosis as early as the onset of cell death in normal human lung cells.

  11. Analytical potential energy surface and kinetics of the NH(3) + H --> NH(2) + H(2) hydrogen abstraction and the ammonia inversion reactions.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Garcia, J; Corchado, J C

    2010-04-01

    Based on accurate electronic structure calculations, a new analytical potential energy surface (PES) was fitted to simultaneously describe the hydrogen abstraction reaction from ammonia by a hydrogen atom, and the ammonia inversion. Using a wide spectrum of properties of the reactive system (equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, and relative energies of the stationary points, topology of the reaction paths, and points on the reaction swaths) as reference, the resulting analytical PES reproduces reasonably well the input ab initio information obtained at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level, which represents a severe test for the new surface. As a first application, on this analytical PES we perform an extensive kinetics study using variational transition-state theory with semiclassical transmission coefficients over a wide temperature range, 200-2000 K. For the hydrogen abstraction reaction, the forward rate constants reproduce the experimental measurements, while the reverse ones are slightly underestimated. Another severe test of the new surface is the analysis of the kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). The KIEs between unsubstituted and all deuterated reactions agree with experiment in the common temperature range. For the ammonia inversion reaction, the splitting of the degenerate vibrational levels of the double well due to the tunneling contribution, which is very important in this reaction representing 93% of the reactivity at 200 K, was calculated for the NH(3) and ND(3) species. The values found were 3.6 and 0.37 cm(-1), respectively, which although higher than experimental values, reproduce the experimental behavior on isotopic substitution.

  12. Homocatenation of aluminum: alkane-like structures of Li2Al2 H6 and Li3Al3H8.

    PubMed

    Gish, J Tyler; Popov, Ivan A; Boldyrev, Alexander I

    2015-03-27

    Invited for the cover of this issue is Alexander I. Boldyrev and co-workers at Utah State University. The image depicts the magician who symbolizes a chemist synthesizing molecules of "aluminum homocatenated ethane and propane" based on the idea of electronic transmutation. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201500298.

  13. Evaporation and concentration gradients created by episodic river recharge in a semi-arid zone aquifer: Insights from Cl-, δ18O, δ2H, and 3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, K. T.; Hollins, S. E.; Hughes, C. E.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.; Griffiths, A.; Crawford, J.

    2015-10-01

    This study has significantly advanced our understanding of the origin of groundwater recharge in a semi-arid zone region of the Darling River catchment, Australia. The generally accepted hypothesis in arid zone environments in Australia that river water forms the primary groundwater recharge source has proven difficult to monitor. This is due to the time lags between large floods, the remoteness and expense of studying these hydrologically complex systems in detail. In addition, the highly episodic nature of dryland rivers complicates the interpretation of the groundwater signal. A range of hydrochemical tracers (chloride, oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium) measured in rain, river water, soil water and groundwater were used in this multi-year study to trace the pathways of groundwater recharge under wet and dry climatic conditions. The evaporation and Cl concentrations observed in the unsaturated zone confirmed that small volumetric inputs from periodic rainfall were not the major recharge mechanism. Sampling which included an overbank flooding event in March 2012 provided firm evidence for groundwater originating from high flow episodic river recharge. The use of long-term environmental data to understand how economically important water resources respond to climate change with increasing temperatures is considered essential for future sustainability.

  14. Water-Isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O) to trace the source and timing of recharge in a fractured granite aquifer in Western Kenya, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, Martin; Whylidal, Stefan; Asunah, Francis; Sültenfuß, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    The Vihiga District in West Kenya North-West of Lake Victoria is one of the most densely populated areas in Kenya with 1033 person per square kilometer. To find the most suitable location of an own well for a Primary School in this district, springs, school wells and creeks were sampled in the surroundings to get information about the hydrological cycle in the area. The Waluka Primary school (0.02134°N, 34.64311°E) is situated on the northern slope of the Maragoli Hills 20 km to the North-West of the Nyanzan provincial capital of Kisumu at the eastern shore of Lake Victoria. The hilly relief varies between 1535 - 1675m. The yearly precipitation is between 1200-1600 mm/a (23°C mean temperature) with biannual rainy seasons in which the long rains are generally from March to May as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) moves northwards, and the short rains are typically from October to December as the ITCZ retreats southwards. A lateritic soil covers a thin alteration zone above the Precambrian Maragoli-Granite (Saggerson, 1952). Water circulates either in the thin alteration zone or in fault zones cutting through the Precambrian granite. From discharge measurements of two springs and a creek at the end of the dry season (February 2012) a minimum discharge of ca. 10-20 L/s km2 (300-600 mm) can be estimated. The water is of the alkaline sulfate-nitrate type with low mineralization (70-150 μ S/cm, 25°C) and a low pH of about 5 to 6. The delta oxygen-18 and deuterium value ranges between -2.84 to -1.98 oand -8.5 to - 3.9 o(VSMOW). The deuterium excess ranges from 11.7-14.2 oThe water of one spring and well close to the school have a tritium content of 1.42 - 1.62 TU. All groundwater has a low arsenium, fluorine and uranium content, which had only a short soil passage. The relatively elevated, but not problematic content in nitrate (10 - 16 mg/L) probaly reflects the intensive agricultural activities in this area. As the mean δ 18O values during the rainy seasons are significantly lower (-3 to -4 o) than in the mean precipitation during the rest of the year (-2.5 to -1.9 o; Mwango, 2003) one can conclude that the main spring 'Anzaya' and the well in the Naboka Secondary School are recharged from deeper faults with water supplied more during the rainy season. The slightly higher d-excess of 13.4-14.2 ocompared to 11.7-12.6 oin the rest of the samples, indicates a somewhat higher recharge area of this two sites with water vapor recycled in the precipitation around the Liailhunuu peak (ca. 1675m). This effect is also supported by spring-water measurements at the Kilimanjaro (d-excess 13.4-6.6 o) 400 km SE. Similarily, the tritium content of 1.42 - 1.62 TU indicate that compared to a mean tritium content of 2 TU in the rain of this area (Mwango, 2003) the mean residence time can be in the range of recent to few years only.

  15. Calculational and Experimental Investigations of the Pressure Effects on Radical - Radical Cross Combinations Reactions: C2H5 + C2H3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, Askar; Halpern, Joshua B.; Tardy, Dwight C.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-dependent product yields have been experimentally determined for the cross-radical reaction C2H5 + C2H3. These results have been extended by calculations. It is shown that the chemically activated combination adduct, 1-C4H8*, is either stabilized by bimolecular collisions or subject to a variety of unimolecular reactions including cyclizations and decompositions. Therefore the "apparent" combination/disproportionation ratio exhibits a complex pressure dependence. The experimental studies were performed at 298 K and at selected pressures between about 4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Ethyl and vinyl radicals were simultaneously produced by 193 nm excimer laser photolysis of C2H5COC2H3 or photolysis of C2H3Br and C2H5COC2H5. Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID) were used to identify and quantify the final reaction products. The major combination reactions at pressures between 500 (66.5 kPa) and 760 Torr are (1c) C2H5 + C2H3 yields 1-butene, (2c) C2H5 + C2H5 yields n-butane, and (3c) C2H3 + C2H3 yields 1,3-butadiene. The major products of the disproportionation reactions are ethane, ethylene, and acetylene. At moderate and lower pressures, secondary products, including propene, propane, isobutene, 2-butene (cis and trans), 1-pentene, 1,4-pentadiene, and 1,5-hexadiene are also observed. Two isomers of C4H6, cyclobutene and/or 1,2-butadiene, were also among the likely products. The pressure-dependent yield of the cross-combination product, 1-butene, was compared to the yield of n-butane, the combination product of reaction (2c), which was found to be independent of pressure over the range of this study. The [ 1-C4H8]/[C4H10] ratio was reduced from approx.1.2 at 760 Torr (101 kPa) to approx.0.5 at 100 Torr (13.3 kPa) and approx.0.1 at pressures lower than about 5 Torr (approx.0.7 kPa). Electronic structure and RRKM calculations were used to simulate both unimolecular and bimolecular processes. The relative importance

  16. Calculational and Experimental Investigations of the Pressure Effects on Radical - Radical Cross Combinations Reactions: C2H5 + C2H3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, Askar; Halpern, Joshua B.; Tardy, Dwight C.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-dependent product yields have been experimentally determined for the cross-radical reaction C2H5 + C2H3. These results have been extended by calculations. It is shown that the chemically activated combination adduct, 1-C4H8*, is either stabilized by bimolecular collisions or subject to a variety of unimolecular reactions including cyclizations and decompositions. Therefore the "apparent" combination/disproportionation ratio exhibits a complex pressure dependence. The experimental studies were performed at 298 K and at selected pressures between about 4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Ethyl and vinyl radicals were simultaneously produced by 193 nm excimer laser photolysis of C2H5COC2H3 or photolysis of C2H3Br and C2H5COC2H5. Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID) were used to identify and quantify the final reaction products. The major combination reactions at pressures between 500 (66.5 kPa) and 760 Torr are (1c) C2H5 + C2H3 yields 1-butene, (2c) C2H5 + C2H5 yields n-butane, and (3c) C2H3 + C2H3 yields 1,3-butadiene. The major products of the disproportionation reactions are ethane, ethylene, and acetylene. At moderate and lower pressures, secondary products, including propene, propane, isobutene, 2-butene (cis and trans), 1-pentene, 1,4-pentadiene, and 1,5-hexadiene are also observed. Two isomers of C4H6, cyclobutene and/or 1,2-butadiene, were also among the likely products. The pressure-dependent yield of the cross-combination product, 1-butene, was compared to the yield of n-butane, the combination product of reaction (2c), which was found to be independent of pressure over the range of this study. The [ 1-C4H8]/[C4H10] ratio was reduced from approx.1.2 at 760 Torr (101 kPa) to approx.0.5 at 100 Torr (13.3 kPa) and approx.0.1 at pressures lower than about 5 Torr (approx.0.7 kPa). Electronic structure and RRKM calculations were used to simulate both unimolecular and bimolecular processes. The relative importance

  17. Synthesis and characterization of d10 metal complexes with mixed 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene and multicarboxylate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Hao; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Shui-Sheng; Wang, Peng; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2013-06-01

    Seven new coordination polymers [Zn(H2L)(mbdc)] (1), [Zn(H3L)(btc)] (2), [Zn(H2L)(Hbtc)] (3), [Zn(H2L)(Hbtc)]·H2O (4), [Zn2(H2L)(btc)(μ2-OH)] (5), [Cd(H2L)(mbdc)] (6) and [Cd3(H2L)2(btc)2(H2O)]·5H2O (7) were synthesized by reactions of the corresponding metal salt with rigid ligand 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (H2L) and different carboxylic acids of 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2mbdc) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3btc), respectively. The results of X-ray crystallographic analysis indicate that complex 1 is 1D chain while 2 is a (3,3)-connected 2D network with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (4,82). Complexes 3 and 6 are 2D networks, 4 is a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (65,8) and 5 is a (3,8)-connected 2D network with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (3,42)2(34,46,56,68,73,8), while 7 is a (3,10)-connected 3D net with Schläfli symbol of (3,4,5)2(34,48,518,612,72,8). The thermal stability and photoluminescence of the complexes were investigated. Furthermore, DFT calculations were performed for 2-4 to discuss the temperature controlled self-assembly of the complexes.

