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Sample records for 1m hydrochloric acid

  1. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  2. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Binti Kassim, Fatin A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10(-3) M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The effect of te perature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10(-3) M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl. PMID:26795066

  4. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid by 2,5-bis(2-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole

    SciTech Connect

    Bentiss, F.; Lagrenee, M.; Traisnel, M.; Hornez, J.C.

    1999-10-01

    The inhibition effect of a new class of organic inhibitors (e.g., 2,5-bis(2-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole [2-APOX]) on the corrosion of mild steel in molar hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated. The inhibitor was synthesized and its inhibiting action on the corrosion was studied through weight loss and various electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly revealed the fact that 2-APOX is a mixed-type inhibitor. Changes in impedance parameters (charge-transfer resistance [R{sub t}] and double-layer capacitance [C{sub dl}]) were indicative of adsorption of 2-APOX on the metal surface, leading to the formation of a protective film that grew with increasing exposure time. The 2-APOX appeared to function through the general adsorption mode following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 1 M NCl with addition of 80 mg/L of 2-APOX was studied in the temperature range from 25 C to 60 C. The associated activation corrosion and free adsorption energies were determined. This inhibitor is considered a noncytotoxic substance.

  5. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is generally recognized...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Product. Hydrochloric acid. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 182.1057 Section 182.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1057 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 582.1057 Section 582.1057 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1057 Hydrochloric acid. (a)...

  15. Venus clouds - A dirty hydrochloric acid model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1972-01-01

    The spectral and polarization data for Venus are consistent with micrometer-sized aerosol cloud particles of hydrochloric acid with soluble and insoluble iron compounds, whose source could be volcanic or crustal dust. The yellow color of the clouds could be due to absorption bands in the near UV involving ferric iron and chlorine complexes. It is pointed out that the UV features could arise from variations in the concentrations of iron and hydrochloric acid in the cloud particles.

  16. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  19. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  2. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-22 - Hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid. 151.50-22 Section 151.50-22 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-22 Hydrochloric acid. (a) Hydrochloric acid shall be carried in gravity or pressure type cargo tanks which are independent of the...

  4. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  5. 46 CFR 153.557 - Special requirements for hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. 153.557... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.557 Special requirements for hydrochloric acid. (a) A containment system that carries hydrochloric acid must be lined with: (1) Natural rubber; (2) Neoprene; or (3)...

  6. Persistent Ion Pairing in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Marcel D.; Fulton, John L.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Schenter, Gregory K.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2014-07-03

    For strong acids, like hydrochloric acid, the complete dissociation into an excess proton and conjugated base as well as the formation of independent solvated charged fragments is assumed. The existence of a chloride-Hyronium (Cl-H3O+) contact ion pairs even in moderate concentration hydrochloric acid (2.5 m) demonstrates that the counter ions do not behave merely as spectators. Through the use of modern extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements in conjunction with state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we are able to obtain an unprecedented view into the molecular structure of medium to high concentrated electrolytes. Here we report that the Cl-H3O+ contact ion pair structure persists throughout the entire concentration range studied and that these structures differ significantly from moieties studied in micro-solvated hydrochloric acid clusters. Characterizing distinct populations of these ion pairs gives rise to a novel molecular level description of how to think about the activity of the proton that impacts our picture of the pH scale. Funding for CJM, GKS, and JLF was provided by DOE Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Funding for MDB was provided throught the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. MB was funded through Argonne National Laboratory.

  7. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  8. The solvent extraction of Americium(III) by 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)-methyl]pyridine N,P,P` trioxide from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, E.M.; Engelhardt, U.; Deere, T.P.; Rapko, B.M.; Paine, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    The liquid/liquid extractions of Am(III) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions with chloroform solutions of 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime} trioxide will be described. Americium(III) extracts well from high concentration nitric acid solutions (D>3000 at 6M nitric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.01M Nitric Acid. Americium(III) exhibits modest extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions (D=2.2 at 5M hydrochloric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.1M hydrochloric acid. The ligand dependency data suggest that two ligand molecules are coordinated to americium in the nitric acid system and three ligand molecules are coordinated to the americium in the hydrochloric acid system.

  9. Enhancement of hydrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Charnho; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yoo, Hah Young; Lee, Ju Hun; Lee, Soo Kweon; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is considered as one of the potential sources of biomass for bio-based products because it consists of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this study, hydrothermal acid hydrolysis with five different acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid) was carried out to produce fermentable sugars (glucose, galactose). The hydrothermal acid hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid showed the highest sugar production. C. vulgaris was hydrolyzed with various concentrations of hydrochloric acid [0.5-10 % (w/w)] and microalgal biomass [20-140 g/L (w/v)] at 121 °C for 20 min. Among the concentrations examined, 2 % hydrochloric acid with 100 g/L biomass yielded the highest conversion of carbohydrates (92.5 %) into reducing sugars. The hydrolysate thus produced from C. vulgaris was fermented using the yeast Brettanomyces custersii H1-603 and obtained bioethanol yield of 0.37 g/g of algal sugars. PMID:26899601

  10. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hydrochloric acid. 96.13 Section 96.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid. Foreign animal casings offered for importation into... mix. Add 23/4 gallons (10.35 liters) C. P. hydrochloric acid containing not less than 35...

  11. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hydrochloric acid. 96.13 Section 96.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid. Foreign animal casings offered for importation into... mix. Add 23/4 gallons (10.35 liters) C. P. hydrochloric acid containing not less than 35...

  12. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hydrochloric acid. 96.13 Section 96.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid. Foreign animal casings offered for importation into... mix. Add 23/4 gallons (10.35 liters) C. P. hydrochloric acid containing not less than 35...

  13. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hydrochloric acid. 96.13 Section 96.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid. Foreign animal casings offered for importation into... mix. Add 23/4 gallons (10.35 liters) C. P. hydrochloric acid containing not less than 35...

  14. 9 CFR 96.13 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hydrochloric acid. 96.13 Section 96.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Uncertified casings; disinfection with hydrochloric acid. Foreign animal casings offered for importation into... mix. Add 23/4 gallons (10.35 liters) C. P. hydrochloric acid containing not less than 35...

  15. Solubility of chlorine in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Mahir; Oktay, Münir; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Copur, Mehmet

    2005-03-17

    The solubility of chlorine in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions was studied. The effects of HCl concentration and temperature on the solubility were evaluated, and the thermodynamic parameters of the dissolution were calculated. It was found that the solubility isotherms had a minimum at about 0.5M HCl concentration at all the temperatures studied and that solubility decreased with the increase of temperature at all the HCl concentration range investigated. PMID:15752843

  16. New method for administration of hydrochloric acid in metabolic alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, O H

    1983-04-30

    In a new method for peripheral intravenous infusion of hydrochloric acid the HCl is buffered in an aminoacid solution and infused with a fat emulsion. The aminoacids and the fat emulsions are stable in the presence of HCl, and the transfusion set is resistant to the chemical actin of 0.15 mol/l HCl. Two case-reports show that HCl can be administered safely through a peripheral vein. PMID:6132269

  17. In situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae using hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Im, Hanjin; Lee, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    This study addresses in situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae with hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a catalyst. In situ transesterification was performed by heating the mixture of wet algal cells, HCl, methanol, and solvent in one pot, resulting in the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield over 90% at 95°C. The effects of reaction variables of temperature, amounts of catalyst, reactant, and solvent, and type of solvents on the yield were investigated. Compared with the catalytic effect of H2SO4, in situ transesterification using HCl has benefits of being less affected by moisture levels that are as high as or above 80%, and requiring less amounts of catalyst and solvent. For an equimolar amount of catalyst, HCl showed 15wt.% higher FAME yield than H2SO4. This in situ transesterification using HCl as a catalyst would help to realize a feasible way to produce biodiesel from wet microalgae. PMID:25769690

  18. Electrochemical protection of zirconium in oxidizing hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yuu, T-L.; Maguire, M.

    1984-06-01

    An electrochemical protection technique using cathodic polarization to maintain zirconium below its critical repassivation potential was used to avoid pitting and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hydrochloric acid (HCI) containing ferric ions (Fe/sup +3/). Corrosion and pit penetration rates are reported for pickled, abraded, and as-received surface conditions in 10, 20, and 37% HCI containing 50, 100, or 500 ppm Fe/sup +3/ at temperatures to boiling. The pickled surface was the least susceptible to pitting in the 64 day tests. Electrochemical protection is then evaluated for total immersion, partial immersion, U-bend, and constant strain rate tensile tests. Protection is effective in eliminating pitting and SCC in 10 and 20% HCI containing Fe/sup +3/.

  19. Hydrochloric acid method of beneficiating magnesite using a pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sertin, V.A.; Galkin, Y.M.; Gemusova, I.B.; Glezer, E.B.; Khaltyurin, V.A.; Kislitsyn, V.I.; Rodde, T.V.; Simonov, K.V.; Vetlugina, N.A.; Yurlova, L.N.; Zakutinskii, V.L.

    1985-07-01

    One feature of the HCl treatment of magnesite is the possibility of using the main mass of HCl in a closed cycle. Regeneration of the HCl takes place during the thermal hydrolysis of the purified solution of magnesium chloride. In accordance with the plan drawn up by the Eastern Institute of Refractories and the Ukranian Institute of Chemistry, a pilot plant has been built at the Magnesite Combine; this has been mastered and is used for the hydrochloric acid treatment of magnesite; the annual productivity of the equipment is 400 tons. Some features of the process of dissolution of natural and caustic magnesite in HCL and the sintering of the beneficiated product have been considered elsewhere. This paper pays particular attention to the apparatus-process character and considers in more detail the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride.

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet the... by the Commandant (CG-ENG). Openings must be fitted with bolted cover plates and...

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet the... by the Commandant (CG-522). Openings must be fitted with bolted cover plates and...

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet the... by the Commandant (CG-522). Openings must be fitted with bolted cover plates and...

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet the... by the Commandant (CG-ENG). Openings must be fitted with bolted cover plates and...

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet the... by the Commandant (CG-ENG). Openings must be fitted with bolted cover plates and...

  5. Thallium Transfer from Hydrochloric Acid Media into Pure Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Tereshatov, Evgeny E; Boltoeva, Maria Yu; Mazan, Valerie; Volia, Merinda F; Folden, Charles M

    2016-03-10

    Pure hydrophobic ionic liquids are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. In this work we have systematically investigated thallium (Tl) extraction from aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions into six pure fluorinated ionic liquids, namely imidazolium- and pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)-imide anions. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. Tl concentrations were on the order of picomolar (analyzed using radioactive tracers) and millimolar (analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The extraction of the cationic thallium species Tl(+) is higher for ionic liquids with more hydrophilic cations, while for the TlX(z)(3-z) anionic species (where X = Cl(-) and/or Br(-)), the extraction efficiency is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. The highest distribution value of Tl(III) was approximately 2000. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the coextraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined. PMID:26769597

  6. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of..., Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits for existing sources....

  8. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits...

  9. Hydrochloric acid: an overlooked driver of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Evans, Chris D; Monteith, Don T; Fowler, David; Cape, J Neil; Brayshaw, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Research on the ecosystem impacts of acidifying pollutants, and measures to control them, has focused almost exclusively on sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), although emitted by coal burning, has been overlooked as a driver of ecosystem change because most of it was considered to redeposit close to emission sources rather than in remote natural ecosystems. Despite receiving little regulatory attention, measures to reduce S emissions, and changes in energy supply, have led to a 95% reduction in United Kingdom HCl emissions within 20 years. Long-term precipitation, surface water, and soil solution data suggest that the near-disappearance of HCl from deposition could account for 30-40% of chemical recovery from acidification during this time, affecting both near-source and remote areas. Because HCl is highly mobile in reducing environments, it is a more potent acidifier of wetlands than S or N, and HCl may have been the major driver of past peatland acidification. Reduced HCl loadings could therefore have affected the peatland carbon cycle, contributing to increases in dissolved organic carbon leaching to surface waters. With many regions increasingly reliant on coal for power generation, HCl should be recognized as a potentially significant constituent of resulting emissions, with distinctive ecosystem impacts. PMID:21288016

  10. Reprocessing system with nuclide separation based on chromatography in hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tachibana, Yu; Koyama, Shi-ichi

    2013-07-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposed system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the minor actinide separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In the reprocessing and separation processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. It was confirmed that the dissolution in the hydrochloric acid solution is easily achieved by the plasma voloxidation and by the addition of oxygen peroxide into the hydrochloric acid solution.

  11. Kinetics of Hydrochloric Acid Leaching of Titanium from Titanium-Bearing Electric Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fuqiang; Chen, Feng; Guo, Yufeng; Jiang, Tao; Travyanov, Andrew Yakovlevich; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2016-05-01

    The hydrochloric acid leaching of titanium from titanium-bearing electric furnace slag was investigated under different experimental conditions. The results indicate that particle size, hydrochloric acid concentration and reaction temperature were of significance to the leaching kinetics. Specifically, reaction temperature was the most important factor followed by hydrochloric acid concentration and particle size. The shrinking core model was used to describe the leaching process which was controlled by surface chemical reaction. The kinetic equation was obtained and the activation energy was found to be 43.16 kJ/mol. Iron and calcium species were almost completely dissolved in the acid when the extraction degree of titanium reached 99.84%. MgO (19.34 wt.%) and Al2O3 (32.45 wt.%) in the spinel were still in the leaching residue and SiO2 (43.53 wt.%) in the form of quartz remained in the leaching residue.

  12. Dissolution Process of Palladium in Hydrochloric Acid: A Route via Alkali Metal Palladates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Tai, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    To improve the safety of the Pd recovery processes that use toxic oxidizers, dissolution of Pd in hydrochloric acid with alkali metal palladates was investigated. Alkali metal palladates were prepared by calcining a mixture of Pd black and alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) carbonates in air. Almost the entire amount of Pd was converted into Li2PdO2 after calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Li2CO3. In contrast, PdO was obtained by calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Na and K carbonates. Our results indicated that Li2CO3 is the most active reagent among the examined alkali metal carbonates for the formation of palladates. In addition, dissolution of the resulting Li2PdO2 in HCl solutions was evaluated under various conditions. In particular, Li2PdO2 rapidly dissolved in diluted (0.1 M) HCl at ambient temperature. Solubility of Pd of Li2PdO2 was found to be 99 pct or larger after dissolution treatment at 353 K (80 °C) for 5 minutes; in contrast, PdO hardly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl. The dissolution mechanism of Li2PdO2 in HCl was also elucidated by analysis of crystal structures and particulate properties. Since our process is completely free from toxic oxidizers, the dissolution process via alkali metal palladates is much safer than currently employed methods.

  13. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions. PMID:20355630

  14. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  15. Surface Chemical Compositions and Dispersity of Starch Nanocrystals Formed by Sulfuric and Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were −23.1 and −5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to −32.3 and −10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to −24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample. PMID:24586246

  16. Kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid by inhibition of the hydrochloric acid-bromate reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Rezaei, B.; Movahedinia, H.

    2002-10-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juice and pharmaceuticals. The method is based on its inhibition effect on the reaction between hydrochloric acid and bromate. The decolourisation of Methyl Orange by the reaction products was used to monitor the reaction spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. The linearity range of the calibration graph depends on bromate concentration. The variable affecting the rate of the reaction was investigated. The method is simple, rapid, relatively sensitive and precise. The limit of detection is 7.6×10 -6 M and calibration rang is 8×10 -6-1.2×10 -3 M ascorbic acid. The relative standard deviation of seven replication determinations of 8×10 -6 and 2×10 -5 M ascorbic acid was 2.8 and 1.7%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering substance was studied. The method was successfully applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals.

  17. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the standards for...

  18. Model Experiment of Thermal Runaway Reactions Using the Aluminum-Hydrochloric Acid Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitabayashi, Suguru; Nakano, Masayoshi; Nishikawa, Kazuyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for the education of students about thermal runaway reactions based on the reaction between aluminum and hydrochloric acid as a model reaction is proposed. In the introductory part of the exercise, the induction period and subsequent thermal runaway behavior are evaluated via a simple observation of hydrogen gas evolution and…

  19. Effects of hydrochloric acid on duodenal and jejunal mucosal permeability in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nylander, O.; Kvietys, P.; Granger, D.N. )

    1989-10-01

    The effects of various concentrations of hydrochloric acid (1, 5, 10, and 100 mM) on mucosal permeability and acid disappearance (H+-dis) in duodenum and jejunum were studied in anesthetized rats. Mucosal permeability was assessed by measuring blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-labeled EDTA (ED-Cl). Luminal alkalinization (LA) and H+-dis were determined by backtitration. ED-Cl was stable during saline perfusion and was not affected by changes in intestinal blood flow. Basal ED-Cl was four times higher in duodenum than in jejunum. Mucosal permeability of both duodenum and jejunum was not altered by 1 mM HCl. However, 5 mM HCl induced a 3.3-fold increase (P less than 0.001) in ED-Cl in jejunum but was without effect in duodenum. A 15-fold increase in ED-Cl was obtained in jejunum and a doubling (P less than 0.001) in ED-Cl was observed in duodenum when HCl concentration was increased to 10 mM HCl. One hundred millimolar HCl induced large increases of ED-Cl in both segments. The twofold increase of ED-Cl in response to 10 mM HCl in duodenum was completely reversible, whereas ED-Cl in jejunum was three to four times higher (P less than 0.05) than preacid levels 60 min after cessation of acid perfusion. The net increase in jejunal ED-Cl obtained after acid exposure was closely correlated (r = 0.99) with the net increase in LA, indicating leakage of interstitial fluid into the luminal solution. LA (saline perfusion) and H+-dis (HCl perfusion) were significantly higher in duodenum than in jejunum.

  20. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

    2014-05-15

    This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications. PMID:24681591

  1. Interaction of Benzimidazoles and Benzotriazole: Its Corrosion Protection Properties on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, K.; Mohan, Revathi; Joseph, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    Synergistic hydrogen-bonded interaction of alkyl benzimidazoles and 1,2,3-benzotrizole and its corrosion protection properties on mild steel in hydrochloric acid at different temperatures have been studied using polarization, EIS, adsorption, surface studies, and computational methods. The extent of synergistic interaction increases with temperature. Quantum chemical approach is used to calculate some electronic properties of the molecules and to ascertain the synergistic interaction, inhibitive effect, and molecular structures. The corrosion inhibition efficiencies and the global chemical reactivity relate to some parameters, such as total energy, E HOMO, E LUMO, and gap energy (Δ E). 1,2,3-Benzotrizole interacts with benzimidazoles derivatives up to a bond length of approximately 1.99 Å. This interaction represents the formation of a hydrogen bond between the 1,2,3-benzotrizole and benzimidazoles. This synergistic interaction of 1,2,3-benzotrizole and benzimidazole derivatives offers extended inhibition efficiency toward mild steel in hydrochloric acid.

  2. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  3. Anion-exchange separation techniques with methanol-water solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acids.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R J

    1966-09-01

    Mixed methanol-water systems were shown to be of use in the analysis of samples containing 500-mg amounts of metallic impurities for rare earths and actinides. Detailed study of the hydrochloric acid-methanol system led to improved separation of einsteinium and californium from americium and curium as well as to lanthanideactinide separations. Comparisons of elution orders are also drawn between these systems and the corresponding lithium salt systems, with emphasis on ion-hydration theories. PMID:18960002

  4. Energy-saving regeneration of hydrochloric acid pickling liquor: NICE3 steel project fact sheet (NICE3 2000 award winners)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-19

    This is a fact sheet written for the NICE3 [National Industrial Competititveness through Energy, Environment, and Economics] Program on a new process for reusing hydrochloric acid from steel pickling operations.

  5. Distribution of zirconium in petroleum sulfoxides during extraction and sorption from nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Turanov, A.N.

    1988-11-20

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) are effective extractants for several metals. We discussed the distribution of petroleum sulfoxides and zirconium between aqueous solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acid and organic solvents, and also the macroporous sorbent impregnated with PSO. For the investigation we used a macroposous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. Our investigation showed a noticeable decrease in the contamination of the raffinates by petroleum sulfoxides and their more complete utilization as extractant of metals from solutions of acids when PSO is deposited on a macroporous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene.

  6. Sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid-catalyzed triacetone triperoxide (TATP) reaction mixtures: an aging study.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Mark; Bilusich, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    The organic peroxide explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is regularly encountered by law enforcement agents in various stages of its production. This study utilizes solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to examine sulfuric acid-, hydrochloric acid-, and nitric acid-catalyzed TATP syntheses during the initial 24 h of these reactions at low temperatures (5-9°C). Additionally, aging of the reaction mixtures was examined at both low and ambient temperatures (19-21°C) for a further 9 days. For each experiment, TATP could be readily identified in the headspace above the reaction mixture 1 h subsequent to the combination of reagents; at 24 h, TATP and diacetone diperoxide (DADP) were prominent. TATP degraded more rapidly than DADP. Additionally, chlorinated acetones chloroacetone and 1,1,-dichloroacetone were identified in the headspace above the hydrochloric acid-catalyzed TATP reaction mixture. These were not present when the catalyst was sulfuric acid or nitric acid. PMID:21595692

  7. Phase equilibria and distribution constants of metal ions in diantipyryl alkane-organic acid-hydrochloric acid-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtev, M. I.; Popova, O. N.; Yuminova, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The ability of antipyrine and its derivatives (diantipyryl alkanes) to form separating systems in the presence of salicylic (sulfosalicylic) acid and hydrochloric acid and water is studied. The optimum volume of the organic phase, the composition of complexes, and the mechanism for the distribution of metal ions are determined, depending on the concentrations of the main components and the salting-out agent. The complex distribution and extraction constants are calculated.

  8. Ion flotation behaviour of thirty-one metal ions in mixed hydrochloric/nitric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Hualing, D; Zhide, H

    1989-06-01

    The ion flotation of 31 metal ions in hydrochloric/nitric acid solution with the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride was investigated. A 25-ml portion of 0.27-2.87 x 10(-4)M metal ion and 1.8-6.0 x 10(-4)M cetylpyridinium chloride solution in 0.17-3.4M acid mixture ([HCl]:[HNO(3)] = 2.4:1) was subjected to flotation in a cell, 22.5 cm high and 4.0 cm in diameter, for 5 min, with nitrogen bubbles. Ir(IV), Pt(IV), Ge(IV), Sn(IV), Bi(III), Au(III), Tl(III), Pd(II) and Sn(II) were floated from solution in 95-100% yield; Ru(III), Rh(III), Ir(III), Hg(II), Ag(I) and Tl(I) were partly floated, while Cr(VI), Ti(IV), Zr(IV), Ga(III), In(III), Fe(III), Sb(III), Al(III), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), CD(II) and Pb(II) were floated with less than 20% yield. The flotation behaviour of these metal ions in the mixed acid system was compared with that in hydrochloric acid. The flotation is more efficient in the mixed acid system. PMID:18964771

  9. Formation of linear polyenes in poly(vinyl alcohol) films catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid, aluminum chloride, and hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Malyi, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of linear polyenes-(CH=CH)n-via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol in 9- to 40-µm-thick films of this polymer containing hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and phosphotungstic acid as dehydration catalysts was studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid is found to monotonically increase with the duration of thermal treatment of films, although the kinetics of this process is independent of film thickness. In films containing hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride, the formation rate of polyenes with n ≥ 8 rapidly drops as film thickness decreases and the annealing time increases. As a result, at a film thickness of less than 10-12 µm, long-chain polyenes are not formed at all in these films no matter how long thermal duration is. The reason for this behavior is that hydrochloric acid catalyzing polymer dehydration in these films evaporates from the films during thermal treatment, the evaporation rate inversely depending on film thickness.

  10. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome in housewives due to a bleach-hydrochloric acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Gorguner, Metin; Aslan, Sahin; Inandi, Tacettin; Cakir, Zeynep

    2004-02-01

    The sudden onset of asthmalike symptoms and persistence of airway reactivity following an acute exposure to an irritant gas or vapor has been termed reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). A mixture of sodium hypochlorite (bleach, 40%) and hydrochloric acid (18%) is commonly used as a household cleaning solution in our region. From this mixture, chlorine gas is produced, which can cause airway damage and ensuing RADS. Here we describe findings of patients with RADS due to this cleaning mixture, and determine factors associated with a favorable outcome. Data were collected retrospectively on 55 symptomatic patients presenting to our emergency department after inhalation exposure to a mixture of bleach and hydrochloric acid. Symptoms, past medical and smoking history, details of the exposure, initial peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and oxygenation, and acute reversibility of airways obstruction were documented. All patients met previously defined criteria for the diagnosis of RADS, but did not undergo methacholine challenge testing and bronchoalveolar lavage or histopathologic study. Fifty patients were followed over the course of 3 mo. The majority of exposures (64%) occurred in the bathroom or kitchen. Only 21 of 55 (38%) patients showed an improvement in PEFR of 15% or greater following two beta(2)-agonist inhalation treatments. In follow-up, 48 patients (87%) improved clinically and functionally (FEV(1)). Seven patients (13%) deteriorated, with ARDS developing in two, one of whom died from respiratory failure. Advanced age, initial low PEFR, exposure in a small enclosed area, use immediately after mixing, and prolonged short- and long-term exposures were associated with a poorer prognosis. This descriptive study is the largest case series in the literature of RADS developing after exposure to a bleach-hydrochloric acid mixture. The optimum acute treatment and long-term outcomes for patients with RADS due to this combination still need to be determined

  11. A Method for Monitoring Organic Chlorides, Hydrochloric Acid and Chlorine in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. E.; Menichelli, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    While not commonly presented in nonurban atmospheres, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid and chlorine are significant in industrial air pollution and industrial hygiene. Based on a microcoulometer, a much more sensitive method than has heretofore been available has been developed for monitoring these air impurities. The method has a response time (90%) of about twenty seconds, requires no calibration, is accurate to +/- 2.5%, and specific except for bromide and iodide interferences. The instrument is portable and has been operated unattended for 18 hours without difficulty.

  12. Hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous hydrogen chloride partitioning in a cloud contaminated by solid rocket exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Partitioning of hydrogen chloride between hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous HCl in the lower atmosphere was experimentally investigated in a solid rocket exhaust cloud diluted with humid ambient air. Airborne measurements were obtained of gaseous HCl, total HCl, relative humidity and temperature to evaluate the conditions under which aerosol formation occurs in the troposphere in the presence of hygroscopic HCl vapor. Equilibrium predictions of HCl aerosol formation accurately predict the measured HCl partitioning over a range of total HCl concentrations from 0.6 to 16 ppm.

  13. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials. PMID:27451111

  14. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  15. Inhibition Effect of Dodecylamine on Carbon Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenyu; Huang, Ling; Qiu, Yubing; Guo, Xingpeng

    2012-12-01

    Dodecylamine spontaneously adsorbs on carbon steel via its polar group (-NH2) in hydrochloric acid solution. Furthermore, it forms a monolayer film on carbon steel surface. The inhibition mechanism of dodecylamine for carbon steel is geometric blocking effect. The adsorption of dodecylamine on carbon steel surface follows Arrhenius equation. The adsorption slightly increases activated energy, but greatly reduces pre-exponential factor value. Atomic force microscopy force curves indicate that at the area without adsorbed dodecylamine, no obvious adhere force occurs. At the area with adsorbed dodecylamine, however, an average 1.3 nN adhere force is observed.

  16. Effect of molecular structure of aniline-formaldehyde copolymers on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Nie, Mengyan; Wang, Xiutong; Zhu, Yukun; Shi, Fuhua; Yu, Jianqiang; Hou, Baorong

    2015-05-30

    Aniline-formaldehyde copolymers with different molecular structures have been prepared and investigated for the purpose of corrosion control of mild steel in hydrochloric acid. The copolymers were synthesized by a condensation polymerization process with different ratios of aniline to formaldehyde in acidic precursor solutions. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of as-synthesized copolymers for Q235 mild steel was investigated in 1.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid solution by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. All the results demonstrate that as-prepared aniline-formaldehyde copolymers are efficient mixed-type corrosion inhibitors for mild steels in hydrochloric acid. The corrosion inhibition mechanism is discussed in terms of the role of molecular structure on adsorption of the copolymers onto the steel surface in acid solution. PMID:25723887

  17. Study on Corrosion Resistance of Fe-based Amorphous Coating by Laser Cladding in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. J.; Guo, S. B.; Yang, X. J.; Zhou, X. L.; Hua, X. Z.; Zhu, X. H.; Duan, Z.

    In this study, the Fe41Co7Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 bulk amorphous alloy with high glass-forming ability was prepared using the arc- melting copper mold casting technique, and corresponding amorphous coating was obtained using the laser melt amorphous powders on the surface of carbon steel. The corrosion resistance performance of the laser cladding coating in hydrochloric acid was analyzed and tested in experiments under the conditions of different laser cladding speeds. The amorphous alloy coating with different fabrication parameters have the difference internal structure, which lead to the difference corrosion resistance in the same environment to some extent. The nature of amorphous alloy and the corrosion morphology were investigated using XRD and SEM method, respectively. The corrosion experiments showed that: when the laser power was 3300W, the corrosion resistance of four kinds of samples in hydrochloric acid from strong to weak as follows: as-cast sample > the coating with laser cladding speed 110 mm/min > the coating with laser cladding speed 120 mm/min > the coating with laser cladding speed 130 mm/min. The free corrosion current density of casting sample, sample 1, sample 2 and sample 3 is 3.304 × 10-6 A/cm2, 2.600×10-3 A/cm2, 2.030×10-3 A/cm2 and 3.396×10-4 A/cm2, respectively.

  18. Integrated Computational and Experimental Protocol for Understanding Rh(III) Speciation in Hydrochloric and Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, Alex C.; Boele, Cherilynn A.; Bennett, Kevin T.; Clark, Sue B.; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has investigated the complex speciation of Rh(III) in hydrochloric and nitric acid media, as a function of acid concentration. This has relevance to the separation and isolation of Rh(III) from dissolved spent nuclear fuel, which is an emergent and attractive alternative source of platinum group metals, relative to traditional mining efforts.

  19. A simple hydrothermal preparation of TiO 2 nanomaterials using concentrated hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Phan, Thuy-Duong; Pham, Hai-Dinh; Viet Cuong, Tran; Jung Kim, Eui; Kim, Sunwook; Woo Shin, Eun

    2009-12-01

    A TiO 2 nanostructure was synthesized via a simple method using only concentrated hydrochloric acid as the morphological/crystallographic controlling agent. Microscopy images showed that the texture of the TiO 2 powder could be easily engineered and tuned by tailoring the HCl volume, creating cuboid, flower, cauliflower, and ball-shaped particles. Three-dimensional TiO 2 microparticles resulted from the self-assembly of nanostructured sub-units including nanocubes, nanoprisms, and nanorods. The crystalline anatase and rutile phases were also identified depending on the acidic medium. HCl played a key role in orchestrating the structures and morphologies of the TiO 2 nanoscale materials. The phase transformation and morphological changes were strongly related to the crystal growth mechanism of the TiO 2 nanostructure.

  20. Protonated hydrochlorous acid (HOClH + ): Molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, and proton affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, J. S.; Sander, S. P.

    1995-06-01

    Protonated hydrochlorous acid (HOClH+) has been examined theoretically. Equilibrium geometries have been optimized and harmonic vibrational frequencies obtained for each of the parent and protonated structures at various levels of theory employing second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation interaction theory (MP2), singles and doubles excitation configuration interaction theory (CISD), and coupled-cluster theory (CCSD). Our study has found that protonation of the oxygen of HOCl is favored over protonation at the chlorine site. Protonation of the oxygen leads to a pyramidal structure of Cs symmetry. There is a planar Cs structure which is the inversion transition state. The inversion barrier is 3.2 kcal mol-1. The proton affinity of hypochlorous acid, HOCl, is found to be 153.1 kcal mol-1 at 0 K.

  1. The inhibitive effect of some quaternary ammonium salts towards corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-M. K.; Al-Nadjm, A.; Fouda, A.-A. S.

    1998-10-01

    The inhibitive action of some quaternary ammonium salts towards the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid was tested by thermometric, mass loss and polarization measurements. Parallelism between the different methods was established. It is suggested that the tested compounds act as cathodic inhibitors. The inhibitors appear to function through adsorption, following the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The values of free energy of adsorption have been calculated and discussed. The inhibitor character of the additives depends upon the concentration as well as the composition of the inhibitor. Within the given homolegous series the contribution of the functional group to adsorption increases with the length of the chain. The aim of this article is to throw some light on the mechanism of inhibition of these bulky molecules on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid. L'action inhibitrice de certains sels d'ammonium quaternaires vis-à-vis de la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique en solution a été testée par des mesures thermiques de perte de matière et de polarisation. Il est suggéré que les composés testés agissent comme des inhibiteurs cathodiques, fonctionnant par adsorption suivant l'isotherme de Temkin. Les énergies libres d'adsorption ont été calculées et discutées. Le caractère inhibiteur des additifs dépend aussi bien de leur concentration que de leur composition. Pour une série d'inhibiteurs homologues, la contribution à l'adsorption du groupe fonctionnel augmente avec la longueur de la chaîne. Le but de cet article est de mieux comprendre le mécanisme d'inhibition de ces grosses molécules sur la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique.

  2. Anomalous spin polarization in the photoreduction of chromone-2-carboxylic acid with alcohol induced by hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Keishi; Mukai, Kazuo

    2000-02-01

    The addition effect of hydrochloric acid (HCl) on the photoreduction of chromone-2-carboxylic acid (CRCA) is studied by time-resolved EPR. The EPR lines of CRCA ketyl radical show an enhanced absorption in the presence of HCl, while without HCl these show an emissive character. On the other hand, the lines of the CRCA alkyl type radical show an emissive character whether HCl is included or not. The simultaneous reactions of the closely-lying two excited triplet states (T 1 and T 2) of CRCA may induce the above anomalous CIDEP behavior.

  3. Effect of Strip Velocity on Pickling Rate of Hot-Rolled Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. M.; Warning, C. J.

    1982-02-01

    The combined effect of strip velocity with other parameters on pickling rate of hot-rolled low-carbon steel in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions was determined. At temperatures from 150 to200°F(66 to 93°), the time required for pickling decreased substantially as strip velocity was increased from 0 to about 250 fpm (76 mpm); no further decrease in time resulted when velocities were increased to 800 fpm (244 mpm). Other pickling variables were studied with a velocity of 400 fpm (122 mpm). Pickling times decrease with increases in HCl concentrations, CHCl, and temperature, TF, according to prediction equations of the form log t = A + B log CHCl + D(459 + TF)-1. At 200°F, temper-mill scalebreaking decreased pickling times by about 5 sec; at lower temperatures, a larger magnitude effect was noted for one steel in the group tested.

  4. Use of hydrochloric acid for determinining solid-phase arsenic partitioning in sulfidic sediments.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Richard T; Ford, Robert G

    2002-11-15

    We examined the use of room-temperature hydrochloric acid (1-6 M) and salt solutions of magnesium chloride, sodium carbonate, and sodium sulfide for the removal of arsenic from synthetic iron monosulfides and contaminated sediments containing acid-volatile sulfides (AVS). Results indicate that acid-soluble arsenic reacts with H2S released from AVS phases and precipitates at low pH as disordered orpiment or alacranite. Arsenic sulfide precipitation is consistent with geochemical modeling in that conditions during acid extraction are predicted to be oversaturated with respect to orpiment, realgar, or both. Binding of arsenic with sulfide at low pH is sufficiently strong that 6 M HCl will not keep spiked arsenic in the dissolved fraction. Over a wide range of AVS concentrations and molar [As]/[AVS] ratios, acid extraction of arsenic from sulfide-bearing sediments will give biased results that overestimate the stability or underestimate the bioavailability of sediment-bound arsenic. Alkaline solutions of sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate are efficient in removing arsenic from arsenic sulfides and mixed iron-arsenic sulfides because of the high solubility of arsenic at alkaline pH, the formation of stable arsenic complexes with sulfide or carbonate, or both. PMID:12487318

  5. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  6. Effect of hypertonic saline treatment on the inflammatory response after hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Holms, Carla Augusto; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Kahvegian, Marcia; Massoco, Cristina Oliveira; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi; Gutierrez, Paulo Sampaio; Junior, Jose Otavio Costa Auler

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertonic saline has been proposed to modulate the inflammatory cascade in certain experimental conditions, including pulmonary inflammation caused by inhaled gastric contents. The present study aimed to assess the potential anti-inflammatory effects of administering a single intravenous dose of 7.5% hypertonic saline in an experimental model of acute lung injury induced by hydrochloric acid. METHODS: Thirty-two pigs were anesthetized and randomly allocated into the following four groups: Sham, which received anesthesia and were observed; HS, which received intravenous 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (4 ml/kg); acute lung injury, which were subjected to acute lung injury with intratracheal hydrochloric acid; and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline, which were subjected to acute lung injury with hydrochloric acid and treated with hypertonic saline. Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were recorded over four hours. Subsequently, bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected at the end of the observation period to measure cytokine levels using an oxidative burst analysis, and lung tissue was collected for a histological analysis. RESULTS: Hydrochloric acid instillation caused marked changes in respiratory mechanics as well as blood gas and lung parenchyma parameters. Despite the absence of a significant difference between the acute lung injury and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline groups, the acute lung injury animals presented higher neutrophil and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed pulmonary edema, congestion and alveolar collapse in both groups; however, the differences between groups were not significant. Despite the lower cytokine and neutrophil levels observed in the acute lung injury + hypertonic saline group, significant differences were not observed among the treated and non-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertonic saline

  7. Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

  8. Empirical Modeling of Iron Oxide Dissolution in Sulphuric and Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmelmann, Jan C.; Xu, Hao; Krumm, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    A new approach is presented to an empirical modeling of chemical pickling processes, based on the activation energy of oxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The model allows us to calculate pickling times as a function of definite parameters. The main oxide layers on hot-rolled materials are magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), and wustite (FeO). On the laboratory scale, the activation energy of each oxide has been determined. FeO is a metastable oxide and has been produced based on magnetite powder in a H2/H2O atmosphere. The oxide powders used for the experimental procedure have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction to insure the proper stoichiometry and composition. The model allows us to calculate the time of oxide dissolution based on the parameters temperature, acid concentration, and the composition of the oxide layer. Calculated values are verified by surface potential measurement on industrial oxide layers. The hot-rolled material used for verification is low carbon steel. A comparison between calculated pickling times and experimental data will be presented.

  9. A simple procedure for preparing chitin oligomers through acetone precipitation after hydrolysis in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Kazami, Nao; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Mizutani, Daisuke; Masuda, Tatsuhiko; Wakita, Satoshi; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao; Sugahara, Yasusato

    2015-11-01

    Chitin oligomers are of interest because of their numerous biologically relevant properties. To prepare chitin oligomers containing 4-6 GlcNAc units [(GlcNAc)4-6], α- and β-chitin were hydrolyzed with concentrated hydrochloric acid at 40 °C. The reactant was mixed with acetone to recover the acetone-insoluble material, and (GlcNAc)4-6 was efficiently recovered after subsequent water extraction. Composition analysis using gel permeation chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that (GlcNAc)4-6 could be isolated from the acetone-insoluble material with recoveries of approximately 17% and 21% from the starting α-chitin and β-chitin, respectively. The acetone precipitation method is highly useful for recovering chitin oligomers from the acid hydrolysate of chitin. The changes in the molecular size and higher-order structure of chitin during the course of hydrolysis were also analyzed, and a model that explains the process of oligomer accumulation is proposed. PMID:26256353

  10. Determination of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) in ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid leaching media by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, L.K.; Dutrizac, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    An analytical method has been developed to determine arsenic(V) in ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid leaching media using ion chromatography with conductivity detection. Oxidation of As(III) by aqua regia allows arsenic(III) to be determined by difference. The method involves a preseparation of trace quantities of arsenic from the relatively large concentrations of ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid prior to the ion chromatography measurement. Iron(III) is separated by passing through a hydrogen-form cation exchange column, and arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) are then eluted with water. The effect of the concentration of acid in this separation is discussed. The effluent collected from the cation exchange column is evaporated to remove the hydrochloric acid. The accuracy and precision of the method were determined from the analysis of various synthetic solutions and are discussed; an accuracy of +/-4% was obtained even at arsenic(V) concentrations as low as 10 ppm. The extent of oxidation of arsenic(III) in acidic ferric chloride solution and the reduction of arsenic(V) in acidic ferrous chloride solution were measured. The results obtained by ion chromatography are compared to the values realized using colorimetry after the preseparation step. 13 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-02-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource.

  12. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    PubMed

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. PMID:27289269

  13. Investigation of the oxidation states of Pu isotopes in a hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Kim, J Y; Kim, W H; Jung, E C; Jee, K Y

    2008-12-01

    The characteristics of the oxidation states of Pu in a hydrochloric acid solution were investigated and the results were applied to a separating of Pu isotopes from IAEA reference soils. The oxidation states of Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were prepared by adding hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium nitrite to a Pu stock solution, respectively. Also, the oxidation state of Pu(VI) was adjusted with concentrated HNO(3) and HClO(4). The stability of the various oxidation states of plutonium in a HCl solution with elapsed time after preparation were found to be in the following order: Pu(III) approximately Pu(VI)>Pu(IV)>Pu(V). The chemical recoveries of Pu(IV) in a 9M HCl solution with an anion exchange resin were similar to those of Pu(VI). This method for the determination of Pu isotopes with an anion exchange resin in a 9M HCl medium was applied to IAEA reference soils where the activity concentrations of (239,240)Pu and (238)Pu in IAEA-375 and IAEA-326 were consistent with the reference values reported by the IAEA. PMID:18674920

  14. Removal of plutonium and Americium from hydrochloric acid waste streams using extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, L.D.; FitzPatrick, J.R.; Salazar, R.R.; Schake, B.S.; Martinez, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique for radioactive liquid waste treatment would provide a low activity feedstream for HCl recycle, reduce the loss of radioactivity to the environment in aqueous effluents, and lower the quantity and improve the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and laboratory-produced sorbed resin materials. Polymer beads were coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and resin formulations. Flow experiments were run to evaluate actinide loading and elution under varied conditions. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients in contact experiments, and in actinide retention in flow experiments were observed as a function of resin formulation.

  15. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource. PMID:26848031

  16. Observations of gas phase hydrochloric acid in the polluted marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Timia A.; Lerner, Brian M.; Williams, Eric J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2014-06-01

    Ship-based measurements of gas phase hydrochloric acid (HCl), particulate chloride (pCl-), and reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy) were made in the polluted marine boundary layer along the California coastline during spring 2010. These observations are used to assess both the rate of Cl atom production from HCl and the role of direct HCl emissions and subsequent partitioning as a source for pCl-. Observations of HCl made in coastal Southern California are broadly correlated with NOz (NOz ≡ NOy - NOx), peaking at 11 A.M. The observed median HCl mixing ratio in Southern California is 1.3 ppb (interquartile range: 0.53-2.7 ppb), as compared to 0.19 ppb (interquartile range: 0.10-0.38 ppb) measured along the Sacramento River between San Francisco and Sacramento. Concurrent measurements of aerosol ion chemistry indicate that aerosol particles sampled in Northern California are heavily depleted in Cl-, corresponding to a mean pCl- deficit of 0.05 ± 0.03 (1σ) ppb for sub-10 µm aerosol particles. In comparison, aerosols measured in Southern California indicate that over 25% of particles showed an addition of Cl- to the particle population. Observations presented here suggest that primary sources of HCl, or gas phase chlorine precursors to HCl, are likely underestimated in the California Air Resource Board emissions inventory. These results highlight the need for future field observations designed to better constrain direct reactive halogen emissions.

  17. The initiation of material corrosion in semicritical and supercritical aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Boukis, N.; Kritzer, P.; Schacht, M.; Dinjus, E.

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, a lot of work has been performed to interpret corrosion during the process of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO). For a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms, the initiation processes of corrosion have to be known. The corrosion resistance of two alumina ceramics and sapphire in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions was investigated at T = 240 C -- 500 C and p = 27 MPa. For the alumina ceramics, intergranular corrosion and dissolution of the grains were identified as corrosion mechanisms. The corrosion experiments with the nickel-base alloy 625 (UNS N06625) and its main constituents nickel, chromium, and molybdenum were performed in oxygenated HCl solutions at T = 350 C and p = 24 MPa. Nickel and molybdenum showed severe weight loss after only 5 h of reaction. The attack on chromium started with grain boundary etching and proceeded via the formation of thick, spalling oxide layers on the surface. Initial corrosion phenomena observed on alloy 625 were intergranular attack and pit formation. At longer reaction times, a complete surface attack was observed.

  18. Copper-promoted cementation of antimony in hydrochloric acid system: A green protocol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lian-Kui; Li, Ying-Ying; Cao, Hua-Zhen; Zheng, Guo-Qu

    2015-12-15

    A new method of recovering antimony in hydrochloric acid system by cementation with copper powder was proposed and carried out at laboratory scale. Thermodynamic analysis and cyclic voltammetry test were conducted to study the cementation process. This is a novel antimony removal technology and quite meets the requirements of green chemistry. The main cement product Cu2Sb is a promising anodic material for lithium and sodium ion battery. And nearly all consumed copper powder are transformed into CuCl which is an important industrial material. The effect of reaction temperature, stoichiometric ratio of Cu to Sb(III), stirring rate and concentration of HCl on the cementation efficiency of antimony were investigated in detail. Optimized cementation condition is obtained at 60 °C for 120 min and stirring rate of 600 rpm with Cu/Sb(III) stoichiometric ratio of 6 in 3 mol L(-1) HCl. At this time, nearly all antimony can be removed by copper powder and the cementation efficiency is over 99%. The structure and morphologies of the cement products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results show that the reaction temperature has little influence on the morphology of the cement products which consist of particles with various sizes. The activation energy of the cementation antimony on copper is 37.75 kJ mol(-1), indicating a chemically controlled step. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results show that no stibine generates during the cementation process. PMID:26252996

  19. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource. PMID:26848031

  20. Effect of foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel after erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis de; Scatena, Camila; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl). The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17): Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico) - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone); Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor); Apple puree (Nestlé); Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult); and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle) - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH) were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey's test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001). Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness. PMID:26247516

  1. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with gaseous hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a suitable raw material for fertilizers due to its high phosphorus (P) content. However, heavy metals must be removed before agricultural application and P should be transferred into a bioavailable form. The utilization of gaseous hydrochloric acid for thermochemical heavy metal removal from SSA at approximately 1000 °C was investigated and compared to the utilization of alkaline earth metal chlorides. The heavy metal removal efficiency increased as expected with higher gas concentration, longer retention time and higher temperature. Equivalent heavy metal removal efficiency were achieved with these different Cl-donors under comparable conditions (150 g Cl/kg SSA, 1000 °C). In contrast, the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds present in the SSA after thermal treatment with gaseous HCl was not as good as the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds formed by the utilization of magnesium chloride. This disadvantage was overcome by mixing MgCO(3) as an Mg-donor to the SSA before thermochemical treatment with the gaseous Cl-donor. A test series under systematic variation of the operational parameters showed that copper removal is more depending on the retention time than the removal of zinc. Zn-removal was declined by a decreasing ratio of the partial pressures of ZnCl(2) and water. PMID:21819089

  2. Preserving ground water samples with hydrochloric acid does not result in the formation of chloroform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, Paul J.; Pankow, James F.; Barbash, Jack E.; Price, Curtis V.; Zogorski, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples collected for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often preserved with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to inhibit the biotransformation of the analytes of interest until the chemical analyses can he performed. However, it is theoretically possible that residual free chlorine in the HCl can react with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to form chloroform via the haloform reaction. Analyses of 1501 ground water samples preserved with HCl from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program indicate that chloroform was the most commonly detected VOC among 60 VOCs monitored. The DOC concentrations were not significantly larger in samples with detectable chloroform than in those with no delectable chloroform, nor was there any correlation between the concentrations of chloroform and DOC. Furthermore, chloroform was detected more frequently in shallow ground water in urban areas (28.5% of the wells sampled) than in agricultural areas (1.6% of the wells sampled), which indicates that its detection was more related to urban land-use activities than to sample acidification. These data provide strong evidence that acidification with HCl does not lead to the production of significant amounts of chloroform in ground water samples. To verify these results, an acidification study was designed to measure the concentrations of all trihalomethanes (THMs) that can form as a result of HCl preservation in ground water samples and to determine if ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) could inhibit this reaction if it did occur. This study showed that no THMs were formed as a result of HCl acidification, and that ascorbic acid had no discernible effect on the concentrations of THMs measured.

