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Sample records for 1h-31 cross-polarization edited

  1. Dynamic structures of intact chicken erythrocyte chromatins as studied by 1H-31P cross-polarization NMR.

    PubMed Central

    Akutsu, H; Nishimoto, S; Kyogoku, Y

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic properties of DNA in intact chicken erythrocyte cells, nuclei, nondigested chromatins, digested soluble chromatins, H1, H5-depleted soluble chromatins and nucleosome cores were investigated by means of single-pulse and 1H-31P cross-polarization NMR. The temperature dependence of the phosphorus chemical shift anisotropy was identical for the former three in the presence of 3 mM MgCl2, suggesting that the local higher order structure is identical for these chromatins. The intrinsic phosphorus chemical shift anisotropy of the nucleosome cores was -159 ppm. The chemical shift anisotropy of DNA in the chromatins can be further averaged by the motion of the linker DNA. The spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame of the proton spins (T1p) of the nondigested chromatins was measured at various locking fields. The result was analyzed on the assumption of the isotropic motion to get a rough value of the correlation time of the motion efficient for the relaxation, which was eventually ascribed to the segmental motion of the linker DNA with restricted amplitude. The 30 nm filament structure induced by NaCl was shown to be dynamically different from that induced by MgCl2. Side-by-side compaction of 30-nm filaments was suggested to be induced in the MgCl2 concentration range higher than 0.3 mM. Biological significance of the dynamic structure was discussed in connection with the results obtained. PMID:7948693

  2. J Cross-Polarization Methods for Localized NMR without Magnetic Field Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostler, H.; Kimmich, R.

    1993-10-01

    This work predominantly refers to 13C in vivo spectroscopy and has two objectives. First, heteronuclear editing is considered for proton-detected NMR spectroscopy of rare nuclei. The second aspect refers to localized heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy implying the editing option. Both purposes are achieved by employing J cross polarization (or coherent rotating-frame polarization transfer). The spatial selectivity is due to different in-homogeneities of the superimposed double-resonance radiofrequency fields of the J cross-polarization experiment. A 13C surface coil, for instance, was combined with a 1H birdcage resonator, so that J cross polarization is restricted to the region where the Hartmann/Hahn condition is approached. Heteronuclear editing of NMR lines for proton-detected 13C spectroscopy was performed by the aid of a cyclic cross-polarization pathway. Test experiments demonstrating the volume selectivity of the transfer process and the editing efficiency of the cyclic cross-polarization procedure are reported.

  3. Cross polarization compatible dialysis chip.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Micha; Heymann, Michael; Fraden, Seth; Beck, Roy

    2014-10-07

    We visualize birefringence in microliter sample volumes using a microfluidic dialysis chip optimized for cross polarization microscopy. The chip is composed of two overlapping polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channels separated by a commercial cellulose ester membrane. Buffer exchange in the sample chamber is achieved within minutes by dialyzing under continuous reservoir flow. Using fd virus as a birefringent model system, we monitor the fd virus isotropic to liquid crystal phase transition as a function of ionic strength. We show that the reorientation of the fd virus spans a few tens of seconds, indicative of fast ion exchange across the membrane. Complete phase separation reorganization takes minutes to hours as it involves diffusive virus mass transport within the storage chamber.

  4. Probing phosphorylation by non-mammalian isoprenoid biosynthetic enzymes using (1)H-(31)P-(31)P correlation NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ananya; Shah, Meha H; Bitok, J Kipchirchir; Hassis-LeBeau, Maria E; Freel Meyers, Caren L

    2009-09-01

    The biogenesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) is accomplished by the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in plants, bacteria and parasites, making it a potential target for the development of anti-infective agents and herbicides. The biosynthetic enzymes comprising this pathway catalyze intriguing chemical transformations on diphosphate scaffolds, offering an opportunity to generate novel analogs in this synthetically challenging compound class. Such a biosynthetic approach to generating new diphosphate analogs may involve transformation through discrete diphosphate species, presenting unique challenges in structure determination and characterization of unnatural enzyme-generated diphosphate products produced in tandem. We have developed (1)H-(31)P-(31)P correlation NMR spectroscopy techniques for the direct characterization of crude MEP pathway enzyme products at low concentrations (200 microM to 5 mM) on a room temperature (non-cryogenic) NMR probe. Coupling the 100% natural abundance of the (31)P nucleus with the high intrinsic sensitivity of proton NMR, (1)H-(31)P-(31)P correlation spectroscopy is particularly useful for characterization of unnatural diphosphate enzyme products in the MEP pathway. As proof of principle, we demonstrate the rapid characterization of natural enzyme products of the enzymes IspD, E and F in tandem enzyme incubations. In addition, we have characterized several unnatural enzyme products using this technique, including new products of cytidyltransferase IspD bearing erythritol, glycerol and ribose components. The results of this study indicate that IspD may be a useful biocatalyst and highlight (1)H-(31)P-(31)P correlation spectroscopy as a valuable tool for the characterization of other unnatural products in non-mammalian isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  5. Evaluation of a New 1H/31P Dual-Tuned Birdcage Coil for 31P Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Potter, WM; Wang, L; McCully, KK; Zhao, Q

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new dual-tuned Hydrogen/Phosphorus (1H/31P) birdcage coil, referred to as split birdcage coil, and evaluate its performance using both simulations and magnetic resonance (MR) experiments on a 3 T MR scanner. The proposed coil simplifies the practical matters of tuning and matching, which makes the coil easily reproducible. Simulations were run with the Finite Difference in Time Domain (FDTD) method to evaluate the sensitivity and homogeneity of the magnetic field generated by the proposed 1H coils. Following simulations, MR experiments were conducted using both a phantom and human thigh to compare the proposed design with a currently available commercial dual-tuned flexible surface coil, referred to as flex surface coil, for signal to noise ratio (SNR) as well as homogeneity for the 31P coil. At regions deep within the human thigh, the split birdcage coil was able to acquire spectroscopic signal with a higher average SNR than the flex surface coil. For all regions except those close to the flex surface coil, the split birdcage coil matched or exceeded the performance of the flex surface coil. PMID:24039555

  6. Coherent Backscattering in the Cross-Polarized Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischenko, Michael I.; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the asymptotic behavior of the cross-polarized enhancement factor in the framework of the standard low-packing-density theory of coherent backscattering by discrete random media composed of spherically symmetric particles. It is shown that if the particles are strongly absorbing or if the smallest optical dimension of the particulate medium (i.e., the optical thickness of a plane-parallel slab or the optical diameter of a spherically symmetric volume) approaches zero, then the cross-polarized enhancement factor tends to its upper-limit value 2. This theoretical prediction is illustrated using direct computer solutions of the Maxwell equations for spherical volumes of discrete random medium.

  7. In vivo absolute quantification for mouse muscle metabolites using an inductively coupled synthetic signal injection method and newly developed 1H/31P dual tuned probe

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghoon; Marro, Kenneth; Mathis, Mark; Shankland, Eric; Hayes, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To obtain robust estimates of 31P metabolite content in mouse skeletal muscles using our recently developed MR absolute quantification method and a custom-built 1H/31P dual tuned radiofrequency (RF) coil optimized for mouse leg. Materials and Methods We designed and fabricated a probe consisting of two dual tuned 1H/31P solenoid coils: one leg was inserted to each solenoid. The mouse leg volume coil was incorporated with injector coils for MR absolute quantification. The absolute quantification method uses a synthetic reference signal injection approach and solves several challenges in MR absolute quantification including changes of coil loading and receiver gains. Results The 1H/31P dual tuned probe was composed of two separate solenoid coils, one for each leg, to increase coil filling factors and signal-to-noise ratio. Each solenoid was equipped with a second coil to allow injection of reference signals. 31P metabolite concentrations determined for normal mice were well within the expected range reported in the literature. Conclusion We developed an RF probe and an absolute quantification approach adapted for mouse skeletal muscle. PMID:24464912

  8. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Cross Polarized Wave Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Daniel; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles

    2009-10-01

    We use time-domain Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Interferometry (SSRI) to investigate cross-polarized wave (XPW) generation in barium fluoride. We find that the XPW pulse is √3 smaller than the input in the spatiotemporal domain regardless of the input chirp. Additionally, we calculate a temporally dependent focal length resulting from the nonlinear interaction, and discuss its implications.

  9. Cross-polarized interferometry of a Jovian decametric radio storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. A.; Carr, T. D.; Greenman, W. B.; Levy, J.

    1987-09-01

    Observations of an 18-MHz Io-A storm have been conducted using a 46 km cross-polarized interferometer at the University of Florida. The pre- and postdetection correlation properties of LH and RH elliptically polarized L bursts have been studied. Fringe visibility measurements suggest that two discrete and independent sources are sometimes simultaneously active, the polarization sense of one being LH and that of the other RH. A scintillation analysis supports the conclusion that two or more sources were active in such cases.

  10. Bilayer metasurface for directional launching of cross-polarization component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonsoo; Lee, Yohan; Yun, Hansik; Park, Hyeonsoo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a bilayer metasurface which is capable of launching helicity-inverted wave only in the forward direction. In order to obtain directional scattering characteristics of individual cells, we employed two layers of thin metasurfaces that are separated by a dielectric spacer. Multiple scattering analysis is used to derive design conditions for single metasurface reflectances for each polarization and it was shown that such target reflectances are realizable with split-ring aperture. The unit cell structure optimized for forward-only scattering of cross-polarization component is shown to have power extinction ratio as high as 32. The proposed structure can potentially form a supercell with reflective cells so that geometric phases of transmitted light and reflected light can be independently controlled. The proposed scheme is expected to pave a way to new types of metasurfaces with multiplexed optical functions.

  11. Cross-Polar Aircraft Trajectory Optimization and Potential Climate Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil; Ng, Hok

    2011-01-01

    Cross-Polar routes offer new opportunities for air travel markets. Transpolar flights reduce travel times, fuel burns, and associated environmental emissions by flying direct paths between many North American and Asian cities. This study evaluates the potential benefits of flying wind-optimal polar routes and assessed their potential impact on climate change. An optimization algorithm is developed for transpolar flights to generate wind-optimal trajectories that minimize climate impact of aircraft, in terms of global warming potentials (relative to warming by one kg of CO2) of several types of emissions, while avoiding regions of airspace that facilitate persistent contrail formation. Estimations of global warming potential are incorporated into the objective function of the optimization algorithm to assess the climate impact of aircraft emissions discharged at a given location and altitude. The regions of airspace with very low ambient temperature and areas favorable to persistent contrail formation are modeled as undesirable regions that aircraft should avoid and are formulated as soft state constraints. The fuel burn and climate impact of cross-polar air traffic flying various types of trajectory including flightplan, great circle, wind-optimal, and contrail-avoidance are computed for 15 origin-destination pairs between major international airports in the U.S. and Asia. Wind-optimal routes reduce average fuel burn of flight plan routes by 4.4% on December 4, 2010 and 8.0% on August 7, 2010, respectively. The tradeoff between persistent contrail formation and additional global warming potential of aircraft emissions is investigated with and without altitude optimization. Without altitude optimization, the reduction in contrail travel times is gradual with increase in total fuel consumption. When altitude is optimized, a one percent increase in additional global warming potential, a climate impact equivalent to that of 4070kg and 4220kg CO2 emission, reduces 135

  12. Cross-polarization in quasi-optical receivers: ALMA band 4 and 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Uzawa, Y.

    2012-09-01

    A careful study about the influence of individual optical components on receiver cross-polarization has been performed. The basic mechanisms of generation of cross-polarization in ellipsoidal mirrors and dielectrics have been reviewed and characterized in terms of higher-order Gaussian beam modes. A simple model considering the phase differences of different Gaussian beam modes is proposed in order to calculate the final system cross-polarization pattern. This model has been successfully used to characterize the total cross-polarization in two cryogenically-cooled receivers for astronomy: ALMA band 4 and band 10.

  13. Motion-Insensitive Localized 13C Spectroscopy Using Cyclic and Slice-Selective J Cross Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, C.; Kimmich, R.

    Several new methods are proposed for the sensitive localized detection of 13C nuclei on the basis of cyclic and slice-selective J cross polarization in 13C 1H x spin systems. The 13C nuclei are detected either directly after the amplitude is enhanced by polarization transfer in the rotating frame or, preferably, indirectly by heteronuclear editing of signals of the 1H nuclei coupled to 13C. In the latter case, the sensitivity corresponds to that of 1H rather than to that of 13C resonance. Test experiments are reported. In vitro applications to a hen egg and a fresh porcine shank prove the applicability of the methods to biological objects with 13C in natural abundance. A particular advantage of the new rotating-frame methods over laboratory-frame techniques serving the same purpose is the insensitivity to motions of the object. This is demonstrated by experiments with a moving sample. Hartmann/Hahn mismatch can be compensated using the MOIST modification. The time-averaged absorbed radiofrequency power per kilogram body weight was estimated on the basis of a model for surface power absorption. The result lies well below the standard safety limits for clinical applications.

  14. Optically enhanced nuclear cross polarization in acridine-doped fluorene

    SciTech Connect

    Oshiro, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this work has been to create large polarizations of the dilute /sup 13/C nuclei in the solid state. The idea was to create /sup 1/H polarizations larger than Boltzmann and to use the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy cross polarization technique to then transfer this large polarization to the /sup 13/C spin system. Optical Nuclear Polarization (ONP) of acridine-doped fluorene single crystals was studied. In addition, ONP of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene was studied. In general, many compounds do not crystallize easily or do not form large crystals suitable for NMR experiments. Powdered, amorphous and randomly dispersed samples are generally far more readily available than single crystals. One objective of this work has been to (first) create large /sup 1/H polarizations. Although large optical proton polarizations in single crystals have been reported previously, optically generated polarizations in powdered samples have not been reported. For these reasons, ONP studies of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene were also undertaken. Using ONP in combination with the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment, large /sup 13/C polarizations have been created in fluorene single crystals. These large /sup 13/C polarizations have permitted the determination of the seven incongruent chemical shielding tensors of the fluorene molecule. Part 2 of this thesis describes the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment. Part 3 describes the ONP experiment. Part 4 is a description of the experimental set-up. Part 5 describes the data analysis for the determination of the chemical shielding tensors. Part 6 presents the results of the ONP experiments performed in this work and the chemical shielding tensors determined.

  15. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of oral soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, Natalia; Karabut, Maria; Kiseleva, Elena; Robakidze, Natalia; Muraev, Alexander; Fomina, Julia

    2011-03-01

    We consider the capabilities of cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) focused on comparison of images resulting from cross-polarization and co-polarization scattering simultaneously for diagnosis of oral soft tissues. CP OCT was done for 35 patients with dental implants and 30 patients with inflammatory intestine diseases. Our study showed good diagnostic capabilities of CP OCT for detecting soft tissue pathology in the oral cavity. The cross-polarized images demonstrate the ability of tissue to depolarize. CP OCT demonstrates clinical capabilities for early diagnosis of inflammatory intestine diseases by the state of oral cavity mucosa and for early detection of gingivitis in patients above implant.

  16. Ice Shelf Modeling: A Cross-Polar Bayesian Statistical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, N.; Furrer, R.; Jakobsson, M.; Zwally, H. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ice streams interlink glacial terrestrial and marine environments: embedded in a grounded inland ice such as the Antarctic Ice Sheet or the paleo ice sheets covering extensive parts of the Eurasian and Amerasian Arctic respectively, ice streams are major drainage agents facilitating the discharge of substantial portions of continental ice into the ocean. At their seaward side, ice streams can either extend onto the ocean as floating ice tongues (such as the Drygalsky Ice Tongue/East Antarctica), or feed large ice shelves (as is the case for e.g. the Siple Coast and the Ross Ice Shelf/West Antarctica). The flow behavior of ice streams has been recognized to be intimately linked with configurational changes in their attached ice shelves; in particular, ice shelf disintegration is associated with rapid ice stream retreat and increased mass discharge from the continental ice mass, contributing eventually to sea level rise. Investigations of ice stream retreat mechanism are however incomplete if based on terrestrial records only: rather, the dynamics of ice shelves (and, eventually, the impact of the ocean on the latter) must be accounted for. However, since floating ice shelves leave hardly any traces behind when melting, uncertainty regarding the spatio-temporal distribution and evolution of ice shelves in times prior to instrumented and recorded observation is high, calling thus for a statistical modeling approach. Complementing ongoing large-scale numerical modeling efforts (Pollard & DeConto, 2009), we model the configuration of ice shelves by using a Bayesian Hiearchial Modeling (BHM) approach. We adopt a cross-polar perspective accounting for the fact that currently, ice shelves exist mainly along the coastline of Antarctica (and are virtually non-existing in the Arctic), while Arctic Ocean ice shelves repeatedly impacted the Arctic ocean basin during former glacial periods. Modeled Arctic ocean ice shelf configurations are compared with geological spatial

  17. Cross-polarization beam coupling in photorefractive GaAs crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Yeh, Pochi

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on the cross-polarization coupling of two contradirectional laser beams in a photorefractive GaAs crystal are reported. There is good agreement between these results.

  18. Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning of uniformly labeled solids.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong

    2015-07-01

    Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning are investigated for uniformly (13)C and (15)N labeled solids. In particular, the interferences from chemical shift anisotropy, and (1)H heteronuclear and (13)C homonuclear dipolar couplings are identified. The physical origin of these interferences provides guidelines for selecting the best (13)C and (15)N polarization transfer rf fields. Optimal settings for both the zero- and double-quantum cross-polarization transfer mechanisms are recommended.

  19. A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approximately 7 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A return loss better than -28 dB was measured across the band.

  20. A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennette, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approx. 14deg FWHM beam is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A power reflection below -28 dB was measured across the band.

  1. Multiple-quantum cross-polarization in MAS NMR of quadrupolar nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Brown, Steven P.; Wimperis, Stephen

    1998-05-01

    Using 27Al ( I=5/2) NMR of aluminium acetylacetonate, we show that it is possible to cross-polarize from a spin I=1/2 nucleus ( 1H) directly to the central triple-quantum transition of a half-integer quadrupolar nucleus ( 27Al) in a powdered sample under MAS conditions. The optimum conditions for this multiple-quantum cross-polarization (MQCP) are investigated experimentally and compared with existing theoretical results. The new technique is applied to the recently introduced two-dimensional MQMAS experiment for recording high-resolution NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei.

  2. 31P to 77Se cross polarization in beta-P4Se3.

    PubMed

    Pietrass, T; Seydoux, R; Roth, R E; Eckert, H; Pines, A

    1997-08-01

    Cross polarization from 31P to 77Se is demonstrated in beta-P4Se3. This material, an inorganic glass, is readily synthesized from the elements and serves as a convenient sample for setting the Hartmann-Hahn condition.

  3. On the cross-polarization characteristics of crooked wire antennas designed by genetic-algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, S. R.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In many modern communication applications there is a need for simple circularly polarized antennas for hemispherical coverage with good axial ratio or low value of cross polarization. We revisited the crooked wire antenna because of its simplicity. This paper presents results of our investigation on the crooked wire antennas and other elements.

  4. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  5. A wide-band smooth-walled feedhorn with low cross polarization for millimeter astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-07-01

    We present a smooth-walled feedhorn with cross polarization and reflected power lower than -30 dB across the entire 30% bandwidth. A prototype feedhorn has been fabricated, and the wide-band, low-cross polarization performance has been demonstrated. The feedhorn has a circular aperture and monotonically narrows towards an input waveguide interface. This allows it to be manufactured by progressively milling the profile using a set of custom tools. This is especially useful in applications where a large number of feeds are desired in a planar array format. Such applications include astronomical cameras in millimeter waveband that require large arrays of detectors for future increases in mapping speed and sensitivity. Specifically, large arrays of feedhorns are well-matched to the problem of measuring the polarization of the cosmic microwave background to search for the faint signature of inflation, as they provide good beam control, the requisite sensitivity, and compatibility with low-noise bolometric detectors.

  6. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    De Paul, Susan M.

    1997-08-01

    The development of solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has, to a large extent, focused on using spin-1/2 nuclei as probes to investigate molecular structure and dynamics. For such nuclei, the technique of cross polarization is well-established as a method for sensitivity enhancement. However, over two-thirds of the nuclei in the periodic table have a spin-quantum number greater than one-half and are known as quadrupolar nuclei. Such nuclei are fundamental constituents of many inorganic materials including minerals, zeolites, glasses, and gels. It is, therefore, of interest to explore the extent to which polarization can be transferred from quadrupolar nuclei. In this dissertation, solid-state NMR experiments involving cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei to spin-1/2 nuclei under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions are investigated in detail.

  7. Evaluation of Waveform Structure Features on Time Domain Target Recognition under Cross Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selver, M. A.; Seçmen, M.; Zoral, E. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Classification of aircraft targets from scattered electromagnetic waves is a challenging application, which suffers from aspect angle dependency. In order to eliminate the adverse effects of aspect angle, various strategies were developed including the techniques that rely on extraction of several features and design of suitable classification systems to process them. Recently, a hierarchical method, which uses features that take advantage of waveform structure of the scattered signals, is introduced and shown to have effective results. However, this approach has been applied to the special cases that consider only a single planar component of electric field that cause no-cross polarization at the observation point. In this study, two small scale aircraft models, Boeing-747 and DC-10, are selected as the targets and various polarizations are used to analyse the cross-polarization effects on system performance of the aforementioned method. The results reveal the advantages and the shortcomings of using waveform structures in time-domain target identification.

  8. Advantages of cross-polarization endoscopic optical coherence tomography in diagnosis of bladder neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, N. D.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Streltsova, O. S.; Kiseleva, E. B.; Karabut, M. M.; Snopova, L. B.; Yunusova, E. E.; Tararova, E.; Gelikonov, V. M.

    2010-02-01

    We consider the cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) that is focused on comparison of images resulting from cross-polarization and co-polarization scattering simultaneously. This technique provides information about microstructural and biochemical alterations in depolarizing tissue components (collagen). We found that mature type I collagen gives a strong signal in orthogonal polarization. CP OCT images of benign inflammatory processes always feature signal in orthogonal polarization, with layers and borders persisting to be well defined. In the presence of precancerous alterations, signal in orthogonal polarization is available in the image but it is irregular, disappearing in some areas. A CP OCT image of bladder cancer in orthogonal polarization either shows no signal at all or a weak signal.

  9. Like and cross polarized reflections and transmission matrices for propagation across a chiral slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, Ezekiel

    2006-10-01

    Explicit expressions are derived for the like and cross linear polarized reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of the chiral parameter. Taylor series expansions of these coefficients are derived. The diagonal like polarized reflection and transmission coefficients are insensitive to the chiral properties of the material while the off diagonal cross polarized terms are proportional to the chiral parameter to first order. Continuity relations in and perpendicular to the plane of incidence for vertically and horizontally like and cross polarized waves, energy conservation and duality relations at a free space-chiral interface are satisfied. Applications for the optimal detection and identification of chiral materials such as drugs and biological or chemical threat agents are considered.

  10. Surface configuration as an explanation for lithology-related cross-polarized radar image anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    One problem that has persisted since the development of multipolarized radar is the cause or causes of differential depolarization which is expressed as tonal reversals between like- and cross-polarized images of certain outcrops. Rocks producing anomalously low returns on the cross-polarized image could be classed into three general types: (1) certain geologically recent lava flows (late Pleistocene and Holocene), (2) some tertiary volcanics and (3) certain massive sandstones. Differential depolarization has been produced by volcanic rocks of various compositions including rhyolite, rhyodacite, dacite, andesite, and basalt. This has led to the conclusion that differential depolarization is not directly caused by any compositional factor. However, the study of aerial photos and subsequent field observation have led to the conclusion that the weathering and other surface characteristics of the outcrops are responsible for their appearance on multipolarized imagery.

  11. CTS attenuation and cross polarization measurements at 11.7 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Attenuation and cross-polarization isolation at 11.7 GHz, measured at Austin, Texas by receiving the circularly polarized emissions from the CTS satellite are presented. A 12 month summary for Feb 78 to Jan 79 is presented. For .016 percent of the time the attenuation was greater than 10 dB, the isolation was less than 21 dB and the rainrate exceeded 55 mm/hr. Ice depolarization was observed frequently.

  12. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF A LOW-FREQUENCY CROSS-POLARIZED LOG-PERIODIC DIPOLE ANTENNA

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, K. Sasikumar; Kathiravan, C.; Ramesh, R.; Rajalingam, M.; Barve, Indrajit V.

    2013-07-01

    We report the design and performance of a cross-polarized log-periodic dipole (CLPD) antenna for observations of polarized radio emission from the solar corona at low frequencies. The measured isolation between the two mutually orthogonal log-periodic dipole antennas was as low as Almost-Equal-To - 43 dBm in the 65-95 MHz range. We carried out observations of the solar corona at 80 MHz with the above CLPD and successfully recorded circularly polarized emission.

  13. Efficient cross-polarization using a composite 0 degrees pulse for NMR studies on static solids.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Masashi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Takegoshi, K

    2009-02-01

    In most solid-state NMR experiments, cross-polarization is an essential step to detect low-gamma nuclei such as (13)C and (15)N. In this study, we present a new cross-polarization scheme using spin-locks composed of composite 0 degrees pulses in the RF channels of high-gamma and low-gamma nuclei to establish the Hartmann-Hahn match. The composite 0 degrees pulses with no net nutation-angle{(2pi)(X)-(2pi)(-X)-(2pi)(Y)-(2pi)(-Y) -}(n) applied simultaneously to both high-gamma (I) and low-gamma (S) nuclei create an effective heteronuclear dipolar Hamiltonian H(d)((0))=d/2(2I(Z)S(Z)+I(X)S(X)+I(Y)S(Y)), which is capable of transferring the Z-component of the I spin magnetization to the Z-component of the S spin magnetization. It also retains a homonuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian that enables the flip-flop transfer among abundant spins. While our experimental results indicate that the new pulse sequence, called composite zero cross-polarization (COMPOZER-CP) performs well on adamantane, it is expected to be more valuable to study semi-solids like liquid crystalline materials and model lipid membranes. Theoretical analysis of COMPOZER-CP is presented along with experimental results. Our experimental results demonstrate that COMPOZER-CP overcomes the RF field inhomogeneity and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch for static solids. Experimental results comparing the performance of COMPOZER-CP with that of the traditional constant-amplitude CP and rampCP sequences are also presented in this paper.

  14. CTS attenuation and cross polarization measurements at 11.7 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long-term attenuation, cross-polarization, and rain-rate data monitored in Austin, Texas from the circularly polarized 11.7 GHz satellite beacon transmitter aboard the Communications Technology Satellite are analyzed. Data events are significantly more likely during April-September, than during October-March, except for ice deplorization which predominates during the winter months. A time of day dependence of the events is also noted. The 10 dB fade level is exceeded for .03% during the thunderstorm months. Isolation with the same probability is 23 dB.

  15. Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Dudenkova, Varvara V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Timofeeva, Lidia B.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Kuznetsov, Sergei S.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Gregory V.; Vitkin, Alex I.; Gladkova, Natalia D.

    2016-02-01

    We combined cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT) and non-linear microscopy based on second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon-excited fluorescence (2PEF) to assess collagen and elastin fibers in the development of the atherosclerotic plaque (AP). The study shows potential of CP OCT for the assessment of collagen and elastin fibers condition in atherosclerotic arteries. Specifically, the additional information afforded by CP OCT, related to birefringence and cross-scattering properties of arterial tissues, may improve the robustness and accuracy of assessment about the microstructure and composition of the plaque for different stages of atherosclerosis.

  16. Single Shot Polarization Characterization of XUV FEL Pulses from Crossed Polarized Undulators

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Buck, J.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Gauthier, D.; Giannessi, L.; Glaser, L.; Huang, Z.; Ilchen, M.; Lambert, G.; Lutman, A. A.; Mahieu, B.; Penco, G.; Spezzani, C.; Viefhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization control is a key feature of light generated by short-wavelength free-electron lasers. In this work, we report the first experimental characterization of the polarization properties of an extreme ultraviolet high gain free-electron laser operated with crossed polarized undulators. We investigate the average degree of polarization and the shot-to-shot stability and we analyze aspects such as existing possibilities for controlling and switching the polarization state of the emitted light. The results are in agreement with predictions based on Gaussian beams propagation. PMID:26314764

  17. Single shot polarization characterization of XUV FEL pulses from crossed polarized undulators

    DOE PAGES

    Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Buck, J.; ...

    2015-08-28

    Polarization control is a key feature of light generated by short-wavelength free-electron lasers. In this work, we report the first experimental characterization of the polarization properties of an extreme ultraviolet high gain free-electron laser operated with crossed polarized undulators. We research the average degree of polarization and the shot-to-shot stability and we analyze aspects such as existing possibilities for controlling and switching the polarization state of the emitted light. The results are in agreement with predictions based on Gaussian beams propagation.

  18. Monitoring tooth demineralization using a cross polarization optical coherence tomographic system with an integrated MEMS scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia; Kang, Hobin; Chan, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anti-caries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10-μm, it is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper we present early results using a new cross-polarization OCT system introduced by Santec. This system utilizes a swept laser source and a MEMS scanner for rapid acquisition of cross polarization images. Preliminary studies show that this system is useful for measurement of the severity of demineralization on tooth surfaces and for showing the spread of occlusal lesions under the dentinal-enamel junction.

  19. Cross-polarization microwave radar return at severe wind conditions: laboratory model and geophysical model function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Abramov, Victor; Ermoshkin, Alexey; Zuikova, Emma; Kazakov, Vassily; Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing is one of the main techniques of monitoring severe weather conditions over the ocean. The principal difficulty of the existing algorithms of retrieving wind based on dependence of microwave backscattering cross-section on wind speed (Geophysical Model Function, GMF) is due to its saturation at winds exceeding 25 - 30 m/s. Recently analysis of dual- and quad-polarization C-band radar return measured from satellite Radarsat-2 suggested that the cross-polarized radar return has much higher sensitivity to the wind speed than co-polarized back scattering [1] and conserved sensitivity to wind speed at hurricane conditions [2]. Since complete collocation of these data was not possible and time difference in flight legs and SAR images acquisition was up to 3 hours, these two sets of data were compared in [2] only statistically. The main purpose of this paper is investigation of the functional dependence of cross-polarized radar cross-section on the wind speed in laboratory experiment. Since cross-polarized radar return is formed due to scattering at small-scale structures of the air-sea interface (short-crested waves, foam, sprays, etc), which are well reproduced in laboratory conditions, then the approach based on laboratory experiment on radar scattering of microwaves at the water surface under hurricane wind looks feasible. The experiments were performed in the Wind-wave flume located on top of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, where the airflow was produced in the flume with the straight working part of 10 m and operating cross section 0.40?0.40 sq. m, the axis velocity can be varied from 5 to 25 m/s. Microwave measurements were carried out by a coherent Doppler X-band (3.2 cm) scatterometer with the consequent receive of linear polarizations. Experiments confirmed higher sensitivity to the wind speed of the cross-polarized radar return. Simultaneously parameters of the air flow in the turbulent boundary layer

  20. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  1. Cross-polarization coupling and switching in an open nano-meta-resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabelak, W.; Nasalski, W.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate the reconfiguration process of optical beam fields circulating in an open nano-meta-resonator cavity. The cavity is composed of four corners or quadrants of space filled alternatively with dielectric and metamaterial media. The media are assumed to be lossless, nondispersive and of parameters precluding impedance matching at the boundaries between the subsequent corners. Beam path retracement in the cavity is obtained from a resonance condition of phase compensation along each optical ray contributed to the circulating beam. Cross-polarization coupling between TM and TE components of elegant higher-order Hermite-Gaussian beams propagating in the resonator is analysed. The existence of the phenomena of beam excitation, filtering and switching predicted on these grounds is explicitly confirmed by numerical simulations. All phenomena described depend substantially on a field cross-sectional diameter of the circulating beams.

  2. Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers.

    PubMed

    Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Bog, Uwe; Sekula, Sylwia; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2010-08-30

    There is a strong need for low-cost biosensors to enable rapid, on-site analysis of biological, biomedical, or chemical substances. We propose a platform for label-free optical biosensors based on applying the analyte onto a surface-functionalized photonic crystal slab and performing a transmission measurement with two crossed polarization filters. This dark-field approach allows for efficient background suppression as only the photonic crystal guided-mode resonances interacting with the functionalized surface experience significant polarization rotation. We present a compact biosensor demonstrator using a low-cost light emitting diode and a simple photodiode capable of detecting the binding kinetics of a 2.5 nM solution of the protein streptavidin on a biotin-functionalized photonic crystal surface.

  3. Ray Scattering by an Arbitrarily Oriented Spheroid: 2. Transmission and Cross-polarization Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Transmission of an arbitrarily polarized plane wave by an arbitrarily oriented spheroid in the short-wavelength limit is considered in the context of ray theory. The transmitted electric field is added to the diffracted plus reflected ray-theory electric field that was previously derived to obtain an approximation to the far-zone scattered intensity in the forward hemisphere. Two different types of cross-polarization effects are found. These are: (a) a rotation of the polarization state of the transmitted rays from when they are referenced with respect to their entrance into the spheroid to when they are referenced with respect to their exit from it and (b) a rotation of the polarization state of the transmitted rays when they are referenced with respect to the polarization state of the diffracted plus reflected rays.

  4. Differential diagnosis of human bladder mucosa pathologies in vivo with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kiseleva, Elena; Kirillin, Mikhail; Feldchtein, Felix; Vitkin, Alex; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Zagaynova, Elena; Streltzova, Olga; Shakhov, Boris; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Gladkova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative image analysis and parameter extraction using a specific implementation of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides differential diagnosis of mucosal pathologies in in-vivo human bladders. We introduce a cross-polarization (CP) OCT image metric called Integral Depolarization Factor (IDF) to enable automatic diagnosis of bladder conditions (assessment the functional state of collagen fibers). IDF-based diagnostic accuracy of identification of the severe fibrosis of normal bladder mucosa is 79%; recurrence of carcinoma on the post-operative scar is 97%; and differentiation between neoplasia and acute inflammation is 75%. The promising potential of CP OCT combined with image analysis in human urology is thus demonstrated in vivo. PMID:25909028

  5. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization of deuterated molecules enhanced by cross-polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzbach, Dennis; Weber, Emmanuelle M. M.; Jhajharia, Aditya; Cousin, Samuel F.; Sadet, Aude; Marhabaie, Sina; Canet, Estel; Birlirakis, Nicolas; Milani, Jonas; Jannin, Sami; Eshchenko, Dmitry; Hassan, Alia; Melzi, Roberto; Luetolf, Stephan; Sacher, Marco; Rossire, Marc; Kempf, James; Lohman, Joost A. B.; Weller, Matthias; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Abergel, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    We present novel means to hyperpolarize deuterium nuclei in 13CD2 groups at cryogenic temperatures. The method is based on cross-polarization from 1H to 13C and does not require any radio-frequency fields applied to the deuterium nuclei. After rapid dissolution, a new class of long-lived spin states can be detected indirectly by 13C NMR in solution. These long-lived states result from a sextet-triplet imbalance (STI) that involves the two equivalent deuterons with spin I = 1. An STI has similar properties as a triplet-singlet imbalance that can occur in systems with two equivalent I = 1/2 spins. Although the lifetimes TSTI are shorter than T1(Cz), they can exceed the life-time T1(Dz) of deuterium Zeeman magnetization by a factor of more than 20.