  18. Cd(II) and Co(II) coordination polymers constructed from benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-benzimidazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Hua; Yang, Ming-Xing; Chen, Li-Juan; Lin, Shen

    2014-05-01

    In poly[aqua(μ3-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-κ(5)O(1),O(1'):O(1):O(4),O(4'))[2-(pyridin-3-yl-κN)-1H-benzimidazole]cadmium(II)], [Cd(C8H4O4)(C12H9N3)(H2O)]n, (I), each Cd(II) ion is seven-coordinated by the pyridine N atom from a 2-(pyridin-3-yl)benzimidazole (3-PyBIm) ligand, five O atoms from three benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate (1,4-bdc) ligands and one O atom from a coordinated water molecule. The complex forms an extended two-dimensional carboxylate layer structure, which is further extended into a three-dimensional network by hydrogen-bonding interactions. In catena-poly[[diaquabis[2-(pyridin-3-yl-κN)-1H-benzimidazole]cobalt(II)]-μ2-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-κ(2)O(1):O(4)], [Co(C8H4O4)(C12H9N3)2(H2O)2]n, (II), each Co(II) ion is six-coordinated by two pyridine N atoms from two 3-PyBIm ligands, two O atoms from two 1,4-bdc ligands and two O atoms from two coordinated water molecules. The complex forms a one-dimensional chain-like coordination polymer and is further assembled by hydrogen-bonding interactions to form a three-dimensional network.

  19. Effects of linalool on [(3)H]MK801 and [(3)H] muscimol binding in mouse cortical membranes.

    PubMed

    Brum, L F; Elisabetsky, E; Souza, D

    2001-08-01

    Linalool is a monoterpene compound reported to be a major component of essential oils of several aromatic species. Several linalool-producing species are used in traditional medical systems for sedative purposes, including the interruption and prevention of seizures. Previous studies in mice revealed that linalool modulates glutamatergic (competitive antagonism of L-[(3)H]glutamate binding, delayed intraperitoneal NMDA-induced convulsions and blockade of intracerebroventricular Quin-induced convulsions) and GABAergic transmission (protection against pentylenetetrazol and picrotoxin-induced convulsions). To further clarify the anticonvulsive mechanisms of linalool, we studied the effects of linalool on binding of [(3)H]MK801 (NMDA antagonist) and [(3)H]muscimol (GABA(A) agonist) to mouse cortical membranes. Linalool showed a dose dependent non-competitive inhibition of [(3)H]MK801 binding (IC(50) = 2.97 mM) but no effect on [(3)H]muscimol binding. The data suggest that the anticonvulsant mode of action of linalool includes a direct interaction with the NMDA receptor complex. The data do not, however, support a direct interaction of linalool with GABA(A) receptors, although changes in GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition or effects on GABA release and uptake cannot be ruled out.

  20. Vibrational Spectroscopy of He-O_2H^+ and O_2H^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koichi MT; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2017-06-01

    The elusive protonated oxygen, O_2H^+, has been characterized by vibrational action spectroscopy in a cryogenic 22-pole ion trap. On the one hand, the vibrational bands of the tagged He-O_2H^+ have been investigated, using a table-top OPO system for the known OH-stretch^a, whereas the FELIX^b light source has been used to detect the hitherto unknown low-frequency O-O-H bend and O-O stretch. On the other hand, the untagged O_2H^+ has been detected for the first time by high-resolution rovibrational spectroscopy via its ν_1 OH-stretch motion. 38 ro-vibrational fine structure transitions with partly resolved hyperfine satellites were measured (56 resolved lines in total). Spectroscopic parameters were determined by a fit to an asymmetric rotor model with a ^3A'' electronic ground state. The band center is at 3016.73 \\wn, which is in good agreement with experimental^a and ab initio^{c,d} predictions. Based on the spectroscopic parameters, the rotational spectrum is predicted, but not detected yet. ^a S. A. Nizkorodov et al., Chem. Phys. Lett., 278, 26, 1997 ^b D. Oepts et al., Infrared Phys. Technol., 36, 297, 1995 ^c S. L. W. Weaver et al., Astrophys. J., 697, 601, 2009 ^d X. Huang and T. J. Lee, J. Chem. Phys., 129, 044312, 2008

  1. 15 N- and 2 H proteomic stable isotope probing links nitrogen flow to archaeal heterotrophic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, Nicholas B.; Li, Zhou; Wang, Yingfeng; Spaulding, Susan E.; Mosier, Annika C.; Robert L. Hettich; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2014-05-20

    Understanding how individual species contribute to nutrient transformations in a microbial community is critical to prediction of overall ecosystem function. We conducted microcosm experiments in which floating acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial biofilms were submerged recapitulating the final stage in a natural biofilm life cycle. Biofilms were amended with either 15NH4 + or deuterium oxide (2H2O) and proteomic stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to track the extent to which different members of the community used these molecules in protein synthesis across anaerobic iron-reducing, aerobic iron-reducing and aerobic iron-oxidizing environments. Sulfobacillus spp. synthesized 15N-enriched protein almost exclusively under iron-reducing conditions whereas the Leptospirillum spp. synthesized 15N-enriched protein in all conditions. There were relatively few 15Nenriched archaeal proteins, and all showed low atom% enrichment, consistent with Archaea synthesizing protein using the predominantly 14N biomass derived from recycled biomolecules. In parallel experiments using 2H2O, extensive archaeal protein synthesis was detected in all conditions. In contrast, the bacterial species showed little protein synthesis using 2H2O. The nearly exclusive ability of Archaea to synthesize proteins using 2H2O may be due to archaeal heterotrophy, whereby Archaea off set deleterious effects of 2H by accessing 1H generated byrespiration of organic compounds.

  2. (15)N- and (2)H proteomic stable isotope probing links nitrogen flow to archaeal heterotrophic activity.

    PubMed

    Justice, Nicholas B; Li, Zhou; Wang, Yingfeng; Spaudling, Susan E; Mosier, Annika C; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how individual species contribute to nutrient transformations in a microbial community is critical to prediction of overall ecosystem function. We conducted microcosm experiments in which floating acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial biofilms were submerged - recapitulating the final stage in a natural biofilm life cycle. Biofilms were amended with either (15)NH4(+) or deuterium oxide ((2)H2O) and proteomic stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to track the extent to which different members of the community used these molecules in protein synthesis across anaerobic iron-reducing, aerobic iron-reducing and aerobic iron-oxidizing environments. Sulfobacillus spp. synthesized (15)N-enriched protein almost exclusively under iron-reducing conditions whereas the Leptospirillum spp. synthesized (15)N-enriched protein in all conditions. There were relatively few (15)N-enriched archaeal proteins, and all showed low atom% enrichment, consistent with Archaea synthesizing protein using the predominantly (14)N biomass derived from recycled biomolecules. In parallel experiments using (2)H2O, extensive archaeal protein synthesis was detected in all conditions. In contrast, the bacterial species showed little protein synthesis using (2)H2O. The nearly exclusive ability of Archaea to synthesize proteins using (2)H2O may be due to archaeal heterotrophy, whereby Archaea offset deleterious effects of (2)H by accessing (1)H generated by respiration of organic compounds. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Association reactions at low pressure. III. The C2H2+/C2H2 system.

    PubMed

    Anicich, V G; Sen, A D; Huntress, W T; McEwan, M J

    1990-11-15

    The association reactions, C4H2(+) + C2H2 and C4H3(+) + C2H2 have been examined at pressures between 8 x 10(-8) and 1 x 10(-4) Torr at 298 K in an ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Association occurred via two different mechanisms. At pressures below approximately 2 x 10(-6) Torr, the association was bimolecular having rate coefficients k2 = 2.7 x 10(-10) cm3 s-1 and 2.0 x 10(-10) cm3 s-1 for C4H2+ and C4H3+, respectively. At pressures above approximately 2 x 10(-6) Torr, termolecular association was observed with rate coefficients, k3 = 5.7 x 10(-23) cm6 s-1 and 1.3 x 10(-23) cm6 s-1 for C4H2+ and C4H3+, respectively, when M = C2H2. The termolecular rate constants with N2, Ar, Ne, and He as the third body, M, are also reported. We propose that the low pressure bimolecular association process was the result of radiative stabilization of the complex and the termolecular association process was the result of collisional stabilization. Elementary rate coefficients were obtained and the lifetime of the collision complex was > or = 57 microseconds for (C6H4+)* and > or = 18 microseconds for (C6H5+)*. At pressures below 1 x 10(-6) Torr, approximately 11% of the (C6H4+)* were stabilized by photon emission and the remaining approximately 89% reverted back to reactants, while approximately 24% of the (C6H5+)* were stabilized by photon emission and the remaining approximately 76% reverted back to reactants. The ionic products of the C2H2(+) + C2H2 reaction, C4H2+ and C4H3+, were found to be formed with enough internal energy that they did not react by the radiative association channel until relaxed by several nonreactive collisions with the bath gas.

  4. R-matrix description of particle energy spectra produced by low-energy 3H + 3H reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Brune, C. R.; Caggiano, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; ...

    2015-07-20

    An R-matrix model for three-body final states is presented and applied to a recent measurement of the neutron energy spectrum from the 3H + 3H→ 2n + α reaction. The calculation includes the n alpha and n n interactions in the final state, angular momentum conservation, antisymmetrization, and the interference between different channels. A good fit to the measured spectrum is obtained, where clear evidence for the 5He ground state is observed. The model is also used to predict the alpha-particle spectrum from 3H + 3H as well as particle spectra from 3He + 3He. The R-matrix approach presented heremore » is very general, and can be adapted to a wide variety of problems with three-body final states.« less

  5. Spatially Resolved L-C3H+ Emission in the Horsehead Photodissociation Region: Further Evidence for a Top-Down Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, V. V.; Pety, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gerin, M.; Roueff, E.; Gratier, P.; Öberg, K. I.

    2015-02-01

    Small hydrocarbons, such as C2H, C3H, and C3H2 are more abundant in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) than expected based on gas-phase chemical models. To explore the hydrocarbon chemistry further, we observed a key intermediate species, the hydrocarbon ion l-C3H+, in the Horsehead PDR with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at high-angular resolution (6″). We compare with previous observations of C2H and c-C3H2 at similar angular resolution and new gas-phase chemical model predictions to constrain the dominant formation mechanisms of small hydrocarbons in low-UV flux PDRs. We find that at the peak of the HCO emission (PDR position), the measured l-C3H+, C2H, and c-C3H2 abundances are consistent with current gas-phase model predictions. However, in the first PDR layers, at the 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon band emission peak, which are more exposed to the radiation field and where the density is lower, the C2H and c-C3H2 abundances are underestimated by an order of magnitude. At this position, the l-C3H+ abundance is also underpredicted by the model but only by a factor of a few. In addition, contrary to the model predictions, l-C3H+ peaks further out in the PDR than the other hydrocarbons, C2H and c-C3H2. This cannot be explained by an excitation effect. Current gas-phase photochemical models thus cannot explain the observed abundances of hydrocarbons, in particular, in the first PDR layers. Our observations are consistent with a top-down hydrocarbon chemistry, in which large polyatomic molecules or small carbonaceous grains are photo-destroyed into smaller hydrocarbon molecules/precursors. Based on observations obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  6. SPATIALLY RESOLVED l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} EMISSION IN THE HORSEHEAD PHOTODISSOCIATION REGION: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR A TOP-DOWN HYDROCARBON CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Guzmán, V. V.; Öberg, K. I.; Pety, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gerin, M.; Roueff, E.; Gratier, P.