  3. Computed phase diagrams for the system: Sodium hydroxide-uric acid-hydrochloric acid-water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. E.; Gregory, T. M.; Füredi-Milhofer, H.

    1987-07-01

    Renal stone formation is made complex by the variety of solid phases that are formed, by the number of components in the aqueous phase, and by the multiplicity of ionic dissociation and association processes that are involved. In the present work we apply phase diagrams calculated by the use of equilibrium constants from the ternary system sodium hydroxide-uric acid-water to simplify and make more rigorous the understanding of the factors governing dissolution and precipitation of uric acid (anhydrous and dihydrate) and sodium urate monohydrate. The system is then examined in terms of four components. Finally, procedures are described for fluids containing more than four components. The isotherms, singular points, and fields of supersaturation and undersaturation are shown in various forms of phase diagrams. This system has two notable features: (1) in the coordinates -log[H 2U] versus -log[NaOH], the solubility isotherms for anhydrous uric acid and uric acid dihydrate approximate straight lines with slopes equal to +1 over a wide range of concentrations. As a result, substantial quantities of sodium acid urate monohydrate can precipitate from solution or dissolve without changing the degree of saturation of uric acid significantly. (2) The solubility isotherm for NaHU·H 2O has a deltoid shape with the low-pH branch having a slope of infinity. As a result of the vertical slope of this isotherm, substantial quantities of uric acid can dissolve or precipitate without changing the degree of saturation of sodium acid urate monohydrate significantly. The H 2U-NaOH singular point has a pH of 6.87 at 310 K in the ternary system.

  4. Atomic force microscopy observations of pitting corrosion and inhibition on 7075-T651 aluminum alloy in hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Josefowicz, J.Y.; Farrington, G.C.; DeLuccia, J.J.; Agarwala, V.S.

    1995-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy, a unique surface imaging technique that enables the effects of an imposed environment on the substrate to be measured and assessed, was used to define the effects of a dilute aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (0.03 N) on a polished and etched surface of a peak aged aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloy (7075-T651). A multifunctional corrosion inhibitor with dichromate, nitrite, borate, and molybdate ions, especially solubilized in an organic medium, was introduced to the study and its corrosion retardation effects were observed in situ by the atomic force microscope.

  5. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled. PMID:26674969

  6. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid

    PubMed Central

    Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Berberi, Anita; Siapi, Eleni; Arkoudi-Vafea, Angeliki; Giannopoulou, Lydia; Mastronicolis, Sofia K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH), the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (Tm) of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The Tm of extracted lipids was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. A trend of increasing Tm values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in Tm value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased Tm values were measured. The Tm changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased Tm). Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules. PMID:23785360

  7. Dianils: New and effective corrosion inhibitors for oil-well steel (N-80) and mild steel in boiling hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Jamal, D.

    2000-02-01

    Selected condensation products of aromatic aldehydes and p-phenylenediamine have been synthesized and evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel (MS) and oil-well steel (N-80) in 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 105 C {+-} 2 C by the weight loss method. All the condensation products showed excellent performance. 2,4-dicinnamyledene aminophenylene (DCAP) was found to be the best corrosion inhibitor. It exhibited 99.75% inhibition efficiency (IE) for MS and 99.12% for N-80 steel at 5,000 ppm of inhibitor concentration. The potentiodynamic polarization studies carried out at room temperature on MS in 15% HCl containing 500 ppm of condensation products showed that all the investigated compounds were mixed type inhibitors, whereas 500 ppm DCAP on N-80 steel behaved predominantly as anodic inhibitors. The adsorption of all the condensation products was found to obey Temkin's adsorption isotherm.

  8. Hydrodechlorination of Silicon Tetrachloride to Trichlorosilane Over Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Catalysts: Effect of Pretreatment of Oxygen and Hydrochloric Acid.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Do-Hwan; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Kim, Ji Man; Yang, O Bong

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the catalytic reaction for the conversion of silicon tetrachloride (STC) to trichlorosilane (TCS) over pretreated ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) catalysts by oxygen (denoted as OMC-O2) and hydrochloric acid (denoted as OMC-HCl) at 300 degrees C under N2 atmosphere. The OMC-O2 shows significantly improved the surface area (1341.2 m2/g) and pore volume (1.65 cm3/g), which results in the highest conversion rate of 7.3% as compared to bare OMC (4.3%) and OMC-HCI (5.7%). It is found that the conversion rate of STC to TCS is proportional to the number of Si-O bond over OMC catalysts, which suggests that Si-O-C bond formation is crucial to the reaction as active sites. The O2 pretreatment seems to promote the generation of oxygenated species for the formation of Si-O-C. PMID:27433674

  9. Aspects of fracture morphology exhibited in the stress corrosion behavior of Ti-155 in methanol-hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Simbi, D.J.; Scully, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Ti-155 was investigated in methanol-hydrochloric acid solution in preexposure and anodic polarization experiments using specimens with tensile axis in the parallel or transverse orientation to the rolling direction. Intergranular penetration data showed a dependence of the intergranular corrosion process on preexposure time. Susceptibility to SCC increased with increasing preexposure time and applied anodic current density. Fractographic analysis by scanning electro microscope (SEM) of fractured specimen surfaces in preexposure and anodic polarization experiments showed a fracture morphology comprised of intergranular at the exposure surface edge, an intermediate transgranular cleavage zone, and a terminal ductile region. These observations supported the view that intergranular fracture and transgranular cleavage occurring during SCC of titanium in MeOH-HCl solution is caused by mechanisms related to anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), respectively. A mechanism to describe the simultaneous occurrence of dissolution and HE at the grain boundary was suggested.

  10. A kinetic study of plutonium dioxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid using iron (II) as an electron transfer catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    Effective dissolution of plutonium dioxide has traditionally been accomplished by contact with strong nitric acid containing a small amount of fluoride at temperatures of {approximately} 100 C. In spite of these aggressive conditions, PuO{sub 2} dissolution is sometimes incomplete requiring additional contact with the solvent. This work focused on an alternative to conventional dissolution in nitric acid where an electron transfer catalyst, Fe(II), was used in hydrochloric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was employed as an in-situ analytical technique for monitoring the dissolution reaction rate. The plutonium oxide selected for this study was decomposed plutonium oxalate with > 95% of the material having a particle diameter (< 70 {micro}m) as determined by a scanning laser microscopy technique. Attempts to dry sieve the oxide into narrow size fractions prior to dissolution in the HCl-Fe(II) solvent system failed, apparently due to significant interparticle attractive forces. Although sieve splits were obtained, subsequent scanning laser microscopy analysis of the sieve fractions indicated that particle segregation was not accomplished and the individual sieve fractions retained a particle size distribution very similar to the original powder assemblage. This phenomena was confirmed through subsequent dissolution experiments on the various screen fractions which illustrated no difference in kinetic behavior between the original oxide assemblage and the sieve fractions.

  11. Growth and survival of various strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in hydrochloric and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    McKellar, R C; Knight, K P

    1999-12-01

    Nineteen strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolated from humans and foods were examined for their ability to grow and survive at low pH in organic (acetic) and mineral (HCl) acids. Strains were subcultured in tryptic soy broth adjusted to various pH values (3.75 to 4.75 for HCl and 4.75 to 5.75 for acetic acid) and incubated for 72 h at 37 degrees C to determine the minimum growth pH value. Minimum pH values for growth of 4.25 and 5.5 were found for HCl and acetic acid, respectively. Strains were also exposed to pH 2.0 (HCl) and pH 4.0 (acetic acid) for up to 24 h at 37 degrees C to assess their ability to survive. HCl was a more effective inhibitor after 6 h of exposure, whereas acetic acid was more effective after 24 h. Outbreak strains survived acid treatment significantly (P < or = 0.05) better than strains isolated from fermented or high-pH foods or animal or human isolates. Significant (P < or = 0.05) differences among serotypes and between O157:H7 and other serotypes were apparent after 3 or 6 h of exposure to acids. PMID:10606153

  12. X-ray microtomography of hydrochloric acid propagation in carbonate rocks.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Oliveira, T J L; Cruz, F B; Lopes, R T; Lima, I

    2015-02-01

    Acid treatments are used in the oil and gas industry, to increase the permeability of the carbonate reservoirs by creating preferential channels, called wormholes. Channels formation is strongly influenced by acid type and injection rate. The aim of this study is to evaluate some characteristics of the microporous system of carbonate rocks, before and after acidizing. For that purpose X-ray high-resolution microtomography was used. The results show that this technique can be used as a reliable method to analyze microstructural characteristics of the wormholes. PMID:25485884

  13. Transpassive dissolution of alloy 625, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum in high-temperature solutions containing hydrochloric acid and oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Kritzer, P.; Boukis, N.; Dinjus, E.

    2000-03-01

    Coupons of nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and the nickel-based Alloy 625 (UNS 06625) were corroded in strongly oxidizing hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions at 350 C and a pressure (p) of 24 MPa, with reaction times between 0.75 h and 50 h. For Alloy 625, the effect of surface roughness also was investigated. Nickel and molybdenum showed strong material loss after only 5 h of reaction as a result of the instability of the solid oxides formed under experimental conditions. The attack on chromium started at the grain boundaries. At longer reaction times, thick, spalling oxide layers formed on the surface. The attack on Alloy 625 also started at the grain boundaries and at inclusions leading to the formation of small pits. On polished surfaces, the growth of these pits occurred faster than on nonpolished surfaces, but fewer pits grew. Corrosion products formed at the surface consisted of oxygen and chromium. On isolated spots, nickel- and chlorine-containing products also were found.

  14. Experimental and Quantum Studies on Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Effect of Imidazole Derivatives on N80 Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M.; Kumar, Sumit; Sharma, Dipti; Yadav, P. N.

    2013-12-01

    The inhibition effect of synthesized N‧-(phenylmethylidene)-2-(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazides, N‧-(4-methylphenylmethylidene)-2-(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazides, and N‧-(4-methoxyphenylmethylidene)-2-(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazides on the corrosion behaviour of N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using weight loss, potentiostatic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The inhibition efficiency increased as the concentration of the inhibitors was increased. The effect of temperature on corrosion inhibition was investigated by weight loss method and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements show that all the three studied inhibitors act as mixed inhibitor. The adsorption of inhibitors on N80 steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The structure of inhibitors was optimized using semiemperical AM1 method. Theoretical parameters such as the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) energy levels, energy gap (ΔE = ELUMO - EHOMO), dipole moment (μ), global hardness (γ), softness (σ), binding energy, molecular surface area and the fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN) were calculated and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the surface marphology of the N80 steel.

  15. Kinetics, aggregation behavior and optimization of the fractionation of whey protein isolate with hydrochloric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated WPI solutions (10% (w/w)) containing approximately 30% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 60% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) were fractionated with HCl at acidic pH and moderate temperatures to denature alpha-LA and recover the alpha-LA aggregates via centrifugation. Aggregation behavior an...

  16. Utilization of cation exchange resins for the isolation and separation of transplutonium elements from others in aqueous and non aqueous-alcohol solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acids

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirova, G.S.

    1985-07-01

    The authors study the sorption of several transplutonium and fission elements on cation exchange resins in relation to the acid concentration and content of alcohol in solution. They observe a significant increase in sorption of the TPE on the cation exchanges from nitric acid solutions containing more than 50% of alcohol. On the basis of the experimental results they determine the optimum conditions for the concentration of TPE on cation exchangers with their subsequent separation from certain fission and other elements by means of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid solutions.

  17. Zirconium(IV) tetramer/octamer hydrolysis equilibrium in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, A.; Toth, L.M.; Lin, J.S.; Affholter, K.

    1996-11-20

    Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements were performed on zirconium acidic aqueous solutions to investigate the structure and the size of polynuclear species larger than the previously identified tetrameric species. Solutions with [H{sup +}]{sub added} and [OH{sup -}]{sub added} ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 M and 0.0 to 0.02 M, respectively, were analyzed. This study demonstrates that an octameric species, Zr{sub 8}(OH){sub 20}(H{sub 2}O){sub 24}Cl{sub 12}, exists in equilibrium with the tetrameric species, Zr{sub 4}(OH){sub 8}(H{sub 2} O){sub 16}Cl{sub 6}{sup 2+}, such that, for 0.05 M Zr(IV) in highly acidic solutions ([H{sup +}]{sub added} = 0.6 M), the tetramer in the dominant species; and at conditions with [H{sup +}] added =0.05 M, the octameric species becomes predominant. The estimated value of the equilibrium quotient obtained for the tetramer/octamer equilibrium is 0.20 {+-} 0.05 M{sup 3}. The tetramer and octamer have radii of gyration of 3.8 and 5.1 {+-} 0.2 A and a hydrolysis ratio of 2.0 and 2.5, respectively. The octamer forms by stacking two tetramers on top of each other. At conditions where small amounts of NaOH are added, unidentified polymeric Zr(IV) species larger in size than the octameric species appear. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Bipolar membrane electrodialysis for generation of hydrochloric acid and ammonia from simulated ammonium chloride wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cao, Hongbin; Wu, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhijuan; Wang, Liying

    2016-02-01

    Simulated ammonium chloride wastewater was treated by a lab-scale bipolar membrane electrodialysis for the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination. The influence of initial concentration of NH4Cl, current density, salt solution volume, initial concentration of acid and base and membrane stack structure on the yields of HCl and NH3·H2O was investigated. The current efficiency and energy consumption were also examined under different conditions. The results showed that, at the current density of 48 mA/cm(2), the highest concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O with initial concentration of 110 g/L NH4Cl was 57.67 g/L and 45.85 g/L, respectively. Higher initial concentration of NH4Cl was favor to reduce unit energy consumption and increase current efficiency of the BMED system. The membrane stack voltage of BMED increased quickly under constant current when the concentration of NH4Cl contained in the solution of salt compartment was depleted below the "inflection point concentration" about 8000 mg/L. It means that the concentration of NH4Cl below 8000 mg/L was no longer suitable for BMED because of higher energy consumption. The HCl and NH3·H2O concentration increased more quickly following the increase of current density. When increasing the volume of NH4Cl, the concentration of HCl and NH3·H2O also increased. The high initial concentration of acid and base could improve the final concentration of them, while the growth rate was decreased. Compared with the BMED system with three compartments, the growth rate of HCl concentration with the two compartments was higher and its unit energy consumption was lower. It meant that the performance of the BMED system could be improved by optimizing operation conditions. The application feasibility of the generation of HCl and NH3·H2O and desalination of ammonium chloride wastewater by BMED was proved. PMID:26674548

  19. Effect of hydrochloric acid on sound absorption and relaxation frequency in magnesium sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, F. H.

    2002-05-01

    The epic work of Kurtze and Tamm on sound absorption spectroscopy in divalent sulfate electrolyte solutions (1953) from the low-kHz region up to over 200 MHz revealed astonishing variability at frequencies below 10 MHz and a common relaxation frequency at about 200 MHz. For magnesium sulfate [Epsom salts] solutions, the salt producing 30× the absorption of fresh water below the 100-kHz region in the oceans at low concentrations [~0.02 moles/liter], Kurtze and Tamm investigated the effects of adding HC1 or H2SO4. They found that as formal pH increased, the results were different for these acids in reducing the sound absorption. Fisher (1983) found that if the absorption was plotted against free hydrogen, ion concentration was the same. We used the 100-liter titanium sphere, a spare ballast tank from the WHOI submarine ALVIN. With precise temperature control, we found an increase in the relaxation frequency as HC1 was added in conjunction with the reduction in sound absorption. The results will be presented and an explanation will be proposed in the context of the Eigen and Tamm multistate dissociation model for MgSO4 (1962) which explains the effects of pressure on both absorption and conductance. [Work supported by ONR.] The author acknowledges C. C. Hsu for his work on this project.

  20. High-performance effluent-free pickling plants with fluid bed hydrochloric acid regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Rituper, R.

    1995-11-01

    There is perpetual need to increase the performance of production facilities in the steel industry. Cost and product quality advantages, increased productivity and environmental acceptable processing of steel are the most important considerations in today`s highly competitive market. The newly developed Keramchemie strip pickle line, the Vario process, consists of a high-velocity pickling cell comprising a shallow, horizontal channel section that results in a turbulent flow behavior in the pickling section. Optimization of the pickling process is achieved by automatic setting of the pickling parameters such as acid flow and pressure via process control. Spent pickle liquor is completely regenerated in a recovery system using the fluidized bed process. The pickle liquor recycled between the pickling tanks and regeneration unit, results in a nearly zero consumption apart from small evaporation losses. The rinse water is completely reused. This makes an effluent-free operation of the pickling plant possible. No environmental pollution is caused by the pickling process. Some effluent-free strip pickling plants are already in operation in Europe with HCl consumption of less than 0.2 kg/tonne of pickled material.

  1. Quantification of hydrochloric acid and particulate deposition resulting from space shuttle launches at John F. Kennedy space center, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hall, Carlton R.

    1990-07-01

    Observations of damage to vegetation, acute reductions in surface water pH, and kills of small fish prompted the Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the John F. Kennedy Space Center to initiate intensive environmental evaluations of possible acute and long-term chronic impacts that may be produced by repeated launches of the space shuttle. An important step in this evaluation was the identification of deposition patterns and the quantification of ecosystem loading rates of exhaust constituents from the solid rocket motors (SRMs) in the area of the launch pad. These constituents are primarily aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). During three launches of the space transportation system (STS-11, 13, and 14) up to 100 bulk deposition collectors, 83 mm in diameter containing 100 ml of deionized water, were deployed in a grid pattern covering 12.6 ha north of launch pad 39-A. Estimates of HCl and particulate deposition levels were made based on laboratory measurements of items entrained in the collectors. Captured particulates consisted of a variety of items including Al2O3, sand grains, sea shell fragments, paint chips, and other debris ablated from the launch pad surface by the initial thrust of the SRMs. Estimated ranges of HCl and particulate deposition in the study area were 0-127 g/m2 and 0-246 g/m2, respectively. Deposition patterns were highly influenced by wind speed and direction. These measurements indicate that, under certain meteorological conditions, up to 7.1 × 103 kg of particulates and 3.4 × 103 kg of HCl can be deposited to the near-field environment beyond the launch pad perimeter fence.

  2. Sequential soil washing techniques using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in abandoned iron-ore mines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min; Hwang, Jung Sung; Choi, Sang Il

    2007-01-01

    Sequential washing techniques using single or dual agents [sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions] were applied to arsenic-contaminated soils in an abandoned iron-ore mine area. We investigated the best remediation strategies to maximize arsenic removal efficiency for both soils and arsenic-containing washing solution through conducting a series of batch experiments. Based on the results of a sequential extraction procedure, most arsenic prevails in Fe-As precipitates or coprecipitates, and iron exists mostly in the crystalline forms of iron oxide. Soil washing by use of a single agent was not effective in remediating arsenic-contaminated soils because arsenic extractions determined by the Korean standard test (KST) methods for washed soils were not lower than 6mg kg(-1) in all experimental conditions. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that iron-ore fines produced mobile colloids through coagulation and flocculation in water contacting the soils, containing dissolved arsenic and fine particles of ferric arsenate-coprecipitated silicate. The first washing step using 0.2M HCl was mostly effective in increasing the cationic hydrolysis of amorphous ferrihydrite, inducing high removal of arsenic. Thus, the removal step of arsenic-containing flocs can lower arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. Among several washing trials, alternative sequential washing using 0.2M HCl followed by 1M HCl (second step) and 1M NaOH solution (third step) showed reliable and lower values of arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. This washing method can satisfy the arsenic regulation of washed soil for reuse or safe disposal application. The kinetic data of washing tests revealed that dissolved arsenic was easily readsorbed into remaining soils at a low pH. This result might have occurred due to dominant species of positively charged crystalline iron oxides characterized through the sequential extraction procedure. However

  3. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 1: sampling hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO₃) from a test gas atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Howe, Alan; Musgrove, Darren; Breuer, Dietmar; Gusbeth, Krista; Moritz, Andreas; Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy; Dorotte, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Historically, workplace exposure to the volatile inorganic acids hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO(3)) has been determined mostly by collection on silica gel sorbent tubes and analysis of the corresponding anions by ion chromatography (IC). However, HCl and HNO(3) can be present in workplace air in the form of mist as well as vapor, so it is important to sample the inhalable fraction of airborne particles. As sorbent tubes exhibit a low sampling efficiency for inhalable particles, a more suitable method was required. This is the first of two articles on "Evaluation of Sampling Methods for Measuring Exposure to Volatile Inorganic Acids in Workplace Air" and describes collaborative sampling exercises carried out to evaluate an alternative method for sampling HCl and HNO(3) using sodium carbonate-impregnated filters. The second article describes sampling capacity and breakthrough tests. The method was found to perform well and a quartz fiber filter impregnated with 500 μL of 1 M Na(2)CO(3) (10% (m/v) Na(2)CO(3)) was found to have sufficient sampling capacity for use in workplace air measurement. A pre-filter is required to remove particulate chlorides and nitrates that when present would otherwise result in a positive interference. A GSP sampler fitted with a plastic cone, a closed face cassette, or a plastic IOM sampler were all found to be suitable for mounting the pre-filter and sampling filter(s), but care has to be taken with the IOM sampler to ensure that the sampler is tightly closed to avoid leaks. HCl and HNO(3) can react with co-sampled particulate matter on the pre-filter, e.g., zinc oxide, leading to low results, and stronger acids can react with particulate chlorides and nitrates removed by the pre-filter to liberate HCl and HNO(3), which are subsequently collected on the sampling filter, leading to high results. However, although there is this potential for both positive and negative interferences in the measurement, these are unavoidable

  4. Bulk liquid membrane for the recovery of chromium(VI) from a hydrochloric acid medium using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as extractant-carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Zouhri, A.; Ernst, B.; Burgard, M.

    1999-06-01

    The solvent extraction and transfer of chromic acid from hydrochloric acid medium through a bulk liquid membrane containing dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (L) were studied. Extraction experiments pointed out that chromium(VI) was coextracted with the chloride ion which formed the complex ion pair L(H{sub 3}O{sup +})CrO{sub 3}Cl{sup {minus}} in the organic phase. The Donnan equilibrium isotherm based on the extraction, stripping, and CrO{sub 3}Cl{sup {minus}} hydrolysis equilibria allowed prediction of the performance of the semipermeable membrane to concentrate chlorochromic acid in the receiving phase. Transport experiments confirmed the ability of the liquid membrane to recover chlorochromic acid in pure water. The transport kinetics was modeled by using the two-film theory applied to the liquid membrane.

  5. Corrosion Inhibitive Evaluation of an Environmentally Friendly Water-Base Acrylic Terpolymer on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azghandi, Mojtaba Vakili; Davoodi, Ali; Farzi, Gholam Ali; Kosari, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The corrosion inhibitive performance of an environmentally friendly water-base acrylic terpolymer [methyl methacrylate/Butyl Acrylate/Acrylic acid (ATP)] on mild steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by alternating current and direct current electrochemical techniques and the quantum chemical method. An efficiency of more than 97 pct was obtained with 0.8 mmol/L ATP. The increase in inhibitor concentration and immersion time has a positive effect, while the temperature influence is negligible on the inhibitor efficiency. The present terpolymer obeys the Langmuir isotherm, and thermodynamic calculation reveals a chemisorption type on the surface. Density functional calculations showed that the lone pairs of electrons of oxygen in the structure of three monomers are suitable sites to adsorb onto the metal surface. Finally, in the presence of ATP, a decrease in surface roughness and corrosion attacks was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy examinations, respectively.

  6. A two-stage pretreatment process using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by Fenton oxidation to improve sugar recovery from corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhi; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Qiaozhi; Zhang, Tingwei; Ma, Longlong; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-11-01

    A two-stage pretreatment process is proposed in this research in order to improve sugar recovery from corn stover. In the proposed process, corn stover is hydrolyzed by dilute hydrochloric acid to recover xylose, which is followed by a Fenton reagent oxidation to remove lignin. 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid is applied in the first stage pretreatment at 120°C for 40min, resulting in 81.0% xylose removal. Fenton reagent oxidation (1g/L FeSO4·7H2O and 30g/L H2O2) is performed at room temperature (about 20°C) for 12 has a second stage which resulted in 32.9% lignin removal. The glucose yield in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was 71.3% with a very low cellulase dosage (3FPU/g). This two-stage pretreatment is effective due to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the removal of lignin in the second stage, resulting in a very high sugar recovery with a low enzyme loading. PMID:27543312

  7. Selective extraction of zinc(II) over iron(II) from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Marcelo Borges; Rocha, Sônia Denise Ferreira; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Benedetto, Jeaneth dos Santos

    2008-02-11

    The selective removal of zinc(II) over iron(II) by liquid-liquid extraction from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents produced by the zinc hot-dip galvanizing industry was studied at room temperature. Two distinct effluents were investigated: effluent 1 containing 70.2g/L of Zn, 92.2g/L of Fe and pH 0.6, and effluent 2 containing 33.9 g/L of Zn, 203.9g/L of Fe and 2M HCl. The following extractants were compared: TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid], Cyanex 301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid] and Cyanex 302 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid]. The best separation results were obtained for extractants TBP and Cyanex 301. Around 92.5% of zinc and 11.2% of iron were extracted from effluent 1 in one single contact using 100% (v/v) of TBP. With Cyanex 301, around 80-95% of zinc and less than 10% of iron were extracted from effluent 2 at pH 0.3-1.0. For Cyanex 272, the highest extraction yield for zinc (70% of zinc with 20% of iron extraction) was found at pH 2.4. Cyanex 302 presented low metal extraction levels (below 10%) and slow phase disengagement characteristics. Reactions for the extraction of zinc with TBP and Cyanex 301 from hydrochloric acid solution were proposed. PMID:17570579

  8. Ethanol-based organosolv treatment with trace hydrochloric acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) by exposing nanofibers on the surface.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Kawashima, Ayato; Endo, Takashi; Honda, Katsuhisa; Morita, Masatoshi

    2013-03-01

    The effects of adding trace acids in ethanol based organosolv treatment were investigated to increase the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress. A high glucose yield (60%) in the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained by treating the sample at 170 °C for 45 min in 50% ethanol liquor containing 0.4% hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the enzymatic digestibility of the treated sample was improved to ∼70% by changing the enzyme from acremonium cellulase to Accellerase1500. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of lignin droplets and partial cellulose nanofibers on the surface of the treated sample. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the treated samples using thermotolerant yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777) was tested. A high ethanol concentration (22.1 g/L) was achieved using the EtOH50/W50/HCl0.4-treated sample compared with samples from other treatments. PMID:23395739

  9. Technical note: Synergistic effect of iodide ions on inhibitive performance of substituted dithiobiurets during corrosion of mild steel in hot hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Rawat, J.; Ajmal, M.

    1999-10-01

    Four substituted dithiobiurets (i.e., 1,5-diphenyl-2,4-dithiobiuret [DPDTB]; 1-anisidyl-5-phenyl 2,4-dithiodiuret [APDTB]; 1-tolyl-5-phenyl 2,4-dithiobiuret [TPDTB]; and 1-chlorophenyl-5-phenyl 2,4-dithiobiuret [CPDTB]) were synthesized to study their inhibiting effect on mild steel (MS) corrosion in 5 N hot hydrochloric acid (HCl). The synergistic effect of these compounds with potassium iodide (KI) was studied at different concentrations, temperatures, and immersion periods by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods. All compounds showed good inhibition efficiency (IE) at all temperatures and showed the enhancement in IE with the addition of small amounts of KI. Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed that APDTB and DPDTB are predominantly cathodic inhibitors, whereas TPDTB and CPDTB are mixed inhibitors. The adsorption of all these compounds followed Temkin's adsorption isotherm.

  10. Comparison of the kinetic laws of the dissolution of bauxite and aluminum and iron(III) oxides and hydroxides in hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gololobova, E. G.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Kozlov, K. V.

    2013-07-01

    The influence of the temperature and concentration of a hydrochloric acid solution on the dissolution kinetics of aluminum and iron(III) oxides and hydroxides and a natural sample of aluminum-containing raw materials, bauxite, is studied. The rate W of the transition of iron(III) ions from bauxite is higher than the rate of aluminum ion transition. The dependence of the fraction of a dissolved solid phase on time τ of dissolution of the oxides and hydroxides is determined, α = 1 — exp(- Asinh( Wτ)). The solubility of iron(III) chloride increases and that of aluminum chloride decreases as the HCl concentration increases. An empirical equation is proposed for the description of the dependence of the process rate on a series of parameters,.

  11. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos® IL 104

    PubMed Central

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W.; Kolev, Spas D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos® IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L−1 Na2SO3 receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]+ [AuCl4]− H+ [PO2]− where [P]+ and [PO2]− represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO3)2]3− in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry. PMID:26670259

  12. Characterization of the Unusual Product from the Reaction between Cobalt(II) Chloride, Ethane-1,2-diamine, and Hydrochloric Acid: An Undergraduate Project Involving an Unknown Metal Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Neil F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need for student research-type chemistry projects based upon "unknown" metal complexes. Describes an experiment involving the product from the reaction between cobalt(II) chloride, ethane-1,2-diamine (en) and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Outlines the preparation of the cobalt complex, along with procedure, results and discussion.…

  13. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibits EGF-induced cell transformation via reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingjie; Ouyang, Weiming; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, York; Li, Xuejun; Huang, Chuanshu

    2012-09-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibiting cancer cell growth has been associated with its downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression at transcription level or translation level. Here, we have demonstrated that SAHA inhibited EGF-induced Cl41 cell transformation via the decrease of cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. We found that SAHA treatment resulted in the dramatic inhibition of EGF-induced cell transformation, cyclin D1 protein expression and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. Further studies showed that SAHA downregulation of cyclin D1 was only observed with endogenous cyclin D1, but not with reconstitutionally expressed cyclin D1 in the same cells, excluding the possibility of SAHA regulating cyclin D1 at level of protein degradation. Moreover, SAHA inhibited EGF-induced cyclin d1 mRNA level, whereas it did not show any inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity under the same experimental conditions, suggesting that SAHA may decrease cyclin D1 mRNA stability. This notion was supported by the results that treatment of cells with SAHA decreased the half-life of cyclin D1 mRNA from 6.95 h to 2.57 h. Consistent with downregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA stability, SAHA treatment also attenuated HuR expression, which has been well-characterized as a positive regulator of cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism responsible for SAHA inhibiting cell transformation via decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest in Cl41 cells. -- Highlights: ► SAHA inhibits cell transformation in Cl41 cells. ► SAHA suppresses Cyclin D1 protein expression. ► SAHA decreases cyclin D1 mRNA stability.

  14. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Behavior of Setaria verticillata Leaf Extract in 1M Sulphuric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukrishnan, P.; Jeyaprabha, B.; Prakash, P.

    2013-12-01

    Setaria verticillata leaf extract (SVLE) as corrosion inhibitor in 1M H2SO4 was investigated by weight loss techniques and electrochemical techniques at 308-328 K. Inhibition efficiency of SVLE was found to increase with increasing concentration but decreased with temperature. Polarization measurements revealed that SVLE acted as mixed-type inhibitor. Impedance diagrams showed that increasing of SVLE concentration increased charge transfer resistance and decreased double layer capacitance. The adsorption of SVLE on the mild surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Protective film formation against corrosion was confirmed by SEM and FTIR.

  15. Influence of UV rays on Feulgen-type staining with azure A-SO2 prepared with normal hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M K

    1981-07-01

    This communication presents a new method for the preparation of azure A-SO2 for use in Feulgen procedure. The salient feature of this method lies in the fact that azure A-SO2 can be decolourised with normal hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. The pH of this dye reagent is 2.3 and it is of water colour after filtration. The pH of this dye-reagent is raised to 4.0 with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Nuclear colouration with this newly developed dye-reagent on acid-hydrolysed DNA of tissue sections becomes fairly satisfactory under the usual laboratory conditions. Staining with this dye-reagent under exposure to UV ray is, however, vastly improved within 5 minutes as compared with the control. Stained sections do withstand treatment in SO2 water without exhibiting any leaching of the dye from the nuclei. Possible mode of action of UV rays in increasing the intensity of staining as well as the speed of reaction has been suggested. PMID:6167839

  16. Minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors in a pickling process with high-concentration hydrochloric acid solutions: mechanism and evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Su, Wen; Wang, Jing; Fu, Fenglian; Yu, Guojun; Zhang, Jianyin

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to propose a strategy for minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors through the synergistic corrosion inhibition of OP-10 and potassium iodide, thus facilitating a cleaner production process for acid pickling of metals with a high-concentration solution (6.0 mol/l) of hydrochloric acid. Results obtained with the methods of weight loss and electrochemical polarization showed that adding KI and OP-10 could enhance the energy barrier of the corrosion reaction and improved the corrosion inhibition for mild steel in high concentration of HCl solutions. A synergistic effect was identified when KI and OP-10 were present in suitable proportions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed that the complex inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor and it formed a compact film on the metal surface, thus providing an effective protection for the metal in the aggressive solutions, which significantly minimized the creation of spent pickling liquors. A simple and convenient method was also proposed for the quantificational evaluation of the inhibition degree in the creation of spent pickling liquors. PMID:22266479

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles as cathodic catalysts in the methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanjuan; Li, Nan; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Li, Xiaotian; Yan, Xiao

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method. • The product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} with average particle size of 14.8 nm. • RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles were used as cathodic catalysts in methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. • The catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}. - Abstract: Highly crystalline ruthenium sulfide (RuS{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method at 400 °C, using ruthenium chloride and thiourea as reactants. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analyze (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy equipped with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED). Fourier transform infrared spectra (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD result illustrates that the highly crystalline product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} and the average particle size is 14.8 nm. SEM and TEM images display the products have irregular shape of 6–25 nm. XPS analyst indicates that the sulfur exists in the form of S{sub 2}{sup 2−}. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are conducted to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. The results illustrate that RuS{sub 2} is active towards oxygen reduction reaction. Although the activity of RuS{sub 2} is lower than that of Pt/C, the RuS{sub 2} catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}.

  18. Corrosion Inhibition by Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract for 304 SS in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausi, S.; Kurniawan, F.

    2016-04-01

    The inhibition effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract on the corrosion phenomena of 304 SS in 1 M HCl has been studied by polarization potentiodynamic. The powder of T. diversifolia was extracted by demineralized water which was cultivated in East Java, Indonesia. The extract was characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer. The presence of T. diversifolia can inhibit the corrosion rate of 304 SS. The efficiency inhibition value of 2 g/L T. diversifolia leaves extract reached up to 77.27% at room temperature.

  19. Effects of hydrochloric acid treatment of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/nanofibers bilayer film on the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Lixin; Du, Pingfan; Shao, Xiaoli; Cao, Houbao; Hui, Quan; Xiong, Jie

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/TiO{sub 2} nanofibers bilayer film was fabricated for DSSC. ► The effects of HCl treated TiO{sub 2} on the performance of DSSC were investigated. ► The potential methods of improving conversion efficiency are suggested. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/nanofibers bilayer film has been fabricated via spin coating and electrospinning followed by calcination. The TiO{sub 2} bilayer film with thickness of about 6.0 μm is composed of anatase TiO{sub 2} phase. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were assembled by hydrochloric acid (HCl) treated TiO{sub 2} film. The results of the photocurrent action spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and I–V curves showed that each photovoltaic parameter of DSSC increased with the concentration of HCl increasing, and reached a maximum value and afterwards decreased. The maximum incident monochromatic photo-to-electron conversion efficiency (at 350 nm) and maximum overall conversion efficiency (η) of 0.05 M HCl treated TiO{sub 2} based DSSC were enhanced to 48.0% and 4.75%, which were respectively increased by 14% and 6.3% than those of DSSC based on untreated TiO{sub 2} film.

  20. Hydrochloric acid modification process for fabricating Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x THz oscillator stack on-chip coupled to THz detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikata, Tsubasa; Kato, Takahiro; Kotaki, Yukio; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Kawakami, Akira; Yasui, Kanji

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) integrating of an oscillator and a detector by double side photolithography and material modification with a dilutehydrochloric acid solution (pH = 1.65) within a monolithic Bi-2212 crystal. The dilute hydrochloric solution modifies Bi-2212 to insulating BiOCl. Various lateral dimensions of the oscillator IJJ from 45 × 8 to 95 × 30 µm2 were formed; all of the detectors were about 15 × 10 to 15 × 30 µm2 in lateral dimensions. These stacks have 180-416 junctions. Zero voltage current for the detector stack was measured at 77 K while sweeping a bias voltage in the oscillator stack. The zero voltage current of the detector stack was strongly suppressed when a kink structure in the current-voltage curve of the oscillator stacks appeared. This indicates that the oscillator stack emits radiation at this voltage. From the Josephson voltage-frequency relation, it is found that the voltage corresponds to about 0.5-1 THz.

  1. Porous media investigation before and after hydrochloric acid injection on a pre-salt carbonate coquinas sample.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Teles, A P; Pepin, A; Bize-Forest, N; Lima, I; Lopes, R T

    2016-04-01

    Porous space characterization of carbonate rocks is an important aid in petroleum exploration from carbonate reservoir. In this study, X-ray microtomography technique was applied to evaluate total porosity of a coquina sample extracted from pre-salt reservoir, in Brazil, before and after acid injection. Two image processing program were used in order to assess performance. The results showed that microtomography has potential to compute porosity of coquina samples and provides information about rock porous network. PMID:26794261

  2. Quinoxaline derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium: Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Kabanda, Mwadham M.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2016-02-01

    The corrosion inhibition potential of four quinoxaline derivatives namely, 1-[3-(4-methylphenyl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]butan-1-one (Me-4-PQPB), 1-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)butan-1-one (Mt-4-PQPB), 1-[3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]butan-1-one (Mt-3-PQPB) and 1-[3-(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]butan-1-one (Oxo-1,3-PQPB) was studied for mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution using electrochemical, spectroscopic techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results of both potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies revealed that the compounds are mixed-type inhibitors and the order of corrosion inhibition efficiency at 100 ppm is Me-4-PQPB>Mt-3-PQPB>Oxo-1,3-PQPB>Mt-4-PQPB. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic analyses confirmed the presence of chemical interactions between the inhibitors and mild steel surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on mild steel surface was found to be both physisorption and chemisorption but predominantly chemisorption. The experimental data obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of protective films of the inhibitors on mild steel surface. Quantum chemical parameters obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations support experimental results.

  3. Treasure of the Past VI: Standard Potential of the Silver-Silver-Chloride Electrode from 0° to 95° C and the Thermodynamic Properties of Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Roger G.; Bower, Vincent E.

    2001-01-01

    From electromotive-force measurements of the cell without liquid junction: Pt;H2,HCl(m),AgCl;Agthrough the range 0° to 95° C, calculations have been made of (1) the standard potential of the silver–silver-chloride electrode, (2) the activity coefficient of hydrochloric acid in aqueous solutions from m (molality) =0 to m=0.1 and from 0° to 90° C, (3) the relative partial molal heat content of hydrochloric acid, and (4) the relative partial molal heat capacity of hydrochloric acid. The extrapolations were made by the method of least squares with the aid of punch-card techniques. Data from at least 24 cells were analyzed at each temperature, and 81 cells were studied at 25° C. The value of the standard potential was found to be 0.22234 absolute volt at 25° C, and the standard deviation was 0.02 millivolt at 0° C, 0.01 millivolt at 25° C, and 0.09 millivolt at 95° C. The results from 0° to 60° C are compared with earlier determinations of the standard potential and other quantities derived from the electromotive force.

  4. Comparison of the response using ICR mice derived from three different sources to ethanol/hydrochloric acid-induced gastric injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Ji Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Choi, Kyung Min; Kim, Hae Deun; Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2016-03-01

    Animal models for gastric ulcers produced by physical, pharmacological and surgical methods have been widely employed to evaluate therapeutic drugs and investigate the mechanism of action of this disease. ICR mice were selected to produce this model, even though several mice and rats have been widely used in studies of gastric ulcers. To compare the responses of ICR mice obtained from three different sources to gastric ulcer inducers, alterations in gastric injury, histopathological structure, and inflammation were measured in Korl:ICR (Korea NIFDS source), A:ICR (USA source) and B:ICR (Japan source) treated with three concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (50, 70, and 90%) in 150 mM hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Firstly, the stomach lesion index gradually increased as the EtOH concentration increased in three ICR groups. Moreover, a significant increase in the level of mucosal injury, edema and the number of inflammatory cells was similarly detected in the EtOH/HCl treated group compared with the vehicle treated group in three ICR groups. Furthermore, the number of infiltrated mast cells and IL-1β expression were very similar in the ICR group derived from three different sources, although some differences in IL-1β expression were detected. Especially, the level of IL-1β mRNA in 50 and 90EtOH/HCl treated group was higher in Korl:ICR and A:ICR than B:ICR. Overall, the results of this study suggest that Korl:ICR, A:ICR and B:ICR derived from different sources have an overall similar response to gastric ulcer induced by EtOH/HCl administration, although there were some differences in the magnitude of their responses. PMID:27051443

  5. Comparison of the response using ICR mice derived from three different sources to ethanol/hydrochloric acid-induced gastric injury

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Ji Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Choi, Kyung Min; Kim, Hae Deun; Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Kil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Animal models for gastric ulcers produced by physical, pharmacological and surgical methods have been widely employed to evaluate therapeutic drugs and investigate the mechanism of action of this disease. ICR mice were selected to produce this model, even though several mice and rats have been widely used in studies of gastric ulcers. To compare the responses of ICR mice obtained from three different sources to gastric ulcer inducers, alterations in gastric injury, histopathological structure, and inflammation were measured in Korl:ICR (Korea NIFDS source), A:ICR (USA source) and B:ICR (Japan source) treated with three concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (50, 70, and 90%) in 150 mM hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Firstly, the stomach lesion index gradually increased as the EtOH concentration increased in three ICR groups. Moreover, a significant increase in the level of mucosal injury, edema and the number of inflammatory cells was similarly detected in the EtOH/HCl treated group compared with the vehicle treated group in three ICR groups. Furthermore, the number of infiltrated mast cells and IL-1β expression were very similar in the ICR group derived from three different sources, although some differences in IL-1β expression were detected. Especially, the level of IL-1β mRNA in 50 and 90EtOH/HCl treated group was higher in Korl:ICR and A:ICR than B:ICR. Overall, the results of this study suggest that Korl:ICR, A:ICR and B:ICR derived from different sources have an overall similar response to gastric ulcer induced by EtOH/HCl administration, although there were some differences in the magnitude of their responses. PMID:27051443

  6. Pharmacophore Modeling and Virtual Screening for Novel Acidic Inhibitors of Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1 (mPGES-1)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) catalyzes prostaglandin E2 formation and is considered as a potential anti-inflammatory pharmacological target. To identify novel chemical scaffolds active on this enzyme, two pharmacophore models for acidic mPGES-1 inhibitors were developed and theoretically validated using information on mPGES-1 inhibitors from literature. The models were used to screen chemical databases supplied from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Specs. Out of 29 compounds selected for biological evaluation, nine chemically diverse compounds caused concentration-dependent inhibition of mPGES-1 activity in a cell-free assay with IC50 values between 0.4 and 7.9 μM, respectively. Further pharmacological characterization revealed that also 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) was inhibited by most of these active compounds in cell-free and cell-based assays with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Together, nine novel chemical scaffolds inhibiting mPGES-1 are presented that may possess anti-inflammatory properties based on the interference with eicosanoid biosynthesis. PMID:21466167

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Binti Kassim, Fatin A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10-3 M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10-3 M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Binti Kassim, Fatin A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10−3 M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10−3 M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30–60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl. PMID:26795066

  9. Structure of Hydronium (H3O+)/Chloride (Cl-) Contact Ion Pairs in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Solution: A Zundel-like Local Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, John L.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam

    2010-09-15

    Details of the H3O+ and H2O structure in the first solvation shell about Cl- in aqueous HCl solutions are reported from x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. Results show increasing degrees of contact ion pairing between Cl- and H3O+ as the HCl concentration increases from 6.0 m, 10.0 m and finally 16.1 m HCl (concentrated acid). At the highest acid concentration there are on average, approximately 1.6 H3O+ ions and 4.2 H2O’s in the first shell about Cl-. The structure of the Cl-/H3O+ contact ion pair is distinctly different than that of the H2O structure about Cl-. The Cl-O bond length (2.98Å) for Cl-/H3O+ is approximately 0.16 Å shorter than the Cl-/H2O bond. The bridging proton resides at an intermediate position between Cl and O at 1.60 Å from the Cl- and approximately 1.37 Å from the O of the H3O+. The bridging-proton structure of this contact ion pair, [Cl-H-OH2], is similar to structure of the water Zundel ion, [H2O-H-OH2]+. In both cases there is a shortened Cl-O or O-O bond and the intervening proton bond distances are substantially longer than for the covalent bonds of either HCl or H2O. The results further our understanding of the interaction H3O+ with Cl- that is of interest to fundamental physical chemistry and that has consequences in biochemical, geochemical and atmospheric processes.