  6. A cross-polarized freeform illumination design for glare reduction in fruit quality inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keresztes, Janos C.; Koshel, R. John; Chipman, Russel; Stover, John C.; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Common illumination systems in short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) include direct or indirect tungsten halogen lights. While direct lights provide more radiation onto the samples than dome setups, thus being more energy efficient, the acquired images often suffer from specular reflections and gloss. Glare artifacts in images increase variability in the data limiting the accuracy of machine vision algorithms for defect detection and quality inspection, or even providing false positives. Although domes are known to provide a near Lambertian illumination and glare free images, glossy regions and heterogeneities may remain in the data in practice. More particularly, in the field of fruit and vegetable quality inspection, due to their waxy surface, it remains challenging to design an efficient realistic lighting system. This paper suggests a new approach to optimize the illumination of fruit and vegetables based on measurements of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), shape and Stokes parameters. From these measured values, a BRDF model is loaded into ray-tracing software for realistic illumination engineering in order to determine the most suitable illumination scheme. This concept is applied to apples and a cross polarizer (CP) with freeform optics (FO) optical configuration is proposed, which allows the FO to be optimized to maximize uniformity in the field of view of the imager and removes the parallel polarized gloss on the apples. The performance of this CP illumination system was determined experimentally for a set of apples. This cross polarized (CP) illumination system provided a uniformity (U) of 92% and an efficiency (ν) of 90%, while U = 87% and ν = 14% for an ideal dome configuration when illuminating a rectangular target. The simulated imaged apples with assigned optical properties performed better with CP (U=80%) than when using a dome (U=73%) by 7%. Finally, the sensitivity of the design for the light

  7. Cross-Polar Aircraft Trajectory Optimization and the Potential Climate Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Sridhar, Banavar; Grabbe, Shon; Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Cross-Polar routes offer new opportunities for air travel markets. Transpolar flights reduce travel times, fuel burns, and associated environmental emissions by flying direct paths between many North American and Asian cities. This study evaluates the potential benefits of flying wind-optimal polar routes and assessed their potential impact on climate change. An optimization algorithm is developed for transpolar flights to generate wind-optimal trajectories that minimize climate impact of aircraft, in terms of global warming potentials (relative to warming by one kg of CO2) of several types of emissions, while avoiding regions of airspace that facilitate persistent contrail formation. Estimations of global warming potential are incorporated into the objective function of the optimization algorithm to assess the climate impact of aircraft emissions discharged at a given location and altitude. The regions of airspace with very low ambient temperature and areas favorable to persistent contrail formation are modeled as undesirable regions that aircraft should avoid and are formulated as soft state constraints. The fuel burn and climate impact of cross-polar air traffic flying various types of trajectory including flight plan, great circle, wind-optimal, and contrail-avoidance are computed for 15 origin-destination pairs between major international airports in the U.S. and Asia. Wind-optimal routes reduce average fuel burn of flight plan routes by 4.4% on December 4, 2010 and 8.0% on August 7, 2010, respectively. The tradeoff between persistent contrail formation and additional global warming potential of aircraft emissions is investigated with and without altitude optimization. Without altitude optimization, the reduction in contrail travel times is gradual with increase in total fuel consumption. When altitude is optimized, a one percent increase in additional global warming potential, a climate impact equivalent to that of 4070kg and 4220kg CO2 emission, reduces 135

  8. Two models of cross polar cap potential saturation compared: Siscoe-Hill model versus Kivelson-Ridley model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ye; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Walker, Raymond J.

    2013-02-01

    The cross polar cap potential is considered an instantaneous monitor of the rate at which magnetic flux couples the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Studies have shown that the cross polar cap potential responds linearly to the solar wind electric field under nominal solar wind conditions but asymptotes to the order of 200 kV for large electric field. Saturation of the cross polar cap potential is also found to occur in MHD simulations. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. Two well-developed models are those of Siscoe et al. (2002), herein referred to as the Siscoe-Hill model, and of Kivelson and Ridley (2008), herein referred to as the Kivelson-Ridley model. In this study, we compare the mathematical formulas as well as the predictions of the two models with data. We find that the two models predict similar saturation limits. Their difference can be expressed in terms of a factor, which is close to unity during a saturation interval. A survey of the differences in the model predictions show that, on average, the potential of the Kivelson-Ridley model is smaller than that of the Siscoe-Hill model by 10 kV. Measurements of AMIE, DMSP, PC index, and SuperDARN are used to differentiate between the two models. However, given the uncertainties of the measurements, it is impossible to conclude that one model does a better job than the other of predicting the observed cross polar cap potentials.

  9. SMMR data set development for GARP. [impact of cross polarization and Faraday rotation on SMMR derived brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, J.

    1981-01-01

    The NIMBUS 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data are analyzed. The impact of cross polarization and Faraday rotation on SMMR derived brightness temperatures is evaluated. The algorithms used to retrieve the geophysical parameters are tested, refined, and compared with values derived by other techniques. The technical approach taken is described and the results presented.

  10. Hyperpolarization of nitrogen-15 nuclei by cross polarization and dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Jonas; Vuichoud, Basile; Bornet, Aurélien; Melzi, Roberto; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is often achieved by the direct transfer of polarization from electrons to nuclei such as 13C, induced by microwave saturation of the wings of narrow EPR lines of radicals like trityl. In the indirect approach on the other hand, DNP is used to transfer the polarization from the electrons of radicals such as nitroxides that have broad EPR lines to nuclear spins I = 1H, followed by cross-polarization (CP) from I = 1H to S = 13C or other nuclei with low gyromagnetic ratios. This approach is particularly attractive for S = 15N, since direct DNP yields modest polarizations P(15N) < 4% with build-up times that can be as long as τDNP(15N) > 2 h. In this paper, we show that CP from 1H to 15N at 1.2 K can yield P(15N) = 25% with τCP-DNP(15N) = 10-15 min. After rapid dissolution and transfer to a solution-state NMR spectrometer, a polarization P(15N) = 20% was observed at 300 K. The longitudinal relaxation times in solution can be as long as T1(15N) > 800 s in favorable cases.

  11. Chemical shift anisotropy and offset effects in cross polarization solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shekar, Srinivasan C; Lee, Dong-Kuk; Ramamoorthy, A

    2002-08-01

    The effect of an offset term in the cross-polarization (CP) Hamiltonian of a heteronuclear spin-12 pair due to off-resonant radio frequency (rf) irradiation and/or chemical shift anisotropy on one of the rf channels is investigated. Analytical solutions, simulations, and experimental results are presented. Formulating the CP spin dynamics in terms of an explicit unitary evolution operator enables the CP period to be inserted as a module in a given pulse scheme regardless of the initial density matrix present. The outcome of post-CP manipulation via pulses can be calculated on the resulting density matrix as the phases and amplitudes of all coherence modes are available. Using these tools it is shown that the offset can be used to reduce the rf power on that channel and the performance is further improved by a post-CP pulse whose flip angle matches and compensates the tilt of the effective field on the offset channel. Experimental investigations on single crystalline and polycrystalline samples of peptides confirm the oscillatory nature of CP dynamics and prove the slowing down of the dynamics under offset and/or mismatch conditions.

  12. A new formulation for the ionospheric cross polar cap potential including saturation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    It is known that the ionospheric cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturates when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz becomes very large. Few studies have offered physical explanations as to why the polar cap potential saturates. We present 13 events in which the reconnection electric field (REF) goes above 12mV/m at some time. When these events are examined as typically done in previous studies, all of them show some signs of saturation (i.e., over-prediction of the CPCP based on a linear relationship between the IMF and the CPCP). We show that by taking into account the size of the magnetosphere and the fact that the post-shock magnetic field strength is strongly dependent upon the solar wind Mach number, we can better specify the ionospheric CPCP. The CPCP (Φ) can be expressed as Φ=(10-4v2+11.7B(1-e-Ma/3)sin3(θ/2)) {rms/9 (where v is the solar wind velocity, B is the combined Y and Z components of the interplanetary magnetic field, Ma is the solar wind Mach number, θ=acos(Bz/B), and rms is the stand-off distance to the magnetopause, assuming pressure-balance between the solar wind and the magnetosphere). This is a simple modification of the original Boyle et al. (1997) formulation.

  13. Clinical cross-polarization optical coherence tomography assessment of subsurface enamel below dental resin composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Lenton, Patricia; Rudney, Joel; Fok, Alex; Jones, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. A newly designed intraoral swept source cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) imaging system was used to examine the integrity of the subsurface enamel below resin composite restorations placed in primary teeth. CP-OCT analysis was performed using images obtained from resin composite restoration in 62 (n=62) pediatric subjects. Clinical examination was performed by a single examiner prior to CP-OCT imaging and analysis. CP-OCT images are presented using a unique combined intensity image, where a false color scale is overlaid on the grayscale intensity image. There was a clear difference in the distribution of the mean-backscattered intensity (mR) between restorations recently placed and those possessing frank cavitation (Student’s t-test, P<0.0001). For mR above 15.49 dB, the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 86%. The Youden index J was 0.8 above 12.3 dB where sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 80%. CP-OCT imaging may be used to confirm the subsurface marginal integrity below resin composite restorations but with careful consideration of limitations of the imaging modality. CP-OCT imaging may be a useful adjunct to clinical visual investigation to confirm that a composite margin has a sound and well-adapted interface. PMID:26158031

  14. A parallel-series-fed microstrip array with high efficiency and low cross-polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1992-01-01

    The requirements of a microstrip array with a vertically polarized fan beam are addressed that correspond to its use in C-band interferometric SAR. A combination of parallel- and series-feed techniques are utilized in an array design with a three-stage parallel-fed configuration to enhance bandwidth performance. The linearly polarized traveling-wave microstrip array antenna is fed by microstrip transmission lines in two rows of 36 elements that resonate at 5.30 GHz. The transmission lines are impedance-matched at every junction for all the waves that travel toward the two ends of the array. The two measured principal-plane patterns are shown, and the measured narrow-beam pattern is found to agree with the calculated values. The VSWR bandwidths and narrow and broad beamwidths of the antenna are found to permit efficient performance. The efficiency is attributed to the parallel and series-feed configuration which allows proper impedance matching, and low cross-polarization is a result of the antiphase feed technique employed in the configuration.

  15. Parallel and series FED microstrip array with high efficiency and low cross polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A microstrip array antenna for vertically polarized fan beam (approximately 2 deg x 50 deg) for C-band SAR applications with a physical area of 1.7 m by 0.17 m comprises two rows of patch elements and employs a parallel feed to left- and right-half sections of the rows. Each section is divided into two segments that are fed in parallel with the elements in each segment fed in series through matched transmission lines for high efficiency. The inboard section has half the number of patch elements of the outboard section, and the outboard sections, which have tapered distribution with identical transmission line sections, terminated with half wavelength long open-circuit stubs so that the remaining energy is reflected and radiated in phase. The elements of the two inboard segments of the two left- and right-half sections are provided with tapered transmission lines from element to element for uniform power distribution over the central third of the entire array antenna. The two rows of array elements are excited at opposite patch feed locations with opposite (180 deg difference) phases for reduced cross-polarization.

  16. Cross-polarization confocal imaging of subsurface flaws in silicon nitride.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Sun, J. G.; Pei, Z.

    2011-03-01

    A cross-polarization confocal microscopy (CPCM) method was developed to image subsurface flaws in optically translucent silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramics. Unlike conventional confocal microscopy, which measures reflected light so is applicable only to transparent and semi-transparent materials, CPCM detects scattered light from subsurface while filtering out the reflected light from ceramic surface. For subsurface imaging, the refractive-index mismatch between imaging (air) and imaged (ceramic) medium may cause image distortion and reduce resolution in the depth direction. This effect, characterized by an axial scaling factor (ASF), was analyzed and experimentally determined for glass and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. The experimental CPCM system was used to image Hertzian C-cracks generated by various indentation loads in the subsurface of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} specimen. It was demonstrated that CPCM may provide detailed information of subsurface cracks, such as crack angle and path, and subsurface microstructural variations.

  17. Adiabatic sweep cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning NMR of half-integer quadrupolar spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Sungsool; Kim, Chul; Schurko, Robert; Frydman, Lucio

    2017-04-01

    The use of frequency-swept radiofrequency (rf) pulses for enhancing signals in the magic-angle spinning (MAS) spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclides was explored. The broadband adiabatic inversion cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (BRAIN-CPMAS) method, involving an adiabatic inversion pulse on the S-channel and a simultaneous rectangular spin-lock pulse on the I-channel (1H), was applied to I(1/2) → S(3/2) systems. Optimal BRAIN-CPMAS matching conditions were found to involve low rf pulse strengths for both the I- and S-spin channels. At these low and easily attainable rf field strengths, level-crossing events among the energy levels | 3 / 2 >, | 1 / 2 >, | - 1 / 2 >, | - 3 / 2 > that are known to complicate the CPMAS of quadrupolar nuclei, are mostly avoided. Zero- and double-quantum polarization transfer modes, akin to those we have observed for I(1/2) → S(1/2) polarization transfers, were evidenced by these analyses even in the presence of the quadrupolar interaction. 1H-23Na and 1H-11B BRAIN-CPMAS conditions were experimentally explored on model compounds by optimizing the width of the adiabatic sweep, as well as the rf pulse powers of the 1H and 23Na/11B channels, for different MAS rates. The experimental data obtained on model compounds containing spin-3/2 nuclides, matched well predictions from numerical simulations and from an average Hamiltonian theory model. Extensions to half-integer spin nuclides with higher spins and potential applications of this BRAIN-CPMAS approach are discussed.

  18. 1H-2H cross-polarization NMR in fast spinning solids by adiabatic sweeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Sungsool; Schurko, Robert; Frydman, Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cross-polarization (CP) experiments employing frequency-swept radiofrequency (rf) pulses have been successfully used in static spin systems for obtaining broadband signal enhancements. These experiments have been recently extended to heteronuclear I, S = spin-1/2 nuclides under magic-angle spinning (MAS), by applying adiabatic inversion pulses along the S (low-γ) channel while simultaneously applying a conventional spin-locking pulse on the I-channel (1H). This study explores an extension of this adiabatic frequency sweep concept to quadrupolar nuclei, focusing on CP from 1H (I = 1/2) to 2H spins (S = 1) undergoing fast MAS (νr = 60 kHz). A number of new features emerge, including zero- and double-quantum polarization transfer phenomena that depend on the frequency offsets of the swept pulses, the rf pulse powers, and the MAS spinning rate. An additional mechanism found operational in the 1H-2H CP case that was absent in the spin-1/2 counterpart, concerns the onset of a pseudo-static zero-quantum CP mode, driven by a quadrupole-modulated rf/dipolar recoupling term arising under the action of MAS. The best CP conditions found at these fast spinning rates correspond to double-quantum transfers, involving weak 2H rf field strengths. At these easily attainable (ca. 10 kHz) rf field conditions, adiabatic level-crossings among the {|1 ⟩ ,|0 ⟩ ,|-1 ⟩ } mS energy levels, which are known to complicate the CP MAS of quadrupolar nuclei, are avoided. Moreover, the CP line shapes generated in this manner are very close to the ideal 2H MAS spectral line shapes, facilitating the extraction of quadrupolar coupling parameters. All these features were corroborated with experiments on model compounds and justified using numerical simulations and average Hamiltonian theory models. Potential applications of these new phenomena, as well as extensions to higher spins S, are briefly discussed.

  19. Observational Evidence that Magnetosheath Plasma Parameters are Prominent in Determining Cross Polar Cap Potential Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauer, Robert; Xu, Zhonghua; Hartinger, Michael; Ruohoniemi, Michael; Scales, Wayne; Maimaiti, Maimaitirebike; Nicolls, Michael; Wilder, Rick; Lopez, Ramon

    2016-04-01

    A variety of statistical studies have shown that the ionospheric polar potential produced by solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling is linear for weak to moderate solar wind driving, but becomes non-linear during periods of very strong driving. It has been shown that this applies to the two-cell convection potential that develops during southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and also to the reverse convection cells that develop during northward IMF. This has been described as polar potential saturation and it appears to begin when the driving solar wind electric field becomes greater than 3 mV/m. It has also been shown that the summer ionospheric electric field saturates at about the same value (20 mV/m) for both northward or southward IMF. Recent measurements of the high latitude convection on September 12 - 13, 2014 using the Resolute Incoherent Scatter Radar during periods of large northward IMF show ionospheric electric fields varying between 56 mV/m and 156 mV/m within the dayside reverse convection cells. There is no indication of saturation during these periods of very strong driving. We believe that the extremely rare conditions in the solar wind that produce extreme driving while also producing a high plasma beta in the magnetosheath provide the best explanation for the lack of potential saturation of the reverse convection cells. That is to say, the conditions in the magnetosheath that contribute to enhancing or limiting reconnection are most important in determining cross polar cap potential saturation. This research was supported at Virginia Tech by National Science Foundation Grant AGS-1216373.

  20. Heteronuclear cross-polarization in multinuclear multidimensional NMR: Prospects for triple-resonance CP

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, A.; Zuiderweg, E.R.P.

    1994-12-01

    Heteronuclear multiple-pulse-based Cross Polarization (HECP) between scalar coupled spins is gaining an important role in high-resolution multidimensional NMR of isotopically labeled biomolecules, especially in experiments involving net magnetization transfer. It has generally been observed that in these situations, the performance of HECP is superior to that of INEPT-based sequences. In particular, HECP-based three-dimensional HCCH spectroscopy is more efficient than the INEPT version of the same experiment. Differences in sensitivity have been intuitively attributed to relaxation effects and technical factors such as radiofrequency (rf) inhomogeneity We present theoretical analyses and computer simulations to probe the effects of these factors. Relaxation effects were treated phenomenologically; we found that relaxation differences are relatively small (up to 25%) between pulsed-free-precession (INEPT) and HECP-although always in favor of HECP. We explored the rf effects by employing a Gaussian distribution of rf amplitude over sample volume. We found that inhomogeneity effects significantly favor HECP over INEPT, especially under conditions of {open_quotes}matched {close_quotes} inhomogeneity in the two rf coils. The differences in favor of HECP indicate that an extension of HECP to triple resonance experiments (TRCP) in I -> S -> Q net transfers might yield better results relative to analogous INEPT-based net transfers. We theoretically analyze the possibilities of TRCP and find that transfer functions are critically dependent on the ratio J{sub IS}/J{sub SQ}. When J{sub IS} equals J{sub SQ}, we find that 100% transfer is possible for truly simultaneous TRCP and this transfer is obtained in a time 1.41 /J. The TRCP time requirement compares favorably with optimally concatenated INEPT-transfers, where net transfer I -> S -> Q is complete at 1.5 /J.

  1. Phase dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with delayed optical feedback and cross-polarized reinjection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaloyes, J.; Marconi, M.; Giudici, M.

    2014-08-01

    We study theoretically the nonlinear polarization dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in the presence of an external cavity providing delayed optical feedback and cross-polarized reinjection. We show that, far from the laser threshold, the dynamics remains confined close to the equatorial plane of a Poincaré sphere with a fixed radius. It entails that the evolution of the system is described by two phase variables: the orientation phase of the quasilinear polarization and the optical phase of the field. We explore the complex modal structure given by the double reinjection configuration and how it evolves between the cases of single cross-polarized reinjection and single optical feedback, hence disclosing the relationship with the Lang-Kobayashi model. We also reinterpret the square-wave switching observed by J. Mulet et al. [Phys. Rev. A 76, 043801 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.043801] in terms of phase kinks.

  2. Retrieval of Droplet size Density Distribution from Multiple field of view Cross polarized Lidar Signals: Theory and Experimental Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-02

    is derived to facilitate use of secondary polarization. The model is supported by exper- imental MFOV lidar measurements carried out in a controlled ...Retrieval of droplet-size density distribution from multiple-field-of- view cross-polarized lidar signals: theory and experimental validation...Gilles Roy, Luc Bissonnette, Christian Bastille, and Gilles Vallee Multiple-field-of- view (MFOV) secondary-polarization lidar signals are used to

  3. Dual-band selective double cross polarization for heteronuclear polarization transfer between dilute spins in solid-state MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengfeng; Miao, Yimin; Liu, Xiaoli; Yang, Jun; Li, Conggang; Deng, Feng; Fu, Riqiang

    2012-04-01

    A sinusoidal modulation scheme is described for selective heteronuclear polarization transfer between two dilute spins in double cross polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. During the second N → C cross polarization, the 13C RF amplitude is modulated sinusoidally while the 15N RF amplitude is tangent. This modulation induces an effective spin-lock field in two selective frequency bands in either side of the 13C RF carrier frequency, allowing for simultaneous polarization transfers from 15N to 13C in those two selective frequency bands. It is shown by experiments and simulations that this sinusoidal modulation allows one to selectively polarize from 15N to its covalently bonded 13Cα and 13C' carbons in neighboring peptide planes simultaneously, which is useful for establishing the backbone connectivity between two sequential residues in protein structural elucidation. The selectivity and efficiency were experimentally demonstrated on a uniformly 13C,15N-labeled β1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1).

  4. Wave-mixing interference in three-photon resonant atomic excitation with cross-polarized angled beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, V.

    2006-09-15

    Three-photon excitation and associated wave mixing near the 6s and 6s{sup '} resonances of xenon have been studied utilizing resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization in angled beams with different polarizations. It has been shown that a complete cancellation of three-photon resonant atomic excitation caused by the well-known destructive wave-mixing interference occurs in s and p polarization of angled beams but distinct resonance ionization enhancement is observed when pump beams have orthogonal polarization planes. Pressure-induced evolution of the resonance ionization peak in cross-polarized beams is identical to that observed with counterpropagating beams. The reason for such resonance ionization enhancement is unknown and cannot be explained within the frame work of existing theory. The effect may result from some peculiarities of wave-mixing interference in a multilevel atomic system, where different degenerate magnetic sublevels of the upper atomic state and multiple interfering excitation processes are involved. Another possibility is that the resonance ionization enhancement results from a process where weak counterpropagating light is generated within the excitation region of cross-polarized angled beams.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography, nonlinear, and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Kirillin, Mikhail Yu.; Dudenkova, Varvara V.; Timashev, Peter S.; Kotova, Svetlana L.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Timofeeva, Lidia B.; Belkova, Galina V.; Solovieva, Anna B.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Gregory V.; Fiks, Ilya I.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gladkova, Natalia D.

    2016-12-01

    A combination of approaches to the image analysis in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT) and high-resolution imaging by nonlinear microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the different stages of atherosclerotic plaque development is studied. This combination allowed us to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the disorganization of collagen in the atherosclerotic arterial tissue (reduction and increase of CP backscatter), at the fiber (change of the geometric distribution of fibers in the second-harmonic generation microscopy images) and fibrillar (violation of packing and different nature of a basket-weave network of fibrils in the AFM images) organization levels. The calculated CP channel-related parameters are shown to have a statistically significant difference between stable and unstable (also called vulnerable) plaques, and hence, CP OCT could be a potentially powerful, minimally invasive method for vulnerable plaques detection.

  6. Chemical shift powder spectra enhanced by multiple-contact cross-polarization under slow magic-angle spinning.

    PubMed

    Raya, Jésus; Perrone, Barbara; Hirschinger, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    A simple multiple-contact cross-polarization (CP) scheme is applied to a powder sample of ferrocene and β-calcium formate under static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The method is described analytically through the density matrix formalism. We show that multiple equilibrations-re-equilibrations with the proton spin bath improves the polarization transfer efficiency at short contact times and provides higher signal enhancements than state-of-the art techniques such as adiabatic passage through the Hartmann-Hahn condition CP (APHH-CP) when MAS is applied. The resulting chemical shift powder spectra then are identical to the ones obtained by using ROtor-Directed Exchange of Orientations CP (APHH-RODEO-CP) with intensity gains of a factor 1.1-1.3.

  7. Chemical shift powder spectra enhanced by multiple-contact cross-polarization under slow magic-angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raya, Jésus; Perrone, Barbara; Hirschinger, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    A simple multiple-contact cross-polarization (CP) scheme is applied to a powder sample of ferrocene and β-calcium formate under static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The method is described analytically through the density matrix formalism. We show that multiple equilibrations-re-equilibrations with the proton spin bath improves the polarization transfer efficiency at short contact times and provides higher signal enhancements than state-of-the art techniques such as adiabatic passage through the Hartmann-Hahn condition CP (APHH-CP) when MAS is applied. The resulting chemical shift powder spectra then are identical to the ones obtained by using ROtor-Directed Exchange of Orientations CP (APHH-RODEO-CP) with intensity gains of a factor 1.1-1.3.

  8. Assessing ex vivo dental biofilms and in vivo composite restorations using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.; Aparicio, C.; Chityala, R.; Chen, R.; Fok, A.; Rudney, J.

    2012-01-01

    A cross-polarization 1310-nm optical coherence tomography system (CP-OCT), using a beam splitter based design, was used to assess ex vivo growth of complex multi-species dental biofilms. These biofilm microcosms were derived from plaque samples along the interface of composite or amalgam restoration in children with a history of early childhood caries. This paper presents a method of measuring the mean biofilm height of mature biofilms using CP-OCT. For our in vivo application, the novel swept source based CP-OCT intraoral probe (Santec Co. Komaki, Japan) dimensions and system image acquisition speed (20 image frames/second) allowed imaging pediatric subjects as young as 4 years old. The subsurface enamel under the interface of composite resin restorations of pediatric subjects were imaged using CP-OCT. Cavitated secondary caries is clearly evident from sound resin composite restorations.

  9. Scattering of a cross-polarized linear wave by a soliton at an optical event horizon in a birefringent nanophotonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ciret, Charles; Gorza, Simon-Pierre

    2016-06-15

    The scattering of a linear wave on an optical event horizon, induced by a cross-polarized soliton, is experimentally and numerically investigated in integrated structures. The experiments are performed in a dispersion-engineered birefringent silicon nanophotonic waveguide. In stark contrast with copolarized waves, the large difference between the group velocity of the two cross-polarized waves enables a frequency conversion almost independent of the soliton wavelength. It is shown that the generated idler is only shifted by 10 nm around 1550 nm over a pump tuning range of 350 nm. Simulations using two coupled full vectorial nonlinear Schrödinger equations fully support the experimental results.

  10. Measurement of local, internal magnetic fluctuations via cross-polarization scattering in the DIII-D tokamak (invited).

    PubMed

    Barada, K; Rhodes, T L; Crocker, N A; Peebles, W A

    2016-11-01

    We present new measurements of internal magnetic fluctuations obtained with a novel eight channel cross polarization scattering (CPS) system installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Measurements of internal, localized magnetic fluctuations provide a window on an important physics quantity that we heretofore have had little information on. Importantly, these measurements provide a new ability to challenge and test linear and nonlinear simulations and basic theory. The CPS method, based upon the scattering of an incident microwave beam into the opposite polarization by magnetic fluctuations, has been significantly extended and improved over the method as originally developed on the Tore Supra tokamak. A new scattering geometry, provided by a unique probe beam, is utilized to improve the spatial localization and wavenumber range. Remotely controllable polarizer and mirror angles allow polarization matching and wavenumber selection for a range of plasma conditions. The quasi-optical system design, its advantages and challenges, as well as important physics validation tests are presented and discussed. Effect of plasma beta (ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure) on both density and magnetic fluctuations is studied and it is observed that internal magnetic fluctuations increase with beta. During certain quiescent high confinement operational regimes, coherent low frequency modes not detected by magnetic probes are detected locally by CPS diagnostics.

  11. Measurement of local, internal magnetic fluctuations via cross-polarization scattering in the DIII-D tokamak (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barada, K.; Rhodes, T. L.; Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A.

    2016-11-01

    We present new measurements of internal magnetic fluctuations obtained with a novel eight channel cross polarization scattering (CPS) system installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Measurements of internal, localized magnetic fluctuations provide a window on an important physics quantity that we heretofore have had little information on. Importantly, these measurements provide a new ability to challenge and test linear and nonlinear simulations and basic theory. The CPS method, based upon the scattering of an incident microwave beam into the opposite polarization by magnetic fluctuations, has been significantly extended and improved over the method as originally developed on the Tore Supra tokamak. A new scattering geometry, provided by a unique probe beam, is utilized to improve the spatial localization and wavenumber range. Remotely controllable polarizer and mirror angles allow polarization matching and wavenumber selection for a range of plasma conditions. The quasi-optical system design, its advantages and challenges, as well as important physics validation tests are presented and discussed. Effect of plasma beta (ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure) on both density and magnetic fluctuations is studied and it is observed that internal magnetic fluctuations increase with beta. During certain quiescent high confinement operational regimes, coherent low frequency modes not detected by magnetic probes are detected locally by CPS diagnostics.

  12. Solid state 31P cross-polarization/magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance studies of crystalline glycogen phosphorylase b

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Jocelyn E.; Heyes, Stephen J.; Barford, David; Johnson, Louise N.; Dobson, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    31P cross-polarization/magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra have been obtained for pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) bound to glycogen phosphorylase b (GPb) in two different crystalline forms, monoclinic and tetragonal. Analysis of the intensities of the spinning sidebands in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra has enabled estimates of the principal values of the 31P chemical shift tensors to be obtained. Differences between the two sets of values suggest differences in the environment of the phosphate moiety of the pyridoxal phosphate in the two crystalline forms. The tensor for the tetragonal crystalline form, T state GPb, is fully consistent with those found for dianionic phosphate groups in model compounds. The spectrum for the monoclinic crystalline form, R state GPb, although closer to that of dianionic than monoanionic model phosphate compounds, deviates significantly from that expected for a simple dianion or monoanion. This is likely to result from specific interactions between the PLP phosphate group and residues in its binding site in the protein. A possible explanation for the spectrum of the monoclinic crystals is that the shift tensor is averaged by a proton exchange process between different ionization states of the PLP associated with the presence of a sulfate ion bound in the vicinity of the PLP. PMID:8457673

  13. Modular video endoscopy for in vivo cross-polarized and vital-dye fluorescence imaging of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thekkek, Nadhi; Pierce, Mark C.; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Flores, Raja M.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2013-02-01

    A modular video endoscope is developed and tested to allow imaging in different modalities. This system incorporates white light imaging (WLI), cross-polarized imaging (CPI), and vital-dye fluorescence imaging (VFI), using interchangeable filter modules. CPI and VFI are novel endoscopic modalities that probe mucosal features associated with Barrett's neoplasia. CPI enhances vasculature, while VFI enhances glandular architecture. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the integration of these modalities by imaging areas of Barrett's metaplasia and neoplasia in an esophagectomy specimen. We verify that those key image features are also observed during an in vivo surveillance procedure. CPI images demonstrate improved visualization of branching blood vessels associated with neoplasia. VFI images show glandular architecture with increased glandular effacement associated with neoplasia. Results suggests that important pathologic features seen in CPI and VFI are not visible during standard endoscopic white light imaging, and thus the modalities may be useful in future in vivo studies for discriminating neoplasia from Barrett's metaplasia. We further demonstrate that the integrated WLI/CPI/VFI endoscope is compatible with complementary high-resolution endomicroscopy techniques such as the high-resolution microendoscope, potentially enabling two-step ("red-flag" widefield plus confirmatory high-resolution imaging) protocols to be enhanced.

  14. Solar wind density controlling penetration electric field at the equatorial ionosphere during a saturation of cross polar cap potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Wan, W.; Zhao, B.; Hong, M.; Ridley, A.; Ren, Z.; Fraenz, M.; Dubinin, E.; He, M.

    2012-09-01

    The most important source of electrodynamic disturbances in the equatorial ionosphere during the main phase of a storm is the prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) originating from the high-latitude region. It has been known that such an electric field is correlated with the magnetospheric convection or interplanetary electric field. Here we show a unique case, in which the electric field disturbance in the equatorial ionosphere cannot be interpreted by this concept. During the superstorm on Nov. 20-21, 2003, the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturated at least for 8.2 h. The CPCP reconstructed by Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure suggested that the PPEF at the equatorial ionosphere still correlated with the saturated CPCP, but the CPCP was controlled by the solar wind density instead of the interplanetary electric field. However, the predicted CPCPs by Hill-Siscoe-Ober (HSO) model and Boyle-Ridley (BR) model were not fully consistent with the AMIE result and PPEF. The PPEF also decoupled from the convection electric field in the magnetotail. Due to the decoupling, the electric field in the ring current was not able to comply with the variations of PPEF, and this resulted in a long-duration electric field penetration without shielding.

  15. Confocal microscopy of excised human skin using acetic acid and crossed polarization: rapid detection of nonmelanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind M.; Menaker, Gregg; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2000-05-01

    Moh's micrographic surgery for basal- and squamous-cell cancers (BCCs, SCCs) involves precise excision of the tumor with minimal damage to the surrounding normal skin. Precise excision is guided by histopathologic examination for tumor margins; typically, 2 - 4 slices of skin are excised, and there is a waiting time of 15 - 45 minutes for the surgeon and patient while each slice is being processed for histopathology. We can avoid the processing by using a confocal reflectance microscope; confocal detection of BCCs and SCCs is possible after staining the nuclei in the excised skin with 5% acetic acid, and imaging in crossed polarization. The cancerous nuclei appear bright against the dark surrounding normal dermis. The contrast is due to increased back-scattering as well as increased depolarization from the intra-nuclear structure relative to that from the surrounding normal dermis. As in conventional histopathology, the tumors are first detected at low resolution (section thickness 20 micrometer) in a wide field (1-2 mm); nuclear morphology is then viewed at high resolution (section thickness 2 micrometer) in a small field (0.25 - 0.50 mm). Mosaics of images are assembled to produce confocal maps of the BCCs or SCCs within large excised tissue. Rapid detection (within minutes) is possible.

  16. Broadband cross-polarization-based heteronuclear dipolar recoupling for structural and dynamic NMR studies of rigid and soft solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kharkov, B. B.; Chizhik, V. I.; Dvinskikh, S. V.

    2016-01-21

    Dipolar recoupling is an essential part of current solid-state NMR methodology for probing atomic-resolution structure and dynamics in solids and soft matter. Recently described magic-echo amplitude- and phase-modulated cross-polarization heteronuclear recoupling strategy aims at efficient and robust recoupling in the entire range of coupling constants both in rigid and highly dynamic molecules. In the present study, the properties of this recoupling technique are investigated by theoretical analysis, spin-dynamics simulation, and experimentally. The resonance conditions and the efficiency of suppressing the rf field errors are examined and compared to those for other recoupling sequences based on similar principles. The experimental data obtained in a variety of rigid and soft solids illustrate the scope of the method and corroborate the results of analytical and numerical calculations. The technique benefits from the dipolar resolution over a wider range of coupling constants compared to that in other state-of-the-art methods and thus is advantageous in studies of complex solids with a broad range of dynamic processes and molecular mobility degrees.

  17. Broadband cross-polarization-based heteronuclear dipolar recoupling for structural and dynamic NMR studies of rigid and soft solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkov, B. B.; Chizhik, V. I.; Dvinskikh, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar recoupling is an essential part of current solid-state NMR methodology for probing atomic-resolution structure and dynamics in solids and soft matter. Recently described magic-echo amplitude- and phase-modulated cross-polarization heteronuclear recoupling strategy aims at efficient and robust recoupling in the entire range of coupling constants both in rigid and highly dynamic molecules. In the present study, the properties of this recoupling technique are investigated by theoretical analysis, spin-dynamics simulation, and experimentally. The resonance conditions and the efficiency of suppressing the rf field errors are examined and compared to those for other recoupling sequences based on similar principles. The experimental data obtained in a variety of rigid and soft solids illustrate the scope of the method and corroborate the results of analytical and numerical calculations. The technique benefits from the dipolar resolution over a wider range of coupling constants compared to that in other state-of-the-art methods and thus is advantageous in studies of complex solids with a broad range of dynamic processes and molecular mobility degrees.

  18. Broadband cross-polarization-based heteronuclear dipolar recoupling for structural and dynamic NMR studies of rigid and soft solids.

    PubMed

    Kharkov, B B; Chizhik, V I; Dvinskikh, S V

    2016-01-21

    Dipolar recoupling is an essential part of current solid-state NMR methodology for probing atomic-resolution structure and dynamics in solids and soft matter. Recently described magic-echo amplitude- and phase-modulated cross-polarization heteronuclear recoupling strategy aims at efficient and robust recoupling in the entire range of coupling constants both in rigid and highly dynamic molecules. In the present study, the properties of this recoupling technique are investigated by theoretical analysis, spin-dynamics simulation, and experimentally. The resonance conditions and the efficiency of suppressing the rf field errors are examined and compared to those for other recoupling sequences based on similar principles. The experimental data obtained in a variety of rigid and soft solids illustrate the scope of the method and corroborate the results of analytical and numerical calculations. The technique benefits from the dipolar resolution over a wider range of coupling constants compared to that in other state-of-the-art methods and thus is advantageous in studies of complex solids with a broad range of dynamic processes and molecular mobility degrees.

  19. Basic Wiring. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…

  20. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Gene; Calvert, King

    This second edition contains teacher and student guides for 14 units of instruction in major appliance repair. Each unit in the teacher edition includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities, answers to assignment sheets, answers to the written test, written test, a unit evaluation form, teacher…

  1. Diesel Technology: Introduction. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerschke, John D.; Eichhorn, Lane

    This complete teacher edition of a diesel technology course consists of introductory pages, teacher pages, and the student edition. The introductory pages provide these tools: training and competency profile; National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation Crosswalk; instructional/task analysis; basic skills icons and classifications; basic…

  2. The levels of edit, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanburen, R.; Buehler, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    The editorial process is analyzed, and five levels of edit are identified. These levels represent cumulative combinations of nine types of edit: Coordination, Policy, Integrity, Screening, Copy Clarification, Format, Mechanical Style, Language, and Substantive. The levels and types of edit, although developed for specific use with external reports at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, cover the general range of technical editing, especially as it applies to an in-house technical publications organization. Each type of edit is set forth in terms of groups of actions to be performed by editor. The edit-level concept has enhanced understanding and communication among editors, authors, and publications managers concerning the specific editorial work to be done on each manuscript. It has also proved useful as a management tool for estimating and monitoring cost.