    2015-02-20

    Small hydrocarbons, such as C{sub 2}H, C{sub 3}H, and C{sub 3}H{sub 2} are more abundant in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) than expected based on gas-phase chemical models. To explore the hydrocarbon chemistry further, we observed a key intermediate species, the hydrocarbon ion l-C{sub 3}H{sup +}, in the Horsehead PDR with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at high-angular resolution (6″). We compare with previous observations of C{sub 2}H and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} at similar angular resolution and new gas-phase chemical model predictions to constrain the dominant formation mechanisms of small hydrocarbons in low-UV flux PDRs. We find that at the peak of the HCO emission (PDR position), the measured l-C{sub 3}H{sup +}, C{sub 2}H, and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} abundances are consistent with current gas-phase model predictions. However, in the first PDR layers, at the 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon band emission peak, which are more exposed to the radiation field and where the density is lower, the C{sub 2}H and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} abundances are underestimated by an order of magnitude. At this position, the l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} abundance is also underpredicted by the model but only by a factor of a few. In addition, contrary to the model predictions, l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} peaks further out in the PDR than the other hydrocarbons, C{sub 2}H and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}. This cannot be explained by an excitation effect. Current gas-phase photochemical models thus cannot explain the observed abundances of hydrocarbons, in particular, in the first PDR layers. Our observations are consistent with a top-down hydrocarbon chemistry, in which large polyatomic molecules or small carbonaceous grains are photo-destroyed into smaller hydrocarbon molecules/precursors.

  7. [Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of 3H-norcantharidin in mice].

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-Min; Wang, Ben-Jie; Ma, Ya; Sun, Zi-Ping; Li, Xiao-Li; Guo, Rui-Chen

    2007-05-01

    A single dose of 3H-norcantharidin solution was intragastrically given, blood, tissues, urine and feces were collected as scheduled, and radioactivity in these samples was determined by tritium tracing method to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of norcantharidin in Kunming mice. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of norcantharidin were evaluated by DAS version 2.0. The blood concentration reached to maximum 0. 5 h after intragastric administration. The radioactivity in tissues was high in small intestine, gallbladder, stomach, adrenal gland, kidney, heart and uterus 15 minutes after administration, descending with time, and high in gallbladder, adrenal gland and uterus 3 hours post dosing. The 24 h accumulative excretion ratio of urine and feces were 65.40% and 1.33% respectively. 3H-norcantharidin was easily absorbed after orally given to mice, the radioactivity was high and existed for a long-time in gallbladder, adrenal gland and uterus, and low but also existed for a long-time in large intestine, thymus and fat tissue. 3H-norcantharidin was declined quickly in small intestine, stomach, kidney and heart, and occurred rarely in brain. Norcantharidin was excreted mainly by urinary route and seldom in feces, which may be the cause of the urinary stimulation side effects observed. Because the radioactivity measured were the sum of 3H labeled norcantharidin and its metabolites, further studies on the disposition of norcantharidin in mammal animals, on the separation or identification of metabolites and, if any, on their activities, are fairly needed.

  8. (/sup 3/H)glucosamine and (/sup 3/H)proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, M.; Ruch, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)proline and (/sup 3/H)glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with (/sup 3/H)proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled material.

  9. Synthesis of novel biologically active heterocyclic compounds from 2-oxo-2H-benzopyran-6-yl-imidazolidine.

    PubMed

    Mulwad, Vinata V; Langi, Bhushan P; Chaskar, Atul C

    2011-01-01

    6-Aminocoumarin on treatment with oxalyl chloride gives coumarinyl-6-isocynate (1a-c) which on treatment with glycine gives 1H-3-[2'-oxo-2'H-benzopyran-6'-yl]-5-imidazolidine-2, 4-dione (2a-c). (2a-c) when refluxed with o-chlorobenzaldehyde, m-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and 3-nitrobenzaldehyde separately gives 1H-5-(2"-chlorobenzylidene)-3-(2'-oxo-2'H-benzopyran-6'-yl) imidazolidine-2,4-dione (3a-c), 1H-5-(3"-hydroxybenzylidene)-3-(2'-oxo-2'H-benzopyran-6'-yl) imidazolidine-2,4-dione (4a-c), 1H-5-(3",4"-dimethoxybenzylidene)-3-(2'-oxo-2'H-benzopyran-6'-yl) imidazolidine-2,4-dione (5a-c) and 1H-5-(3"-nitrobenzylidene)-3-(2'-oxo-2'H-benzopyran-6'-yl) imidazolidine-2,4-dione (6a-c), respectively. 3-(2"-Chlorophenyl)-3a,4-dihydro-6-(2'-oxo-2'H-benzopyran-6'-yl) imidazo[4,5-c]isoxazol-5-one 7a-c is obtained from (3a-c) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride while 2,3a,4-trihydro-3-(3"-hydroxyphenyl)-6-(2'-oxo-2'H-benzopyran-6'-yl) imidazo[4,5-c]pyrazol-5-one (8a-c) obtained by reaction of (4a-c) with hydrazine hydrate. Compound (5a-c) on treatment with urea gives 5,7-dihydro-2-hydroxy-6-(3",4"-dimethoxyphenyl)-9-(2'-oxo-2'H-benzopyran-6'-yl) purin-8-one (9a-c) and compound (6a-c) on treatment with thiourea gives 5,7-dihydro-2-mercapto-6-(3"-nitrophenyl)-9-(2'-oxo-2'H-benzopyran-6'-yl)purin-8-one (10a-c). The structures of the compounds have been established on the basis of spectral analytical data. All the compounds have been screened for their antimicrobial activities against three bacterial strains S. aureus, S. typhi and E. coli. Compounds 2b, 3b, 4b, 5b, 6b, 7b, 8b, 9b and 10b with the presence of methyl groups at C7' and C8' of coumarin moiety were found to be more active than others.

  10. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate (/sup 3/H)prostaglandins in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.A.; Harper, M.J.

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with /sup 3/H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of (/sup 3/H)PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of (/sup 3/H)PGE2 and (/sup 3/H)PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the (/sup 3/H)PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. The authors conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation.

  11. Structure–function studies of histone H3/H4 tetramer maintenance during transcription by chaperone Spt2

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shoudeng; Rufiange, Anne; Huang, Hongda; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Nourani, Amine; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-06-15

    Cells use specific mechanisms such as histone chaperones to abrogate the inherent barrier that the nucleosome poses to transcribing polymerases. The current model postulates that nucleosomes can be transiently disrupted to accommodate passage of RNA polymerases and that histones H3 and H4 possess their own chaperones dedicated to the recovery of nucleosomes. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the conserved C terminus of human Suppressors of Ty insertions 2 (hSpt2C) chaperone bound to an H3/H4 tetramer. The structural studies demonstrate that hSpt2C is bound to the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer, mimicking the trajectory of nucleosomal-bound DNA. These structural studies have been complemented with in vitro binding and in vivo functional studies on mutants that disrupt key intermolecular contacts involving two acidic patches and hydrophobic residues on Spt2C. We show that contacts between both human and yeast Spt2C with the H3/H4 tetramer are required for the suppression of H3/ H4 exchange as measured by H3K56ac and new H3 deposition. Furthermore, these interactions are also crucial for the inhibition of spurious transcription from within coding regions. In conclusion, together, our data indicate that Spt2 interacts with the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer and promotes its recycling in the wake of RNA polymerase.

  12. Structure–function studies of histone H3/H4 tetramer maintenance during transcription by chaperone Spt2

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Shoudeng; Rufiange, Anne; Huang, Hongda; ...

    2015-06-15

    Cells use specific mechanisms such as histone chaperones to abrogate the inherent barrier that the nucleosome poses to transcribing polymerases. The current model postulates that nucleosomes can be transiently disrupted to accommodate passage of RNA polymerases and that histones H3 and H4 possess their own chaperones dedicated to the recovery of nucleosomes. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the conserved C terminus of human Suppressors of Ty insertions 2 (hSpt2C) chaperone bound to an H3/H4 tetramer. The structural studies demonstrate that hSpt2C is bound to the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer, mimicking the trajectory of nucleosomal-bound DNA. These structuralmore » studies have been complemented with in vitro binding and in vivo functional studies on mutants that disrupt key intermolecular contacts involving two acidic patches and hydrophobic residues on Spt2C. We show that contacts between both human and yeast Spt2C with the H3/H4 tetramer are required for the suppression of H3/ H4 exchange as measured by H3K56ac and new H3 deposition. Furthermore, these interactions are also crucial for the inhibition of spurious transcription from within coding regions. In conclusion, together, our data indicate that Spt2 interacts with the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer and promotes its recycling in the wake of RNA polymerase.« less

  13. Structure-function studies of histone H3/H4 tetramer maintenance during transcription by chaperone Spt2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shoudeng; Rufiange, Anne; Huang, Hongda; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Nourani, Amine; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-06-15

    Cells use specific mechanisms such as histone chaperones to abrogate the inherent barrier that the nucleosome poses to transcribing polymerases. The current model postulates that nucleosomes can be transiently disrupted to accommodate passage of RNA polymerases and that histones H3 and H4 possess their own chaperones dedicated to the recovery of nucleosomes. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the conserved C terminus of human Suppressors of Ty insertions 2 (hSpt2C) chaperone bound to an H3/H4 tetramer. The structural studies demonstrate that hSpt2C is bound to the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer, mimicking the trajectory of nucleosomal-bound DNA. These structural studies have been complemented with in vitro binding and in vivo functional studies on mutants that disrupt key intermolecular contacts involving two acidic patches and hydrophobic residues on Spt2C. We show that contacts between both human and yeast Spt2C with the H3/H4 tetramer are required for the suppression of H3/H4 exchange as measured by H3K56ac and new H3 deposition. These interactions are also crucial for the inhibition of spurious transcription from within coding regions. Together, our data indicate that Spt2 interacts with the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer and promotes its recycling in the wake of RNA polymerase. © 2015 Chen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Contemporary Avian Influenza A Virus Subtype H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 Hemagglutinin Genes Encode a Mammalian Virulence Factor Similar to the 1918 Pandemic Virus H1 Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Pujanauski, Lindsey M.; Davis, A. Sally; Schwartzman, Louis M.; Chertow, Daniel S.; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Slemons, Richard D.; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kash, John C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zoonotic avian influenza virus infections may lead to epidemics or pandemics. The 1918 pandemic influenza virus has an avian influenza virus-like genome, and its H1 hemagglutinin was identified as a key mammalian virulence factor. A chimeric 1918 virus expressing a contemporary avian H1 hemagglutinin, however, displayed murine pathogenicity indistinguishable from that of the 1918 virus. Here, isogenic chimeric avian influenza viruses were constructed on an avian influenza virus backbone, differing only by hemagglutinin subtype expressed. Viruses expressing the avian H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 subtypes were pathogenic in mice and cytopathic in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, in contrast to H2-, H3-, H5-, H9-, H11-, H13-, H14-, and H16-expressing viruses. Mouse pathogenicity was associated with pulmonary macrophage and neutrophil recruitment. These data suggest that avian influenza virus hemagglutinins H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 contain inherent mammalian virulence factors and likely share a key virulence property of the 1918 virus. Consequently, zoonotic infections with avian influenza viruses bearing one of these hemagglutinins may cause enhanced disease in mammals. PMID:25406382

  15. Lanthanide complexes of 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one

    SciTech Connect

    Sitran, S; Fregona, D. ); Faraglia, G. )

    1990-01-01

    The title ligand (H(Dh), dehydroacetic acid) reacts with lanthanide(III) acetates in anhydrous methanol to form complexes of formula (M(Dh){sub 3}(MeOH)). When hydrated lanthanide acetates are used, hydrated compounds such as (Ce(Dh){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)) or (Eu(Dh){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)).H{sub 2}O are obtained. The reaction of lanthanum triacetate with H(Dh) yields the mixed complex (La(Dh){sub 2}(O{sub 2}CMe)), formation of the 1:3 complex also being unfavored in the presence of a large ligand excess. The complexes have been characterized by infrared and NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy and by thermogravimetric measurements.