  10. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Downregulates ELOVL1 Gene Expression and Fatty Acid Synthesis in Goat Fetal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weipeng; He, Qiburi; Guo, Zhixin; Yang, Limin; Bao, Lili; Bao, Wenlei; Zheng, Xu; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids 1 (ELOVL1) is a ubiquitously expressed gene that belongs to the ELOVL family and regulates the synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and sphingolipids, from yeast to mammals. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of cell metabolism and is associated with fatty acids synthesis. In this study, we cloned the cDNA that encodes Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) ELOVL1 (GenBank Accession number KF549985) and investigated its expression in 10 tissues. ELOVL1 cDNA was 840 bp, encoding a deduced protein of 279 amino acids, and ELOVL1 mRNA was expressed in a wide range of tissues. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin decreased ELOVL1 expression and fatty acids synthesis in Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts. These data show that ELOVL1 expression is regulated by mTORC1 and that mTORC1 has significant function in fatty acids synthesis in Cashmere goat. PMID:26204830

  11. The role of amino acid-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1(mTORC1) signaling in insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, energy, and growth factors. Recent findings have placed the lysosome at the core of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulation by amino acids. Two parallel pathways, Rag GTPase-Ragulator and Vps34-phospholipase D1 (PLD1), regulate mTOR activation on the lysosome. This review describes the recent advances in understanding amino acid-induced mTOR signaling with a particular focus on the role of mTOR in insulin resistance. PMID:27534530

  12. The role of amino acid-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1(mTORC1) signaling in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, energy, and growth factors. Recent findings have placed the lysosome at the core of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulation by amino acids. Two parallel pathways, Rag GTPase-Ragulator and Vps34-phospholipase D1 (PLD1), regulate mTOR activation on the lysosome. This review describes the recent advances in understanding amino acid-induced mTOR signaling with a particular focus on the role of mTOR in insulin resistance. PMID:27534530

  13. 5, 8, 11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid suppresses CCL2/MCP-1 expression in IFN-γ-stimulated astrocytes by increasing MAPK phosphatase-1 mRNA stability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activator, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), is an arachidonic acid analog. It is reported to inhibit up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes; however, its underlying mechanism of action is largely unknown. In the present study, we focused on the inhibitory action of ETYA on the expression of the chemokine, CCL2/MCP-1, which plays a key role in the initiation and progression of inflammation. Methods To determine the effect of ETYA, primary cultured rat astrocytes and microglia were stimulated with IFN-γ in the presence of ETYA and then, expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1) were determined using RT-PCR and ELISA. MKP-1 mRNA stability was evaluated by treating actinomycin D. The effect of MKP-1 and human antigen R (HuR) was analyzed by using specific siRNA transfection system. The localization of HuR was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation experiment. Results We found that ETYA suppressed CCL2/MCP-1 transcription and secretion of CCL2/MCP-1 protein through up-regulation of MKP-1mRNA levels, resulting in suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and activator protein 1 (AP1) activity in IFN-γ-stimulated brain glial cells. Moreover, these effects of ETYA were independent of PPAR-α. Experiments using actinomycin D revealed that the ETYA-induced increase in MKP-1 mRNA levels reflected an increase in transcript stability. Knockdown experiments using small interfering RNA demonstrated that this increase in MKP-1 mRNA stability depended on HuR, an RNA-binding protein known to promote enhanced mRNA stability. Furthermore, ETYA-induced, HuR-mediated mRNA stabilization resulted from HuR-MKP-1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation, which served to protect MKP-1 mRNA from the mRNA degradation machinery. Conclusion ETYA induces MKP-1 through HuR at the post-transcriptional level in a receptor-independent manner. The mechanism revealed here suggests

  14. Analysis of twenty phenolic compounds in human urine: hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction based on K2CO 3-treated silica, and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; Lin, Yuanjie; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; She, Jianwen; Xu, Qian; Wu, Chunhua; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-05-01

    This study developed a new method for the analysis of 20 phenolic compounds in human urine. The urine samples were prepared by hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup. We found that HCl hydrolysis is of similar effectiveness to, and much cheaper than, the traditional enzymatic method. Vanillic acid was co-eluted with butyl paraben and interfered with the determination of butyl paraben in urine. K2CO3-treated-silica-gel SPE was designed to efficiently eliminate interference from the endogenous organic acids (especially vanillic acid) in urine. After derivatization, the samples were analyzed by large-volume-injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS-MS). Good linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.996) was established in the range 0.1-100 ng mL(-1) for all analytes. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.7-9.8 pg mL(-1). Intraday (n = 5) and interday (n = 5 days) validation was performed, with satisfactory accuracy (recovery: 70-126 % and 73-107 %, respectively) and precision (RSD ≤ 19 %) at two levels (low: 0.1 and 0.5 ng mL(-1); high: 5 and 10 ng mL(-1)). The method was used in a population study and achieved more than 85 % detection for most analytes; mean analyte concentrations were in the range 0.01-185 ng mL(-1). The method is suitable for the analysis of multiple phenolic metabolites in human urine. PMID:25903021

  15. Newly synthesized salicylidene-4,4‧-dimorpholine (SDM) assembled on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) and its inhibitive effect on mild steel in 2 N hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwani, Poonam M.; Panchal, Vikram K.; Shah, Nisha K.

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by salicylidene-4,4‧-dimorpholine (SDM) and SDM assembled on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) has been studied with gravimetric, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. While studying the temperature effect on corrosion behaviour of SDM and SDM assembled on NiONPs, the inhibition efficiency decreases for SDM only but increases for SDM assembled on NiONPs. The adsorption of both the inhibitors on the mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The activation energy as well as other thermodynamic parameters (ΔH* and ΔS*) for the inhibition process was calculated. EIS analysis results showed that the capacitive loops for SDM assembled on NiONPs were far away from blank when compared with SDM only. Polarization curve shows that the inhibitors are of mixed type. Further, the protective layer formation was confirmed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) results. Various methods such as EIS-MS, 1H NMR, XRD, FTIR, and DLS were performed for the confirmation of the structure, interaction of SDM with NiONPs and size of NiONPs.

  16. Inhibition effects of a synthesized novel 4-aminoantipyrine derivative on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution together with quantum chemical studies.

    PubMed

    Junaedi, Sutiana; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadihum, Abdulhadi; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    1,5-Dimethyl-4-((2-methylbenzylidene)amino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one (DMPO) was synthesized to be evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor. The corrosion inhibitory effects of DMPO on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). The results showed that DMPO inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested an adsorption of DMPO onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The novel synthesized corrosion inhibitor was characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses. Electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO and ELUMO, respectively) and dipole moment (μ) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the EHOMO values but with a decrease in the ELUMO value. PMID:23736696

  17. Functional Proteomics Identifies Acinus L as a Direct Insulin- and Amino Acid-Dependent Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Substrate*

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jennifer Jasmin; Wiese, Heike; Tölle, Regine Charlotte; Zarei, Mostafa; Dengjel, Jörn; Warscheid, Bettina; Thedieck, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) governs growth, metabolism, and aging in response to insulin and amino acids (aa), and is often activated in metabolic disorders and cancer. Much is known about the regulatory signaling network that encompasses mTOR, but surprisingly few direct mTOR substrates have been established to date. To tackle this gap in our knowledge, we took advantage of a combined quantitative phosphoproteomic and interactomic strategy. We analyzed the insulin- and aa-responsive phosphoproteome upon inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) component raptor, and investigated in parallel the interactome of endogenous mTOR. By overlaying these two datasets, we identified acinus L as a potential novel mTORC1 target. We confirmed acinus L as a direct mTORC1 substrate by co-immunoprecipitation and MS-enhanced kinase assays. Our study delineates a triple proteomics strategy of combined phosphoproteomics, interactomics, and MS-enhanced kinase assays for the de novo-identification of mTOR network components, and provides a rich source of potential novel mTOR interactors and targets for future investigation. PMID:25907765

  18. Functional Proteomics Identifies Acinus L as a Direct Insulin- and Amino Acid-Dependent Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Substrate.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jennifer Jasmin; Wiese, Heike; Tölle, Regine Charlotte; Zarei, Mostafa; Dengjel, Jörn; Warscheid, Bettina; Thedieck, Kathrin

    2015-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) governs growth, metabolism, and aging in response to insulin and amino acids (aa), and is often activated in metabolic disorders and cancer. Much is known about the regulatory signaling network that encompasses mTOR, but surprisingly few direct mTOR substrates have been established to date. To tackle this gap in our knowledge, we took advantage of a combined quantitative phosphoproteomic and interactomic strategy. We analyzed the insulin- and aa-responsive phosphoproteome upon inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) component raptor, and investigated in parallel the interactome of endogenous mTOR. By overlaying these two datasets, we identified acinus L as a potential novel mTORC1 target. We confirmed acinus L as a direct mTORC1 substrate by co-immunoprecipitation and MS-enhanced kinase assays. Our study delineates a triple proteomics strategy of combined phosphoproteomics, interactomics, and MS-enhanced kinase assays for the de novo-identification of mTOR network components, and provides a rich source of potential novel mTOR interactors and targets for future investigation. PMID:25907765

  19. Ascorbic Acid, Ultraviolet C Rays, and Glucose but not Hyperthermia Are Elicitors of Human β-Defensin 1 mRNA in Normal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Díaz, Luis Antonio; Flores Miramontes, María Guadalupe; Allen, Kirk; Gonzalez Ávila, Marisela; Prado Montes de Oca, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Hosts' innate defense systems are upregulated by antimicrobial peptide elicitors (APEs). Our aim was to investigate the effects of hyperthermia, ultraviolet A rays (UVA), and ultraviolet C rays (UVC) as well as glucose and ascorbic acid (AA) on the regulation of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1), cathelicidin (CAMP), and interferon-γ (IFNG) genes in normal human keratinocytes (NHK). The indirect in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes of these potential APEs was tested. We found that AA is a more potent APE for DEFB1 than glucose in NHK. Glucose but not AA is an APE for CAMP. Mild hypo- (35°C) and hyperthermia (39°C) are not APEs in NHK. AA-dependent DEFB1 upregulation below 20 mM predicts in vitro antimicrobial activity as well as glucose- and AA-dependent CAMP and IFNG upregulation. UVC upregulates CAMP and DEFB1 genes but UVA only upregulates the DEFB1 gene. UVC is a previously unrecognized APE in human cells. Our results suggest that glucose upregulates CAMP in an IFN-γ-independent manner. AA is an elicitor of innate immunity that will challenge the current concept of late activation of adaptive immunity of this vitamin. These results could be useful in designing new potential drugs and devices to combat skin infections. PMID:25815330

  20. Ascorbic acid, ultraviolet C rays, and glucose but not hyperthermia are elicitors of human β-defensin 1 mRNA in normal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Cruz Díaz, Luis Antonio; Flores Miramontes, María Guadalupe; Chávez Hurtado, Paulina; Allen, Kirk; Gonzalez Ávila, Marisela; Prado Montes de Oca, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Hosts' innate defense systems are upregulated by antimicrobial peptide elicitors (APEs). Our aim was to investigate the effects of hyperthermia, ultraviolet A rays (UVA), and ultraviolet C rays (UVC) as well as glucose and ascorbic acid (AA) on the regulation of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1), cathelicidin (CAMP), and interferon-γ (IFNG) genes in normal human keratinocytes (NHK). The indirect in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes of these potential APEs was tested. We found that AA is a more potent APE for DEFB1 than glucose in NHK. Glucose but not AA is an APE for CAMP. Mild hypo- (35°C) and hyperthermia (39°C) are not APEs in NHK. AA-dependent DEFB1 upregulation below 20 mM predicts in vitro antimicrobial activity as well as glucose- and AA-dependent CAMP and IFNG upregulation. UVC upregulates CAMP and DEFB1 genes but UVA only upregulates the DEFB1 gene. UVC is a previously unrecognized APE in human cells. Our results suggest that glucose upregulates CAMP in an IFN-γ-independent manner. AA is an elicitor of innate immunity that will challenge the current concept of late activation of adaptive immunity of this vitamin. These results could be useful in designing new potential drugs and devices to combat skin infections. PMID:25815330

  1. Complex Leaching Process of Scheelite in Hydrochloric and Phosphoric Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Xue, Jilai; Liu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zengjie

    2016-06-01

    The complex leaching process of synthetic scheelite and scheelite concentrate in hydrochloric and phosphoric solutions has been investigated for improving process efficiency. A higher leaching rate, compared with the classic acid leaching process, can be obtained through the synergy of HCl and H3PO4 with appropriate W/P mole ratio, temperature, and acid concentration. For synthetic scheelite, the optimum leaching conditions were W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 50°C, HCl 0.72 mol/L, and stirring speed 600 rpm; for scheelite concentrate, W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 80°C, HCl 2.16 mol/L, and stirring speed 1000 rpm. The leaching rates under the optimized conditions can reach up to 98% or even higher. FTIR spectra analysis confirmed that the leachate composition remained as H3[PW12O40] in the range of varying W/P mole ratios, so the PO4 3- in acidic solution and phosphorus content in the leaching product could be better controlled. The function 1 - (1 - X)1/3 against leaching time was applied to fit the experimental data, and the apparent activation energy, E a, was calculated as 60.65 kJ/mol. The results would be valuable for effectively using scheelite as a raw material resource for sustainable tungsten production.

  2. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  3. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  5. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  6. Preliminary study of iron removal from hydrochloric pickling liquor by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Maranon, E.; Suarez, F.; Alonso, F.; Fernandez, Y.; Sastre, H.

    1999-07-01

    Hydrochloric acid from exhausted pickling baths is a residue that has to be managed adequately because of its high pollutant potential. In this work, an ion exchange treatment for removing iron from the spent acid was studied in an attempt to make the re-utilization of said acid viable for industry while reducing the amount of waste generated. Several cationic, anionic, and chelating resins were tested. Cationic and chelating resins are able to remove Fe(II) that is present as a cation in the acid, whereas anionic resins are able to remove Fe(III) that forms anionic complexes with the chloride anion. The capacity of the cationic and chelating resins, although not high, does improve as the iron concentration in the hydrochloric acid increases and when the acid concentration decreases, because there is less competition between the ferrous cation and the protons. The anionic resins showed higher capacity for removing iron, especially the Lewatit MP-500, and this capacity also increased with iron concentration.

  7. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits the recruitment of ARNT to DNA, resulting in the decrease of CYP1A1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AHR and ARNT transcriptionally regulate genes related to metabolisms such as CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on the function of AHR/ARNT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA inhibited the recruitment of ARNT, not AHR, to the regulatory region of CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It resulted in a reduction of constitutive expression of CYP1A1 to less than half. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are well-conserved transcription factors among species. However, there are a very limited number of reports on the physiological function of AHR, particularly on the regulation of AHR by endogenous compounds. We hence investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene transcription as a model of AHR-regulated transcription mechanisms in HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced transactivation and expression of CYP1A1 mRNA to less than half of its control value, and this inhibitory effect was mediated by RAR{alpha}. The result of chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that treatment with atRA at 1-100 nM drastically inhibited the recruitment of ARNT to DNA regions containing xenobiotic responsive elements. In conclusion, atRA at physiological concentrations could reduce AHR-mediated gene transcription via the inhibition of recruitment of ARNT to relevant DNA regions.

  8. Interfacial studies in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices: Performance effects and enhancement mechanisms of p-nickel oxide anode interlayers and hydrochloric acid-treated tin-doped indium oxide anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Michael David

    To study the effects of anode interfacial modification in the organic bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic device two approaches were taken. First, the p-type semiconductor NiO was studied as an electron-blocking layer (EBL) and hole-transport layer (HTL) in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Pulsed laser deposition-grown NiO was introduced as a thin film overlayer (5--77 nm) on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) anodes in OPV devices having the structure glass/ITO/NiO/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al. When the NiO thickness is an optimum 10 nm, J-V device performance under AM 1.5G irradiation and at 25°C is as follows: open circuit voltage (VOC) = 0.638 V, short circuit current ( JSC) = 11.0 mA/cm2, fill factor ( FF) = 69.3% and light-to-power conversion efficiency (Eff ) = 5.0%. This represents increases in VOC of 24%, in FF of 37% and 70% in efficiency versus control devices without an interlayer. The 10-nm NiO overlayer is smooth, electrically homogeneous, has an average transparency of >80% in the visible range, has a stoichiometric Ni:O surface composition, and a work function (phi NiO) of 5.3 eV. By grazing-incidence X-ray crystal diffraction, the NiO thin films grow preferentially in the (111) direction and have the fcc NaCl crystal structure. Diodes of p-n structure and first-principles electronic structure calculations reveal that the NiO interlayer is preferentially conductive to holes with a lower hole charge carrier effective mass versus that of electrons. Second, in studies to simplify the fabrication of bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, it was found that when glass/ITO substrates are treated with dilute aqueous HCl solutions, followed by UV-ozone (UVO), and then used to fabricate devices of the structure glass/ITO/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al, device performance is greatly enhanced. The collective metric of Eff increases from 2.4% for control devices

  9. Hydrochloric acid and the chlorine budget of the lower statosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Jaegle, L.; Hu, H.; Sander, S. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Toon, G. C.; Russell, J. M., III; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of HCl measurements in the lower stratosphere in 1993 by the ALIAS instrument on the ER-2 aircraft reveal that only 40% of inorganic chlorine (Cl(y), inferred from in situ measurements of organic chlorinated sources gases) is present as HCl, significantly lower than model predictions. Although the sum of measured HCl, ClO and ClONO2, the latter inferred from measurements of ClO and NO2 equals Cl(y) to within the incertainty of measurement, it is systematically less than Cl(y) by 30-50%. This discrepancy suggests that concentrations of ClONO2 may exceed those of HC; near 20 km altitude, consistent with a slower photolysis rate for ClONO2 than calculated using recommended cross sections. Comparison of profiles of HCl measured during 1992 and 1193 at mid-latitudes by balloon (BLISS and MARKIV), space shuttle (ATMOS), and satellite (HALOE) instruments with the aircraft data reveal an apparent pressure dependence to the HCl to Cl(y) ratio, consistent with a factor of 3-10 reduction in the photolysis rate for ClONO2 at ER-2 altitudes. However, the diurnal variation of ClO is well-simulated by models using the recommended photolysis rate, and simulations measurements of ClONO2 and HCl at mid-latitudes by ATMOS and MARKIV report HCl (HCL+ ClONO2) ratios greater than or equal to 50%. Premliminary measurements by ALIAS in the southern hemisphere report HCl/Cl(y) values of about 75%.

  10. Atmospheric scavenging of hydrochloric acid. [from rocket exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knutson, E. O.; Fenton, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The scavenging of hydrogen chloride from a solid rocket exhaust cloud was investigated. Water drops were caused to fall through a confined exhaust cloud and then analyzed to determine the amount of HCl captured during fall. Bubblers were used to measure HCl concentration within the chamber. The measured chamber HCl concentration, together with the measured HCl deposition on the chamber walls, accounted for 81 to 94% of the theoretical HCl. It was found that the amount of HCl captured was approximately one-half of that predicted by the Frossling correlation. No effect of humidity was detected through a range of 69-98% R.H.. The scavenging of HCl from a solid rocket exhaust cloud was calculated using an idealized Kennedy Space Center rain cycle. Results indicate that this cycle would reduce the cloud HCl concentration to 20.6% if its value in the absence of rain.

  11. Hydrochloric Acid and the Chlorine Budget of the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C.; May, R.; Jaegle, L.; Hu, H.; Sander, S.; Gunson, M.; Toon, G.; Russell, J., III; Stimpfle, R.; Koplow, J.; Salawitch, R.; Michelsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of hc1 measured in the lower stratosphere in 1993 by the ALIAS instrument on the ER-2 aircraft reveal that only 40% of inorganic chlorine (CL sub y, inferred from in situ measurements of organic chlorinated source gases) is present as HC1, significantly lower than model predictions.

  12. Dissolution rates of carbonated hydroxyapatite in hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Hankermeyer, Christine R; Ohashi, Kevin L; Delaney, David C; Ross, John; Constantz, Brent R

    2002-02-01

    Osteoclasts have been shown to dissolve efficiently and effectively the mineral phase of bone by locally controlling the environment surrounding the cell. Although this mineral phase has been identified and well characterized as carbonated hydroxyapatite, there is little understanding of the factors that affect the dissolution properties of this mineral phase. Mimicking the mechanism by which osteoclasts dissolve the mineral phase of bone may provide insight into methods for the decalcification of atherosclerotic mineral deposits in the vascular system. Accordingly, a detailed characterization of the effects of various chemical and mechanical parameters on the dissolution of carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral was investigated in this study. Increases in the mineral dissolution rate (2-10 times) were associated with increases in dissolving solution [H+], osmolality, temperature, and flow rate. Mineral dissolution rate increases (5-8 times) were associated with greater surface area of the mineral and mechanical agitation of the dissolving solution. PMID:11771694

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-20 - Inorganic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., but in no case shall the design pressure be less than that indicated as follows: Fluorosilicic Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrochloric Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrofluorosilicic Acid... fluorosilicic acid in § 151.50-77, for hydrochloric acid in § 151.50-22, for hydrofluorosilicic acid,...

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-20 - Inorganic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., but in no case shall the design pressure be less than that indicated as follows: Fluorosilicic Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrochloric Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrofluorosilicic Acid... fluorosilicic acid in § 151.50-77, for hydrochloric acid in § 151.50-22, for hydrofluorosilicic acid,...

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-20 - Inorganic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., but in no case shall the design pressure be less than that indicated as follows: Fluorosilicic Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrochloric Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrofluorosilicic Acid... fluorosilicic acid in § 151.50-77, for hydrochloric acid in § 151.50-22, for hydrofluorosilicic acid,...

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-20 - Inorganic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., but in no case shall the design pressure be less than that indicated as follows: Fluorosilicic Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrochloric Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrofluorosilicic Acid... fluorosilicic acid in § 151.50-77, for hydrochloric acid in § 151.50-22, for hydrofluorosilicic acid,...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-20 - Inorganic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., but in no case shall the design pressure be less than that indicated as follows: Fluorosilicic Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrochloric Acid—50 pounds per square inch gauge. Hydrofluorosilicic Acid... fluorosilicic acid in § 151.50-77, for hydrochloric acid in § 151.50-22, for hydrofluorosilicic acid,...

  18. Dietary gamma-linolenic acid in the form of borage oil causes less body fat accumulation accompanying an increase in uncoupling protein 1 mRNA level in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Ide, T; Fujita, H

    2000-10-01

    Rats were fed a low-fat diet containing 2% safflower oil or 20% fat diets containing either safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, borage oil containing 25% gamma (gamma)-linolenic acid or enzymatically prepared gamma-linolenic acid enriched borage oil containing 47% gamma-linolenic acid for 14 days. Energy intake and growth of animals were the same among groups. A high safflower oil diet compared with a low-fat diet caused significant increases in both epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue weights. However, high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid failed to do so. Compared with a low-fat diet, all the high-fat diets increased mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 and lipoprotein lipase in brown adipose tissue. The extents of the increase were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. Various high-fat diets, compared with a low-fat diet, decreased glucose transporter 4 mRNA in white adipose tissue to the same levels. The amount and types of dietary fat did not affect the leptin mRNA level in epididymal white adipose tissue. However, a high safflower oil diet, but not high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid relative to a low-fat diet, increased perirenal white adipose tissue leptin mRNA levels. All high-fat diets, relative to a low-fat diet, increased the hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate and fatty acid oxidation enzyme mRNA abundances to the same levels. High-fat diets also increased these parameters in the peroxisomal pathway, and the increases were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. The physiological activity in increasing brown adipose tissue gene expression and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was similar between the two types of borage oil differing in gamma-linolenic acid content. It was suggested that dietary gamma-linolenic acid attenuates body fat accumulation through the increase in gene expressions of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue. An increase in hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid

  19. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  20. Dissolution of Olivine, Siderite, and Basalt at 80 Deg C in 0.1 M H2SO4 in a Flow Through Process: Insights into Acidic Weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Hausrath, E. M.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Ross, D. K.; Cooper, B. L.; Gonzalex, C. P.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of jarosite, other sulfates (e.g., Mg-and Ca-sulfates), and hematite along with silicic-lastic materials in outcrops of sedimentary materials at Meridiani Planum (MP) and detection of silica rich deposits in Gusev crater, Mars, are strong indicators of local acidic aqueous processes [1,2,3,4,5]. The formation of sediments at Meridiani Planum may have involved the evaporation of fluids derived from acid weathering of Martian basalts and subsequent diagenesis [6,7]. Also, our previous work on acid weathering of basaltic materials in a closed hydro-thermal system was focused on the mineralogy of the acid weathering products including the formation of jarosite and gray hematite spherules [8,9,10]. The object of this re-search is to extend our earlier qualitative work on acidic weathering of rocks to determine acidic dissolution rates of Mars analog basaltic materials at 80 C using a flow-thru reactor. We also characterized residual phases, including poorly crystalline or amorphous phases and precipitates, that remained after the treatments of olivine, siderite, and basalt which represent likely MP source rocks. This study is a stepping stone for a future simulation of the formation of MP rocks under a range of T and P.

  1. Vanishing of {1}/{m} corrections at threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, C. Glenn; Brahm, David E.

    1991-03-01

    Heavy-quark predictions for hadronic weak-decay transition amplitudes have O( {1}/{m}) corrections, but we show these always vanish at threshold. This follows from the nonrenormalization of the threshold effective currents at O( {1}/{m}) , and an application of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem. The result, which we call Luke's theorem, holds for initial and final particles consisting of a heavy quark or scalar and light degrees of freedom in an arbitrary spin state.

  2. Inhibition of the corrosion of steel in 1 M HCl by eugenol derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaieb, E.; Bouyanzer, A.; Hammouti, B.; Benkaddour, M.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of eugenol (Eug) and its derivative acetyleugenol (AcEug) extracted from the nail of giroflier on the corrosion of steel in molar hydrochloric acid has been studied using weight loss measurements, electrochemical polarisation and EIS methods. The naturally substances reduce the corrosion rate. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with acetyleugenol content to attain 91% at 0.1737 g/l. Eugenol compounds act as mixed type inhibitors. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behaviour of steel indicates that inhibition efficiency of the natural substance increases with the rise of temperature. The adsorption of natural product on the steel is found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  3. InsP6-Sensitive Variants of the Gle1 mRNA Export Factor Rescue Growth and Fertility Defects of the ipk1 Low-Phytic-Acid Mutation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Seok; Lee, Du-Hwa; Cho, Hui Kyung; Kim, Song Hee; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (InsP6), also known as phytic acid, accumulates in large quantities in plant seeds, serving as a phosphorus reservoir, but is an animal antinutrient and an important source of water pollution. Here, we report that Gle1 (GLFG lethal 1) in conjunction with InsP6 functions as an activator of the ATPase/RNA helicase LOS4 (low expression of osmotically responsive genes 4), which is involved in mRNA export in plants, supporting the Gle1-InsP6-Dbp5 (LOS4 homolog) paradigm proposed in yeast. Interestingly, plant Gle1 proteins have modifications in several key residues of the InsP6 binding pocket, which reduce the basicity of the surface charge. Arabidopsis thaliana Gle1 variants containing mutations that increase the basic charge of the InsP6 binding surface show increased sensitivity to InsP6 concentrations for the stimulation of LOS4 ATPase activity in vitro. Expression of the Gle1 variants with enhanced InsP6 sensitivity rescues the mRNA export defect of the ipk1 (inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase) InsP6-deficient mutant and, furthermore, significantly improves vegetative growth, seed yield, and seed performance of the mutant. These results suggest that Gle1 is an important factor responsible for mediating InsP6 functions in plant growth and reproduction and that Gle1 variants with increased InsP6 sensitivity may be useful for engineering high-yielding low-phytate crops. PMID:25670768

  4. Adsorption and corrosion inhibition effect of Schiff base molecules on the mild steel surface in 1 M HCl medium: a combined experimental and theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sourav Kr; Dutta, Alokdut; Ghosh, Pritam; Sukul, Dipankar; Banerjee, Priyabrata

    2015-02-28

    Corrosion inhibition performance of 2-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)phenol (L(1)), 2-(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)phenol (L(2)) and 2-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylideneamino)phenol (L(3)) on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel surface in a 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution is investigated by sophisticated analytical methods like potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and weight loss measurements. Polarization studies showed that all the compounds are mixed type (cathodic and anodic) inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency (η%) increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The inhibition actions of these Schiff base molecules are discussed in view of blocking the electrode surface by means of adsorption of the inhibitor molecule obeying the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the metal surfaces confirmed the existence of an adsorbed film. Density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation have been used to determine the relationship between molecular configuration and their inhibition efficiencies. The order of inhibition performance obtained from experimental results is successfully verified by DFT and MD simulation. PMID:25623363

  5. Recovery of Pd(II) from hydrochloric solution using polyallylamine hydrochloride-modified Escherichia coli biomass.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyeong; Won, Sung Wook; Mao, Juan; Kwak, In Seob; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2010-09-15

    A new type of biosorbent able to bind anionic metals was developed by cross-linking of waste biomass Escherichia coli with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH). The PAH-modified biomass was investigated for the removal and recovery of Pd(II), in the chloro-complex form, from aqueous solution. The performance of the PAH-modified biomass was evaluated in terms of the following parameters: the solution pH, contact time and initial metal concentration. In the pH edge experiments, the uptake of Pd(II) increased with increasing pH. Pd(II) biosorption proceeded rapidly in the first 10 min, with almost complete equilibrium being achieved within 60 min. Moreover, the isotherm data showed that the maximum uptakes of Pd(II) were 265.3mg/g at pH 3 and 212.9 mg/g at pH 2, respectively. After incineration of the Pd-loaded PAH-modified biomass, metallic palladium was recovered in the ash. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed that the palladium was recovered in two valency states: zero-valent and divalent palladium (as PdO). Therefore, we concluded that PAH-modified biomass is a useful and cost-effective biosorbent for the recovery of anionic precious metals as chloro-complex solutions containing hydrochloric acid produced from metal refining processes. PMID:20554390

  6. Rapid analysis of acid in etching and pickling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbina, V.P.; Chinokalov, V.Ya.

    1995-02-01

    A computational method for determining sulfuric and hydrochloric acids in two-component etching solutions has been proposed. The method makes use of linear relationships, assuming that the sum of free and bound acid in solution remains constant.

  7. A New Green Ionic Liquid-Based Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in Acidic Environments.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Ezzat, Abdel Rahman O

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the use of new hydrophobic ionic liquid derivatives, namely octadecylammonium tosylate (ODA-TS) and oleylammonium tosylate (OA-TS) for corrosion protection of steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Their chemical structures were determined from NMR analyses. The surface activity characteristics of the prepared ODA-TS and OA-TS were evaluated from conductance, surface tension and contact angle measurements. The data indicate the presence of a double bond in the chemical structure of OA-TS modified its surface activity parameters. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) analysis and contact angle measurements were utilized to investigate the corrosion protection performance of ODA-TS and OA-TS on steel in acidic solution. The OA-TS and ODA-TS compounds showed good protection performance in acidic chloride solution due to formation of an inhibitive film on the steel surface. PMID:26091073

  8. Nucleolin mediates microRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA deadenylation but increases translation of CSF-1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Baker, Terri; Laszlo, Csaba; Chambers, Setsuko K

    2013-06-01

    CSF-1 mRNA 3'UTR contains multiple unique motifs, including a common microRNA (miRNA) target in close proximity to a noncanonical G-quadruplex and AU-rich elements (AREs). Using a luciferase reporter system fused to CSF-1 mRNA 3'UTR, disruption of the miRNA target region, G-quadruplex, and AREs together dramatically increased reporter RNA levels, suggesting important roles for these cis-acting regulatory elements in the down-regulation of CSF-1 mRNA. We find that nucleolin, which binds both G-quadruplex and AREs, enhances deadenylation of CSF-1 mRNA, promoting CSF-1 mRNA decay, while having the capacity to increase translation of CSF-1 mRNA. Through interaction with the CSF-1 3'UTR miRNA common target, we find that miR-130a and miR-301a inhibit CSF-1 expression by enhancing mRNA decay. Silencing of nucleolin prevents the miRNA-directed mRNA decay, indicating a requirement for nucleolin in miRNA activity on CSF-1 mRNA. Downstream effects followed by miR-130a and miR-301a inhibition of directed cellular motility of ovarian cancer cells were found to be dependent on nucleolin. The paradoxical effects of nucleolin on miRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA deadenylation and on translational activation were explored further. The nucleolin protein contains four acidic stretches, four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and nine RGG repeats. All three domains in nucleolin regulate CSF-1 mRNA and protein levels. RRMs increase CSF-1 mRNA, whereas the acidic and RGG domains decrease CSF-1 protein levels. This suggests that nucleolin has the capacity to differentially regulate both CSF-1 RNA and protein levels. Our finding that nucleolin interacts with Ago2 indirectly via RNA and with poly(A)-binding protein C (PABPC) directly suggests a nucleolin-Ago2-PABPC complex formation on mRNA. This complex is in keeping with our suggestion that nucleolin may work with PABPC as a double-edged sword on both mRNA deadenylation and translational activation. Our findings underscore the complexity of

  9. Influence of heterocyclic anils on corrosion inhibition and hydrogen permeation through mild steel in acid chloride environments

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A. Khan, M.A.W.; Ajmal, M.; Muralidharan, S.; Iyer, S.V.

    1997-06-01

    The heterocyclic anils 2-salicylideneaminobenzothiazole (SABT), 2-salicylideneamino-6-methoxybenzothiazole (SAMEOBT) were investigated to evaluate their efficiency as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel (MS) in 1 M hydrochloric acid at concentrations from 100 ppm to 500 ppm and temperatures from 35 C to 60 C. SACLBT performed best, giving an inhibition efficiency as high as 98% even at a very low concentration and higher temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed inhibition was under cathodic control. These compounds reduced hydrogen permeation through MS in 1 M HCl solution. Adsorption on the MS surface followed Temkin`s adsorption isotherms. Surface analysis of the MS surface exposed with SACLBT proved adsorption of this compound on the surface occurred through interaction of lone pairs of nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine atoms with the metal surface.

  10. Chemical and structural properties of sweet potato starch treated with organic and inorganic acid.

    PubMed

    Babu, A Surendra; Parimalavalli, R; Jagannadham, K; Rao, J Sudhakara

    2015-09-01

    In the present study sweet potato starch was treated with hydrochloric acid or citric acid at 1 or 5 % concentration and its properties were investigated. Citric acid treatment resulted higher starch yield. Water holding capacity and water absorption index was increased with increased acid concentration. Emulsion properties improved at 5 % acid concentration. The DE value of acid-thinned sweet potato starches was ranged between 1.93 and 3.76 %. Hydrochloric acid treated starches displayed a higher fraction of amylose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study revealed that all the starches displayed C-type crystalline pattern with varied crystallinity. FT-IR spectra perceived a slight change in percentage intensity of C-H stretch of citric acid modified starches. Starch granules tended to appear less smooth than the native starch granules after acid treatment in Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) with granule size ranging between 8.00 and 8.90 μm. A drastic decrease in the pasting profile was noticed in hydrochloric acid (5 %) treated starch. While 5 % citric acid treated starch exhibited higher pasting profile. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) showed that peak and conclusion gelatinisation temperatures increased with increase in hydrochloric acid or citric acid concentration. Hence citric acid was found to mimic the hydrochloric acid with some variation which suggests that it may have promising scope in acid modification. PMID:26344988

  11. Electrocatalytic activities of cathode electrodes for water electrolysis using tetra-alkyl-ammonium-sulfonic acid ionic liquid as electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiegenbaum, Fernanda; de Souza, Michèle O.; Becker, Márcia R.; Martini, Emilse M. A.; de Souza, Roberto F.

    2015-04-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performed with platinum (Pt), nickel (Ni), stainless steel 304 (SS) or glassy carbon (GC) cathodes in 0.1 M 3-triethylammonium-propanesulfonic acid tetrafluoroborate (TEA-PS.BF4) solution is studied using quasi-potentiostatic and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The objective is to compare the catalytic effect on the cathode using different materials to obtain hydrogen by water electrolysis. Furthermore, the catalytic effect of the ionic liquid (IL) on the cathode compared with that of a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution with same pH value (0.8) is reported. A low activation energy (Ea) of 8.7 kJ mol-1 is found for the glassy carbon cathode. Tafel plots obtained with TEA-PS.BF4 IL suggest the formation of an electroactive layer of IL on the cathode, which may be responsible for the catalytically enhanced performance observed.

  12. Determination of the Efficiency of Mixed-Acid Digestions of Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta Vazquez, Alejandra I.; Gill, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-acid digestion is a method often used for the determination of elemental analysis of sediment samples. It is crucial that efficiency details associated with the digestion method be well understood on an element by element basis. Battelle’s Marine Sciences Laboratory Standard Operating Procedure for Sediment Mixed-Acid Digestions was modified to identify conditions which produce optimal recovery of elements. The parameters that were adjusted for testing were mass of sediment, mixed-acid volume, mixed-acid composition and digestion time. Digestion involves treatment of the sediment sample with mixed-acid mixtures at 135º C ± 10º in a Teflon® digestion bomb. Typical analytical methods include Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Initial experiments involved determining the optimal ratio of acid volume to mass of sediment. Experiments were designed to identify the point at which insufficient acid was used to effectively digest a given mass of sediment. When the mass of sediment was varied between 0.2 and 1.0 gram using a 4 mL aqua regia acid mixture (3 mL hydrochloric acid and 1 mL nitric acid), there was no effect on the recovery of the elements Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. The next experiments focused on a time study to resolve the shortest digestive time for optimal elemental recovery. Two masses of sediment were investigated, 0.25 and 0.7 g, again utilizing aqua regia digestion (4 mL). Maximum recovery was reached after 4 hours of digestion; additional digestion time released no or only minimal amounts of elements from the sediments. The final set of experiments was designed to identify optimal conditions for the total digestion of sediment using a mixture of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and boric acid. These experiments were designed to determine the optimal volume of hydrofluoric acid

  13. Method for the separation of acid from acid-laden vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.J.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method for the removal of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid from vapor laden with the acid. It comprises: contacting the acid-laden vapors with packing materials in a zone containing the packing materials wherein the packing materials are formed of polyester resin containing from about 5 to 40 weight percent aluminum sulfate crystals.

  14. Technical Reliability Assessment of the Actigraph GT1M Accelerometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Mota, Jorge; Esliger, Dale; Welk, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the Actigraph GT1M (Pensacola, FL, USA) accelerometer activity count and step functions. Fifty GT1M accelerometers were initialized to collect simultaneous acceleration counts and steps data using 15-sec epochs. All reliability testing was completed using a mechanical shaker plate to…

  15. IMPROVEMENTS IN THE METHODOLOGY FOR MEASURING HYDROCHLORIC ACID IN COMBUSTION SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine the interaction of gaseous HCl with glass and quartz media and with particles from coal-fired and incinerator boilers. Also, some source sampling results obtained by different methods at cement production plants, oil-fired boilers, and ...

  16. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Because alcohols are miscible or highly soluble in water, alcohols are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for analysis....

  17. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES PRESERVED WITIH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as TBA. Because alcohols tend to stay with the water samples, they are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for separation and analysis. A common tec...

  18. The Effects of Thermal Pretreatment on Leaching of Yunnan Ilmenite with Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song-Li; Xiang, Jun-Yi

    2016-04-01

    The effects of thermal pretreatment on the leaching of Yunnan ilmenite ores were investigated from two aspects: the dissolution of iron and titanium, and the proportion of fine precipitations. The results indicate that high-temperature reduction or oxidization produces phase and structure transformations on ilmenite that facilitate the dissolution of iron, reduce the dissolution of titanium, and facilitate the hydrolysis of dissolved titanium. The results further indicate that oxidation at temperatures ranging from 1023 K (750 °C) to 1273 K (1000 °C) can significantly decrease the proportion of fine products. It is believed that the structure of oxidized ilmenite played an important role in minimizing the proportion of fine materials.

  19. Feasibility study of the application of existing techniques to remotely monitor hydrochloric acid in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwick, H.; Ward, V.; Beaudette, L.

    1973-01-01

    A critical evaluation of existing optical remote sensors for HCl vapor detection in solid propellant rocket plumes is presented. The P branch of the fundamental vibration-rotation band was selected as the most promising spectral feature to sense. A computation of transmittance for HCl vapor, an estimation of interferent spectra, the application of these spectra to computer modelled remote sensors, and a trade-off study for instrument recommendation are also included.

  20. ON THE USE OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FOR DETERMINING SOLID-PHASE ARSENIC PARTITIONING IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in assessing the current impact of the discharge of arsenic contaminated ground water into a surface water body is differentiating the arsenic ground water flux versus dissolution of in-place contaminated sediments. Results from a field study at a Superfund...

  1. Temperature and collision energy effects on dissociation of hydrochloric acid on water surfaces.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Lauri; Murdachaew, Garold; Gerber, R Benny; Halonen, Lauri

    2016-05-21

    Collisions of HCl at the air-water interface modelled by a 72 molecule water slab are studied for a range of various impact energies and temperatures using ab initio molecular dynamics with density functional theory. A range of short-timescale events can follow the collision, from direct scattering to nondissociative trapping on the surface. In most cases, HCl dissociation occurs within a few picoseconds, followed by the formation of a solvent-separated ion pair, or rarely, the reformation of HCl. With increasing impact energy and/or system temperature, dissociation occurs more rapidly, with Cl(-) tending to diffuse deeper into the slab. At temperatures corresponding to the frozen water regime, dissociation is seen only once out of the five thermal collisions, but with the addition of a total of 4kT or more of kinetic energy to HCl, it occurs in all our trajectories within a few ps. PMID:27126973

  2. Anion-exchange separation of Pt and Pd using perchloric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrie, R.K.; Morgan, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    On Biorad Ag-1X8 anion-exchange resin (200-400 mesh), Pd and Pt may be separated from one another by elution with 0.2M HClO4, and 5M HClO4, respectively. If present, Au may be retained by making the elutriants 0.003M in HCl. Alternatively, reduction by H2SO3 enables elution of Pt2+ with 6M HCl before recovery of Pd2+ with 0.2M HClO4??Ir4+ is reduced to Ir3+ by H2SO3 and may be eluted ahead of Pt2+ by 2M HCl. ?? 1982 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  3. Thermosplitting of hydrochloric acid for hydrogen production with cerium dioxide as the recycle reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Onstott, E.I. )

    1994-12-22

    CeO[sub 2] (solid) reacted with pressurized HCl(g) at 475-625 K to yield CeOCl(solid), Cl[sub 2](g), and H[sub 2]O(g). The solids surface was flooded with HCl(g), and the reaction rate was linear. Normalized gas quotients were calculated for an extent of reaction of 0.212 to yield values within the limits of 0.279 167-0.279 314. Enthalpy changes from second law calculations were [minus]9.43 to [minus]6.60 J mol[sup [minus]1] of Cl[sub 2], and entropy changes were [minus]10.624 to [minus]10.618 J K[sup [minus]1] mol[sup [minus]1]. CeOCl was hydrolyzed at 1050-1270 K to yield H[sub 2](g) and HCl(g). Data normalized for 1 atm total pressure conformed to the conventional plot of log(gas quotient) vs 1/T. H[sub 2] production rates and enthalpy changes varied with input rate of H[sub 2]O(g). At 1270 K the mol fraction of H[sub 2] in the output gas was highest at 0.069 with an enthalpy change of 206.20 kJ mol[sup [minus]1] and an entropy change of 110.64 J K[sup [minus]1] mol[sup [minus]1]. The chemical work of producing H[sub 2] decreased with increasing T and extrapolated to zero at about 1865 K. At this T, two of three H[sub 2]O(g) molecules would be converted to H[sub 2](g). All of the [delta]H requirement would be T[delta]S. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Separation of calcium-48 isotope by crown ether chromatography using ethanol/hydrochloric acid mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Shin; Umehara, Saori; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Masao; Kaneshiki, Toshitaka; Ozawa, Masaki; Kishimoto, Tadafumi

    2015-10-01

    Benzo-18-crown-6 ether resin embedded in porous silica beads was synthesized and used as the packing material for chromatographic separation of (48)Ca isotope. The aim of the present work is to develop efficient isotope enrichment process for double β decay nuclide (48)Ca. To this end, ethanol/HCl mixed solvent was selected as the medium for the chromatographic separation. Adsorption of calcium on the resin was studied at different HCl concentrations and different ethanol mixing ratios in batch-wise experiments. A very interesting phenomenon was observed; Ca adsorption is controlled not by the overall HCl concentration of the mixed solvent, but by the initial concentration of added HCl solution. Calcium break-through chromatography experiments were conducted by using 75v/v% ethanol/25v/v% 8M HCl mixed solvent at different flow rates. The isotope separation coefficient between (48)Ca and (40)Ca was determined as 3.8×10(-3), which is larger than that of pure HCl solution system. Discussion is extended to the chromatographic HETP, height equivalent to a theoretical plate. PMID:26358563

  5. High School Forum: "Invitations to Enquiry": The Calcite/Acid Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.; Driscoll, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry experiment which involves the reaction between calcite and hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. This reaction can be carried out as a projected demonstration and on an individual basis. (HM)

  6. Steel--Project Fact Sheet: Recycling Acid and Metal Salts from Pickling Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.; Recca, L.

    1999-01-14

    Regenerating hydrochloric acids from metal finishing pickling baths reduces costs, wastes, and produces a valuable by-product--ferrous sulfate. Order your copy of this OIT project fact sheet and learn more about how your company can benefit.

  7. A Two-Photon E1-M1 Optical Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alden, Emily A.

    Innovations in precision frequency measurement advance popular technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS), permit the testing of fundamental physics constants, and have the potential to measure local variations in gravity. Driving optical transitions for frequency measurement using an E1-M1 excitation scheme in a hot mercury (Hg) vapor cell is viable and could be the basis of a portable optical frequency standard with comparable accuracy to the most precise atomic clocks in the world. This dissertation explores the fundamental physics of the new E1-M1 method of high-precision frequency measurement in an optical, atomic clock and describes the construction of a high-power E1-M1 clock laser. The value of this new scheme compared to existing optical frequency standards is the simplicity and portability of the experimental setup. Such an optical frequency standard would permit frequency measurement in far-flung locations on earth and in space. Analysis of both the E1-M1 optical transition and thermal properties of the candidate clock atoms are presented. These models allow a stability estimate of an E1-M1 optical clock and recommend experimental settings to optimize the standard. The experimental work that has been performed in pursuit of observing the E1-M1 clock transition in Hg is also discussed. An optical clock operates by making a precision frequency measurement of a laser that has been brought into resonance with a clock atom's oscillator: a high quality atomic level transition. Group II type atoms, such as Hg, have the 1S0-3P0 transition that is an ideal basis for a clock. The E1-M1 excitation is performed by driving the two-photon allowed transition 1S0-3P1-3P0. This is in contrast to the single-photon E1 transition used in other systems. Single-photon schemes must use ultracold atoms to reduce atomic motion to attain high levels of accuracy. Driving the clock transition with a pair of degenerate counter-propagating photons in an E1-M1 scheme

  8. Characteristic of a novel composite inorganic polymer coagulant-PFAC prepared by hydrochloric pickle liquor.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wei; Qiu, Huiqin; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Yanjing; Yang, Kailiang; Liu, Zhongzhe; Ding, Guoji

    2009-02-15

    A composite inorganic polymer coagulant, polyferric aluminum chloride (PFAC) was prepared by using hydrochloric pickle liquor and calcium aluminate as main materials. The optimum conditions for preparing PFAC with the hydrochloric pickle liquor and the calcium aluminate were studied. The coagulation performance of PFAC was investigated by studying the turbidity, COD, total phosphate (TP) and NH(3)-N removal efficiency in municipal sewage treatment. Results indicated that the effective composition, basicity (simplified as B, B=[OH]/(3[Fe(T)+Al(T)])x100%), coagulation performance and stability of PFAC were affected by calcium aluminate dosage, reaction time, reaction temperature and stabilizing agents. The COD and turbidity removal efficiency of PFAC was better than that of PFS and FeCl(3), and the TP and NH(3)-N removal efficiency of PFAC was much better than that of PFS, FeCl(3) and PAC. PFAC not only possessed a good coagulation performance, but also had good stability when stored. PMID:18579291

  9. Recovery of acids and sodium hydroxide from solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride with the use of bipolar membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrinskaya, G.A.; Pavlova, T.V.; Shatalov, A.Ya.

    1985-09-01

    The authors examined the kinetic laws governing the electrodialysis recovery of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, as well as sodium hydroxide, from 1M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulfate solutions and from a mixture of these salts with the use of the MB-1, MB-2, and MB-3 bipolar membranes. Kinetic plots of the current density and the concentration of the acid and the base in the chambers next to the bipolar membranes during the electrodialysis treatment of 1M sodium chloride, 0.5 M sodium sulfate, and solutions are presented. It was established that it is better to use the MB-3 membrane for the electrodialysis conversion of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate into acids and sodium hydroxide owing to the high rate and current efficiency and low expenditure of electrical energy and degree of contamination of the products obtained by the salts. It was also established that the resistance of the MB-1 and MB-2 bipolar membranes is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the MB-3 membrane.

  10. Recovery of uranium from acid media by macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Rao, P.R.V.; Nandy, K.K.