  3. ST5 Observations of the Imbalance of Region 1 and 2 Field-Aligned Currents and Its Implication to the Cross-Polar Cap Pedersen Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Guan; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use the in-situ magnetic field observations from Space Technology 5 mission to quantify the imbalance of Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) currents. During the three-month duration of the ST5 mission, geomagnetic conditions range from quiet to moderately active. We find that the R1 current intensity is consistently stronger than the R2 current intensity both for the dawnside and the duskside large-scale field-aligned current system. The net currents flowing into (out of) the ionosphere in the dawnside (duskside) are in the order of 5% of the total R1 currents. We also find that the net currents flowing into or out of the ionosphere are controlled by the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in the same way as the field-aligned currents themselves are. Since the net currents due to the imbalance of the R1 and R2 currents require that their closure currents flow across the polar cap from dawn to dusk as Pedersen currents, our results indicate that the total amount of the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents is in the order of 0.1 MA. This study, although with a very limited dataset, is one of the first attempts to quantify the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents. Given the importance of the Joule heating due to Pedersen currents to the high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, quantifying the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents and associated Joule heating is needed for developing models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  4. Development of a cross-polarization scattering system for the measurement of internal magnetic fluctuations in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, T. L. Peebles, W. A.; Crocker, N. A.; Nguyen, X.

    2014-11-15

    The design and performance of a new cross-polarization scattering (CPS) system for the localized measurement of internal magnetic fluctuations is presented. CPS is a process whereby magnetic fluctuations scatter incident electromagnetic radiation into a perpendicular polarization which is subsequently detected. A new CPS design that incorporates a unique scattering geometry was laboratory tested, optimized, and installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Plasma tests of signal-to-noise, polarization purity, and frequency response indicate proper functioning of the system. CPS data show interesting features related to internal MHD perturbations known as sawteeth that are not observed on density fluctuations.

  5. Protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes studied using 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Davis, Mark F; Gennett, Thomas; Dillon, Anne C; Jones, Kim M; Heben, Michael J

    2005-12-14

    The reversible protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) in sulfuric acid and Nafion was investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopies. Magic-angle spinning (MAS) was used to obtain high-resolution 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization (CP) NMR spectra. The 13C NMR chemical shifts are reported for bulk SWNTs, H2SO4-treated SWNTs, SWNT-Nafion polymer composites, SWNT-AQ55 polymer composites, and SWNTs in contact with water. Protonation occurs without irreversible oxidation of the nanotube substrate via a charge-transfer process. This is the first report of a chemically induced change in a SWNT 13C resonance brought about by a reversible interaction with an acidic proton, providing additional evidence that carbon nanotubes behave as weak bases. Cross polarization was found to be a powerful technique for providing an additional contrast mechanism for studying nanotubes in contact with other chemical species. The CP studies confirmed polarization transfer from nearby protons to nanotube carbon atoms. The CP technique was also applied to investigate water adsorbed on carbon nanotube surfaces. Finally, the degree of bundling of the SWNTs in Nafion films was probed with the 1H-13C CP-MAS technique.

  6. Optimization of cross-polarization at low radiofrequency fields for sensitivity enhancement in solid-state NMR of membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroloff, Sophie N.; Nevzorov, Alexander A.

    2015-07-01

    Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) of oriented membrane proteins (MPs) is capable of providing structural and dynamic information at nearly physiological conditions. However, NMR experiments performed on oriented membrane proteins generally suffer from low sensitivity. Moreover, utilization of high-power radiofrequency (RF) irradiations for magnetization transfer may give rise to sample heating, thereby decreasing the efficiency of conventional cross-polarization schemes. Here we have optimized the recently developed repetitive cross-polarization (REP-CP) sequence (Tang et al., 2011) to further increase the magnetization transfer efficiency for membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles and compared its performance to single-contact Hartmann-Hahn cross-polarization (CP), CP-MOIST and the adiabatic transfer. It has been found that employing the REP-CP sequence at RF amplitudes of 19 kHz instead of the commonly used higher RF fields (>45 kHz) enhances the efficiency of REP-CP. An additional 30% signal can be obtained as compared to the previously published REP-CP, and 20% when compared to the re-optimized REP-CP at 50 kHz RF fields. Moreover, the 15N signal gain of low-power REP-CP was found to be 40% over the adiabatic CP and up to 80% over CP-MOIST. Thus, the low-power REP-CP sequence surpasses all of the previous CP schemes in addition of having the tremendous advantage of reducing the RF powers by a factor of seven, thereby preserving the liquid-like bicelle sample. By contrast, in purely static (NAL crystal) and semi-rigid systems (Pf1 phage), the adiabatic CP was found to be more effective. Periodic oscillations of the intensity profile (distinct from the transient oscillations) as a function of the CP contact time and B1 RF field strengths were observed during the REP-CP optimization with the oscillations becoming more pronounced with lower RF fields. Many-spin simulations were performed to explain the oscillations and their periodicity.

  7. Generation of high-fidelity few-cycle pulses at 2.1 μm via cross-polarized wave generation.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Aurélien; Silva, Francisco; Jullien, Aurélie; Cousin, Seth L; Austin, Dane R; Biegert, Jens; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate the generation of temporally clean few-cycle pulses at 2.1 μm by shortening of 6-optical-cycle pulses via cross-polarized wave (XPW) generation in BaF(2), CaF(2) and CVD-Diamond crystals. By combining spectra and single-shot third-order intensity cross-correlation traces in a novel Bayesian pulse retrieval technique, we measured pulse durations of 20 fs, corresponding to 2.8 optical cycles. Our results show that XPW generation in the infrared could provide a high-fidelity source of few-cycle pulses for strong-field physics applications. It could also serve as an injector for high-peak power ultrafast mid-IR wavelength parametric amplifiers.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of magnetic and density fluctuations via cross-polarization scattering and Doppler backscattering on the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, T. L.; Barada, K.; Peebles, W. A.; Crocker, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    An upgraded cross-polarization scattering (CPS) system for the simultaneous measurement of internal magnetic fluctuations B ˜ and density fluctuations ñ is presented. The system has eight radial quadrature channels acquired simultaneously with an eight-channel Doppler backscattering system (measures density fluctuations ñ and flows). 3-D ray tracing calculations based on the GENRAY ray tracing code are used to illustrate the scattering and geometric considerations involved in the CPS implementation on DIII-D. A unique quasi-optical design and IF electronics system allow direct comparison of B ˜ and ñ during dynamic or transient plasma events (e.g., Edge Localized Modes or ELMs, L to H-mode transitions, etc.). The system design allows the interesting possibility of both magnetic-density ( B ˜ -ñ) fluctuation and magnetic-temperature ( B ˜ - T ˜ ) fluctuation cross-phase measurements suitable for detailed tests of turbulence simulations.

  9. Understanding and optimizing microstrip patch antenna cross polarization radiation on element level for demanding phased array antennas in weather radar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollbracht, D.

    2015-11-01

    The antenna cross polarization suppression (CPS) is of significant importance for the accurate calculation of polarimetric weather radar moments. State-of-the-art reflector antennas fulfill these requirements, but phased array antennas are changing their CPS during the main beam shift, off-broadside direction. Since the cross polarization (x-pol) of the array pattern is affected by the x-pol element factor, the single antenna element should be designed for maximum CPS, not only at broadside, but also for the complete angular electronic scan (e-scan) range of the phased array antenna main beam positions. Different methods for reducing the x-pol radiation from microstrip patch antenna elements, available from literature sources, are discussed and summarized. The potential x-pol sources from probe fed microstrip patch antennas are investigated. Due to the lack of literature references, circular and square shaped X-Band radiators are compared in their x-pol performance and the microstrip patch antenna size variation was analyzed for improved x-pol pattern. Furthermore, the most promising technique for the reduction of x-pol radiation, namely "differential feeding with two RF signals 180° out of phase", is compared to single fed patch antennas and thoroughly investigated for phased array applications with simulation results from CST MICROWAVE STUDIO (CST MWS). A new explanation for the excellent port isolation of dual linear polarized and differential fed patch antennas is given graphically. The antenna radiation pattern from single fed and differential fed microstrip patch antennas are analyzed and the shapes of the x-pol patterns are discussed with the well-known cavity model. Moreover, two new visual based electromagnetic approaches for the explanation of the x-pol generation will be given: the field line approach and the surface current distribution approach provide new insight in understanding the generation of x-pol component in microstrip patch antenna radiation

  10. Developing new levels of edit

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, J.; DeLanoy, M.; Deupree, R.; Skiby, J.; Thompson, B.

    1998-07-01

    In 1985, the writing and editing group at Los Alamos National Laboratory established four levels of edit for technical reports. When a survey in 1994 showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, the authors set about revising them. Their goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure that value was added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product -- three author-based levels of edit.

  11. Digital Video Editing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Monica Adams, head librarian at Robinson Secondary in Fairfax country, Virginia, states that librarians should have the technical knowledge to support projects related to digital video editing. The process of digital video editing and the cables, storage issues and the computer system with software is described.

  12. Transcultural Counseling. Second edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, John, Ed.

    New trends in transcultural theory, expanded cultural paradigms, innovative counseling techniques for working with diverse ethnic groups, and a comprehensive discussion of professional issues are presented in this second edition of a popular text. This edition is designed to support curriculum changes in counselor education programs to maximize…

  13. Anthropology. Teacher Edition. Revised [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The teacher and student editions of this book introduce students to the subject of anthropology and the subfields into which it is divided. Students learn about the beginnings of anthropology as an outgrowth of the curiosity stimulated by the Age of Exploration and how it grew into the basic field it is today. Students examine the origins and…

  14. Rock mechanics. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Jumikis, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rock Mechanics, 2nd Edition deals with rock as an engineering construction material-a material with which, upon which, and within which civil engineers build structures. It thus pertains to hydraulic structures engineering; to highway, railway, canal, foundation, and tunnel engineering; and to all kinds of rock earthworks and to substructures in rock. Major changes in this new edition include: rock classification, rock types and description, rock testing equipment, rock properties, stability effects of discontinuity and gouge, grouting, gunite and shotcrete, and Lugeon's water test. This new edition also covers rock bolting and prestressing, pressure-grouted soil anchors, and rock slope stabilization.

  15. Modular video endoscopy for in vivo cross-polarized and vital-dye fluorescence imaging of Barrett’s-associated neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mark C.; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Flores, Raja M.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A modular video endoscope is developed and tested to allow imaging in different modalities. This system incorporates white light imaging (WLI), cross-polarized imaging (CPI), and vital-dye fluorescence imaging (VFI), using interchangeable filter modules. CPI and VFI are novel endoscopic modalities that probe mucosal features associated with Barrett’s neoplasia. CPI enhances vasculature, while VFI enhances glandular architecture. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the integration of these modalities by imaging areas of Barrett’s metaplasia and neoplasia in an esophagectomy specimen. We verify that those key image features are also observed during an in vivo surveillance procedure. CPI images demonstrate improved visualization of branching blood vessels associated with neoplasia. VFI images show glandular architecture with increased glandular effacement associated with neoplasia. Results suggests that important pathologic features seen in CPI and VFI are not visible during standard endoscopic white light imaging, and thus the modalities may be useful in future in vivo studies for discriminating neoplasia from Barrett’s metaplasia. We further demonstrate that the integrated WLI/CPI/VFI endoscope is compatible with complementary high-resolution endomicroscopy techniques such as the high-resolution microendoscope, potentially enabling two-step (“red-flag” widefield plus confirmatory high-resolution imaging) protocols to be enhanced. PMID:23370452

  16. Sensitivity enhancement for membrane proteins reconstituted in parallel and perpendicular oriented bicelles obtained by using repetitive cross-polarization and membrane-incorporated free radicals.

    PubMed

    Koroloff, Sophie N; Tesch, Deanna M; Awosanya, Emmanuel O; Nevzorov, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Multidimensional separated local-field and spin-exchange experiments employed by oriented-sample solid-state NMR are essential for structure determination and spectroscopic assignment of membrane proteins reconstituted in macroscopically aligned lipid bilayers. However, these experiments typically require a large number of scans in order to establish interspin correlations. Here we have shown that a combination of optimized repetitive cross polarization (REP-CP) and membrane-embedded free radicals allows one to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio by factors 2.4-3.0 in the case of Pf1 coat protein reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles with their normals being either parallel or perpendicular to the main magnetic field. Notably, spectral resolution is not affected at the 2:1 radical-to-protein ratio. Spectroscopic assignment of Pf1 coat protein in the parallel bicelles has been established as an illustration of the method. The proposed methodology will advance applications of oriented-sample NMR technique when applied to samples containing smaller quantities of proteins and three-dimensional experiments.

  17. Vibrational 13C-cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopic and thermal characterization of poly(alanine-glycine) as model for silk I Bombyx mori fibroin.

    PubMed

    Monti, Patrizia; Taddei, Paola; Freddi, Giuliano; Ohgo, Kosuke; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the conformational characterization of poly(alanine-glycine) II (pAG II) as a model for a Bombyx mori fibroin silk I structure. Raman, IR, and 13C-cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR spectra of pAG II are discussed in comparison with those of the crystalline fraction of B. mori silk fibroin (chymotryptic precipitate, Cp) with a silk I (silk I-Cp) structure. The spectral data give evidence that silk I-Cp and the synthetic copolypeptide pAG II have similar conformations. Moreover, the spectral findings reveal that silk I-Cp is more crystalline than pAG II; consequently, the latter contains a larger amount of the random coil conformation. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements confirm this result. N-Deuteration experiments on pAG II allow us to attribute the Raman component at 1320 cm(-1) to the amide III mode of a beta-turn type II conformation, thus confirming the results of those who propose a repeated beta-turn type II structure for silk I. The analysis of the Raman spectra in the nuNH region confirms that the silk I structure is characterized by the presence of different types of H-bonding arrangements, in agreement with the above model.

  18. Characterization of fungal-degraded lime wood by X-ray diffraction and cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Larsson, Per Tomas; Tibirna, Carmen Mihaela; Vasile, Cornelia

    2010-09-01

    X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CP/MAS) (13)C-NMR spectroscopy were applied to determine changes over time in the morphology and crystallinity of lime wood (Tilia cordata Miller) generated by the soft-rot fungi. Wood samples were inoculated with Trichoderma viride Pers for various durations up to 84 days. Structural and morphological modifications were assessed by comparing the structural features of decayed lime wood samples with references. Significant morphology changes such as defibration or small cavities were clearly observed on the SEM micrographs of lime wood samples exposed to fungi. Following the deconvolution process of the diffraction patterns, the degree of crystallinity, apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains, and the cellulose fraction have been determined. It was found that all crystallographic data vary with the duration of exposure to fungi. The degree of crystallinity and cellulose fraction tend to decrease, whereas the apparent lateral crystallite size and the proportion of crystallite interior chains increase with prolonged biodegradation processes. The most relevant signals in CP/MAS (13)C-NMR spectra were assigned according to literature data. The differences observed were discussed in terms of lignin and cellulose composition: by fixing the lignin reference signal intensity, the cellulose and hemicelluloses moieties showed a relative decrease compared to the lignin signals in decayed wood.

  19. CRISPR Genome Editing

    Cancer.gov

    A research article about a technique for gene editing known as CRISPR-Cas9. The technique has made it much easier and faster for cancer researchers to study mutations and test new therapeutic targets.

  20. Developing new levels of edit

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1985, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) staff have had four levels of edit to choose from for technical reports. When a CQI survey showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, LANL set about revising them. The goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure value added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product--three author-based levels of edit.

  1. Carbon-13 cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the interactions between maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene and wood polymers.

    PubMed

    Rude, Erica; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G

    2008-05-01

    The chemical interactions between maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) and wood were studied with solid-state carbon-13 cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CPMAS NMR) spectroscopy. MAPP was synthesized with 100% (13)C enrichment at the C(1) and C(4) carbons to allow detection of the [1,4-(13)C(2)]MAPP functional groups and was melt blended with cellulose, lignin, and maple wood. In the cellulose/MAPP blend, changes in (13)C CPMAS NMR corrected signal intensities for the anhydride and dicarboxylic maleic acid functionalities suggested that esterification may have occurred predominantly from the more numerous diacid carbons. A single proton longitudinal relaxation in the rotating frame, (H)T(1rho), for the MAPP and the cellulose carbons in the blend suggested that they were spin coupled, i.e., homogeneous on a 10-200 Angstrom scale. Esterification was also suggested in the lignin/MAPP blend. Furthermore, the more significant changes in the intensities of the carbonyl signals and (H)T(1rho) values suggested that lignin may be more reactive to MAPP than cellulose. Finally, when maple was melt blended with MAPP, the same trends in the (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra and (H)T(1rho) behavior were observed as when MAPP was blended with cellulose or lignin. This study therefore clarifies that during melt compounding of wood with MAPP, esterification occurs with wood polymers, preferentially with lignin. Understanding the interactions of MAPP with wood is of significance for the development of natural-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites.

  2. Aerospace Bibliography. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aerospace Education Council, Washington, DC.

    This sixth edition of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) bibliography presents an updated list of books, references, periodicals, and other educational materials related to space flight and space science. To find materials on a particular subject and for a specific reading level, users are advised to refer first to Part…

  3. Authoritative Online Editions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is now very easy for anyone to find formerly hard-to-find books such as the works of Walt Whitman with the help of online booksellers. The author also describes the efforts made by various institutions to produce online editions of the works of major writers. One such prominent project is the archive…

  4. Aerospace Bibliography, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This third edition bibliography lists books and teaching aids related to aeronautics and space. Aeronautics titles are limited to aerospace-related research subjects, and books on astronomy to those directly related to space exploration. Also listed are pertinent references like pamphlets, films, film strips, booklets, charts, pictures,…

  5. Beginning to edit physics

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.W.

    1995-02-01

    A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

  6. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  7. Headlines Previous Editions

    Science.gov Websites

    Previous Editions: Volume 17 Volume 16 Volume 15 Volume 14 Volume 13 FEB 2017 JAN 2017 DEC 2016 NOV 2016 OCT 2016 SEP 2016 AUG 2016 JUL 2016 JUN 2016 MAY 2016 APR 2016 MAR 2016 FEB ...

  8. Understanding Physics, First Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Karen; Laws, Priscilla W.; Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick J.

    2004-03-01

    Built on the foundations of Halliday, Resnick, and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics Sixth Edition, this text is designed to work with interactive learning strategies that are increasingly being used in physics instruction (for example, microcomputer-based labs, interactive lectures, etc. ). In doing so, it incorporates new approaches based upon Physics Education Research (PER), aligns with courses that use computer-based laboratory tools, and promotes Activity Based Physics in lectures, labs, and recitations.

  9. REDIdb: the RNA editing database.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa Maria Rosaria; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The RNA Editing Database (REDIdb) is an interactive, web-based database created and designed with the aim to allocate RNA editing events such as substitutions, insertions and deletions occurring in a wide range of organisms. The database contains both fully and partially sequenced DNA molecules for which editing information is available either by experimental inspection (in vitro) or by computational detection (in silico). Each record of REDIdb is organized in a specific flat-file containing a description of the main characteristics of the entry, a feature table with the editing events and related details and a sequence zone with both the genomic sequence and the corresponding edited transcript. REDIdb is a relational database in which the browsing and identification of editing sites has been simplified by means of two facilities to either graphically display genomic or cDNA sequences or to show the corresponding alignment. In both cases, all editing sites are highlighted in colour and their relative positions are detailed by mousing over. New editing positions can be directly submitted to REDIdb after a user-specific registration to obtain authorized secure access. This first version of REDIdb database stores 9964 editing events and can be freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/search.html.

  10. Exposure Factors Handbook (2011 Edition)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition. The Exposure Factors Handbook provides information on various physiological and behavioral factors commonly used in assessing exposure to environmental chemicals.

  11. Text Editing in Chemistry Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Low, Renae; Sweller, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…

  12. Graphic Arts: Orientation, Composition, and Paste-Up. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licklider, Cheryl

    This teacher and student edition, the first in a series of instructional materials on graphic communication, consists of orientation information, teacher pages, and student worksheets. The teacher edition contains these introductory pages: use of this publication; training and competency profile; PrintED crosswalk; instructional/task analysis;…

  13. Oxyacetylene Welding and Oxyfuel Cutting. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, John; Harper, Eddie

    This Oklahoma curriculum guide, which includes a teacher edition, a student edition, and a student workbook, provides three units for a course on oxyacetylene welding, oxyfuel cutting, and cutting done with alternative fuels such as MAPP, propane, and natural gas. The three units are: "Oxyacetylene Welding"; "Oxyfuel Cutting";…

  14. Introduction to Surgical Technology. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushey, Vicki; Hildebrand, Bob; Hildebrand, Dinah; Johnson, Dave; Sikes, John; Tahah, Ann; Walker, Susan; Zielsdorf, Lani

    These teacher and student editions provide instructional materials for an introduction to surgical technology course. Introductory materials in the teacher edition include information on use, instructional/task analysis, academic and workplace skill classifications and definitions, related academic and workplace skill list, and crosswalk to…

  15. Graphic Arts: Process Camera, Stripping, and Platemaking. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multistate Academic and Vocational Curriculum Consortium, Stillwater, OK.

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a course in graphic arts that covers the process camera, stripping, and platemaking. The course introduces basic concepts and skills necessary for entry-level employment in a graphic communication occupation. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable…

  16. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, David

    This package contains teacher and student editions of a residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) course of study. The teacher edition contains information on the following: using the publication; national competencies; competency profile; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, equipment, and…

  17. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike; New, Larry

    Teacher and student editions and a student workbook for fundamentals of welding comprise the first of six in a series of competency-based instructional materials for welding programs. Introductory pages in the teacher edition are training and competency profile, instructional/task analysis, basic skills icons and classifications, basic skills…

  18. Tools of Radio Astronomy, 5th edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Rohlfs, Kristian; Huttemeister, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    New 5th corrected edition of the book http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009tra..book.....W in Russian, translated by O. Verkhodanov and S. Trushkin, editing S.A. Trushkin from Special astrophysical observatory RAS. This edition contains the translation of the 5th Springer edition of 2009 and new additional chapter (wrote by authors) of Solutions of the problems.

  19. An Assessment of Computerized Text Editing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibal, William J.; Kohut, Gary F.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether text editing programs are successful in taking over the traditional functions of an editor. Compares the editing suggestions made by two of the most popular text editing programs ("RightWriter" and "Punctuation + Style") with those of an experienced editor. Finds that text editing programs are…

  20. Partitioning of main and side-chain units between different phases: a solid-state 13C NMR inversion-recovery cross-polarization study on a homogeneous, metallocene-based, ethylene-1-octene copolymer.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Victor M; Mathot, Vincent B F

    2002-01-01

    13C NMR inversion-recovery cross-polarization experiments are used to study the phase structure and partitioning of main and side-chain groups in a homogeneous, metallocene-based, ethylene-1-octene copolymer. The results provide strong evidence for a three-phase model, i.e. a rigid, (imperfect) crystalline phase, which is mainly composed of long sequences of methylene carbon atoms of the main chain, a semi-rigid, amorphous interphase (also denoted as 'rigid amorphous'), which is enriched by chain segments bearing methylene and methine carbon atoms of the main chain, and a soft fraction of the amorphous phase (also denoted as 'mobile amorphous'), which is largely composed of side chains and short methylene sequences of the main chain.

  1. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  2. Heat pump manual. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-11-01

    Since publication of the first edition of the Heat Pump Manual, heat pump technology has evolved and broadened its market appeal, with shipments topping one million units three years in a row. As research reveals new ways to utilize the efficient heat pump cycle, energy efficiency regulations and environmental regulations evolve, and new products enter the market, utilities need to know the basics and keep abreast of the latest. The Heat Pump Manual, Second Edition represents a comprehensive information source on electric heat pump technology, applications, and markets. The first edition of the Heat Pump Manual, published in 1985, set a new standard for technical literature by providing comprehensive information in terms understandable to a broad audience. The expanded second edition brings readers up-to-date with heat pump systems for residential and small commercial buildings and includes 75 new technical illustrations plus tables and charts. 65 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Modern Physics, 4th edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Paul A.; Llewellyn, Ralph

    The new edition of the classic text for the intermediate-level modern physics course, revised and updated to take students to the forefront of contemporary research and applications across the full spectrum of science and technology."

  4. Genome edited sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line.

  5. Genome editing in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Strong, Alanna; Musunuru, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Genome-editing tools, which include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) systems, have emerged as an invaluable technology to achieve somatic and germline genomic manipulation in cells and model organisms for multiple applications, including the creation of knockout alleles, introducing desired mutations into genomic DNA, and inserting novel transgenes. Genome editing is being rapidly adopted into all fields of biomedical research, including the cardiovascular field, where it has facilitated a greater understanding of lipid metabolism, electrophysiology, cardiomyopathies, and other cardiovascular disorders, has helped to create a wider variety of cellular and animal models, and has opened the door to a new class of therapies. In this Review, we discuss the applications of genome-editing technology throughout cardiovascular disease research and the prospect of in vivo genome-editing therapies in the future. We also describe some of the existing limitations of genome-editing tools that will need to be addressed if cardiovascular genome editing is to achieve its full scientific and therapeutic potential.

  6. Marine botany. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  7. Biological significance of RNA editing in cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Fei, Yongjun; Page, Michael

    2012-09-01

    RNA editing is one of the post-transcriptional RNA processes. RNA editing generates RNA and protein diversity in eukaryotes and results in specific amino acid substitutions, deletions, and changes in gene expression levels. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing represents the most important class of editing in human and affects function of many genes. The importance of balancing RNA modification levels across time and space is becoming increasingly evident. In this review, we overview the biological significance of RNA editing including RNA editing in tumorigenesis, RNA editing in neuronal tissues, RNA editing as a regulator of gene expression, and RNA editing in dsRNA-mediated gene silencing, which may increase our understanding of RNA biology.

  8. [Genome editing of industrial microorganism].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Genome editing is defined as highly-effective and precise modification of cellular genome in a large scale. In recent years, such genome-editing methods have been rapidly developed in the field of industrial strain improvement. The quickly-updating methods thoroughly change the old mode of inefficient genetic modification, which is "one modification, one selection marker, and one target site". Highly-effective modification mode in genome editing have been developed including simultaneous modification of multiplex genes, highly-effective insertion, replacement, and deletion of target genes in the genome scale, cut-paste of a large DNA fragment. These new tools for microbial genome editing will certainly be applied widely, and increase the efficiency of industrial strain improvement, and promote the revolution of traditional fermentation industry and rapid development of novel industrial biotechnology like production of biofuel and biomaterial. The technological principle of these genome-editing methods and their applications were summarized in this review, which can benefit engineering and construction of industrial microorganism.

  9. CTD writing and editing standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruthers, C. M.

    1991-03-01

    The Computer and Telecommunication Division (CTD) recognizes that the communication of clear, accurate, reasonably complete information is essential to the success of its Laboratory mission. CTD therefore encourages all Division personnel to adhere to the principles of good writing and to the standards for grammar, usage, style, formats, and publication procedures that are described in CTD Writing and Editing Standards. We encourage CTD personnel to read CTD Writing and Editing Standards and to use it continually as a desktop reference. It will help CTD writers to produce better documents consistent with CTD standards in less time. Applying the principles specified in this document on how to write and organize technical information will speed up the editing, review, and revision processes. CTD Writing and Editing Standards complements the Argonne National Laboratory Technical Publications Guide, which serves as the basic Argonne documentation reference on issues concerning DOE orders and guidelines, NRC directives, and other sponsor requirements. However, this Laboratory-wide document does not address matters of grammar or style. Documents recommended in CTD Writing and Editing Standards are usually available for purchase at the Document Distribution Counter (Building 221, Room A-134) or through the mail (by calling extension 2-5405 and ordering copies).

  10. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Scott A.; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H.

    2016-01-01

    Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language. PMID:27171158

  11. Advances in targeted genome editing.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A

    2012-08-01

    New technologies have recently emerged that enable targeted editing of genomes in diverse systems. This includes precise manipulation of gene sequences in their natural chromosomal context and addition of transgenes to specific genomic loci. This progress has been facilitated by advances in engineering targeted nucleases with programmable, site-specific DNA-binding domains, including zinc finger proteins and transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Recent improvements have enhanced nuclease performance, accelerated nuclease assembly, and lowered the cost of genome editing. These advances are driving new approaches to many areas of biotechnology, including biopharmaceutical production, agriculture, creation of transgenic organisms and cell lines, and studies of genome structure, regulation, and function. Genome editing is also being investigated in preclinical and clinical gene therapies for many diseases.

  12. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Plasma Arc Cutting. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Eddie; Knapp, John

    This packet of instructional materials for a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and plasma arc cutting course is comprised of a teacher edition, student edition, and student workbook. The teacher edition consists of introductory pages and teacher pages. Introductory pages include training and competency profile, state duty/task crosswalk,…

  13. Gas Metal Arc Welding and Flux-Cored Arc Welding. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, John; Harper, Eddie

    This packet, containing a teacher's edition, a student edition, and a student workbook, introduces students to high deposition welding and processes for "shielding" a weld. In addition to general information, the teacher edition consists of introductory pages and teacher pages, as well as unit information that corresponds to the…

  14. CMS Software Notebook. First Edition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    For example, one of my file managing procedures will permit a user to enter the CMS subset to look for a missing file when it is not possible to...Box 17186 Washington, D.C. 20041 CMS userid: ORGASS Please specify if you want the user’s manual or the systems manual. The latter is designed for...8217 CMS SOFTWARE NOTEBOOK*t (First Edition) edited by Richard J. Orgass DT ’ Technical Memorandum No. 79-6 K. July 31, 1979 . ABSTRACT A brief description

  15. Language Editing at Astronomy & Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J.

    2011-07-01

    In 2002, the A&A Board of Directors voted that all articles must be written in English and decided to improve the overall quality of the language in the articles with the help of a team of language editors. This article reviews the general advantages of editing the English expression and describes both the aims of this effort and its place in the full publication process. This is followed by the Guide to language editing that has been available on the Journal's website for several years now.

  16. Genome editing comes of age.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Soo

    2016-09-01

    Genome editing harnesses programmable nucleases to cut and paste genetic information in a targeted manner in living cells and organisms. Here, I review the development of programmable nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL (transcription-activator-like) effector nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPR (cluster of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs). I specifically highlight the key advances that set the foundation for the rapid and widespread implementation of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing approaches that has revolutionized the field.

  17. Delivery technologies for genome editing.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hao; Kauffman, Kevin J; Anderson, Daniel G

    2017-03-24

    With the recent development of CRISPR technology, it is becoming increasingly easy to engineer the genome. Genome-editing systems based on CRISPR, as well as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), are becoming valuable tools for biomedical research, drug discovery and development, and even gene therapy. However, for each of these systems to effectively enter cells of interest and perform their function, efficient and safe delivery technologies are needed. This Review discusses the principles of biomacromolecule delivery and gene editing, examines recent advances and challenges in non-viral and viral delivery methods, and highlights the status of related clinical trials.

  18. Investigating RNA editing factors from trypanosome mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Aphasizheva, Inna; Zhang, Liye; Aphasizhev, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial U-insertion/deletion mRNA editing is carried out by two principal multiprotein assemblies, enzymatic RNA editing core (RECC) and RNA editing substrate binding (RESC) complexes, and a plethora of auxiliary factors. An integral part of mitochondrial gene expression, editing receives inputs from primary mRNA and gRNA precursor processing pathways, and generates substrates for mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Although nearly all RECC-embedded enzymes have been implicated in specific editing reactions, the majority of proteins that populate the RESC are also essential for generating edited mRNAs. However, lack of recognizable motifs in RESC subunits limits the prowess of bioinformatics in guiding biochemical experiments and elucidating their specific biological functions. In this chapter, we describe a generic workflow for investigating mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei and focus on several methods that proved instrumental is assigning definitive functions to editing factors lacking known signature sequences. PMID:27020893

  19. Civil Technology Applications. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Karen

    Teacher and student editions of Civil Technology Applications are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for drafting and civil technology programs. It includes the technical content and tasks necessary for a student to be employed as a drafter or civil technician in a civil engineering firm. Introductory pages in the teacher…

  20. Diesel Technology: Workplace Skills. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellum, Mary

    This publication consists of instructional materials to provide secondary and postsecondary students with skills useful in pursuing a career in the diesel industry. Introductory materials in the teacher edition include information on use of the publication, competency profile, instructional/task analysis, related academic and workplace skills…

  1. Shielded Metal Arc Pipe Welding. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    This second edition of the shielded metal arc pipe welding curriculum guide presents both basic and advanced pipe welding skills. All specifications for procedure and welder qualification are presented according to national standards. The standards also include the test position for both groove and fillet pipe welding. The guide contains three…

  2. Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

  3. Controlled flexibility in technical editing - The levels-of-edit concept at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    The levels-of-edit concept, which can be used to specify the amount of editorial effort involved in the preparation of a manuscript for publication, is discussed. Nine types of editing are identified and described. These include coordination edit (preparing estimates, gathering cost data, monitoring production processes), policy edit, integrity edit (making sure that parts of a publication match in a physical or numerical sense), screening edit (ensuring that the quality of camera-ready copy is sufficient for external publication), copy clarification edit, format edit, mechanical style edit, language edit, and substantive edit (reviewing the manuscript for content coherence, emphasis, subordination and parallelism). These functions are grouped into five levels of edit. An edit-level number is assigned to each manuscript, providing a quantitative and qualitative indicator of the editing to be done which is clearly understood by authors, managers, and editors alike. In addition, clear boundaries are drawn between normal and extraordinary editing tasks. Individual organizations will group various edits in different ways to reflect their needs and priorities; the essential element of the system is unambiguous definition and coding of the types and amount of work to be done.

  4. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  5. 48 CFR 53.102 - Current editions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current editions. 53.102... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.102 Current editions. The form prescriptions in subpart 53.2 and the illustrations in subpart 53.3 contain current edition dates. Contracting officers shall use the current...

  6. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

  7. American Reference Books Annual 1974. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynar, Bohdan S., Ed.; And Others

    The fifth edition of American Reference Books Annual (ARBA 74) provides a comprehensive listing of reference books published or distributed in the United States with 1973 imprints, plus those published too late in 1972 to be included in the fourth edition. Like other editions of ARBA, ARBA 74 reviews library science publications, reprints, and…

  8. Teaching Population Concepts. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This edition is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of population study are presented. These include populations, growth rates, birth and death rates, doubling time, migration, age…

  9. Nuclear Electricity. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    Educators must address the need for young people to be informed about both the scientific concepts and the reasons for controversy when dealing with controversial issues. Young people must be given the opportunity to form their own opinions when presented with evidence for conflicting arguments. Previous editions of "Nuclear Electricity" have…

  10. The Horizon Report. 2006 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This third edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing discussions…

  11. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  12. The Horizon Report. 2005 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series…

  13. The Horizon Report. 2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fourth edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on ongoing…

  14. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian…

  15. Resident Care Guide. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbridge State School, NJ.

    The third edition of the Woodbridge State School Cottage Life Department Resident Care Guide is explained to be a developmental status scale devised in 1969 as part of a 5-year study for the purposes of measuring the entire population's self-help training abilities. The department is said to serve 954 residents; 424 are non-ambulatory and 530 are…

  16. Direct Instruction Reading. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnine, Douglas W.; And Others

    Creating a learning and instructional environment for teaching students in a "humane and efficient" manner, this book is designed to empower teachers by providing them with specific suggestions for problems they will encounter as they provide students with direct, explicit instruction in reading. As in earlier editions, the book devotes…

  17. How Adults Learn. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, J. R.

    The book's emphasis is on learning during the years of adulthood and examines present-day practice of adult education for practitioners. This revised edition brings up to date advances in such areas of learning as controversial theory; the effects of environment; sensory processes; intellectual capacities; motivation and attitude; transactional…

  18. Unlocking Mathematics Teaching. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Valsa, Ed.; Murray, Jean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Now in a fully updated second edition, "Unlocking Mathematics Teaching" is a comprehensive guide to teaching mathematics in the primary school. Combining theory and practice, selected experts outline the current context of mathematics education. They suggest strategies, activities and examples to help develop readers understanding and confidence…

  19. Money and Schools. Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David C.; Crampton, Faith E.; Wood, R. Craig

    2012-01-01

    In the new edition of this essential, all-inclusive text, the authors provide more important research for future principals and others enrolled in graduate-level school finance courses. Written in a style that is highly readable, the book offers strong connections to real-world experiences. Readers get both a broad overview of funding concepts and…

  20. The Horizon Report. 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of the New Media Consortium's (NMC) annual "Horizon Report" details findings of the Horizon Project, a research-oriented effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education. Drawing on an ongoing series of interviews…

  1. Strengthening Family Resilience, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Froma

    2006-01-01

    In a fully revised, updated, and expanded second edition, this informative clinical resource and text presents Froma Walsh's family resilience framework for intervention and prevention with clients dealing with adversity. Drawing on extensive research and clinical experience, the author describes key processes in resilience for practitioners to…

  2. Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Bill; Diamond, Linda; Gutlohn, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The "Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition" is a comprehensive reference about reading instruction. Organized according to the elements of explicit instruction (what? why? when? and how?), the "Sourcebook" includes both a research-informed knowledge base and practical sample lesson models. It teaches the key elements of an effective reading…

  3. Fluency: Strategies & Assessments. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jerry L.; Berglund, Roberta L.

    2006-01-01

    This book presents numerous practical strategies and assessment tools teachers can use immediately to strengthen students' fluency skills in regular classrooms and in resource rooms. This new third edition offers: (1) Concise answers to teachers' questions; (2) Evidence-based strategies; (3) Practical activities; (4) Resources to develop students'…

  4. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  5. Basics and applications of genome editing technology.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoaki

    Genome editing with programmable site-specific nucleases is an emerging technology that enables the manipulation of targeted genes in many organisms and cell lines. Since the development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in 2012, genome editing has rapidly become an indispensable technology for all life science researchers, applicable in various fields. In this seminar, we will introduce the basics of genome editing and focus on the recent development of genome editing tools and technologies for the modification of various organisms and discuss future directions of the genome editing research field, from basic to medical applications.