  16. Crystal structure of 2-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium hydrogen oxalate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Mouhamadou Birame; Diop, Libasse; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of the title mol­ecular salt, C4H7N2 +·HC2O4 −·2H2O, were isolated from the reaction of 2-methyl-1H-imidazole and oxalic acid in a 1:1 molar ratio in water. In the crystal, the cations and anions are positioned alternately along an infinite [010] ribbon and linked together through bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds. The water mol­ecules of crystallization link the chains into (10-1) bilayers, with the methyl groups of the cations organized in an isotactic manner. PMID:27536393

  17. The Chemistry of Mesitylgallium(3) Derivatives as Arene Ligands in Metal Carbonyl Complexes. Crystal and Molecular Structures of ((CO)3Mo(Eta 6- C6Me3H2))Ga(C6Me3H2)2 and ((CO)3Mo(Eta 6-C6Me3H2))2GA(C6Me3H2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-16

    useful neutral 6 6 6amphoteric ligands include PhB (NMe2 )2 , PhB (OMe)2 , PhB (C 5Ho10 ) and PhB (CH2CH(Me)C2H4 ) 6 . An anionic arene-transition metal...recrystallized from an appropriate solvent system. Synthesis of [(CO)3MoNes]2Ga~es. The complex [(CO) 3MoMes]2GaMes was prepared by refluxing a...2.22 (s, p-Me, 3 H); IR (DME, v(CO), cm- I) 1960 (sh, s), 1951 (vs), 1879 (vs). Anal. Caled: C, 50.35; H, 4.22. Found: C, 50.56; H, 4.24. Synthesis

  18. Fluorescent probe 7-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)-2H-chromen-2-one: Experimental and DFT based approach to photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Neesha; Singh, Shailja; Mangawa, Shrawan Kumar; Dixit, Sandeep K.; Gupta, Ujval; Khajuria, Yugal; Awasthi, Satish Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Compound 7-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)-2H-chromen-2-one was synthesized by Pechmann condensation reaction and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The structure of title compound was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallized in the orthorhombic system with P 21 21 21 space group and the corresponding lattice parameters were found to be a = 4.0138 (11) Å, α = 90°; b = 23.536 (6) Å, β = 90°; c = 10.93 (2) Å, γ = 90°. The crystal packing of molecule showed that intermolecular hydrogen bonds C3-H3⋯O3 [D = 3.53 Å], C-13-H13⋯O2 [D = 3.67 Å] and intermolecular short interaction between C1-H1⋯C1-H1 [2.68 Å] forms a dimeric unit which finally stabilizes the crystal packing in three dimensional network in the molecule. Absorption and emission spectra shows that compound is fluorescent with good Stoke shift values ranging between 57 and 62 nm. Thermal analysis further supports by TGA, DTA. The photophysical results show that the compound exhibits change in fluorescence quantum yield with change in solvent polarity. The structural parameters and the vibrational wave numbers obtained from the optimized geometry of the compound from DFT-B3LYP calculations employing 6-311G (d,p) basis set are in good agreement with the experimental data. UV-Vis spectrum calculated by employing time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is also in very good agreement with the experiment for all solvents.

  19. Partial phase diagram for the system NH3-H2O - The water-rich region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. L.; Schwake, A.; Nicol, M.

    1984-01-01

    Phase boundaries of the H2O-NH3 system for (NH3)/x/(H2O)/1-x/ have been determined with diamond-anvil cells for mixtures in two composition ranges: (1) for x in the range from 0 to 0.3, at pressures up to 4 GPa at 21 C, and (2) for x in the range from 0.46 to 0.50, at pressures up to 5 GPa from 150 to 400 K. Phases were identified visually with a microscope and polarized optics. The NH3.2(H2O) phase is strongly anisotropic with a much smaller refractive index than that of ice VII and cracks in two nonperpendicular networks. NH3.H2O has a refractive index closer to that of Ice VII and does not appear to form cracks. Both phases are colorless. Phase boundaries were determined on both increasing and decreasing pressures, and compositions of the ammonia ices were determined by estimating relative amounts of water and ammonia ices at known overall compositions. For low-ammonia compositions (x equal to or less than 0.15), the following assemblages succedd one another as pressure increases: liquid; liquid and Ice VI (at 1.0 + GPa); liquid and Ice VII (at 2.1 GPa); Ice VII and NH3.H2O (at 3.5 GPa). For x in the range from 0.15 to 0.30, the water ice and liquid fields are replaced by the NH3.2(H2O) and liquid field at pressures down to 1.0 GPa and lower.

  20. Partial phase diagram for the system NH3-H2O - The water-rich region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. L.; Schwake, A.; Nicol, M.

    1984-01-01

    Phase boundaries of the H2O-NH3 system for (NH3)/x/(H2O)/1-x/ have been determined with diamond-anvil cells for mixtures in two composition ranges: (1) for x in the range from 0 to 0.3, at pressures up to 4 GPa at 21 C, and (2) for x in the range from 0.46 to 0.50, at pressures up to 5 GPa from 150 to 400 K. Phases were identified visually with a microscope and polarized optics. The NH3.2(H2O) phase is strongly anisotropic with a much smaller refractive index than that of ice VII and cracks in two nonperpendicular networks. NH3.H2O has a refractive index closer to that of Ice VII and does not appear to form cracks. Both phases are colorless. Phase boundaries were determined on both increasing and decreasing pressures, and compositions of the ammonia ices were determined by estimating relative amounts of water and ammonia ices at known overall compositions. For low-ammonia compositions (x equal to or less than 0.15), the following assemblages succedd one another as pressure increases: liquid; liquid and Ice VI (at 1.0 + GPa); liquid and Ice VII (at 2.1 GPa); Ice VII and NH3.H2O (at 3.5 GPa). For x in the range from 0.15 to 0.30, the water ice and liquid fields are replaced by the NH3.2(H2O) and liquid field at pressures down to 1.0 GPa and lower.

  1. Reactions of Fe+ and FeO+ with C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6: temperature-dependent kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ard, Shaun G; Melko, Joshua J; Fournier, Joseph A; Shuman, Nicholas S; Viggiano, Albert A

    2013-10-10

    We present the first temperature-dependent rate constants and branching ratios for the reactions of Fe(+) and FeO(+) with C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6 from 170 to 700 K. Fe(+) is observed to react only by association with the three hydrocarbons, with temperature dependencies of T(-2) to T(-3). FeO(+) reacts with C2H2 and C2H4 at the collision rate over the temperature range, and their respective product branchings show similar temperature dependences. In contrast, the reaction with ethane is collisional at 170 K but varies as T(-0.5), while the product branching remains essentially flat with temperature. These variations in reactivity are discussed in terms of the published reactive potential surfaces. The effectiveness of Fe(+) as an oxygen-transfer catalyst toward the three hydrocarbons is also discussed.

  2. The composition of Saturn's atmosphere at northern temperate latitudes from Voyager IRIS spectra - NH3, PH3, C2H2, C2H6, CH3D, CH4, and the Saturnian D/H isotopic ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Marten, A.; Bezard, B.; Hanel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The vertical distributions and mixing ratios of minor constituents in the northern hemisphere of Saturn are investigated. Results are obtained for NH3, PH3, C2H2, C2H6, CH3D, and CH4; the D/H ratio is obtained from the CH4 and CH3D abundances. The NH3 mixing ratio in the upper atmosphere is found to be compatible with the saturated partial pressure. The inferred PH3/H2 ratio of 1.4 + or - 0.8 x 10 to the -6th is higher than the value derived from the solar P/H ratio. The stratospheric C2H2/H2 and C2H6/H2 ratios are, respectively, 2.1 + or - 1.4 x 10 to the -7th and 3.0 + or - 1.1 x 10 to the -6th; the latter decreases sharply below the 20-50 mbar level. The results for CH3D/H2 and CH4/H2 imply an enrichment of Saturn's upper atmosphere in carbon by a factor of at least three over the solar abundance. The interpretation of two NH3 lines in the five-micron window suggests a NH3/H2 ratio at the two bar level below the solar value.

  3. Rate constant for the reaction C2H5 + HBr → C2H6 + Br.

    PubMed

    Golden, David M; Peng, Jingping; Goumri, A; Yuan, J; Marshall, Paul

    2012-06-21

    RRKM theory has been employed to analyze the kinetics of the title reaction, in particular, the once-controversial negative activation energy. Stationary points along the reaction coordinate were characterized with coupled cluster theory combined with basis set extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. A shallow minimum, bound by 9.7 kJ mol(-1) relative to C(2)H(5) + HBr, was located, with a very small energy barrier to dissociation to Br + C(2)H(6). The transition state is tight compared to the adduct. The influence of vibrational anharmonicity on the kinetics and thermochemistry of the title reaction were explored quantitatively. With adjustment of the adduct binding energy by ∼4 kJ mol(-1), the computed rate constants may be brought into agreement with most experimental data in the literature, including new room-temperature results described here. There are indications that at temperatures above those studied experimentally, the activation energy may switch from negative to positive.

  4. Collisions of slow polyatomic ions with surfaces: dissociation and chemical reactions of C2H2+*, C2H3+, C2H4+*, C2H5+, and their deuterated variants C2D2+* and C2D4+* on room-temperature and heated carbon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jasík, Juraj; Zabka, Jan; Feketeova, Linda; Ipolyi, Imre; Märk, Tilmann D; Herman, Zdenek

    2005-11-17

    Interaction of C2Hn+ (n = 2-5) hydrocarbon ions and some of their isotopic variants with room-temperature and heated (600 degrees C) highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces was investigated over the range of incident energies 11-46 eV and an incident angle of 60 degrees with respect to the surface normal. The work is an extension of our earlier research on surface interactions of CHn+ (n = 3-5) ions. Mass spectra, translational energy distributions, and angular distributions of product ions were measured. Collisions with the HOPG surface heated to 600 degrees C showed only partial or substantial dissociation of the projectile ions; translational energy distributions of the product ions peaked at about 50% of the incident energy. Interactions with the HOPG surface at room temperature showed both surface-induced dissociation of the projectiles and, in the case of radical cation projectiles C2H2+* and C2H4+*, chemical reactions with the hydrocarbons on the surface. These reactions were (i) H-atom transfer to the projectile, formation of protonated projectiles, and their subsequent fragmentation and (ii) formation of a carbon chain build-up product in reactions of the projectile ion with a terminal CH3-group of the surface hydrocarbons and subsequent fragmentation of the product ion to C3H3+. The product ions were formed in inelastic collisions in which the translational energy of the surface-excited projectile peaked at about 32% of the incident energy. Angular distributions of reaction products showed peaking at subspecular angles close to 68 degrees (heated surfaces) and 72 degrees (room-temperature surfaces). The absolute survival probability at the incident angle of 60 degrees was about 0.1% for C2H2+*, close to 1% for C2H4+* and C2H5+, and about 3-6% for C2H3+.