    1996-11-01

    The extraction of uranium from various acid media such as nitric acid, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and perchloric acid by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA) has been studied. The distribution coefficients for the extraction of uranium by the MPBPA resin are compared with the corresponding values reported in literature for the conventional sulphonic acid resin. The results clearly indicate the suitability of the MPBPA resin to recover uranium from different types of acid solutions of widely ranging acidities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Wheat gluten amino acid composition analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Ine; Lamberts, Lieve; Celus, Inge; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-07-17

    A simple accurate method for determining amino acid composition of wheat gluten proteins and their gliadin and glutenin fractions using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection is described. In contrast to most conventional methods, the analysis requires neither pre- or post-column derivatization, nor oxidation of the sample. It consists of hydrolysis (6.0M hydrochloric acid solution at 110 degrees C for 24h), evaporation of hydrolyzates (110 degrees C), and chromatographic separation of the liberated amino acids. Correction factors (f) accounted for incomplete cleavage of peptide bonds involving Val (f=1.07) and Ile (f=1.13) after hydrolysis for 24h and for Ser (f=1.32) losses during evaporation. Gradient conditions including an extra eluent (0.1M acetic acid solution) allowed multiple sequential sample analyses without risk of Glu contamination on the anion-exchange column. While gluten amino acid compositions by the present method were mostly comparable to those obtained by a conventional method involving oxidation, acid hydrolysis and post-column ninhydrin derivatization, the latter method underestimated Tyr, Val and Ile levels. Results for the other amino acids obtained by the different methods were linearly correlated (r>0.99, slope=1.03). PMID:19523641

  12. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid with out specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-522). ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  13. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  14. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid with out specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-ENG). ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  15. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid with out specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-522). ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  16. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  17. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid without specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-ENG). ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  19. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  20. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid with out specific authorization from the Commandant (CG-ENG). ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or...

  1. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pickling subcategory. 420.90 Section 420.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Pickling Subcategory § 420.90 Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory. The provisions... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid...

  2. Double passing the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Hubbard, R.; Brault, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple technique for performing the conversion of the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer's dual input/output optical configuration to a double pass configuration that improves spectral resolution by a factor of 2. The modification is made by placing a flat mirror in the output beam from each cat's eye, retroreflecting the beams back through the cat's eyes to the first beam splitter. A single detector is placed at the second input port, which then becomes the instrument's output.

  3. Note: A 1-m Foucault pendulum rolling on a ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva, H. R.; Benavides, R. E.; Venturino, J. A.; Cuscueta, D. J.; Ghilarducci, A. A.

    2013-10-01

    We have built a short Foucault pendulum of 1-m length. The aim of this work was to increase the sensitivity to elliptical trajectories from other longer pendula. The design was a semi-rigid pendulum that rolls over a small ball. The measurements of the movements (azimuth and elliptical trajectory) were done by an optical method. The resulting pendulum works in a medium satisfactory way due to problems of the correct choice of the mass of the bob together with the diameter of the supporting ball. It is also important to keep the rolling surface very clean.

  4. Dissolving Carboxylic Acids and Primary Amines on the Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid carboxylic acids (or primary amines) with limited solubility in water are dissolved by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (or hydrochloric acid) on the stage of an overhead projector using simple glassware and very small quantities of chemicals. This effective and colorful demonstration can be used to accompany discussions of the…

  5. Coal desulfurization in oxidative acid media using hydrogen peroxide and ozone: a kinetic and statistical approach

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Carrillo-Pedroza; A. Davalos Sanchez; M. Soria-Aguilar; E.T. Pecina Trevino

    2009-07-15

    The removal of pyritic sulfur from a Mexican sub-bituminous coal in nitric, sulfuric, and hydrochloric acid solutions was investigated. The effect of the type and concentration of acid, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and ozone as oxidants, in a temperature range of 20-60{sup o}C, was studied. The relevant factors in pyrite dissolution were determined by means of the statistical analysis of variance and optimized by the response surface method. Kinetic models were also evaluated, showing that the dissolution of pyritic sulfur follows the kinetic model of the shrinking core model, with diffusion through the solid product of the reaction as the controlling stage. The results of statistical analysis indicate that the use of ozone as an oxidant improves the pyrite dissolution because, at 0.25 M HNO{sub 3} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 20{sup o}C and 0.33 g/h O{sub 3}, the obtained dissolution is similar to that of 1 M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 1 M HNO{sub 3} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 40{sup o}C. 42 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Berberine as a natural source inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M H 2SO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Peng; Liang, Qiang; Hou, Baorong

    2005-12-01

    Berberine was abstracted from coptis chinensis and its inhibition efficiency on corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H 2SO 4 was investigated through weight loss experiment, electrochemical techniques and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) with energy disperse spectrometer (EDS). The weight loss results showed that berberine is an excellent corrosion inhibitor for mild steel immersed in 1 M H 2SO 4. Potentiodynamic curves suggested that berberine suppressed both cathodic and anodic processes for its concentrations higher than 1.0 × 10 -4 M and mainly cathodic reaction was suppressed for lower concentrations. The Nyquist diagrams of impedance for mild steel in 1 M H 2SO 4 containing berberine with different concentrations showed one capacitive loop, and the polarization resistance increased with the inhibitor concentration rising. A good fit to Flory-Huggins isotherm was obtained between surface coverage degree and inhibitor concentration. The surface morphology and EDS analysis for mild steel specimens in sulfuric acid in the absence and presence of the inhibitor also proved the results obtained by the weight loss and electrochemical experiments. The correlation of inhibition effect and molecular structure of berberine was then discussed by quantum chemistry study.

  7. Anodic dissolution of nickel in acidic chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Aal, E. E. Abd; Zakria, W.; Diab, A.; El Haleem, S. M. Abd

    2003-04-01

    The anodic dissolution of nickel was studied galvanostatically in hydrochloric acid solutions of various concentrations. The reaction orders of chloride ion and hydrogen ion concentrations were found to be 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. An anodic Tafel slope equal to 120 ± 10 mV · decade-1 was obtained. The dissolution rate of nickel at constant acid concentration was increased with stirring of the solution and increasing temperature. The activation energy, ΔH, for the anodic dissolution process was found to be 12 kcal · mol-1. The presence of oxygen in solutions assisted the passivation process. The effect of addition of aniline and some of its derivatives (o-, m-, and p-anisidine) as inhibitors on the dissolution kinetics of Ni in 1 M HCl was also investigated. These compounds inhibited the anodic dissolution of nickel without affecting the Tafel slope, indicating that the adsorption of such inhibitors could not interfere with the mechanism of metal dissolution.

  8. High Density Experiments in the HL-1M Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Long-wen; Yao, Liang-hua; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yong; Wang, En-yao; HL-1M Team

    2000-10-01

    The plasma performance of high density has been investigated in the HL-1M Tokamak. Different density limits are given for three fueling methods i.e. gas puffing, pellet injection and molecular beam injection (MBI). The maximum Murakami constant is CM = 3.4 × 1019 m-2T-1 for Ohmic discharge. A maximum line-averaged density of 8.2 × 1019 m-3 has been achieved for Ohmic discharge at qa = 4.4. A 1.4 times of the Greenwald limit is obtained at Ip = 120 kA. The rising rates and peak factors of density are discussed. The plasma confinement of high density is analyzed, including the behavior of density limit disruption.

  9. Characterization of an in-vacuum PILATUS 1M detector.

    PubMed

    Wernecke, Jan; Gollwitzer, Christian; Müller, Peter; Krumrey, Michael

    2014-05-01

    A dedicated in-vacuum X-ray detector based on the hybrid pixel PILATUS 1M detector has been installed at the four-crystal monochromator beamline of the PTB at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin, Germany. Owing to its windowless operation, the detector can be used in the entire photon energy range of the beamline from 10 keV down to 1.75 keV for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments and anomalous SAXS at absorption edges of light elements. The radiometric and geometric properties of the detector such as quantum efficiency, pixel pitch and module alignment have been determined with low uncertainties. The first grazing-incidence SAXS results demonstrate the superior resolution in momentum transfer achievable at low photon energies. PMID:24763642

  10. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6. PMID:24303959

  11. Ion exchange equilibria in simultaneous extraction of platinum(II, IV) and rhodium(III) from hydrochloric solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikov, A. M.; Kononova, O. N.; Pavlenko, N. I.; Krylov, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Regularities of sorption extraction of platinum(II, IV) and rhodium(III) by anion exchangers of various physical and chemical structure in the presence of hydrochloric media were studied. It is established that AM-2B, Purolite A 500, and Purolite S 985 ionites adsorb complex anions of platinum metals employing mixed mechanism. A high affinity of the studied anionites for the studied complex anions of platinum and rhodium is established.

  12. Alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds used as novel eco-friendly inhibitor for carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution: Electrochemical and surface studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hamdani, Naoual; Fdil, Rabiaa; Tourabi, Mustapha; Jama, Charafeddine; Bentiss, Fouad

    2015-12-01

    Current research efforts now focus on the development of non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors as alternatives to different organic and non-organic compounds. In this field, alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds (AERS) was tested for the first time as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. The obtained results showed that this plant extract's acts as an efficient corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl and an inhibition efficiency of 94.4% was reached with 400 mg/L of AERS at 30 °C. Ac impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Impedance results demonstrated that the addition of the AERS in the corrosive solution decreases the charge capacitance and simultaneously increases the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Polarization curves indicated that AERS is a mixed inhibitor. Adsorption of such alkaloid extract on the steel surface obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the inhibition of steel corrosion in normal hydrochloric solution by AERS is mainly controlled by a physisorption process and the inhibitive layer is composed of an iron oxide/hydroxide mixture where AERS molecules are incorporated.

  13. Design Concept for the Retrofit KAO 1m Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Won-Yong; Mack, Peter; Park, Jang-Hyun; Jin, Ho; Lee, Woo-Baik; Lee, Chung-Uk

    2000-12-01

    Korea Astronomy Observatory (KAO) is working to retrofit its 1m robotic telescope in collaboration with a company (ACE, Astronomical Consultants & Equipment). The telescope system is being totally refurbished to make a fully automatic telescope which can operate in both interactive and fully autonomous robotic modes. Progress has been made in design and manufacturing of the telescope mount, mechanics, and optical performance system tests are being made for re-configured primary and secondary mirrors. The optical system is designed to collect 80% incident light within 0.5 arcsec with f/7.5 Ritchey-Chretien design. The telescope mount is an equatorial fork with a friction drive system. The design allows fully programmable tracking speeds with typical range of 15 arcsec/sec with accuracy of +/-5 arcsec/hour. The mount system has integral pointing model software to correct for refraction, and all mechanical errors and misalignments. The pointing model will permit positioning to better than 30 arcsec RMS within 75o from zenith and 45 arcsec RMS elsewhere on the sky. The software is designed for interactive, remote and robotic modes of operation. In interactive and remote mode the user can manually enter coordinates or retrieve them from a computer file. In robotic mode the telescope controller downloads the coordinates in the order determined by the scheduler. The telescope will be equipped with a CCD camera and will be accessible via the internet.

  14. Development of a 1-m Robotic Telescope System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wonyong; Mack, Peter; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Jang-Hyun; Jin, Ho; Kim, Seung-Lee; Kim, Ho-Il; Yuk, In-Soo; Lee, Woo-Baik; Bradstreet, Matthew

    2005-10-01

    Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute (KASI) has installed a 1-m robotic telescope at Mt. Lemmon, AZ, in collaboration with a company, Astronomical Consultants & Equipment, Inc (ACE). The telescope system is totally designed to make fully robotic observations, and can be operated in both interactive and unattended robotic modes. The telescope is newly designed and manufactured regarding both mechanical and optical parts. The optical system is designed to collect 80% of the incident light within 0.''5 with an f/7.5 Ritchey-Chretien design. The telescope mount is an equatorial fork with a friction drive system, and it allows fully programmable tracking speeds with a typical range of 15'' s-1 and an accuracy of ±5''hr-1. The mount system includes an integral pointing model to correct for mechanical errors and misalignments, and an auto-guide unit is also available. To gather environmental information a weather station and an all sky camera are installed at the site. In this paper we introduce the system design and the performance of the mechanical and optical quality of the telescope system based on the results of test observations using some variable stars.

  15. Alternative Forms of Y-Box Binding Protein 1 and YB-1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Lyabin, Dmitry N.; Doronin, Alexander N.; Eliseeva, Irina A.; Guens, Gelena P.; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Ovchinnikov, Lev P.

    2014-01-01

    The multifunctional eukaryotic protein YB-1 (Y-box binding protein 1) plays a role in DNA reparation, transcription regulation, splicing, and mRNA translation, thereby participating in many crucial events in cells. Its effect is dependent mostly on its amount, and hence, on regulation of its synthesis. Published data on regulation of synthesis of YB-1 mediated by its mRNA 5′ UTR, and specifically on the 5′ UTR length and the presence of TOP-like motifs in this region, are contradictory. Here we report that 5′ UTRs of major forms of human, rabbit, and mouse YB-1 mRNAs are about 140 nucleotides long and contain no TOP-like motifs mentioned in the literature. Also, we have found that YB-1 specifically interacts with the 5′ UTR of its own mRNA within a region of about 100 nucleotides upstream from the start codon. Apart from YB-1, translation of YB-1 mRNA in a cell free system gives an additional product with an extended N-terminus and lower electrophoretic mobility. The start codon for synthesis of the additional product is AUC at position –(60–58) of the same open reading frame as that for the major product. Also, in the cell there is an alternative YB-1 mRNA with exon 1 replaced by a part of intron 1; YB-1 synthesized in vitro from this mRNA contains, instead of its N-terminal A/P domain, 10–11 amino acids encoded by intron 1. PMID:25116735

  16. Influence of acid precursors on physicochemical properties of nanosized titania synthesized by thermal-hydrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, B.; Sasirekha, N.R.; Chen, Y.-W.

    2008-03-04

    The influence of nature and concentration of acid species on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of titania particles synthesized by direct thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was investigated. The acids used were hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid with a concentration of 3 M. Thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in hydrochloric acid and perchloric acid with molar ratios of [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, respectively, was used to study the effect of acid concentration. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization of the samples by X-ray diffraction studies revealed the influence of acid species on the phase transformation of titania. Samples prepared by hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and perchloric acid formed rutile phase with rhombus primary particles, while sulfuric acid resulted in anatase phase with flake-shaped primary particles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results confirmed the nanosized titania particles and the agglomeration of primary particles to form secondary particles in spherical shape. The particle size of titania prepared using perchloric acid was smaller than those prepared with other acid sources. A direct correlation between [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] ratio and particle size of titania was observed.

  17. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  18. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  19. Corrosion phenomena on alloy 625 in aqueous solutions containing hydrochloric acid and oxygen under subcritical and supercritical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Boukis, N.; Kritzer, P.

    1997-08-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is a very effective process to destroy hazardous aqueous wastes containing organic contaminants. The main target applications in the USA are the destruction of DOD and DOE wastes such as rocket fuels and explosives, warfare agents and organics present in low level radioactive liquid wastes. Alloy 625 is frequently used as reactor material for Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) applications. This is due to the favorable combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, price and availability. Nevertheless, the corrosion of alloy 625 like the corrosion of other Ni-base alloys during oxidation of hazardous organic waste containing chloride proceeds too fast and is a major problem in SCWO applications. In these experiments high pressure, high-temperature resistant tube reactors made of alloy 625 were used as specimens. They were exposed to SCWO conditions, without organics, at temperatures up to 500 C and pressures up to 37 MPa for up to 150 h. Simultaneously, coupons also made from alloy 625 are exposed inside the test tubes. The most important corrosion problem for alloy 625 is pitting and intercrystalline corrosion at temperatures near the critical temperature, i.e. in the preheater and cooling sections of the test tubes. Under certain conditions, stress corrosion cracking appears and leads to premature failure of the test reactors. The corrosion products were insoluble in supercritical water and formed thick layers in the supercritical part of the reactor. Under these layers only minor corrosion occurred. 33 refs.

  20. [Changes in the ultrastructure of the stomach mucous membrane parietal cells caused by inhibitors of hydrochloric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Dondukova, G V; Morozov, I A

    2002-01-01

    The study of the action of phamotidine and omeprazol on the stomach parietal cells in patients with duodenal ulcer has shown that phamotidin results in changes of secretory membrane of the parietal cells increasing its secretory potential while omeprazol reduces energetic metabolism of the lining cell by the impact on its mitochondrial apparatus. Both in children and adults with duodenal ulcer more developed mitochondrial cell activity was found after omeprazol treatment. PMID:15338718

  1. Studies on Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibitive Properties of Indoline Compounds on N80 Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M.; Sarkar, T. K.; Purkait, Taniya

    2015-12-01

    Corrosion inhibition performance of synthesized indoline compounds, namely, 3'-(4-(1-acetyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenyl)spiro[indoline-3,2'-thiazolidine]-2,4'-dione (MPIT ) and 1-(4-(1-acetyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenyl)spiro[imidazolidine-2,3'-indoline]-2',5-dione (MPII) on N80 steel in 15% HCl solution was studied using weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Polarization studies showed that both studied inhibitors were of mixed type in nature. The adsorption of inhibitors on the N80 steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The potential of zero charge ( E PZC) for the N80 steel was determined by EIS method. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology of uninhibited and inhibited N80 steel specimens. The density functional theory was employed for theoretical calculations.

  2. Evaporation Behavior of Phosphorus from Metallurgical Grade Silicon via Calcium-Based Slag Treatment and Hydrochloric Acid Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liuqing; Lai, Huixian; Lu, Chenghao; Fang, Ming; Ma, Wenhui; Xing, Pengfei; Luo, Xuetao; Li, Jintang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus removal from metallurgical grade silicon by CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 slag treatment, HCl leaching, and vacuum refining was investigated. The effect of different compositions of slag was evaluated. The calcium concentration in slag-treated silicon increased with increasing CaO/SiO2 mass ratio of slag, decreasing the evaporation efficiency of phosphorus in molten silicon. The total phosphorus removal efficiency changed from 93.0% to 98.3% when the slag-treated silicon was treated with HCl before vacuum refining. The final concentration of phosphorus in silicon was 0.43 ppmw. This is because phosphorus was removed from metallurgical-grade silicon as follows: Phosphorus reacts with slag at the silicon/slag interface and forms Ca3(PO4)2 and Ca3P2, most of which diffuse from the interface to the slag phase. The remaining Ca3(PO4)2 and Ca3P2 reduce the phosphorus removal efficiency by altering the activity coefficient of phosphorus in molten silicon. HCl leaching enhanced the phosphorus removal efficiency by removing the remaining Ca3(PO4)2 and Ca3P2. Therefore, the mass transfer of phosphorus from metallurgical-grade silicon was accelerated.

  3. Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid media for recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Paiva, A P; Oliveira, P C; Costa, M C; da Costa, A M Rosa

    2014-08-15

    The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu(2+) concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80 °C, t = 4h, [HCl] = 6M, [Cu(2+)] = 0.3M). PMID:24953939

  4. Forensic applications of sodium rhodizonate and hydrochloric acid: a new histological technique for detection of gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Andreola, Salvatore; Gentile, Guendalina; Battistini, Alessio; Cattaneo, Cristina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2011-05-01

    Demonstration of the presence of lead residues deriving from gunshot in skin and underlying tissues is essential for the correct forensic analysis of numerous legal cases. Optical microscopy remains the fastest, cheapest diagnostic technique, even though its sensitivity and specificity are poor because of the scarce quantity of histological tissue that can be examined and possible environmental lead pollution. To confirm the presence of lead from gunshot residues, we applied to histological sections of human skin a technique proposed by Owens and George in 1991 for macroscopic detection of lead on the clothing of shooting victims, involving a reaction with sodium rhodizonate and subsequent confirmation by color change on application of HCl. Our results demonstrate the technical possibility of using this macroscopic technique even on histological samples and support the need for further studies on a larger series of cases correlated with the type of ammunition and firing distance. PMID:21521219

  5. Catalytic destruction of perchlorate in ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid solution with control of temperature, pressure and chemical reagents

    DOEpatents

    Gu, Baohua; Cole, David R.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2004-10-05

    A method is described to decompose perchlorate in a FeCl.sub.3 /HCl aqueous solution such as would be used to regenerate an anion exchange resin used to remove perchlorate. The solution is mixed with a reducing agent, preferably an organic alcohol and/or ferrous chloride, and can be heated to accelerate the decomposition of perchlorate. Lower temperatures may be employed if a catalyst is added.

  6. [Influence of cryotherapy in the inhibition of collagenase activity in experimental corneal burns by hydrochloric acid. Doctoral thesis summary].

    PubMed

    Zalewski, S

    1994-12-01

    Investigations were carried-out on corneas of rabbit eyes burned with 1N HCl and then treated with low temperature. It was found that cryotherapy has advantageous influence on collagenase activity. In early period after burn cryotherapy could prevent collagenolysis and later inhibited collagenase activity. PMID:7715156

  7. Incorporation of stratospheric acids into water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Scott; Turco, Richard P.; Toon, Owen B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are absorbed within the water ice lattice at mole fractions maximizing below 0.00001 and 0.0001 in a variety of solid impurity studies. The absorption mechanism may be substitutional or interstitial, leading in either case to a weak permeation of stratospheric ices by the acids at equilibrium. Impurities could also inhabit grain boundaries, and the acid content of atmospheric ice crystals will then depend on details of their surface and internal microstructures. Limited evidence indicates similar properties for the absorption of HNO3. Water ice lattices saturated with acid cannot be a significant local reservoir for HCl in the polar stratosphere.

  8. Human Anti-Oxidation Protein A1M--A Potential Kidney Protection Agent in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahlstedt, Jonas; Tran, Thuy A; Strand, Sven-Erik; Gram, Magnus; Åkerström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been in clinical use for 15 years to treat metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT is limited by reabsorption and retention of the administered radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the proximal tubule. Consequently, it is essential to develop and employ methods to protect the kidneys during PRRT. Today, infusion of positively charged amino acids is the standard method of kidney protection. Other methods, such as administration of amifostine, are still under evaluation and show promising results. α₁-microglobulin (A1M) is a reductase and radical scavenging protein ubiquitously present in plasma and extravascular tissue. Human A1M has antioxidation properties and has been shown to prevent radiation-induced in vitro cell damage and protect non-irradiated surrounding cells. It has recently been shown in mice that exogenously infused A1M and the somatostatin analogue octreotide are co-localized in proximal tubules of the kidney after intravenous infusion. In this review we describe the current situation of kidney protection during PRRT, discuss the necessity and implications of more precise dosimetry and present A1M as a new, potential candidate for renal protection during PRRT and related targeted radionuclide therapies. PMID:26694383

  9. Formation of Linear Polyenes in Thermal Dehydration of Polyvinyl Alcohol, Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain linear polyenes in polyvinyl alcohol films via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of the polyvinyl alcohol, we used phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst: a safe and heat-stable solid chemical compound. We established that phosphotungstic acid, introduced as solid nanoparticles into polyvinyl alcohol films, is a more effective dehydration catalyst than hydrochloric acid, since in contrast to HCl it does not evaporate from the film during heat treatment.

  10. High Degree of HIV-1 Group M (HIV-1M) Genetic Diversity within Circulating Recombinant Forms: Insight into the Early Events of HIV-1M Evolution.

    PubMed

    Tongo, Marcel; Dorfman, Jeffrey R; Martin, Darren P

    2016-03-01

    The existence of various highly divergent HIV-1 lineages and of recombination-derived sequence tracts of indeterminate origin within established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) strongly suggests that HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) diversity is not fully represented under the current classification system. Here we used a fully exploratory screen for recombination on a set of 480 near-full-length genomes representing the full known diversity of HIV-1M. We decomposed recombinant sequences into their constituent parts and then used maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses of this mostly recombination-free data set to identify rare divergent sequence lineages that fall outside the major named HIV-1M taxonomic groupings. We found that many of the sequence fragments occurring within CRFs (including CRF04_cpx, CRF06_cpx, CRF11_cpx, CRF18_cpx, CRF25_cpx, CRF27_cpx, and CRF49_cpx) are in fact likely derived from divergent unclassified parental lineages that may predate the current subtypes, even though they are presently identified as derived from currently defined HIV-1M subtypes. Our evidence suggests that some of these CRFs are descended predominantly from what were or are major previously unidentified HIV-1M lineages that were likely epidemiologically relevant during the early stages of the HIV-1M epidemic. The restriction of these divergent lineages to the Congo basin suggests that they were less infectious and/or simply not present at the time and place of the initial migratory wave that triggered the global epidemic.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) likely spread to the rest of the world from the Congo basin in the mid-1900s (N. R. Faria et al., Science 346:56-61, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1256739) and is today the principal cause of the AIDS pandemic. Here, we show that large sequence fragments from several HIV-1M circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are derived from divergent parental lineages that cannot reasonably be classified within the nine

  11. Effect of Chitosan Dissolved in Different Acids on its Ability to Control Postharvest Gray Mold of Table Grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitosan is a natural biopolymer that must be dissolved in an acid solution to activate its antimicrobial and eliciting properties. Among 15 acids, chitosan dissolved in 1% solutions of acetic, L-ascorbic, formic, L-glutamic, hydrochloric, lactic, maleic, malic, phosphorous, and succinic. Chitosan s...

  12. Production of concentrated caustic soda and hydrochloride acid solutions from sodium chloride by electrodialysis with the aid of bipolar ion-exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Greben', V.P.; Pivovarov, N.Ya.; Latskov, V.L.

    1988-10-20

    This paper gives a comparative analysis of the action of electrodialyzers containing three and five compartments in the structural unit, and equipped with bipolar, cation-exchange, and anion-exchange membranes, used for production of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda from sodium chloride solutions. It was shown that an electrodialyzer with five compartments gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda for 2.5-3 M concentration with 0.2-0.3 current efficiency, whereas an electrodialyzer with three compartments in the structural unit gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda concentrations of about 1.2 M at the same current efficiency. The performance of the electrodialyzers was analyzed and equations were derived for calculating the current efficiencies for acid and alkali under conditions of acidification of the salt solution; this was based on determination of the transport numbers of ions passing through the membranes.

  13. Cis-acting elements are required for selenium regulation of glutathione peroxidase-1 mRNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S L; Sunde, R A

    1998-01-01

    Classical glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) mRNA levels can decrease to less than 10% in selenium (Se)-deficient rat liver. The cis-acting nucleic acid sequence requirements for Se regulation of GPX1 mRNA levels were studied by transfecting Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with GPX1 DNA constructs in which specific regions of the GPX1 gene were mutated, deleted, or replaced by comparable regions from unregulated genes such as phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX4). For each construct, stable transfectants were pooled two weeks after transfection, divided into Se-deficient (2 nM Se) or Se-adequate (200 nM Se) medium, and grown for an additional four days. On day of harvest, Se-deficient GPX1 and GPX4 activities averaged 13 +/- 2% and 15 +/- 2% of Se adequate levels, confirming that cellular Se status was dramatically altered by Se supplementation. RNA was isolated from replicate plates of cells and transfected mRNA levels were specifically determined by RNase protection assay. Analysis of chimeric GPX1/GPX4 constructs showed that the GPX4 3'-UTR can completely replace the GPX1 3'-UTR in Se regulation of GPX1 mRNA. We did not find any GPX1 coding regions that could be replaced by the corresponding GPX4 coding regions without diminishing or eliminating Se regulation of the transfected GPX1 mRNA. Further analysis of the GPX1 coding region demonstrated that the GPX1 Sec codon (UGA) and the GPX1 intron sequences are required for full Se regulation of transfected GPX1 mRNA levels. Mutations that moved the GPX1 Sec codon to three different positions within the GPX1 coding region suggest that the mechanism for Se regulation of GPX1 mRNA requires a Sec codon within exon 1. Lastly, we found that addition of the GPX1 3'-UTR to beta-globin mRNA can convey significant Se regulation to beta-globin mRNA levels when a UGA codon is placed within exon 1. We conclude that Se regulation of GPX1 mRNA requires a functional selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) in the 3

  14. Role of phosphate and Fe-oxides on the acid-aided extraction efficiency and readsorption of As in field-aged soil.

    PubMed

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Moon, Seheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-12-30

    This study was conducted to investigate arsenic (As) readsorption phenomenon in acid-treated soil using phosphate as a competing ion. Three field-aged soils (i.e., S1, paddy soil; S2, field soil; S3, forest soil) originally contaminated with As ranging from 30 to 59 mg/kg-soil were collected from a former smelter site. When 0.2M hydrochloric acid (HCl) alone was used as an extraction solution, As bound to iron (Fe) oxides was removed but significant amount of the released As was readsorbed onto residual Fe-oxides, yielding low As extraction efficiency of 11-27%. Readsorption of the released As seemed to occur preferentially on amorphous Fe-oxides. In contrast, As extraction efficiency was greatly increased by 0.2M HCl solution supplemented with monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4), which was greatly influenced by the molar ratio of acid to phosphate. In addition, by the extraction solution with an optimal ratio of 0.2M HCl/0.1M KH2PO4, As extraction efficiency differed with soil types, showing 79.6, 44.1, and 61.0% in S1, S2, and S3, respectively. The reason can be ascribed to the blocking of the available As readsorption sites by phosphate ions, the sites seemed to mainly reside on the residual amorphous Fe-oxides in soil. PMID:26177492

  15. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  16. Identification of proteins specifically interacting with YB-1 mRNA 3' UTR and the effect of hnRNP Q on YB-1 mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Lyabin, D N; Nigmatullina, L F; Doronin, A N; Eliseeva, I A; Ovchinnikov, L P

    2013-06-01

    In this study, proteins specifically interacting with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNA of the multifunctional Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) were identified. One of these, hnRNP Q, was shown to specifically interact with the regulatory element (RE) in YB-1 mRNA 3' UTR and to inhibit translation of this mRNA. Its binding to the RE was accompanied by displacement from this element of the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), a positive regulator of YB-1 mRNA translation, and by enhanced binding of the negative YB-1 mRNA translation regulator - YB-1 itself. PMID:23980891

  17. Effects of oxalate exposure on Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in culture: renal prothrombin fragment-1 mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Moryama, Manabu T; Domiki, Chizue; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tanaka, Tatsuro; Suzuki, Koji

    2005-12-01

    It has been suggested that renal tubular cell damage induced by oxalic acid, one of the components of urinary calculi, may be involved in a variety of ways in the development of urolithiasis. During our study on a calculus related protein, renal prothrombin fragment-1 (RPTF-1), we noted that this is an inflammation related substance that mediates an acute inflammatory reaction, one of the original roles of prothrombin. RPTF-1 is a part of prothrombin that is a coagulation factor known to be expressed in the renal tubule. We examined whether oxalic acid may cause cytotoxic effects on tubular epithelial cells and whether such chemical stimulation may promote the translation of RPTF-1 mRNA into RPTF-1 proteins. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells derived from the distal tubule of a dog kidney. In this study, the effects of oxalic acid in culture solution at different concentrations on cytotoxicity were assessed using a MTT assay. The location of active oxygen species was identified using dichlorofluorescein diacetate. After the prothrombin sequence of RPTF-1 was confirmed in MDCK cells, RPTF-1 mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. The gene sequence of the same promoter area was ligated, and a luciferase sequence was inserted downstream of the vector. The target sequence was transfected into MDCK cells and the relation between oxalic acid and prothrombin promoter was examined. In addition, the variable expression of RPTF-1 mRNA was quantitatively compared depending on oxalic acid concentrations using real-time PCR. When cytotoxicity was investigated, cells were not damaged but, by contrast, were stimulated and activated under oxalic acid below a certain concentration. The relation between cytotoxicity on the cultured MDCK cell membrane and active oxygen species was confirmed. Luminescence in MDCK cells containing the luciferase gene was detected by the addition of oxalic acid, which activated the prothrombin promoter. A part of the prothrombin gene

  18. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  19. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

  20. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production using a two-stage dilute acid followed by wet-milling pretreatment process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiyu; Li, Wenzhi; Ma, Qiaozhi; An, Shengxin; Li, Minghao; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-07-01

    A two-stage process was evaluated to increase sugar recovery. Firstly, corn stover was treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to recover the xylose, and then the residue was subjected to a wet-milling pretreatment. Dilute hydrochloric acid showed a high xylose recovery during the first stage. The optimal condition was 120°C and 40min for 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by wet-milling pretreatment for 15min. The xylose and glucose yield were 81.0% and 64.0%, respectively, with a cellulase dosage at 3FPU/g of substrate. This two-stage process was effective on account of the removal of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the delamination of cell wall in the second stage, increasing the possibility of adsorption of cellulose to enzymes, and resulting in a high sugar recovery with a very low enzyme loading. PMID:27035475

  1. Nascent peptide-mediated translation elongation arrest of Arabidopsis thaliana CGS1 mRNA occurs autonomously.

    PubMed

    Onouchi, Hitoshi; Haraguchi, Yuhi; Nakamoto, Mari; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Nagami-Yamashita, Yoko; Murota, Katsunori; Kezuka-Hosomi, Azusa; Chiba, Yukako; Naito, Satoshi

    2008-04-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana CGS1 gene encodes cystathionine gamma-synthase, the first committed enzyme of methionine biosynthesis in higher plants. Expression of CGS1 is feedback-regulated at the step of mRNA degradation in response to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). A short stretch of amino acid sequence, termed the MTO1 region, encoded within the first exon of CGS1 itself acts in cis in the regulation. In vitro analyses using wheat germ extract (WGE) revealed that AdoMet induces temporal translation arrest of CGS1 mRNA prior to mRNA degradation. This translational pausing occurs immediately downstream of the MTO1 region and is mediated by the nascent MTO1 peptide. In order to elucidate further the nature of this unique regulatory mechanism, we have examined whether a non-plant system also contains the post-transcriptional regulation activity. Despite the fact that mammals do not carry cystathionine gamma-synthase, AdoMet was able to induce the MTO1 sequence-dependent translation elongation arrest in rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) in a similar manner to that observed in WGE. This result suggests that MTO1 peptide-mediated translation arrest does not require a plant-specific factor and rather most probably occurs via a direct interaction between the nascent MTO1 peptide and the ribosome that has translated it. In contrast, decay intermediates of CGS1 mRNA normally observed upon induction of CGS1 mRNA decay in plant systems were not detected in RRL, raising the possibility that CGS1 mRNA degradation involves a plant-specific mechanism. PMID:18285355

  2. Exploring the Ideal Gas Law through a Quantitative Gasometric Analysis of Nitrogen Produced by the Reaction of Sodium Nitrite with Sulfamic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The gasometric analysis of nitrogen produced in a reaction between sodium nitrite, NaNO[superscript 2], and sulfamic acid, H(NH[superscript 2])SO[superscript 3], provides an alternative to more common general chemistry experiments used to study the ideal gas law, such as the experiment in which magnesium is reacted with hydrochloric acid. This…

  3. Occupational Toluene Exposure Induces Cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; de León, Mario Bermúdez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rojas-García, Aurora E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Alberto; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo

    2006-01-01

    Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzoxazone (CHZ) quotient (known as CHZ metabolic ratio) in plasma, and the role of genotype (5′-flanking region RsaI/PstI polymorphic sites) in 97 male print workers. The geometric mean (GM) of toluene concentration in the air was 52.80 ppm (10–760 ppm); 54% of the study participants were exposed to toluene concentrations that exceeded the maximum permissible exposure level (MPEL). The GM of urinary hippuric acid at the end of a work shift (0.041 g/g creatinine) was elevated relative to that before the shift (0.027 g/g creatinine; p < 0.05). The GM of the CHZ metabolic ratio was 0.33 (0–9.3), with 40% of the subjects having ratios below the GM. However, the average CYP2E1 mRNA level in peripheral lymphocytes was 1.07 (0.30–3.08), and CYP2E1 mRNA levels within subjects correlated with the toluene exposure ratio (environmental toluene concentration:urinary hippuric acid concentration) (p = 0.014). Genotype did not alter the association between the toluene exposure ratio and mRNA content. In summary, with further validation, CYP2E1 mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes could be a sensitive and noninvasive biomarker for the continuous monitoring of toluene effects in exposed persons. PMID:16581535

  4. Tocotrienol Attenuates Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions via Activation of Prostaglandin and Upregulation of COX-1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kamisah, Yusof; Chua, Kien Hui; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to distinguish the effect of tocotrienol on an important gastric protective factor, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in stress-induced gastric injury. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups of seven rats each. Two control groups were fed commercial rat diet, and two treatment groups were fed the same diet but with additional dose of omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg). After 28 days, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to water-immersion restraint stress for 3.5 hours once. The rats were then sacrificed, their stomach isolated and gastric juice collected, lesions examined, and gastric PGE2 content and cyclooxygenase (COX) mRNA expression were determined. Both the regimes significantly attenuated the total lesion area in the stomach compared to the control. Gastric acidity, which was increased in stress, was significantly reduced in rats supplemented with omeprazole and tocotrienol. The PGE2 content was also significantly higher in the rats given tocotrienol supplementation compared to the control followed by an increase in COX-1 mRNA expression. We conclude that tocotrienol supplementation protected rat gastric mucosa against stress-induced lesions possibly by reducing gastric acidity and preserving gastric PGE2 by increasing COX-1 mRNA. PMID:23970937

  5. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  6. Reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, G.A.; Vyshinskaya, L.I.; Vasil'eva, G.A.

    1987-12-10

    As a result of the reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with dibasic organic acids high yields were obtained of new thermally stable titanium(III) complexes: phenyltitanium(III)carboxylates. Under the action of proton-active reagents (hydrochloric acid, cyclopentadiene, methanol) the latter break down with the breakage of titanium-phenyl bond. The proposed structure was based on IR- and ESR-spectral data. The dinuclear structure of the complexes was established on the basis of a study of the triplet structure of the ESR spectra, which showed the existence of intermolecular titanium-titanium exchange through methylene groups of the dicarboxylate bridges.

  7. 114. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 1M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 1M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; PLAN - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. DETAIL VIEW OF THE TIRE INFLATION CAGE, ROOM 1M8, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE TIRE INFLATION CAGE, ROOM 1M8, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. 5. JOB NO. 1347B, SHEET 1M, 1927, OIL HOUSE; FORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. JOB NO. 1347-B, SHEET 1M, 1927, OIL HOUSE; FORD MOTOR COMPANY; FOUNDATION, PLOT PLAN AND DETAILS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Oil House, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Acid effects on the measurement of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adeloju, S.B.; Mann, T.F.

    1987-07-01

    The influence of nitric, hydrochloric and sulfuric acids on the measurement of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated. Small pre-reduction peaks associated with the instability of mercury were observed in solutions containing less than or equal to 12.5, < 2 and less than or equal to 12.5% v/v of each acid, respectively. Mercury was found to be most stable in greater than or equal to 2% v/v hydrochloric acid and the measured absorbance was not greatly influenced by varying concentration of the acid. The mercury absorbance measurements were more sensitive in solutions containing less than or equal to 6.3% v/v hydrochloric acid than in similar concentrations of nitric and sulfuric acids. The use of the three acids as a digestion mixture result in serious interference from nitrogen oxides. The interference was removed by use of expelling agents such as urea and sulfamic acid or overcome by use of excess stannous chloride, prior to the reduction of mercury(II) ions. The determination of mercury in NBS albacore tuna using both of these approaches to overcome the interference problem proved to be successful.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  13. [Determination of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liwen; Song, Shizhen; Hu, Xiamin; Ye, Fangli

    2006-05-01

    A method for the determination of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (tt-MA) (benzene metabolite) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The separation was carried out on a C18 column (Spherisorb C18, 150 mm x 4.6 mm i. d. , 5 microm) at 25 degrees C with glacial acetic acid-tetrahydrofuran-methanol-water (1 : 2 : 10: 87, v/v) as mobile phase. Urinary sample was acidified by 2 mol/L hydrochloric acid and pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether. After removal of diethyl ether with a stream of nitrogen, the residue was re-dissolved in 1 mL of mobile phase for HPLC injection. Good linearity was observed within the range from 0.10 mg/L to 10.00 mg/L (r =0.9999) and the detection limit was 0.10 mg/L. The average recoveries for tt-MA were 95.1%-100.5%. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for intra-day and inter-day determinations were 4.0%-9.0% and 6.2%-8.8%, respectively. The method was applied to 56 benzene-exposed workers and 24 controll workers. Urinary tt-MA in benzen-exposed workers were significantly higher than that in the control group. They can be correlated with benzene exposure concentrations (P <0.01). This analytical method for tt-MA is sensitive, rapid, and convenient. It is suitable for monitoring of occupational exposure to benzene and toxic kinetics studies. PMID:16929844

  14. Research for amino acids in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

  15. New coumarin derivative as an eco-friendly inhibitor of corrosion of mild steel in Acid medium.

    PubMed

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Al-Majedy, Yasameen K; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    The anticorrosion ability of a synthesized coumarin, namely 2-(coumarin-4-yloxy)acetohydrazide (EFCI), for mild steel (MS) in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution has been studied using a weight loss method. The effect of temperature on the corrosion rate was investigated, and some thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. The IE value reaches 94.7% at the highest used concentration of the new eco-friendly inhibitor. The adsorption of inhibitor on MS surface was found to obey a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on inhibited and uninhibited mild steel samples to characterize the surface. The Density Function theory (DFT) was employed for quantum-chemical calculations such as EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy) and μ (dipole moment), and the obtained results were found to be consistent with the experimental findings. The synthesized inhibitor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies. PMID:25551187

  16. Low-cost silica, calcite and metal sulfide scale control through on-site production of sulfurous acid from H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Kitz, K.

    1997-12-31

    UNOCAL Corporation currently utilizes brine pH modification technology to control scale deposition. Acids utilized in commercial operations include, sulfuric and hydrochloric. A new process reduces costs by producing acid on-site by burning hydrogen sulfide or elemental sulfur. Hydrogen sulfide in non-condensible gas emissions is reduced by oxidization to sulfurous acid. Brine or condensate is treated with sulfurous acid to control scale deposition, mitigate corrosion and improve gas partitioning in condensers.

  17. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

  18. Modeling of nickel extraction between Di-n-butyl phosphorodithioate and acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacki, M.B.; Szymanowski, J. . Inst. of Chemical Technology and Engineering); Cote, G. . Lab. de Chimie Analytique)

    1993-11-01

    A chemical model for nickel(II) extraction from acidic sulfate solutions with O,O-di-n-butyl phosphorodithioate and for nickel stripping with hydrochloric acid solutions is presented and used for discussion of extraction-stripping systems with either conventional sequential stages of extraction and stripping or unconventional cross-current flows. A good agreement of the model with experimental extraction data is observed. The number of extraction and stripping stages necessary to obtain a given yield of transfer of nickel(II) has been found to be lower in unconventional extraction-stripping systems than in conventional systems with sequential stages of extraction and stripping. The use of hydrochloric acid for stripping instead of sulfuric acid leads to an important increase of nickel transfer from the feed to the strip liquor.

  19. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 regulates transport of ITPR1 mRNA for synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Daisuke; Kuroda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Motoki; Namba, Takashi; Iizuka, Yukihiko; Taya, Shinichiro; Shinoda, Tomoyasu; Hikita, Takao; Muraoka, Shinsuke; Iizuka, Michiro; Nimura, Ai; Mizoguchi, Akira; Shiina, Nobuyuki; Sokabe, Masahiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2015-05-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a susceptibility gene for major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. DISC1 has been implicated in neurodevelopment in relation to scaffolding signal complexes. Here we used proteomic analysis to screen for DISC1 interactors and identified several RNA-binding proteins, such as hematopoietic zinc finger (HZF), that act as components of RNA-transporting granules. HZF participates in the mRNA localization of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1), which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. DISC1 colocalizes with HZF and ITPR1 mRNA in hippocampal dendrites and directly associates with neuronal mRNAs, including ITPR1 mRNA. The binding potential of DISC1 for ITPR1 mRNA is facilitated by HZF. Studies of Disc1-knockout mice have revealed that DISC1 regulates the dendritic transport of Itpr1 mRNA by directly interacting with its mRNA. The DISC1-mediated mRNA regulation is involved in synaptic plasticity. We show that DISC1 binds ITPR1 mRNA with HZF, thereby regulating its dendritic transport for synaptic plasticity. PMID:25821909

  20. On the growth of nitric and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under stratospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.

    1988-01-01

    A theory for the formation of frozen aerosol particles in the Antarctic stratosphere was developed and applied to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. The theory suggests that the condensed ice particles are composed primarily of nitric acid and water, with small admixtures of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids in solid solution. The proposed particle formation mechanism is in agreement with the magnitude and seasonal behavior of the optical extinction observed in the winter polar stratosphere.

  1. Development and testing of a low toxicity acid corrosion inhibitor for industrial cleaning applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frenier, W.W.

    1997-02-01

    A low toxicity corrosion inhibitor used in hydrochloric acid cleaning formulations has been developed. This formulation does not contain formaldehyde. It contains cinnamaldehyde, quaternary nitrogen salts, and a nonionic surfactant, none of which are currently known or suspected to be carcinogens. In laboratory tests, corrosion protection values were equivalent to those provided by current commercial acid inhibitors. Field tests using the low toxicity inhibitor were conducted.

  2. Structure and hydrolysis of p-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)- benzenesulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kukalenko, S.S.; Frolov, S.I.; Lim, I.K.; Putsykina, E.B.; Vasil'ev, A.F.

    1987-11-20

    With the aid of vibrational and PMR spectra of p-(2-oso-1-pyrrolidinyl)benzenesulfonic acid it was shown that in the solid state it exists as an O-protonated dipolar ion in which the protonated amide cation and sulfonate ion are intermolecularly linked by a very strong hydrogen bond. In concentrated hydrochloric acid the dipolar ion is an intermediate link in the chain of processes in the hydrolysis of the amide bond of the lactam ring.