  6. Diesel Technology: Steering and Suspension. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roger; Scarberry, Terry; Tesch, Carl; Kellum, Mary

    These teacher and student editions on steering and suspension are part of the diesel mechanics series of instructional materials. The series aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in the…

  7. Diesel Technology: Safety Skills. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellum, Mary

    Teacher and student editions of this document are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for diesel technology programs. The series aligns with the medium/heavy diesel duty truck task list used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in the certification of medium/heavy duty truck technicians. Introductory…

  8. Sedimentary petrology. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, H.

    1992-01-01

    The second edition of Sedimentary Petrology is extensively revised and updated; much effort has been expended to strengthen the weaknesses of the earlier edition, and much of this effort has been successful. It consists of sixteen chapters. Following two introductory chapters (occurrence of sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils), eleven chapters cover the various sedimentary rock types. Coverage is allocated in proportion to their relative abundance and relative ease of study -- three chapters on conglomerates and sandstones (textures and structures, composition, and diagenesis); one on mud rocks; three on carbonates (limestone textures, structures, and environments; limestone mineralogy and diagenesis; and dolostones); and one each on evaporites, cherts, iron-rich rocks, and phosphorites. A novel and useful chapter on paleogeothermometry rounds out the discussion of rocks, followed by chapters on The Development of a Research Project'' and common laboratory methods.

  9. Strategic Leadership Primer (Third Edition)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Meinhart, while also acknowledging previous edition contributions from Dr� Lenny Wong, Dr� Craig Bullis , and Colonel (Ret) George Reed� 1 CHAPTER 1...the cyber war� Although the strategies are different between commercial and government entities, at the end of the day both seek competitive...and everyone else—to 140 characters per tweet, and he tweets once or more almost daily�4 400 million people have established accounts on Facebook �5

  10. Electromagnetic Fields, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangsness, Roald K.

    1986-07-01

    This revised edition provides patient guidance in its clear and organized presentation of problems. It is rich in variety, large in number and provides very careful treatment of relativity. One outstanding feature is the inclusion of simple, standard examples demonstrated in different methods that will allow students to enhance and understand their calculating abilities. There are over 145 worked examples; virtually all of the standard problems are included.

  11. The evolution of chloroplast RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Tillich, Michael; Lehwark, Pascal; Morton, Brian R; Maier, Uwe G

    2006-10-01

    RNA editing alters the nucleotide sequence of an RNA molecule so that it deviates from the sequence of its DNA template. Different RNA-editing systems are found in the major eukaryotic lineages, and these systems are thought to have evolved independently. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of data on C-to-U editing sites in land plant chloroplasts and propose a model for the evolution of RNA editing in land plants. First, our data suggest that the limited RNA-editing system of seed plants and the much more extensive systems found in hornworts and ferns are of monophyletic origin. Further, although some eukaryotic editing systems appear to have evolved to regulate gene expression, or at least are now involved in gene regulation, there is no evidence that RNA editing plays a role in gene regulation in land plant chloroplasts. Instead, our results suggest that land plant chloroplast C-to-U RNA editing originated as a mechanism to generate variation at the RNA level, which could complement variation at the DNA level. Under this model, many of the original sites, particularly in seed plants, have been subsequently lost due to mutation at the DNA level, and the function of extant sites is merely to conserve certain codons. This is the first comprehensive model for the evolution of the chloroplast RNA-editing system of land plants and may also be applicable to the evolution of RNA editing in plant mitochondria.

  12. RNA editing in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hiesel, R; Wissinger, B; Schuster, W; Brennicke, A

    1989-12-22

    Comparative sequence analysis of genomic and complementary DNA clones from several mitochondrial genes in the higher plant Oenothera revealed nucleotide sequence divergences between the genomic and the messenger RNA-derived sequences. These sequence alterations could be most easily explained by specific post-transcriptional nucleotide modifications. Most of the nucleotide exchanges in coding regions lead to altered codons in the mRNA that specify amino acids better conserved in evolution than those encoded by the genomic DNA. Several instances show that the genomic arginine codon CGG is edited in the mRNA to the tryptophan codon TGG in amino acid positions that are highly conserved as tryptophan in the homologous proteins of other species. This editing suggests that the standard genetic code is used in plant mitochondria and resolves the frequent coincidence of CGG codons and tryptophan in different plant species. The apparently frequent and non-species-specific equivalency of CGG and TGG codons in particular suggests that RNA editing is a common feature of all higher plant mitochondria.

  13. Editing as a psychological practice.

    PubMed

    Beebe, John

    2006-06-01

    The experience of the Jungian analyst in the role of editor of manuscripts by creative colleagues is examined. Historical precedents include Michael Fordham's editorial correspondence with Jung around the latter's synchronicity essay; Jung's handling of manuscripts submitted by Sabina Spielrein to the Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen and various authors to the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie und ihre Grenzgebiete, and the author's close editing of a paper submitted by Andrew Samuels to the Journal of Analytical Psychology. In addition to mustering an adequate amount of generosity, erudition, and availability, the analytic editor must know how to clarify a psychological argument and to gauge the psychological impact of the written text. Notwithstanding transference/countertransference phenomena that can emerge around issues of competition, envy, and territoriality when author and editor are also fellow-authors working in the same field, the editor needs to be comfortable about serving as the author's selfobject and midwife. From an analytic perspective, although communicating decisions about the best way to put ideas into words can sometimes attract transference to the editor, the more profound transference that analysts experience in the editing situation is toward the text being edited, which helps to motivate donated time spent caring for journal manuscripts.

  14. RNA Editing in Plant Mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Wissinger, Bernd; Schuster, Wolfgang; Brennicke, Axel

    1989-12-01

    Comparative sequence analysis of genomic and complementary DNA clones from several mitochondrial genes in the higher plant Oenothera revealed nucleotide sequence divergences between the genomic and the messenger RNA-derived sequences. These sequence alterations could be most easily explained by specific post-transcriptional nucleotide modifications. Most of the nucleotide exchanges in coding regions lead to altered codons in the mRNA that specify amino acids better conserved in evolution than those encoded by the genomic DNA. Several instances show that the genomic arginine codon CGG is edited in the mRNA to the tryptophan codon TGG in amino acid positions that are highly conserved as tryptophan in the homologous proteins of other species. This editing suggests that the standard genetic code is used in plant mitochondria and resolves the frequent coincidence of CGG codons and tryptophan in different plant species. The apparently frequent and non-species-specific equivalency of CGG and TGG codons in particular suggests that RNA editing is a common feature of all higher plant mitochondria.

  15. An agent based model of genotype editing

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L. M.; Huang, C. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents our investigation on an agent-based model of Genotype Editing. This model is based on several characteristics that are gleaned from the RNA editing system as observed in several organisms. The incorporation of editing mechanisms in an evolutionary agent-based model provides a means for evolving agents with heterogenous post-transcriptional processes. The study of this agent-based genotype-editing model has shed some light into the evolutionary implications of RNA editing as well as established an advantageous evolutionary computation algorithm for machine learning. We expect that our proposed model may both facilitate determining the evolutionary role of RNA editing in biology, and advance the current state of research in agent-based optimization.

  16. Image Editing Via Searching Source Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Han; Deng, Liang-Jian

    Image editing has important applications by changing the image texture, illumination, target location, etc. As an important application of Poisson equation, Poisson image editing processes images on the gradient domain and has been applied to seamless clone, selection editing, image denoising, etc. In this paper, we present a new application of Poisson image editing, which is based on searching source image. The main feature of the new application is all modifying information comes from the source image. Experimental results show that the proposed application performs well.

  17. Editing in Technical Communication: Theory and Practice in Editing Processes at the Graduate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Roger E.

    At New Mexico State University, technical communication teachers have developed a course to teach editing processes to graduate students who take the advanced workshop in technical and professional communication. In this seminar group, students work on writing processes; editing processes; written, edited, and tested products; and oral processes…

  18. Single-edition quadrangle maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    In August 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Division and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service signed an Interagency Agreement to begin a single-edition joint mapping program. This agreement established the coordination for producing and maintaining single-edition primary series topographic maps for quadrangles containing National Forest System lands. The joint mapping program saves money by eliminating duplication of effort by the agencies and results in a more frequent revision cycle for quadrangles containing national forests. Maps are revised on the basis of jointly developed standards and contain normal features mapped by the USGS, as well as additional features required for efficient management of National Forest System lands. Single-edition maps look slightly different but meet the content, accuracy, and quality criteria of other USGS products. The Forest Service is responsible for the land management of more than 191 million acres of land throughout the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, including 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands. These areas make up the National Forest System lands and comprise more than 10,600 of the 56,000 primary series 7.5-minute quadrangle maps (15-minute in Alaska) covering the United States. The Forest Service has assumed responsibility for maintaining these maps, and the USGS remains responsible for printing and distributing them. Before the agreement, both agencies published similar maps of the same areas. The maps were used for different purposes, but had comparable types of features that were revised at different times. Now, the two products have been combined into one so that the revision cycle is stabilized and only one agency revises the maps, thus increasing the number of current maps available for National Forest System lands. This agreement has improved service to the public by requiring that the agencies share the same maps and that the maps meet a

  19. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  20. NASA Pocket Statistics: 1997 Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    POCKET STATISTICS is published by the NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA). Included in each edition is Administrative and Organizational information, summaries of Space Flight Activity including the NASA Major Launch Record, Aeronautics and Space Transportation and NASA Procurement, Financial and Workforce data. The NASA Major Launch Record includes all launches of Scout class and larger vehicles. Vehicle and spacecraft development flights are also included in the Major Launch Record. Shuttle missions are counted as one launch and one payload, where free flying payloads are not involved. All Satellites deployed from the cargo bay of the Shuttle and placed in a separate orbit or trajectory are counted as an additional payload.

  1. Biocommunication and natural genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Witzany, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The biocommunicative approach investigates communication processes within and among cells, tissues, organs and organisms as sign-mediated interactions, and nucleotide sequences as code, i.e. language-like text, which follows in parallel three kinds of rules: combinatorial (syntactic), context-sensitive (pragmatic), and content-specific (semantic). Natural genome editing from a biocommunicative perspective is competent agent-driven generation and integration of meaningful nucleotide sequences into pre-existing genomic content arrangements and the ability to (re-)combine and (re-)regulate them according to context-dependent (i.e. adaptational) purposes of the host organism. PMID:21537469

  2. Pediatric surgical pathology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dehner, L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The edition provides view of congenital, hereditary, infectious, and inflammatory neoplastic diseases occurring during the first two decades of life, with special reference to clinical, laboratory, and roentgenographic features. Material includes observations from some of the major national studies on Wilms' tumor and rhabdomyosarcomas, the new classification of pediatric malignant lymphomas, a discussion of the role of immunocytochemistry as it applies to the diagnosis of childhood infections and neoplasms, an examination of graft-versus-host disease in the liver and intestinal tract and more.

  3. Crystal structure solid-state cross polarization magic angle spinning 13C NMR correlation in luminescent d10 metal-organic frameworks constructed with the 1,2-Bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)ethane ligand.

    PubMed

    Habib, Hesham A; Hoffmann, Anke; Höppe, Henning A; Steinfeld, Gunther; Janiak, Christoph

    2009-03-02

    Hydrothermal reactions of 1,2-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)ethane (btre) with copper(II), zinc(II), and cadmium(II) salts have yielded the dinuclear complexes [Zn2Cl4(mu2-btre)2] (1) and [Zn2Br4(mu2-btre)2] (2), the one-dimensional coordination polymer infinity1[Zn(NCS)2(2-btre)] (3), the two-dimensional networks infinity2[Cu2(mu2-Cl)2(mu4-btre)] (4), infinity2[Cu2(mu2-Br)2(mu4-btre)] (5), and infinity2{[Cd6(mu3-OH)2(mu3-SO4)4(mu4-btre)3(H2O)6](SO4).6H2O} (6), and the three-dimensional frameworks infinity3{[Cu(mu4-btre)]ClO4.0.25H2O} (7), 3{[Zn(mu4-btre)(mu2-btre)](ClO4)2} (8), infinity3{[Cd(mu4-btre)(mu2-btre)](ClO4)2} (9), and infinity3[Cu2(mu2-CN)2(mu4-btre)] (10, 2-fold 3D interpenetrated framework). The copper-containing products 4, 5, 7, and 10 contain the metal in the +1 oxidation state, from a simultaneous redox and self-assembly reaction of the Cu(II) starting materials. The cyanide-containing framework 10 has captured the CN- ions from the oxidative btre decomposition. The perchlorate frameworks 7, 8, or 9 react in an aqueous NH4+PF6- solution with formation of the related PF6--containing frameworks. The differences in the metal-btre bridging mode (mu2-kappaN1:N1', mu2-kappaN1:N2 or mu4-kappaN1:N2:N1':N2') and the btre ligand symmetry can be correlated with different signal patterns in the 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectra. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 7 to 10 exhibit fluorescence at 403-481 nm upon excitation at 270-373 nm which is not seen in the free btre ligand.

  4. Environmental law handbook. Fifteenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.F.P.

    1999-04-01

    Written by 15 nationally recognized environmental legal experts, this new edition maintains the first edition's original goal to provide users with reliable, accurate, and practical compliance information by addressing all changes made to the laws in the past two years. Using clear language with a minimum of legal jargon, this essential 700-page reference provides readers with a foundation for understanding the obligations of the laws. This book also explains and details noncompliance penalties, including administrative fines and criminal prosecution for violation of all acts and newly increased fines for negligent violations of the Clean Water Act. The authors focus, however, on the 14 major environmental, health, and safety laws affecting US businesses and organizations and detail, in over 90 new pages, and all recent changes made to those laws. Such changes include explanations of the Joint EPA/State Innovations agreement, which the EPA and senior state environmental officials established and signed in 1998; the revised TSCA Model Reporting Rule, which took effect June 30, 1998; and RCRA's conditional regulation of waste military munitions, which went into effect August 12, 1997. In addition, this new handbook details the revised national ambient air quality standards for ozone and fine particles and the new and revised air toxics control requirements. Environmental managers, engineers, professionals, and students nationwide will benefit from the professional expertise, sample and cited cases, and straightforward explanations found in the pages of this comprehensive environmental law book, the industry standard for 26 years.

  5. CRISPR-Mediated Epigenome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Enríquez, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence has called into question our understanding of the role that the central dogma of molecular biology plays in human pathology. The conventional view that elucidating the mechanisms for translating genes into proteins can account for a panoply of diseases has proven incomplete. Landmark studies point to epigenetics as a missing piece of the puzzle. However, technological limitations have hindered the study of specific roles for histone post-translational modifications, DNA modifications, and non-coding RNAs in regulation of the epigenome and chromatin structure. This feature highlights CRISPR systems, including CRISPR-Cas9, as novel tools for targeted epigenome editing. It summarizes recent developments in the field, including integration of optogenetic and functional genomic approaches to explore new therapeutic opportunities, and underscores the importance of mitigating current limitations in the field. This comprehensive, analytical assessment identifies current research gaps, forecasts future research opportunities, and argues that as epigenome editing technologies mature, overcoming critical challenges in delivery, specificity, and fidelity should clear the path to bring these technologies into the clinic. PMID:28018139

  6. Urban Teaching: The Essentials. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Lois; Jerome, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This significantly revised edition will help prospective and new city teachers navigate the realities of city teaching. Now the classic introduction to urban teaching, this book explains how global, national, state, and local reforms have impacted what teachers need to know to not only survive, but to do their jobs well. The Third Edition melds…

  7. Non-GMO genetically edited crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Viola, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Direct delivery of purified Cas9 protein with guide RNA into plant cells, as opposed to plasmid-mediated delivery, displays high efficiency and reduced off-target effects. Following regeneration from edited cells, the ensuing plant is also likely to bypass genetically modified organism (GMO) legislation as the genome editing complex is degraded in the recipient cells.

  8. Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final Report) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition (EPA/600/R-09/052F), prepared by the Office of Research and Development's National Center for Environmental Assessments (NCEA). This updated edition of the handbook provides the most up-to-date data on the various human factors used in assessing exposure. The Exposure Factors Handbook (EFH or

  9. Automatic data editing: a brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the automatic data editing process: (1) check the data records for consistency, (2) analyze the inconsistent records to determine the inconsistent variables. It is stated that the application of automatic data editing is broad, and two specific examples are cited. One example, that of a vehicle maintenance data base is used to illustrate the process.

  10. Teaching Visually Impaired Children. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Virginia E.

    2004-01-01

    In this exceptional new third edition, the author has retained much of the practical "how to" approach of the previous editions, but adds depth in two dimensions: learning theory and the educational process. This book is "so comprehensive in scope and complete in detail that it would be the most likely recommended" (from the foreword by Dr.…

  11. Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition (EPA/600/R-09/052F), prepared by the Office of Research and Development's National Center for Environmental Assessments (NCEA). This updated edition of the handbook provides the most up...

  12. Managing the Incompetent Teacher. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Edwin M.

    Featuring the same practical guidelines for ridding schools of incompetent teachers as the 1984 edition, this new edition incorporates substantially revised material on three topics: criteria and information sources for evaluating teaching effectiveness, remediation procedures, and grounds for dismissal. The book presents an eight-step systematic,…

  13. Program For Editing Graphical Displays Of Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulnix, Cassie L.; Miller, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    XOPPS is window-based software tool from graphics providing easy and fast "what you see is what you get" (WYSIWYG) on-screen editing capabilities. Provides area, analogous to canvas, displaying full image of schedule being edited. Canvas contains header area (for test) and schedule area (for plotting graphical representations of milestone objects in flexible time line). Written in C language.

  14. Applications of genome editing in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in inse...

  15. Novel modes of RNA editing in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Sandrine; Valach, Matus; Aoulad-Aissa, Mohamed; Otto, Christian; Burger, Gertraud

    2016-01-01

    Gene structure and expression in diplonemid mitochondria are unparalleled. Genes are fragmented in pieces (modules) that are separately transcribed, followed by the joining of module transcripts to contiguous RNAs. Some instances of unique uridine insertion RNA editing at module boundaries were noted, but the extent and potential occurrence of other editing types remained unknown. Comparative analysis of deep transcriptome and genome data from Diplonema papillatum mitochondria reveals ∼220 post-transcriptional insertions of uridines, but no insertions of other nucleotides nor deletions. In addition, we detect in total 114 substitutions of cytosine by uridine and adenosine by inosine, amassed into unusually compact clusters. Inosines in transcripts were confirmed experimentally. This is the first report of adenosine-to-inosine editing of mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs in mitochondria. In mRNAs, editing causes mostly amino-acid additions and non-synonymous substitutions; in ribosomal RNAs, it permits formation of canonical secondary structures. Two extensively edited transcripts were compared across four diplonemids. The pattern of uridine-insertion editing is strictly conserved, whereas substitution editing has diverged dramatically, but still rendering diplonemid proteins more similar to other eukaryotic orthologs. We posit that RNA editing not only compensates but also sustains, or even accelerates, ultra-rapid evolution of genome structure and sequence in diplonemid mitochondria. PMID:27001515

  16. Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    edition_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="2" alt="Cover of the Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition"> The mission of National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of EPA's ...

  17. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  18. Accounting for Independent Schools. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This is a thoroughly revised edition of the 1969 publication, "Accounting for Independent Schools," a guide that attempted to codify basic accounting principles and practices for specific application to independent schools. The focus of the second edition is more on refining practices than on initiating them, and more on extending the managerial…

  19. Editing Technical Proposals (The Friendly Editor).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Don

    1994-01-01

    Makes suggestions for editing technical proposals. Discusses the marketeers, the hierarchy of hype, how to save days, managing story boards, expediting a laborious process, teaching engineers to write, writing incrementally, the art group, and the editing task. Argues that the best proposals come from starting to write early. (SR)

  20. America's Children and the Environment, Third Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    America's Children and the Environment is the U.S. EPA's report of children's environmental health indicators. Two editions of the report have been published, in 2000 and 2003, and a website is maintained with updated values for the indicators. The new Third Edition of America'...

  1. Vertical Hegelianism and Beyond: Digital Cinema Editing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Roger B.

    Cinema as an art and communication form is entering its second century of development. Sergei Eisenstein conceived of editing in horizontal and vertical terms. He saw vertical editing patterns primarily as the synchronization of simultaneous image and sound elements, particularly music, no create cinematic meaning by means of the relationship…

  2. Educational Assessment of Students. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitko, Anthony J.

    This text offers teachers and education majors practical, step-by-step guidance on how to create and use assessments. It can serve as the textbook for an undergraduate or first graduate course in educational assessment. This third edition focuses more clearly on classroom assessment than the previous editions. Each chapter has been revised with…

  3. FYI: For Your Improvement, Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Michael M.; Eichinger, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    FYI For Your Improvement (4th Edition) provides step-by-step guidance for anyone who wants to develop new competencies or for anyone working with another person on their development. This edition contains: Introduction; Strategies for Improvement; General Development Plan; Organization for "FYI For Your Improvement"; Competencies; Performance…

  4. Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Professional Edition

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 203 NIST/TRC Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Professional Edition (Online Subscription)   WTT - Professional Edition, a Web version of the TRC Thermodynamic Tables, represents a complete collection of critically evaluated thermodynamic property data primarily for pure organic compounds. As of Nov. 2011, WTT contains information on 23999 compounds.

  5. Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Lite Edition

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 202 NIST/TRC Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Lite Edition (Online Subscription)   WTT - Lite Edition, a Web version of the TRC Thermodynamic Tables, represents a collection of critically evaluated thermodynamic property data for 150 commonly-used (primarily organic) pure compounds.

  6. Genetic Architectures of Quantitative Variation in RNA Editing Pathways.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tongjun; Gatti, Daniel M; Srivastava, Anuj; Snyder, Elizabeth M; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Simecek, Petr; Svenson, Karen L; Dotu, Ivan; Chuang, Jeffrey H; Keller, Mark P; Attie, Alan D; Braun, Robert E; Churchill, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    RNA editing refers to post-transcriptional processes that alter the base sequence of RNA. Recently, hundreds of new RNA editing targets have been reported. However, the mechanisms that determine the specificity and degree of editing are not well understood. We examined quantitative variation of site-specific editing in a genetically diverse multiparent population, Diversity Outbred mice, and mapped polymorphic loci that alter editing ratios globally for C-to-U editing and at specific sites for A-to-I editing. An allelic series in the C-to-U editing enzyme Apobec1 influences the editing efficiency of Apob and 58 additional C-to-U editing targets. We identified 49 A-to-I editing sites with polymorphisms in the edited transcript that alter editing efficiency. In contrast to the shared genetic control of C-to-U editing, most of the variable A-to-I editing sites were determined by local nucleotide polymorphisms in proximity to the editing site in the RNA secondary structure. Our results indicate that RNA editing is a quantitative trait subject to genetic variation and that evolutionary constraints have given rise to distinct genetic architectures in the two canonical types of RNA editing.

  7. RNA editing and drug discovery for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Hsuan; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Tang, Jen-Yang; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2013-01-01

    RNA editing is vital to provide the RNA and protein complexity to regulate the gene expression. Correct RNA editing maintains the cell function and organism development. Imbalance of the RNA editing machinery may lead to diseases and cancers. Recently, RNA editing has been recognized as a target for drug discovery although few studies targeting RNA editing for disease and cancer therapy were reported in the field of natural products. Therefore, RNA editing may be a potential target for therapeutic natural products. In this review, we provide a literature overview of the biological functions of RNA editing on gene expression, diseases, cancers, and drugs. The bioinformatics resources of RNA editing were also summarized.

  8. RNA editing in human cancer: review.

    PubMed

    Skarda, Jozef; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon

    2009-08-01

    In eukaryotes mRNA transcripts are extensively processed by different post-transcriptional events such as alternative splicing and RNA editing in order to generate many different mRNAs from the same gene, increasing the transcriptome and then the proteome diversity. The most frequent RNA editing mechanism in mammals involves the conversion of specific adenosines into inosines by the ADAR family of enzymes. This editing event can alter the sequence and the secondary structure of RNA molecules, with consequences for final proteins and regulatory RNAs. Alteration in RNA editing has been connected to tumor progression and many other important human diseases. Analysis of many editing sites in various cancer types is expected to provide new diagnostic and prognostic markers and might contribute to early detection of cancer, the monitoring of response to therapy, and to the detection of minimal residual disease.

  9. Versatile 1H-31P-31P COSY 2D NMR Techniques for the Characterization of Polyphosphorylated Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Ananya; Sun, Yan; Shah, Meha; Freel Meyers, Caren L.

    2010-01-01

    Di- and triphosphorylated small molecules represent key intermediates in a wide range of biological and chemical processes. The importance of polyphosphorylated species in biology and medicine underscores the need to develop methods for the detection and characterization of this compound class. We have reported two-dimensional HPP-COSY spectroscopy techniques to identify diphosphate-containing metabolic intermediates at sub-millimolar concentrations in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway.1 In this work, we explore the scope of HPP-COSY based techniques to characterize a diverse group of small organic molecules bearing di- and tri-phosphorylated moieties. These include molecules containing P–O–P and P–C–P connectivities, multivalent P(III)–O–P(V) phosphorus nuclei with widely separated chemical shifts, as well as virtually overlapping 31P resonances exhibiting strong coupling effects. We also demonstrate the utility of these experiments to rapidly distinguish between mono- and diphosphates. A detailed protocol for optimizing these experiments to achieve best performance is presented. PMID:20408590

  10. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  11. RBP16 stimulates trypanosome RNA editing in vitro at an early step in the editing reaction

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa M.; Halbig, Kari; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; Read, Laurie K.

    2006-01-01

    RBP16 is an abundant RNA binding protein from Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria that affects both RNA editing and stability. We report here experiments aimed at elucidating the mechanism of RBP16 function in RNA editing. In in vitro RNA editing assays, recombinant RBP16 is able to significantly stimulate insertion editing of both CYb and A6 pre-mRNAs. Enhancement of in vitro editing activity occurs at, or prior to, the step of pre-mRNA cleavage, as evidenced by increased accumulation of pre-mRNA 3′ cleavage products in the presence of RBP16. Mutated RBP16 that is severely compromised in cold shock domain (CSD)-mediated RNA binding was able to enhance editing to levels comparable to the wild-type protein in some assays at the highest RBP16 levels tested. However, at low RBP16 concentrations or in assays with native, oligo(U)-tail-bearing gRNAs, editing stimulation by mutant RBP16 was somewhat compromised. Together, these results indicate that both the N-terminal CSD and C-terminal RGG RNA binding domains of RBP16 are required for maximal editing stimulation. Finally, the relaxed specificity of RBP16 for stimulation of both CYb and A6 editing in vitro implicates additional specificity factors that account for the strict CYb specificity of RBP16 action in editing in vivo. Our results constitute the first report of any putative RNA editing accessory factor eliciting an effect on editing in vitro. Overall, these results support a novel accessory role for RBP16 in U insertion editing. PMID:16691000

  12. RBP16 stimulates trypanosome RNA editing in vitro at an early step in the editing reaction.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa M; Halbig, Kari; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge; Read, Laurie K

    2006-07-01

    RBP16 is an abundant RNA binding protein from Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria that affects both RNA editing and stability. We report here experiments aimed at elucidating the mechanism of RBP16 function in RNA editing. In in vitro RNA editing assays, recombinant RBP16 is able to significantly stimulate insertion editing of both CYb and A6 pre-mRNAs. Enhancement of in vitro editing activity occurs at, or prior to, the step of pre-mRNA cleavage, as evidenced by increased accumulation of pre-mRNA 3' cleavage products in the presence of RBP16. Mutated RBP16 that is severely compromised in cold shock domain (CSD)-mediated RNA binding was able to enhance editing to levels comparable to the wild-type protein in some assays at the highest RBP16 levels tested. However, at low RBP16 concentrations or in assays with native, oligo(U)-tail-bearing gRNAs, editing stimulation by mutant RBP16 was somewhat compromised. Together, these results indicate that both the N-terminal CSD and C-terminal RGG RNA binding domains of RBP16 are required for maximal editing stimulation. Finally, the relaxed specificity of RBP16 for stimulation of both CYb and A6 editing in vitro implicates additional specificity factors that account for the strict CYb specificity of RBP16 action in editing in vivo. Our results constitute the first report of any putative RNA editing accessory factor eliciting an effect on editing in vitro. Overall, these results support a novel accessory role for RBP16 in U insertion editing.

  13. Changing genetic information through RNA editing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, S.; Rich, A.

    2000-01-01

    RNA editing, the post-transcriptional alteration of a gene-encoded sequence, is a widespread phenomenon in eukaryotes. As a consequence of RNA editing, functionally distinct proteins can be produced from a single gene. The molecular mechanisms involved include single or multiple base insertions or deletions as well as base substitutions. In mammals, one type of substitutional RNA editing, characterized by site-specific base-modification, was shown to modulate important physiological processes. The underlying reaction mechanism of substitutional RNA editing involves hydrolytic deamination of cytosine or adenosine bases to uracil or inosine, respectively. Protein factors have been characterized that are able to induce RNA editing in vitro. A supergene family of RNA-dependent deaminases has emerged with the recent addition of adenosine deaminases specific for tRNA. Here we review the developments that have substantially increased our understanding of base-modification RNA editing over the past few years, with an emphasis on mechanistic differences, evolutionary aspects and the first insights into the regulation of editing activity.

  14. NRP 7th Edition: Are You Prepared?

    PubMed

    Zaichkin, Jeanette; Mccarney, Linda; Weiner, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The seventh edition of the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Heart Association Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) materials must be in use by January 1, 2017. As in previous editions, changes in resuscitation science are based on an international review and consensus of current resuscitation science. The seventh edition NRP materials also include enhancements to training materials aimed at improving the quality of NRP instruction and providing the opportunity for ongoing education. A standardized approach to instructor training, an online Instructor Toolkit, eSim cases, and a new learning management system are among the new resources.

  15. Marketing/Planning Library and Information Services. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingand, Darlene E.

    In the first edition of this book, the concepts of marketing and planning library and information services were presented as effective managerial strategies. Several paragraphs from the introduction to the first edition are reproduced, with author commentary, in this edition as an affirmation that the message is still true. In this second edition,…

  16. RNA editing generates cellular subsets with diverse sequence within populations

    PubMed Central

    Harjanto, Dewi; Papamarkou, Theodore; Oates, Chris J.; Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Papavasiliou, F. Nina; Papavasiliou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is a mutational mechanism that specifically alters the nucleotide content in transcribed RNA. However, editing rates vary widely, and could result from equivalent editing amongst individual cells, or represent an average of variable editing within a population. Here we present a hierarchical Bayesian model that quantifies the variance of editing rates at specific sites using RNA-seq data from both single cells, and a cognate bulk sample to distinguish between these two possibilities. The model predicts high variance for specific edited sites in murine macrophages and dendritic cells, findings that we validated experimentally by using targeted amplification of specific editable transcripts from single cells. The model also predicts changes in variance in editing rates for specific sites in dendritic cells during the course of LPS stimulation. Our data demonstrate substantial variance in editing signatures amongst single cells, supporting the notion that RNA editing generates diversity within cellular populations. PMID:27418407

  17. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Soti, Zsolt; Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  18. Research Review: Magazine Editors and Editing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and critiques literature in the subfield of magazine editing research, chiefly biographical studies of individual editors and various types of studies of editorial practices, including surveys, magazine content analyses, and close qualitative examinations of editors' relationships with others. (SR)

  19. America's Children and the Environment, Third Edition ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    America's Children and the Environment is the U.S. EPA's report of children's environmental health indicators. Two editions of the report have been published, in 2000 and 2003, and a website is maintained with updated values for the indicators. The new Third Edition of America's Children and the Environment incorporates updates and revisions to previous content as well as several new indicators. America's Children and the Environment is the U.S. EPA's report of children's environmental health indicators. Two editions of the report have been published, in 2000 and 2003, and a website is maintained with updated values for the indicators. The new Third Edition of America's Children and the Environment incorporates updates and revisions to previous content as well as several new indicators.

  20. An automatic editing algorithm for GPS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to edit automatically Global Positioning System data such that outlier deletion, cycle slip identification, and correction are independent of clock instability, selective availability, receiver-satellite kinematics, and tropospheric conditions. This algorithm, called TurboEdit, operates on undifferenced, dual frequency carrier phase data, and requires the use of P code pseudorange data and a smoothly varying ionospheric electron content. TurboEdit was tested on the large data set from the CASA Uno experiment, which contained over 2500 cycle slips.Analyst intervention was required on 1 percent of the station-satellite passes, almost all of these problems being due to difficulties in extrapolating variations in the ionospheric delay. The algorithm is presently being adapted for real time data editing in the Rogue receiver for continuous monitoring applications.

  1. Editing soft shadows in a digital photograph.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Ankit; Tumblin, Jack; Choudhury, Prasun

    2007-01-01

    This technique for modeling, editing, and rendering shadow edges in a photograph or a synthetic image lets users separate the shadow from the rest of the image and make arbitrary adjustments to its position, sharpness, and intensity.

  2. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed.

  3. Genome editing with engineered nucleases in plants.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi

    2015-03-01

    Numerous examples of successful 'genome editing' now exist. Genome editing uses engineered nucleases as powerful tools to target specific DNA sequences to edit genes precisely in the genomes of both model and crop plants, as well as a variety of other organisms. The DNA-binding domains of zinc finger (ZF) proteins were the first to be used as genome editing tools, in the form of designed ZF nucleases (ZFNs). More recently, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), as well as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, which utilizes RNA-DNA interactions, have proved useful. A key step in genome editing is the generation of a double-stranded DNA break that is specific to the target gene. This is achieved by custom-designed endonucleases, which enable site-directed mutagenesis via a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway and/or gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) to occur efficiently at specific sites in the genome. This review provides an overview of recent advances in genome editing technologies in plants, and discusses how these can provide insights into current plant molecular biology research and molecular breeding technology.

  4. Precise genome editing by homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Hoshijima, K.; Jurynec, M.J.; Grunwald, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods are presented for creating precise modifications of the zebrafish genome. Edited alleles are generated by homologous recombination between the host genome and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) donor molecules, stimulated by the induction of double-strand breaks at targeted loci in the host genome. Because several kilobase-long tracts of sequence can be exchanged, multiple genome modifications can be generated simultaneously at a single locus. Methods are described for creating: (1) alleles with simple sequence changes or in-frame additions, (2) knockin/knockout alleles that express a reporter protein from an endogenous locus, and (3) conditional alleles in which exons are flanked by recombinogenic loxP sites. Significantly, our approach to genome editing allows the incorporation of a linked reporter gene into the donor sequences so that successfully edited alleles can be identified by virtue of expression of the reporter. Factors affecting the efficiency of genome editing are discussed, including the finding that dsDNA products of I-SceI meganuclease enzyme digestion are particularly effective as donor molecules for gene-editing events. Reagents and procedures are described for accomplishing efficient genome editing in the zebrafish. PMID:27443923

  5. Approximate Graph Edit Distance in Quadratic Time.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Kaspar; Ferrer, Miquel; Bunke, Horst

    2015-09-14

    Graph edit distance is one of the most flexible and general graph matching models available. The major drawback of graph edit distance, however, is its computational complexity that restricts its applicability to graphs of rather small size. Recently the authors of the present paper introduced a general approximation framework for the graph edit distance problem. The basic idea of this specific algorithm is to first compute an optimal assignment of independent local graph structures (including substitutions, deletions, and insertions of nodes and edges). This optimal assignment is complete and consistent with respect to the involved nodes of both graphs and can thus be used to instantly derive an admissible (yet suboptimal) solution for the original graph edit distance problem in O(n3) time. For large scale graphs or graph sets, however, the cubic time complexity may still be too high. Therefore, we propose to use suboptimal algorithms with quadratic rather than cubic time for solving the basic assignment problem. In particular, the present paper introduces five different greedy assignment algorithms in the context of graph edit distance approximation. In an experimental evaluation we show that these methods have great potential for further speeding up the computation of graph edit distance while the approximated distances remain sufficiently accurate for graph based pattern classification.