  5. Conformational changes in the H3. H4 histone complex

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, L.; Beaudette, N.V.; Stollar, B.D.; Fasman, G.D.

    1980-08-10

    The H3.H4 complex has been extracted from calf thymus chromatin in either 0.05 M NaOAc, pH 5.0, or in 2.0 M KCl, 0.1 M KPO/sub 4/, pH 6.7, and both forms have been shown to consist solely of histones H3 and H4 when examined on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Serological and circular dichroism analyses indicate the existence of structural differences between the two forms. Dilution of the high salt form of the complex into low salt produces a time-dependent conformational change which is related to reduction in the ..cap alpha.. helix content of the complex and which exposes antigenic sites on the complex. The existence of multiple forms of the H3.H4 complex may be related to the dynamic equilibrium of nucleosome structure in vivo.

  6. Depolarization-induced release of [(3)H]D-aspartate from GABAergic neurons caused by reversal of glutamate transporters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J B; Pickering, D S; Schousboe, A

    2000-01-01

    Cultured neocortical neurons, which predominantly consist of GABAergic neurons exhibit a pronounced stimulus-coupled GABA release. Since the cultures may contain a small population of glutamatergic neurons and the GABAergic neurons have a high content of glutamate it was of interest to examine if glutamate in addition to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) could be released from these cultures. The neurons were preloaded with [(3)H]D-aspartate and subsequently its release was followed during depolarization induced by a high potassium concentration or the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonists, AMPA and kainate. Depolarization of the neurons with 55 mM potassium increased the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate by more than 10-fold. When the non-specific calcium-channel blockers cobalt or lanthanum were included in the stimulation buffer with potassium, the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was decreased by about 40%. These results indicated that some of the released [(3)H]D-aspartate might originate from a vesicular pool. When AMPA was applied to the neurons, the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was increased 2-fold and could not be prevented or decreased by addition of cobalt. Since AMPA has a rapid desensitizing effect on AMPA receptors, it was examined whether AMPA under non-desensitizing conditions was able to induce an increased release of [(3)H]D-aspartate as compared to the conditions of applying AMPA alone. The desensitization of AMPA receptors was blocked by 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-3-(2-norbornen-5-yl)-2H-1,2, 4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulphonamide-1,1-dioxide (cyclothiazide). Under the non-desensitizing conditions, the AMPA-induced release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was highly enhanced showing about a 10-fold increase over basal release. Addition of cobalt or lanthanum did not decrease the amount of [(3)H]D-aspartate released, indicating that the release originated from a cytoplasmic pool. Kainate, which induces an almost non-desensitizing effect

  7. Synthesis and β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity of 2-arylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Saad, Syed Muhammad; Shaikh, Nimra Naveed; Hussain, Shafqat; Fakhri, Muhammad Imran; Perveen, Shahnaz; Taha, Muhammad; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    2-Arylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones 1-25 were synthesized by reacting anthranilamide with various benzaldehydes using CuCl2·2H2O as a catalyst in ethanol under reflux. Synthetic 2-arylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones 1-25 were evaluated for their β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential. A trend of inhibition IC50 against the enzyme in the range of 0.6-198.2μM, was observed and compared with the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=45.75±2.16μM). Compounds 13, 19, 4, 12, 14, 22, 23, 25, 15, 8, 17, 11, 21, 1, 3, 18, 9, 2, and 24 with the IC50 values within the range of 0.6-44.0μM, indicated that the compounds have superior activity than the standard. The compounds showed no cytotoxic effects against PC-3 cells. A structure-activity relationship is established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of d{sup 10} metal complexes with mixed 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene and multicarboxylate ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhi-Hao; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Shui-Sheng; Wang, Peng; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2013-06-15

    Seven new coordination polymers [Zn(H{sub 2}L)(mbdc)] (1), [Zn(H{sub 3}L)(btc)] (2), [Zn(H{sub 2}L)(Hbtc)] (3), [Zn(H{sub 2}L)(Hbtc)]·H{sub 2}O (4), [Zn{sub 2}(H{sub 2}L)(btc)(μ{sub 2}-OH)] (5), [Cd(H{sub 2}L)(mbdc)] (6) and [Cd{sub 3}(H{sub 2}L){sub 2}(btc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·5H{sub 2}O (7) were synthesized by reactions of the corresponding metal salt with rigid ligand 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (H{sub 2}L) and different carboxylic acids of 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}mbdc) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}btc), respectively. The results of X-ray crystallographic analysis indicate that complex 1 is 1D chain while 2 is a (3,3)-connected 2D network with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (4,8{sup 2}). Complexes 3 and 6 are 2D networks, 4 is a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (6{sup 5},8) and 5 is a (3,8)-connected 2D network with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (3,4{sup 2}){sub 2}(3{sup 4},4{sup 6},5{sup 6},6{sup 8},7{sup 3},8), while 7 is a (3,10)-connected 3D net with Schläfli symbol of (3,4,5){sub 2}(3{sup 4},4{sup 8},5{sup 18},6{sup 12},7{sup 2},8). The thermal stability and photoluminescence of the complexes were investigated. Furthermore, DFT calculations were performed for 2–4 to discuss the temperature controlled self-assembly of the complexes. - Graphical abstract: Seven new coordination polymers with multicarboxylate and rigid ditopic 4-imidazole containing ligands have been obtained and found to show different structures and topologies. - Highlights: • Metal complexes with diverse structures of 1D chain, 2D network and 3D framework. • Mixed ligands of 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene and multicarboxylate. • Photoluminescence property.

  9. Rate Coefficients of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 from 150 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 are measured over the temperature range 150-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The ethynyl radical is formed by photolysis of C2H2 with a pulsed excimer laser at 193 nm, and its transient absorption is monitored with a color center laser on the Q(sub 11)(9) line of the A(sup 2) Pi-Chi(sup 2) Sigma transition at 3593.68 cm(exp -1). Over the experimental temperature range 150-359 K the rate constants of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 can be fitted to the Arrhenius expressions k(sub C2H4) = (7.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -11) exp[(134 +/- 44)/T], k(sub C2H6) = (3.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(2.9 +/- 16)/T], and k(sub H2) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(-998 +/- 57)]/T cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The data for C2H with C2H4 and C2H6 indicate a negligible activation energy to product formation shown by the mild negative temperature dependence of both reactions. When the H2 data are plotted together with the most recent high-temperature results from 295 to 854 K, a slight curvature is observed. The H2 data can be fit to the non-Arrhenius form k(sub H2) = 9.2 x 10(exp -18) T(sup 2.17 +/- 0.50) exp[(-478 +/- 165)/T] cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The curvature in the Arrhenius plot is discussed in terms of both quantum mechanical tunneling of the H atom from H2 to the C2H radical and bending mode contributions to the partition function.

  10. Silver-Catalyzed C(sp(3))-H Chlorination.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Jun; Kanai, Motomu

    2017-03-17

    A silver-catalyzed chlorination of benzylic, tertiary, and secondary C(sp(3))-H bonds was developed. The reaction proceeded with as low as 0.2 mol % catalyst loading at room temperature under air atmosphere with synthetically useful functional group compatibility. The regioselectivity and reactivity tendencies suggest that the chlorination proceeded through a radical pathway, but an intermediate alkylsilver species cannot be ruled out.

  11. Rate of metastasis from C3H mouse mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Nias, A H

    1992-01-01

    Transplants from the same C3H mouse mammary tumour have been used for radiobiological experiments with curative intent for more than 8 years. During that time, the rate of metastasis to the lungs has varied between 0 and 63% and an explanation has been sought for this change. The results of immunological assays showed no obvious pattern. An inverse relationship was found between tumour latency and metastasis.

  12. New Analysis of p 3H Capture at Low Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2017-05-01

    Within the framework of the modified potential cluster model with classification of the orbital states of nuclear particles according to Young tableaux and isospin, calculations of the astrophysical S-factor of the radiative p 3H capture reaction at energies from 1 keV to 10 MeV are performed and the possibility of describing the available experimental data in the energy range from 50 keV to 5 MeV is demonstrated.

  13. The structure of the 1H-imidazol-3-ium lawsonate salt aided by ab initio gas-phase calculations.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcos Antônio; Oliveira, Willian Xerxes Coelho; Stumpf, Humberto Osório; Pinheiro, Carlos Basílio

    2013-04-01

    For the new organic salt 1H-imidazol-3-ium 1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-olate, C3H5N2(+)·C10H5O3(-), ab initio calculations of the gas-phase structures of the lawsonate and imidazolium ions were performed to help in the interpretation of the structural features observed. Three different types of hydrogen bond are responsible for the three-dimensional packing of the salt.

  14. Preformance Analysis of NH3-H2O Absorption Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Ozaki, Eiichi

    Different from H2O-LiBr absorption cycle, it is necessary to have rectifier between generator and condenser in NH3-H2O absorption cycle, because there mixes some steam in refrigerant vapor in the process of regenerating refrigerant from the ammonia strong aqueous solution. And in some case ex. partial load or heating, the efficiency of rectifier might decrease, if the flow rate of refrigerant vapor and ammonia aqueous solution decrease. As a result, steam flow into condenser with ammonia refrigerant vapor, which reduces cycle COPs of cooling and heating. Accordingly in order to evaluate the effect of ammonia concentration in refrigerant for the performance of NH3-H2O absorption heat pump, the simple design approach of modeling condenser and evaporator is introduced in this paper. In the model, the calculation of heat rate in condenser and evaporator was simplified considering the characteristic of NH3-H2O liquid-vapor equilibrium. Then the simulation for cycle perforance based on GAX absorption cycle was made using the efficiency of rectifier that established the ammonia concentration in refrigerant and it was derived that 3 [%] decrease of ammonia concentration in refrigerant induced 15 [%] decrcase of cooling COP and 7 [%] decrease of heating COP and that there existed the most suitable circulation ratio for each ammonia concentration in refrigerant.

  15. (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding to adrenal capsular membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Finkel, M.S.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.; Keiser, H.R.