  3. Characterization of proteins associating with 5' terminus of PGHS-1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Bunimov, Natalia; Laneuville, Odette

    2010-06-01

    Induction of Prostaglandin Endoperoxide H Synthase-1 (PGHS-1) gene has been previously documented in a few studies during events such as development and cellular differentiation. However, molecular mechanisms governing the regulation of PGHS-1 gene expression and contributing to changes in protein levels are poorly understood. Using the MEG-01 cell model of PGHS-1 gene induction, our laboratory has previously demonstrated that the 5'UTR and the first two exons of PGHS-1 mRNA had a significant impact on decreasing the translational efficiency of a reporter gene and suggested that the presence of a secondary structure is required for conservation of this activity. This 5'end of PGHS-1 mRNA sequence has also been shown to associate with nucleolin protein. In the current study, we set to investigate the protein composition of the mRNP (messenger ribonucleoprotein) associating with the 5'end of PGHS-1 mRNA and to identify its protein members. RNA/protein binding assays coupled with LC-MS analysis identified serpin B1 and NF45 (nuclear factor 45) proteins as potential members of PGHS-1 mRNP complex. Immunoprecipitation experiments using MEG-01 protein extracts validated mass spectrometry data and confirmed binding of nucleolin, serpin B1, NF45 and NF90. The RNA fraction was extracted from immunoprecipitated mRNP complexes and association of RNA binding proteins, serpin B1, NF45 and NF90, to PGHS-1 mRNA target sequence was confirmed by RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that serpin B1, NF45 and NF90 associate with PGHS-1 mRNA and can potentially participate in the formation a single or a number of PGHS-1 ribonucleoprotein complexes, through nucleolin that possibly serves as a docking base for other protein complex members. PMID:20112001

  4. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  5. β-Adrenergic-stimulated macrophages: Comprehensive localization in the M1-M2 spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lamkin, Donald M; Ho, Hsin-Yun; Ong, Tiffany H; Kawanishi, Carly K; Stoffers, Victoria L; Ahlawat, Nivedita; Ma, Jeffrey C Y; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Cole, Steve W; Sloan, Erica K

    2016-10-01

    β-Adrenergic signaling can regulate macrophage involvement in several diseases and often produces anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages, which are similar to M2 properties in a dichotomous M1 vs. M2 macrophage taxonomy. However, it is not clear that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages may be classified strictly as M2. In this in vitro study, we utilized recently published criteria and transcriptome-wide bioinformatics methods to map the relative polarity of murine β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages within a wider M1-M2 spectrum. Results show that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages did not fit entirely into any one pre-defined category of the M1-M2 spectrum but did express genes that are representative of some M2 side categories. Moreover, transcript origin analysis of genome-wide transcriptional profiles located β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages firmly on the M2 side of the M1-M2 spectrum and found active suppression of M1 side gene transcripts. The signal transduction pathways involved were mapped through blocking experiments and bioinformatics analysis of transcription factor binding motifs. M2-promoting effects were mediated specifically through β2-adrenergic receptors and were associated with CREB, C/EBPβ, and ATF transcription factor pathways but not with established M1-M2 STAT pathways. Thus, β-adrenergic-signaling induces a macrophage transcriptome that locates on the M2 side of the M1-M2 spectrum but likely accomplishes this effect through a signaling pathway that is atypical for M2-spectrum macrophages. PMID:27485040

  6. Aerosol–climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model – NorESM1-M

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkevåg, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, Ø.; Hoose, C.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Ghan, S.; Griesfeller, J.; Nilsson, E. D.; Schulz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to document and evaluate recent changes and updates to the module for aerosols and aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions in the atmospheric module CAM4-Oslo of the core version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM), NorESM1-M. Particular attention is paid to the role of natural organics, sea salt, and mineral dust in determining the gross aerosol properties as well as the anthropogenic contribution to these properties and the associated direct and indirect radiative forcing. The aerosol module is extended from earlier versions that have been published, and includes life-cycling of sea salt, mineral dust, particulate sulphate, black carbon, and primary and secondary organics. The impacts of most of the numerous changes since previous versions are thoroughly explored by sensitivity experiments. The most important changes are: modified prognostic sea salt emissions; updated treatment of precipitation scavenging and gravitational settling; inclusion of biogenic primary organics and methane sulphonic acid (MSA) from oceans; almost doubled production of land-based biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA); and increased ratio of organic matter to organic carbon (OM/OC) for biomass burning aerosols from 1.4 to 2.6. Compared with in situ measurements and remotely sensed data, the new treatments of sea salt and dust aerosols give smaller biases in near-surface mass concentrations and aerosol optical depth than in the earlier model version. The model biases for mass concentrations are approximately unchanged for sulphate and BC. The enhanced levels of modeled OM yield improved overall statistics, even though OM is still underestimated in Europe and overestimated in North America. The global anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of the atmosphere has changed from a small positive value to -0.08 W m-2 in CAM4-Oslo. The sensitivity tests suggest that this change can be attributed to the new treatment of biomass

  7. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) Is required for mouse spermatogonial differentiation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Busada, Jonathan T; Niedenberger, Bryan A; Velte, Ellen K; Keiper, Brett D; Geyer, Christopher B

    2015-11-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) must balance self-renewal with production of transit-amplifying progenitors that differentiate in response to retinoic acid (RA) before entering meiosis. This self-renewal vs. differentiation spermatogonial fate decision is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis, as imbalances cause spermatogenesis defects that can lead to human testicular cancer or infertility. A great deal of effort has been exerted to understand how the SSC population is maintained. In contrast, little is known about the essential program of differentiation initiated by retinoic acid (RA) that precedes meiosis, and the pathways and proteins involved are poorly defined. We recently reported a novel role for RA in stimulating the PI3/AKT/mTOR kinase signaling pathway to activate translation of repressed mRNAs such as Kit. Here, we examined the requirement for mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in mediating the RA signal to direct spermatogonial differentiation in the neonatal testis. We found that in vivo inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin blocked spermatogonial differentiation, which led to an accumulation of undifferentiated spermatogonia. In addition, rapamycin also blocked the RA-induced translational activation of mRNAs encoding KIT, SOHLH1, and SOHLH2 without affecting expression of STRA8. These findings highlight dual roles for RA in germ cell development - transcriptional activation of genes, and kinase signaling to stimulate translation of repressed messages required for spermatogonial differentiation. PMID:26254600

  8. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; comparison of a nitric acid in-bottle digestion procedure to other whole-water digestion procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, John R.; Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrochloric acid in-bottle digestion procedure is used to partially digest wholewater samples prior to determining recoverable elements by various analytical methods. The use of hydrochloric acid is problematic for some methods of analysis because of spectral interference. The inbottle digestion procedure has been modified to eliminate such interference by using nitric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in the digestion. Implications of this modification are evaluated by comparing results for a series of synthetic whole-water samples. Results are also compared with those obtained by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1994) (USEPA) Method 200.2 total-recoverable digestion procedure. Percentage yields that use the nitric acid inbottle digestion procedure are within 10 percent of the hydrochloric acid in-bottle yields for 25 of the 26 elements determined in two of the three synthetic whole-water samples tested. Differences in percentage yields for the third synthetic whole-water sample were greater than 10 percent for 16 of the 26 elements determined. The USEPA method was the most rigorous for solubilizing elements from particulate matter in all three synthetic whole-water samples. Nevertheless, the variability in the percentage yield by using the USEPA digestion procedure was generally greater than the in-bottle digestion procedure, presumably because of the difficulty in controlling the digestion conditions accurately.

  9. Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloys in Wet Hydrofluoric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2004-02-06

    Hydrofluoric acid is a water solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF). Hydrofluoric acid is used widely in diverse types of industrial applications; traditionally, it is used in pickling solutions in the metal industry, in the fabrication of chlorofluorocarbon compounds, as an alkylation agent for gasoline and as an etching agent in the industry of glass. In recent years, hydrofluoric acid has extensively been used in the manufacture of semiconductors and microelectronics during the wet chemical cleaning of silicon wafers. Hydrofluoric acid can be considered a reducing acid and although it is chemically classified as weaker than, for example, sulfuric or hydrochloric acids, it is extremely corrosive. This acid is also particularly toxic and poses greater health hazard than most other acids. The corrosion behavior of metals in hydrofluoric acid has not been as systematic studied in the laboratory as for other common inorganic acids. This is largely because tests using hydrofluoric acid cannot be run in standard equipment and because of the toxic nature of this acid. Moreover, short-term weight loss laboratory corrosion tests in hydrofluoric acid can be frustrating since the results are not as highly reproducible as in the case of other acids such as sulfuric or hydrochloric. One of the reasons is because hydrofluoric acid commonly attacks the coupons used for testing in a non-uniform manner. That is, the corrosive power of this acid is not aimed to uniform thinning but mostly to localized penetration below the skin of the metal in the form of thin cracks, voids, pits, trenches and sometimes intergranular attack. Figure 1 shows the cross section of a coupon of Alloy 600 (N06600) exposed for 336 h to the vapor phase of a solution of 20% HF at 93 C. In cases where internal penetration occurs such as in Figure 1, it may not be recommended to use corrosion rates based on weight loss for material selection.

  10. Toward a large lightweight mirror for AO: development of a 1m Ni coated CFRP mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Brooks, D.; Strangwood, M.

    2008-07-01

    We present our recent developments towards the construction of a large, thin, single-piece mirror for adaptive optics (AO). Our current research program aims to have completed fabrication and testing of a 1m diameter, nickel coated carbon-fibre reinforced cyanate ester resin mirror by the last quarter of 2009. This composite mirror material is being developed to provide a lightweight and robust alternative to thin glass shell mirrors, with the challenge of future large deformable mirrors such as the 2.5m M4 on the E-ELT in mind. A detailed analysis of the material properties of test mirror samples is being performed at the University of Birmingham (UK), the first results of which are discussed and presented here. We discuss the project progress achieved so far, including fabrication of the 1m flat moulds for the replication process, manufacturing and testing methods for 20 cm diameter sample mirrors and system simulations.

  11. DigiCam: fully digital compact camera for SST-1M telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Pruchniewicz, R.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rameez, M.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowski, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Żychowski, P.

    2014-08-01

    The single mirror Small Size Telescopes (SST-1M), being built by a sub-consortium of Polish and Swiss Institutions of the CTA Consortium, will be equipped with a fully digital camera with a compact photodetector plane based on silicon photomultipliers. The internal trigger signal transmission overhead will be kept at low level by introducing a high level of integration. It will be achieved by massively deploying state-of-the-art multi-gigabit transceivers, beginning from the ADC flash converters, through the internal data and trigger signals transmission over backplanes and cables, to the camera's server 10Gb/s Ethernet links. Such approach will allow fitting the size and weight of the camera exactly to the SST-1M needs, still retaining the flexibility of a fully digital design. Such solution has low power consumption, high reliability and long lifetime. The concept of the camera will be described, along with some construction details and performance results.

  12. The role of passive potential in ultrasonic cavitation erosion of titanium in 1 M HCl solution.

    PubMed

    Li, D G; Wang, J D; Chen, D R; Liang, P

    2016-03-01

    The influence of the applied passive potential on the ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti specimen in 1 M HCl solution was investigated by mass loss experiment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and Mott-Schottky plot. The results showed that Ti was in the passive state within the potential region from -0.3 VSCE to 1.5 VSCE under ultrasonic cavitation erosion. The applied passive potential can obviously decrease the mass loss of Ti caused by ultrasonic cavitation erosion in 1 M HCl solution. The resistance of the passive film increased, the flat band potential moved to positive direction, and the donor density of the passive film decreased with increasing the passive potential. Finally, a physical model was provided to explain the experimental results based on energy band and semi-conductive theories. PMID:26585008

  13. Of social molecules: The interactive assembly of ASH1 mRNA-transport complexes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Niedner, Annika; Edelmann, Franziska T; Niessing, Dierk

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric, motor-protein dependent transport of mRNAs and subsequent localized translation is an important mechanism of gene regulation. Due to the high complexity of such motile particles, our mechanistic understanding of mRNA localization is limited. Over the last two decades, ASH1 mRNA localization in budding yeast has served as comparably simple and accessible model system. Recent advances have helped to draw an increasingly clear picture on the molecular mechanisms governing ASH1 mRNA localization from its co-transcriptional birth to its delivery at the site of destination. These new insights help to better understand the requirement of initial nuclear mRNPs, the molecular basis of specific mRNA-cargo recognition via cis-acting RNA elements, the different stages of RNP biogenesis and reorganization, as well as activation of the motile activity upon cargo binding. We discuss these aspects in context of published findings from other model organisms. PMID:25482892

  14. A purple-colored 1M mica clay from Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tien, P.-L.

    1969-01-01

    A purple-colored clay of 1M mica polymorph in association with lead-zinc ore was collected from an abandoned mine dump near Silverton, Colorado. Electron micrographs show that the crystallites of the clay are less than 2?? in size and have poorly developed hexagonal outlines. Differential thermal and i.r. absorption analyses indicate similarity with those of muscovite. The structural formula of the 1M mica polymorph is (K1??45Na0??02) (Al3??75Mg0??19) (Si6??90Al1??10) O20(OH)4. The purple color may be related to trace amounts of manganese in the clay. ?? 1969.

  15. Investigation of Edge Plasma Features in the HL-1M Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Long-wen; Yang, Shi-kun; Hong, Wen-yu; Wang, En-yao; Qian, Jun

    1999-12-01

    Edge plasma features in typical HL-1M discharges were presented. Particle confinement and plasma rotation have been investigated in the discharges with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), molecular beam injection (MBI) and pellet fuelling. LHCD can make particle confinement increase a factor of 2-3 for low-density discharge. Particle confinement time and poloidal rotation can be at least doubled after pellet injection, while MBI can make confinement time increase about one order of magnitude with higher performance.

  16. Plasma behaviour with molecular beam injection in the HL-1M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lianghua; Tang, Nianyi; Cui, Zhengying; Xu, Deming; Deng, Zhongchao; Ding, Xuantong; Luo, Junlin; Dong, Jiafu; Guo, Gancheng; Yang, Shikun; Cui, Chenghe; Xiao, Zhenggui; Liu, Dequan; Chen, Xiaoping; Yan, Longwen; Yan, Donghai; Wang, Enyao; Deng, Xiwen

    1998-04-01

    A new method of gas fuelling has been introduced in the HL-1M tokamak. The method consists of a pulsed high speed molecular beam formed by a Laval type nozzle. The velocity of the well collimated hydrogen beam is about 500 m/s. About 6 × 1019 molecules pass through the nozzle and into the vacuum chamber in each pulse. A series of helium pulses was injected into the HL-1M low density (bar ne = 4 × 1018 m-3) hydrogen plasma. With penetration depth up to 12 cm, the ramp-up rate of the electron density, dbar ne/dt, was as high as 3.1 × 1020 m-3·s-1 at steady state, and the resulting plasma density reached bar ne = 5.6 × 1019 m-3. The profile peaking factor of the electron density, Qn = ne(0)/langlenerangle of about 100 ms after helium molecular beam injection (MBI) reached a maximum value of more than 1.51. The energy confinement time τE measured by diamagnetism is 26 ms, which is over 30% longer than that of the gas puffing (GP) results under the same operational conditions. The improvement of τE and increase of Qn for MBI were comparable to those of small pellet injection (PI) in HL-1M, as well as those of slow PI in ASDEX (Kaufmann, M., et al., Nucl. Fusion 28 (1988) 827). It is argued that the peaked density profile induced by the deepened particle injection is a factor essential for the confinement improvement apart from the isotope effect of helium particles, because the density peaking factor Qn is normally less than 1.4 for GP plasma in HL-1M. The particle confinement time with MBI increased sixfold in comparison with that before injection.

  17. Engineering changes to the 0.1m cryogenic wind tunnel at Southampton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The more important changes to the 0.1 m cryogenic wind tunnel since its completion in 1977 are outlined. These include detailed improvements in the fan drive to allow higher speeds, and the provision of a test section leg suitable for use with a magnetic suspension and balance system. The instrumentation, data logging, data reduction and tunnel controls were also improved and modernized. A tunnel performance summary is given.

  18. Ty1 Gag enhances the stability and nuclear export of Ty1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Checkley, Mary Ann; Mitchell, Jessica A.; Eizenstat, Linda D.; Lockett, Stephen J.; Garfinkel, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrotransposon and retroviral RNA delivery to particle assembly sites is essential for their replication. mRNA and Gag from the Ty1 retrotransposon colocalize in cytoplasmic foci, which are required for transposition and may be sites for virus-like particle (VLP) assembly. To determine which Ty1 components are required to form mRNA/Gag foci, localization studies were performed in a Ty1-less strain expressing galactose-inducible Ty1 plasmids (pGTy1) containing mutations in GAG or POL. Ty1 mRNA/Gag foci remained unaltered in mutants defective in Ty1 protease or deleted for POL. However, Ty1 mRNA containing a frameshift mutation (Ty1fs) that prevents the synthesis of all proteins accumulated in the nucleus. Ty1fs RNA showed a decrease in stability that was mediated by the cytoplasmic exosome, nonsense mediated decay, and the processing-body. Localization of Ty1fs RNA remained unchanged in an nmd2Δ mutant. When Gag and Ty1fs mRNA were expressed independently, Gag provided in trans increased Ty1fs RNA level and restored localization of Ty1fs RNA in cytoplasmic foci. Endogenously expressed Gag also localized to the nuclear periphery independent of RNA export. These results suggest that Gag is required for Ty1 mRNA stability, efficient nuclear export, and localization into cytoplasmic foci. PMID:22998189

  19. Development of Lunar Highland REgolith Simulants, NU-LHT-1M,-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Wilson, S. A.; Fikes, J.; McLemore, C.; Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a collaborative agreement between the U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) lunar highland simulants are being produced to support engineers and scientists in developing the technologies required to put a base on the moon by 2024. Two simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M and -2M (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type-l & 2 Medium-grained). Using starting material chiefly collected from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, blending protocols were developed based on normative mineralogy calculated from average chemistry, for the Apollo 16 regolith. New technologies using a high temperature remotely coupled plasma melter were developed to generate both high quality and agglutinitic glasses that simulate the glassy components of the regolith. Detailed chemical, mineralogical and physical properties analysis of NU-LHT-1M indicate that it is overall a good surrogate for highlands lunar regolith (our new simulant LHT-2M has not be analyzed yet). The primary difference between 1M and 2M was the inclusion of trace mineralogy (phosphates and sulfide). Plans will also be presented on the future direction of the simulant project.

  20. Detection of MDR1 mRNA expression with optimized gold nanoparticle beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiumei; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    MDR1 (multidrug resistance gene) mRNA expression is a promising biomarker for the prediction of doxorubicin resistance in clinic. However, the traditional technical process in clinic is complicated and cannot perform the real-time detection mRNA in living single cells. In this study, the expression of MDR1 mRNA was analyzed based on optimized gold nanoparticle beacon in tumor cells. Firstly, gold nanoparticle (AuNP) was modified by thiol-PEG, and the MDR1 beacon sequence was screened and optimized using a BLAST bioinformatics strategy. Then, optimized MDR1 molecular beacons were characterized by transmission electron microscope, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. The cytotoxicity of MDR1 molecular beacon on L-02, K562 and K562/Adr cells were investigated by MTT assay, suggesting that MDR1 molecular beacon was low inherent cytotoxicity. Dark field microscope was used to investigate the cellular uptake of hDAuNP beacon assisted with ultrasound. Finally, laser scanning confocal microscope images showed that there was a significant difference in MDR1 mRNA expression in K562 and K562/Adr cells, which was consistent with the results of q-PCR measurement. In summary, optimized MDR1 molecular beacon designed in this study is a reliable strategy for detection MDR1 mRNA expression in living tumor cells, and will be a promising strategy for in guiding patient treatment and management in individualized medication.

  1. IGF1 mRNA splicing variants in Liaoning cashmere goat: identification, characterization, and transcriptional patterns in skin and visceral organs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wen L; Yin, Rong H; Yin, Rong L; Wang, Jiao J; Jiang, Wu Q; Luo, Guang B; Zhao, Zhi H

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) is a member of the insulin superfamily. It performs important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of skin cell and control of hair cycles and is thought to be a potential candidate gene for goat cashmere traits. In this work, we isolated and characterized three kinds of IGF1 mRNA splicing variants from the liver of Liaoning Cashmere goat, and the expression characterization of the IGF1 mRNA splicing variants were investigated in skin and other tissues of Liaoning cashmere goat. The sequencing results indicated that the classes 1w, 1, and 2 of IGF1 cDNAs in Liaoning cashmere goat, each included an open reading frame encoding the IGF1 precursor protein. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three IGF1 precursor proteins differed only in their NH2-terminal leader peptides. Through removal of the signal peptide and extension peptide, the three IGF1 mRNA splicing variants (classes 1w, 1, and 2) resulted in the same mature IGF1 protein in Liaoning cashmere goat. In skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat, class 1 and class 2 were detected in all stages of hair follicle cycling, and they had the highest transcription level at anagen, and then early anagen; whereas at telogen both classes 1 and 2 had the lowest expression in mRNA level, but the class 1 appears to be relatively more abundant than class 2 in skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat. However, the class 1w transcript was not detected in the skin tissues. Three classes of IGF1 mRNA were transcribed in a variety of tissues, including heart, brain, spleen, lung, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle, but class 1 IGF1 mRNA was more abundant than classes 1w and 2 in the investigated tissues. PMID:23534956

  2. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham

    2016-03-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing.

  3. Dithranol downregulates expression of Id1 mRNA in human keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ronpirin, C; Tencomnao, T

    2012-01-01

    The precise causes of psoriasis, a chronic skin disorder characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and incomplete keratinization, are unclear. It is known that expression of helix-loop-helix transcription factor Id1, which functions as an inhibitor of differentiation, is upregulated in psoriatic skin. We investigated the effect of the antipsoriatic drug dithranol on mRNA and protein expression levels of Id1 in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line. Cultured HaCaT cells were treated with 0-0.5 μg/mL dithranol for 30 min. After 2 and 4 h, total cellular RNA and total proteins were isolated from HaCaT cells, and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of Id1, respectively. Changes in normalized Id1 mRNA levels were observed only after 4 h of dithranol treatment. There was reduced expression of Id1 mRNA transcripts in the HaCaT cells treated with 0.1 μg/mL dithranol, but the reduction was not significant. The expression of Id1 mRNA was significantly downregulated (almost 50%) when 0.25 or 0.5 μg/mL dithranol was applied to the HaCaT cells. However, the normalized Id1 protein levels were not significantly affected. The molecular mechanisms underlying this finding should be investigated further to help determine the therapeutic action of this drug. PMID:23079823

  4. Northern Hemisphere storminess in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, E. M.; Walsh, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Metrics of storm activity in Northern Hemisphere high- and midlatitudes are evaluated from historical output and future projections by the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-M) coupled global climate model. The European Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a global climate model of the same vintage as NorESM1-M, provide benchmarks for comparison. The focus is on the autumn and early winter (September through December), the period when the ongoing and projected Arctic sea ice retreat is greatest. Storm tracks derived from a vorticity-based algorithm for storm identification are reproduced well by NorESM1-M, although the tracks are somewhat better resolved in the higher-resolution ERA-Interim and CCSM4. The tracks are projected to shift polewards in the future as climate changes under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) forcing scenarios. Cyclones are projected to become generally more intense in the high-latitudes, especially over the Alaskan region, although in some other areas the intensity is projected to decrease. While projected changes in track density are less coherent, there is a general tendency towards less frequent storms in midlatitudes and more frequent storms in high-latitudes, especially the Baffin Bay/Davis Strait region. Autumn precipitation is projected to increase significantly across the entire high-latitudes. Together with the projected increases in storm intensity and sea level and the loss of sea ice, this increase in precipitation implies a greater vulnerability to coastal flooding and erosion, especially in the Alaskan region. The projected changes in storm intensity and precipitation (as well as sea ice and sea level pressure) scale generally linearly with the RCP value of the forcing and with time through the 21st century.

  5. Northern Hemisphere storminess in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Erlend M.; Walsh, John E.

    2016-07-01

    Metrics of storm activity in Northern Hemisphere high and midlatitudes are evaluated from historical output and future projections by the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-M) coupled global climate model. The European Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a global climate model of the same vintage as NorESM1-M, provide benchmarks for comparison. The focus is on the autumn and early winter (September through December) - the period when the ongoing and projected Arctic sea ice retreat is the greatest. Storm tracks derived from a vorticity-based algorithm for storm identification are reproduced well by NorESM1-M, although the tracks are somewhat better resolved in the higher-resolution ERA-Interim and CCSM4. The tracks show indications of shifting polewards in the future as climate changes under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) forcing scenarios. Cyclones are projected to become generally more intense in the high latitudes, especially over the Alaskan region, although in some other areas the intensity is projected to decrease. While projected changes in track density are less coherent, there is a general tendency towards less frequent storms in midlatitudes and more frequent storms in high latitudes, especially the Baffin Bay/Davis Strait region in September. Autumn precipitation is projected to increase significantly across the entire high latitudes. Together with the projected loss of sea ice and increases in storm intensity and sea level, this increase in precipitation implies a greater vulnerability to coastal flooding and erosion, especially in the Alaskan region. The projected changes in storm intensity and precipitation (as well as sea ice and sea level pressure) scale generally linearly with the RCP value of the forcing and with time through the 21st century.

  6. Circulating cell-free DNA indicates M1/M2 responses during septic peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yi; Gao, Xingjuan; Wang, Wenxiao; Xu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Lijuan; Ju, Xiuli; Li, Aimin

    2016-09-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been widely suggested as clinical indicator in diseases, including sepsis. It was thought that the cfDNA was coming from the cell lysis, necrosis and apoptosis caused by tissue damages during sepsis. M1 or M2 macrophage-type responses kill or repair in vivo, which is highly relevant with the tissue damages in sepsis. The correlation between cfDNA and M1/M2 responses during sepsis was never investigated. Here, we used bacteria injection induced septic peritonitis mouse model in both M1-dominant C57bl/6 and M2-dominant Balb/c mouse strains. We found that M2-dominant Balb/c mice showed better prognosis of septic peritonitis than C57bl/6 mice, which is corresponded with lower level of cfDNA in septic Balb/c mice compared to septic C57bl/6 mice. By assessing the M1 and M2 related cytokines in both septic Balb/c and C57bl/6 mice, we found out that Balb/c mice has lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and higher interleukin 10 (IL-10) productions than C57bl/6 mice during septic peritonitis. Especially, when monitoring the monocyte subtypes in peripheral blood of these septic mice, we found out that C57bl/6 showed higher inflammatory (Ly6C(high)) monocyte (corresponding to M1 macrophage) proportion than Balb/c mice. Interestingly, we find out that cfDNA is highly correlated with the ratio of Ly6C(high) monocytes versus Ly6C(low) monocytes, which represents M1/M2 (killing/healing) responses. Our study suggested that the cfDNA is a good indicator for evaluating M1/M2 responses in septic peritonitis. PMID:27335257

  7. Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1 m/s using a laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David F.; Glenday, Alexander G.; Li, Chih-Hao; Cramer, Claire; Furesz, Gabor; Chang, Guoqing; Benedick, Andrew J.; Chen, Li-Jin; Kärtner, Franz X.; Korzennik, Sylvain; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2012-06-01

    We deployed two wavelength calibrators based on laser frequency combs ("astro-combs") at an astronomical telescope. One astro-comb operated over a 100 nm band in the deep red (∼ 800 nm) and a second operated over a 20 nm band in the blue (∼ 400 nm). We used these red and blue astro-combs to calibrate a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph integrated with a 1.5 m telescope, and demonstrated calibration precision and stability suffici ent to enable detection of changes in stellar radial velocity < 1 m/s.

  8. Operation of the 8-T, 1-m-diameter test facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.P.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Leber, R.L.; Chaplin, M.R.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Johnston, J.E.

    1981-03-20

    The High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) consists of a set of four Nb-Ti coils, inside of which there is a pair of multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn coils. The outer coils are designed to generate 8 T in the 1-m bore; the Nb/sub 3/Sn coils will boost this to 12 T in a 40-cm bore. This paper describes the first operation of the complete set of Nb-Ti coils and describes and gives results from the data acquisition and analysis system that was used during the test.

  9. Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1 m/s using a laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David F; Glenday, Alexander G; Li, Chih-Hao; Cramer, Claire; Furesz, Gabor; Chang, Guoqing; Benedick, Andrew J; Chen, Li-Jin; Kärtner, Franz X; Korzennik, Sylvain; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2012-06-18

    We deployed two wavelength calibrators based on laser frequency combs ("astro-combs") at an astronomical telescope. One astro-comb operated over a 100 nm band in the deep red (∼ 800 nm) and a second operated over a 20 nm band in the blue (∼ 400 nm). We used these red and blue astro-combs to calibrate a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph integrated with a 1.5 m telescope, and demonstrated calibration precision and stability sufficient to enable detection of changes in stellar radial velocity < 1 m/s. PMID:22714437

  10. NeuralWISP: A Wirelessly Powered Neural Interface With 1-m Range.

    PubMed

    Yeager, D J; Holleman, J; Prasad, R; Smith, J R; Otis, B P

    2009-12-01

    We present the NeuralWISP, a wireless neural interface operating from far-field radio-frequency RF energy. The NeuralWISP is compatible with commercial RF identification readers and operates at a range up to 1 m. It includes a custom low-noise, low-power amplifier integrated circuit for processing the neural signal and an analog spike detection circuit for reducing digital computational requirements and communications bandwidth. Our system monitors the neural signal and periodically transmits the spike density in a user-programmable time window. The entire system draws an average 20 muA from the harvested 1.8-V supply. PMID:23853285

  11. Optomechanical analysis of a 1-m light-weight mirror system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, Hagyong; Yang, Ho-Soon; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2013-05-01

    We present the optomechanical analysis results for a 1-m light-weight mirror system for a space telescope. The mirror has partially-closed pockets at the back surface and three square bosses at the rim for flexure mounting. The mirror design is optimized to satisfy the performance requirements under launch loads and a space environment. Mirror surface distortions due to gravity, assembly, isothermal loads, and moisture absorption are investigated. Mechanical safety issues such as mirror fracture, flexure yielding, and adhesive breakage are also examined.

  12. New corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether for mild steel in 1 M HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xia, Shuwei; Shan, Mingli; Li, Xia; Yu, Liangmin; Tang, Qunwei

    2016-05-01

    Pursuit of good inhibition performance has been a persistent objective for advanced inhibitor industry. Here we demonstrate the experimental realization of a new corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether (AAME) from N-Methylol acrylamide (N-MAM) for mild steel in 1 M HCl. The resultant adsorption films have inhibition efficiency as high as 96.2%. Moreover, a theoretical investigation is also launched to demonstrate the potential mechanism behind the promising corrosion behaviors. This work represents a significant step forward, as it demonstrates how to make scalable AAME inhibitors as well as to enhance inhibition performances for high-efficiency and cost-effective corrosion inhibition platforms.

  13. Polars Observed with SDSS, CRTS, and McDonald Observatory 2.1-m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    We present first results of a program to characterize magnetic CVs, mostly polars,using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS). We find that while it is difficult to predict what state a particular binary will be in, the duty cycle between optical high and low states of polars remains stable over multi-year time-scales. We suggest that polars lie along a sequence of long-term light curve behavior, from rarely high to rarely low. High speed photometry of polars from the 2.1-m telescope of McDonald Observatory is also presented.

  14. Electrochemical Evaluation of Corrosion on Borided and Non-borided Steels Immersed in 1 M HCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía-Caballero, I.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Romero-Romo, M.; Herrera-Hernández, H.; Herrera-Soria, O.; Campos Silva, I.

    2014-08-01

    In this study the corrosion resistances of AISI 1018 and AISI 304 borided and non-borided steels were estimated using polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Boriding of the steel samples was conducted using the powder-pack method at 1223 K with 6 h of exposure. Structural examinations of the surfaces of the borided steels showed the presence of a Fe2B layer with isolated FeB teeth on the AISI 1018 steel, whereas a compact layer of FeB/Fe2B was formed on the AISI 304 steel. Polarization resistance and EIS of the borided and non-borided steels surfaces were performed in a corrosive solution of 1 M HCl. The EIS data were analyzed during 43 days of exposure to the acid solution. Impedance curves obtained during this period for the borided and non-borided steels were modeled using equivalent electrical circuits. The results of both electrochemical techniques indicated that boride layers formed at the steel surfaces effectively protect the samples from the corrosive effects of HCl. The main corrosion processes observed on the boride layers were pitting and crevice corrosion.

  15. Identification of the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 mRNA and protein in human mononuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Fiore, C; Nardi, A; Dalla Valle, L; Pellati, D; Krozowski, Z; Colombo, L; Armanini, D

    2009-10-01

    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the interconversion between inactive 11-ketoglucocorticoids and their active 11beta-hydroxy derivatives, such as cortisol and corticosterone. We have investigated the expression of 11beta-HSD1 in freshly isolated human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes (MNL). The presence of 11beta-HSD1 mRNA was demonstrated in total RNA by RT-PCR using specific primers designed on the 4th and 5th exons of the human 11beta-HSD1 gene. Fragments of the expected size were consistently detected on agarose gels, and sequencing showed complete identity with the corresponding sequence deposited in GenBank. The occurrence of 11beta-HSD1 protein was established by Western immunoblot analysis with a specific polyclonal antibody. Enzyme oxo-reductase activity was investigated by incubating 12 samples of MNL isolated from from 8 subjects with [3H]cortisone and formation of cortisol was established only in 4 subjects (yield range: 0.15-1.3%) after acetylation and TLC, blank subtraction and correction for losses. 18beta-Glycyrrhetinic acid, an inhibitor of 11 beta-HSD1, reduced cortisol production below detection limit. Dehydrogenase activity could not be demonstrated. It is suggested that, although enzyme activity of 11beta-HSD1 in circulating MNL is low, it is apparently ready for enhancement after MNL migration to sites of inflammation. PMID:19235128

  16. Stimulation of water injection wells in the Los Angeles basin using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Patterson, D.E.; Aseltine, R.J.; Young, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive stimulation program was developed to improve the injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills Hills and San Vicente Fields. In recent years the wells had low to zero injectivity and very limited vertical distribution of injected water as a result of formation damage, sand face plugging, and perforation blockage. A stimulaiton strategy was developed which sequentially removed this damage. It began with redesigning the central water plant to provide clean injection brine. The casing was mechanically cleaned. Near-wellbore solids were dissolved or loosened using hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach); then, removed from the well by reverse circulating and suction washing. Remaining damage was treated with hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acid and bleach using circulation wash and selective squeeze techniques. Two- to three-fold improvements in injectivity after stimulation were common. Vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial 0-30% coverage to 85-95% after stimulation. 10 refs.

  17. Prolonged Pseudohypoxia Targets Ambra1 mRNA to P-Bodies for Translational Repression

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Paola; Rizza, Salvatore; D’Amico, Silvia; Cecconi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been associated with several pathological conditions ranging from stroke to cancer. This condition results in the activation of autophagy, a cyto-protective response involving the formation of double-membraned structures, the autophagosomes, in the cytoplasm. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms regulating the autophagy gene Ambra1, after exposure to a hypoxia mimetic, cobalt chloride (CoCl2). We observed that, upon CoCl2 administration, activation of the apoptotic machinery was concomitant with down-regulation of the pro-autophagic factor Ambra1, without affecting transcription. Additionally, co-treating the cells with the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK did not restore Ambra1 protein levels, this implying the involvement of other regulatory mechanisms. Partial re-localization of Ambra1 mRNA to non-translating fractions and cytoplasmic P-bodies was further detected. Thus, in this pseudohypoxic context, Ambra1 mRNA translocation to P-bodies and translational suppression correlated with increased cell death. PMID:26086269

  18. A Study on Helium Glow Discharge Cleaning in the HL-1M Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-wen; Yan, Dong-hai; Wang, En-yao

    2002-12-01

    Based on the principle of ion-bombarded reemission and sputtering desorption, the Glow Discharge Cleaning with helium (GDC(He)) is an effective method for controlling the recycle of H on the chamber wall, Carbon (C), Oxygen (O) impurity and improving the wall conditioning in HL-1M tokamak. It is characterized by simplicity without magnet and safety, compared with Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC), Alternating current glow discharge Cleaning (AC), Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Discharge Cleaning (ECR-DC). Compared with bake-out degassing, the wall has a higher degassing rate during GDC(He) and a lower impurity concentration in vacuum chambers after GDC(He). Cleaning patterns have been developed dominantly for de-oxidization, decarbonization and de-hydrogenization. The cleaning parameters for H recycle on the wall are also presented. This paper mainly describes the GDC system along with its parameters, breakdown voltage, volt-ampere characteristic, the range of operation safe and suitable cleaning patterns in the HL-1M tokamak, finally concluding with some suggestions on HL-2A GDC.

  19. 1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier-envelope phase-locked pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Canova, L.; Malvache, A.; Jullien, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Durfee, C.; Papadopoulos, D.; Druon, F.

    2010-04-01

    We report the routine generation of sub-5-fs laser pulses with 1-mJ energy and stable carrier-envelope phase at 1-kHz repetition rate, obtained by compressing the multi-mJ output from a phase-locked Ti:sapphire amplifier in a rare-gas-filled hollow fiber. The dual-stage amplifier features a hybrid transmission grating/chirped mirror compressor providing 2.2-mJ, 26-fs pulses at 1 kHz with standard phase deviation of 190 mrad rms. We demonstrate hour-long phase stability without feedback control of grating position or rigorous control of the laser environment, simply by using small pulse stretching factors in the amplifier, which minimize the beam pathway in the compressor. The amplifier also integrates a versatile AOPDF (acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter) for closed-loop spectral phase optimization. The various factors influencing the overall phase stability of the system are discussed in detail. Using the optimized output, 1-mJ, 4.5-fs pulses are generated by seeding the neon gas filled hollow fiber with a circularly polarized input beam. A standard phase deviation of 230 mrad after the HCF is obtained by direct f-to-2 f detection and slow-loop feedback to the oscillator locking electronics without any additional spectral broadening.

  20. Regulation of CYP27B1 mRNA Expression in Primary Human Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, K; van Essen, H W; Bloemers, F W; Schulten, E A J M; Lips, P; Bravenboer, N

    2016-08-01

    The enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (gene CYP27B1) catalyzes the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D in both renal and bone cells. While renal 1α-hydroxylase is tightly regulated by hormones and 1,25(OH)2D itself, the regulation of 1α-hydroxylase in bone cells is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate in a primary human osteoblast culture whether parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), calcitonin, calcium, phosphate, or MEPE affect mRNA levels of CYP27B1. Our results show that primary human osteoblasts in the presence of high calcium concentrations increase their CYP27B1 mRNA levels by 1.3-fold. CYP27B1 mRNA levels were not affected by PTH1-34, rhFGF23, calcitonin, phosphate, and rhMEPE. Our results suggest that the regulation of bone 1α-hydroxylase is different from renal 1α-hydroxylase. High calcium concentrations in bone may result in an increased local synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D leading to an enhanced matrix mineralization. In this way, the local synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D may contribute to the stimulatory effect of calcium on matrix mineralization. PMID:27016371

  1. Soil map of the Russian Arctic on a 1 : 1 M scale: Contents and compilation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. S.

    2016-04-01

    A new soil map of the Russian Arctic on a scale of 1 : 1 M shows the soil cover in the north of Eurasia and on the islands of the Arctic Ocean to the north of 68° N. This map has been developed in a geoinformation system in the vector format with the wide use of remote sensing data. The delineated soil polygons show dominant and accompanying soils and the structure of soil cover patterns with indication of soil associations and soil complexes, the character of parent materials, and the topographic conditions. The map of the soil-geographic zoning of the Russian Arctic developed on the basis of the soil map differs from its earlier analogues in a greater degree of detail. The soil map of the Russian Arctic on a scale of 1 : 1 M displays the most detailed information on the soil cover patterns and can be used for solving various problems related to the exploration and development of this territory. Soil names from the new classification system of Russian soils [10] have been introduced into the legend of the map. New soil information and the use of remote sensing data have made it possible to enlarge the number of soil polygons shown on the map and to correct their boundaries in comparison with previous soil maps of the Russian Arctic.

  2. Optimization design and simulation analysis for the key components of 1m aperture photoelectric theodolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San, Xiao-gang; Qiao, Yan-feng; Yu, Shuaibei; Wang, Tao; Tang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Taking a 1m aperture photoelectric theodolite as study object, its key components including four-way, turntable and base are structural optimized so as to improve structural rigidity while reducing structural mass. First, various components' working characteristics and relationships with the other parts are studied, based on these, reasonable finite element model of these components are established, then each component's optimal material topology are obtained by continuum topology optimization. According to structural topology, lightweight truss structure models are constructed and the models' key parameters are optimized in size. Finally, the structures optimized are verified by finite element analysis. Analysis prove that comparing to traditional structure, lightweight structures of theodolite's three key components can reduce mass up to 1095.2kg, and increase ratio of stiffness to mass. Meanwhile, for other indexes such as maximum stress, static deformation and first-order natural frequency, lightweight structures also have better performance than traditional structure. After alignment, angular shaking error of theodolite's horizontal axis is tested by autocollimator, the results are: maximum error is υ =1.82″, mean square error is σ =0.62″. Further, angular shaking error of theodolite's vertical axis is tested by 0.2″ gradienter, the results are: maximum error is υ =1.97″, mean square error is σ =0.706″. The results of all these analysis and tests fully prove that the optimized lightweight key components of this 1m aperture theodolite are reasonable and effective to satisfy this instrument's requirements.

  3. Products of the Black Sea alga Phyllophora nervosa as corrosion inhibitor for steel in acids

    SciTech Connect

    Popelyukh, G.M.; Andrianov, A.M.; Burtnenko, L.M.; Gazha, P.A.; Talavira, L.I.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated the inhibiting properties of the processing products of the Black Sea red seaweed Phyllophora nervosa on specimens of steel St3 in phosphoric and hydrochloric acids of various concentrations at temperatures in the range from 30 to 95 /sup 0/C. They have studied how the concentrations of urotropin, sodium chloride, and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions influence the protective properties of the seaweed inhibitor. They have made preliminary investigations of the mechanisms of the protective action.

  4. Method for determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by liquid-liquid extraction with triisooctylamine/xylene in hydrochloric media and alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2012-10-01

    Alternative method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The method is based on total decomposition of the solid materials and preconcentration of liquid samples. The separation of uranium from interfering radionuclides and stable matrix elements is attained by liquid-liquid extraction with triisooctylamine/xylene in hydrochloric media. After the additional removal of stable iron by extraction with diisopropyl ether, purified uranium is electrodeposited on stainless steel disks and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been successfully applied to the determination of uranium isotopes in water and bottom sediments from the rivers Danube, Ogosta and Tzibritza in Northwestern Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials with different matrices. PMID:22871440

  5. Oestradiol reduces Liver Receptor Homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Kyren A.; Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C.; To, Sarah Q.; Chand, Ashwini L.; Clyne, Colin D.

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates tumor proliferation. •In breast cancer, high mRNA expression is associated with ER+ status. •In ER−ve cells, despite very low mRNA, we found abundant LRH-1 protein. •Our data show distinctly different LRH-1 protein isoforms in ER− and ER+ breast cancer cells. •This is due to differences in LRH-1 mRNA and protein stability rates. -- Abstract: The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E{sub 2}), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER− cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER− cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER− breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER− compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E{sub 2}, showed increased mRNA stability in ER− versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E{sub 2} treatment, this effect mediated by ERα. Our data demonstrates that in ER− cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER− cells as well as ER− tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER− tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER− and ER+ breast cancer.

  6. Acute and chronic effects of exposure to a 1-mT magnetic field on the cytoskeleton, stress proteins, and proliferation of astroglial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Bodega, G. . E-mail: guillermo.bodega@uah.es; Forcada, I.; Suarez, I.; Fernandez, B.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the effects of exposure to static, sinusoidal (50 Hz), and combined static/sinusoidal magnetic fields on cultured astroglial cells. Confluent primary cultures of astroglial cells were exposed to a 1-mT sinusoidal, static, or combined magnetic field for 1 h. In another experiment, cells were exposed to the combined magnetic field for 1, 2, and 4 h. The hsp25, hsp60, hsp70, actin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein contents of the astroglial cells were determined by immunoblotting 24 h after exposure. No significant differences were seen between control and exposed cells with respect to their contents of these proteins, neither were any changes in cell morphology observed. In a third experiment to determine the effect of a chronic (11-day) exposure to a combined 1-mT static/sinusoidal magnetic field on the proliferation of cultured astroglial cells, no significant differences were seen between control, sham-exposed, or exposed cells. These results suggest that exposure to 1-mT sinusoidal, static, or combined magnetic fields has no significant effects on the stress, cytoskeletal protein levels in, or proliferation of cultured astroglial cells.

  7. Boron-Dependent Degradation of NIP5;1 mRNA for Acclimation to Excess Boron Conditions in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Mayuki; Takano, Junpei; Chiba, Yukako; Lombardo, Fabien; Ogasawara, Yuki; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Naito, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Boron (B) is an essential plant micronutrient that is toxic at higher levels. NIP5;1 is a boric acid channel required for B uptake and growth under B deficiency. Accumulation of the NIP5;1 transcript is upregulated under B deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. To elucidate the mechanism of regulation, the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of NIP5;1 was tested for its ability to confer B-dependent regulation using β-glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein as reporters. This analysis showed that the 5′ UTR was involved in NIP5;1 transcript accumulation in response to B conditions. We also found that high-B conditions trigger NIP5;1 mRNA degradation and that the sequence from +182 to +200 bp in the 5′ UTR is required for this mRNA destabilization. In the nip5;1-1 mutant background, a NIP5;1 complementation construct without the 5′ UTR produced high levels of mRNA accumulation, increased B concentrations in tissues, and reduced growth under high-B conditions. These data suggest that the 5′ UTR controls B-dependent NIP5;1 mRNA degradation and that NIP5;1 mRNA degradation is important for plant acclimation to high-B conditions. PMID:21908722

  8. Quantification of hydrochloric acid and particulate deposition resulting from Space Shuttle launches at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S.A.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hall, Carlton R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from studies designed to identify deposition patterns and quantify the ecosystem loading rates of exhaust constituents (which are primarily Al2O3 and HCl) from the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors in the area of the Kennedy Space Center launch pad. Results of measurements indicate that, under certain meteorological conditions, as much as 7.1 x 10 exp 3 kg of particulates and 3.4 x 10 exp 3 kg HCL can be deposited to the near-field environment beyond the launch pad perimeter fence during one STS launch.

  9. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K73: Amount content of H+ in hydrochloric acid (0.1 mol kg-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kenneth W.; Ortiz-Aparicio, Jose Luis; Matehuala-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Pawlina, Monika; Kozlowski, Wladyslaw; Borges, Paulo P.; da Silva Junior, Wiler B.; Borinsky, Mónica B.; Hernandez-Mabel Puelles, Ana; Hatamleh, Nadia; Acosta, Osvaldo; Nunes, João; Guiomar Lito, M. J.; Camões, M. Filomena; Filipe, Eduarda; Hwang, Euijin; Lim, Youngran; Bing, Wu; Qian, Wang; Chao, Wei; Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Máriássy, Michal; Hanková, Zuzana; Nagibin, Sergey; Manska, Olexandra; Gavrilkin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This key comparison (KC), CCQM-K73, was performed to demonstrate the capability of the participating National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) to measure the amount content of H+, νH+, in an HCl solution with a nominal νH+ of 0.1 mol kg-1. The comparison was a joint activity of the Electrochemical Working Group (EAWG) and Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the CCQM and was coordinated by NIST (USA) and CENAM (Mexico). The agreement of the results was not commensurate with the claimed uncertainties of the subset of participants that claimed small uncertainties for this determination. A workshop on technical issues relating to the CCQM-K73 measurements was conducted at the joint IAWG-EAWG meeting at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Paris (Sèvres) in April 2010. Several possible sources of bias were investigated, but none could explain the observed dispersion among the participants' results. In the absence of a specific cause for the dispersion, the IAWG and EAWG decided to assign a Key Comparison Reference Value, KCRV, and standard uncertainty of the KCRV, uKCRV, based on the DerSimonian-Laird statistical estimator. The uKCRV is dominated by the between-laboratory scatter of results in CCQM-K73. The uncertainty estimates from the participants with the lowest reported uncertainties remain unsupported by this KC. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. 1 mJ single-rod fiber Er:glass laser for rangefinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Andrey A.; Polyakov, Vadim M.; Vitkin, Vladimir V.; Kharitonov, Artem A.; Buchenkov, Vyacheslav A.; Rodionov, Andrey Y.; Alekseeva, Irina P.; Dymshits, Olga S.; Zhilin, Alexander A.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate a compact Er:glass single-rod fiber laser for rangefinding with 1 mJ energy Q-switched at 1.54μm. Double-pass pumping with 16 W power and 5 ms pulse duration was used. Active medium was enveloped with diffuse reflector. Thus efficient output power operation achieved. Free-running mode output pulse energy was 12 mJ with a slope efficiency of 16%. Transparent glass-ceramics containing Co2+:MgAl2O4 nanocrystals were selected as the optimal passive gate to ensure Q-switching in a temperature range and transverse mode selection. The Q-switch mode had steady operation at 1 Hz repetition rate with thermal effects playing no visible role.

  11. On the threshold electric field for the @1-m auroral irregularity appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kustov, A.; Uspensky, M. ); Kangas, J.; Huuskonen, A. ); Nielsen, E. )

    1989-09-01

    The authors study the electric field threshold for 1-m auroral electrojet irregularity excitation, using data from the special Finnish EISCAT experiment held on November 17, 1983. They found that at times irregularities can arise when the ionospheric electric field is 5-15 mV/m, i.e., well below the Farley-Buneman instability threshold. The electron density fluctuations derived here are increased when the E field becomes more than 15 mV/m. As a result the dependence of electron density fluctuation amplitude on electric fields has a kind of a soft E field threshold. Possible reasons for such a dependence are discussed. They show that unresolved ionospheric microstructure in the radar scattering volume can cause this threshold spreading.