  6. Genome editing systems in novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yoon-Young; Cai, Liuhong; Ye, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is the process in which DNA sequences at precise genomic locations are modified. In the past three decades, genome editing by homologous recombination has been successfully performed in mouse for generating genetic models. The low efficiency of this process in human cells, however, had prevented its clinical application until the recent advancements in designer endonuclease technologies. The significantly improved genome editing efficiencies aided by ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR systems provide unprecedented opportunities not only for biomedical research, but also for developing novel therapies. Applications based on these genome editing tools to disrupt deleterious genes, correct genetic mutations, deliver functional transgenes more effectively or even modify the epigenetic landscape are being actively investigated for gene and cell therapy purposes. Encouraging results have been obtained in limited clinical trials in the past two years. While most of the applications are still in proof-of-principle or preclinical development stages, it is anticipated that the coming years will see increasing clinical success in novel therapies based on the modern genome editing technologies. It should be noted that critical issues still remain before the technologies can be translated into more reliable therapies. These key issues include off-target evaluation, establishing appropriate preclinical models and improving the currently low efficiency of homology-based precise gene replacement. In this review we discuss the preclinical and clinical studies aiming at translating the genome editing technologies as well as the issues that are important for more successful translation.

  7. Precise genome editing by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Hoshijima, K; Jurynec, M J; Grunwald, D J

    2016-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods are presented for creating precise modifications of the zebrafish genome. Edited alleles are generated by homologous recombination between the host genome and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) donor molecules, stimulated by the induction of double-strand breaks at targeted loci in the host genome. Because several kilobase-long tracts of sequence can be exchanged, multiple genome modifications can be generated simultaneously at a single locus. Methods are described for creating: (1) alleles with simple sequence changes or in-frame additions, (2) knockin/knockout alleles that express a reporter protein from an endogenous locus, and (3) conditional alleles in which exons are flanked by recombinogenic loxP sites. Significantly, our approach to genome editing allows the incorporation of a linked reporter gene into the donor sequences so that successfully edited alleles can be identified by virtue of expression of the reporter. Factors affecting the efficiency of genome editing are discussed, including the finding that dsDNA products of I-SceI meganuclease enzyme digestion are particularly effective as donor molecules for gene-editing events. Reagents and procedures are described for accomplishing efficient genome editing in the zebrafish.

  8. The commercialization of genome-editing technologies.

    PubMed

    Brinegar, Katelyn; K Yetisen, Ali; Choi, Sun; Vallillo, Emily; Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U; Prabhakar, Anand M; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-01-18

    The emergence of new gene-editing technologies is profoundly transforming human therapeutics, agriculture, and industrial biotechnology. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) have created a fertile environment for mass-scale manufacturing of cost-effective products ranging from basic research to translational medicine. In our analyses, we evaluated the patent landscape of gene-editing technologies and found that in comparison to earlier gene-editing techniques, CRISPR has gained significant traction and this has established dominance. Although most of the gene-editing technologies originated from the industry, CRISPR has been pioneered by academic research institutions. The spinout of CRISPR biotechnology companies from academic institutions demonstrates a shift in entrepreneurship strategies that were previously led by the industry. These academic institutions, and their subsequent companies, are competing to generate comprehensive intellectual property portfolios to rapidly commercialize CRISPR products. Our analysis shows that the emergence of CRISPR has resulted in a fivefold increase in genome-editing bioenterprise investment over the last year. This entrepreneurial movement has spurred a global biotechnology revolution in the realization of novel gene-editing technologies. This global shift in bioenterprise will continue to grow as the demand for personalized medicine, genetically modified crops and environmentally sustainable biofuels increases. However, the monopolization of intellectual property, negative public perception of genetic engineering and ambiguous regulatory policies may limit the growth of these market segments.

  9. Book Review: New Perspectives on Technical Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, A. J. (Ed.); Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-08-01

    New Perspectives on Technical Editing by Avon J. Murphy (ed.) ISBN : 978-0895033949 (2010) Baywood Publishing Company Inc, Hardcover, 210 pages, 35.5 GBP This book presents a collection of 10 chapters dealing with diverse aspects of technical editing (ie, editorial planning, and analysis and structural changes made to other people's technological documents): research in technical editing, trends and teaching of technical editing, copyediting, and technical journal editing. The role and function of the modern journal and book editor is also dealt with in detail. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field: senior editors, university professors in technical communication, technical writers and linguists. The ever-evolving role of the editor is clearly elucidated in several historical reviews, and in the descriptions of the expectations for the future. A very striking aspect of this book is its extensive collection of bibliographic resources: every chapter lists dozens of very useful references, and the closing chapter, and annotated bibliography, contain many not so well known references, and are most useful. All in all, the book is a treasure trove listing more than 400 references, in addition to numerous webpage URLs embedded in the texts. The book is designed to help the reader to understand current practices and norms in technical editing, and to help to take action in editing as well as in teaching and educating would-be editors. The audience for this book thus includes editors and teachers, but also writers, researchers and students. A deep reading of this book will result in a better understanding of the difference between full technical editing and its much narrower component so well known as copyediting, and will convince any prospective editor that editing should not be undertaken if the people involved do not master the art of precision and accuracy in technical (as well as in human) communication, do not possess the technical know how and computer

  10. Biological Science: An Ecological Approach. BSCS Green Version. Teacher's Edition. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This book is the teacher's edition to the 1987 edition of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Green Version textbook. It contains directions for teaching with this version, a description of the accompanying materials, teaching strategies by chapters, lists of useful software, safety guidelines, a materials list, chemical safety information,…

  11. Residential Wiring. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    Residential Wiring, the second publication in a series of three wiring publications, prepares students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Instructional materials include a teacher edition, student guide, and student workbook. The teacher edition begins with introductory pages, including a training and competency profile,…

  12. Learn Sparse Dictionaries for Edit Propagation.

    PubMed

    Xiaowu Chen; Jianwei Li; Dongqing Zou; Qinping Zhao

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of high-resolution images, videos, and 3D models, the demand for scalable large data processing techniques increases. We introduce a method of sparse dictionary learning for edit propagation of large input data. Previous approaches for edit propagation typically employ a global optimization over the whole set of pixels (or vertexes), incurring a prohibitively high memory and time-consumption for large input data. Rather than propagating an edit pixel by pixel, we follow the principle of sparse representation to obtain a representative and compact dictionary and perform edit propagation on the dictionary instead. The sparse dictionary provides an intrinsic basis for input data, and the coding coefficients capture the linear relationship between all pixels and the dictionary atoms. The learned dictionary is then optimized by a novel scheme, which maximizes the Kullback-Leibler divergence between each atom pair to remove redundant atoms. To enable local edit propagation for images or videos with similar appearance, a dictionary learning strategy is proposed by considering range constraint to better account for the global distribution of pixels in their feature space. We show several applications of the sparsity-based edit propagation, including video recoloring, theme editing, and seamless cloning, operating on both color and texture features. Our approach can also be applied to computer graphics tasks, such as 3D surface deformation. We demonstrate that with an atom-to-pixel ratio in the order of 0.01% signifying a significant reduction on memory consumption, our method still maintains a high degree of visual fidelity.

  13. Designed nucleases for targeted genome editing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junwon; Chung, Jae-Hee; Kim, Ho Min; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Hyongbum

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome-editing technology using designed nucleases has been evolving rapidly, and its applications are widely expanding in research, medicine and biotechnology. Using this genome-modifying technology, researchers can precisely and efficiently insert, remove or change specific sequences in various cultured cells, micro-organisms, animals and plants. This genome editing is based on the generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs), repair of which modifies the genome through nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR). In addition, designed nickase-induced generation of single-strand breaks can also lead to precise genome editing through HDR, albeit at relatively lower efficiencies than that induced by nucleases. Three kinds of designed nucleases have been used for targeted DSB formation: zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and RNA-guided engineered nucleases derived from the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system. A growing number of researchers are using genome-editing technologies, which have become more accessible and affordable since the discovery and adaptation of CRISPR-Cas9. Here, the repair mechanism and outcomes of DSBs are reviewed and the three types of designed nucleases are discussed with the hope that such understanding will facilitate applications to genome editing.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Gravity: third edition Quantum Gravity: third edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    The request by Classical and Quantum Gravity to review the third edition of Claus Kiefer's 'Quantum Gravity' puts me in a slightly awkward position. This is a remarkably good book, which every person working in quantum gravity should have on the shelf. But in my opinion quantum gravity has undergone some dramatic advances in the last few years, of which the book makes no mention. Perhaps the omission only attests to the current vitality of the field, where progress is happening fast, but it is strange for me to review a thoughtful, knowledgeable and comprehensive book on my own field of research, which ignores what I myself consider the most interesting results to date. Kiefer's book is unique as a broad introduction and a reliable overview of quantum gravity. There are numerous books in the field which (often notwithstanding titles) focus on a single approach. There are also countless conference proceedings and article collections aiming to be encyclopaedic, but offering disorganized patchworks. Kiefer's book is a careful and thoughtful presentation of all aspects of the immense problem of quantum gravity. Kiefer is very learned, and brings together three rare qualities: he is pedagogical, he is capable of simplifying matter to the bones and capturing the essential, and he offers a serious and balanced evaluation of views and ideas. In a fractured field based on a major problem that does not yet have a solution, these qualities are precious. I recommend Kiefer's book to my students entering the field: to work in quantum gravity one needs a vast amount of technical knowledge as well as a grasp of different ideas, and Kiefer's book offers this with remarkable clarity. This novel third edition simplifies and improves the presentation of several topics, but also adds very valuable new material on quantum gravity phenomenology, loop quantum cosmology, asymptotic safety, Horava-Lifshitz gravity, analogue gravity, the holographic principle, and more. This is a testament

  15. Nucleotide specificity of the RNA editing reaction in pea chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Mulligan, R Michael

    2005-12-01

    A sensitive in vitro editing assay for the pea chloroplast petB editing site has been developed and utilized to study the mechanism of C-to-U editing in chloroplast extracts. The in vitro editing assay was characterized by several criteria including: linearity with extract amount; linearity over time; dependence on assay components; and specificity of editing site conversion. The increase in the extent C-to-U conversion of the petB editing site was nearly linear with the amount chloroplast protein extract added, although the reaction appeared to decline in rate after approximately 30 min. The assay was tested for the importance of various assay components, and the omission of protease inhibitor and ATP was shown to dramatically reduce the extent of the editing reaction. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones obtained after an in vitro editing reaction demonstrated that 12 of 17 (71%) clones were edited, and that no other nucleotide changes in these cDNAs were detected. Thus, the fidelity and specificity of the in vitro editing system appears to be excellent, and this system should be suitable to study both mechanism of the editing reaction and editing site selection. The in vitro editing reaction was strongly stimulated by the addition of ATP, and all four NTPs and dNTPs stimulated the editing reaction except for rGTP, which had no effect. Thus, the nucleotide specificity of the editing reaction is broad, and is similar in this respect to the mitochondrial editing system. Most enzyme or processes specifically utilize ATP or GTP for phosphorylation and the ability to substitute other NTPs and dNTPs is unusual. RNA helicases have a similar broad nucleotide specificity and this may reflect the involvement of an RNA helicase in plant organelle editing.

  16. RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Mizuho; Sugita, Mamoru

    2016-12-23

    RNA editing by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions is widespread in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. In some plant taxa, "reverse" U-to-C editing also occurs. However, to date, no instance of RNA editing has yet been reported in green algae and the complex thalloid liverworts. RNA editing may have evolved in early land plants 450 million years ago. However, in some plant species, including the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, editing may have been lost during evolution. Most RNA editing events can restore the evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in mRNAs or create translation start and stop codons. Therefore, RNA editing is an essential process to maintain genetic information at the RNA level. Individual RNA editing sites are recognized by plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that are encoded in the nuclear genome. These PPR proteins are characterized by repeat elements that bind specifically to RNA sequences upstream of target editing sites. In flowering plants, non-PPR proteins also participate in multiple RNA editing events as auxiliary factors. C-to-U editing can be explained by cytidine deamination. The proteins discovered to date are important factors for RNA editing but a bona fide RNA editing enzyme has yet to be identified.

  17. RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Mizuho; Sugita, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions is widespread in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. In some plant taxa, “reverse” U-to-C editing also occurs. However, to date, no instance of RNA editing has yet been reported in green algae and the complex thalloid liverworts. RNA editing may have evolved in early land plants 450 million years ago. However, in some plant species, including the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, editing may have been lost during evolution. Most RNA editing events can restore the evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in mRNAs or create translation start and stop codons. Therefore, RNA editing is an essential process to maintain genetic information at the RNA level. Individual RNA editing sites are recognized by plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that are encoded in the nuclear genome. These PPR proteins are characterized by repeat elements that bind specifically to RNA sequences upstream of target editing sites. In flowering plants, non-PPR proteins also participate in multiple RNA editing events as auxiliary factors. C-to-U editing can be explained by cytidine deamination. The proteins discovered to date are important factors for RNA editing but a bona fide RNA editing enzyme has yet to be identified. PMID:28025543

  18. Quantum Field Theory, Revised Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, F.; Shaw, G.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum Field Theory Revised Edition F. Mandl and G. Shaw, Department of Theoretical Physics, The Schuster Laboratory, The University, Manchester, UK When this book first appeared in 1984, only a handful of W± and Z° bosons had been observed and the experimental investigation of high energy electro-weak interactions was in its infancy. Nowadays, W± bosons and especially Z° bosons can be produced by the thousand and the study of their properties is a precise science. We have revised the text of the later chapters to incorporate these developments and discuss their implications. We have also taken this opportunity to update the references throughout and to make some improvements in the treatment of dimen-sional regularization. Finally, we have corrected some minor errors and are grateful to various people for pointing these out. This book is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for students beginning research in theoretical and experimental physics. The three main objectives are to explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory, to make the reader fully proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams, and to introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play such a central role in elementary particle physics. The theory is applied to quantum electrodynamics (QED), where quantum field theory had its early triumphs, and to weak interactions where the standard electro-weak theory has had many impressive successes. The treatment is based on the canonical quantization method, because readers will be familiar with this, because it brings out lucidly the connection between invariance and conservation laws, and because it leads directly to the Feynman diagram techniques which are so important in many branches of physics. In order to help inexperienced research students grasp the meaning of the theory and learn to handle it confidently, the mathematical formalism is developed from first principles, its physical

  19. Gauge Field Theories, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2000-08-01

    The first edition of Gauge Field Theories, published in 1985, quickly became widely used in universities and other institutions of higher learning around the world. Written by well-known physicist Paul Frampton, the new edition continues to offer a first-rate mathematical treatment of gauge field theories, while thoroughly updating all chapters to keep pace with developments in the field. Frampton emphasizes formalism rather than experiments and provides sufficient detail for readers wishing to do their own calculations or pursue theoretical physics research. Special features of the Second Edition include: * Improved, logical organization of the material on gauge invariance, quantization, and renormalization * Major revision of the chapter on electroweak interactions, incorporating the latest precision data and discovery of the top quark * Discussions of renormalization group and quantum chromodynamics * A completely new chapter on model building

  20. JICST Thesaurus : Compilation of the 1987 Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazuo; Sakagami, Yasuhiko; Totsuka, Takayuki; Okano, Hiroyuki; Shirayama, Kunihiko; Gomibuchi, Takeshi

    We had requests such as enlargement of terms to be covered in the Thesaurus, description of term history and so on through the questionnaires to JOIS users specifically conducted on the occasion of preparing 1987 edition of JICST Thesaurus. Based on them the following measures were taken : addition of new terms by referring natural words stored in JICST database, addition of some Chinese characters used for it, addition of priority data among synonyms and others, and improvement of term relations by using English translated Japanese keywords. How the Thesaurus was edited, and measures against problems associated with editing are described. Necessity of the routine maintenance and subjects to be solved from now on are also described.

  1. Therapeutic Genome Editing: Prospects and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cox, David Benjamin Turitz; Platt, Randall Jeffrey; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of genome editing technologies based on programmable nucleases have significantly improved our ability to make precise changes in the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Genome editing is already broadening our ability to elucidate the contribution of genetics to disease by facilitating the creation of more accurate cellular and animal models of pathological processes. A particularly tantalizing application of programmable nucleases is the potential to directly correct genetic mutations in affected tissues and cells to treat diseases that are refractory to traditional therapies. Here we discuss current progress towards developing programmable nuclease-based therapies as well as future prospects and challenges. PMID:25654603

  2. Astronomy For Dummies, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2005-04-01

    An accessible guide to the wonders of the night sky, now updated From asteroids to black holes, from quasars to white dwarfs, this new edition of Astronomy For Dummies takes backyard stargazers on a grand tour of the universe. Featuring star maps, charts, gorgeous full-color photographs, and easy-to-follow explanations, this fact-filled guide gives readers a leg up on the basic principles of astronomy and shows how to get the most out of binoculars, telescopes, planetarium visits, and other fun astronomical activities. This updated edition includes an updated color signature and covers the many discoveries made in recent years, as well as new astronomy Web sites.

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm).

  4. Effect of Electronic Editing on Error Rate of Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Starr D.

    1979-01-01

    A study of a North Carolina newspaper indicates that newspapers using fully integrated electronic editing systems have fewer errors in spelling, punctuation, sentence construction, hyphenation, and typography than newspapers not using electronic editing. (GT)

  5. A systematic study of genetic algorithms with genotype editing

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C. F.; Rocha, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents our systematic study on an RNA-editing computational model of Genetic Algorithms (GA). This model is constructed based on several genetic editing characteristics that are gleaned from the RNA editing system as observed in several organisms. We have expanded the traditional Genetic Algorithm with artificial editing mechanisms as proposed by [15]. The incorporation of editing mechanisms provides a means for artificial agents with genetic descriptions to gain greater phenotypic plasticity, which may be environmentally regulated. The systematic study of this RNA-editing model has shed some light into the evolutionary implications of RNA editing and how to select proper RNA editors for design of more robust GAS. The results will also show promising applications to complex real-world problems. We expect that the framework proposed will both facilitate determining the evolutionary role of RNA editing in biology, and advance the current state of research in Evolutionary Computation.

  6. Shielded Metal Arc Welding and Carbon Arc Cutting--Air. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Eddie; Knapp, John

    This document contains the teacher and student texts and student workbook for a secondary-level course in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and carbon arc cutting that consists of units on the following topics: SMAW safety; SMAW equipment, applications, and techniques; hardfacing; and carbon arc cutting--air. The teacher edition includes the…

  7. The Chloroplast Genome of Pellia endiviifolia: Gene Content, RNA-Editing Pattern, and the Origin of Chloroplast Editing

    PubMed Central

    Grosche, Christopher; Funk, Helena T.; Maier, Uwe G.; Zauner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that can act upon transcripts from mitochondrial, nuclear, and chloroplast genomes. In chloroplasts, single-nucleotide conversions in mRNAs via RNA editing occur at different frequencies across the plant kingdom. These range from several hundred edited sites in some mosses and ferns to lower frequencies in seed plants and the complete lack of RNA editing in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Here, we report the sequence and edited sites of the chloroplast genome from the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia. The type and frequency of chloroplast RNA editing display a pattern highly similar to that in seed plants. Analyses of the C to U conversions and the genomic context in which the editing sites are embedded provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that chloroplast RNA editing evolved to compensate mutations in the first land plants. PMID:23221608

  8. The chloroplast genome of Pellia endiviifolia: gene content, RNA-editing pattern, and the origin of chloroplast editing.

    PubMed

    Grosche, Christopher; Funk, Helena T; Maier, Uwe G; Zauner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that can act upon transcripts from mitochondrial, nuclear, and chloroplast genomes. In chloroplasts, single-nucleotide conversions in mRNAs via RNA editing occur at different frequencies across the plant kingdom. These range from several hundred edited sites in some mosses and ferns to lower frequencies in seed plants and the complete lack of RNA editing in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Here, we report the sequence and edited sites of the chloroplast genome from the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia. The type and frequency of chloroplast RNA editing display a pattern highly similar to that in seed plants. Analyses of the C to U conversions and the genomic context in which the editing sites are embedded provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that chloroplast RNA editing evolved to compensate mutations in the first land plants.

  9. Administration of the Small Public Library. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingand, Darlene E.

    Since the publication of its first edition in 1965, this book has been a standard resource for setting up and managing cutting-edge small public library facilities. Completely revised and updated, this fourth edition continues that tradition with many more figures (28 in this edition), case studies and sample policies, and new content on grant…

  10. Annotated Bibliography on Offender Job Training and Placement. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Constance, Ed.

    This second edition of an annotated bibliography on offender job training and placement lists nearly 400 items from the collection of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center in Longmont, Colorado, including 85 items added since the first edition in 1997. Items new to this edition are marked with an asterisk. Citations have…

  11. The role of RNA editing in dynamic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L. M.; Huang, C. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a computational methodology based on Genetic Algorithms with Genotype Editing (GAE) for investigating the role of RNA editing in dynamic environments. This model is constructed based on several genetic editing characteristics that are gleaned from the RNA editing system as observed in several organisms. We have previously expanded the traditional Genetic Algorithm (GA) with artificial editing mechanisms (Rocha, 1995, 1997), and studied the benefits of including straightforward Genotype Editing in GA for several machine learning problems (Huang and Rocha, 2003, 2004). We show that the incorporation of genotype editing provides a means for artificial agents with genetic descriptions to gain greater phenotypic plasticity. Artificial agents use genotype edition to their advantage by linking it to environmental context. The ability to link changes in the environment with editing parameters gives organisms an adaptive advantage as genotype expression can become contextually regulated. The study of this RNA editing model in changing environments has shed some light into the evolutionary implications of RNA editing. We expect that our methodology will both facilitate determining the evolutionary role of RNA editing in biology, and advance the current state of research in Evolutionary Computation and Artificial Life.

  12. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect (2nd Edition)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This volume is a second edition of the book “Soil Carbon Sequestration and The Greenhouse Effect”. The first edition was published in 2001 as SSSA Special Publ. #57. The present edition is an update of the concepts, processes, properties, practices and the supporting data. All chapters are new co...

  13. 45 CFR 73.735-705 - Writing and editing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Writing and editing. 73.735-705 Section 73.735-705... Outside Activities § 73.735-705 Writing and editing. (a) Employees are encouraged to engage in outside writing and editing whether or not done for compensation, when such activity is not otherwise...

  14. 45 CFR 73.735-705 - Writing and editing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Writing and editing. 73.735-705 Section 73.735-705... Outside Activities § 73.735-705 Writing and editing. (a) Employees are encouraged to engage in outside writing and editing whether or not done for compensation, when such activity is not otherwise...

  15. 45 CFR 73.735-705 - Writing and editing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Writing and editing. 73.735-705 Section 73.735-705... Outside Activities § 73.735-705 Writing and editing. (a) Employees are encouraged to engage in outside writing and editing whether or not done for compensation, when such activity is not otherwise...

  16. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  17. What Research Has To Say about Reading Instruction. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.; Farstrup, Alan E., Ed.

    Maintaining the balance between theory and application of the 1978 edition, this book's second edition keeps up with changes in the reading curriculum by adding chapters on text structure, metacognition, and home background not found in the first edition. Chapter titles are: (1) "The Role of Research in Reading Instruction" (Wayne Otto); (2) "Home…

  18. Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forum on Education Abroad, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This fourth edition of the Forum on Education Abroad's "Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad" augments previous editions of the "Standards." Since the last edition was published in 2008, Forum member institutions and organizations have implemented the Standards in program development and assessment, using the Standards in the Forum's…

  19. Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.; Sciarra, David G.; Farrie, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    The third edition of the National Report Card examines the condition of states' finance systems as the country emerges from the Great Recession, but is still wrestling with its consequences. As in prior editions, this Third Edition of the National Report Card continues to make the case for states to take immediate and longer-term action to improve…

  20. Genome-wide identification of RNA editing in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lin; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Gong, Zhoulin; Zheng, Hancheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui; Yang, Huanming; Hardwick, James; Dai, Hongyue; Poon, Ronnie T P; Lee, Nikki P; Mao, Mao; Peng, Zhiyu; Chen, Ronghua

    2015-02-01

    We did whole-transcriptome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing on nine pairs of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors and matched adjacent tissues to identify RNA editing events. We identified mean 26,982 editing sites with mean 89.5% canonical A→G edits in each sample using an improved bioinformatics pipeline. The editing rate was significantly higher in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. Comparing the difference between tumor and normal tissues of each patient, we found 7 non-synonymous tissue specific editing events including 4 tumor-specific edits and 3 normal-specific edits in the coding region, as well as 292 edits varying in editing degree. The significant expression changes of 150 genes associated with RNA editing were found in tumors, with 3 of the 4 most significant genes being cancer related. Our results show that editing might be related to higher gene expression. These findings indicate that RNA editing modification may play an important role in the development of HCC.

  1. Alternative Splicing of STAT3 Is Affected by RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lior; Abutbul-Amitai, Mor; Paret, Gideon; Nevo-Caspi, Yael

    2017-03-09

    A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated. STAT3 undergoes A-to-I RNA editing in an intron residing in proximity to the alternatively spliced exon. We hypothesized that RNA editing plays a role in regulating alternative splicing toward STAT3β. In this study we extend our observation connecting RNA editing to the preferential induction of STAT3β expression. We study the involvement of ADAR1 in STAT3 editing and reveal the connection between editing and alternative splicing of STAT3. Deferoaxamine treatment caused the induction in STAT3 RNA editing and STAT3β expression. Silencing ADAR1 caused a decrease in STAT3 editing and expression with a preferential decrease in STAT3β. Cells transfected with a mutated minigene showed preferential splicing toward the STAT3β transcript. Editing in the STAT3 intron is performed by ADAR1 and affects STAT3 alternative splicing. These results suggest that RNA editing is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of STAT3β.

  2. Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    This second edition policy brief revisits the long and storied literature on whether money matters in providing a quality education. It includes research released since the original brief in 2012 and covers a handful of additional topics. Increasingly, political rhetoric adheres to the unfounded certainty that money does not make a difference in…

  3. Peer Review Handbook 4th Edition, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 4th edition of EPA's Peer Review Handbook, 2015 is the most up to date version. It was prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Members of the Peer Review Advisory Group under the direction of EPA’s Science and Technology Policy Council

  4. Editing Distance Education Materials. Knowledge Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, Christine

    Distance education (DE) materials take a learner-centered approach rather than the traditionally content-centered approach of textbooks. This fact has several implications for the editing of DE materials. The role of the editor within the DE organization will depend on the organization's size and structure. The basic features of the DE program or…

  5. The School and Community Relations. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagin, Don; And Others

    Updating the 1990 edition, this book emphasizes the importance of designing public relations programs around the needs and problems of the school and its special publics. The book approaches the subject from the perspective that increased interest and importance is being placed on community relations skills and schools, suggesting that two…

  6. Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, William J., Ed.; Palmo, Artis J., Ed.

    The mental health counseling profession has gained increasing influence in the last 20 years. The purpose of this edited collection of articles is to chart the antecedents to, the present status of, and the future trends for this group of professionals. The book draws together historical tracings, rationales, conceptual models, and other…

  7. The Technique of Television Production. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millerson, Gerald

    In discussing the technical aspects of television production, this book covers both equipment and techniques used in these areas: camera, lighting, sound, settings, and make-up. Composition of images according to camera movement, placement of subjects, editing, and aural composition are also covered. Steps in the technical planning of a telecast…

  8. The Complete Learning Disabilities Directory. 2011 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey House Publishing, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Published for over a decade, this directory continues to be a successful, sought-after resource, providing valuable information to professionals, families, and individuals in the learning disabilities community. Supported by the National Center for Learning Disabilities, this 2011 edition brings together the most up-to-date information on LD…

  9. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  10. The Young Child and Mathematics. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Juanita V.

    2010-01-01

    This second edition of the bestselling book "The Young Child and Mathematics" reflects recent developments in math education in a wealth of vignettes from classrooms, activity ideas, and strategies for teaching young children about math processes and concepts. Using standards and guidelines from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics…

  11. Schools without Drugs. What Works. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This revised edition focuses on the prevention of drug use among school students, with increased attention to alcohol, tobacco, and steroids. The handbook, which begins with an introduction by Secretary of Education, Lauro F. Cavazos, provides new information about the effects of alcohol on young people; statistics on the harm it causes; and…

  12. A Practical Guide to Newsletter Editing & Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, LaRae H.

    All phases of a newsletter operation are covered in this guide for the inexperienced newsletter editor. Separate chapters deal with establishing the purpose of the newsletter; gathering, writing, and editing stories; choosing format, paper, letterhead, mailing procedure, and methods of financing the newsletter; working with type; printing by…

  13. A Model for Flexibly Editing CSCL Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobreira, Pericles; Tchounikine, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model whose primary concern and design rationale is to offer users (teachers) with basic ICT skills an intuitive, easy, and flexible way of editing scripts. The proposal is based on relating an end-user representation as a table and a machine model as a tree. The table-tree model introduces structural expressiveness and…

  14. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  15. School Safety. Communique Special Edition, Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Psychologists, Washington, DC.

    "Communique" is the "official newsletter of the National Association of School Psychologists" (NASP). This "Special Edition" of "Communique" is a compilation of twelve previously-published articles/pieces all of which touch on the theme of "School Safety." Articles in this issue include (1)…

  16. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.

    This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…

  17. Regression Analysis by Example. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samprit; Hadi, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. "Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition" has been expanded and thoroughly…

  18. Media Research Techniques. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Arthur Asa

    Suggesting it is a good idea for students to try their hands at doing media research themselves, this book presents a number of research projects that students will find interesting and that they can do with minimum experience in a limited amount of time. The second edition has added chapters on experimentation, historical research, comparative…

  19. Classification of Instructional Programs: 2000 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert L.; Hunt, E. Stephen

    This third revision of the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) updates and modifies education program classifications, providing a taxonomic scheme that supports the accurate tracking, assessment, and reporting of field of study and program completions activity. This edition has also been adopted as the standard field of study taxonomy…

  20. Mass Media and Communication. Second, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S., Ed.

    This revised and enlarged second edition contains sections focusing on a number of mass media: newspapers, the American magazine, motion pictures, broadcasting media, and book publishing. Other section topics include the structure and development of mass communication, public opinion, international communication, the motivation of assent, the…

  1. A DESCRIPTIVE INDONESIAN GRAMMAR--PRELIMINARY EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    THIS PRELIMINARY EDITION COMPRISES A DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA), THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. THE THREE SECTIONS--PHONOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND MORPHOLOGY--PRESENT A COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN, WITH OCCASIONAL CONTRASTIVE REFERENCE TO MALAY, JAVANESE, SUNDANESE, AND SUMATRAN. THIS…

  2. ASIA A Guide to Paperbacks. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embree, Ainslie T., Ed.

    The guide includes in-print titles which were listed in the original guide and the supplement, new titles which appeared between December 1965 and December 1967, books published in 1968 provided by some publishers, and a few titles omitted from earlier editions. All the books are listed alphabetically by author within five subject areas:…

  3. Asia: A Guide to Paperbacks. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embree, Ainslie T., Ed.

    The guide includes in-print titles which were listed in the original guide and the supplement, new titles which appeared between December 1965 and December 1967, books published in 1968 provided by some publishers, and a few titles omitted from earlier editions. All the books are listed alphabetically by author within five subject areas:…

  4. More Than A Native Speaker, Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Don, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This revised edition includes an expanded discussion of student-directed language learning, workbook activities for volunteer teachers enrolled in courses or studying the book individually, and a full array of culture-based discussion topics for use as supplementary activities or core material for an English course. The book includes 16 chapters.…

  5. World Directory of Medical Schools. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This 7th edition of the World Directory of Medical Schools is a country-by-country listing of 1,642 institutions of basic medical education approved by the competent national authorities in 157 countries or areas; the information reflects academic year 1995-96. The directory also provides information on the conditions for obtaining the license to…

  6. Part C Updates. 11th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Joan; Goode, Sue; Lazara, Alex

    2010-01-01

    "Part C Updates" is a compilation of information on various aspects of the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This is the eleventh volume in a series of compilations, which included two editions of Part H Updates, the former name of the…

  7. Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samovar, Larry A.; Porter, Richard E.

    This edition is designed to serve as a basic anthology for courses providing theoretical and practical knowledge about intercultural communication processes, as a supplementary text for existing basic courses, and as resource material for advanced courses and for situations involving intercultural communication. The four closely related parts of…

  8. 10 Tempting Image-Editing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Asking students to manipulate digital photos on the computer is one of the easiest ways the author knows to engage their attention. It's fabulous fun for them and a great teaching tool for educators. In this article, the author presents 10 ways to impress students with image-editing software. These are: (1) filters are fascinating; (2) get a move…

  9. Part C Updates. 10th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Sue; Lazara, Alex; Danaher, Joan

    2008-01-01

    "Part C Updates" is a compilation of information on various aspects of the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This is the tenth volume in a series of compilations, which included two editions of Part H Updates, the former name of the…

  10. Handbook of paediatric radiography. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Gyll, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book gives some ideas on how to achieve good radiographs of children. In this second edition most papers are expanded and brought up to date, the paper on the neonate completely rewritten, and a discussion of child development and child psychology added.

  11. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the 4th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. Much has changed since the first "Kids & Family Reading Report" was issued in 2006, but literacy remains the critical skill needed for school success. Today's children are growing up in a world full of…

  12. The Excellence of Play. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of "The Excellence of Play" encapsulates all of the many changes that have taken place in early childhood in the last decade. It examines the vital importance of play as a tool for learning and teaching for children and practitioners, supporting all those who work in early childhood education and care in developing and…

  13. Career Choice and Development. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Duane; And Others

    This book contains 12 papers examining established and newly emerging theories of career choice and development. Following prefaces to the third, second, and first editions by Duane Brown and Linda Brooks, the following papers are included: "Introduction to Theories of Career Development and Choice: Origins, Evolution, and Current Efforts" (Duane…

  14. Recommended Reference Books in Paperback. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Jovian P.; O'Gorman, Jack

    Completely revised and updated from the last edition (1992), this annotated, evaluative bibliography presents more than 1,000 outstanding titles chosen for their quality, economy, and availability. Thirty-six chapters describe and judge these affordable paperbacks for libraries with limited budgets. Subject matter includes: general reference, area…

  15. Total Quality Management in Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, Edward

    Quality is at the top of most agendas, and improving quality is probably the most important task facing any institution. In addition, quality is difficult to define or measure. This book, the second edition of "Total Quality Management in Education," introduces the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) and demonstrates how they…

  16. Medication Administration Technician. Update. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This teacher's edition contains curriculum materials for an upgrading course for medication administration technicians who have completed initial training. The course consists of six units of instruction that cover the following: (1) controlling infection; (2) administering medication; (3) obtaining vital signs; (4) discussing legal issues and…

  17. Fundamentals of Physics, Extended 7th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

  18. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges Ahead.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Chakravarthi

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated) system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016) have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review.

  19. Compact Geography of the Netherlands. (Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.

    This document presents information on the physical and human geography of the Netherlands. In this third revised edition, the contents have been brought up-to-date and expanded. In addition, sections on physical planning and environmental problems have been added. The booklet is intended for use by geography classroom teachers and students at…

  20. Emotional Intelligence in Everyday Life. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John H., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Since the release of the very successful first edition in 2001, the field of emotional intelligence has grown in sophistication and importance. Many new and talented researchers have come into the field and techniques in EI measurement have dramatically increased so that we now know much more about the distinctiveness and utility of the different…

  1. Television and the American Family. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Jennings, Ed.; Bryant, J. Alison, Ed.

    Noting drastic changes in both television and the family since the 1990 edition, this revised volume provides an extensive consideration of television's role in the American family, from the uses families make of television and how extensions such as remote controls and VCRs affect usage, to the meanings families have for television, families'…

  2. Applied groundwater modeling, 2nd Edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Mary P.; Woessner, William W.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    This second edition is extensively revised throughout with expanded discussion of modeling fundamentals and coverage of advances in model calibration and uncertainty analysis that are revolutionizing the science of groundwater modeling. The text is intended for undergraduate and graduate level courses in applied groundwater modeling and as a comprehensive reference for environmental consultants and scientists/engineers in industry and governmental agencies.