    1984-08-20

    The physiologic regulation of aldosterone secretion is dependent on extracellular calcium and appears to be mediated by increases in cytosolic free calcium concentration in the zona glomerulosa cell. A specific role for voltage-dependent calcium channels was suggested by previous studies with the calcium channel antagonist verapamil. The authors therefore studied the (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine calcium channel binding site in adrenal capsules. These studies revealed a single class of saturable, high affinity sites with K/sub D/ = .26 +/- .04 nM and B/sub max/ = 105 +/- 5.7 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine was inhibited by calcium channel antagonists with potencies nitrendipine = nifedipine >> verapamil, while diltiazem had no inhibitory effect. In the rat, binding sites for (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine were located in the adrenal capsule and medulla and were undetectable in the zona fasciculata. Physiologic studies with collagenase-dispersed adrenal glomerulosa cells demonstrated that nifedipine selectively inhibited angiotensin-II and potassium-stimulated steroidogenesis. These observations suggest both a pharmacologic and physiologic role for the nitrendipine binding site in aldosterone production. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  16. Localization of 3H-diethylstilbestrol in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, B.; Cohen, L.

    1981-11-01

    The localization of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in skeletal muscle was studied in CF1 mice and perfused rat hindlimbs. There was a slow accumulation of 3H-DES in mouse muscle from 4 to 24 hours following i.p. injection even though plasma DES was decreasing. Twenty-four hours after injection of 50 microCi 3H-DES (714 pmole) mouse gastrocnemius contained 8.9 x 10(-17) mole unaltered 3H-DES per mg muscle. Extrapolating to the entire skeletal muscle mass of the animal, this represents 0.15% of the radioactivity injected. The radioactivity in muscle was completely extracted with 95% ethanol or ether: ethanol (3:1), and both unaltered DES and DES-metabolites were present in the extracts. The fraction of radioactivity due to unaltered DES 4 hours after injection was 0.51 +/- 0.09 in muscle and 0.30 +/- 0.11 in plasma. Significant extrahepatic metabolism of DES was demonstrated in perfused isolated rat hindlimbs by the presence of DES-metabolites in the perfusate. The radioactivity extracted from the perfused muscle itself was unaltered DES. These results indicate that skeletal muscle is an important site of DES localization in rodents.

  17. Organocatalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones with bifunctional amine-thiourea catalysts bearing multiple hydrogen-bond donors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Liang; Yue, Deng-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Summary For the first time, a catalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones was achieved with a chiral bifunctional amine-thiourea as a catalyst possessing multiple hydrogen-bond donors. With this developed method, a range of 3-hydroxy-3-nitromethyl-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones bearing quaternary stereocenters were obtained in acceptable yield (up to 75%) and enantioselectivity (up to 73% ee). PMID:26977188

  18. Quantitation of methadone enantiomers in humans using stable isotope-labeled (2H3)-, (2H5)-, and (2H8)Methadone

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Hachey, D.L.; Kreek, M.J.; Irving, C.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique for simultaneous stereoselective kinetic studies of methadone enantiomers was developed using three deuterium-labeled forms of methadone and GLC-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. A racemic mixture (1:1) of (R)-(-)-(2H5)methadone (l-form) and (S)-(R)-(2H3)methadone (d-form) was administered orally in place of a single daily dose of unlabeled (+/-)-(2H0)methadone in long-term maintenance patients. Racemic (+/-)-(2H8)methadone was used as an internal standard for the simultaneous quantitation of (2H0)-, (2H3)-, and (2H5)methadone in plasma and urine. A newly developed extraction procedure, using a short, disposable C18 reversed-phase cartridge and improved chemical-ionization procedures employing ammonia gas, resulted in significant reduction of the background impurities contributing to the ions used for isotopic abundance measurements. These improvements enabled the measurement of labeled plasma methadone levels for 120 hr following a single dose. This methodology was applied to the study of methadone kinetics in two patients; in both patients, the analgesically active l-enantiomer of the drug had a longer plasma elimination half-life and a smaller area under the plasma disappearance curve than did the inactive d-form.

  19. Synthesis of 2-Alkenyl-2H-indazoles from 2-(2-Carbonylmethyl)-2H-indazoles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huey; Liang, Kung-Yu; Tsai, Chang-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Chun; Hsiao, Hung-Chang; Li, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Chung-Hao; Wu, Hau-Chun

    2016-02-19

    A procedure has been developed for synthesis of 2-alkenyl-2H-indazoles starting from 2-(2-carbonylmethyl)-2H-indazoles, which are prepared by gallium/aluminium- and aluminium-mediated, direct, regioselective alkylation of indazoles with α-bromocarbonyl compounds. The structure of 3-(2H-indazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one was proven by X-ray crystallography. The styrene- and coumarin-2H-indazoles produced by using the new method were found to have interesting fluorescence properties.

  20. Identification and correction of spectral contamination in 2H/1H and 18O/16O measured in leaf, stem, and soil water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant water extracts typically contain organic materials that may cause spectral interference using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS), resulting in errors in the measured isotope ratios. IRIS manufacturers have developed post-processing software to identify the degree of contamination in wa...

  1. 1-Phenyl-1H- and 2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol derivatives: design, synthesis and inhibitory effect on alpha-glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Daniel; Senger, Mario Roberto; da Silva, Fernando de Carvalho; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; Silva, Floriano Paes

    2014-03-03

    Due to aging and increasingly overweight in human population, the incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM or Type 2 DM) is increasing considerably. Therefore, searching for new α-glycosidase inhibitors (GIs) capable of slowing down carbohydrate assimilation by humans is an important strategy towards control of NIDDM. In this report, we disclose the search for new easily accessible synthetic triazoles as anti-diabetic compounds. Two series of non-glycosid triazoles were synthesized (series A and B) and screened against baker's yeast α-glucosidase (MAL12) and porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity (PPA). Of the 60 compounds tested at 500 μM, were considered hits (≥60% inhibition) six triazoles against MAL12 and three against PPA, with the inhibition reaching up to 99.4% on MAL12 and 88.6% on PPA. The IC₅₀ values were calculated for both enzymes and ranged from 54 to 482 μM for MAL12 and 145 to 282 μM for PPA. These results demonstrated the potential activity of simple and non-glycosidic triazoles as an important novel class of GIs for the development of drugs to treat Type 2 DM.

  2. Quasiclassical calculation of the chemical reaction Ba+C3H7Br→BaBr+C3H7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong-Chao; Li, Gui-Xia; Shi, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Shu-Lai

    2012-12-01

    The quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) method based on the extended London—Eyring—Polanyi—Sato potential energy surface is used to investigate the product vibrational distribution, angular distribution and angle-resolved kinetic distribution of the reaction Ba+C3H7Br→BaBr+C3H7 at 2.58 kcal/mol. The calculated results show that the product BaBr vibrational distribution is quite hot, the vibrational population peaks are located at v = 12, and the angular product distribution tends to backward scattering. The calculated angle-resolved kinetic distribution shows that the kinetic distribution is obviously related to angle. The QCT results are always qualitatively acceptable and sometimes even quantitatively.

  3. Eight Zn(II) coordination networks based on flexible 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane and different dicarboxylates: crystal structures, water clusters, and topologies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Di; Xu, Meng-Zhen; Liu, Shan-Shan; Yuan, Shuai; Lu, Hai-Feng; Feng, Sheng-Yu; Sun, Dao-Feng

    2013-09-14

    Eight new Zn(II) coordination polymers based on flexible 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane and different dicarboxylates, [Zn(dimb)(suc)·2DMF]n (1), [Zn(dimb)(mbda)·3H2O]n (2), [Zn(dimb)(adip)·DMF·2H2O]n (3), [Zn(dimb)(pma)·2.5H2O]n (4), [Zn2(dimb)(tha)2(H2O)]n (5), [Zn(dimb)(chda)·2H2O]n (6), [Zn(dimb)(obda)·DMF]n (7), [Zn(dimb)(tdga)·CH3OH]n (8) (dimb = 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane, H2suc = succinic acid, H2mbda = m-benzenediacetic acid, H2adip = adipic acid, H2pma = pimelic acid, H2tha = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid, H2chda = 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, H2obda = o-benzenediacetic acid, H2tdga = thiodiglycolic acid; DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide), have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, and further characterized by infrared spectra (IR), elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffractions (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8 are 2D wavy 4(4)-sql networks with different dimensions of quadrilateral window units, depending on the conformation and length of dimb and dicarboxylates. Complex 3 is a 2D a 6(3)-hcb network incorporating a [Zn2(dimb)2] cyclic subunit. In complex 5, Zn(II) centers as 3-connected node are linked by dimb and tha to form a 3D 8-fold interpenetrating ThSi2 network. Complex 6 is a 4-connected noninterpenetrating cds network. Interestingly, an infinite T4(2)6(2) water tape and a D2h cyclic water tetramer are also found in complexes 2 and 3, respectively. In 1-8, all Zn(II) centers are located in a four-coordinated environment, and dimb and dicarboxylates are 2-connected linkers, but networks with diverse topologies are built, which indicates the linkage of central metal ion, the conformation of dimb and dicarboxylate have important influences on the resulting structures. Furthermore, the solid-state photoluminescence properties of the 1-8 were investigated at 298 and 77 K.

  4. THE ABUNDANCE OF C{sub 3}H{sub 2} AND OTHER SMALL HYDROCARBONS IN THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Liszt, Harvey; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Cordiner, Martin; Gerin, Maryvonne

    2012-07-10

    Hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, observed in diverse environments ranging from diffuse to molecular dark clouds and strong photon-dominated regions near H II regions. Recently, two broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 4881 A and 5450 A were attributed to the linear version of propynylidene l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, a species whose more stable cyclic conformer c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} has been widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium at radio wavelengths. This attribution has already been criticized on the basis of indirect plausibility arguments because the required column densities are quite large, N(l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2})/E{sub B-V} =4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1}. Here we present new measurements of N(l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}) based on simultaneous 18-21 GHz Very Large Array absorption profiles of cyclic and linear C{sub 3}H{sub 2} taken along sight lines toward extragalactic radio-continuum background sources with foreground Galactic reddening E{sub B-V} = 0.1-1.6 mag. We find that N(l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2})/N(c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 1/15-1/40 and N(l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2})/E{sub B-V} Almost-Equal-To (2 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1}, so that the column densities of l-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} needed to explain the DIBs are some three orders of magnitude higher than what is observed. We also find N(C{sub 4}H)/E{sub B-V} <1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1} and N(C{sub 4}H{sup -})/E{sub B-V} <1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} mag{sup -1} (3{sigma}). Using available data for CH and C{sub 2}H we compare the abundances of small hydrocarbons in diffuse and dark clouds as a guide to their ability to contribute as DIB carriers over a wide range of conditions in the interstellar medium.

  5. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c]M [2h2m 13c], And [2h3,, 13c] Methyl Aryl Sulfones And Sulfoxides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2004-07-20

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfones and [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfoxides, wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfone or sulfoxide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing methyl aryl sulfones and methyl aryl sulfoxides.

  6. [Intestinal resorption with 3H labeled enzyme mixture (wobenzyme)].

    PubMed

    Steffen, C; Menzel, J; Smolen, J

    1979-01-01

    0.2 g of an enzyme mixture (Wobenzym) labelled with 3H-acetic anhydride, were given orally to guinea pigs, which were arranged in 4 groups of 5 animals. The animals of each group were sacrificed at intervals of 30 minutes, 2, 4 and 24 hours after application. Radioactivity of the small and large intestine, plasma, urine, liver, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle were determined. It could be shown that the labelled mixture of enzymes was absorbed from the intestine and was demonstrable in significant amounts in plasma, urine, heart, kidney, liver and skeletal muscle.