  12. CCRL2 regulates M1/M2 polarization during EAE recovery phase.

    PubMed

    Mazzon, Cristina; Zanotti, Lucia; Wang, Li; Del Prete, Annalisa; Fontana, Elena; Salvi, Valentina; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Sozzani, Silvano

    2016-06-01

    Chemokine (CC motif) receptor-like 2 is a 7-transmembrane protein related to the family of the atypical chemokine receptors, which are proteins devoid of chemotactic activity and involved in the control of inflammation. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder that replicates the inflammatory aspects of multiple sclerosis. Chemokine (CC motif) receptor-like 2-deficient mice developed exacerbated, nonresolving disease with protracted inflammatory response and increased demyelination. The increased severity of the disease was associated with higher levels of microglia/macrophage activation markers and imbalanced M1/M2 polarization. Thus, chemokine (CC motif) receptor-like 2 is involved in the downregulation of central nervous system-associated experimental autoimmune encephalitis inflammation in the recovery phase of the disease. Therefore chemokine (CC motif) receptor-like 2 should be considered to be a molecule involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response associated with multiple sclerosis. PMID:26744451

  13. The 0.1m subsonic cryogenic tunnel at the University of Southampton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The design and performance of a low speed one atmosphere cryogenic wind tunnel is described. The tunnel is fan driven and operates over the temperature range 305K to 77K at Mach numbers up to 0.28. It is cooled by the injection and evaporation of liquid nitrogen in the circuit, and the usual test gas is nitrogen. The tunnel has a square test section 0.1m across and was built to allow, at low costs, the development of testing techniques and the development of instrumentation for use in cryogenic tunnels, and to exploit in general instrumentation work the unusuallly wide range of unit Reynolds number available in such tunnels. The tunnel was first used in the development of surface flow visualization techniques for use at cryogenic temperatures.

  14. IR CMOS: the digital nightvision solution to sub-1 mLux imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, M. U.; Carey, J. E.; Vineis, C.; Palsule, C.; Jiang, J.; Joy, T.

    2015-05-01

    SiOnyx has demonstrated imaging at light levels below 1 mLux at 60 FPS with a 720P CMOS image sensor in a compact, low latency camera. The camera contains a 1 inch (16 mm) optical format sensor and streams uncompressed video over CameraLink with row wise image latency below 1 msec. Sub mLux imaging is enabled by the combination of enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared together with state of the art low noise image sensor design. The quantum efficiency enhancement is achieved by utilizing SiOnyx's proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor processing technology that enhances the absorption of light within a thin pixel layer. Our technology demonstrates a 10 fold improvement in infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Applications include surveillance, nightvision, and 1064nm laser see-spot.

  15. The luminosity function of cluster galaxies: relations among M_1_, M^*^ and the morphological type.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevese, D.; Cirimele, G.; Appodia, B.

    1996-11-01

    A study of the luminosity function of 36 Abell clusters of galaxies has been carried out using photographic plates obtained with the Palomar 1.2 m Schmidt telescope. The relation between the magnitude M_1_ of the brightest cluster member and the Schechter function parameter M^*^ has been analyzed. A positive correlation between M^*^ and M_1_ is found. However clusters appear segregated in the M_1_-M^*^ plane according to their Rood & Sastry class in such a way that on average M_1_ becomes brighter while M^*^ becomes fainter going from late to early Rood & Sastry and also Bautz & Morgan classes. Also a partial correlation analysis involving the magnitude M_10_ of the 10th brightest galaxy, shows a negative intrinsic correlation between M_1_ and M^*^. These results agree with the cannibalism model for the formation of brightest cluster members, and provide new constraints for theories of cluster formation and evolution.

  16. Quench characteristics of 1-m-long SSC model dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoyama, K.; Kabe, A.; Hara, K.; Nakai, H.

    1996-12-31

    A series of fifteen 5-cm-aperture, 1-m-long SSC model dipole magnets with various types of end design and cable have been designed and fabricated at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK). The ramp-rate-dependent quench tests of the magnets KEKNo.3 to No.15 were performed in a 4.2-K vertical cryostat. A ramp-rate-dependent test of the magnet KEKNo.6 was also performed in 1.7-K pressurized superfluid helium. Special ramp tests so called {open_quotes}heating{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}cooling{close_quotes} experiments were also performed on the magnet KEKNo.10, as well as heat induced quench tests using the spot heaters installed in midplane of inner coils of the magnets KEKNo.7 and No.15 and in the splice part of the magnet KEKNo.13Y.

  17. EWS represses cofilin 1 expression by inducing nuclear retention of cofilin 1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Kuwahara, I; Matsumoto, K

    2014-06-01

    In Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), the proto-oncogene EWS that encodes an RNA-binding protein is fused by chromosomal translocation to the gene encoding one of the E-twenty six (ETS) family of transcription factors, most commonly friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI-1). Although EWS/FLI-1 chimeric proteins are necessary for carcinogenesis, additional events seem to be required for transformation to occur. We have previously reported that a protein product of an EWS mRNA target, whose expression is negatively regulated by EWS but not by EWS/FLI-1, contributes to ESFT development. However, the mechanism by which EWS represses protein expression remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that overexpression of full-length EWS repressed protein expression and induced nuclear retention of reporter mRNAs in a tethering assay. In contrast, when a mutant lacking the EWS C-terminal nuclear localization signal (classified as a PY-NLS) was expressed, reporter protein expression was upregulated, and the number of cells exporting reporter mRNA to the cytoplasm increased. EWS binds to the 3'-untranslated region in another mRNA target, cofilin 1 (CFL1), and negatively regulates the expression of CFL1. Overexpression of EWS induced nuclear retention of CFL1 mRNA. Furthermore, ESFT cell proliferation and metastatic potential were suppressed by small interfering RNA-mediated CFL1 knockdown. Together, our findings suggest that EWS induces nuclear retention of CFL1 mRNA, thereby suppressing expression of CFL1, and that CFL1 promotes development of ESFT. Targeting CFL1 might therefore provide another novel approach for treatment of this aggressive disease. PMID:23831569

  18. Anthocyanin effects on microglia M1/M2 phenotype: Consequence on neuronal fractalkine expression.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Manuela; Marques, Cláudia; Norberto, Sónia; Santos, Paulo; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição

    2016-05-15

    Microglia mediate multiple aspects of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype or microglia-neuron crosstalk can be an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy. Anthocyanins are a class of flavonoids found e.g., in berries that has been attracting interest due to its neuroprotective potential. However, there are no data clarifying the impact of anthocyanins on microglial phenotype or on microglia-neuron crosstalk (CX3CR1/CX3CL1). N9 microglia cell line was treated with 1μM cyanidin (Cy), cyanidin-3-glucose (Cy3glc) and a methylated form of cyanidin-3-glucose (Met-Cy3glc) in basal conditions and with LPS/IL-4 stimulation. SH-SY5Y cell line was treated with the conditioned medium of microglia and with the anthocyanins alone. At basal conditions, microglia treatment with anthocyanins for 24h induced a less pro-inflammatory profile. Decreased TNF-α mRNA expression was induced either by Cy and Met-Cy3glc. LPS markedly increase IL-6 mRNA expression, which was lowered by Cy3glc. IL-1β LPS-induced expression was reverted by Cy. Cy increased CX3CL1 mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y comparing either with control or LPS. Anthocyanins and metabolites were not able to shift microglia to an M2 strict phenotype however they did interact with microglia biology. There was an attenuation of M1 phenotype and increase of neuronal expression of CX3CL1 mRNA. Understanding how flavonoids modulate microglia-neuron crosstalk can open new directions for future nutritional interventions. PMID:26965567

  19. The Choice of Alternative 5' Splice Sites in Influenza Virus M1 mRNA is Regulated by the Viral Polymerase Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Shin-Ru; Nemeroff, Martin E.; Krug, Robert M.

    1995-07-01

    The influenza virus M1 mRNA has two alternative 5' splice sites: a distal 5' splice site producing mRNA_3 that has the coding potential for 9 amino acids and a proximal 5' splice site producing M2 mRNA encoding the essential M2 ion-channel protein. Only mRNA_3 was made in uninfected cells transfected with DNA expressing M1 mRNA. Similarly, using nuclear extracts from uninfected cells, in vitro splicing of M1 mRNA yielded only mRNA_3. Only when the mRNA_3 5' splice site was inactivated by mutation was M2 mRNA made in uninfected cells and in uninfected cell extracts. In influenza virus-infected cells, M2 mRNA was made, but only after a delay, suggesting that newly synthesized viral gene product(s) were needed to activate the M2 5' splice site. We present strong evidence that these gene products are the complex of the three polymerase proteins, the same complex that functions in the transcription and replication of the viral genome. Gel shift experiments showed that the viral polymerase complex bound to the 5' end of the viral M1 mRNA in a sequence-specific and cap-dependent manner. During in vitro splicing catalyzed by uninfected cell extracts, the binding of the viral polymerase complex blocked the mRNA_3 5' splice site, resulting in the switch to the M2 mRNA 5' splice site and the production of M2 mRNA.

  20. LACK OF FUNCTIONAL GABAB RECEPTORS ALTERS Kiss1, Gnrh1 AND Gad1 mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS AT POSTNATAL DAY 4

    PubMed Central

    Di Giorgio, Noelia P.; Catalano, Paolo N.; López, Paula V.; González, Betina; Semaan, Sheila J.; López, Gabriela C.; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Rulli, Susana B.; Somoza, Gustavo M.; Bettler, Bernhard; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Adult mice lacking functional GABAB receptors (GABAB1KO) show altered Gnrh1 and Gad1 expressions in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) and females display disruption of cyclicity and fertility. Here we addressed whether sexual differentiation of the brain and the proper wiring of the GnRH and kisspeptin systems were already disturbed in postnatal day 4 (PND4) GABAB1KO mice. Methods PND4 wild type (WT) and GABAB1KO mice of both sexes were sacrificed; tissues were collected to determine mRNA expression (qPCR), amino acids (HPLC), and hormones (RIA and/or IHC). Results GnRH neuron number (IHC) did not differ among groups in olfactory bulbs or OVLT-POA. Gnrh1 mRNA (qPCR) in POA-AH was similar among groups. Gnrh1 mRNA in medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) was similar in WTs but was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Hypothalamic GnRH (RIA) was sexually different in WTs (males > females) but this sex difference was lost in GABAB1KOs; the same pattern was observed when analyzing only the MBH, but not in the POA-AH. Arcuate nucleus Kiss1 mRNA (micropunch-qPCR) was higher in WT females than in WT males and GABAB1KO females. Gad1 mRNA in MBH was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Serum LH and gonadal estradiol content were also increased in GABAB1KOs. Conclusion We demonstrate that GABABRs participate in the sexual differentiation of the ARC/MBH, because sex differences in several reproductive genes, such as Gad1, Kiss1 and Gnrh1, are critically disturbed in GABAB1KO mice at PND4, probably altering the organization and development of neural circuits governing the reproductive axis. PMID:24080944

  1. ATP hydrolysis is essential for Bag-1M-mediated inhibition of the DNA binding by the glucocorticoid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Wei; Chen, Linfeng; Liu, Yunde; Gao, Weizhen

    2009-12-04

    The 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) is involved in providing the appropriate conformation of various nuclear hormone receptors, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The Bcl-2 associated athanogene 1M (Bag-1M) is known to downregulate the DNA binding by the GR. Also, Bag-1M interacts with the ATPase domain of Hsp70 to modulate the release of the substrate from Hsp70. In this study, we demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis enhances Bag-1M-mediated inhibition of the DNA binding by the GR. However, the inhibitory effect of Bag-1M was abolished when the intracellular ATP was depleted. In addition, a Bag-1M mutant lacking the interaction with Hsp70 did not influence the GR to bind DNA, suggesting the interaction of Bag-1M with Hsp70 in needed for its negative effect. These results indicate that ATP hydrolysis is essential for Bag-1M-mediated inhibition of the DNA binding by the GR and Hsp70 is a mediator for this process.

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and K-12 Cultures Exposed to Inorganic and Organic Acids in Stationary Phase Reveals Acidulant- and Strain-Specific Acid Tolerance Responses ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    King, Thea; Lucchini, Sacha; Hinton, Jay C. D.; Gobius, Kari

    2010-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is commonly exposed to organic acid in processed and preserved foods, allowing adaptation and the development of tolerance to pH levels otherwise lethal. Since little is known about the molecular basis of adaptation of E. coli to organic acids, we studied K-12 MG1655 and O157:H7 Sakai during exposure to acetic, lactic, and hydrochloric acid at pH 5.5. This is the first analysis of the pH-dependent transcriptomic response of stationary-phase E. coli. Thirty-four genes and three intergenic regions were upregulated by both strains during exposure to all acids. This universal acid response included genes involved in oxidative, envelope, and cold stress resistance and iron and manganese uptake, as well as 10 genes of unknown function. Acidulant- and strain-specific responses were also revealed. The acidulant-specific response reflects differences in the modes of microbial inactivation, even between weak organic acids. The two strains exhibited similar responses to lactic and hydrochloric acid, while the response to acetic acid was distinct. Acidulant-dependent differences between the strains involved induction of genes involved in the heat shock response, osmoregulation, inorganic ion and nucleotide transport and metabolism, translation, and energy production. E. coli O157:H7-specific acid-inducible genes were identified, suggesting that the enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain possesses additional molecular mechanisms contributing to acid resistance that are absent in K-12. While E. coli K-12 was most resistant to lactic and hydrochloric acid, O157:H7 may have a greater ability to survive in more complex acidic environments, such as those encountered in the host and during food processing. PMID:20709847

  3. Ictalurus punctatus apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1) mRNA, complete cds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete coding sequence of channel catfish apolipoprotein A-I is 777 bp in length, encoding 258 amino acids. The publishing of this coding sequence will also allow phylogenetic comparison between catfish ApoAI and ApoAI genes from other species. The availability of this complete coding sequence...

  4. Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are proliferating microglia with distinct M1/M2 phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tam, Wing Yip; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are generally considered the resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that regulate the primary events of neuroinflammatory responses. Microglia also play key roles in repair and neurodegeneration of the CNS after injury. Recent studies showed that trains of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia align end-to-end along the CNS injury site during the initial recovery phase. However, the cellular characteristics of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia remain largely unknown. Here, we established a highly reproducible in vitro culture model system to enrich and characterize bipolar/rod-shaped microglia by simply generating multiple scratches on a poly-d-lysine/laminin-coated culture dish. Trains of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia formed and aligned along the scratches in a manner that morphologically resembled microglial trains observed in injured brain. These bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were highly proliferative and expressed various M1/M2 markers. Further analysis revealed that these bipolar/rod-shaped microglia quickly transformed into amoeboid microglia within 30 minutes of lipopolysaccharide treatment, leading to the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and the activation of Jak/Stat. In summary, our culture system provides a model to further characterize this highly dynamic cell type. We suggest that bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are crucial for repairing the damaged CNS and that the molecular mechanisms underlying their morphological changes may serve as therapeutic biomarkers. PMID:25452009

  5. Active remote observing system for the 1-m telescope at Tonantzintla Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Abel; Martínez, Luis A.; Hernández, Héctor; Garfias, Fernando; Ángeles, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    We have designed and installed a new active remote observing system for the 1-m, f/15 telescope at the Tonantzintla Observatory. This remote system is operated in real-time through the Internet, allowing an observer to control the building, the telescope (pointing, guiding and focusing) and the CCD image acquisition at the main and finder telescopes from the Instituto de Astronomia headquarters in Mexico City (150 KM away). The whole system was modeled within the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the design has proved to be versatile enough for a variety of astronomical instruments. We describe the system architecture and how different subsystems (telescope control, main telescope and finder image acquisition, weather station, videoconference, etc.) that are based on different operative system platforms (Linux, Windows, uIP) have been integrated. We present the first results of an IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel. Recent remote direct imaging and spectroscopic observations have been used to test the astronomical site. We conclude that this remote system is an excellent tool for supporting research and graduated observational astronomy programs.

  6. M1-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-deficient mice: novel phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Dinesh; Duttaroy, Alokesh; Cui, Yinghong; Han, Sung-Jun; Deng, Chuxia; Seeger, Thomas; Alzheimer, Christian; Wess, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    The five muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1-M5 mAChRs) mediate a very large number of important physiological functions (Caulfield, 1993; Caulfield and Birdsall, 1998; Wess, 2004). Because of the lack of small molecule ligands endowed with a high degree of receptor subtype selectivity and the fact that most tissues or cell types express two or more mAChR subtypes, identification of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the individual mAChR subtypes has proved to be a challenging task. To overcome these difficulties, we recently generated mutant mouse lines deficient in each of the five mAChR genes (M1R-/- mice, M2R-/- mice, M3R-/- mice, etc. [Wess, 2004]). Phenotyping studies showed that each of the five mutant mouse lines displayed characteristic physiological, pharmacological, behavioral, biochemical, or neurochemical deficits (Wess, 2004). This chapter summarizes recent findings dealing with the importance of the M2mAChR for cognitive processes and the roles of the M1 and M3 mAChRs in mediating stimulation of glandular secretion. PMID:17192665

  7. Down-regulated expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Perlino, E.; Loverro, G.; Maiorano, E.; Giannini, T.; Cazzolla, A.; Napoli, A.; Fiore, M. G.; Ricco, R.; Marra, E.; Selvaggi, L.

    1998-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent modulator of cell proliferation in vitro, and recent studies have demonstrated its overexpression in several different tumours; nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of TGF-beta1 action on cell growth and differentiation have not been fully elucidated. To clarify the role of TGF-beta and its receptor in human endometrial proliferation and differentiation, TGF-beta1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels has been evaluated by using Northern blotting and immunohistochemistry, in both normal (atrophic, proliferative and secretory) and neoplastic (adenocarcinoma) endometrial samples. This study demonstrates that TGF-beta1 mRNA expression is dramatically reduced in endometrial carcinomas with respect to non-neoplastic tissues, whereas the immunohistochemical expression of TGF-beta1 is enhanced in the epithelial component of endometrial carcinomas compared with non-neoplastic tissues. These data suggest that TGF-beta1 acts as a paracrine regulator of endometrial cell proliferation and that it may contribute to the carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9579831

  8. Down-regulated expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Perlino, E; Loverro, G; Maiorano, E; Giannini, T; Cazzolla, A; Napoli, A; Fiore, M G; Ricco, R; Marra, E; Selvaggi, L

    1998-04-01

    Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent modulator of cell proliferation in vitro, and recent studies have demonstrated its overexpression in several different tumours; nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of TGF-beta1 action on cell growth and differentiation have not been fully elucidated. To clarify the role of TGF-beta and its receptor in human endometrial proliferation and differentiation, TGF-beta1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels has been evaluated by using Northern blotting and immunohistochemistry, in both normal (atrophic, proliferative and secretory) and neoplastic (adenocarcinoma) endometrial samples. This study demonstrates that TGF-beta1 mRNA expression is dramatically reduced in endometrial carcinomas with respect to non-neoplastic tissues, whereas the immunohistochemical expression of TGF-beta1 is enhanced in the epithelial component of endometrial carcinomas compared with non-neoplastic tissues. These data suggest that TGF-beta1 acts as a paracrine regulator of endometrial cell proliferation and that it may contribute to the carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:9579831

  9. Posttranscriptional m(6)A Editing of HIV-1 mRNAs Enhances Viral Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Edward M; Bogerd, Hal P; Kornepati, Anand V R; Kang, Dong; Ghoshal, Delta; Marshall, Joy B; Poling, Brigid C; Tsai, Kevin; Gokhale, Nandan S; Horner, Stacy M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2016-05-11

    Covalent addition of a methyl group to adenosine N(6) (m(6)A) is an evolutionarily conserved and common RNA modification that is thought to modulate several aspects of RNA metabolism. While the presence of multiple m(6)A editing sites on diverse viral RNAs was reported starting almost 40 years ago, how m(6)A editing affects virus replication has remained unclear. Here, we used photo-crosslinking-assisted m(6)A sequencing techniques to precisely map several m(6)A editing sites on the HIV-1 genome and report that they cluster in the HIV-1 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Viral 3' UTR m(6)A sites or analogous cellular m(6)A sites strongly enhanced mRNA expression in cis by recruiting the cellular YTHDF m(6)A "reader" proteins. Reducing YTHDF expression inhibited, while YTHDF overexpression enhanced, HIV-1 protein and RNA expression, and virus replication in CD4+ T cells. These data identify m(6)A editing and the resultant recruitment of YTHDF proteins as major positive regulators of HIV-1 mRNA expression. PMID:27117054

  10. Age-Related Loss of Synaptophysin Immunoreactive Presynaptic Boutons within the Hippocampus of APP751SL, PS1M146L, and APP751SL/PS1M146L Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Bart P.F.; Van der Kolk, Nicolien M.; Schafer, Stephanie; van Zandvoort, Marc A.M.J.; Bayer, Thomas A.; Steinbusch, Harry W.M.; Schmitz, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Neuron and synapse loss are important features of the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, we observed substantial age-related hippocampal neuron loss in APP751SL/PS1M146L transgenic mice but not in PS1M146L mice. Here, we investigated APP751SL mice, PS1M146L mice, and APP751SL/PS1M146L mice for age-related alterations in synaptic integrity within hippocampal stratum moleculare of the dentate gyrus (SM), stratum lucidum of area CA3 (SL), and stratum radiatum of area CA1–2 (SR) by analyzing densities and numbers of synaptophysin-immunoreactive presynaptic boutons (SIPBs). Wild-type mice, APP751SL mice and PS1M146L mice showed similar amounts of age-related SIPB loss within SM, and no SIPB loss within SL. Both APP751SL mice and PS1M146L mice showed age-related SIPB loss within SR. Importantly, APP751SL/PS1M146L mice displayed the severest age-related SIPB loss within SM, SL, and SR, even in regions free of extracellular Aβ deposits. Together, these mouse models offer a unique framework to study the impact of several molecular and cellular events caused by mutant APP and/or mutant PS1 on age-related alterations in synaptic integrity. The observation of age-related SIPB loss within SR of PS1M146L mice supports a role of mutant PS1 in neurodegeneration apart from its contribution to alterations in Aβ generation. PMID:15972962

  11. Laboratory studies on acid-oil microemulsion for use in acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yasong; Chen Yuezhu; Sun Yuehua

    1996-12-31

    Two serious of anionic-nonionic surfactants, alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether phosphates (OPP-n) and sodium salts of carboxymethyl alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (OPC-n), where n denotes the average EO number in the molecular, are synthesized to prepare the acid/oil Microemulsions for acidizing. Through components screening tests a work formulation of acidizing microemulsion is established: 13.0% OPP-10, 3.0% OPC-25, 30% n-Hexanol, 36.7% Kerosine and 18.3%(15.0%-concentrated) Hydrochloric Acid. This microemulsion reacts with marble at 30{degrees}C and atmospheric pressure with the lowest acid consuming rate as compared with other retarded acid fluids. Calcium ion accelerates the acid/marble reaction and the suggested microemulsion can tolerate up to 0.69%(W) Calcium ion. No aqueous phase would be separated from the microemulsion until all acid exhausted. The acid/oil microemulsions can be recommended for both matrix and fracture acidizing in depth. The transmission of hydrogen ion in the microemulsion is investigated by using a liquid film supported by solid (SLMS) technique. The mechanism {open_quotes}transmission by exchanging{close_quotes} is suggested. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Study on the effect of different acids on the structure and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Yanhui; Xu, Jingjing; Fu, Degang

    2009-10-01

    Nanocrystalline mesoporous titania was synthesized via a combined sol-gel process with surfactant-assisted templating method using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the structure-directing agent. The process was catalyzed by different acid (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, or phosphoric acid). The prepared samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET and FT-IR. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was determined by degradation of phenol in aqueous solution. Results showed that different acid had different effect on the structure and crystal phase of the samples. The sample adjusted by phosphoric acid showed highest surface area and photocatalytic activity. The formation mechanism of the samples catalyzed by different acid was also discussed.

  13. Clinical usefulness of WT1 mRNA expression in bone marrow detected by a new WT1 mRNA assay kit for monitoring acute myeloid leukemia: a comparison with expression of WT1 mRNA in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kunio; Nishiyama, Takahiro; Ishiyama, Ken; Miyawaki, Shuichi; Miyazaki, Kanji; Suzuki, Kenshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Okada, Masaya; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Imai, Kiyotoshi; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yasuhisa; Chiba, Shigeru; Hata, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Jin; Nannya, Yasuhito; Kurokawa, Mineo; Ueda, Yasunori; Koga, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Haruo; Takaku, Fumimaro

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown the clinical usefulness of Wilms' tumor 1 gene (WT1) mRNA expression in peripheral blood (PB) as a minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring marker in 191 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients using the WT1 mRNA assay kit "Otsuka" (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; "former kit"). In contrast, the usefulness of WT1 mRNA expression in bone marrow (BM) has been investigated in only a limited number of subjects using former kit. Following that previous study, a next-generation kit, WT1 mRNA assay kit II "Otsuka" (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; "new kit") has been newly developed. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the performance of the new kit and to investigate the clinical usefulness of WT1 mRNA expression in BM. The PB and BM were collected on the same day from 164 blood disease patients, including 118 AML patients. WT1 mRNA expression was determined using the new and former kits and the values obtained were compared. The performance of new kit was shown to be equivalent to that of former kit. As reported in PB, WT1 mRNA expression in BM was found to be a useful marker for monitoring disease status as well as for a diagnosis of early stage relapse in AML patients. PMID:26520650

  14. Rac2 Controls Tumor Growth, Metastasis and M1-M2 Macrophage Differentiation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shweta; Singh, Alok R.; Zulcic, Muamera; Bao, Lei; Messer, Karen; Ideker, Trey; Dutkowski, Janusz; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well-established that the macrophage M1 to M2 transition plays a role in tumor progression, the molecular basis for this process remains incompletely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the small GTPase, Rac2 controls macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and the metastatic phenotype in vivo. Using a genetic approach, combined with syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models we demonstrate that Rac2-/- mice display a marked defect in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Microarray, RT-PCR and metabolomic analysis on bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from the Rac2-/- mice identify an important role for Rac2 in M2 macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we define a novel molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin and MCSF receptor lead to the activation of Rac2 and potentially regulate macrophage M2 differentiation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a macrophage autonomous process by which the Rac2 GTPase is activated downstream of the α4β1 integrin and the MCSF receptor to control tumor growth, metastasis and macrophage differentiation into the M2 phenotype. Finally, using gene expression and metabolomic data from our Rac2-/- model, and information related to M1-M2 macrophage differentiation curated from the literature we executed a systems biologic analysis of hierarchical protein-protein interaction networks in an effort to develop an iterative interactome map which will predict additional mechanisms by which Rac2 may coordinately control macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and metastasis. PMID:24770346

  15. Preparation of highly charged cellulose nanofibrils using high-pressure homogenization coupled with strong acid hydrolysis pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cuihua; Yi, Jianan; Wu, Yiqiang; Wu, Qinglin; Qing, Yan; Wang, Lijun

    2016-01-20

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are attracting much attention for the advantages of excellent mechanical strength, good optical transparency, and high surface area. An eco-friendly and energy-saving method was created in this work to produce highly negative charged CNFs using high-pressure mechanical defibrillation coupled with strong acid hydrolysis pretreatments. The morphological development, zeta potential, crystal structure, chemical composition and thermal degradation behavior of the resultant materials were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These CNFs were fully separated, surface-charged, and highly entangled. They showed a large fiber aspect ratio compared to traditional cellulose nanocrystrals that are produced by strong acid hydrolysis. Compared to hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, the CNFs produced by sulfuric acid pretreatments were completely defibrillated and presented stable suspensions (or gels) even at low fiber content. On the other hand, CNFs pretreated by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis trended to aggregate because of the absence of surface charge. The crystallinity index (CI) of CNFs decreased because of mechanical defibrillation, and then increased dramatically with increased sulfuric acid concentration and reaction time. FTIR analysis showed that the C-O-SO3 group was introduced on the surfaces of CNFs during sulfuric acid hydrolysis. These sulfate groups accelerated the thermal degradation of CNFs, which occurred at lower temperature than wood pulp, indicating that the thermal stability of sulfuric acid hydrolyzed CNFs was decreased. The temperature of the maximum decomposition rate (Tmax) and the maximum weight-loss rates (MWLRmax) were much lower than for wood pulp because of the retardant effect of sulfuric acid during the combustion of CNFs. By contrast, the CNFs treated with hydrochloric acid

  16. Adhesion/decalcification mechanisms of acid interactions with human hard tissues.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, M; Yoshida, Y; Inoue, S; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G; Nomura, Y; Okazaki, M; Shintani, H; Van Meerbeek, B

    2002-01-01

    In order to study adhesion/decalcification mechanisms of acid interactions with human hard tissues such as bones and teeth, the chemical interaction of five carboxylic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, maleic, and oxalic) and two inorganic acids (hydrochloric and nitric) with enamel and two synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders with, respectively, a high and a low crystallinity were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), and spectrophotometry (S). X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystallinity of the highly crystallized HAp was considerably higher than that of enamel while the crystallinity of the poorly crystallized HAp was similar to that of dentin and bone. XPS of acid-treated enamel demonstrated for all carboxylic acids ionic bonding to calcium of HAp. AAS and S showed for both HAps that all carboxylic and inorganic acids except oxalic acid extracted Ca significantly more than P, leading to a Ca/P ratio close to that of synthetic HAp (2.16 w/w). Oxalic acid extracted hardly any Ca, but substantially more P, leading to a significantly smaller Ca/P ratio than that of HAp. AAS showed that the calcium salt of oxalic acid hardly could be dissolved, whereas the calcium salts of all the other acids were very soluble in their respective acid solution. These results confirm the adhesion/decalcification concept (AD-concept) previously advanced. Depending on the dissolution rate of the respective calcium salts, acids either adhere to or decalcify apatitic substrates. It is concluded that the AD-concept that originally dictated the interaction of carboxylic acids with human hard tissues can be extended to inorganic acids, such as hydrochloric and nitric acid. Furthermore, HAp crystallinity was found not to affect the adhesion/decalcification behavior of acids when interacting with apatitic substrates, so that the AD-concept can be applied to all human hard tissues with varying HAp crystallinity. PMID:11745537

  17. Structural and Electrical Characterization of Protonic Acid Doped Polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaktawat, Vinodini; Saxena, Narendra S.; Sharma, Kananbala; Sharma, Thaneshwar P.

    2008-04-01

    Polyaniline doped with different protonic acids were chemically synthesized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant. These samples were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which confirms the amorphous nature and acid doping, respectively. Electrical conduction in these samples has been studied through the measurement of I-V characteristics at room temperature as well as in the temperature range from 313 K to 413 K. So obtained characteristic curves were found to be nonlinear. The conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polyaniline sample is higher as compared to HCl doped polyaniline and pure polyaniline. Temperature dependence of conductivity suggests a semiconducting nature with increase in temperature. Activation energies have been found to be 50.86, 25.74 and 21.05 meV for pure polyaniline (base), polyaniline doped with hydrochloric, phosphoric acid, respectively.

  18. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. PMID:25677640

  19. Reviving astrometry on the McDonald observatory 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J.; Riddle, A.

    2014-07-01

    The first regular observations of asteroids at McDonald observatory started in 1950 with a 10-inch telescope as part of the Yerkes-McDonald survey, which was followed by a long lull after its completion in 1952. Astrometric observations resumed in the early 70s using the 2.1-m telescope, but were mainly of faint outer solar system satellites to support the emerging planetary space program. Observation of asteroids was later added to the program in order to refine the fundamental reference frame and to aid Hubble Space Telescope astrometry. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been the main emphasis since 1995 using a 0.76 m telescope, which worked very well while the surveys concentrated on objects 1 km or larger. However, NASA's mission to discover and catalogue NEOs has been extended down to objects 140 m in size. Most of these new NEO candidates are outside the reach of the 0.76-m telescope. In 2011, the Otto Struve telescope has received a new instrument, the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse, or CQUEAN (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams, as it provides measurable images of a 19th magnitude source with a single 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.8' by 4.8', with 0.281 arcsec/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the point-spread function for precision astrometry. Although this telescope is 75 years old, we are getting circular stellar images for exposures up to 240 seconds with the CQUEAN auto-guider. We obtained images of M71 at three different air masses during two nights in the Sloan i and r filter bands. The σ of the standard coordinate residuals is a little under 0.07 seconds of arc for both cases. We have also looked at the field of view for systematic errors both in direction and magnitude, and we found it to be satisfactorily uniform. The overall quality of our data is improved due to better angular resolution and dome seeing. Based on

  20. Effects of Boronizing Treatment on Corrosion Resistance of 65Mn Steel in two Acid Mediums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhao, Yufeng; Yuan, Xiaoming; Chen, Kangmin; Xu, Ruihua

    To explore the soil workability of rotary blade suitable for large tilling depth (over 20 cm) manufactured through boronizing treatment, this work focuses on the corrosion behavior of 65Mn steel after boronizing treatment in two acid mediums, i.e. the strong acidic medium that hydrochloric solution and the weak acidic that fertilizer-containing soil, and the comparison with existing technology of general rotary blade (lonnealing after overall quenching). The result shows that the corrosion resistance in the two acid mediums of 65Mn steel after boronizing treatment is remarkably improved. After 168 hours' corrosion in the hydrochloric acid solution, the weight loss of boronizing-status sample is only 27.9% of that of lonnealing-status sample. Moreover, there is no obvious weight loss in boronizing-status sample after 168 hours' corrosion in the fertilizer-containing soil, while the weight of lonnealing-status sample is lighter than the original weight after about 150 hours' corrosion. The improvement of the corrosion resistance lies in the significant reduction of the anodization speed in strong acid medium and the effective prevention of phosphorization reaction in weak acidic medium.

  1. Hsp70 Cochaperones HspBP1 and BAG-1M Differentially Regulate Steroid Hormone Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Regina T.; Wong, Michael J. H.; Kollmannsberger, Lorenz K.; Gassen, Nils C.; Kretzschmar, Anja; Zschocke, Jürgen; Hafner, Kathrin; Young, Jason C.; Rein, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Hsp70 binding protein 1 (HspBP1) and Bcl2-associated athanogene 1 (BAG-1), the functional orthologous nucleotide exchange factors of the heat shock protein 70 kilodalton (Hsc70/Hsp70) chaperones, catalyze the release of ADP from Hsp70 while inducing different conformational changes of the ATPase domain of Hsp70. An appropriate exchange rate of ADP/ATP is crucial for chaperone-dependent protein folding processes. Among Hsp70 client proteins are steroid receptors such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and the androgen receptor (AR). BAG-1 diversely affects steroid receptor activity, while to date the influence of HspBP1 on steroid receptor function is mostly unknown. Here, we compared the influence of HspBP1 and BAG-1M on Hsp70-mediated steroid receptor folding complexes and steroid receptor activity. Coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated preferential binding of Hsp40 and the steroid receptors to BAG-1M as compared to HspBP1. Furthermore, Hsp70 binding to the ligand-binding domain of GR was reduced in the presence of HspBP1 but not in the presence of BAG-1M as shown by pull-down assays. Reporter gene experiments revealed an inhibitory effect on GR, MR, and AR at a wide range of HspBP1 protein levels and at hormone concentrations at or approaching saturation. BAG-1M exhibited a transition from stimulatory effects at low BAG-1M levels to inhibitory effects at higher BAG-1M levels. Overall, BAG-1M and HspBP1 had differential impacts on the dynamic composition of steroid receptor folding complexes and on receptor function with important implications for steroid receptor physiology. PMID:24454860

  2. Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-06-25

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  3. Listeria monocytogenes varies among strains to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis under stresses by different acids as analyzed by a high-throughput microplate-based fluorometry

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changyong; Yang, Yongchun; Dong, Zhimei; Wang, Xiaowen; Fang, Chun; Yang, Menghua; Sun, Jing; Xiao, Liya; Fang, Weihuan; Song, Houhui

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen, has the capacity to maintain intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis in acidic environments, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report a simple microplate-based fluorescent method to determine pHi of listerial cells that were prelabeled with the fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester and subjected to acid stress. We found that L. monocytogenes responds differently among strains toward organic and inorganic acids to maintain pHi homeostasis. The capacity of L. monocytogenes to maintain pHi at extracellular pH 4.5 (pHex) was compromised in the presence of acetic acid and lactic acid, but not by hydrochloric acid and citric acid. Organic acids exhibited more inhibitory effects than hydrochloric acid at certain pH conditions. Furthermore, the virulent stains L. monocytogenes EGDe, 850658 and 10403S was more resistant to acidic stress than the avirulent M7 which showed a defect in maintaining pHi homeostasis. Deletion of sigB, a stress-responsive alternative sigma factor from 10403S, markedly altered intracellular pHi homeostasis, and showed a significant growth and survival defect under acidic conditions. Thus, this work provides new insights into bacterial survival mechanism to acidic stresses. PMID:25667585

  4. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    PubMed

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes. PMID:25464702

  5. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    PubMed

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes. PMID:25508333

  6. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M

    2015-11-01

    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for Mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28 days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28 days for sulfuric acid, 7 days for nitric acid, 2 days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7 days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes. PMID:26195111

  7. Ultrasmall PdmMn1-mOx binary alloyed nanoparticles on graphene catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Park, Dongchul; Jeon, Seungwon

    2016-03-01

    A rare combination of graphene (G)-supported palladium and manganese in mixed-oxides binary alloyed catalysts (BACs) have been synthesized with the addition of Pd and Mn metals in various ratios (G/PdmMn1-mOx) through a facile wet-chemical method and employed as an efficient anode catalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline fuel cells. The as prepared G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been characterized by several instrumental techniques; the transmission electron microscopy images show that the ultrafine alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) are excellently monodispersed onto the G. The Pd and Mn in G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been alloyed homogeneously, and Mn presents in mixed-oxidized form that resulted by X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performances, kinetics and stability of these catalysts toward EOR have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry in 1 M KOH electrolyte. Among all G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs, the G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox catalyst has shown much superior mass activity and incredible stability than that of pure Pd catalysts (G/Pd1Mn0Ox, Pd/C and Pt/C). The well dispersion, ultrafine size of NPs and higher degree of alloying are the key factor for enhanced and stable EOR electrocatalysis on G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox.

  8. Successful personalized chemotherapy for metastatic gastric cancer based on quantitative BRCA1 mRNA expression level: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YING; WU, PUYUAN; LIU, BAORUI; DU, JUAN

    2016-01-01

    Personalized chemotherapy is based on the specific genetic profile of individual patients and is replacing the traditional ‘one size fits all’ medicine. Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) plays a central role in the chemotherapy-induced DNA damage response. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that BRCA1 mRNA levels were negatively associated with cisplatin sensitivity, but positively associated with docetaxel sensitivity in patients with gastric cancer in experimental and clinical studies. This feature leads to customized chemotherapy based on the BRCA1 mRNA expression level and results in a high efficacy of treatment. The present study describes the case of a 77-year-old patient with metastatic gastric cancer who was treated with personalized chemotherapy based on quantitative BRCA1 mRNA expression level. This study and the available literature data suggest that the expression level of BRCA1 mRNA is dynamic to BRCA1-based chemotherapy. More importantly, de novo assessment of BRCA1 status is a preferable option for ciscisplatin- or docetaxel-resistant patients, since the expression levels of BRCA1 mRNA in certain patients may alter significantly following treatment. Therefore, BRCA1 expression should be assessed for predicting differential chemosensitivity and tailoring chemotherapy in gastric cancer. PMID:27313763

  9. Structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cet1-Ceg1 mRNA Capping Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meigang; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2010-05-04

    The 5{prime} guanine-N7 cap is the first cotranscriptional modification of messenger RNA. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first two steps in capping are catalyzed by the RNA triphosphatase Cet1 and RNA guanylyltransferase Ceg1, which form a complex that is directly recruited to phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAP IIo), primarily via contacts between RNAP IIo and Ceg1. A 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of Cet1-Ceg1 revealed a 176 kDa heterotetrameric complex composed of one Cet1 homodimer that associates with two Ceg1 molecules via interactions between the Ceg1 oligonucleotide binding domain and an extended Cet1 WAQKW amino acid motif. The WAQKW motif is followed by a flexible linker that would allow Ceg1 to achieve conformational changes required for capping while maintaining interactions with both Cet1 and RNAP IIo. The impact of mutations as assessed through genetic analysis in S. cerevisiae is consonant with contacts observed in the Cet1-Ceg1 structure.

  10. Disruption of endogenous regulator homeostasis underlies the mechanism of rat CYP1A1 mRNA induction by metyrapone.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, J L; Paine, A J; Wright, M C

    1998-01-01

    The transcriptional induction of the cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene by xenobiotics such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons is dependent on their interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Administration of the structurally unrelated compounds metyrapone (a cytochrome P-450 inhibitor) or dexamethasone (a glucocorticoid) to male rats does not induce hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA. However, administration of both metyrapone and dexamethasone to male rats results in the induction of hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA expression. The induction response is mimicked in vitro in cultured rat hepatocytes by the addition of metyrapone and dexamethasone to a serum-free culture medium, suggesting that these compounds act directly on the liver in vivo to effect hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA induction. An examination of the characteristics of CYP1A1 induction by metyrapone and dexamethasone in combination in vitro indicate that at least 6 h of treatment is required for detectable levels of CYP1A1 mRNA to accumulate in hepatocytes. In contrast, beta-naphthoflavone, which is known to bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor to effect CYP1A1 gene expression, induces detectable levels of CYP1A1 mRNA within 2 h of treatment. CYP1A1 mRNA is also induced when hepatocytes are treated with metyrapone in combination with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide but not with dexamethasone in combination with cycloheximide, indicating that CYP1A1 mRNA induction is strictly dependent on the presence of metyrapone and suggesting that the metyrapone-associated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA is dependent on a loss of a constitutively expressed protein that functions to suppress CYP1A1 gene expression. The role of dexamethasone in metyrapone-associated induction of CYP1A1 is probably mediated through the glucocorticoid receptor since the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reduces the levels of CYP1A1 mRNA induced by metyrapone and dexamethasone in combination. Increasing the levels of the photosensitizer riboflavin present in

  11. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  12. Influence of acid leaching and calcination on iron removal of coal kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Pei-wang; Zeng, Wei-qiang; Xu, Xiu-lin; Cheng, Le-ming; Jiang, Xiao; Shi, Zheng-lun

    2014-04-01

    Calcination and acid leaching of coal kaolin were studied to determine an effective and economical preparation method of calcined kaolin. Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that 900°C was the suitable temperature for the calcination. Leaching tests showed that hydrochloric acid was more effective for iron dissolution from raw coal kaolin (RCK), whereas oxalic acid was more effective on iron dissolution from calcined coal kaolin (CCK). The iron dissolution from CCK was 28.78wt%, which is far less effective than the 54.86wt% of RCK under their respective optimal conditions. Through analysis by using Mössbauer spectroscopy, it is detected that nearly all of the structural ferrous ions in RCK were removed by hydrochloric acid. However, iron sites in CCK changed slightly by oxalic acid leaching because nearly all ferrous ions were transformed into ferric species after firing at 900°C. It can be concluded that it is difficult to remove the structural ferric ions and ferric oxides evolved from the structural ferrous ions. Thus, iron removal by acids should be conducted prior to calcination.

  13. Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Godinez, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

  14. The Prognostic Value of BRCA1 mRNA Expression Levels Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Margeli, Mireia; Cirauqui, Beatriz; Castella, Eva; Tapia, Gustavo; Costa, Carlota; Gimenez-Capitan, Ana; Barnadas, Agusti; Ronco, Maria Sanchez; Benlloch, Susana; Taron, Miquel; Rosell, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Background A fraction of sporadic breast cancers has low BRCA1 expression. BRCA1 mutation carriers are more likely to achieve a pathological complete response with DNA-damage-based chemotherapy compared to non-mutation carriers. Furthermore, sporadic ovarian cancer patients with low levels of BRCA1 mRNA have longer survival following platinum-based chemotherapy than patients with high levels of BRCA1 mRNA. Methodology/Principal Findings Tumor biopsies were obtained from 86 breast cancer patients who were candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, treated with four cycles of neoadjuvant fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, cytokeratin 5/6 and vimentin were examined by tissue microarray. HER2 were also assessed by chromogenic in situ hybridization, and BRCA1 mRNA was analyzed in a subset of 41 patients for whom sufficient tumor tissue was available by real-time quantitative PCR. Median time to progression was 42 months and overall survival was 55 months. In the multivariate analysis for time to progression and overall survival for 41 patients in whom BRCA1 could be assessed, low levels of BRCA1 mRNA, positive PR and negative lymph node involvement predicted a significantly lower risk of relapse, low levels of BRCA1 mRNA and positive PR were the only variables associated with significantly longer survival. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence for a major role for BRCA1 mRNA expression as a marker of time to progression and overall survival in sporadic breast cancers treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. These findings can be useful for customizing chemotherapy. PMID:20209131

  15. Determination of the mode of occurrence of As, Cr, and Hg in three Chinese coal samples by sequential acid leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Li, W.; Wang, G.; Chen, H.; Li, B.

    2007-07-01

    Sequential acid leaching was used to leach minerals and the trace elements they contain. One-step leaching uses concentrated nitric acid as solvent, while three-step leaching uses 5M hydrochloric acid, concentrated hydrofluoric acid, and concentrated hydrochloric acid as solvents. The sequential acid leaching by three-and one-step leach was also examined. The results showed that one-step leaching could leach over 80% of arsenic from coal samples, and also could leach mercury to a certain degree. During one-step leaching, little chromium is removed, but it is available to leach by three-step leaching; and during the sequential acid leaching by three and one-step leaching, almost 98% ash is leached. The result of acid leaching could also give detailed information on mode of occurrence of As, Cr, and Hg, which could be classified into: silicate association, pyrite association, organic association, and carbonates and sulfates association. Over half of chromium in the three coals is associated with organic matters and the rest is associated with silicates. The mode of occurrence of arsenic and mercury is mainly associated with different mineral matters depending on the coal samples studied.

  16. Protonation of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate by acids in various solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, I.L.; Bune, E.V.; Bogachev, Yu.S.; Sheinker, A.P.; Teleshov, E.N.

    1988-04-10

    It was established by /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR that diethylaminoethyl methacrylate exists in the unprotonated form in solvents which are not acids. In the presence of an equimolar amount of hydrochloric or trifluoroacetic acids the amino ester is fully protonated, irrespective of the solvent. The diethylaminoethyl methacrylate-acetic acid system exists in the form of a molecular complex with a hydrogen bond and in the protonated form; the proportions of the protonated form were estimated in various solvents. The change in the reactivity of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and its salts in polymerization was explained by a change in the electronic state of CH/sub 2/ = group of the monomer as a result of its protonation and of the formation of a hydrogen bond between the C = O group of the monomer and the solvent.

  17. Condensation of anhydrides or dicarboxylic acids with compounds containing active methylene groups. Part 1: Condensation of phthalic anhydride with acetoacetic and malonic ester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshkaya, V. P.; Vanag, G. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Phthalic anhydride was condensed with acetoacetic ester in acetic anhydride and triethylamine solution, and when phthalyl chloride was reacted with sodium acetoacetic ester compounds were formed of the phthalide and indandione series: phthalylacetoacetic ester and a derivative of indan-1,3-dione which after boiling with hydrochloric acid yielded indan-1,3-dione. Phthalylmalonic ester was obtained from phthalic anhydride and malonic ester in the presence of triethylamine.