  3. Populations. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This teacher's guide is for an elementary school science unit designed for use with third grade (or older) children in the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaptation or edition of…

  4. Grants for Higher Education. 2012 Digital Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication is only available as a downloadable file. See who's giving and getting grants in your field. Strengthen your search for funds with the Foundation Center's digital edition of "Grants for Higher Education." This new "Grant Guide" reveals the scope of current foundation giving in the field. You'll find descriptions of 19,705 grants…

  5. Grants for Employment--2012 Digital Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication is only available as a downloadable file. See who's giving and getting grants in your field. Strengthen your search for funds with the Foundation Center's digital edition of "Grants for Employment." This new "Grant Guide" reveals the scope of current foundation giving in the field. You'll find descriptions of 4,129 grants of…

  6. Grants for Children & Youth--2012 Digital Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation Center, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication is only available as a downloadable file. See who's giving and getting grants in your field. Strengthen your search for funds with the Foundation Center's digital edition of "Grants for Children & Youth." This new "Grant Guide" reveals the scope of current foundation giving in the field. You'll find descriptions of 37,992 grants…

  7. Engineered Viruses as Genome Editing Devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2016-03-01

    Genome editing based on sequence-specific designer nucleases, also known as programmable nucleases, seeks to modify in a targeted and precise manner the genetic information content of living cells. Delivering into cells designer nucleases alone or together with donor DNA templates, which serve as surrogate homologous recombination (HR) substrates, can result in gene knockouts or gene knock-ins, respectively. As engineered replication-defective viruses, viral vectors are having an increasingly important role as delivery vehicles for donor DNA templates and designer nucleases, namely, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) nucleases, also known as RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs). We review this dual role played by engineered viral particles on genome editing while focusing on their main scaffolds, consisting of lentiviruses, adeno-associated viruses, and adenoviruses. In addition, the coverage of the growing body of research on the repurposing of viral vectors as delivery systems for genome editing tools is complemented with information regarding their main characteristics, pros, and cons. Finally, this information is framed by a concise description of the chief principles, tools, and applications of the genome editing field as a whole.

  8. Digest of Educational Statistics, 1969 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Kenneth A.; Grant, W. Vance

    The 1969 edition of the Digest of Educational Statistics is the eighth in this series of annual publications. The primary purpose of this compendium of tables is to provide an abstract of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from kindergarten through the graduate school. Subjects on which statistics are given…

  9. Best Practices in Literacy Instruction. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel, Ed.; Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Pressley, Michael, Ed.

    Now revised and updated, this book's second edition aims to guide teachers in providing effective, engaging literacy instruction that meets the challenges of today's legislative mandates. Identified in the book are principles of best practice that reflect cutting-edge scientific research as well as decades of hands-on classroom experience.…

  10. Brief Articles for Latino Parents, 1999 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains six briefs developed specifically for Spanish-speaking Latino parents, and English translations of the briefs. These briefs state what researchers and practitioners have learned about various ways parents can help their children do well in school. Earlier editions of brief articles for parents have been used in various ways by…

  11. Precision genome editing in the CRISPR era.

    PubMed

    Salsman, Jayme; Dellaire, Graham

    2017-04-01

    With the introduction of precision genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we have entered a new era of genetic engineering and gene therapy. With RNA-guided endonucleases, such as Cas9, it is possible to engineer DNA double strand breaks (DSB) at specific genomic loci. DSB repair by the error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway can disrupt a target gene by generating insertions and deletions. Alternatively, Cas9-mediated DSBs can be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using an homologous DNA repair template, thus allowing precise gene editing by incorporating genetic changes into the repair template. HDR can introduce gene sequences for protein epitope tags, delete genes, make point mutations, or alter enhancer and promoter activities. In anticipation of adapting this technology for gene therapy in human somatic cells, much focus has been placed on increasing the fidelity of CRISPR-Cas9 and increasing HDR efficiency to improve precision genome editing. In this review, we will discuss applications of CRISPR technology for gene inactivation and genome editing with a focus on approaches to enhancing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated HDR for the generation of cell and animal models, and conclude with a discussion of recent advances and challenges towards the application of this technology for gene therapy in humans.

  12. Greenhouse Management and Operations. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowdy, Mary Ann Schwartz

    This document is the teacher's edition of a module containing 16 instructional units covering competencies for students with career aspirations in horticulture. It is designed to provide high school students with an in-depth perspective of both the technical and the commercial aspects of running a greenhouse. The 16 units cover the following…

  13. Introduction to Energy - 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassedy, Edward S.; Grossman, Peter Z.

    1998-12-01

    Energy issues such as pollution, resource depletion, global warming, nuclear power and waste are problems that demand timely solutions. This book provides a critical examination of the resources, market forces, and social impacts of modern energy production. The book addresses the dilemmas that have arisen due to society's crucial dependence on energy, particularly fossil fuels, and explores the available alternative energy producing technologies. The second edition has increased emphasis on those issues at the forefront of the current energy debate: energy sustainability, climate change, and the radical restructuring of the power industry due to de-regulation. Assuming no prior technical expertise and avoiding complex mathematical formulation, it is directed at a broad readership. The second edition will follow the first in proving especially useful as a textbook for undergraduate programs in Science, Technology and Society (STS), and as a supplementary text in a variety of courses which touch upon energy studies, including environmental and technology policy, environmental, mineral and business law, energy and resource economics. Fully updated second edition of successful first edition that was adopted on Science, Technology and Society courses Provides a critical examination of all aspects of modern energy production for non-technical readers For a broad readership from a variety of backgrounds

  14. Using Non-finite Clauses in Editing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an editing assignment in which senior engineering students use their knowledge of non-finite clauses (both restrictive and non-restrictive) to achieve concise mature writing. Explains the linguistic background provided to students before the assignment, gives details of the published "answer guide" and the exercise, and…

  15. World Bank Atlas. [Twenty-Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This edition of the World Bank Atlas presents curent economic and social data for 185 countries and territories in the world. A number of maps, tables, and graphs highlight key relationships and trends in the development of the countries. The atlas includes data on population, gross national product (GNP), share of agriculture in gross domestic…

  16. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…

  17. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    This handbook's second edition represents the state of the art for the theory and practice of qualitative inquiry. It features eight new topics, including autoethnography, critical race theory, applied ethnography, queer theory, and "testimonio"every chapter in the handbook has been thoroughly revised and updated. The book…

  18. Teachers and the Law. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; Schimmel, David; Stellman, Leslie

    This book is about teachers and the laws that affect them. New to this sixth edition are new court cases and a chapter that highlights likely controversies in the coming years, including school choice, high-stakes testing, control of the Internet, and gang clothing. The book is divided into two parts. Part I, "The Legal Aspects of Teaching,"…

  19. Designing Effective Instruction. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary R.; Ross, Steven M.; Kemp, Jerrold E.

    2006-01-01

    This valuable resource provides instructional designers with the guidance they need to meet the challenge of creating effective and efficient instruction. Maintaining a careful balance between theory and application, the Fifth Edition presents a practical, easy-to-follow approach to instructional design that can be applied to K-12 classrooms,…

  20. Home Study Course Development Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael P., Ed.; Welch, Sally R., Ed.

    Intended to help developers of home study courses and their directors of education create good correspondence courses, this document updates the 1980 edition and was developed by members of the National Home Study Council's Research and Educational Standards Committee. The document begins with photographs and biographies of its authors. The…

  1. Staff Development: A Practical Guide. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Elizabeth Fuseler, Ed.; Dahlin, Terry, Ed.; Carver, Deborah A., Ed.

    In this new, expanded edition step-by-step guidelines are provided for customizing a staff development program that is both proactive and goal-oriented. Drawing on the advice of 37 top experts with a variety of skill sets, this book presents information on how to assess a library's needs and set training goals, budget appropriately, develop a set…

  2. ETC 408/508: Technical Editing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The course will focus on the role of the editor in organizational settings, including creating successful writer/editor collaboration. Students will gain practice in editing documents for grammar, syntax, organization, style, emphasis, document design, graphics, and user-centered design. The course will provide an introduction to technology for…

  3. ETC 408/508: Technical Editing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ETC 408/508: Technical Editing is a cross-listed undergraduate and graduate course at Missouri Western State University, an open admissions public university with approximately 6,000 students. 508 is an elective course for students in the Master of Applied Arts in Written Communication degree and highly recommended for those in the Technical…

  4. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  5. Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913.

    PubMed

    Wundt, Wilhelm; Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents an English translation of Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913, by James T. Lamiell in August, 2012. In his essay, Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Landscape of Qualitative Research. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…

  7. Classroom Applications of Educational Measurement. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterhof, Albert

    This book, designed as an introductory text in educational measurement, presents comprehensive and balanced coverage of all aspects of assessment relevant to classroom teachers, including construction and use of paper-and-pencil and alternative assessments. This edition expands the coverage of alternative assessments and includes a chapter on the…

  8. Section 619 Profile. 11th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Joan, Ed.; Kraus, Robert, Ed.

    The 11th edition of the Section 619 Profile describes services provided under the Preschool Grants Program for Children with Disabilities (Section 619 of Part B) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It presents current and/or historical information for all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, which are all…

  9. Marching to Different Drummers. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guild, Pat Burke; Garger, Stephen

    First published in 1985, this revised edition focuses on diversity in education, exploring differences in style to help educators better fulfill their responsibilities and assist people in realizing their potential. Among the new chapters are a discussion of the importance of knowledge about students' culture, learning styles in light of recent…

  10. Ladybugs of South Dakota, 2nd edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 80 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as lady beetles, that occur in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. The second edition updates information, including the addition of a species new to South Dakota. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-fami...

  11. Best Practices in Literacy Instruction. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Morrow, Lesley Mandel, Ed.; Pressley, Michael, Ed.; Guthrie, John T., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Now in a thoroughly revised and expanded third edition, this evidence-based book distills the latest knowledge about literacy teaching and learning into clear strategies for helping all children succeed. Within a comprehensive conceptual framework, the field's leading authorities provide eminently practical recommendations to guide instructional…

  12. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  13. The staging system: Display and edit module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, E.; Bernier, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Display and Edit (D and E) Module described is one of six major modules being developed for the STAGING (STructural Analysis through Generalized INteractive Graphics) System. Several remarks are included concerning the computer environment and the architecture of the data base. The utility of this module is emphasized.

  14. Counselling Ethics Casebook, 2000. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, William E.

    There are many issues that cannot be handled completely in any code of ethics, and casebooks have been developed to help provide some clarification. The general intent of casebooks is to help educate counselors, counselor educators, and counseling researchers. Some specific objectives of this second edition include promoting the discussion of…

  15. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

  16. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Reflecting the rapid changes that have occurred in young adult literature, this second edition provides teachers with the history and background needed to stay current with what adolescents are reading and how such literature can be taught. The book is organized much as a literature course is taught: first, an introduction to young adults and…

  17. MATHEMATICS I, VOLUME 3, EXPERIMENTAL EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    THIS IS VOLUME 3 OF A THREE-VOLUME EXPERIMENTAL EDITION CONTAINING A SEQUENCE OF ENRICHED MATERIALS FOR SEVENTH-GRADE MATHEMATICS. THESE MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED TO BE USED FOR A PROGRAM OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION FOR THE ACCELERATED STUDENT OR FOR CLASSROOM PRESENTATION BY THE TEACHER. THE PRESENTATION OF THE MATERIAL IS SUCH AS TO REFLECT…

  18. Researching Society and Culture. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Clear, coherent and trusted, this book is the perfect guide to the main social research methods in use today. The much anticipated Third Edition of Clive Seale's bestselling title further expands its coverage to provide an authoritative introduction to all of the social research methods used to analyze qualitative and quantitative data. Written by…

  19. A Snapshot of Photo Editing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    Plenty of digital imaging professionals claim that Adobe's Photoshop CS is the best photo editing application money can buy. This document reviews Adobe's Photoshop CS and its worthy competitors. In addition to Adobe, the following programs are reviewed in this document: (1) Adobe Photoshop Elements 2.0; (2) Arcsoft PhotoImpression; (3) Jasc Paint…

  20. Section 619 Profile. 15th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazara, Alex, Ed.; Danaher, Joan, Ed.; Kraus, Robert, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This 2007 edition of the Section 619 Profile updates information on state policies, programs, and practices under the Preschool Grants Program (Section 619 of Part B) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It presents current and/or historical information for all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, which are…

  1. Health Education Teaching Ideas: Secondary. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loya, Richard, Ed.; Bensley, Loren B., Jr., Ed.

    Part I of this teaching guide contains teaching strategies which originally appeared in the "Journal of Health Education" (JHE) and were included in the first edition of this guide, published in 1983. Part II includes teaching strategies published in JHE since 1983. The guide is designed to be a reference for those seeking workable ideas in…

  2. Writing in the Content Areas. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Do you spend entirely too much time correcting your students' papers? Do your students' essays and term papers take side trips to nowhere? Is their writing riddled with mechanical errors? Do their lab reports and essays lack specificity and clarity? Writing in the Content Areas, Second Edition is for middle and high school content area teachers…

  3. The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Freeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    The "NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition," is a co-production with the Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA), and examines six emerging technologies for their potential impact on and use in education and interpretation within the museum environment: BYOD (Bring Your Own Device), crowdsourcing, electronic…

  4. Critical Social Theories. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agger, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Praised for its clarity and accessibility, this fully updated edition of "Critical Social Theories" presents a comprehensive analysis of leading social and cultural theories today. Diverse perspectives are addressed from feminism and cultural studies to postmodernism and critical theory. Written accessibly for students and faculty, the second…

  5. Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Dennis H.; Parsons, Marsha B.

    2007-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities' (AAIDD's) Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum," Second Edition" ("PBSTC"), is a curriculum for training direct support personnel and their supervisors in the values and practices of Positive Behavior Support. The curriculum is designed for direct support persons and…

  6. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Chakravarthi

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated) system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016) have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review. PMID:27790238

  7. Nanoparticles for Site Specific Genome Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeer, Nicole Ali

    Triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) can be used to coordinate the recombination of short 50-60 by "donor DNA" fragments into genomic DNA, resulting in site-specific correction of genetic mutations or the introduction of advantageous genetic modifications. Site-specific gene editing in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) could result in treatment or cure of inherited disorders of the blood such as beta-thalassemia. Gene editing in HSPCs and differentiated T cells could help combat HIV/AIDs by modifying receptors, such as CCR5, necessary for R5-tropic HIV entry. However, translation of genome modification technologies to clinical practice is limited by challenges in intracellular delivery, especially in difficult-to-transfect hematolymphoid cells. In vivo gene editing could also provide novel treatment for systemic monogenic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor. Here, we have engineered biodegradable nanoparticles to deliver oligonucleotides for site-specific genome editing of disease-relevant genes in human cells, with high efficiency, low toxicity, and editing of clinically relevant cell types. We designed nanoparticles to edit the human beta-globin and CCR5 genes in hematopoietic cells. We show that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles can delivery PNA and donor DNA for site-specific gene modification in human hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo in NOD-scid IL2rgammanull mice. Nanoparticles delivered by tail vein localized to hematopoietic compartments in the spleen and bone marrow of humanized mice, resulting in modification of the beta-globin and CCR5 genes. Modification frequencies ranged from 0.005 to 20% of cells depending on the organ and cell type, without detectable toxicity. This project developed highly versatile methods for delivery of therapeutics to hematolymphoid cells and hematopoietic stem cells, and will help to

  8. Trans and cis factors affecting A-to-I RNA editing efficiency of a noncoding editing target in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Michael C; Hundley, Heather A

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing by ADARs affects thousands of adenosines in an organism's transcriptome. However, adenosines are not edited at equal levels nor do these editing levels correlate well with ADAR expression levels. Therefore, additional mechanisms are utilized by the cell to dictate the editing efficiency at a given adenosine. To examine cis-and trans-acting factors that regulate A-to-I editing levels specifically in neural cells, we utilized the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans We demonstrate that a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein, ADR-1, inhibits editing in neurons, which is largely masked when examining editing levels from whole animals. Furthermore, expression of ADR-1 and mRNA expression of the editing target can act synergistically to regulate editing efficiency. In addition, we identify a dsRNA region within the Y75B8A.83' UTR that acts as acis-regulatory element by enhancing ADR-2 editing efficiency. Together, this work identifies mechanisms that regulate editing efficiency of noncoding A-to-I editing sites, which comprise the largest class of ADAR targets.

  9. Variable Frequency of Plastid RNA Editing among Ferns and Repeated Loss of Uridine-to-Cytidine Editing from Vascular Plants

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Mower, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution. PMID:25568947

  10. Variable frequency of plastid RNA editing among ferns and repeated loss of uridine-to-cytidine editing from vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2015-01-01

    The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution.

  11. Cloud Properties of CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and CERES-VIIRS Edition 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chang, Fu-Lung; Hong, Gang; Arduini, Robert; Chen, Yan; Trepte, Qing; Yost, Chris; Smith, Rita; Brown, Ricky; Chu, Churngwei; Heckert, Elizabeth; Gibson, Sharon; Heck, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) analyzes MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to derive cloud properties that are combine with aerosol and CERES broadband flux data to create a multi-parameter data set for climate study. CERES has produced over 15 years of data from Terra and over 13 years of data from Aqua using the CERES-MODIS Edition-2 cloud retrieval algorithm. A recently revised algorithm, CERESMODIS Edition 4, has been developed and is now generating enhanced cloud data for climate research (over 10 years for Terra and 8 years for Aqua). New multispectral retrievals of properties are included along with a multilayer cloud retrieval system. Cloud microphysical properties are reported at 3 wavelengths, 0.65, 1.24, and 2.1 microns to enable better estimates of the vertical profiles of cloud water contents. Cloud properties over snow are retrieved using the 1.24-micron channel. A new CERES-VIIRS cloud retrieval package was developed for the VIIRS spectral complement and is currently producing the CERES-VIIRS Edition 1 cloud dataset. The results from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and CERES-VIIRS Edition 1 are presented and compared with each other and other datasets, including CALIPSO, CloudSat and the CERES-MODIS Edition-2 results.

  12. Presenting the 3rd edition of WRB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The third edition of the international soil classification system "World Reference Base for Soil Resources" (WRB) will be presented during der 20th World Congress of Soil Science, Jeju, Korea, June 9-12. The second edition was published in 2006 and the first in 1998, which, in turn, was based on the Legends of the FAO Soil Map of the World. Now, after eight years of experience with the second edition, time was due for a revision. The major changes are: 1. The second edition had two different qualifier sequences for naming soils (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006, update 2007) and for creating map legends (Guidelines for creating small-scale map legends using the WRB; IUSS Working Group WRB, 2010). The third edition has one sequence for both. The qualifiers for every Reference Soil Group are subdivided into a small number of main qualifiers that are ranked and a larger number of additional qualifiers that are not ranked and given in an alphabetical order. The name of a pedon must comprise all applying qualifiers. The name of a map unit comprises a specified small number of main qualifiers, depending on scale, whereas all other qualifiers are optional. 2. For some soils, problems have been reported. Albeluvisols are difficult to detect in the field and cover only small surfaces. They have been replaced by Retisols, which have a broader definition that is easier to identify in the field. 3. The use of some diagnostics was difficult. Examples are: The argic horizon had too low limit values, so we had much more soils with argic horizons than justified. The definitions of the cambic horizon and the gleyic and stagnic properties were not precise enough. Organic material, mollic and umbric horizons had an unnecessary complicated definition. 4. Some changes in the key to the Reference Soil Groups seemed to be justified. Fluvisols were moved further down, Durisols and Gypsisols switched their position, also Arenosols and Cambisols. The soils with an argic horizon were brought

  13. Comparative RNA editing in autistic and neurotypical cerebella.

    PubMed

    Eran, A; Li, J B; Vatalaro, K; McCarthy, J; Rahimov, F; Collins, C; Markianos, K; Margulies, D M; Brown, E N; Calvo, S E; Kohane, I S; Kunkel, L M

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a neurodevelopmentally regulated epigenetic modification shown to modulate complex behavior in animals. Little is known about human A-to-I editing, but it is thought to constitute one of many molecular mechanisms connecting environmental stimuli and behavioral outputs. Thus, comprehensive exploration of A-to-I RNA editing in human brains may shed light on gene-environment interactions underlying complex behavior in health and disease. Synaptic function is a main target of A-to-I editing, which can selectively recode key amino acids in synaptic genes, directly altering synaptic strength and duration in response to environmental signals. Here, we performed a high-resolution survey of synaptic A-to-I RNA editing in a human population, and examined how it varies in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder in which synaptic abnormalities are a common finding. Using ultra-deep (>1000 × ) sequencing, we quantified the levels of A-to-I editing of 10 synaptic genes in postmortem cerebella from 14 neurotypical and 11 autistic individuals. A high dynamic range of editing levels was detected across individuals and editing sites, from 99.6% to below detection limits. In most sites, the extreme ends of the population editing distributions were individuals with autism. Editing was correlated with isoform usage, clusters of correlated sites were identified, and differential editing patterns examined. Finally, a dysfunctional form of the editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA B1 was found more commonly in postmortem cerebella from individuals with autism. These results provide a population-level, high-resolution view of A-to-I RNA editing in human cerebella and suggest that A-to-I editing of synaptic genes may be informative for assessing the epigenetic risk for autism.

  14. Generation of gene edited birds in one generation using sperm transfection assisted gene editing (STAGE).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Challagulla, Arjun; Jenkins, Kristie A; Wise, Terry G; O'Neil, Terri E; Morris, Kirsten R; Tizard, Mark L; Doran, Timothy J

    2016-11-28

    Generating transgenic and gene edited mammals involves in vitro manipulation of oocytes or single cell embryos. Due to the comparative inaccessibility of avian oocytes and single cell embryos, novel protocols have been developed to produce transgenic and gene edited birds. While these protocols are relatively efficient, they involve two generation intervals before reaching complete somatic and germline expressing transgenic or gene edited birds. Most of this work has been done with chickens, and many protocols require in vitro culturing of primordial germ cells (PGCs). However, for many other bird species no methodology for long term culture of PGCs exists. Developing methodologies to produce germline transgenic or gene edited birds in the first generation would save significant amounts of time and resource. Furthermore, developing protocols that can be readily adapted to a wide variety of avian species would open up new research opportunities. Here we report a method using sperm as a delivery mechanism for gene editing vectors which we call sperm transfection assisted gene editing (STAGE). We have successfully used this method to generate GFP knockout embryos and chickens, as well as generate embryos with mutations in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The efficiency of the method varies from as low as 0% to as high as 26% with multiple factors such as CRISPR guide efficiency and mRNA stability likely impacting the outcome. This straightforward methodology could simplify gene editing in many bird species including those for which no methodology currently exists.

  15. Catalog of Infrared Observations, Third Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Pitts, Patricia S.; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1993-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement contains a subset of the data in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (all observations at wavelengths greater than 4.6 microns). The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), NASA RP-1294, is a compilation of infrared astronomical observational data obtained from an extensive literature search of scientific journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature search is complete for years 1965 through 1990 in this Third Edition. The Catalog contains about 210,000 observations of roughly 20,000 individual sources and supporting appendices. The expanded Third Edition contains coded IRAS 4-band data for all CIO sources detected by IRAS. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions (also included in this volume), two bibliographies of Catalog listings, and an atlas of infrared spectral ranges. The complete CIO database is available to qualified users in printed, microfiche, and magnetic-tape formats.

  16. Radiation Therapy Physics, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendee, William R.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, Eric G.

    2004-08-01

    The Third Edition of Radiation Therapy Physics addresses in concise fashion the fundamental diagnostic radiologic physics principles as well as their clinical implications. Along with coverage of the concepts and applications for the radiation treatment of cancer patients, the authors have included reviews of the most up-to-date instrumentation and critical historical links. The text includes coverage of imaging in therapy planning and surveillance, calibration protocols, and precision radiation therapy, as well as discussion of relevant regulation and compliance activities. It contains an updated and expanded section on computer applications in radiation therapy and electron beam therapy, and features enhanced user-friendliness and visual appeal with a new, easy-to-follow format, including sidebars and a larger trim size. With its user-friendly presentation and broad, comprehensive coverage of radiotherapy physics, this Third Edition doubles as a medical text and handy professional reference.

  17. An edit script for taxonomic classifications

    PubMed Central

    Page, Roderic DM; Valiente, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Background The NCBI taxonomy provides one of the most powerful ways to navigate sequence data bases but currently users are forced to formulate queries according to a single taxonomic classification. Given that there is not universal agreement on the classification of organisms, providing a single classification places constraints on the questions biologists can ask. However, maintaining multiple classifications is burdensome in the face of a constantly growing NCBI classification. Results In this paper, we present a solution to the problem of generating modifications of the NCBI taxonomy, based on the computation of an edit script that summarises the differences between two classification trees. Our algorithms find the shortest possible edit script based on the identification of all shared subtrees, and only take time quasi linear in the size of the trees because classification trees have unique node labels. Conclusion These algorithms have been recently implemented, and the software is freely available for download from . PMID:16122379

  18. CRISPR as a strong gene editing tool.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shengfu; Loh, Tiing Jen; Shen, Hongling; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2017-01-01

    Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a new and effective genetic editing tool. CRISPR was initially found in bacteria to protect it from virus invasions. In the first step, specific DNA strands of virus are identified by guide RNA that is composed of crRNA and tracrRNA. Then RNAse III is required for producing crRNA from pre-crRNA. In The second step, a crRNA:tracrRNA:Cas9 complex guides RNase III to cleave target DNA. After cleavage of DNA by CRISPR-Cas9, DNA can be fixed by Non- Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) and Homology Directed Repair (HDR). Whereas NHEJ is simple and random, HDR is much more complex and accurate. Gene editing by CRISPR is able to be applied to various biological field such as agriculture and treating genetic diseases in human. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(1): 20-24].

  19. CRISPR as a strong gene editing tool

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shengfu; Loh, Tiing Jen; Shen, Hongling; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2017-01-01

    Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a new and effective genetic editing tool. CRISPR was initially found in bacteria to protect it from virus invasions. In the first step, specific DNA strands of virus are identified by guide RNA that is composed of crRNA and tracrRNA. Then RNAse III is required for producing crRNA from pre-crRNA. In The second step, a crRNA:tracrRNA:Cas9 complex guides RNase III to cleave target DNA. After cleavage of DNA by CRISPR-Cas9, DNA can be fixed by Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) and Homology Directed Repair (HDR). Whereas NHEJ is simple and random, HDR is much more complex and accurate. Gene editing by CRISPR is able to be applied to various biological field such as agriculture and treating genetic diseases in human. PMID:27616359

  20. Engineering Delivery Vehicles for Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-06-07

    The field of genome engineering has created new possibilities for gene therapy, including improved animal models of disease, engineered cell therapies, and in vivo gene repair. The most significant challenge for the clinical translation of genome engineering is the development of safe and effective delivery vehicles. A large body of work has applied genome engineering to genetic modification in vitro, and clinical trials have begun using cells modified by genome editing. Now, promising preclinical work is beginning to apply these tools in vivo. This article summarizes the development of genome engineering platforms, including meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9, and their flexibility for precise genetic modifications. The prospects for the development of safe and effective viral and nonviral delivery vehicles for genome editing are reviewed, and promising advances in particular therapeutic applications are discussed.

  1. Therapeutic genome editing with engineered nucleases.

    PubMed

    Haas, Simone A; Dettmer, Viviane; Cathomen, Toni

    2017-01-31

    Targeted genome editing with designer nucleases, such as zinc finger nucleases, TALE nucleases, and CRISPR-Cas nucleases, has heralded a new era in gene therapy. Genetic disorders, which have not been amenable to conventional gene-addition-type gene therapy approaches, such as disorders with dominant inheritance or diseases caused by mutations in tightly regulated genes, can now be treated by precise genome surgery. Moreover, engineered nucleases enable novel genetic interventions to fight infectious diseases or to improve cancer immunotherapies. Here, we review the development of the different classes of programmable nucleases, discuss the challenges and improvements in translating gene editing into clinical use, and give an outlook on what applications can expect to enter the clinic in the near future.

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  3. Understanding Physics, First Edition, Study Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Karen; Laws, Priscilla W.; Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick J.

    2004-04-01

    Built on the foundations of Halliday, Resnick, and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics Sixth Edition, this text is designed to work with interactive learning strategies that are increasingly being used in physics instruction (for example, microcomputer-based labs, interactive lectures, etc. ). In doing so, it incorporates new approaches based upon Physics Education Research (PER), aligns with courses that use computer-based laboratory tools, and promotes Activity Based Physics in lectures, labs, and recitations.

  4. Editing Procedure for Anthropometric Survey Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    to the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory and, when used together, effect a "coarse" and "fine" sifting of the data. The XVAL (extreme VALues...procedures and are, by far, more effective together than they are separately. In general, the editing of anthropometric data consists of three...can raise this value considerably, on occasion almost to its theoretical maximum, N, the sample size. On Figure 1, notice the effect on kurtosis

  5. Selective access and editing in a database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for providing selective access to different portions of a database by different subgroups of database users. Where N users are involved, up to 2.sup.N-1 distinguishable access subgroups in a group space can be formed, where no two access subgroups have the same members. Two or more members of a given access subgroup can edit, substantially simultaneously, a document accessible to each member.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of differential RNA editing in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Prashant Kumar; Bagnati, Marta; Delahaye-Duriez, Andree; Ko, Jeong-Hun; Rotival, Maxime; Langley, Sarah R.; Shkura, Kirill; Mazzuferi, Manuela; Danis, Bénédicte; van Eyll, Jonathan; Foerch, Patrik; Behmoaras, Jacques; Kaminski, Rafal M.; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    The recoding of genetic information through RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity, but the extent and significance of RNA editing in disease is poorly understood. In particular, few studies have investigated the relationship between RNA editing and disease at a genome-wide level. Here, we developed a framework for the genome-wide detection of RNA sites that are differentially edited in disease. Using RNA-sequencing data from 100 hippocampi from mice with epilepsy (pilocarpine–temporal lobe epilepsy model) and 100 healthy control hippocampi, we identified 256 RNA sites (overlapping with 87 genes) that were significantly differentially edited between epileptic cases and controls. The degree of differential RNA editing in epileptic mice correlated with frequency of seizures, and the set of genes differentially RNA-edited between case and control mice were enriched for functional terms highly relevant to epilepsy, including “neuron projection” and “seizures.” Genes with differential RNA editing were preferentially enriched for genes with a genetic association to epilepsy. Indeed, we found that they are significantly enriched for genes that harbor nonsynonymous de novo mutations in patients with epileptic encephalopathy and for common susceptibility variants associated with generalized epilepsy. These analyses reveal a functional convergence between genes that are differentially RNA-edited in acquired symptomatic epilepsy and those that contribute risk for genetic epilepsy. Taken together, our results suggest a potential role for RNA editing in the epileptic hippocampus in the occurrence and severity of epileptic seizures. PMID:28250018

  7. Genome-wide analysis of differential RNA editing in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Prashant Kumar; Bagnati, Marta; Delahaye-Duriez, Andree; Ko, Jeong-Hun; Rotival, Maxime; Langley, Sarah R; Shkura, Kirill; Mazzuferi, Manuela; Danis, Bénédicte; van Eyll, Jonathan; Foerch, Patrik; Behmoaras, Jacques; Kaminski, Rafal M; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R

    2017-03-01

    The recoding of genetic information through RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity, but the extent and significance of RNA editing in disease is poorly understood. In particular, few studies have investigated the relationship between RNA editing and disease at a genome-wide level. Here, we developed a framework for the genome-wide detection of RNA sites that are differentially edited in disease. Using RNA-sequencing data from 100 hippocampi from mice with epilepsy (pilocarpine-temporal lobe epilepsy model) and 100 healthy control hippocampi, we identified 256 RNA sites (overlapping with 87 genes) that were significantly differentially edited between epileptic cases and controls. The degree of differential RNA editing in epileptic mice correlated with frequency of seizures, and the set of genes differentially RNA-edited between case and control mice were enriched for functional terms highly relevant to epilepsy, including "neuron projection" and "seizures." Genes with differential RNA editing were preferentially enriched for genes with a genetic association to epilepsy. Indeed, we found that they are significantly enriched for genes that harbor nonsynonymous de novo mutations in patients with epileptic encephalopathy and for common susceptibility variants associated with generalized epilepsy. These analyses reveal a functional convergence between genes that are differentially RNA-edited in acquired symptomatic epilepsy and those that contribute risk for genetic epilepsy. Taken together, our results suggest a potential role for RNA editing in the epileptic hippocampus in the occurrence and severity of epileptic seizures.

  8. Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the role of Groundwater in Geologic Processes has increased steadily over the past few decades. Hydrogeologists and geologists are now actively exploring the role of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in such fundamental geologic processes as crustal heat transfer, ore deposition, hydrocarbon migration, earthquakes, tectonic deformation, diagenesis, and metamorphism.Groundwater in Geologic Processes is the first comprehensive treatment of this body of inquiry. Chapters 1 to 4 develop the basic theories of groundwater motion, hydromechanics, solute transport, and heat transport. Chapter 5 applies these theories to regional groundwater flow systems in a generic sense, and Chapters 6 to 13 focus on particular geologic processes and environments. Relative to the first edition of Groundwater in Geologic Processes , this second edition includes a much more comprehensive treatment of hydromechanics (the coupling of groundwater flow and deformation). It also includes new chapters on "compaction and diagenesis," "metamorphism," and "subsea hydrogeology." Finally, it takes advantage of the substantial body of published research that has appeared since the first edition in 1998. The systematic presentation of theory and application, and the problem sets that conclude each chapter, make this book ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level geology courses (assuming that the students have some background in calculus and introductory chemistry). It also serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and other professionals in the field

  9. TALEN gene editing takes aim on HIV.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ronald; Berges, Bradford K; Solis-Leal, Antonio; Igbinedion, Omoyemwen; Strong, Christy L; Schiller, Martin R

    2016-09-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are one of several types of programmable, engineered nucleases that bind and cleave specific DNA sequences. Cellular machinery repairs the cleaved DNA by introducing indels. In this review, we emphasize the potential, explore progress, and identify challenges in using TALENs as a therapeutic tool to treat HIV infection. TALENs have less off-target editing and can be more effective at tolerating HIV escape mutations than CRISPR/Cas-9. Scientists have explored TALEN-mediated editing of host genes such as viral entry receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) and a protein involved in proviral integration (LEDGF/p75). Viral targets include the proviral DNA, particularly focused on the long terminal repeats. Major challenges with translating gene therapy from bench to bedside are improving cleavage efficiency and delivery, while minimizing off-target editing, cytotoxicity, and immunogenicity. However, rapid improvements in TALEN technology are enhancing cleavage efficiency and specificity. Therapeutic testing in animal models of HIV infection will help determine whether TALENs are a viable HIV treatment therapy. TALENs or other engineered nucleases could shift the therapeutic paradigm from life-long antiretroviral therapy toward eradication of HIV infection.

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy C.; Diegel, Susan W.

    2002-12-04

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www.cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4 - criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 6 - highway vehicles; Chapter 7 - light vehicles; Chapter 8 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 9 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 11 - household vehicles; and Chapter 12- nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  11. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2003-10-24

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  12. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2001-09-13

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  13. Genetic map of Salmonella typhimurium, edition VIII.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, K E; Hessel, A; Rudd, K E

    1995-01-01

    We present edition VIII of the genetic map of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. We list a total of 1,159 genes, 1,080 of which have been located on the circular chromosome and 29 of which are on pSLT, the 90-kb plasmid usually found in LT2 lines. The remaining 50 genes are not yet mapped. The coordinate system used in this edition is neither minutes of transfer time in conjugation crosses nor units representing "phage lengths" of DNA of the transducing phage P22, as used in earlier editions, but centisomes and kilobases based on physical analysis of the lengths of DNA segments between genes. Some of these lengths have been determined by digestion of DNA by rare-cutting endonucleases and separation of fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Other lengths have been determined by analysis of DNA sequences in GenBank. We have constructed StySeq1, which incorporates all Salmonella DNA sequence data known to us. StySeq1 comprises over 548 kb of nonredundant chromosomal genomic sequences, representing 11.4% of the chromosome, which is estimated to be just over 4,800 kb in length. Most of these sequences were assigned locations on the chromosome, in some cases by analogy with mapped Escherichia coli sequences. PMID:7603411

  14. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2013-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  15. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2012-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  16. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2011-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  17. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Williams, Susan E; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2015-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  18. Spacecraft Systems Engineering, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortescue, Peter; Stark, John; Swinerd, Graham

    2003-03-01

    Following on from the hugely successful previous editions, the third edition of Spacecraft Systems Engineering incorporates the most recent technological advances in spacecraft and satellite engineering. With emphasis on recent developments in space activities, this new edition has been completely revised. Every chapter has been updated and rewritten by an expert engineer in the field, with emphasis on the bus rather than the payload. Encompassing the fundamentals of spacecraft engineering, the book begins with front-end system-level issues, such as environment, mission analysis and system engineering, and progresses to a detailed examination of subsystem elements which represent the core of spacecraft design - mechanical, electrical, propulsion, thermal, control etc. This quantitative treatment is supplemented by an appreciation of the interactions between the elements, which deeply influence the process of spacecraft systems design. In particular the revised text includes * A new chapter on small satellites engineering and applications which has been contributed by two internationally-recognised experts, with insights into small satellite systems engineering. * Additions to the mission analysis chapter, treating issues of aero-manouevring, constellation design and small body missions. In summary, this is an outstanding textbook for aerospace engineering and design students, and offers essential reading for spacecraft engineers, designers and research scientists. The comprehensive approach provides an invaluable resource to spacecraft manufacturers and agencies across the world.