  7. Distribution of 3H-8-MOP and its metabolites in rat organs after a single oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, H.C.; Andreasen, M.P.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrations of 3H-8-methoxypsoralen (MOP), its lipid- and water soluble metabolites and tritiated water have been measured in rat serum, liver, kidney, and skin, using liquid scintillation, thin-layer chromatography and other techniques. Radioactivity in whole blood, plasma, ovary, adrenals, and pancreas has also been measured. The radioactivty has been measured up to 1 week after medication, while 3H-8-MOP and metabolite concentrations have been measured from 10 min to 24 h after medication with a single dose of 1 mg 3H-8-MOP in solution/kg bodyweight. Maximum 8-MOP concentrations were seen from 10 to 30 min after dosing. The concentrations in microgram/kg 10 min, 2 h, and 24 h after medication were as follows: serum--686, 57, 2.1; liver--489, 45, 3.3; kidney--1708, 139, 4.3; and skin--55, 16, 3.8. The concentrations of water soluble metabolites were very high in the liver and only slightly lower in the kidney. The concentrations of these metabolites might accumulate after doses repeated 4 times a week. 3H-8-MOP and its metabolites would not show similar accumulation. Most of the radioactivity present after 1 week is due to trititated water.

  8. Neurons in the brain of the male cynomolgus monkey accumulate /sup 3/H-medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, R.P.; Bonsall, R.W.; Rees, H.D.

    1986-03-01

    MPA is a synthetic progestin with androgen-depleting activity. It is used clinically to reduce sexual motivation and aggression in male sex offenders. The mechanisms for its behavioral effects are not known. The authors used steroid autoradiography to help identify sites where MPA may act in the brain of male primates. Twenty-four hours after castration, two adult male cynomolgus macaques, weighing 4.9 and 6.6 kg, were administered 5 mCi /sup 3/H-MPA (NEN, 47.7 Ci/mmol) i.v., and were killed 1 h later. Left sides of the brains and samples of pituitary glands were frozen and 4-micron sections were cut and processed for thaw-mount autoradiography. Radioactivity was concentrated in the nuclei of many neutrons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (n.), arcuate n., medial preoptic n., and anterior hypothalamic area. Virtually no labeled cells were seen in the bed n. of stria terminalis, lateral septal n., amygdala, or pituitary gland. Right sides of the brains were analyzed by HPLC which demonstrated that 98% of the radioactivity in cell nuclei from the hypothalamus was in the form of unmetabolized /sup 3/H-MPA. The distribution of labelling in the brain following /sup 3/H-MPA administration resembled that previously seen following /sup 3/H-ORG 2058 in female cynomolgus monkeys. These data indicate that MPA has a circumscribed localization in the brain.

  9. Ca2LiC3H: a new complex carbide hydride phase grown in metal flux.

    PubMed

    Lang, David A; Zaikina, Julia V; Lovingood, Derek D; Gedris, Thomas E; Latturner, Susan E

    2010-12-15

    The reaction of carbon and CaH2 in a calcium/lithium flux mixture produces crystals of the new compound Ca2LiC3H. This phase forms with a new structure type in tetragonal space group P4/mbm (a = 6.8236(1) Å, c = 3.7518(1) Å, Z = 2, R1 = 0.0151). This is a stuffed variant of the Cs2(NH2)N3 structure, containing hydride anions in octahedral sites; the structure determination by single-crystal X-ray diffraction surprisingly allowed the hydrogen to be detected. The Ca2LiC3H structure also features the rarely seen C3(4-) carbide anion; the protolysis reaction of this compound with ammonium chloride produces C3H4. The electronic properties of Ca2LiC3H were studied by quantum-chemical calculations including band structure and electron localization function (ELF) analysis; the phase is a charge-balanced semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 0.48 eV. This is in agreement with (7)Li, (13)C, and (1)H MAS NMR data, which show resonances in the ionic region instead of the Knight shifted region. ELF analysis of the theoretical nonhydrided Ca2LiC3 structure confirms the ability of these calculations to properly locate hydrides and supports the structural model based on X-ray diffraction data.

  10. Design and synthesis of some new quinazolin-4-(3H)-ones as anticonvulsant and antidepressant agents.

    PubMed

    Amir, Mohd; Ali, Israr; Hassan, Mohd Zaheen

    2013-01-01

    A series of 3-[(4-substituted-benzylidene)-amino]-2-phenyl-3H-quinazolin-4-ones (5a-k) were synthesized by reacting 3-amino-2-phenyl-1H-quinazolin-4-one with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and then further with various alkyl/benzyl halides or substituted phenacyl bromides. The structures of the compounds were confirmed on the basis of IR, NMR, MS and elemental analysis. Anticonvulsant activities were evaluated using the MES and scPTZ tests. Some of the selected compounds were evaluated for antidepressant activity by forced swim pool test. Compound 3-[(4-butoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-2-phenyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one was emerged as the most promising anticonvulsant agent without any motor impairment effect. The whole brain GABA estimation of brain homogenate indicated that the anticonvulsant activity of above mentioned quinazolinone derivatives might be due to an increased GABA concentration.

  11. Temporal pattern of incorporation of /sup 3/H precursors into pituitary glycoproteins and their subsequent release

    SciTech Connect

    Grotjan, H.E. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    The temporal pattern of incorporation of various /sup 3/H precursors into glycoproteins by rat anterior pituitaries incubated in vitro and the release of /sup 3/H-glycoproteins was examined. (/sup 3/H)Leucine incorporation was linear with respect to time and (/sup 3/H)leucine-containing macromolecules appeared in the media in about 1 hr. The temporal pattern of (/sup 3/H)mannose incorporation and release was similar. (/sup 3/H)Galactose and (/sup 3/H)fucose were incorporated after apparent time of delays of approximately 15 min and soon thereafter (20-25 min) appeared in the medium in /sup 3/H-glycoproteins. Thus, these precursors appear to be added as terminal residues. (/sup 3/H)Glucosamine exhibited a pattern intermediate between (/sup 3/H)leucine and (/sup 3/H)fucose whereas (/sup 3/H)GlcNAc appeared to be incorporated as a terminal residue.

  12. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  13. The 3H-3He Charge Radii Difference

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Luke S.; Arrington, John R.; Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2016-03-01

    The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.

  14. A Search for Interstellar Oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicken, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Arrhenius, G.; Bauder, A.; Mueller, F.; Eschenmoser, A.

    1996-01-01

    We report a search in cold, quiescent and in 'hot core' type interstellar molecular clouds for the small cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO), which has been suggested as a precursor of important prebiotic molecules. We have determined upper limits to the column density and fractional abundance for the observed sources and find that, typically, the fractional abundance by number relative to molecular hydrogen Of C3H3NO is less than a few times 10(exp -10). This limit is one to two orders of magnitude less than the measured abundance of such similarly complex species as CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 in well-studied hot cores. A number of astrochemical discoveries were made, including the first detection of the species CH3CH2CN in the massive star-forming clouds G34.3+0.2 and W51M and the first astronomical detections of some eight rotational transitions of CH3CH2CN, CH3CCH, and HCOOCH3. In addition, we found 8 emission lines in the 89 GHz region and 18 in the 102 GHz region which we were unable to assign.

  15. Effective theory of 3H and 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Sebastian; Grießhammer, Harald W.; Hammer, H.-W.; van Kolck, U.

    2016-06-01

    We present a new perturbative expansion for pionless effective field theory with Coulomb interactions in which at leading order (LO) the spin-singlet nucleon-nucleon channels are taken in the unitarity limit. Presenting results up to next-to-leading order for the Phillips line and the neutron-deuteron doublet-channel phase shift, we find that a perturbative expansion in the inverse {}1{S}0 scattering lengths converges rapidly. Using a new systematic treatment of the proton-proton sector that isolates the divergence due to one-photon exchange, we renormalize the corresponding contribution to the {}3{{H}} -{}3{He} binding energy splitting and demonstrate that the Coulomb force in pionless EFT is a completely perturbative effect in the trinucleon bound-state regime. In our new expansion, the LO is exactly isospin-symmetric. At next-to-leading order, we include isospin breaking via the Coulomb force and two-body scattering lengths, and find for the energy splitting {({E}B{(}3{He})-{E}B{(}3{{H}}))}{NLO}\\quad =(-0.86+/- 0.17)\\quad {MeV}.

  16. Toxicokinetics of ( sup 3 H)microcystin-LR in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.A.; Matson, C.F.; Miura, G.A.; Lynch, T.G.; Pace, J.G. )

    1990-02-26

    Toxicokinetics of ({sup 3}H)microcystin-LR, an algal hepatotoxin, was measured in CD-1 mice (iv, 35 {mu}g/kg, sublethal). The distribution and biological half-lives in plasma were 0.8 and 7 minutes, respectively. Liver rapidly accumulated toxin; uptake half-life was 7 minutes. After 60 minutes, liver, kidney, intestine and carcass retained 67{+-}4, 0.8{+-}0.1, 8.6{+-}0.7 and 6{+-}2% of dose, respectively. By 8 days, 18{+-}1 and 7.6{+-}0.6% of the administered radiolabel appeared in feces and urine, while liver and carcass retained 50{+-}2 and 8{+-}3%, respectively. In urine (6 and 12 hours) and feces (6, 12 and 24 hours) {approximately}60% of the tritium was associated with the parent compound. Hepatic radiolabel was tightly bound to cytosolic protein(s). One hour after injection, 27{+-}3% of the hepatic radiolabel was parent compound and 73{+-}3% was a more-polar component (peak 1). By 8 days, there was a redistribution of hepatic radioactivity: 69{+-}2% with a parent and 4{+-}0.5% with peak 1. The authors conclude that ({sup 3}H)MCYST rapidly accumulated in liver, was metabolized and was associated with cytosolic protein.

  17. Tissue distribution of 3H-terbutaline in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C H; Robinson, C P; Basmadjian, G P

    1994-01-01

    Terbutaline is a widely used, selective beta 2-adrenergic agonist whose penetration into brain has not been demonstrated in laboratory animals. Although its tissue uptake has been reported in some animals, no uptake into brain has been demonstrated. A single dose of 20 microCi of 3H-terbutaline along with 10 mg/kg of unlabeled terbutaline was injected into a rabbit marginal ear vein. The distribution of 3H-terbutaline in several tissues was determined 0.5, 1, 3, or 6 hr later. Radioactivity in the brain was well-maintained over the 6 hr observation period. In most tissues, radioactivity peaked in less than 1 hr, then declined. Radioactivity in the urine was high at all time periods and was highest at 3 hr. Thus, terbutaline or a metabolite(s) does cross the blood-brain barrier in rabbits, and the radioactivity in the rabbit brain does not decrease during the 6 hours following terbutaline injection.