  18. Elastin-Derived Peptides Promote Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation by Modulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Dale, Matthew A; Xiong, Wanfen; Carson, Jeffrey S; Suh, Melissa K; Karpisek, Andrew D; Meisinger, Trevor M; Casale, George P; Baxter, B Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a dynamic vascular disease characterized by inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix degradation. Damage to elastin in the extracellular matrix results in release of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), which are chemotactic for inflammatory cells such as monocytes. Their effect on macrophage polarization is less well known. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages initially are recruited to sites of injury, but, if their effects are prolonged, they can lead to chronic inflammation that prevents normal tissue repair. Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages reduce inflammation and aid in wound healing. Thus, a proper M1/M2 ratio is vital for tissue homeostasis. Abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue reveals a high M1/M2 ratio in which proinflammatory cells and their associated markers dominate. In the current study, in vitro treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with EDPs induced M1 macrophage polarization. By using C57BL/6 mice, Ab-mediated neutralization of EDPs reduced aortic dilation, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and proinflammatory cytokine expression at early and late time points after aneurysm induction. Furthermore, direct manipulation of the M1/M2 balance altered aortic dilation. Injection of M2-polarized macrophages reduced aortic dilation after aneurysm induction. EDPs promoted a proinflammatory environment in aortic tissue by inducing M1 polarization, and neutralization of EDPs attenuated aortic dilation. The M1/M2 imbalance is vital to aneurysm formation. PMID:27183603

  19. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples. PMID:26599728

  20. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... to remove residual acid. This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid... hydrochloric acid pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process....

  1. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... to remove residual acid. This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid... hydrochloric acid pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process....

  2. Redox Regulates Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Activity by Modulating the TSC1/TSC2-Rheb GTPase Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Sei; Hong, Sungki; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Nada, Shigeyuki; Mannan, Aristotle M.; Wang, Junying; Okada, Masato; Guan, Kun-Liang; Inoki, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase that plays a key role in a wide array of cellular processes and exists in two distinct functional complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Although mTORC2 is primarily activated by growth factors, mTORC1 is regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular signals such as nutrients, growth factors, and cellular redox. Previous study has shown that cysteine oxidants sufficiently activate mTORC1 activity under amino acid-depleted conditions and that a reducing agent effectively suppresses amino acid-induced mTORC1 activity, thereby raising the possibility that redox-sensitive mechanisms underlie amino acid-dependent mTORC1 regulation. However, the molecular mechanism by which redox regulates mTORC1 activity is not well understood. In this study, we show that the redox-sensitive regulation of mTORC1 occurs via Rheb but not the Rag small GTPase. Enhancing cellular redox potential with cysteine oxidants significantly increases Rheb GTP levels. Importantly, modulation of the cellular redox potential with a cysteine oxidant or reducing agent failed to alter mTORC1 activity in TSC1−/− or TSC2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Furthermore, a cysteine oxidant has little effect on mTOR localization but sufficiently activates mTORC1 activity in both p18−/− and control mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, suggesting that the redox-sensitive regulation of mTORC1 occurs independent of the Ragulator·Rag complex. Taken together, our results suggest that the TSC complex plays an important role in redox-sensitive mTORC1 regulation and argues for the activation of mTORC1 in places other than the lysosome upon inhibition of the TSC complex. PMID:21784859

  3. ASH1 mRNP-core factors form stable complexes in absence of cargo RNA at physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Franziska T; Niedner, Annika; Niessing, Dierk

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric ASH1 mRNA transport during mitosis of budding yeast constitutes one of the best-studied examples of mRNA localization. Recently, 2 studies used in vitro motility assays to prove that motile ASH1 mRNA-transport complexes can be reconstituted entirely from recombinant factors. Both studies, however, differed in their conclusions on whether cargo RNA itself is required for particle assembly and thus activation of directional transport. Here we provide direct evidence that stable complexes do assemble in absence of RNA at physiologic conditions and even at ionic strengths above cellular levels. These results directly confirm the previous notion that the ASH1 transport machinery is not activated by the cargo RNA itself, but rather through protein-protein interactions. PMID:25826656

  4. Electron diffraction study of 1M illites with interstratified trans- and cis-vacant 2 : 1 layers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukhlistov, A. P. Vikent'ev, I. V.; Rusinova, O. V.

    2012-03-15

    Illites from the volcanogenic Zn-Au-Ag sulfide deposit Galkinskoe (Northern Urals) have been investigated using oblique-texture electron diffraction patterns in combination with the simulation of diffraction effects. Along with single-phase tv/cv1M illites, the structures of which are formed by statistically interstratified dioctahedral 2: 1 layers with vacant trans- or cis-octahedra, illites in the form of a mixture of two interstratified tv/cv1M phases, with the dominance of tv- or cv layers, are identified. It is shown that in the latter case the diffraction pattern can also be interpreted within the single-phase tv/cv model, provided that the tv- and cv layers are distributed with some tendency to segregate. The structural features indicating the preference of the two-phase model are analyzed.

  5. Novel RNA-binding activity of MYF5 enhances Ccnd1/Cyclin D1 mRNA translation during myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Amaresh C.; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Di Germanio, Clara; Yang, Xiaoling; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Noh, Ji Heon; Zhang, Yongqing; Lehrmann, Elin; Dudekula, Dawood B.; De, Supriyo; Becker, Kevin G.; White, Elizabeth J.; Wilson, Gerald M.; de Cabo, Rafael; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contains long multinucleated and contractile structures known as muscle fibers, which arise from the fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes during myogenesis. The myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) MYF5 is the earliest to be expressed during myogenesis and functions as a transcription factor in muscle progenitor cells (satellite cells) and myocytes. In mouse C2C12 myocytes, MYF5 is implicated in the initial steps of myoblast differentiation into myotubes. Here, using ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis, we discovered a novel function for MYF5 as an RNA-binding protein which associated with a subset of myoblast mRNAs. One prominent MYF5 target was Ccnd1 mRNA, which encodes the key cell cycle regulator CCND1 (Cyclin D1). Biotin-RNA pulldown, UV-crosslinking and gel shift experiments indicated that MYF5 was capable of binding the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) and the coding region (CR) of Ccnd1 mRNA. Silencing MYF5 expression in proliferating myoblasts revealed that MYF5 promoted CCND1 translation and modestly increased transcription of Ccnd1 mRNA. Accordingly, overexpressing MYF5 in C2C12 cells upregulated CCND1 expression while silencing MYF5 reduced myoblast proliferation as well as differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. Moreover, MYF5 silencing reduced myogenesis, while ectopically restoring CCND1 abundance partially rescued the decrease in myogenesis seen after MYF5 silencing. We propose that MYF5 enhances early myogenesis in part by coordinately elevating Ccnd1 transcription and Ccnd1 mRNA translation. PMID:26819411

  6. Development of M1 mAChR Allosteric and Bitopic Ligands: Prospective Therapeutics for the Treatment of Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since the cholinergic hypothesis of memory dysfunction was first reported, extensive research efforts have focused on elucidating the mechanisms by which this intricate system contributes to the regulation of processes such as learning, memory, and higher executive function. Several cholinergic therapeutic targets for the treatment of cognitive deficits, psychotic symptoms, and the underlying pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia, have since emerged. Clinically approved drugs now exist for some of these targets; however, they all may be considered suboptimal therapeutics in that they produce undesirable off-target activity leading to side effects, fail to address the wide variety of symptoms and underlying pathophysiology that characterize these disorders, and/or afford little to no therapeutic effect in subsets of patient populations. A promising target for which there are presently no approved therapies is the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR). Despite avid investigation, development of agents that selectively activate this receptor via the orthosteric site has been hampered by the high sequence homology of the binding site between the five muscarinic receptor subtypes and the wide distribution of this receptor family in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. Hence, a plethora of ligands targeting less structurally conserved allosteric sites of the M1 mAChR have been investigated. This Review aims to explain the rationale behind allosterically targeting the M1 mAChR, comprehensively summarize and critically evaluate the M1 mAChR allosteric ligand literature to date, highlight the challenges inherent in allosteric ligand investigation that are impeding their clinical advancement, and discuss potential methods for resolving these issues. PMID:23659787

  7. Trellis Coding of Non-coherent Multiple Symbol Full Response M-ary CPFSK with Modulation Index 1/M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H.; Divsalar, D.; Weber, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a trellis coded modulation (TCM) scheme for non-coherent multiple full response M-ary CPFSK with modulation index 1/M. A proper branch metric for the trellis decoder is obtained by employing a simple approximation of the modified Bessel function for large signal to noise ratio (SNR). Pairwise error probability of coded sequences is evaluated by applying a linear approximation to the Rician random variable.

  8. The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM1-M - Part 1: Description and basic evaluation of the physical climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentsen, M.; Bethke, I.; Debernard, J. B.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Seland, Ø.; Drange, H.; Roelandt, C.; Seierstad, I. A.; Hoose, C.; Kristjánsson, J. E.

    2013-05-01

    The core version of the Norwegian Climate Center's Earth System Model, named NorESM1-M, is presented. The NorESM family of models are based on the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, but differs from the latter by, in particular, an isopycnic coordinate ocean model and advanced chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation interaction schemes. NorESM1-M has a horizontal resolution of approximately 2° for the atmosphere and land components and 1° for the ocean and ice components. NorESM is also available in a lower resolution version (NorESM1-L) and a version that includes prognostic biogeochemical cycling (NorESM1-ME). The latter two model configurations are not part of this paper. Here, a first-order assessment of the model stability, the mean model state and the internal variability based on the model experiments made available to CMIP5 are presented. Further analysis of the model performance is provided in an accompanying paper (Iversen et al., 2013), presenting the corresponding climate response and scenario projections made with NorESM1-M.

  9. Electrochemical and Morphological Study of Steel in 1 M HCl in the Presence of Task Specific Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Sarabi, A. A.; Kowsari, E.; Eivaz Mohammadloo, H.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, corrosion inhibition influence of novel cationic surfactant (CS) with imidazole structure (1-methyl-3-octadecane imidazolium hydrogen sulfate) on low carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by implementing weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Increasing the amount of surfactant adequately leads to an increment of the inhibition efficiency of novel CS. According to the obtained results from EIS measurements, inhibition efficiency was about 34% in the presence of 1 ppm surfactant, increasing to about 96.8% at the 25 ppm (near critical micelle concentration) surfactant concentration. Also the effects of temperature and the synergistic effect between surfactant and NaHSO4 salt were studied. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase of NaHSO4 concentration and reached the maximum value near 0.1 M and experienced a plummet in the temperature range of 30-50 °C. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the surfactant acts as mixed-type inhibitors. Results obtained from weight loss, polarization, and impedance measurements are in proper agreement and confirmed the fact that this surfactant is an excellent inhibitor for low carbon steel in 1 M HCl environment. The surface morphology of inhibited and uninhibited metal samples was investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM).

  10. Recent experimental results from the HL-1M tokamak and progress in the HL-2A project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yan, J. C.; Zhou, C. P.; Ding, X. T.; Wang, S. J.; Wang, E. Y.; Yao, L. H.; Mao, W. C.; Pan, C. H.; HL-1M Team; HL-2A Team

    2004-02-01

    Recent experimental results from the HL-1M tokamak and progress in the HL-2A project are presented in this paper. In HL-1M, strong fishbone instability was observed during off-axis electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). This is the first observation of fishbone instability purely driven by energetic electrons produced by ECRH. The molecular beam injection (MBI) was first proposed and demonstrated in HL-1M. Recently, new results of the MBI experiment were obtained by increasing the pressure of the gas. A stair-shaped density increment was obtained with high-pressure multi-pulse MBI just like the density evolution behaviour during multi-pellet injection. It is shown that injected particles penetrated into the core region of the plasma. HL-2A is a divertor tokamak constructed at SWIP based on the original ASDEX main components. The mission of the HL-2A project is to explore the physics issues involved in an advanced tokamak. For the first phase, divertor (edge plasma) and confinement research will be emphasized. The major parameters of HL-2A are R = 1.65 m, a = 0.4 m, Bt = 2.8 T, IP = 0.48 MA. The main parameters and characteristics of the subsystems such as power supply, pumping, diagnostics and auxiliary heating are presented in this paper. The first plasma of HL-2A was obtained at the end of 2002.

  11. Localising the auditory N1m with event-related beamformers: localisation accuracy following bilateral and unilateral stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Lauren; Furlong, Paul L.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Worthen, Siân F.; Witton, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory evoked N1m-P2m response complex presents a challenging case for MEG source-modelling, because symmetrical, phase-locked activity occurs in the hemispheres both contralateral and ipsilateral to stimulation. Beamformer methods, in particular, can be susceptible to localisation bias and spurious sources under these conditions. This study explored the accuracy and efficiency of event-related beamformer source models for auditory MEG data under typical experimental conditions: monaural and diotic stimulation; and whole-head beamformer analysis compared to a half-head analysis using only sensors from the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation. Event-related beamformer localisations were also compared with more traditional single-dipole models. At the group level, the event-related beamformer performed equally well as the single-dipole models in terms of accuracy for both the N1m and the P2m, and in terms of efficiency (number of successful source models) for the N1m. The results yielded by the half-head analysis did not differ significantly from those produced by the traditional whole-head analysis. Any localisation bias caused by the presence of correlated sources is minimal in the context of the inter-individual variability in source localisations. In conclusion, event-related beamformers provide a useful alternative to equivalent-current dipole models in localisation of auditory evoked responses. PMID:27545435

  12. Chronic anemic hypoxemia increases plasma glucagon and hepatic PCK1 mRNA in late-gestation fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Christine; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Benjamin, Joshua; Bruce, Jennifer L; Brown, Laura D; Jonker, Sonnet S; Wilkening, Randall B; Hay, William W; Rozance, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic glucose production (HGP) normally begins just prior to birth. Prolonged fetal hypoglycemia, intrauterine growth restriction, and acute hypoxemia produce an early activation of fetal HGP. To test the hypothesis that prolonged hypoxemia increases factors which regulate HGP, studies were performed in fetuses that were bled to anemic conditions (anemic: n = 11) for 8.9 ± 0.4 days and compared with control fetuses (n = 7). Fetal arterial hematocrit and oxygen content were 32% and 50% lower, respectively, in anemic vs. controls (P < 0.005). Arterial plasma glucose was 15% higher in the anemic group (P < 0.05). Hepatic mRNA expression of phosphonenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) was twofold higher in the anemic group (P < 0.05). Arterial plasma glucagon concentrations were 70% higher in anemic fetuses compared with controls (P < 0.05), and they were positively associated with hepatic PCK1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Arterial plasma cortisol concentrations increased 90% in the anemic fetuses (P < 0.05), but fetal cortisol concentrations were not correlated with hepatic PCK1 mRNA expression. Hepatic glycogen content was 30% lower in anemic vs. control fetuses (P < 0.05) and was inversely correlated with fetal arterial plasma glucagon concentrations. In isolated primary fetal sheep hepatocytes, incubation in low oxygen (3%) increased PCK1 mRNA threefold compared with incubation in normal oxygen (21%). Together, these results demonstrate that glucagon and PCK1 may potentiate fetal HGP during chronic fetal anemic hypoxemia. PMID:27170658

  13. IRF1 Downregulation by Ras/MEK Is Independent of Translational Control of IRF1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Yumiko; Derwish, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of Ras/MEK downregulates the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), which is a prerequisite for oncolytic viruses to replicate in cancer cells [1]. Moreover, restoration of IRF1 expression is essential to induce apoptosis of cancer cells treated with a MEK inhibitor [2]. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK remain unclear. In this study, we determined whether Ras/MEK activation modulates IRF1 expression at its translational level. MEK inhibition increased the activity of IRF1 promoter construct in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells and wild type MEF, but not in IRF1 deficient MEF, indicating that IRF1 protein is required for the transcriptional activation of IRF1. By conducting reporter analysis using IRF1 5’- and 3’- UTR constructs, we determined that cis elements on 5’- and 3’-UTR of IRF1 mRNA are not involved in the IRF1 regulation by Ras/MEK. We further compared the recruitment of ribosomes to IRF1 mRNA in RasV12 cells treated with or without the MEK inhibitor by conducting polysome analysis. No difference was observed in the polysomal distribution of IRF1 mRNA between RasV12 cells treated with and without the MEK inhibitor. These results suggest that regulation of IRF1 translation is independent of IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK. PMID:27508303

  14. IRF1 Downregulation by Ras/MEK Is Independent of Translational Control of IRF1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Yumiko; Derwish, Leena; Hirasawa, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of Ras/MEK downregulates the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), which is a prerequisite for oncolytic viruses to replicate in cancer cells [1]. Moreover, restoration of IRF1 expression is essential to induce apoptosis of cancer cells treated with a MEK inhibitor [2]. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK remain unclear. In this study, we determined whether Ras/MEK activation modulates IRF1 expression at its translational level. MEK inhibition increased the activity of IRF1 promoter construct in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells and wild type MEF, but not in IRF1 deficient MEF, indicating that IRF1 protein is required for the transcriptional activation of IRF1. By conducting reporter analysis using IRF1 5'- and 3'- UTR constructs, we determined that cis elements on 5'- and 3'-UTR of IRF1 mRNA are not involved in the IRF1 regulation by Ras/MEK. We further compared the recruitment of ribosomes to IRF1 mRNA in RasV12 cells treated with or without the MEK inhibitor by conducting polysome analysis. No difference was observed in the polysomal distribution of IRF1 mRNA between RasV12 cells treated with and without the MEK inhibitor. These results suggest that regulation of IRF1 translation is independent of IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK. PMID:27508303

  15. Safer one-pot synthesis of the ‘SHAPE’ reagent 1-methyl-7-nitroisatoic anhydride (1m7)

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rushia; Shefer, Kinneret; Ares, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the reactivity of 2′-hydroxyl groups along an RNA chain of interest aids in the modeling of the folded RNA structure; flexible loops tend to be reactive, whereas duplex regions are generally not. Among the most useful reagents for probing 2′-hydroxyl reactivity is 1-methyl-7-nitroisatoic anhydride (1m7), but the absence of a reliable, inexpensive source has prevented widespread adoption. An existing protocol for the conversion of an inexpensive precursor 4-nitroisatoic anhydride (4NIA) recommends the use of NaH in dimethylformamide (DMF), a reagent combination that most molecular biology labs are not equipped to handle, and that does not scale safely in any case. Here we describe a safer, one-pot method for bulk conversion of 4NIA to 1m7 that reduces costs and bypasses the use of NaH. We show that 1m7 produced by this method is free of side products and can be used to probe RNA structure in vitro. PMID:24141619

  16. Activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotube based electrochemical capacitor in 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Azam, M.A.; Jantan, N.H.; Dorah, N.; Seman, R.N.A.R.; Manaf, N.S.A.; Kudin, T.I.T.; Yahya, M.Z.A.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon and single-walled CNT based electrochemical capacitor. • Electrochemical analysis by means of CV, charge/discharge and impedance. • 1 M LiPF{sub 6} non-aqueous solution as an electrolyte. • AC/SWCNT electrode exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have been extensively studied because of their wide range of potential application such as in nanoscale electric circuits, textiles, transportation, health, and the environment. Carbon nanotubes feature extraordinary properties, such as electrical conductivities higher than those of copper, hardness and thermal conductivity higher than those of diamond, and strength surpassing that of steel, among others. This research focuses on the fabrication of an energy storage device, namely, an electrochemical capacitor, by using carbon materials, i.e., activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotubes, of a specific weight ratio as electrode materials. The electrolyte functioning as an ion carrier is 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate. Variations in the electrochemical performance of the device, including its capacitance, charge/discharge characteristics, and impedance, are reported in this paper. The electrode proposed in this work exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}.

  17. Localising the auditory N1m with event-related beamformers: localisation accuracy following bilateral and unilateral stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, Lauren; Furlong, Paul L; Hillebrand, Arjan; Worthen, Siân F; Witton, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory evoked N1m-P2m response complex presents a challenging case for MEG source-modelling, because symmetrical, phase-locked activity occurs in the hemispheres both contralateral and ipsilateral to stimulation. Beamformer methods, in particular, can be susceptible to localisation bias and spurious sources under these conditions. This study explored the accuracy and efficiency of event-related beamformer source models for auditory MEG data under typical experimental conditions: monaural and diotic stimulation; and whole-head beamformer analysis compared to a half-head analysis using only sensors from the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation. Event-related beamformer localisations were also compared with more traditional single-dipole models. At the group level, the event-related beamformer performed equally well as the single-dipole models in terms of accuracy for both the N1m and the P2m, and in terms of efficiency (number of successful source models) for the N1m. The results yielded by the half-head analysis did not differ significantly from those produced by the traditional whole-head analysis. Any localisation bias caused by the presence of correlated sources is minimal in the context of the inter-individual variability in source localisations. In conclusion, event-related beamformers provide a useful alternative to equivalent-current dipole models in localisation of auditory evoked responses. PMID:27545435

  18. Ligand binding properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes (m1-m5) expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, G Z; Kameyama, K; Rinken, A; Haga, T

    1995-07-01

    Five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (m1-m5) have been expressed in insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) using the baculovirus system. Up to 6 nmol of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were produced by 1 liter culture; 0.3 to 0.6 (human m1), 3 to 6 (human m2), 2 to 4 (rat m3), 1 to 2 (rat m4) and 0.5 to 1 (human m5) nmol. Pirenzepine, AF-DX116 and hexahidrosiladifenidol showed the highest affinity for the m1, m2 and m3 subtype, respectively, indicating that these receptors expressed in Sf9 cells retain the same substrate specificity as those in mammalian tissues or cultured cells. Among 32 kinds of muscarinic ligands examined in the present studies, prifinium was found to have the highest affinity for the m4 subtype, and pilocarpine, oxotremorine, McN-A343 and promethazine the highest affinity for the m5 subtype, although the differences in the affinities among the five subtypes were less than 10-fold. Alcuronium increased the binding of [3H]N-methylscopalamine to the m2 subtype, but not the m1, m4 and m5 subtypes and only slightly to the m3 subtype. Similar but smaller effects of fangchinoline and tetrandrine were found for [3H]N-methylscopalamine binding to only the m3 subtype. These effects may also be useful for the discrimination of individual subtypes. PMID:7616422

  19. Characteristic constants of 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, a reagent for spectrophotometric analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.

    1960-01-01

    The dye 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, has shown promise as a reagent for the determination of zirconium. As the literature contains very little information about this dye, basic data pertinent to its use as a reagent were determined. The sulfonic acid group and all three of the hydroxy groups show acidic characteristics. Apparent dissociation constants were determined for the three more labile protons and the approximate order of magnitude for the fourth constant was estimated. Absorption spectra for the different ionization species are given. A curve is also included which shows the fraction of dye in the different ionization forms at acidities from 10.35M hydrochloric acid to pH 11.9. A sixth dye species was found in 1.0 to 8.4M potassium hydroxide solutions, but its nature is unknown.

  20. Extraction equilibria of rare earths by a new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Rao, T P; Narayanan, C S; Damodaran, A D

    1994-03-01

    A new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid (EPPA = HR) was synthesized from cardanol (I, 37300-39-5) and was used to investigate the extraction behaviour of lanthanum(III), europium(III) and lutetium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. The species extracted were found to be Ln(HR(2))(3) (where Ln = La(III) or Eu(III) or Lu(III)). The extraction behaviour of the above lanthanides has also been compared with yttrium and other rare earths. It was observed that the extraction increases with increase in atomic number of rare earths. In addition, the extraction efficiency of EPPA has also been compared with well known acidic organophosphorus extractants like di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl-mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (EHEHPA). PMID:18965945

  1. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  2. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3). PMID:22643421

  3. Anxiolytic activity of pyridoindole derivatives SMe1EC2 and SMe1M2: behavioral analysis using rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sedláčková, Natália; Ponechalová, Veronika; Ujházy, Eduard; Dubovický, Michal; Mach, Mojmír

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders have become very significant affections in the last decades. According to WHO at least one mental disease occurred per year in 27% of EU inhabitants (more than 82 mil. people). It is estimated that by 2020, depression will be the main cause of morbidity in the developed countries. These circumstances call for research for new prospective drugs with anxiolytic and antidepressive properties exhibiting no toxicity and withdrawal effect and possessing beneficial properties, like antioxidant and/or neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to obtain information about psychopharmacological properties of pyridoindole derivatives SMe1EC2 and SMe1M2, using non-invasive behavioral methods in rats. The battery of ethological tests (open field, elevated plus-maze, light/dark box exploration, forced swim test) was used to obtain information about anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of the pyridoindole derivatives. The substances were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the tests at doses of 1, 10 and 25 mg/kg. In the behavioral tests, SMe1EC2 was found to exert anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze with no affection of locomotor activity. The highest dose of SMe1M2 increased the time spent in the lit part of the Light/Dark box, however this result was influenced by inhibition of motor activity of the rats. Similar findings were observed also in elevated plus-maze, although these results were not statistically significant. In conclusion, from the results of our study it is evident that both pyridoindoles acted on the CNS. In the highest dose, SMe1M2 was found to possess rather sedative than anxiolytic or antidepressant activity. PMID:22319256

  4. A1M/α1-microglobulin is proteolytically activated by myeloperoxidase, binds its heme group and inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Cederlund, Martin; Deronic, Adnan; Pallon, Jan; Sørensen, Ole E.; Åkerström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    α1-microglobulin (A1M) is a 26 kDa plasma and tissue protein with reductase activity and radical- and heme-binding anti-oxidative functions. In addition, exposure of A1M to hemoglobin has been shown to induce proteolytic elimination of a C-terminal tetrapeptide yielding a heme-degrading form, truncated A1M (t-A1M). Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme-containing enzyme that catalyzes the production of free radicals and hypochlorite, is released by neutrophils during the inflammatory response to bacterial infections. MPO-induced low density lipoprotein (LDL)-oxidation in blood has been suggested as a causative factor in atherosclerosis. In this study we have hypothesized that A1M interacts with MPO in a similar mode as with hemoglobin, and is a regulator of its activity. The results show that A1M is proteolytically cleaved, with formation of t-A1M, after exposure to MPO, and that t-A1M contains iron and heme-degradation products. The reaction is dependent of pH, time and concentration of substrates and a pH-value around 7 is shown to be optimal for cleavage. Furthermore, A1M inhibits MPO- and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation of LDL. The results suggest that A1M may have a role as an inhibitor of the damaging effects of the neutrophil respiratory burst on bystander tissue components. PMID:25698971

  5. New Acid Stimulation Treatment to Sustain Production - Los Angeles Downtown Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Richard C.

    2003-03-10

    Hydrochloric acid stimulation was successfully used on several wells in the Los Angeles Downtown Field, in the past. The decline rates after stimulation were relatively high and generally within six months to a year, production rates have returned to their prestimulation rates. The wells in Los Angeles Downtown Field have strong scale producing tendencies and many wells are treated for scale control. Four wells were carefully selected that are representative of wells that had a tendency to form calcium carbonate scale and had shown substantial decline over the last few years.

  6. Extraction of palladium from acidic solutions with the use of carbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Kononova; N.G. Goryaeva; N.B. Dostovalova; S.V. Kachin; A.G. Kholmogorov

    2007-08-15

    We studied the sorption of palladium(II) on LKAU-4, LKAU-7, and BAU carbon adsorbents from model hydrochloric acid solutions and the solutions of spent palladium-containing catalysts. It was found that sorbents based on charcoal (BAU) and anthracite (LKAU-4) were characterized by high sorption capacities for palladium. The kinetics of the saturation of carbon adsorbents with palladium(II) ions was studied, and it was found that more than 60% of the initial amount of Pd(II) was recovered in a 1-h contact of an adsorbent with a model solution. This value for the solutions of spent catalysts was higher than 35%.

  7. 200W average power 1mJ pulse energy from spectrally combined pulsed sub-5 ns fiber laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, O.; Ortac, B.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.; Andersen, Thomas V.

    2009-02-01

    In this contribution, we report on spectral combination of four sub-5ns pulsed fiber amplifier systems with an average output power of 200W at 200kHz repetition rate resulting in 1mJ of pulse energy. A dielectric reflection grating is used to combine four individual beams to one output possessing a measured M2 value of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively, independent of power level. Extraction of higher pulse energies and peak powers will be discussed.

  8. Binary star speckle measurements during 1992-1997 from the SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes in Zelenchuk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balega, I. I.; Balega, Y. Y.; Maksimov, A. F.; Pluzhnik, E. A.; Shkhagosheva, Z. U.; Vasyuk, V. A.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of speckle interferometric measurements of binary stars made with the television photon-counting camera at the 6-m Big Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) and 1-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) between August 1992 and May 1997. The data contain 89 observations of 62 star systems on the large telescope and 21 on the smaller one. For the 6-m aperture 18 systems remained unresolved. The measured angular separation ranged from 39 mas, two times above the BTA diffraction limit, to 1593 mas.

  9. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid.... This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid regeneration plant means the collection of equipment and processes configured to reconstitute fresh hydrochloric acid pickling...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid.... This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid regeneration plant means the collection of equipment and processes configured to reconstitute fresh hydrochloric acid pickling...

  12. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions..., liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace that has conducted a...

  13. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions..., liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace that has conducted a...

  14. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions..., liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace that has conducted a...

  15. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions..., liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace that has conducted a...

  16. Overexpression of the mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse does not impact mitoribosomal methylation status or hearing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungmin; Rose, Simon; Metodiev, Metodi D.; Becker, Lore; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Klopstock, Thomas; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě De Angelis, Martin; Douthwaite, Stephen; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a well-established cause of sensorineural deafness, but the pathophysiological events are poorly understood. Non-syndromic deafness and predisposition to aminoglycoside-induced deafness can be caused by specific mutations in the 12S rRNA gene of mtDNA and are thus maternally inherited traits. The pathophysiology induced by mtDNA mutations has traditionally been attributed to deficient oxidative phosphorylation, which causes energy crisis with functional impairment of multiple cellular processes. In contrast, it was recently reported that signaling induced by ‘hypermethylation’ of two conserved adenosines of 12S rRNA in the mitoribosome is of key pathophysiological importance in sensorineural deafness. In support for this concept, it was reported that overexpression of the essential mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse was sufficient to induce mitoribosomal hypermethylation and deafness. At variance with this model, we show here that 12S rRNA is near fully methylated in vivo in the mouse and thus cannot be further methylated to any significant extent. Furthermore, bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice overexpressing TFB1M have no increase of 12S rRNA methylation levels and hear normally. We thus conclude that therapies directed against mitoribosomal methylation are unlikely to be beneficial to patients with sensorineural hearing loss or other types of mitochondrial disease. PMID:26464487

  17. Role of microglial m1/m2 polarization in relapse and remission of psychiatric disorders and diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yutaka; Chiba, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder were thought to be caused by neurotransmitter abnormalities. Patients with these disorders often experience relapse and remission; however the underlying molecular mechanisms of relapse and remission still remain unclear. Recent advanced immunological analyses have revealed that M1/M2 polarization of macrophages plays an important role in controlling the balance between promotion and suppression in inflammation. Microglial cells share certain characteristics with macrophages and contribute to immune-surveillance in the central nervous system (CNS). In this review, we summarize immunoregulatory functions of microglia and discuss a possible role of microglial M1/M2 polarization in relapse and remission of psychiatric disorders and diseases. M1 polarized microglia can produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, suggesting that these molecules contribute to dysfunction of neural network in the CNS. Alternatively, M2 polarized microglia express cytokines and receptors that are implicated in inhibiting inflammation and restoring homeostasis. Based on these aspects, we propose a possibility that M1 and M2 microglia are related to relapse and remission, respectively in psychiatric disorders and diseases. Consequently, a target molecule skewing M2 polarization of microglia may provide beneficial therapies for these disorders and diseases in the CNS. PMID:25429645

  18. FUS regulates AMPA receptor function and FTLD/ALS-associated behaviour via GluA1 mRNA stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Fujioka, Yusuke; Tanaka, Motoki; Honda, Daiyu; Yokoi, Satoshi; Riku, Yuichi; Ibi, Daisuke; Nagai, Taku; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Katsuno, Masahisa; Inada, Toshifumi; Ohno, Kinji; Sokabe, Masahiro; Okado, Haruo; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Sobue, Gen

    2015-01-01

    FUS is an RNA/DNA-binding protein involved in multiple steps of gene expression and is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, the specific disease-causing and/or modifying mechanism mediated by FUS is largely unknown. Here we evaluate intrinsic roles of FUS on synaptic functions and animal behaviours. We find that FUS depletion downregulates GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptor. FUS binds GluA1 mRNA in the vicinity of the 3′ terminus and controls poly (A) tail maintenance, thus regulating stability. GluA1 reduction upon FUS knockdown reduces miniature EPSC amplitude both in cultured neurons and in vivo. FUS knockdown in hippocampus attenuates dendritic spine maturation and causes behavioural aberrations including hyperactivity, disinhibition and social interaction defects, which are partly ameliorated by GluA1 reintroduction. These results highlight the pivotal role of FUS in regulating GluA1 mRNA stability, post-synaptic function and FTLD-like animal behaviours. PMID:25968143

  19. Role of Microglial M1/M2 Polarization in Relapse and Remission of Psychiatric Disorders and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yutaka; Chiba, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder were thought to be caused by neurotransmitter abnormalities. Patients with these disorders often experience relapse and remission; however the underlying molecular mechanisms of relapse and remission still remain unclear. Recent advanced immunological analyses have revealed that M1/M2 polarization of macrophages plays an important role in controlling the balance between promotion and suppression in inflammation. Microglial cells share certain characteristics with macrophages and contribute to immune-surveillance in the central nervous system (CNS). In this review, we summarize immunoregulatory functions of microglia and discuss a possible role of microglial M1/M2 polarization in relapse and remission of psychiatric disorders and diseases. M1 polarized microglia can produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, suggesting that these molecules contribute to dysfunction of neural network in the CNS. Alternatively, M2 polarized microglia express cytokines and receptors that are implicated in inhibiting inflammation and restoring homeostasis. Based on these aspects, we propose a possibility that M1 and M2 microglia are related to relapse and remission, respectively in psychiatric disorders and diseases. Consequently, a target molecule skewing M2 polarization of microglia may provide beneficial therapies for these disorders and diseases in the CNS. PMID:25429645

  20. Apo-10'-lycopenoic acid, a lycopene 1 metabolite, increases sirtuin 1 mRNA and protein levels and decreases hepatic fat accumulation in ob/ob mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lycopene has been shown to be beneficial in protecting against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver. The recent demonstration that lycopene can be converted by carotene 99,10’-oxygenase into a biologically active metabolite, ALA, led us to propose that the function of lycopene can be mediated by ALA. I...

  1. The crystal structure of human protein α1M reveals a chromophore-binding site and two putative protein–protein interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yangli; Gao, Zengqiang; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Hongpeng; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Luo, Miao; Hou, Haifeng; Huang, Ailong; Dong, Yuhui; Wang, Deqiang

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •We determined the first structure of human α1M with heavy electron density of the chromophore. •We proposed a new structural model of the chromophore. •We first revealed that the two conserved surface regions of α1M are proposed as putative protein–protein interface sites. -- Abstract: Lipocalin α1-microglobulin (α1M) is a conserved glycoprotein present in plasma and in the interstitial fluids of all tissues. α1M is linked to a heterogeneous yellow–brown chromophore of unknown structure, and interacts with several target proteins, including α1-inhibitor-3, fibronectin, prothrombin and albumin. To date, there is little knowledge about the interaction sites between α1M and its partners. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human α1M. Due to the crystallization occurring in a low ionic strength solution, the unidentified chromophore with heavy electron density is observed at a hydrophobic inner tube of α1M. In addition, two conserved surface regions of α1M are proposed as putative protein–protein interface sites. Further study is needed to unravel the detailed information about the interaction between α1M and its partners.

  2. Acid-induced secretory cell metaplasia in hamster bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T.G.; Lucey, E.C.; Breuer, R.; Snider, G.L.

    1988-02-01

    Hamsters were exposed to an intratracheal instillation of 0.5 ml of 0.08 N nitric, hydrochloric, or sulfuric acid to determine their airway epithelial response. Three weeks after exposure, the left intrapulmonary bronchi in Alcian blue/PAS-strained paraffin sections were evaluated for the amount of secretory product in the airway epithelium as a measure of secretory cell metaplasia (SCM). Compared to saline-treated control animals, all three acids caused statistically significant SCM. In addition to the bronchial lesion, all three acids caused similar interstitial fibrosis, bronchiolectasis, and bronchiolization of alveoli that varied in individual animals from mild to severe. In a separate experiment to study the persistence of the SCM, hamsters treated with a single instillation of 0.1 N nitric acid showed significant SCM 3, 7, and 17 weeks after exposure. There was a high correlation (r = 0.96) between a subjective assessment of SCM and objective assessment using a digital image-analysis system. We conclude that protons induce SCM independently of the associated anion; the SCM persists at least 17 weeks. Sulfuric acid is an atmospheric pollutant and nitric acid may form locally on the mucosa of lungs exposed to nitrogen dioxide. These acids may contribute to the development of maintenance of the SCM seen in the conducting airways of humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Effect of strong acids on red mud structural and fluoride adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wentao; Couperthwaite, Sara J; Kaur, Gurkiran; Yan, Cheng; Johnstone, Dean W; Millar, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    The removal of fluoride using red mud has been improved by acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid. The acidification of red mud causes sodalite and cancrinite phases to dissociate, confirmed by the release of sodium and aluminium into solution as well as the disappearance of sodalite bands and peaks in infrared and X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution of these mineral phases increases the amount of available iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites that are accessible for the adsorption of fluoride. However, concentrated acids have a negative effect on adsorption due to the dissolution of these iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites. The removal of fluoride is dependent on the charge of iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxides on the surface of red mud. Acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid resulted in surface sites of the form ≡SOH2(+) and ≡SOH. Optimum removal is obtained when the majority of surface sites are in the form ≡SOH2(+) as the substitution of a fluoride ion does not cause a significant increase in pH. This investigation shows the importance of having a low and consistent pH for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions using red mud. PMID:24703681

  4. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  5. Utilizing acid pretreatment and electrospinning to improve biocompatibility of poly(glycolic acid) for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Boland, Eugene D; Telemeco, Todd A; Simpson, David G; Wnek, Gary E; Bowlin, Gary L

    2004-10-15

    Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) has a long history as a bioresorbable polymer. Its biocompatibility is widely accepted, yet PGA is often rejected as a soft-tissue scaffold because of fibrous encapsulation. The goal of this study was to improve the soft-tissue biocompatibility of PGA by producing scaffolds composed of small-diameter fibers through electrospinning and subjecting these scaffolds to a concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCL) pretreatment. The theory is that small-diameter fibers will elicit a reduced immune response and HCl treatment will improve cellular interactions. Scaffolds were characterized in terms of fiber diameter and pore area via image-analysis software. Biocompatibility was assessed through a WST-1 cell-proliferation assay (in vitro) with the use of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat intramuscular implantations (in vivo). Fibers produced ranged in diameter from 0.22 to 0.88 microm with pore areas from 1.84 to 13.22 microm(2). The untreated scaffold composed of 0.88-microm fibers was encapsulated in vivo and supported the lowest rates of cell proliferation. On the contrary, the acid pretreated scaffold with 0.22-microm fibers was incorporated into the surrounding tissue and exhibited proliferation rates that exceeded the control populations on tissue-culture plastic. In conclusion, this study has shown the ability to improve the biocompatibility of PGA through acid pretreatment of scaffolds comprised of submicron fiber diameters. PMID:15368238

  6. Solution of rocks and refractory minerals by acids at high temperatures and pressures. Determination of silica after decomposition with hydrofluoric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, I.; Rowe, J.J.

    1965-01-01

    A modified Morey bomb was designed which contains a removable nichromecased 3.5-ml platinium crucible. This bomb is particularly useful for decompositions of refractory samples for micro- and semimicro-analysis. Temperatures of 400-450?? and pressures estimated as great as 6000 p.s.i. were maintained in the bomb for periods as long as 24 h. Complete decompositions of rocks, garnet, beryl, chrysoberyl, phenacite, sapphirine, and kyanite were obtained with hydrofluoric acid or a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids; the decomposition of chrome refractory was made with hydrochloric acid. Aluminum-rich samples formed difficultly soluble aluminum fluoride precipitates. Because no volatilization losses occur, silica can be determined on sample solutions by a molybdenum-blue procedure using aluminum(III) to complex interfering fluoride. ?? 1965.

  7. Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

    2013-04-01

    The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

  8. 1 mJ nanosecond all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser at 2.05 μm.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Bin; Yin, Ke; Yang, Linyong; Hou, Jing

    2015-07-13

    A high energy all-fiber format nanosecond thulium-doped fiber laser at 2050 nm with a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration is presented in this paper. The seed oscillator is a linearly polarized gain-switched fiber laser pumped by a 1550 nm fiber laser. The output pulse of the seed has a polarization extinction ratio (PER) better than 16 dB with a maximal output power of 470 mW. After two-stage double- cladding fiber amplifiers, the average power at 40 kHz was boosted up to 40.5 W. The output pulse has a maximum pulse energy of 1 mJ with a pulse width of 100 ns, which corresponds to a peak power of 10 kW. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest single pulse energy ever reported for a nanosecond thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA system at 2050 nm. PMID:26191869

  9. Height-resolved large-sample INAA of a 1 m long, 13 cm diameter ditch-bottom sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaauw, M.; Baas, H. W.; Donze, M.

    2003-06-01

    A facility for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of large samples (up to 1 m long and 15 cm diameter) has been built. Correction methods for the simultaneous occurrence of neutron self-shielding and gamma-ray self-attenuation effects have been implemented and tested with a variety of samples. Now, the method has been extended to allow for the interpretation of scanned, collimated measurements, where results are obtained for individual voxels. As a validation and demonstration, a ditch-bottom sample of the maximum size was taken in a frozen condition. It was cut in 2 cm slices, still frozen, and put together again with each slice in a 2 cm height Petri dish divided in three sections. This allowed for verification of the results by ordinary INAA. Possible explanations for the discrepancies we observed between ordinary and large-sample INAA in the region where the concentration gradients are the steepest are discussed.

  10. Troposphere - ionosphere coupling: results of the ground based observations in Antarctica and perspective for "Sich-1M" satellite experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizunov, G.; Yampolski, Yu.; Korepanov, V.; Lytvynenko, L.; Zalizovsky, A.

    The impact of meteorological processes upon the ionosphere cannot be ignored in conceptual space weather models. The giant energy stored in motion of tropospheric air masses (weather fronts, cyclones, stream jets, penetrating convection, etc) serves as a powerful source of upward energy fluxes propagating from the lower to upper atmosphere. The prospective energy carrier might be associated with the middle-scale atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) traveling upwards to the ionospheric heights and producing the effects known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID's). We present the results of detailed experimental and theoretical study of these phenomena. The original data had been provided by experiments in the region of high meteorological activity, namely Antarctic coast of the Drake Passage, where the Ukrainian Antarctic station " Akademik Vernadsky" is located (UK's "Michael Faraday" till 1996). The permanent data sets were collected over the seven years from 1996 till 2002. The passing atmospheric fronts were in most cases accompanied by excitation of middle-scale AGW's and quasiperiodic variations of magnetic field components, showing the same time periods as the atmospheric pressure. As follows from the cross-correlation analysis of the magnetic field and pressure variations, the magnetic field normally lagged behind the pressure by few tens minutes. On this base we elaborate a quantitative model describing the AGW excitation by weather fronts, AGW propagation to the upper atmosphere and generation of geomagnetic pulsation in the ionospheric dynamo-region. We expect to carry out further experiments onboard Ukrainian remote sensing satellite "Sich-1M" (launch in 2004), which payload contains optical and radar equipment allowing to detect weather systems as well as a set of electromagnetic sensors ("Variant" experiment" for registration of the fine structure of fields and currents in the ionosphere. We are going to compare a ground based meteorological and

  11. Dissociation of SERPINE1 mRNA from the translational repressor proteins Ago2 and TIA-1 upon platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Corduan, Aurélie; Plé, Hélène; Laffont, Benoit; Wallon, Thérèse; Plante, Isabelle; Landry, Patricia; Provost, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Platelets play an important role in haemostasis, as well as in thrombosis and coagulation processes. They harbour a wide variety of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), that can template de novo protein synthesis, and an abundant array of microRNAs, which are known to mediate mRNA translational repression through proteins of the Argonaute (Ago) family. The relationship between platelet microRNAs and proteins capable of mediating translational repression, however, remains unclear. Here, we report that half of platelet microRNAs is associated to mRNA-regulatory Ago2 protein complexes, in various proportions. Associated to these Ago2 complexes are platelet mRNAs known to support de novo protein synthesis. Reporter gene activity assays confirmed the capacity of the platelet microRNAs, found to be associated to Ago2 complexes, to regulate translation of these platelet mRNAs through their 3'UTR. Neither the microRNA repertoire nor the microRNA composition of Ago2 complexes of human platelets changed upon activation with thrombin. However, under conditions favoring de novo synthesis of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein, we documented a rapid dissociation of the encoding platelet SERPINE1 mRNA from Ago2 protein complexes as well as from the translational repressor protein T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1). These findings are consistent with a scenario by which lifting of the repressive effects of Ago2 and TIA-1 protein complexes, involving a rearrangement of proteinmRNA complexes rather than disassembly of Ago2microRNA complexes, would allow translation of SERPINE1 mRNA into PAI-1 in response to platelet activation. PMID:25673011

  12. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  13. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  15. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 63.8980 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric Acid Production What This... (HAP) emitted from hydrochloric acid (HCl) production. This subpart also establishes requirements...

  17. Effect of propionic acid on fatty acid oxidation and ureagenesis.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, A M; Chase, H P

    1976-07-01

    Propionic acid significantly inhibited 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate at a concentration of 10 muM in control fibroblasts and 100 muM in methylmalonic fibroblasts. This inhibition was similar to that produced by 4-pentenoic acid. Methylmalonic acid also inhibited 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate, but only at a concentration of 1 mM in control cells and 5 mM in methylmalonic cells. Propionic acid (5 mM) also inhibited ureagenesis in rat liver slices when ammonia was the substrate but not with aspartate and citrulline as substrates. Propionic acid had no direct effect on either carbamyl phosphate synthetase or ornithine transcarbamylase. These findings may explain the fatty degeneration of the liver and the hyperammonemia in propionic and methylmalonic acidemia. PMID:934734

  18. ABCG2-overexpressing S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice keep original biochemistry and cell biological properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Liang, Yong-Ju; Wu, Xing-Ping; Su, Xiao-Dong; Fu, Li-Wu

    2012-01-01

    S1-M1-80 cells, derived from human colon carcinoma S1 cells, are mitoxantrone-selected ABCG2-overexpressing cells and are widely used in in vitro studies of multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, S1-M1-80 cell xenografts were established to investigate whether the MDR phenotype and cell biological properties were maintained in vivo. Our results showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in S1-M1-80 cells were similar to those in cells isolated from S1-M1-80 cell xenografts (named xS1-M1-80 cells). Consistently, xS1-M1-80 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan, but remained sensitive to the non-ABCG2 substrate cisplatin. Furthermore, the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143 potently sensitized xS1-M1-80 cells to mitoxantrone and topotecan. These results suggest that S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice retain their original cytological characteristics at 9 weeks. Thus, this model could serve as a good system for further investigation of ABCG2-mediated MDR. PMID:22360854

  19. Preferential synthesis of the G1m(1) allotype of IgG1 in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Salier, J P; Goust, J M; Pandey, J P; Fudenberg, H H

    1981-09-18

    Quantitations of the G1m(1) and G1m(3) allotypic determinants of human immunoglobulin G were performed by radioimmunoassay on cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from patients with multiple sclerosis and from patients with other neurological disorders. In multiple sclerosis patients that were heterozygous for these determinants, G1m(1) concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid was greatly increased-reflected by an increased ratio of G1m(1)-in comparison with that of patients with other neurological disorders. These results suggest that in the heterozygous multiple sclerosis patients, most of the plasma cells in the central nervous system that secrete oligoclonal immunoglobulin G preferentially synthesize G1m(1) IgG1 molecules. PMID:6973823

  20. Ethanol and xylitol production by fermentation of acid hydrolysate from olive pruning with Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Moya, Alberto J; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2015-08-01

    Olive tree pruning biomass has been pretreated with pressurized steam, hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid, conditioned and afterwards fermented using the non-traditional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618. The main aim of this study was to analyse the influence of acid concentration on the hydrolysis process and its effect on the subsequent fermentation to produce ethanol and xylitol. From the results, it could be deduced that both total sugars and d-glucose recovery were enhanced by increasing the acid concentration tested; almost the whole hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed when 3.77% was used. It has been observed a sequential production first of ethanol, from d-glucose, and then xylitol from d-xylose. The overall ethanol and xylitol yields ranged from 0.27 to 0.38kgkg(-1), and 0.12 to 0.23kgkg(-1) respectively, reaching the highest values in the fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained with hydrochloric acid 2.61% and 1.11%, respectively. PMID:25916261

  1. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R; James Laurinat, J

    2006-08-22

    Chloride (Cl{sup -}) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO{sub 2} sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl{sup -} from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H{sup +}) and up to 5 M Cl{sup -}. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H{sup +}, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), facilitated by the presence of NO{sub 2}, strongly affects the rate of Cl{sup -} removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl{sup -} salt solution without pre-heating the NO{sub 2} gas has minimal effect on Cl{sup -} removal rates when the contact times between NO{sub 2} and the salt solution are on the order of seconds.