  19. Transportation Energy Data Book (Edition 20)

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-10-09

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 20'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  20. Towards GERB Edition 2 TOA fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipe, Alessandro; Baudrez, Edward; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Moreels, Johan; Urbain, Manon; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena

    2016-04-01

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) dataset currently covers more than 10 years from 2004 and makes it an unique record for the climate and the numerical weather prediction scientific communities through assimilation in various models and climate studies. Indeed, the geostationary platform of this broadband radiometer flying together with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on board of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites allows to estimate TOA solar and thermal fluxes every 15 minutes at spatial resolutions upto 10 km (nadir). In this contribution, we will discuss the improvements that were developped for the Edition 1 post-processing. These includes terminator and sunglint modeling through scene identification extrapolation. Moreover, with the experience acquired by generating the Edition 1 dataset as well as through its critical assessment, an improved Edition 2 of the processing is been implemented. This second version aims to fulfill climate data record standards. Such goal will be achieved by improving the scene identification for the selection of solar angular dependency models (ADMs), the solar and thermal narrow-to-broadband conversion schemes, as well as including new thermal ADMs for radiance-to-flux conversion and GERB instrument ageing correction schemes.

  1. Genome editing for human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Torsten B; Mandal, Pankaj K; Ferreira, Leonardo M R; Rossi, Derrick J; Cowan, Chad A

    2014-01-01

    The rapid advancement of genome-editing techniques holds much promise for the field of human gene therapy. From bacteria to model organisms and human cells, genome editing tools such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZNFs), TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 have been successfully used to manipulate the respective genomes with unprecedented precision. With regard to human gene therapy, it is of great interest to test the feasibility of genome editing in primary human hematopoietic cells that could potentially be used to treat a variety of human genetic disorders such as hemoglobinopathies, primary immunodeficiencies, and cancer. In this chapter, we explore the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for the efficient ablation of genes in two clinically relevant primary human cell types, CD4+ T cells and CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. By using two guide RNAs directed at a single locus, we achieve highly efficient and predictable deletions that ablate gene function. The use of a Cas9-2A-GFP fusion protein allows FACS-based enrichment of the transfected cells. The ease of designing, constructing, and testing guide RNAs makes this dual guide strategy an attractive approach for the efficient deletion of clinically relevant genes in primary human hematopoietic stem and effector cells and enables the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for gene therapy.

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W

    2006-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2008-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  4. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2010-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2005-03-08

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  6. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2009-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with U.S Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program and the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  7. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W

    2007-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  8. Transportation Energy Data Book. Edition 33

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Williams, Susan E.; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2014-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  9. Tuning of RNA editing by ADAR is required in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Liam P; Brindle, James; Gallo, Angela; Leroy, Anne; Reenan, Robert A; O'Connell, Mary A

    2005-01-01

    RNA editing increases during development in more than 20 transcripts encoding proteins involved in rapid synaptic neurotransmission in Drosophila central nervous system and muscle. Adar (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) mutant flies expressing only genome-encoded, unedited isoforms of ion-channel subunits are viable but show severe locomotion defects. The Adar transcript itself is edited in adult wild-type flies to generate an isoform with a serine to glycine substitution close to the ADAR active site. We show that editing restricts ADAR function since the edited isoform of ADAR is less active in vitro and in vivo than the genome-encoded, unedited isoform. Ubiquitous expression in embryos and larvae of an Adar transcript that is resistant to editing is lethal. Expression of this transcript in embryonic muscle is also lethal, with above-normal, adult-like levels of editing at sites in a transcript encoding a muscle voltage-gated calcium channel. PMID:15920480

  10. The levels of edit. [technical writing in science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanburen, R.; Buehler, M. F.; Wallenbrock, D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The editorial process is analyzed, and five levels of edit are identified. These levels represent cumulative combinations of nine types of edit: (1) coordination, (2) policy, (3) integrity, (4) screening, (5) copy clarification, (6) Mechanical Style, (7) Language, and (9) substantive. The levels and types of edit, although developed for specific use with external reports at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, cover the general range of technical editing, especially as it applies to an in-house technical publications organization. Each type of edit is set forth in terms of groups of actions to be performed by the editor. The edit-level concept has enhanced understanding and communication among editors, authors, and publications managers concerning the specific editorial work to be done on each manuscript. It has also proved useful as a management tool for estimating and monitoring cost.

  11. REDIdb: an upgraded bioinformatics resource for organellar RNA editing sites.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa M R; Verbitskiy, Daniil; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla

    2011-03-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional molecular process whereby the information in a genetic message is modified from that in the corresponding DNA template by means of nucleotide substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It occurs mostly in organelles by clade-specific diverse and unrelated biochemical mechanisms. RNA editing events have been annotated in primary databases as GenBank and at more sophisticated level in the specialized databases REDIdb, dbRES and EdRNA. At present, REDIdb is the only freely available database that focuses on the organellar RNA editing process and annotates each editing modification in its biological context. Here we present an updated and upgraded release of REDIdb with a web-interface refurbished with graphical and computational facilities that improve RNA editing investigations. Details of the REDIdb features and novelties are illustrated and compared to other RNA editing databases. REDIdb is freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/REDIdb/.

  12. Adaptation of A-to-I RNA editing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is hypothesized to facilitate adaptive evolution by expanding proteomic diversity through an epigenetic approach. However, it is challenging to provide evidences to support this hypothesis at the whole editome level. In this study, we systematically characterized 2,114 A-to-I RNA editing sites in female and male brains of D. melanogaster, and nearly half of these sites had events evolutionarily conserved across Drosophila species. We detected strong signatures of positive selection on the nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains, and the beneficial editing sites were significantly enriched in genes related to chemical and electrical neurotransmission. The signal of adaptation was even more pronounced for the editing sites located in X chromosome or for those commonly observed across Drosophila species. We identified a set of gene candidates (termed “PSEB” genes) that had nonsynonymous editing events favored by natural selection. We presented evidence that editing preferentially increased mutation sequence space of evolutionarily conserved genes, which supported the adaptive evolution hypothesis of editing. We found prevalent nonsynonymous editing sites that were favored by natural selection in female and male adults from five strains of D. melanogaster. We showed that temperature played a more important role than gender effect in shaping the editing levels, although the effect of temperature is relatively weaker compared to that of species effect. We also explored the relevant factors that shape the selective patterns of the global editomes. Altogether we demonstrated that abundant nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains were adaptive and maintained by natural selection during evolution. Our results shed new light on the evolutionary principles and functional consequences of RNA editing. PMID:28282384

  13. Adaptation of A-to-I RNA editing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuange; Dou, Shengqian; Luo, Shiqi; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is hypothesized to facilitate adaptive evolution by expanding proteomic diversity through an epigenetic approach. However, it is challenging to provide evidences to support this hypothesis at the whole editome level. In this study, we systematically characterized 2,114 A-to-I RNA editing sites in female and male brains of D. melanogaster, and nearly half of these sites had events evolutionarily conserved across Drosophila species. We detected strong signatures of positive selection on the nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains, and the beneficial editing sites were significantly enriched in genes related to chemical and electrical neurotransmission. The signal of adaptation was even more pronounced for the editing sites located in X chromosome or for those commonly observed across Drosophila species. We identified a set of gene candidates (termed "PSEB" genes) that had nonsynonymous editing events favored by natural selection. We presented evidence that editing preferentially increased mutation sequence space of evolutionarily conserved genes, which supported the adaptive evolution hypothesis of editing. We found prevalent nonsynonymous editing sites that were favored by natural selection in female and male adults from five strains of D. melanogaster. We showed that temperature played a more important role than gender effect in shaping the editing levels, although the effect of temperature is relatively weaker compared to that of species effect. We also explored the relevant factors that shape the selective patterns of the global editomes. Altogether we demonstrated that abundant nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains were adaptive and maintained by natural selection during evolution. Our results shed new light on the evolutionary principles and functional consequences of RNA editing.

  14. Towards a new era in medicine: therapeutic genome editing.

    PubMed

    Porteus, Matthew H

    2015-12-22

    Genome editing is the process of precisely modifying the nucleotide sequence of the genome. It has provided a powerful approach to research questions but, with the development of a new set of tools, it is now possible to achieve frequencies of genome editing that are high enough to be useful therapeutically. Genome editing is being developed to treat not only monogenic diseases but also infectious diseases and diseases that have both a genetic and an environmental component.

  15. Gene Editing: A New Tool for Viral Disease.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Edward M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2017-01-14

    The emergence of the CRISPR/Cas system of antiviral adaptive immunity in bacteria as a facile system for gene editing in mammalian cells may well lead to gene editing becoming a novel treatment for a range of human diseases, especially those caused by deleterious germline mutations. Another potential target for gene editing are DNA viruses that cause chronic pathogenic diseases that cannot be cured by using currently available drugs. We review the current state of this field and discuss the potential advantages and problems with using a gene editing approach as a treatment for diseases caused by DNA viruses.

  16. Adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats stimulate gene editing.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, M L

    2015-02-01

    Advancements in genome editing have relied on technologies to specifically damage DNA which, in turn, stimulates DNA repair including homologous recombination (HR). As off-target concerns complicate the therapeutic translation of site-specific DNA endonucleases, an alternative strategy to stimulate gene editing based on fragile DNA was investigated. To do this, an episomal gene-editing reporter was generated by a disruptive insertion of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repeat (ITR) into the egfp gene. Compared with a non-structured DNA control sequence, the ITR induced DNA damage as evidenced by increased gamma-H2AX and Mre11 foci formation. As local DNA damage stimulates HR, ITR-mediated gene editing was investigated using DNA oligonucleotides as repair substrates. The AAV ITR stimulated gene editing >1000-fold in a replication-independent manner and was not biased by the polarity of the repair oligonucleotide. Analysis of additional human DNA sequences demonstrated stimulation of gene editing to varying degrees. In particular, inverted yet not direct, Alu repeats induced gene editing, suggesting a role for DNA structure in the repair event. Collectively, the results demonstrate that inverted DNA repeats stimulate gene editing via double-strand break repair in an episomal context and allude to efficient gene editing of the human chromosome using fragile DNA sequences.

  17. Functions and Regulation of RNA Editing by ADAR Deaminases

    PubMed Central

    Nishikura, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    One type of RNA editing converts adenosines to inosines (A→I editing) in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates. A→I RNA editing is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes. A→I RNA editing of protein-coding sequences of a limited number of mammalian genes results in recoding and subsequent alterations of their functions. However, A→I RNA editing most frequently targets repetitive RNA sequences located within introns and 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Although the biological significance of noncoding RNA editing remains largely unknown, several possibilities, including its role in the control of endogenous short interfering RNAs (esiRNAs), have been proposed. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that the biogenesis and functions of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) are regulated by the editing of their precursors. Here, I review the recent findings that indicate new functions for A→I editing in the regulation of noncoding RNAs and for interactions between RNA editing and RNA interference mechanisms. PMID:20192758

  18. RNA Editing-Systemic Relevance and Clue to Disease Mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Meier, Jochen C; Kankowski, Svenja; Krestel, Heinz; Hetsch, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies led to the identification of a plethora of different genes and several hundreds of amino acid recoding edited positions. Changes in editing rates of some of these positions were associated with diseases such as atherosclerosis, myopathy, epilepsy, major depression disorder, schizophrenia and other mental disorders as well as cancer and brain tumors. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on that front and presents glycine receptor C-to-U RNA editing as a first example of disease-associated increased RNA editing that includes assessment of disease mechanisms of the corresponding gene product in an animal model.

  19. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set II: Major Body Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…

  20. Self-Instructional Course in Business Machines. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Frances K.

    The self-instruction office machines course provides both student's and teacher's manuals and includes, in the teacher's edition, scripts to be used with 21 instructional sound films for the machines covered. These may be used without the films as detailed operating instructions. The teacher's manual also contains instructions on operating each…

  1. Spatio-temporal profiling of Filamin A RNA-editing reveals ADAR preferences and high editing levels outside neuronal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Stulić, Maja; Jantsch, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    RNA editing by ADARs can change the coding potential of protein-coding mRNAs. So far, this type of RNA editing has mainly been shown to affect RNAs expressed in the nervous system with much lower editing levels being observed in other tissues. The actin crosslinking proteins filamin α and filamin β are widely expressed in most tissues. The mRNAs encoding either protein are edited at the same position leading to a conserved Q to R exchange in both proteins. Using bar-coded next generation sequencing, we show that editing of filamin α is most abundant in the gastrointestinal tract and only to a lesser extent in the nervous system. Using knockout mice, we show that ADARB1 (ADAR2) is responsible for the majority of FLNA editing, while ADAR1 can edit filamin α mRNA in some tissues quite efficiently. Interestingly, editing levels of filamin α and β do not follow the same trend across tissues, suggesting a substrate-specific regulation of editing. PMID:24025532

  2. Genome Editing Using Mammalian Haploid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Takuro; Hatada, Izuho

    2015-01-01

    Haploid cells are useful for studying gene functions because disruption of a single allele can cause loss-of-function phenotypes. Recent success in generating haploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in mice, rats, and monkeys provides a new platform for simple genetic manipulation of the mammalian genome. Use of haploid ESCs enhances the genome-editing potential of the CRISPR/Cas system. For example, CRISPR/Cas was used in haploid ESCs to generate multiple knockouts and large deletions at high efficiency. In addition, genome-wide screening is facilitated by haploid cell lines containing gene knockout libraries. PMID:26437403

  3. Oilfields of the World. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Tiratsoo, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    This third edition (updated to 1984) covers all of the world's major producing areas (both onshore and offshore) on six continents. It offers essential geologic, reserves, and production data on 13 nations that have become commercial oil producers in the last five years: Benin, Cameroon, Congo Republic, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Zaire, Greece, The Phillippines, Sharjah, Thailand, Guatemala, and Surinam. Numerous maps display the geologic details of each area. This book also contains full-color maps of the oil and gas fields of the North Sea, Persian Gulf, Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil.

  4. [New procedures for improving case sheets editing].

    PubMed

    Attena, Francesco; D'Agostino, Federica; Oriente, Pierpaolo; Chignoli, Vittorio; De Paola, Antonietta

    2003-01-01

    Case sheets are very important instruments for improving health care quality in hospitals. Despite their importance, they are very seldom used and filled in the right way. The study is based on an attempt to optimise case sheets editing; it implies multiple steps: 1. Project development; implementation of a pattern for assessing markers (thoroughness, clearness, reliability and record tracking); 2. Delivery of personal research protocols; 3. Early analysis, assessment of results; detection of severity; 4. Correctional interventions; 5. Secondary analysis; assessment of interventions. Although most indicators have shown an improvement, outcomes remain unsatisfactory, given the extent of shortfalls before intervention.

  5. Discovering the Universe, 6th edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comins, Neil F.; Kaufmann, William J.

    Discovering the Universe is the best-selling brief text for descriptive one-term astronomy courses (especially those with no mathematics prerequisites). Carried along by the book's vibrant main theme--the process of scientific discovery--readers will encounter spectacular sights, landmark experiments, and recent discoveries, while learning to avoid the pitfalls created by common misconceptions about astronomy. Now enhanced with a powerful technology and image projection package, this is the most exciting and effective edition yet. The accompanying CD-ROM features a special student version of the award-winning virtual planetarium software, Starry Night? Backyard.

  6. Surgical application of lasers. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lasers have been successfully used in several new clinical areas such as cardiovascular, orthopedic, and pulmonary surgery as well as in specialties covered in the first edition including otorhinolaryngology, dermatology and plastic surgery, gastroenterology, and urology. These advances are all discussed in this text. Introductory chapters cover the background of laser surgery, techniques and instrumentation and safety procedures. The remaining chapters cover lasers in specific fields such as endoscopic surgery, gynecology, neurosurgery and many more. The final chapters provide an overview of photodynamic therapy and the future of laser surgery.

  7. Genome editing: Bioethics shows the way

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    When some scientists hear the word “bioethics,” they break out in intellectual hives. They shouldn’t. Good bioethics is about enabling science to move forward. Bioethics pushes scientists to acknowledge that they operate not within a vacuum but within a society in which diverse perspectives and values must be engaged. Bioethicists give voice to those divergent perspectives and provide a framework to facilitate informed and inclusive discussions that spur progress, rather than stall it. The field is needed to advance cutting-edge biomedical research in domains in which the benefits to be had are enormous, such as genome editing, but ethical concerns persist. PMID:28301466

  8. Emerging technologies planning guide, 1993 edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Information system technology enhancements during the next five years are expected to provide some of the most significant individual and organization work improvements ever made in the office environment. This guide is an aid to planning these technologies and assessing their roles in improving the effectiveness of Headquarters programs. Their implementation will cost-effectively support Departmental operations and the National Energy Strategy. At the hear of this process is an understanding of the relationship which exists between technology introduction and the planning, budgeting and acquisition process. The 1993 edition of this guide covers the 1993--1997 time frame.

  9. Genome editing: Bioethics shows the way.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Carolyn P; Caplan, Arthur L

    2017-03-01

    When some scientists hear the word "bioethics," they break out in intellectual hives. They shouldn't. Good bioethics is about enabling science to move forward. Bioethics pushes scientists to acknowledge that they operate not within a vacuum but within a society in which diverse perspectives and values must be engaged. Bioethicists give voice to those divergent perspectives and provide a framework to facilitate informed and inclusive discussions that spur progress, rather than stall it. The field is needed to advance cutting-edge biomedical research in domains in which the benefits to be had are enormous, such as genome editing, but ethical concerns persist.

  10. 78 FR 49271 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... About Medical Foods; Second Edition; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... guidance for industry entitled ``Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition.'' The... Foods; Second Edition.'' This draft guidance is being issued consistent with our good guidance...

  11. Ecological Census Techniques - 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Edited By William J.

    2006-08-01

    This is an updated version of the best selling first edition, Ecological Census Techniques, with updating, some new chapters and authors. Almost all ecological and conservation work involves carrying out a census or survey. This practically focussed book describes how to plan a census, the practical details and shows with worked examples how to analyse the results. The first three chapters describe planning, sampling and the basic theory necessary for carrying out a census. In the subsequent chapters international experts describe the appropriate methods for counting plants, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. As many censuses also relate the results to environmental variability, there is a chapter explaining the main methods. Finally, there is a list of the most common mistakes encountered when carrying out a census. Gives worked examples and describes practical details The chapter on research planning provides an approach for planning any research, not just those relating to census techniques Latest edition of a very highly-regarded book. Includes new authors, each chapter has been updated, and additional chapters on sampling and designing research programmes have been added

  12. Handbook of corrosion data, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, B.; Anderson, D.

    1995-12-31

    As in the prior edition, in one convenient volume this book makes it easy to find what effect environment has on the corrosion of metals and alloys. Coverage on all the environments in the first edition has been updated and expanded and some 80 or more environments have been added, including food products (chocolate, milk, cider, beer, etc.), fruit juices (grape, pineapple, lemon, etc.), soil, blood, gasoline, fertilizers, etc. Presentation of the tabular information for all environments has been standardized throughout the book. The environments are listed alphabetically. Each listing includes a general description of the conditions, a comment on the corrosion characteristics of various alloys in such a situation, a bibliography of recent articles specific to the environment, tables consolidating and comparing corrosion rates at various temperatures and concentrations for various alloys, and graphical information. also included are summaries on the general corrosion characteristics of major metals and alloys. This separate section of the book considers each material group, such as aluminum, stainless steel, zinc and so forth. Additional tables are presented here to give the corrosion characteristics of various alloys in hundreds of environments.

  13. Concepts and tools for gene editing.

    PubMed

    Josa, Santiago; Seruggia, Davide; Fernández, Almudena; Montoliu, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Gene editing is a relatively recent concept in the molecular biology field. Traditional genetic modifications in animals relied on a classical toolbox that, aside from some technical improvements and additions, remained unchanged for many years. Classical methods involved direct delivery of DNA sequences into embryos or the use of embryonic stem cells for those few species (mice and rats) where it was possible to establish them. For livestock, the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer platforms provided alternative, but technically challenging, approaches for the genetic alteration of loci at will. However, the entire landscape changed with the appearance of different classes of genome editors, from initial zinc finger nucleases, to transcription activator-like effector nucleases and, most recently, with the development of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas). Gene editing is currently achieved by CRISPR-Cas-mediated methods, and this technological advancement has boosted our capacity to generate almost any genetically altered animal that can be envisaged.

  14. Gene Editing, Enhancing and Women's Role.

    PubMed

    Simonstein, Frida

    2017-02-02

    A recent article on the front page of The Independent (September 18, 2015) reported that the genetic 'manipulation' of IVF embryos is to start in Britain, using a new revolutionary gene-editing technique, called Crispr/Cas9. About three weeks later (Saturday 10, October 2015), on the front page of the same newspaper, it was reported that the National Health Service (NHS) faces a one billion pound deficit only 3 months into the new year. The hidden connection between these reports is that gene editing could be used to solve issues related to health care allocation. Improving the health of future generations might coincide with public health goals; it might improve the health of individuals and communities, and, if successful, might be seen as a public good. However, enhancing future generations will require In Vitro Fertilisation and Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis. Remarkably, the necessary involvement of women in an enhancing scenario has not been discussed by its proponents. The present discourse on moral obligations of future generations, although not referring to women, seems to imply that women might be required, morally, if not legally, to reproduce with IVF. Enhancing future generations will be gendered, unless the artificial womb is developed. These are challenging issues that require a wider perspective, of both women and men. Despite the lack of a unified feminist conclusion in the discussions about the merits and risks of human genome modification, there is an urgent need to clarify the role of women in this scenario.

  15. Annual Editions: Early Childhood Education 06/07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Karen Menke, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This 27th edition of "Annual Editions: Early Childhood Education" provides convenient, inexpensive access to current articles selected from the best of the public press. Organizational features include: an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; a general introduction; brief overviews for…

  16. The Handbook of Literacy Assessment and Evaluation. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Bill

    This handbook gives teachers, reading specialists, administrators, or students concise, up-to-date information on the most popular assessment and evaluation tools in literacy. This second edition retains many of the tools reviewed in the first edition and adds 12 new tools. The first section reviews 24 tools that are teacher-made. The second…

  17. The SAGE Dictionary of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Intended as a guide to the terms and phrases that partially shape the origins, purpose, logic, meaning, and methods of the practices known as qualitative inquiry, this "Third Edition" has 70 additional terms as well as a Readers' Guide. Key references have been updated and several terms and phrases from previous editions have been reorganized and…

  18. Textual Challenges: A Brief Guide to Choosing Shakespearean Editions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Christine; Malcolmson, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    How should educators go about selecting appropriate editions of Shakespeare's plays for use in political science courses? Shakespeare is turning up on many politics syllabi, but, at times, the editions chosen seem to reflect primarily a concern for price or publisher reputation over pedagogical and scholarly considerations. This article offers an…

  19. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Higher Education Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The "NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Higher Education Edition" is a collaborative effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC) and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI). This 12th edition describes annual findings from the NMC Horizon Project, an ongoing research project designed to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have…

  20. International Handbook of Giftedness and Talent. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A., Ed.; Monks, Franz J., Ed.; Sternberg, Robert J., Ed.; Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.

    This volume presents 59 chapters on research and development in giftedness and talent from an international perspective. This second edition includes 80 percent new material and incorporates three fundamental changes from the previous edition: perspectives from scholars in related fields, new scholarship emerging in the late 1990s on talent…

  1. Peace and World Order Studies: A Curriculum Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Barbara J., Ed.

    The fourth edition of this curriculum guide will help college, university, and secondary school educators design and update courses, familiarize themselves with new literature and resources, and plan and justify new academic programs in the study of global problems. While syllabus categories remain the same as in previous editions, several new…

  2. Recollection Rejection: How Children Edit Their False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

    2002-01-01

    Presents new measure of children's use of an editing operation that suppresses false memories by accessing verbatim traces of true events. Application of the methodology showed that false-memory editing increased dramatically between early and middle childhood. Measure reacted appropriately to experimental manipulations. Developmental reductions…

  3. Helping Children through Books: A Selected Booklist. Third Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Patricia

    An update of a bibliotherapy bibliography compiled by the Church and Synagogue Library Association (CSLA) a decade ago, this list includes books intended for children from a preschool to a sixth-grade reading level. Although the first edition included works concerning religion, this edition does not, since those works are already covered in other…

  4. Processing Strategies of Foreign Language Readers: Authentic and Edited Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly Jesusita

    A study investigated second language learners' cognitive and affective responses to one authentic and three edited texts. Forty-nine college students at four levels of language learning read the same Spanish authentic passage and an edited passage written for their course level. After silent reading, they performed think-aloud tasks in their…

  5. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management: An Introduction. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This technical document focuses on the Department of Energy's (DOE) efforts to restore the environment and manage nuclear waste. This student edition was rewritten and edited by a team of high school students in order to make it "user-friendly" for high school students and the general public. The document focuses on the efforts of the…

  6. An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William B.; Gfeller, Kate E.; Thaut, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    "An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice, Third Edition," provides a comprehensive overview of the practice of music therapy for the 21st century. It looks at where we have been, where we are today, and where we might be in the future. Combining sound pedagogy with recent research findings, this new edition has been updated and…

  7. Digital In, Digital Out: Digital Editing with Firewire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Bob; Sauer, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Reviews linear and nonlinear digital video (DV) editing equipment and software, using the IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connector. Includes a chart listing specifications and rating eight DV editing systems, reviews two DV still-photo cameras, and previews beta DV products. (PEN)

  8. Test Scores and What They Mean. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Howard B.

    The first edition of this book was written to give information about testing to people whose work gave them access to test results, but whose training included little or nothing about the use and interpretation of tests. Later editions have been intended for a broader audience as the need for understanding what test scores really mean has…

  9. DNA and RNA editing of retrotransposons accelerate mammalian genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Levanon, Erez Y

    2015-04-01

    Genome evolution is commonly viewed as a gradual process that is driven by random mutations that accumulate over time. However, DNA- and RNA-editing enzymes have been identified that can accelerate evolution by actively modifying the genomically encoded information. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzymes, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBECs) are potent restriction factors that can inhibit retroelements by cytosine-to-uridine editing of retroelement DNA after reverse transcription. In some cases, a retroelement may successfully integrate into the genome despite being hypermutated. Such events introduce unique sequences into the genome and are thus a source of genomic innovation. adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine-to-inosine editing in double-stranded RNA, commonly formed by oppositely oriented retroelements. The RNA editing confers plasticity to the transcriptome by generating many transcript variants from a single genomic locus. If the editing produces a beneficial variant, the genome may maintain the locus that produces the RNA-edited transcript for its novel function. Here, we discuss how these two powerful editing mechanisms, which both target inserted retroelements, facilitate expedited genome evolution.

  10. Detecting Single-Nucleotide Substitutions Induced by Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Chan, Amanda H; Conklin, Bruce R

    2016-08-01

    The detection of genome editing is critical in evaluating genome-editing tools or conditions, but it is not an easy task to detect genome-editing events-especially single-nucleotide substitutions-without a surrogate marker. Here we introduce a procedure that significantly contributes to the advancement of genome-editing technologies. It uses droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and allele-specific hydrolysis probes to detect single-nucleotide substitutions generated by genome editing (via homology-directed repair, or HDR). HDR events that introduce substitutions using donor DNA are generally infrequent, even with genome-editing tools, and the outcome is only one base pair difference in 3 billion base pairs of the human genome. This task is particularly difficult in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, in which editing events can be very rare. Therefore, the technological advances described here have implications for therapeutic genome editing and experimental approaches to disease modeling with iPS cells.

  11. Genome editing: progress and challenges for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Dana

    2016-11-15

    The development of the CRISPR-Cas platform for genome editing has greatly simplified the process of making targeted genetic modifications. Applications of genome editing are expected to have a substantial impact on human therapies through the development of better animal models, new target discovery, and direct therapeutic intervention.

  12. Financing Education in a Climate of Change. Eighth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimley, Vern, Jr.; Garfield, Rulon R.

    Since the publication of the seventh edition of this textbook in 1999, there have been many new developments in the education finance arena. Those changes are discussed in this eighth edition. Additional new material includes Internet resources, new exercises for further "laboratory" work, updated figures and tables, and fresh information on court…

  13. Elementary Teachers Guide to Free Curriculum Materials. Thirtieth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suttles, Patricia H., Ed.

    The thirtieth annual edition of the guide lists 1,705 free curriculum materials, 959 new in this edition, which are selected to help elementary school teachers and librarians to choose current and relevant materials which encourage the student to inquire, to discover, and to develop the ideals that will enable him to function effectively in…

  14. Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition, is a practical guidebook for the identification and management of over 150 important diseases, insects, and other disorders of wheat. Over 70 expert authors contributed diagnostic photographs and authoritative chapters to this edition. For e...

  15. Introduction to Educational Administration: Standards, Theories, and Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Organized around the ISLLC standards, this text introduces students to the concepts and theories of educational leadership. The new edition adds coverage of such topics as data usage, ethics, innovative hiring practices, and student discipline. Appearing in the second edition are chapter-ending sections called "Point-Counterpoint" which prompt…

  16. Educators Guide to Free Films. Thirty Second Annual Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horkheimer, Mary Foley, Ed.; Diffor, John C., Ed.

    The 32nd annual edition is a complete, cummulative catalog of 4,779 free films, 828 of which were not listed in the previous edition. A table of contents provides a curricular classification of the materials listed, the body of the guide gives full information on each title by curricular area, a title index provides access to any specific listing…

  17. Invitations to Science Inquiry. Supplement to First & Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Tik L.

    This supplement to the first and second editions of "Invitations to Science Inquiry" contains about 100 more discrepant events (occurrences or happenings which go against what we usually think likely) presented in the second edition plus 50 additional discrepant events. Discrepant events function by causing dissonance between what is…

  18. Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Sandra A.; Miller, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    The second edition of "Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach" is a text for undergraduate students new to the field of psychological testing. Using a conversational format, the authors aim to prepare students to be informed consumers as test users or test takers. Features new to the second edition include: (1) New Content; (2)…

  19. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.; Huberman, A. Michael; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny Saldaña, author of "The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers." Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and…

  20. 75 FR 69921 - Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure, Seventh Edition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure, Seventh Edition AGENCY: United... Trademark Office (``USPTO'') issued the seventh edition of the Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure... to the attention of Editor, Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure, or by hand delivery to...

  1. 76 FR 38639 - Trademark Board Manual of Procedure, Third Edition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Trademark Board Manual of Procedure, Third Edition AGENCY... and Trademark Office (``USPTO'') issued the third edition of the Trademark Board Manual of Procedure... Judge and Editor, Trademark Board Manual of Procedure, or by hand delivery to the Trademark...

  2. 76 FR 68740 - Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure, Eighth Edition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...] Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure, Eighth Edition AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office... Manual of Examining Procedure (``TMEP''), and made available an archived copy of the seventh edition, on..., marked to the attention of Editor, Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure, or by hand delivery to...

  3. Putative impact of RNA editing on drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Decher, Niels; Netter, Michael F; Streit, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all organisms use RNA editing as a powerful post-transcriptional mechanism to recode genomic information and to increase functional protein diversity. The enzymatic editing of pre-mRNA by ADARs and CDARs is known to change the functional properties of neuronal receptors and ion channels regulating cellular excitability. However, RNA editing is also an important mechanism for genes expressed outside the brain. The fact that RNA editing breaks the 'one gene encodes one protein' hypothesis is daunting for scientists and a probable drawback for drug development, as scientists might search for drugs targeting the 'wrong' protein. This possible difficulty for drug discovery and development became more evident from recent publications, describing that RNA editing events have profound impact on the pharmacology of some common drug targets. These recent studies highlight that RNA editing can cause massive discrepancies between the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology. Here, we review the putative impact of RNA editing on drug discovery, as RNA editing has to be considered before using high-throughput screens, rational drug design or choosing the right model organism for target validation.

  4. Book review: Birds of Prey: Health & Disease, Third Edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2009-01-01

    Even though this book is billed as the third edition it is, in the words of Patrick T. Redig, author of its Foreword, ‘‘a seriously reinvented book.’’ Originally published in 1978 under the title of Veterinary Aspects of Captive Birds of Prey, this new edition, with its new title, could stand alone and not have been tagged with the ‘‘third edition.’’ Much has changed in the world of avian medicine in the 30 yr since the publishing of the original tome, and this new volume brings the latest information on raptor medicine to the reader.Review info: Birds of Prey: Health & Disease, Third Edition. Edited by John E. Cooper. Blackwell Sciences, Ltd., Oxford, UK. 2002. 345 pp. ISBN 978-0-63205-115-1.

  5. Germline genome-editing research and its socioethical implications.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Genetically modifying eggs, sperm, and zygotes ('germline' modification) can impact on the entire body of the resulting individual and on subsequent generations. With the advent of genome-editing technology, human germline gene modification is no longer theoretical. Owing to increasing concerns about human germline gene modification, a voluntary moratorium on human genome-editing research and/or the clinical application of human germline genome editing has recently been called for. However, whether such research should be suspended or encouraged warrants careful consideration. The present article reviews recent research on mammalian germline genome editing, discusses the importance of public dialogue on the socioethical implications of human germline genome-editing research, and considers the relevant guidelines and legislation in different countries.

  6. Genome editing: intellectual property and product development in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Genome editing is a revolutionary technology in molecular biology. While scientists are fascinated with the unlimited possibilities provided by directed and controlled changes in DNA in eukaryotes and have eagerly adopted such tools for their own experiments, an understanding of the intellectual property (IP) implications involved in bringing genome editing-derived products to market is often lacking. Due to the ingenuity of genome editing, the time between new product conception and its actual existence can be relatively short; therefore knowledge about IP of the various genome editing methods is relevant. This point must be regarded in a national framework as patents are instituted nationally. Therefore, when designing scientific work that could lead to a product, it is worthwhile to consider the different methods used for genome editing not only for their scientific merits but also for their compatibility with a speedy and reliable launch into the desired market.

  7. Genome Editing Gene Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Akitsu

    2015-09-22

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe genetic disorder caused by loss of function of the dystrophin gene on the X chromosome. Gene augmentation of dystrophin is challenging due to the large size of the dystrophin cDNA. Emerging genome editing technologies, such as TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 systems, open a new erain the restoration of functional dystrophin and are a hallmark of bona fide gene therapy. In this review, we summarize current genome editing approaches, properties of target cell types for ex vivo gene therapy, and perspectives of in vivo gene therapy including genome editing in human zygotes. Although technical challenges, such as efficacy, accuracy, and delivery of the genome editing components, remain to be further improved, yet genome editing technologies offer a new avenue for the gene therapy of DMD.

  8. Quantifying on- and off-target genome editing.

    PubMed

    Hendel, Ayal; Fine, Eli J; Bao, Gang; Porteus, Matthew H

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases is a rapidly growing field thanks to transformative technologies that allow researchers to precisely alter genomes for numerous applications including basic research, biotechnology, and human gene therapy. While the ability to make precise and controlled changes at specified sites throughout the genome has grown tremendously in recent years, we still lack a comprehensive and standardized battery of assays for measuring the different genome editing outcomes created at endogenous genomic loci. Here we review the existing assays for quantifying on- and off-target genome editing and describe their utility in advancing the technology. We also highlight unmet assay needs for quantifying on- and off-target genome editing outcomes and discuss their importance for the genome editing field.

  9. Commercial and Industrial Wiring. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Guide [and] Student Workbook 1 [and] Student Workbook 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    Commercial and Industrial Wiring, third in a series of three wiring publications, includes the additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. Instructional materials include a teacher edition, student guide, and two student workbooks. The teacher edition begins with…

  10. Basic Wiring. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Guide [and] Student Workbook 1 [and] Student Workbook 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don

    Basic Wiring, first in a series of three wiring publications, serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to Commercial and Industrial Wiring or Residential Wiring. Instructional materials include a teacher edition, student guide, and two student workbooks. The teacher edition begins with introductory…

  11. First Season Catfish Farming. A Workbook for Beginning Pond and Cage Culture of Channel Catfish. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This workbook, comprised of both the teacher and student editions, presents guidelines useful for first-year catfish farmers in Oklahoma using pond or cage cultures to raise channel catfish. The teacher edition is a set of unit guidelines only. Contents include a list of suggested readings, important addresses with types of information available…

  12. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Carlson-Stevermer, Jared; Goedland, Madelyn; Steyer, Benjamin; Movaghar, Arezoo; Lou, Meng; Kohlenberg, Lucille; Prestil, Ryan; Saha, Krishanu

    2016-01-01

    Summary CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing. PMID:26771356

  13. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Carlson-Stevermer, Jared; Goedland, Madelyn; Steyer, Benjamin; Movaghar, Arezoo; Lou, Meng; Kohlenberg, Lucille; Prestil, Ryan; Saha, Krishanu

    2016-01-12

    CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing.