  18. Semisynthetic human [[3H2]Phe1]proinsulin.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R M; Rose, K; Offord, R E

    1987-01-01

    Biosynthetic human proinsulin (obtained by recombinant DNA techniques) was used as the starting material for the preparation, by semisynthetic methods, of [3H]proinsulin with the label at the N-terminal phenylalanine residue. The labelled proinsulin was characterized by its retention time on reversed-phase h.p.l.c., by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, by the time course of its enzymic conversion into insulin and by chromatographic analysis after extensive proteolytic degradation. The specific radioactivity of the product was 5 Ci/mmol. Experimental details of the preparation of human [[3H]Phe1]proinsulin, the isolation of this product by isocratic h.p.l.c. and gel filtration, and further characterization of protein intermediates have been deposited as supplement SUP 50138 (12 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on prepayment [see Biochem. J. (1987) 241, 5]. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3322270

  19. Teaching 1H NMR Spectrometry Using Computer Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habata, Yoichi; Akabori, Sadatoshi

    2001-01-01

    Molecular modeling by computer is used to display stereochemistry, molecular orbitals, structure of transition states, and progress of reactions. Describes new ideas for teaching 1H NMR spectroscopy using computer modeling. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  20. Rate Constant and RRKM Product Study for the Reaction Between CH3 and C2H3 at T = 298K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorn, R. Peyton, Jr.; Payne, Walter A., Jr.; Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Stief, Louis J.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Tardy, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    The total rate constant k1 has been determined at P = 1 Torr nominal pressure (He) and at T = 298 K for the vinyl-methyl cross-radical reaction CH3 + C2H3 yields products. The measurements were performed in a discharge flow system coupled with collision-free sampling to a mass spectrometer operated at low electron energies. Vinyl and methyl radicals were generated by the reactions of F with C2H4 and CH4, respectively. The kinetic studies were performed by monitoring the decay of C2H3 with methyl in excess, 6 < |CH3|(sub 0)/|C2H3|(sub 0) < 21. The overall rate coefficient was determined to be k1(298 K) = (1.02 +/- 0.53)x10(exp -10) cubic cm/molecule/s with the quoted uncertainty representing total errors. Numerical modeling was required to correct for secondary vinyl consumption by reactions such as C2H3 + H and C2H3 + C2H3. The present result for k1 at T = 298 K is compared to two previous studies at high pressure (100-300 Torr He) and to a very recent study at low pressure (0.9-3.7 Torr He). Comparison is also made with the rate constant for the similar reaction CH3 + C2H5 and with a value for k1 estimated by the geometric mean rule employing values for k(CH3 + CH3) and k(C2H3 + C2H3). Qualitative product studies at T = 298 K and 200 K indicated formation of C3H6, C2H2, and C2H5 as products of the combination-stabilization, disproportionation, and combination-decomposition channels, respectively, of the CH3 + C2H3 reaction. We also observed the secondary C4H8 product of the subsequent reaction of C3H5 with excess CH3; this observation provides convincing evidence for the combination-decomposition channel yielding C3H5 + H. RRKM calculations with helium as the deactivator support the present and very recent experimental observations that allylic C-H bond rupture is an important path in the combination reaction. The pressure and temperature dependencies of the branching fractions are also predicted.

  1. Rate Constant and RRKM Product Study for the Reaction Between CH3 and C2H3 at T = 298K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorn, R. Peyton, Jr.; Payne, Walter A., Jr.; Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Stief, Louis J.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Tardy, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    The total rate constant k1 has been determined at P = 1 Torr nominal pressure (He) and at T = 298 K for the vinyl-methyl cross-radical reaction CH3 + C2H3 yields products. The measurements were performed in a discharge flow system coupled with collision-free sampling to a mass spectrometer operated at low electron energies. Vinyl and methyl radicals were generated by the reactions of F with C2H4 and CH4, respectively. The kinetic studies were performed by monitoring the decay of C2H3 with methyl in excess, 6 < |CH3|(sub 0)/|C2H3|(sub 0) < 21. The overall rate coefficient was determined to be k1(298 K) = (1.02 +/- 0.53)x10(exp -10) cubic cm/molecule/s with the quoted uncertainty representing total errors. Numerical modeling was required to correct for secondary vinyl consumption by reactions such as C2H3 + H and C2H3 + C2H3. The present result for k1 at T = 298 K is compared to two previous studies at high pressure (100-300 Torr He) and to a very recent study at low pressure (0.9-3.7 Torr He). Comparison is also made with the rate constant for the similar reaction CH3 + C2H5 and with a value for k1 estimated by the geometric mean rule employing values for k(CH3 + CH3) and k(C2H3 + C2H3). Qualitative product studies at T = 298 K and 200 K indicated formation of C3H6, C2H2, and C2H5 as products of the combination-stabilization, disproportionation, and combination-decomposition channels, respectively, of the CH3 + C2H3 reaction. We also observed the secondary C4H8 product of the subsequent reaction of C3H5 with excess CH3; this observation provides convincing evidence for the combination-decomposition channel yielding C3H5 + H. RRKM calculations with helium as the deactivator support the present and very recent experimental observations that allylic C-H bond rupture is an important path in the combination reaction. The pressure and temperature dependencies of the branching fractions are also predicted.

  2. In vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro 15-1788 in mice: comparison with the in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Potier, M.C.; de Carvalho, L.P.; Dodd, R.H.; Brown, C.L.; Rossier, J.

    1988-01-01

    Benzodiazepine binding sites have generally been labelled with benzodiazepine agonists: (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam and (/sup 3/H)diazepam in vivo. The authors studied the in vivo binding of the antagonist (/sup 3/H)Ro 15-1788 in mice and compared it to the in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam. For this in vivo labelling, mice were injected with labelled and unlabelled ligands. Animals were then sacrificed and bound radioactivity was measured after homogenization of the excised brain and filtration of the homogenate. (/sup 3/H)Ro 15-1788 is a better tool than (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam for in vivo labelling of benzodiazepine receptors since 1) it labels specifically the central type binding sites, 2) injection of 4 times less (/sup 3/H)Ro 15-1788 than (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam produced the same amount of bound radioactivity, 3) 70-90% of the total (/sup 3/H)Ro 15-1788 present in the brain is membrane bound instead of 45-55% with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam, 4) maximal binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro 15-1788 is reached within 3 min, 5) only 5% of the membrane bound (/sup 3/H)Ro 15-1788 is nonspecific instead of 15% for (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam.

  3. Hydrogen storage in fragmented carbon nanotubes: 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, M.; Krämer, S.; Mehring, M.; Roth, S.; Haluska, M.; Bernier, P.

    2001-11-01

    We report 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies on single walled carbon nanotubes, ball milled under hydrogen atmosphere. We have measured field and temperature dependence of proton spectra, linewidth and spin-lattice relaxation rates (T1-1). The results are interpreted by applying a quantitative model for 1H linewidth and spin-lattice relaxation rates induced by remanent dilute paramagnetic impurities. By using a calibration method with a reference sample we were able to quantify the hydrogen content.

  4. a Study of the c-C_{3HD}/c-C_{3H_{2}} Ratio in Low-Mass Star Forming Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantzos, Johanna; Spezzano, Silvia; Caselli, Paola; Chacon-Tanarro, Ana

    2017-06-01

    Deuterium fractionation increases significantly in cold (T<25 K), dense (n_{H}>10^4 cm^{-3}) molecular clouds, in which molecules like CO freeze out onto dust grains leading to an enhanced abundance of {H_{2D^{+}}}, {D_{2H^{+}}} and {D_{3^{+}}}. c-C_{3H_{2}} is formed and deuterated exclusively by gas-phase chemistry. This makes it to a very good indicator of gas-phase deuteration and therefore to an excellent tool to study the early phases of star formation. We observed the c-C_{3HD}/c-C_{3H_{2}} ratio toward 13 prestellar and 4 protostellar cores in the Taurus and Perseus Complex, respectively. In particular, the 3_{0,3}-2_{1,2} and 2_{1,2}-1_{0,1} transitions of the isotopologues c-C_{3HD} and c-{^{13CC_{2}H_{2}}} were observed in all prestellar and protostellar cores with a very high S/N. In both samples a high deuteration factor was found. In the prestellar cores the c-C_{3HD}/c-C_{3H_{2}} ratio varies between 5% and 13% while in protostellar cores is found to be 9%-23%. I will present our results on the correlation between the deuterium fractionation of c-C_{3H_{2}} and evolutionary indicators such as central density and dust temperature and compare them with the deuteration of N_{2H^{+}} observed in the same sources.

  5. Synthesis and properties of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, V. Yu; Sosnovskikh, V. Ya; Barkov, A. Yu

    2013-12-01

    Methods of synthesis and chemical properties of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes, including reactions with nucleophiles, cycloaddition, oxidation and reduction, have been reviewed. Enantioselective reactions involving 3-nitro-2H-chromenes, as well as the stereochemistry of the products, are discussed. The ways of practical use of these compounds are shown. The bibliography includes 115 references.

  6. Variations of δ2H in an idealised extratropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dütsch, Marina; Pfahl, Stephan; Wernli, Heini

    2016-04-01

    Numerical model simulations of stable water isotopes help to improve our understanding of the complex processes driving isotopic variability in atmospheric waters. We use the isotope-enabled COSMO model to study the governing mechanisms of δ2H variations in an idealised extratropical cyclone. A set of experiments with differing initial conditions of δ2H in vapour and partially deactivated isotopic fractionation allows us to quantify the relative roles of cloud fractionation and vertical and horizontal advection for the simulated δ2H signals associated with the cyclone and fronts. Horizontal transport determines the large-scale pattern of δ2H in both vapour and precipitation, while fractionation and vertical transport are more important on a smaller scale, near the fronts. During the passage of the cold front fractionation leads to a V-shaped trend of δ2H in precipitation and vapour, which is, for vapour, superimposed on a gradual decrease caused by horizontal advection.

  7. Free radical scavenging potency of quercetin catecholic colonic metabolites: Thermodynamics of 2H(+)/2e(-) processes.

    PubMed

    Amić, Ana; Lučić, Bono; Stepanić, Višnja; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Svetlana; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Amić, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    Reaction energetics of the double (2H(+)/2e(-)), i.e., the first 1H(+)/1e(-) (catechol→ phenoxyl radical) and the second 1H(+)/1e(-) (phenoxyl radical→ quinone) free radical scavenging mechanisms of quercetin and its six colonic catecholic metabolites (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, homoprotocatechuic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol) were computationally studied using density functional theory, with the aim to estimate the antiradical potency of these molecules. We found that second hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and second sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are less energy demanding than the first ones indicating 2H(+)/2e(-) processes as inherent to catechol moiety. The Gibbs free energy change for reactions of inactivation of selected free radicals indicate that catecholic colonic metabolites constitute an efficient group of more potent scavengers than quercetin itself, able to deactivate various free radicals, under different biological conditions. They could be responsible for the health benefits associated with regular intake of flavonoid-rich diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The tissue-specific distribution of 3H-seocalcitol (EB 1089) and 3H-calcitriol in rats.

    PubMed

    Kissmeyer, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Jeanet Løgsted; Binderup, Lise

    2004-05-01

    Seocalcitol (EB 1089) is under development for the treatment of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC). The tissue distribution of 3H-seocalcitol was investigated in comparison to 3H-calcitriol in rats. Quantitative whole-body autoradiography was used to quantify the tissue distribution. The greatest difference in distribution between the two compounds was observed in the bloodstream. For most tissues the ratio seocalcitol/calcitriol varied between 0.2 and 3.1. The concentration of radioactivity in the liver was almost the same for the two compounds. For seocalcitol the concentration in the liver was 10 times higher than in serum. Assuming that the liver/serum concentration ratio is the same in rats and humans, the concentration of seocalcitol in the human liver is expected to be higher than the concentration resulting in more than 50% inhibition of cancer cell prolifera