  14. Occurrence of plastid RNA editing in all major lineages of land plants

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Regina; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Kössel, Hans

    1997-01-01

    RNA editing changes posttranscriptionally single nucleotides in chloroplast-encoded transcripts. Although much work has been done on mechanistic and functional aspects of plastid editing, little is known about evolutionary aspects of this RNA processing step. To gain a better understanding of the evolution of RNA editing in plastids, we have investigated the editing patterns in ndhB and rbcL transcripts from various species comprising all major groups of land plants. Our results indicate that RNA editing occurs in plastids of bryophytes, fern allies, true ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Both editing frequencies and editing patterns show a remarkable degree of interspecies variation. Furthermore, we have found that neither plastid editing frequencies nor the editing pattern of a specific transcript correlate with the phylogenetic tree of the plant kingdom. The poor evolutionary conservation of editing sites among closely related species as well as the occurrence of single species-specific editing sites suggest that the differences in the editing patterns and editing frequencies are probably due both to independent loss and to gain of editing sites. In addition, our results indicate that RNA editing is a relatively ancient process that probably predates the evolution of land plants. This supposition is in good agreement with the phylogenetic data obtained for plant mitochondrial RNA editing, thus providing additional evidence for common evolutionary roots of the two plant organellar editing systems. PMID:9177209

  15. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Deng, Patricia; Jacobson, Dionna; Li, Jin Billy

    2017-02-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3'UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3'UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions.

  16. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Dionna

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3’UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3’UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions. PMID:28166241

  17. Passive millimeter-wave cross polarization imaging and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Wilson, John P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Murakowski, Janusz A.; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has many specific defense, security and safety applications, due to the fact that all terrestrial bodies above absolute zero are emissive, and these wavelengths are not scattered by normal obscurants such as haze, fog, smoke, dust, sandstorms, clouds, or fabrics. We have previously demonstrated results from the construction of a 94 GHz passive mmW far-field imaging system utilizing optical upconversion, which imaged in only horizontal polarization. The effective radiometric temperature of an object is a combination of the object's surface and scattered radiometric temperatures. The surface radiometric temperature is a function of the object's emissivity, which is polarization dependent. Imaging with radiometric temperature data from both polarizations will allow a greater identification of the scene being imaged, and allow the recognition of subtle features which were not previously observable. This additional functionality is accomplished through the installation of added equipment and programming on our system, thus allowing the simultaneous data collection of imagery in both polarizations. Herein, we present our experimental procedures, results and passive mmW images obtained by using our far-field imaging system, a brief discussion of the phenomenology observed through the application of these techniques, as well as the preliminary details regarding our work on a 3-D passive mmW simulator capable of true physical polarization dependent effective emissivity and reflectivity rendering, based on the open-source Blender engine.

  18. Cross polarization magic-angle spinning NMR at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, V.; Kendrick, R.; Yannoni, C. S.

    A magic angle spinning (MAS) apparatus which can be used for high resolution solid state NMR at temperatures as low as 15 K is described. To demonstrate the utility of this apparatus, 13C spectra of molecules containing methyl groups have been investigated at cryogenic temperatures. The spectra, which are described in detail, provide direct evidence for the slowdown of methyl rotation.

  19. Imaging simulated secondary caries lesions with cross polarization OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Jonathan; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The clinical diagnosis of secondary caries has been found to account for the replacement of the majority of intra-coronal restorations. Current methods to diagnose the presence of these lesions at early stages are considered insufficient due to their low sensitivity. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging studies have confirmed its effectiveness for imaging carious subsurface lesions in enamel and dentin. The objective of this study was to determine if PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively image demineralization through resin restorations on extracted teeth with both simulated and natural lesions. Simulated secondary caries lesions were created by exposing cavity preparations made in extracted human teeth to a demineralizing solution for 48 hours and subsequently restoring with resin. Negative control restorations were also prepared on each tooth. Optical changes in demineralized versus control preparations beneath restorations were measured as a function of depth using PS-OCT. PS-OCT images indicated that a significant increase in reflectivity and depth occurred in the simulated lesions compared with the control preparations. This study suggests that PS-OCT is well-suited to nondestructively detect early caries lesions in enamel beneath composite restorations.

  20. National solar energy education directory. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoleotes, G; Cronin, S; Kramer, K; O'Connor, K

    1980-01-01

    The information contained in this directory is derived from responses to a national survey of educational institutions and organizations involved in solar energy educational activities beyond the secondary school level. Phone calls and follow-up mail requests were used to gather additional information when necessary. Every survey instrument was read, coded, and edited before entry into the data base from which this directory was produced. The Directory is organized alphabetically by state. Institutions and organizations within each state are categorized according to type (Colleges and Universities, Junior/Community Colleges, Vocational/Technical Schools, and Other Educational Institutions and Organizations) and listed alphabetically within these categories. Within each institutional listing the amount of information provided will vary according to the completeness of the survey response received from that institution. (MHR)

  1. Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebova, N.; Lukashova, M.; Netsvetaeva, G.; Sveshnikov, M.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy has published "The Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Almanac" biennial. Ephemerides are calculated according to resolutions of GA IAU of 2000-2006. The EPM domestic theory of movement of the Solar system bodies is used in Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software since 2009 according to the recommendations of the conference CTNS-2007. Along with printing the astronomical software are elaborated. "The Personal Astronomical Yearbook" (PersAY) allows the user to solve tasks of calculation of ephemerides for any moment in various time scales, and for any position of the observer on a terrestrial surface. System of the removed access the "Scturman" is developed also intended to solve some the navigating tasks.

  2. Astronomical catalog desk reference, 1994 edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference is designed to aid astronomers in locating machine readable catalogs in the Astronomical Data Center (ADC) archives. The key reference components of this document are as follows: A listing of shortened titles for all catalogs available from the ADC (includes the name of the lead author and year of publication), brief descriptions of over 300 astronomical catalogs, an index of ADC catalog numbers by subject keyword, and an index of ADC catalog numbers by author. The heart of this document is the set of brief descriptions generated by the ADC staff. The 1994 edition of the Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference contains descriptions for over one third of the catalogs in the ADC archives. Readers are encouraged to refer to this section for concise summaries of those catalogs and their contents.

  3. Filtration: Principles and practices. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, M.J.; Orr, C.

    1998-12-31

    This new book is the most authoritative and comprehensive guide to essential, state-of-the-art data. It provides the very latest theoretical and practical data on filtration for gas and liquids. The 2nd edition has been revised and updated to include several new chapters which detail filtration in the mineral industry, high-efficiency air filtration, cartridge filters, and ultrafiltration. The contents include: Gas filtration theory; Liquid-filtration theory; Filter media; Industrial gas filtration; Filtration pretreatment; Filtration in the chemical process industry; Ultrafiltration; Filtration in the mineral industry; Filtration in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; Cartridge filtration; High-efficiency air filtration; Analytical applications of filtration; and Filter evaluation and testing.

  4. Stirling engine design manual, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve as an introduction to Stirling cycle heat engines, as a key to the available literature on Stirling engines and to identify nonproprietary Stirling engine design methodologies. Two different fully described Stirling engines are discussed. Engine design methods are categorized as first order, second order, and third order with increased order number indicating increased complexity. FORTRAN programs are listed for both an isothermal second order design program and an adiabatic second order design program. Third order methods are explained and enumerated. In this second edition of the manual the references are updated. A revised personal and corporate author index is given and an expanded directory lists over 80 individuals and companies active in Stirling engines.

  5. RNA editing regulates transposon-mediated heterochromatic gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Savva, Yiannis A; Jepson, James E C; Chang, Yao-Jen; Whitaker, Rachel; Jones, Brian C; St Laurent, Georges; Tackett, Michael R; Kapranov, Philipp; Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Helfand, Stephen L; Reenan, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Heterochromatin formation drives epigenetic mechanisms associated with silenced gene expression. Repressive heterochromatin is established through the RNA interference pathway, triggered by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that can be modified via RNA editing. However, the biological consequences of such modifications remain enigmatic. Here we show that RNA editing regulates heterochromatic gene silencing in Drosophila. We utilize the binding activity of an RNA-editing enzyme to visualize the in vivo production of a long dsRNA trigger mediated by Hoppel transposable elements. Using homologous recombination, we delete this trigger, dramatically altering heterochromatic gene silencing and chromatin architecture. Furthermore, we show that the trigger RNA is edited and that dADAR serves as a key regulator of chromatin state. Additionally, dADAR auto-editing generates a natural suppressor of gene silencing. Lastly, systemic differences in RNA editing activity generates interindividual variation in silencing state within a population. Our data reveal a global role for RNA editing in regulating gene expression.

  6. The clinical applications of genome editing in HIV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cathy X; Cannon, Paula M

    2016-05-26

    HIV/AIDS has long been at the forefront of the development of gene- and cell-based therapies. Although conventional gene therapy approaches typically involve the addition of anti-HIV genes to cells using semirandomly integrating viral vectors, newer genome editing technologies based on engineered nucleases are now allowing more precise genetic manipulations. The possible outcomes of genome editing include gene disruption, which has been most notably applied to the CCR5 coreceptor gene, or the introduction of small mutations or larger whole gene cassette insertions at a targeted locus. Disruption of CCR5 using zinc finger nucleases was the first-in-human application of genome editing and remains the most clinically advanced platform, with 7 completed or ongoing clinical trials in T cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Here we review the laboratory and clinical findings of CCR5 editing in T cells and HSPCs for HIV therapy and summarize other promising genome editing approaches for future clinical development. In particular, recent advances in the delivery of genome editing reagents and the demonstration of highly efficient homology-directed editing in both T cells and HSPCs are expected to spur the development of even more sophisticated applications of this technology for HIV therapy.

  7. Application of Gene Editing Technologies to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Mary Jane; Bates, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will highlight some of the recent advances in genome engineering with applications for both clinical and basic science investigations of HIV-1. Recent Findings Over the last year, the field of HIV cure research has seen major breakthroughs with the success of the first phase I clinical trial involving gene editing of CCR5 in patient-derived CD4+ T cells. This first human use of gene editing technology was accomplished using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). ZFNs and the advent of additional tools for genome engineering, including TALENS and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, have made gene editing remarkably simple and affordable. Here we will discuss the different gene editing technologies, the use of gene editing in HIV research over the past year, and potential applications of gene editing for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Summary Genome engineering technologies have rapidly progressed over the past few years such that these systems can be easily applied in any lab for a variety of purposes. For HIV-1, upcoming clinical trials will determine if gene editing can provide the long-awaited functional cure. Additionally, manipulation of host genomes, whether in vivo or in vitro, can facilitate development of better animal models and culture methods for studying HIV-1 transmission, pathogenesis, and virus-host interactions. PMID:25612322

  8. RNA editing in RHOQ promotes invasion potential in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Sae-Won; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Jeong, Eun-Goo; Lee, Won-Chul; Kim, Keon Young; Park, Sang Youn; Lee, Dae-Won; Won, Jae-Kyung; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Park, Jae-Gahb; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Jong-Il; Kim, Tae-You

    2014-04-07

    RNA editing can increase RNA sequence variation without altering the DNA sequence. By comparing whole-genome and transcriptome sequence data of a rectal cancer, we found novel tumor-associated increase of RNA editing in ras homologue family member Q (RHOQ) transcripts. The adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing results in substitution of asparagine with serine at residue 136. We observed a higher level of the RHOQ RNA editing in tumor compared with normal tissue in colorectal cancer (CRC). The degree of RNA editing was associated with RhoQ protein activity in CRC cancer cell lines. RhoQ N136S amino acid substitution increased RhoQ activity, actin cytoskeletal reorganization, and invasion potential. KRAS mutation further increased the invasion potential of RhoQ N136S in vitro. Among CRC patients, recurrence was more frequently observed in patients with tumors having edited RHOQ transcripts and mutations in the KRAS gene. In summary, we show that RNA editing is another mechanism of sequence alteration that contributes to CRC progression.

  9. Systematic identification and characterization of RNA editing in prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Mo, Fan; Wyatt, Alexander W; Sun, Yue; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; McConeghy, Brian J; Wu, Chunxiao; Wang, Yuzhuo; Gleave, Martin E; Volik, Stanislav V; Collins, Colin C

    2014-01-01

    RNA editing modifies the sequence of primary transcripts, potentially resulting in profound effects to RNA structure and protein-coding sequence. Recent analyses of RNA sequence data are beginning to provide insights into the distribution of RNA editing across the entire transcriptome, but there are few published matched whole genome and transcriptome sequence datasets, and designing accurate bioinformatics methodology has proven highly challenging. To further characterize the RNA editome, we analyzed 16 paired DNA-RNA sequence libraries from prostate tumor specimens, employing a comprehensive strategy to rescue low coverage sites and minimize false positives. We identified over a hundred thousand putative RNA editing events, a third of which were recurrent in two or more samples, and systematically characterized their type and distribution across the genome. Within genes the majority of events affect non-coding regions such as introns and untranslated regions (UTRs), but 546 genes had RNA editing events predicted to result in deleterious amino acid alterations. Finally, we report a potential association between RNA editing of microRNA binding sites within 3' UTRs and increased transcript expression. These results provide a systematic characterization of the landscape of RNA editing in low coverage sequence data from prostate tumor specimens. We demonstrate further evidence for RNA editing as an important regulatory mechanism and suggest that the RNA editome should be further studied in cancer.

  10. Altered adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Paz, Nurit; Levanon, Erez Y; Amariglio, Ninette; Heimberger, Amy B; Ram, Zvi; Constantini, Shlomi; Barbash, Zohar S; Adamsky, Konstantin; Safran, Michal; Hirschberg, Avi; Krupsky, Meir; Ben-Dov, Issachar; Cazacu, Simona; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brodie, Chaya; Eisenberg, Eli; Rechavi, Gideon

    2007-11-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was recently shown to be abundant in the human transcriptome, affecting thousands of genes. Employing a bioinformatic approach, we identified significant global hypoediting of Alu repetitive elements in brain, prostate, lung, kidney, and testis tumors. Experimental validation confirmed this finding, showing significantly reduced editing in Alu sequences within MED13 transcripts in brain tissues. Looking at editing of specific recoding and noncoding sites, including in cancer-related genes, a more complex picture emerged, with a gene-specific editing pattern in tumors vs. normal tissues. Additionally, we found reduced RNA levels of all three editing mediating enzymes, ADAR, ADARB1, and ADARB2, in brain tumors. The reduction of ADARB2 correlated with the grade of malignancy of glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive of brain tumors, displaying a 99% decrease in ADARB2 RNA levels. Consistently, overexpression of ADAR and ADARB1 in the U87 glioblastoma multiforme cell line resulted in decreased proliferation rate, suggesting that reduced A-to-I editing in brain tumors is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Altered epigenetic control was recently shown to play a central role in oncogenesis. We suggest that A-to-I RNA editing may serve as an additional epigenetic mechanism relevant to cancer development and progression.

  11. Educational Measurement. Fourth Edition. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Educational Measurement" has been the bible in its field since the first edition was published by ACE in 1951. The importance of this fourth edition of "Educational Measurement" is to extensively update and extend the topics treated in the previous three editions. As such, the fourth edition documents progress in the field and…

  12. Has the Incidence of Ageism Decreased in Recent Editions of Basal Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Diane

    A study investigated whether the incidence of ageism has diminished in recent editions of basal readers. Materials examined in the study were the 1971 and 1980 editions of the American Book Company Reading Series, the 1973 and 1980 editions of the Holt Basic Reading System, the 1971 and 1981 editions of the Houghton Mifflin Reading Series, and the…

  13. [The research on the edition of Daquanbencao (Complete Collection of Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2009-07-01

    Zhengleibencao (Classified Materia Medica) had been formed into several kinds of edition systems during its dissemination, among which there was the edition system of Daquanbencao (Complete Collection of Materia Medica). Daquanbencao was originally carved in the Jin dynasty, thereafter it was re-carved in the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties so as to form a series of editions such as the edition of Zhenyou in the second year of the Jin dynasty; the edition of the Zongwenshuyuan college in Dade renyan year of the Yuan dynasty; the WANG Qiu's carved edition of Shangyitang hall in the Ming dynasty; the carved edition of Jishanshuyuan, the Jishang mountain college in the Ming dynasty, the reprinted edition of PENG Duan-wu in the Ming dynasty, the supplementary edition of YANG Bi-da in the Qing dynasty;, and the carved edition of KE Feng-shi in the Qing dynasty. Among all the editions, Chongkanjingshizhengleidaquanbencao (Reprinted Classified Daquan Materia Medica from Historical Classics) was the representative one. As a representative of the above editions, the carved edition of WANG took the edition of the Zongwenshuyuan college of the Yuan dynasty as the original edition, but the images picture of materia medica adopted from the edition of Zhenghebencao (Materia Medica of the Zhenghe era).

  14. [From random mutagenesis to precise genome editing: the development and evolution of genome editing techniques in Drosophila].

    PubMed

    Su, Fang; Huang, Zongliang; Guo, Yawen; Jiao, Renjie; Zi, Li; Chen, Jianming; Liu, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, an important model organism for studying life science, has contributed more to the research of genetics, developmental biology and biomedicine with the development of genome editing techniques. Drosophila genome-editing techniques have evolved from random mutagenesis to precise genome editing and from simple mutant construction to diverse genome editing methods since the 20th century. Chemical mutagenesis, using Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), is an important technique to study gene function in forward genetics, however, the precise knockout of Drosophila genes could not be achieved. The gene targeting technology, based on homologous recombination, has accomplished the precise editing of Drosophila genome for the first time, but with low efficiency. The CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein)-mediated precise genome editing is simple, fast and highly efficient compared with the gene targeting technology in Drosophila. In this review, we focus on Drosophila gene knockout, and summarize the evolution of genome editing techniques in Drosophila, emphasizing the development and applications of gene targeting, zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and CRISPR/Cas9 techniques.

  15. Simultaneous Spectral Editing for γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Taurine Using Double Quantum Coherence Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hao; Peeling, James

    2000-03-01

    Conventional double quantum (DQ) editing techniques recover resonances of one metabolite at a time and are thus inefficient for monitoring metabolic changes involving several metabolites. A DQ coherence transfer double editing sequence using a dual-band DQ coherence read pulse is described here. The sequence permits simultaneous spectral editing for two metabolites with similar J coupling constants in a single scan. Simultaneous editing for taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is demonstrated using solution phantoms and rat brain tissue. Selectivity of the double editing sequence for the target metabolites is as good as that achieved using conventional DQ editing which selects each metabolite individually. With experimental parameters of the double editing sequence chosen to optimize GABA editing, the sensitivity for GABA detection is the same as that with GABA editing only, while the sensitivity for taurine detection is decreased slightly compared to that with taurine editing only.

  16. Simultaneous spectral editing for gamma-aminobutyric acid and taurine using double quantum coherence transfer.

    PubMed

    Lei, H; Peeling, J

    2000-03-01

    Conventional double quantum (DQ) editing techniques recover resonances of one metabolite at a time and are thus inefficient for monitoring metabolic changes involving several metabolites. A DQ coherence transfer double editing sequence using a dual-band DQ coherence read pulse is described here. The sequence permits simultaneous spectral editing for two metabolites with similar J coupling constants in a single scan. Simultaneous editing for taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is demonstrated using solution phantoms and rat brain tissue. Selectivity of the double editing sequence for the target metabolites is as good as that achieved using conventional DQ editing which selects each metabolite individually. With experimental parameters of the double editing sequence chosen to optimize GABA editing, the sensitivity for GABA detection is the same as that with GABA editing only, while the sensitivity for taurine detection is decreased slightly compared to that with taurine editing only.

  17. Modern Genome Editing Technologies in Huntington's disease Research.

    PubMed

    Malankhanova, Tuyana Bairovna; Malakhova, Anastasia Aleksandrovna; Medvedev, Sergey Petrovich; Zakian, Suren Minasovich

    2017-01-24

    The development of new revolutionary technologies for directed gene editing has made it possible to thoroughly model and study human diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Gene editing tools like ZFN, TALEN, CRISPR-based systems, NgAgo and SGN can introduce different modifications in gene sequences and regulate gene expression in different types of cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These tools can be successfully used for Huntington's disease (HD) modeling, for example, to generate isogenic cell lines bearing different numbers of CAG repeats or to correct the mutation causing the disease. This review presents common genome editing technologies and summarizes the progress made in using them in HD and other hereditary diseases. Furthermore, we will discuss prospects and limitations of genome editing in understanding HD pathology.

  18. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  19. Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing.

    PubMed

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Although genome-editing technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, it is creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rapid advances in plant breeding by genome-editing require the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO regulations. In this Opinion article we review recent developments in producing major crops using genome-editing, and we propose a regulatory model that takes into account the various methodologies to achieve genetic modifications as well as the resulting types of mutation. Moreover, we discuss the future integration of genome-editing crops into society, specifically a possible response to the 'Right to Know' movement which demands labeling of food that contains genetically engineered ingredients.

  20. THE NEED TO PUBLISH WELL-EDITED TAMIL MEDICAL TEXTS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, D. Suresh

    1995-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need to publish well-edited versions of Tamil medical works. Some illustrative examples from Vaittiyacintamani – 800 of Yukimuni and Nayanaviti-500 of Akattiyar are presented in support of the suggestion. PMID:22556700

  1. Advancing Crop Transformation in the Era of Genome Editing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than thirty years of technological advances. Genome editing provides new opportunities to...

  2. Salient Features of Endonuclease Platforms for Therapeutic Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Certo, Michael T; Morgan, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Emerging gene-editing technologies are nearing a revolutionary phase in genetic medicine: precisely modifying or repairing causal genetic defects. This may include any number of DNA sequence manipulations, such as knocking out a deleterious gene, introducing a particular mutation, or directly repairing a defective sequence by site-specific recombination. All of these edits can currently be achieved via programmable rare-cutting endonucleases to create targeted DNA breaks that can engage and exploit endogenous DNA repair pathways to impart site-specific genetic changes. Over the past decade, several distinct technologies for introducing site-specific DNA breaks have been developed, yet the different biological origins of these gene-editing technologies bring along inherent differences in parameters that impact clinical implementation. This review aims to provide an accessible overview of the various endonuclease-based gene-editing platforms, highlighting the strengths and weakness of each with respect to therapeutic applications.

  3. A model for codon position bias in RNA editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, Ralf; Liu, Tsunglin

    2006-03-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  4. Model for Codon Position Bias in RNA Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tsunglin; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2005-08-01

    RNA editing can be crucial for the expression of genetic information via inserting, deleting, or substituting a few nucleotides at specific positions in an RNA sequence. Within coding regions in an RNA sequence, editing usually occurs with a certain bias in choosing the positions of the editing sites. In the mitochondrial genes of Physarum polycephalum, many more editing events have been observed at the third codon position than at the first and second, while in some plant mitochondria the second codon position dominates. Here we propose an evolutionary model that explains this bias as the basis of selection at the protein level. The model predicts a distribution of the three positions rather close to the experimental observation in Physarum. This suggests that the codon position bias in Physarum is mainly a consequence of selection at the protein level.

  5. Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

  6. Application of binomial-edited CPMG to shale characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional shale resources may contain a significant amount of hydrogen in organic solids such as kerogen, but it is not possible to directly detect these solids with many NMR systems. Binomial-edited pulse sequences capitalize on magnetization transfer between solids, semi-solids, and liquids to provide an indirect method of detecting solid organic materials in shales. When the organic solids can be directly measured, binomial-editing helps distinguish between different phases. We applied a binomial-edited CPMG pulse sequence to a range of natural and experimentally-altered shale samples. The most substantial signal loss is seen in shales rich in organic solids while fluids associated with inorganic pores seem essentially unaffected. This suggests that binomial-editing is a potential method for determining fluid locations, solid organic content, and kerogen–bitumen discrimination.

  7. The emerging role of RNA editing in plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT All true metazoans modify their RNAs by converting specific adenosine residues to inosine. Because inosine binds to cytosine, it is a biological mimic for guanosine. This subtle change, termed RNA editing, can have diverse effects on various RNA-mediated cellular pathways, including RNA interference, innate immunity, retrotransposon defense and messenger RNA recoding. Because RNA editing can be regulated, it is an ideal tool for increasing genetic diversity, adaptation and environmental acclimation. This review will cover the following themes related to RNA editing: (1) how it is used to modify different cellular RNAs, (2) how frequently it is used by different organisms to recode mRNA, (3) how specific recoding events regulate protein function, (4) how it is used in adaptation and (5) emerging evidence that it can be used for acclimation. Organismal biologists with an interest in adaptation and acclimation, but with little knowledge of RNA editing, are the intended audience. PMID:26085659

  8. Application of binomial-edited CPMG to shale characterization.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kathryn E; Birdwell, Justin E

    2014-09-01

    Unconventional shale resources may contain a significant amount of hydrogen in organic solids such as kerogen, but it is not possible to directly detect these solids with many NMR systems. Binomial-edited pulse sequences capitalize on magnetization transfer between solids, semi-solids, and liquids to provide an indirect method of detecting solid organic materials in shales. When the organic solids can be directly measured, binomial-editing helps distinguish between different phases. We applied a binomial-edited CPMG pulse sequence to a range of natural and experimentally-altered shale samples. The most substantial signal loss is seen in shales rich in organic solids while fluids associated with inorganic pores seem essentially unaffected. This suggests that binomial-editing is a potential method for determining fluid locations, solid organic content, and kerogen-bitumen discrimination.

  9. The emerging role of RNA editing in plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua J C

    2015-06-01

    All true metazoans modify their RNAs by converting specific adenosine residues to inosine. Because inosine binds to cytosine, it is a biological mimic for guanosine. This subtle change, termed RNA editing, can have diverse effects on various RNA-mediated cellular pathways, including RNA interference, innate immunity, retrotransposon defense and messenger RNA recoding. Because RNA editing can be regulated, it is an ideal tool for increasing genetic diversity, adaptation and environmental acclimation. This review will cover the following themes related to RNA editing: (1) how it is used to modify different cellular RNAs, (2) how frequently it is used by different organisms to recode mRNA, (3) how specific recoding events regulate protein function, (4) how it is used in adaptation and (5) emerging evidence that it can be used for acclimation. Organismal biologists with an interest in adaptation and acclimation, but with little knowledge of RNA editing, are the intended audience.

  10. Tethers in space handbook, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A. (Editor); Ammann, Paul W. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Tethers in Space Handbook, Second Edition represents an update to the initial volume issued in September 1986. As originally intended, this handbook is designed to serve as a reference manual for policy makers, program managers, educators, engineers, and scientists alike. It contains information for the uninitiated, providing insight into the fundamental behavior of tethers in space. For those familiar with space tethers, it includes a summary of past and ongoing studies and programs, a complete bibliography of tether publications, and names, addresses, and phone numbers of workers in the field. Perhaps its most valuable asset is the brief description of nearly 50 tether applications which have been proposed and analyzed over the past 10 years. The great variety of these applications, from energy generation to boosting satellites to gravity wave detection is an indication that tethers will play a significant part in the future of space development. This edition of the handbook preserves the major characteristics of the original; however, some significant rearrangements and additions have been made. The first section on Tether Programs has been brought up to date, and now includes a description of TSS-2, the aerodynamic NASA/Italian Space Agency (ASI) mission. Tether Applications follows, and this section has been substantially rearranged. First, the index and cross-reference for the applications have been simplified. Also, the categories have changed slightly, with Technology and Test changed to Aerodynamics, and the Constellations category removed. In reality, tether constellations may be applicable to many of the other categories, since it is simply a different way of using tethers. Finally, to separate out those applications which are obviously in the future, a Concepts category has been added. A new section included here on Conference Summaries recognizes the fact that the tether community is growing internationally, and that meetings provide a means of

  11. 3D Human Motion Editing and Synthesis: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Qiudi; Wang, Wanliang

    2014-01-01

    The ways to compute the kinematics and dynamic quantities of human bodies in motion have been studied in many biomedical papers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of 3D human motion editing and synthesis techniques. Firstly, four types of methods for 3D human motion synthesis are introduced and compared. Secondly, motion capture data representation, motion editing, and motion synthesis are reviewed successively. Finally, future research directions are suggested. PMID:25045395

  12. [The Washington summit: orange light for genome editing?].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-02-01

    The summit organised in early December 2015 considered in depth the various issues (technical, scientific, societal and ethical) raised by the prospect of genome editing using the extremely effective CRISPR system. Germline editing (for therapeutic or "enhancement" purposes) was stated to be irresponsible under current conditions, but the possibility that this could be considered in the future was not excluded; a mechanism for monitoring progress and possibly revising recommendations was proposed.

  13. A robust TALENs system for highly efficient mammalian genome editing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanxi; Zhang, Siliang; Huang, Xin

    2014-01-10

    Recently, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have emerged as a highly effective tool for genomic editing. A pair of TALENs binds to two DNA recognition sites separated by a spacer sequence, and the dimerized FokI nucleases at the C terminal then cleave DNA in the spacer. Because of its modular design and capacity to precisely target almost any desired genomic locus, TALEN is a technology that can revolutionize the entire biomedical research field. Currently, for genomic editing in cultured cells, two plasmids encoding a pair of TALENs are co-transfected, followed by limited dilution to isolate cell colonies with the intended genomic manipulation. However, uncertain transfection efficiency becomes a bottleneck, especially in hard-to-transfect cells, reducing the overall efficiency of genome editing. We have developed a robust TALENs system in which each TALEN plasmid also encodes a fluorescence protein. Thus, cells transfected with both TALEN plasmids, a prerequisite for genomic editing, can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Our improved TALENs system can be applied to all cultured cells to achieve highly efficient genomic editing. Furthermore, an optimized procedure for genomic editing using TALENs is also presented. We expect our system to be widely adopted by the scientific community.

  14. Salt stress affects mRNA editing in soybean chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nureyev F; Fonseca, Guilherme C da; Kulcheski, Franceli R; Margis, Rogério

    2017-03-02

    Soybean, a crop known by its economic and nutritional importance, has been the subject of several studies that assess the impact and the effective plant responses to abiotic stresses. Salt stress is one of the main environmental stresses and negatively impacts crop growth and yield. In this work, the RNA editing process in the chloroplast of soybean plants was evaluated in response to a salt stress. Bioinformatics approach using sRNA and mRNA libraries were employed to detect specific sites showing differences in editing efficiency. RT-qPCR was used to measure editing efficiency at selected sites. We observed that transcripts of NDHA, NDHB, RPS14 and RPS16 genes presented differences in coverage and editing rates between control and salt-treated libraries. RT-qPCR assays demonstrated an increase in editing efficiency of selected genes. The salt stress enhanced the RNA editing process in transcripts, indicating responses to components of the electron transfer chain, photosystem and translation complexes. These increases can be a response to keep the homeostasis of chloroplast protein functions in response to salt stress.

  15. RNA Editing, ADAR1, and the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingde; Li, Xiaoni; Qi, Ruofan; Billiar, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    RNA editing, particularly A-to-I RNA editing, has been shown to play an essential role in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including skin pigmentation disorder, autoimmune and inflammatory tissue injury, neuron degeneration, and various malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing is carried out by a small group of enzymes, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNAs (ADARs). Only three members of this protein family, ADAR1–3, exist in mammalian cells. ADAR3 is a catalytically null enzyme and the most significant function of ADAR2 was found to be in editing on the neuron receptor GluR-B mRNA. ADAR1, however, has been shown to play more significant roles in biological and pathological conditions. Although there remains much that is not known about how ADAR1 regulates cellular function, recent findings point to regulation of the innate immune response as an important function of ADAR1. Without appropriate RNA editing by ADAR1, endogenous RNA transcripts stimulate cytosolic RNA sensing receptors and therefore activate the IFN-inducing signaling pathways. Overactivation of innate immune pathways can lead to tissue injury and dysfunction. However, obvious gaps in our knowledge persist as to how ADAR1 regulates innate immune responses through RNA editing. Here, we review critical findings from ADAR1 mechanistic studies focusing on its regulatory function in innate immune responses and identify some of the important unanswered questions in the field. PMID:28106799

  16. Genome Editing: A New Approach to Human Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Porteus, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the genome with precise spatial and nucleotide resolution (genome editing) has been a powerful research tool. In the past decade, the tools and expertise for using genome editing in human somatic cells and pluripotent cells have increased to such an extent that the approach is now being developed widely as a strategy to treat human disease. The fundamental process depends on creating a site-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the genome and then allowing the cell's endogenous DSB repair machinery to fix the break such that precise nucleotide changes are made to the DNA sequence. With the development and discovery of several different nuclease platforms and increasing knowledge of the parameters affecting different genome editing outcomes, genome editing frequencies now reach therapeutic relevance for a wide variety of diseases. Moreover, there is a series of complementary approaches to assessing the safety and toxicity of any genome editing process, irrespective of the underlying nuclease used. Finally, the development of genome editing has raised the issue of whether it should be used to engineer the human germline. Although such an approach could clearly prevent the birth of people with devastating and destructive genetic diseases, questions remain about whether human society is morally responsible enough to use this tool.

  17. Reproductive medicine involving genome editing: clinical uncertainties and embryological needs.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing based on site-directed nucleases facilitated efficient and versatile genetic modifications in human cells. However, recent reports, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in human embryos have raised profound concerns worldwide. This commentary explores the clinical justification and feasibility of reproductive medicine using germline genome editing. Despite the perceived utility of reproductive medicine for treating intractable infertility, it is difficult to justify germline genome editing from the perspective of the prospective child. As suggested by the UK legalization regarding mitochondrial donation, the prevention of genetic disease in offspring by genome editing might be acceptable in limited cases of serious or life-threatening conditions, where no alternative medicine is available. Nonetheless, the mosaicism underlying human embryos as well as the off-target effect by artificial nucleases will likely hamper preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to embryo transfer. Such considerations suggest that this type of reproductive medicine should not be developed toward a clinical application. However, the clinical uncertainties underscore the need for embryology that can address fundamental questions regarding germline aneuploidy and mosaicism using genome editing.

  18. Genome editing in pluripotent stem cells: research and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Deleidi, Michela; Yu, Cong

    2016-05-06

    Recent progress in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) and genome editing technologies has opened up new avenues for the investigation of human biology in health and disease as well as the development of therapeutic applications. Gene editing approaches with programmable nucleases have been successfully established in hPSCs and applied to study gene function, develop novel animal models and perform genetic and chemical screens. Several studies now show the successful editing of disease-linked alleles in somatic and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as well as in animal models. Importantly, initial clinical trials have shown the safety of programmable nucleases for ex vivo somatic gene therapy. In this context, the unlimited proliferation potential and the pluripotent properties of iPSCs may offer advantages for gene targeting approaches. However, many technical and safety issues still need to be addressed before genome-edited iPSCs are translated into the clinical setting. Here, we provide an overview of the available genome editing systems and discuss opportunities and perspectives for their application in basic research and clinical practice, with a particular focus on hPSC based research and gene therapy approaches. Finally, we discuss recent research on human germline genome editing and its social and ethical implications.

  19. Genome editing of crops: A renewed opportunity for food security.

    PubMed

    Georges, Fawzy; Ray, Heather

    2017-01-02

    Genome editing of crop plants is a rapidly advancing technology whereby targeted mutations can be introduced into a plant genome in a highly specific manner and with great precision. For the most part, the technology does not incorporate transgenic modifications and is far superior to conventional chemical mutagenesis. In this study we bring into focus some of the underlying differences between the 3 existing technologies: classical plant breeding, genetic modification and genome editing. We discuss some of the main achievements from each area and highlight their common characteristics and individual limitations, while emphasizing the unique capabilities of genome editing. We subsequently examine the possible regulatory mechanisms which governments may be inclined to use in assessing the status of genome edited products. If assessed on the basis of their phenotype rather than the process by which they are obtained, these products will be categorized as equivalent to those produced by classical mutagenesis. This would mean that genome edited products will not be subject to the restrictions imposed on genetically modified products, except in some cases where the mutation involves a large sequence insertion into the genome. We conclude by examining the potential of societal acceptance of genome editing technology, reinforced by a scientific perspective on promoting such acceptance.

  20. Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition Enhanced Problems Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-04-01

    No other text on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics. This text continues to outperform the competition year after year, and the new edition will be no exception. Intended for Calculus-based Physics courses, the 6th edition of this extraordinary text is a major redesign of the best-selling 5th edition, which still maintains many of the elements that led to its enormous success. Jearl Walker adds his unique style to this edition with the addition of new problems designed to capture, and keep, students' attention. Nearly all changes are based on suggestions from instructors and students using the 5th edition, from reviewer comments, and from research done on the process of learning. The primary goal of this text is to provide students with a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and to help them apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. The principal goal of Halliday-Resnick-Walker is to provide instructors with a tool by which they can teach students how to effectively read scientific material and successfully reason through scientific questions. To sharpen this tool, the Enhanced Problems Version of the sixth edition of Fundamentals of Physics contains over 1000 new, high-quality problems that require thought and reasoning rather than simplistic plugging of data into formulas.