  2. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  3. FGF15/19 protein levels in the portal blood do not reflect changes in the ileal FGF15/19 or hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA levels

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Quan; Guo, Grace L.; Honda, Akira; Saumoy, Monica; Salen, Gerald; Xu, Guorong

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that bile acid suppression of CYP7A1 gene expression is mediated through a gut-liver signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor (FGF)15/19-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 which is initiated by activation of farnesoid X receptor in the ileum but not in the liver. This study evaluated whether FGF15/19 protein levels in the portal blood reflected changes in FGF15/19 mRNA in the ileum. Studies were conducted in Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits fed regular chow (controls), supplemented with cholesterol (Ch) or cholic acid (CA). After feeding CA, ileal FGF15 mRNA increased 8.5-fold in rats and FGF19 rose 16-fold in rabbits associated with 62 and 75% reduction of CYP7A1 mRNA, respectively. Neither FGF15 nor FGF19 protein levels changed in the portal blood to correspond with the marked increase of FGF15/19 mRNA levels in the ileum or inhibited CYP7A1 expression in the liver. Further, in Ch-fed rats, CYP7A1 mRNA increased 1.9-fold (P < 0.001) although FGF15 mRNA levels in the ileum and portal blood FGF15 protein levels were not decreased. In Ch-fed rabbits, although FGF19 mRNA levels in the ileum and liver did not increase significantly, CYP7A1 mRNA declined 49% (P < 0.05). We were unable to find corresponding changes of FGF15/19 protein levels in the portal blood in rats and rabbits where the mRNA levels of FGF15/19 in the ileum and CYP7A1 in the liver change significantly. PMID:23852734

  4. Anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects of Rhizoma Dioscoreae septemlobae extracts and its main component dioscin via regulation of mOAT1, mURAT1 and mOCT2 in hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Junxia; Wei, Yuhui; Liu, Minglong; Liu, Tianxi; Li, Jianhua; Ji, Yuanchun; Liang, Jianping

    2014-10-01

    Rhizoma Dioscoreae septemlobae (RDSE) has been widely used for the treatment of hyperuricemia in China. However, the therapeutic mechanism has been unknown. This study investigated the antihyperuricemic mechanisms of the extracts obtained from RDSE and its main component dioscin (DIS) in hyperuricemic mice. Hyperuricemic mice were induced by potassium oxonate (250 mg/kg). RDSE or DIS was orally administered to hyperuricemic mice at dosages of 319.22, 638.43, 1276.86 mg/kg/day for 10 days, respectively. Uric acid or creatinine in serum and urine was determined by HPLC or HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. The xanthine oxidase (XO) activities in mice liver were examined in vitro. Protein levels of organic anion transporter 1 (mOAT1), urate transporter 1 (mURAT1) and organic cation transporter 2 (mOCT2) in the kidney were analyzed by western blotting. The results indicated that uric acid and creatinine in serum were significantly increased by potassium oxonate, as compared to that of control mice. Compared saline-treated group, after RDSE treatment in the high and middle dose, the expression of mOAT1 increased 47.98 and 54.48 %, respectively, which accompanied with the decreased expression of mURAT1 (47.63 %) in high dose. After DIS treatment in high, middle and low dose, the expression of mOAT1 increased 23.93, 32.80 and 25.28 % compared to saline-treated group, respectively, which accompanied with the decreased expression of mURAT1 (51.07, 51.42 and 51.35 %). However, RDSE and DIS displayed a weak XO inhibition activity compared with allopurinol. Therefore, RDSE and DIS processed uricosuric and nephroprotective actions by regulation of mOAT1, mURAT1 and mOCT2. PMID:24866061

  5. Tectonic and Volcanic Character of the Endeavour Ridge Axis From 1-m Resolution AUV Multibeam Mapping Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Thomas, H.; Thompson, D.; Calarco, M.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution seafloor mapping surveys were conducted on the Endeavour Ridge using the MBARI AUV D. Allan. B. during R/V Atlantis cruise AT15-36. The four surveys had a combined bottom time of about 46 hours, collected data along 238 km of trackline, and mapped roughly 35 km2 with 200 kHz multibeam bathymetry and 100 kHz chirp sidescan. The bathymetry data have a 1-m lateral resolution and 0.1-m vertical precision. The surveys focused on the axial valley from 48°0.0' to 47°53.1'N or from 4.3 km south of the Mothra vent field to 0.5 km north of the Sasquatch vent field. We also mapped the western flank of the ridge between the Mothra and High Rise vent fields. The AUV is navigated using an inertial navigation system (INS) aided by Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) estimates of velocity over bottom. For these deep-water surveys, the initial AUV location derives from USBL fixes communicated to the vehicle by acoustic modem. Cross- correlation of bathymetric features in overlapping or crossing swaths allowed solution for an optimal navigation model that is internally self-consistent and accurate to the bathymetric resolution of 1 m. The Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is characterized by a 300 m to 1500 m wide and 70 m to 140 m deep axial valley. This segment has long been interpreted as a currently tectonically dominated end member of intermediate rate spreading centers, which are thought to undergo cycles of tectonically and volcanically dominated spreading. The new surveys provide high-resolution bathymetry of the axial valley along a 13.5 km long section of the spreading center, and of the axis flanks along a 4.5 km section. The axial valley is highly dissected by fissures and normal faults throughout the survey length. There is no evidence for recent constructional volcanism south of the Mothra vent field. From Mothra northward to the Sasquatch vent field, six recognizable lava flows and drained lava lakes are found along the axis, most partly fissured

  6. Biophysical Characterization of G-Quadruplex Recognition in the PITX1 mRNA by the Specificity Domain of the Helicase RHAU

    PubMed Central

    Ariyo, Emmanuel O.; Booy, Evan P.; Patel, Trushar R.; Dzananovic, Edis; McRae, Ewan K.; Meier, Markus; McEleney, Kevin; Stetefeld, Jorg; McKenna, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acids rich in guanine are able to fold into unique structures known as G-quadruplexes. G-quadruplexes consist of four tracts of guanylates arranged in parallel or antiparallel strands that are aligned in stacked G-quartet planes. The structure is further stabilized by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds and monovalent cations centered between the planes. RHAU (RNA helicase associated with AU-rich element) is a member of the ATP-dependent DExH/D family of RNA helicases and can bind and resolve G-quadruplexes. RHAU contains a core helicase domain with an N-terminal extension that enables recognition and full binding affinity to RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes. PITX1, a member of the bicoid class of homeobox proteins, is a transcriptional activator active during development of vertebrates, chiefly in the anterior pituitary gland and several other organs. We have previously demonstrated that RHAU regulates PITX1 levels through interaction with G-quadruplexes at the 3’-end of the PITX1 mRNA. To understand the structural basis of G-quadruplex recognition by RHAU, we characterize a purified minimal PITX1 G-quadruplex using a variety of biophysical techniques including electrophoretic mobility shift assays, UV-VIS spectroscopy, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our biophysical analysis provides evidence that the RNA G-quadruplex, but not its DNA counterpart, can adopt a parallel orientation, and that only the RNA can interact with N-terminal domain of RHAU via the tetrad face of the G-quadruplex. This work extends our insight into how the N-terminal region of RHAU recognizes parallel G-quadruplexes. PMID:26649896

  7. Structure-Activity Analysis of Niclosamide Reveals Potential Role for Cytoplasmic pH in Control of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Bruno D.; Diering, Graham H.; Bidinosti, Michael A.; Dalal, Kush; Alain, Tommy; Balgi, Aruna D.; Forestieri, Roberto; Nodwell, Matt; Rajadurai, Charles V.; Gunaratnam, Cynthia; Tee, Andrew R.; Duong, Franck; Andersen, Raymond J.; Orlowski, John; Numata, Masayuki; Sonenberg, Nahum; Roberge, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is frequently dysregulated in cancer. Inhibition of mTORC1 is thus regarded as a promising strategy in the treatment of tumors with elevated mTORC1 activity. We have recently identified niclosamide (a Food and Drug Administration-approved antihelminthic drug) as an inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling. In the present study, we explored possible mechanisms by which niclosamide may inhibit mTORC1 signaling. We tested whether niclosamide interferes with signaling cascades upstream of mTORC1, the catalytic activity of mTOR, or mTORC1 assembly. We found that niclosamide does not impair PI3K/Akt signaling, nor does it inhibit mTORC1 kinase activity. We also found that niclosamide does not interfere with mTORC1 assembly. Previous studies in helminths suggest that niclosamide disrupts pH homeostasis of the parasite. This prompted us to investigate whether niclosamide affects the pH balance of cancer cells. Experiments in both breast cancer cells and cell-free systems demonstrated that niclosamide possesses protonophoric activity in cells and in vitro. In cells, niclosamide dissipated protons (down their concentration gradient) from lysosomes to the cytosol, effectively lowering cytoplasmic pH. Notably, analysis of five niclosamide analogs revealed that the structural features of niclosamide required for protonophoric activity are also essential for mTORC1 inhibition. Furthermore, lowering cytoplasmic pH by means other than niclosamide treatment (e.g. incubation with propionic acid or bicarbonate withdrawal) recapitulated the inhibitory effects of niclosamide on mTORC1 signaling, lending support to a possible role for cytoplasmic pH in the control of mTORC1. Our data illustrate a potential mechanism for chemical inhibition of mTORC1 signaling involving modulation of cytoplasmic pH. PMID:22474287

  8. La-related Protein 1 (LARP1) Represses Terminal Oligopyrimidine (TOP) mRNA Translation Downstream of mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1)*

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Bruno D.; Zakaria, Chadi; Jia, Jian-Jun; Graber, Tyson E.; Svitkin, Yuri; Tahmasebi, Soroush; Healy, Danielle; Hoang, Huy-Dung; Jensen, Jacob M.; Diao, Ilo T.; Lussier, Alexandre; Dajadian, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Niranjan; Wang, Walter; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Hearnden, Jaclyn; Smith, Ewan M.; Tsukumo, Yoshinori; Yanagiya, Akiko; Morita, Masahiro; Petroulakis, Emmanuel; González, Jose L.; Hernández, Greco; Alain, Tommy; Damgaard, Christian K.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical regulator of protein synthesis. The best studied targets of mTORC1 in translation are the eukaryotic initiation factor-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). In this study, we identify the La-related protein 1 (LARP1) as a key novel target of mTORC1 with a fundamental role in terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) mRNA translation. Recent genome-wide studies indicate that TOP and TOP-like mRNAs compose a large portion of the mTORC1 translatome, but the mechanism by which mTORC1 controls TOP mRNA translation is incompletely understood. Here, we report that LARP1 functions as a key repressor of TOP mRNA translation downstream of mTORC1. Our data show the following: (i) LARP1 associates with mTORC1 via RAPTOR; (ii) LARP1 interacts with TOP mRNAs in an mTORC1-dependent manner; (iii) LARP1 binds the 5′TOP motif to repress TOP mRNA translation; and (iv) LARP1 competes with the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G for TOP mRNA binding. Importantly, from a drug resistance standpoint, our data also show that reducing LARP1 protein levels by RNA interference attenuates the inhibitory effect of rapamycin, Torin1, and amino acid deprivation on TOP mRNA translation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that LARP1 functions as an important repressor of TOP mRNA translation downstream of mTORC1. PMID:25940091

  9. Structure-activity analysis of niclosamide reveals potential role for cytoplasmic pH in control of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Bruno D; Diering, Graham H; Bidinosti, Michael A; Dalal, Kush; Alain, Tommy; Balgi, Aruna D; Forestieri, Roberto; Nodwell, Matt; Rajadurai, Charles V; Gunaratnam, Cynthia; Tee, Andrew R; Duong, Franck; Andersen, Raymond J; Orlowski, John; Numata, Masayuki; Sonenberg, Nahum; Roberge, Michel

    2012-05-18

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is frequently dysregulated in cancer. Inhibition of mTORC1 is thus regarded as a promising strategy in the treatment of tumors with elevated mTORC1 activity. We have recently identified niclosamide (a Food and Drug Administration-approved antihelminthic drug) as an inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling. In the present study, we explored possible mechanisms by which niclosamide may inhibit mTORC1 signaling. We tested whether niclosamide interferes with signaling cascades upstream of mTORC1, the catalytic activity of mTOR, or mTORC1 assembly. We found that niclosamide does not impair PI3K/Akt signaling, nor does it inhibit mTORC1 kinase activity. We also found that niclosamide does not interfere with mTORC1 assembly. Previous studies in helminths suggest that niclosamide disrupts pH homeostasis of the parasite. This prompted us to investigate whether niclosamide affects the pH balance of cancer cells. Experiments in both breast cancer cells and cell-free systems demonstrated that niclosamide possesses protonophoric activity in cells and in vitro. In cells, niclosamide dissipated protons (down their concentration gradient) from lysosomes to the cytosol, effectively lowering cytoplasmic pH. Notably, analysis of five niclosamide analogs revealed that the structural features of niclosamide required for protonophoric activity are also essential for mTORC1 inhibition. Furthermore, lowering cytoplasmic pH by means other than niclosamide treatment (e.g. incubation with propionic acid or bicarbonate withdrawal) recapitulated the inhibitory effects of niclosamide on mTORC1 signaling, lending support to a possible role for cytoplasmic pH in the control of mTORC1. Our data illustrate a potential mechanism for chemical inhibition of mTORC1 signaling involving modulation of cytoplasmic pH. PMID:22474287

  10. Acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA without increasing proteolysis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vary, Thomas C.; Frost, Robert A.; Lang, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis, but there is a paucity of data on the ability of alcohol to regulate muscle protein degradation. Furthermore, various types of atrophic stimuli appear to regulate ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis by increasing the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 (i.e., “atrogenes”). Therefore, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogene expression leading to an elevated rate of muscle protein breakdown. In male rats, the intraperitoneal injection of alcohol dose- and time-dependently increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA in gastrocnemius, the latter of which was most pronounced. A comparable change was absent in the soleus and heart. The ability of in vivo-administered ethanol to increase atrogene expression was independent of the route of alcohol administration (intraperitoneal vs. oral), as well as of nutritional status (fed vs. fasted) and gender (male vs. female). The increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was independent of alcohol metabolism, and the overproduction of endogenous glucocorticoids and could not be prevented by maintaining the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I. Despite marked changes in atrogene expression, acute alcohol in vivo did not alter the release of either 3-methylhistidine (MH) or tyrosine from the isolated perfused hindlimb, suggesting that the rate of muscle proteolysis remains unchanged. Moreover, alcohol did not increase the directly determined rate of protein degradation in isolated epitrochlearis muscles or cultured myocytes. Finally, no increase in atrogene expression or 3-MH release was detected in muscle from rats fed an alcohol-containing diet. Our results indicate that although acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA preferentially in fast-twitch skeletal muscle, this change was not associated with increased rates of muscle proteolysis. Therefore, the loss

  11. In situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in calves with acute Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Radi, Z A; Register, K B; Lee, E K; Kehrli, M E; Brogden, K A; Gallup, J M; Ackermann, M R

    1999-09-01

    The in situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in normal and pneumonic lung tissues of Holstein calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was compared with that of age-matched non-BLAD Holstein calves by in situ hybridization. Twenty-four Holstein calves (both BLAD and non-BLAD) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups and inoculated intrabronchially with Pasteurella haemolytica or pyrogen-free saline. Lung tissues were collected and fixed in 10% neutral formalin at 2 or 4 hours postinoculation (PI). The expression and distribution of ICAM-1 mRNA in the different cell types of the lung tissue was detected by in situ hybridization with a 307-base-pair bovine ICAM-1 riboprobe. In lungs of both non-BLAD and BLAD saline-inoculated calves, ICAM-1 expression was present in epithelial cells but occurred in <30% of cells in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. ICAM-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells was present in <30% of cells in pulmonary arteries and veins. The expression of ICAM-1 was significantly greater (>60% of cells) in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary endothelial cells of arteries and veins in both BLAD and non-BLAD calves inoculated with P. haemolytica. Bronchiolar epithelium had the highest intensity of mRNA expression and highest percentage of cells that were stained, whereas bronchial epithelium had the lowest intensity and percentage of cells stained. Most alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in infected lungs also expressed ICAM-1. ICAM-1 expression was generally increased in infected BLAD calves at 2 hours PI as compared with non-BLAD calves but not at 4 hours PI. The increased expression of ICAM-1 during acute P. haemolytica pneumonia in calves suggests that ICAM-1 is upregulated and may play a role in leukocyte infiltration. The extent of ICAM-1 expression in P. haemolytica-inoculated calves with BLAD was initially enhanced but otherwise similar to that in non

  12. Theoretical stusy of the reaction between 2,2',4' - trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid and zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.

    1960-01-01

    Zirconium reacts with 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid in acid solutions to Form two complexes in which the ratios of dye to zirconium are 1 to 1 and 2 to 1. Both complexes are true chelates, with zirconium acting as a bridge between the two orthohydroxy dye groups. Apparent equilibrium constants for the reactions to form each of the complexes are determined. The reactions are used as a basis for the determination of the active component in the dye and a graphical method for the determination of reagent purity is described. Four absorption spectra covering the wave length region from 350 to 750 mu are given, which completely define the color system associated with the reactions in solutions where the hydrochloric acid concentration ranges from 0.0064N to about 7N.

  13. Oxalic acid degradation by a novel fungal oxalate oxidase from Abortiporus biennis.

    PubMed

    Grąz, Marcin; Rachwał, Kamila; Zan, Radosław; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxalate oxidase was identified in mycelial extracts of a basidiomycete Abortiporus biennis strain. Intracellular enzyme activity was detected only after prior lowering of the pH value of the fungal cultures by using oxalic or hydrochloric acids. This enzyme was purified using size exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-25) and ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose). This enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 2 when incubated at 40°C, and the optimum temperature was established at 60°C. Among the tested organic acids, this enzyme exhibited specificity only towards oxalic acid. Molecular mass was calculated as 58 kDa. The values of Km for oxalate and Vmax for the enzyme reaction were 0.015 M and 30 mmol min(-1), respectively. PMID:27337220

  14. Characterization of the products formed by the reaction of trichlorocyanuric acid with 2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, P Mark L; Barnett, Julie S

    2009-11-01

    We report a recent investigation into the death of a cat that was initially thought to involve intentionally burning the animal via the use of an ignitable liquid. The exposure of the animal to flame was ruled out. Instead, forensic investigation revealed the intentional mixing together of a common outdoor swimming pool chlorinator, trichlorocyanuric acid (TCCA), and 2-propanol (aka, isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol). The reaction of these two chemicals resulted in the formation of cyanuric acid residue, hydrochloric acid, and the evolution of a significant volume of chlorine gas. Further alpha-chlorination side reactions also occurred between 2-propanol and TCCA to produce a variety of chlorinated 2-propanone species that were detected on the submitted evidence. The identification of the products of both the main reaction and the side reactions allowed the authors to determine what chemicals were originally mixed together by the culprit. PMID:19818110

  15. Tetranitroacetimidic acid: a high oxygen oxidizer and potential replacement for ammonium perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thao T; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-08-27

    Considerable work has been focused on developing replacements for ammonium perchlorate (AP), a primary choice for solid rocket and missile propellants, due to environmental concerns resulting from the release of perchlorate into groundwater systems [corrected]. Additionally, the generation of hydrochloric acid contributes to high concentrations of acid rain and to ozone layer depletion. En route to synthesizing salts that contain cationic FOX-7, a novel, high oxygen-containing oxidizer, tetranitroacetimidic acid (TNAA), has been synthesized and fully characterized. The properties of TNAA were found to be exceptional, with a calculated specific impulse exceeding that of AP, leading to its high potential as a replacement for AP. TNAA can be synthesized easily in a one-step process by the nitration of FOX-7 in high yield (>93%). The synthesis, properties, and chemical reactivity of TNAA have been examined. PMID:25105731

  16. Beneficial role of chloride ions during pickling of steel in sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, B.; Singh, T.B.; Singh, D.D.N.

    1996-02-01

    Sodium chloride was shown to have a beneficial effect on the pickling of mild steel in different concentrations of sulfuric acid at various temperatures and ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4}{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O) accumulations in the bath. Addition of this salt to the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} bath drastically reduced metal loss, enhanced the pickling rate, removed scale quickly, and improved the surface finish of the pickled material. Addition of hydrochloric acid instead of NaCl, however, accelerated the corrosion rate of mild steel in the uninhibited acid solution but had a negligible effect in the inhibited solution. The beneficial effect of NaCl was discussed based upon electrochemical parameters.

  17. Esophageal blood flow in the cat. Normal distribution and effects of acid perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hollwarth, M.E.; Smith, M.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-03-01

    The radioactive microsphere technique was used to estimate blood flow to different regions of the esophagus and to adjacent regions of the stomach before and after perfusion of the esophagus with hydrochloric acid (pH 1.5) for 5 min. Under resting conditions total blood flow, as well as blood flow to the mucosal-submucosal layer and the muscular layer, to both sphincters was significantly higher than to the esophageal body. Blood flow to the adjacent regions of the stomach was significantly higher than esophageal blood flow. Acid perfusion resulted in a large increase in total blood flow in both sphincters and the lower esophageal body. Gastric blood flow was not altered by acid perfusion. The esophageal hyperemia resulted primarily from an increase in blood flow to the muscular layer; mucosal-submucosal blood flow was increased only in the lower esophageal sphincter. The present study indicates that short periods (5 min) of gastroesophageal reflux may increase esophageal blood flow.

  18. SR proteins SRp20 and 9G8 contribute to efficient export of herpes simplex virus 1 mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero-Paunetto, Laurimar; Li Ling; Hernandez, Felicia P.; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M.

    2010-06-05

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm through the export receptor TAP/NFX1. HSV-1 multifunctional protein ICP27 interacts with TAP/NXF1, binds viral RNAs, and is required for efficient viral RNA export. In ICP27 mutant infections, viral RNA export is reduced but not ablated, indicating that other export adaptors can aid in viral RNA export. Export adaptor protein Aly/REF is recruited to viral replication compartments, however, Aly/REF knockdown has little effect on viral RNA export. SR proteins SRp20 and 9G8 interact with TAP/NXF1 and mediate export of some cellular RNAs. We report that siRNA knockdown of SRp20 or 9G8 resulted in about a 10 fold decrease in virus yields and in nuclear accumulation of poly(A+) RNA. In infected cells depleted of SRp20, newly transcribed Bromouridine-labeled RNA also accumulated in the nucleus. We conclude that SRp20 and 9G8 contribute to HSV-1 RNA export.

  19. CPEB1 restrains proliferation of Glioblastoma cells through the regulation of p27(Kip1) mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Galardi, Silvia; Petretich, Massimo; Pinna, Guillaume; D'Amico, Silvia; Loreni, Fabrizio; Michienzi, Alessandro; Groisman, Irina; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) regulates many important biological processes ranging from cell cycle control to learning and memory formation, by controlling mRNA translation efficiency via 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR). In the present study, we show that CPEB1 is significantly downregulated in human Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) tissues and that the restoration of its expression impairs glioma cell lines growth. We demonstrate that CPEB1 promotes the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) by specifically targeting its 3'UTR, and competes with miR-221/222 binding at an overlapping site in the 3'UTR, thus impairing miR-221/222 inhibitory activity. Upon binding to p27(Kip1) 3'UTR, CPEB1 promotes elongation of poly-A tail and the subsequent translation of p27(Kip1) mRNA. This leads to higher levels of p27(Kip1) in the cell, in turn significantly inhibiting cell proliferation, and confers to CPEB1 a potential value as a tumor suppressor in Glioblastoma. PMID:27142352

  20. Experiments and Studies of Edge Plasma Radial Transport and Confinement Property on the HL-1M Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wen-yu; Wang, En-yao; Pan, Yu-dong; Li, Qiang

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes a Mach/Langmuir probe array with five pins and six pins, which can measure not only parallel flows and the flow perpendicular to the magnetic field but also the radial and the poloidal electric field Er and Eθ as well. Experimental measurements of the edge fluctuations, velocities of the toroidal, the poloidal flow and electric field have been carried out on both of SOL and the boundary region of HL-1M for Ohmic, biased H-mode, Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD), Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (MBI), Multi-shot Pellet Injection (MPI), Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) and Electric Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) discharges. The results show that the suppressions of the fluctuations are related to poloidal rotations produced by different discharge modes in the improved particle confinement property, simultaneously the change of the radial and poloidal electric field is generated and becomes more negative at the Tokamak plasma edge, and the sheared poloidal flow is related to the reduction in fluctuation level, and the poloidal velocity is mainly dominated by the E × B drift.

  1. First generation solar adaptive optics system for 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope at Fuxian Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Chang-Hui; Zhu, Lei; Rao, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Lan-Qiang; Bao, Hua; Ma, Xue-An; Gu, Nai-Ting; Guan, Chun-Lin; Chen, Dong-Hong; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Jun; Jin, Zen-Yu; Liu, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    The first generation solar adaptive optics (AO) system, which consists of a fine tracking loop with a tip-tilt mirror (TTM) and a correlation tracker, and a high-order correction loop with a 37-element deformable mirror (DM), a correlating Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor (WFS) based on the absolute difference algorithm and a real time controller (RTC), has been developed and installed at the 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) that is part of Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO). Compared with the 37-element solar AO system developed for the 26-cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope, administered by Yunnan Astronomical Observatories, this AO system has two updates: one is the subaperture arrangement of the WFS changed from square to hexagon; the other is the high speed camera of the WFS and the corresponding real time controller. The WFS can be operated at a frame rate of 2100 Hz and the error correction bandwidth can exceed 100 Hz. After AO correction, the averaged residual image motion and the averaged RMS wavefront error are reduced to 0.06″ and 45 nm, respectively. The results of on-sky testing observations demonstrate better contrast and finer structures of the images taken with AO than those without AO.

  2. Improved Comparative Signature Diagrams to Evaluate Similarity of Storage Stability Profiles of Different IgG1 mAbs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Esfandiary, Reza; Iyer, Vidyashankara; Bishop, Steven M; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, Charles Russell

    2016-03-01

    For therapeutic protein analytical studies related to evaluating lot-to-lot variability, different processes and/or formulations, or biosimilars, there is growing interest in applying novel data visualization tools for fingerprint analysis to identify statistically significant differences between 2 samples. Comparative Signature Diagrams (CSDs) were previously developed to display such differences as colored contour plots using a variety of biophysical data sets. In this study, several improvements are proposed to enhance readability and quantitative determinations of CSDs using protein stability data from more commonly used analytical methods such as size exclusion chromatography and capillary isoelectric focusing. To demonstrate the effectiveness of improved CSDs for data visualization, an accelerated and real-time stability study was set up for an IgG1 mAb (mAb A) and its corresponding triple mutant (mAb E). The stability profiles of both mAbs were compared for differences in aggregation (size exclusion chromatography) and charge heterogeneity (capillary isoelectric focusing) profiles over time. Both traditional data analysis and the improved CSDs conclude that the triple mutant mAb E is more susceptible to physicochemical degradation than mAb A under accelerated conditions. The current abilities and limitations of CSDs to provide fingerprint analysis of protein stability profiles to facilitate the determination of similarity versus nonsimilarity between samples is discussed. PMID:26886311

  3. Increased production of cellulases and xylanases by Penicillium echinulatum S1M29 in batch and fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Laísa; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; da Silva Lima, Deise Juliana; Camassola, Marli; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-10-01

    The development of more productive strains of microorganisms and processes that increase enzyme levels can contribute to the economically efficient production of second generation ethanol. To this end, cellulases and xylanases were produced with the S1M29 mutant strain of Penicillium echinulatum, using different concentrations of cellulose (20, 40, and 60 g L(-1)) in batch and fed-batch processes. The highest activities of FPase (8.3 U mL(-1)), endoglucanases (37.3 U mL(-1)), and xylanases (177 U mL(-1)) were obtained in fed-batch cultivation with 40 g L(-1) of cellulose. The P. echinulatum enzymatic broth and the commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2 were tested for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Maximum concentrations of glucose and xylose were achieved after 72 h of hydrolysis. Glucose yields of 28.0% and 27.0% were obtained using the P. echinulatum enzymatic extract and Cellic CTec2, respectively. PMID:23973981

  4. Structural Characterization of IgG1 mAb Aggregates and Particles Generated under Various Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Telikepalli, Srivalli N.; Kumru, Ozan S.; Kalonia, Cavan; Esfandiary, Reza; Joshi, Sangeeta B.; Middaugh, C. Russell; Volkin, David B.

    2014-01-01

    IgG1 mAb solutions were prepared with and without sodium chloride and subjected to different environmental stresses. Formation of aggregates and particles of varying size was monitored by a combination of size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA), Micro-flow Imaging (MFI), turbidity, and visual assessments. Stirring and heating induced the highest concentration of particles. In general, the presence of NaCl enhanced this effect. The morphology of the particles formed from mAb samples exposed to different stresses was analyzed from TEM and MFI images. Shaking samples without NaCl generated the most fibrillar particles, while stirring created largely spherical particles. The composition of the particles was evaluated for covalent cross-linking by SDS-PAGE, overall secondary structure by FTIR microscopy, and surface apolarity by extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. Freeze-thaw and shaking led to particles containing protein with native-like secondary structure. Heating and stirring produced IgG1 containing aggregates and particles with some non-native disulfide crosslinks, varying levels of intermolecular beta sheet content, and increased surface hydrophobicity. These results highlight the importance of evaluating protein particle morphology and composition, in addition to particle number and size distributions, to better understand the effect of solution conditions and environmental stresses on the formation of protein particles in mAb solutions. PMID:24452866

  5. Decreased RB1 mRNA, Protein, and Activity Reflect Obesity-Induced Altered Adipogenic Capacity in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Petrov, Petar; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Estefanía; Oliver, Paula; Ribot, Joan; Ricart, Wifredo; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, Mª Luisa; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (Rb1) has been described as an essential player in white adipocyte differentiation in mice. No studies have been reported thus far in human adipose tissue or human adipocytes. We aimed to investigate the possible role and regulation of RB1 in adipose tissue in obesity using human samples and animal and cell models. Adipose RB1 (mRNA, protein, and activity) was negatively associated with BMI and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) while positively associated with the expression of adipogenic genes (PPARγ and IRS1) in both visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue. BMI increase was the main contributor to adipose RB1 downregulation. In rats, adipose Rb1 gene expression and activity decreased in parallel to dietary-induced weight gain and returned to baseline with weight loss. RB1 gene and protein expression and activity increased significantly during human adipocyte differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, transient knockdown of Rb1 led to loss of the adipogenic phenotype. In conclusion, Rb1 seems to play a permissive role for human adipose tissue function, being downregulated in obesity and increased during differentiation of human adipocytes. Rb1 knockdown findings further implicate Rb1 as necessary for maintenance of adipogenic characteristics in fully differentiated adipocytes. PMID:23315497

  6. Final Report for the Study on S-Implanted Alloy 22 in 1 M NaCl Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Charles F.; Baer, Donald R.; Jones, R. H.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of high levels of S in the near-surface region on the passivity of Alloy 22, a corrosion resistant Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, in deaerated 1 M NaCl solution. Near-surface concentrations of S up to 2 at.% were achieved in Alloy 22 test specimens by implanting them with S. The S-implanted samples were then evaluated in short-term electrochemical tests in the salt solution and subsequently analyzed with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for film thickness and composition. Specimens tested included non-implanted and annealed Alloy 22 samples, samples implanted with S, and “blanks” implanted with Ar as an ion that would simulate the “damage” of S implantation without the chemical effect. A sample of S-implanted Alloy 22 was also exposed to solution for 29 days and analyzed for evidence of S accumulation at the surface over longer times.

  7. CPEB1 restrains proliferation of Glioblastoma cells through the regulation of p27Kip1 mRNA translation

    PubMed Central

    Galardi, Silvia; Petretich, Massimo; Pinna, Guillaume; D’Amico, Silvia; Loreni, Fabrizio; Michienzi, Alessandro; Groisman, Irina; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) regulates many important biological processes ranging from cell cycle control to learning and memory formation, by controlling mRNA translation efficiency via 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR). In the present study, we show that CPEB1 is significantly downregulated in human Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) tissues and that the restoration of its expression impairs glioma cell lines growth. We demonstrate that CPEB1 promotes the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 by specifically targeting its 3′UTR, and competes with miR-221/222 binding at an overlapping site in the 3′UTR, thus impairing miR-221/222 inhibitory activity. Upon binding to p27Kip1 3′UTR, CPEB1 promotes elongation of poly-A tail and the subsequent translation of p27Kip1 mRNA. This leads to higher levels of p27Kip1 in the cell, in turn significantly inhibiting cell proliferation, and confers to CPEB1 a potential value as a tumor suppressor in Glioblastoma. PMID:27142352

  8. Variation in myogenic differentiation 1 mRNA abundance is associated with beef tenderness in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Tizioto, P C; Coutinho, L L; Mourão, G B; Gasparin, G; Malagó-Jr, W; Bressani, F A; Tullio, R R; Nassu, R T; Taylor, J F; Regitano, L C A

    2016-08-01

    The myogenic differentiation 1 gene (MYOD1) has a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation and composition through its regulation of the expression of several muscle-specific genes. We first used a general linear mixed model approach to evaluate the association of MYOD1 expression levels on individual beef tenderness phenotypes. MYOD1mRNA levels measured by quantitative polymerase chain reactions in 136 Nelore steers were significantly associated (P ≤ 0.01) with Warner-Bratzler shear force, measured on the longissimus dorsi muscle after 7 and 14 days of beef aging. Transcript abundance for the muscle regulatory gene MYOD1 was lower in animals with more tender beef. We also performed a co-expression network analysis using whole transcriptome sequence data generated from 30 samples of longissimus muscle tissue to identify genes that are potentially regulated by MYOD1. The effect of MYOD1 gene expression on beef tenderness may emerge from its function as an activator of muscle-specific gene transcription such as for the serum response factor (C-fos serum response element-binding transcription factor) gene (SRF), which determines muscle tissue development, composition, growth and maturation. PMID:27028139

  9. Secondary Structure of a Conserved Domain in an Intron of Influenza A M1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus utilizes RNA throughout infection. Little is known, however, about the roles of RNA structures. A previous bioinformatics survey predicted multiple regions of influenza A virus that are likely to generate evolutionarily conserved and stable RNA structures. One predicted conserved structure is in the pre-mRNA coding for essential proteins, M1 and M2. This structure starts 79 nucleotides downstream of the M2 mRNA 5′ splice site. Here, a combination of biochemical structural mapping, mutagenesis, and NMR confirms the predicted three-way multibranch structure of this RNA. Imino proton NMR spectra reveal no change in secondary structure when 80 mM KCl is supplemented with 4 mM MgCl2. Optical melting curves in 1 M NaCl and in 100 mM KCl with 10 mM MgCl2 are very similar, with melting temperatures ∼14 °C higher than that for 100 mM KCl alone. These results provide a firm basis for designing experiments and potential therapeutics to test for function in cell culture. PMID:25026548

  10. Real time controller for 37-element low-order solar adaptive optics system at 1m new vacuum solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Gu, Naiting; Chen, Shanqiu; Zhang, Lanqiang; Wang, Xiaoyun; Rao, Xuejun; Li, Mei; Rao, Changhui

    A low-order solar adaptive optics (AO) system had been successfully built and installed at 1m New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) of Full-shine Lake Solar Observatory. The real time controller (RTC) of the AO system, which consists of a correlation tracker and a high-order wavefront correction controller, was developed. In this system, the absolute difference algorithm is used to detect wavefront gradients. A new architecture with field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and digital signal processor (DSP) for the real-time controller based on systolic array and pipeline was designed. The controller was integrated into the AO system and saw the first light on February 24th, 2011, using solar granulation as the beacon. Later, the AO-corrected high resolution sunspots images were obtained using sunspots as the beacon. The observational results show that the contrast and resolution of the solar images are improved evidently after the correction by the AO system. The design of the RTC and the observational results will be presented.

  11. Trehalose accumulation induced during the oxidative stress response is independent of TPS1 mRNA levels in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Oscar; González-Párraga, Pilar; Pedreño, Yolanda; Alvarez-Peral, Francisco J; Argüelles, Juan-Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Growing cells of the Candida albicans trehalose-deficient mutant tps1/tps1 were extremely sensitive to severe oxidative stress exposure (H2O2). However, their viability was not affected after saline stress or heat-shock treatments, being roughly equivalent to that of the parental strain. In wild-type cells, these adverse conditions induced the intracellular accumulation of trehalose together with activation of trehalose-6P synthase, whereas the endogenous trehalose content and the corresponding biosynthetic activity were barely detectable in the tps1/tps1 mutant. The addition of cycloheximide did not prevent the marked induction of trehalose-6P synthase activity. Furthermore, the presence of H2O2 decreased the level of TPS1 mRNA expression. Hence, the conspicuous trehalose accumulation in response to oxidative stress is not induced by increased transcription of TPS1. Our results are consistent with a specific requirement of trehalose in order to withstand a severe oxidative stress in C. albicans, and suggest that trehalose accumulation observed under these conditions is a complex process that most probably involves post-translational modifications of the trehalose synthase complex. PMID:12783274

  12. Wideband impedance spectroscopy from 1 mHz to 10 MHz by combination of four- and two-electrode methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmann, J.; Klitzsch, N.

    2015-03-01

    Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) measurements allow to study a wide range of polarization mechanisms associated with different frequency ranges. Experimental devices usually cover limited frequency ranges with sufficient accuracy. We propose (a) a combination of four-electrode and two-electrode devices and (b) a data combination and mutual verification procedure using the actual sample under test. Hereby, we cover a frequency range from 1 mHz to 10 MHz. The data combination relies on the precondition that any dispersive disturbance decayed at some mutual point within an overlapping frequency range between 1 Hz and 45 kHz. We validate our data combination procedure by IS measurements on simple reference systems and comparison with widely accepted model functions, e.g. the complex refractive index model (CRIM) for high frequency behavior and Kramers-Kronig relations in terms of data consistency. In this respect, our suggested processing approach is superior to two selected alternative approaches. We successfully adapt typical empirical model functions, e.g. multi-Cole-Cole, to the resulting wideband data to show that they are fully applicable for further data analysis.

  13. Control of in-situ Q by stress and water saturation, for shallow (< 1 m), unconsolidated sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Crane, J. M.; Shen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Field investigations into the simultaneous effects of water saturation and stress on seismic attenuation are scarce. However, seismic attenuation may be used to place constraints on water saturation with depth, at least for homogenous, porous media. We use a publicly available seismic dataset [Lorenzo et al., 2013] collected in a mid-size sand tank (~6 x 9 x 0.44 m) for open evaluation of these relationships. In the presence of large Q gradients the assumed equivalency of Q between the raypaths of the reference and measured signals can lead to false Q estimates (e.g., < 0). We employ a modified spectral ratio method to estimate in-situ Q so that the average Q along the measured and reference ray paths differ. We estimate local Q values from average raypath Q values, penetration depths, and travel times. Local Q values (Qint) increase the most with depth (dQ/dz = 43 m-1) and stress (dQ/dσ = 0.0025/Pa) in dry sand and the least in partially saturated sand (dQ/dz = 10 -1m and dQ/dσ = 0.0013/Pa) where attenuation created by local fluid flow reaches a maximum. Anomalous Q deviations outside this range can be explained by a divergence in effective stress, attenuation mechanism, or lithology.

  14. [Determination of docosahexaenoic acid in milk powder by gas chromatography using acid hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Shao, Shiping; Xiang, Dapeng; Li, Shuang; Xi, Xinglin; Chen, Wenrui

    2015-11-01

    A method to determine docosahexenoic acid (DHA) in milk powder by gas chromatography was established. The milk powder samples were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid, extracted to get total fatty acids by Soxhlet extractor, then esterified with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to form methyl esters, and treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate. The optimal experiment conditions were obtained from orthogonal experiment L9(3(3)) which performed with three factors and three levels, and it requires the reaction performed with 1 mol/L potassium hydroxide solution at 25 degrees C for 5 min. The derivative treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate was separated on a column of SP-2560 (100 m x 0.25 mm x 0.20 μm), and determined in 55 min by temperature programming-gas chromatography. Good linearity was obtained in the range 5.0-300 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 9. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 3.4%, 1.2% and 1.1% for the seven repeated experiments of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L of DHA, respectively. The limit of detection was 2 mg/kg, and the recoveries of DHA were in the range of 90.4%-93.5%. The results are satisfactory through the tests of practical samples. PMID:26939370

  15. Selection of suitable mineral acid and its concentration for biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite delignified Prosopis juliflora to hydrolyze maximum holocellulose.

    PubMed

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2016-02-01

    Two grams of delignified substrate at 10% (w/v) level was subjected to biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis using phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid separately at 110 °C for 10 min in phase-I and 121 °C for 15 min in phase-II. Combinations of acid concentrations in two phases were varied for maximum holocellulose hydrolysis with release of fewer inhibitors, to select the suitable acid and its concentration. Among three acids, sulfuric acid in combination of 1 & 2% (v/v) hydrolyzed maximum holocellulose of 25.44±0.44% releasing 0.51±0.02 g/L of phenolics and 0.12±0.002 g/L of furans, respectively. Further, hydrolysis of delignified substrate using selected acid by varying reaction time and temperature hydrolyzed 55.58±1.78% of holocellulose releasing 2.11±0.07 g/L and 1.37±0.03 g/L of phenolics and furans, respectively at conditions of 110 °C for 45 min in phase-I & 121 °C for 60 min in phase-II. PMID:26716889

  16. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  17. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  18. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  19. Enhanced conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film by acid treatment for indium tin oxide-free organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Chiao; Huang, Chih-Kuo; Hung, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Mei-Ying

    2016-08-01

    An acid treatment is used in the enhancement of the conductivity of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin film, which is often used as the anode in organic solar cells. There are three types of acid treatment for PEDOT:PSS thin film: hydrochloric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid treatments. In this study, we examine and compare these three ways with each other for differences in conductivity. Hydrochloric acid results in the highest conductivity enhancement, from 0.3 to 1109 S/cm. We also discuss the optical transmittance, conductivity, surface roughness, surface morphology, and stability, as well as the factors that can influence device efficiency. The devices are fabricated using an acid-treated PEDOT:PSS thin film as the anode. The highest power conversion efficiency was 1.32%, which is a large improvement over that of the unmodified organic solar cell (0.21%). It is comparable to that obtained when using indium tin oxide (ITO) as an electrode, ca. 1.46%.

  20. Wheat gluten amino acid analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Lamberts, Lieve; Celus, Inge; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes an accurate and user-friendly method for determining amino acid composition of wheat gluten proteins and their gliadin and glutenin fractions. The method consists of hydrolysis of the peptide bonds in 6.0 M hydrochloric acid solution at 110°C for 24 h, followed by evaporation of the acid and separation of the free amino acids by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection. In contrast to conventional methods, the analysis requires neither pre- or postcolumn derivatization, nor a time-consuming oxidation or derivatization step prior to hydrolysis. Correction factors account for incomplete release of Val and Ile even after hydrolysis for 24 h, and for losses of Ser during evaporation. Gradient conditions including an extra eluent allow multiple sequential sample analyses without risk of Glu accumulation on the anion-exchange column which otherwise would result from high Gln levels in gluten proteins. PMID:22125156

  1. Acid hydrolysis of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    An excellent substrate for ethanol production is the Jerusalem artichoke (JA) tuber (Helianthus tuberosus). This crop contains a high level of inulin that can be hydrolyzed mainly to D-fructose and has several distinct advantages as an energy source compared to others. The potential ethanol yield of ca. 4678 L/ha on good agricultural land is equivalent to that obtained from sugar beets and twice that of corn. When JA is to be used for ethanol fermentation by conventional yeast, it is first converted to fermentable sugars by enzymes or acids although various strains of yeast were used for the direct fermentation of JA extracts. Fleming and GrootWassink compared various acids (hydrochloric, sulfuric, citric, and phosphoric) and strong cation exchange resin for their effectiveness on inulin hydrolysis and reported that no differences were noted among the acids or resin in their influence on inulin hydrolysis. Undesirable side reactions were noted during acid hydrolysis leading to the formation of HMF and 2-(2-hydroxy acetyl) furan. The HMF at a level of 0.1% is known to inhibit growth and ethanol fermentation by yeast. In this study the authors established optimal conditions for complete acid-hydrolysis of JA with minimum side reactions and maximum sugar-ethanol production. A material balance for the ethanol production was also determined.

  2. Phosphoproteomic Profiling of In Vivo Signaling in Liver by the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1)

    PubMed Central

    Demirkan, Gokhan; Yu, Kebing; Boylan, Joan M.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Our understanding of signal transduction networks in the physiological context of an organism remains limited, partly due to the technical challenge of identifying serine/threonine phosphorylated peptides from complex tissue samples. In the present study, we focused on signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), which is at the center of a nutrient- and growth factor-responsive cell signaling network. Though studied extensively, the mechanisms involved in many mTORC1 biological functions remain poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a phosphoproteomic strategy to purify, enrich and identify phosphopeptides from rat liver homogenates. Using the anticancer drug rapamycin, the only known target of which is mTORC1, we characterized signaling in liver from rats in which the complex was maximally activated by refeeding following 48 hr of starvation. Using protein and peptide fractionation methods, TiO2 affinity purification of phosphopeptides and mass spectrometry, we reproducibly identified and quantified over four thousand phosphopeptides. Along with 5 known rapamycin-sensitive phosphorylation events, we identified 62 new rapamycin-responsive candidate phosphorylation sites. Among these were PRAS40, gephyrin, and AMP kinase 2. We observed similar proportions of increased and reduced phosphorylation in response to rapamycin. Gene ontology analysis revealed over-representation of mTOR pathway components among rapamycin-sensitive phosphopeptide candidates. Conclusions/Significance In addition to identifying potential new mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation events, and providing information relevant to the biology of this signaling network, our experimental and analytical approaches indicate the feasibility of large-scale phosphoproteomic profiling of tissue samples to study physiological signaling events in vivo. PMID:21738781

  3. A High Performance Computing Approach to Tree Cover Delineation in 1-m NAIP Imagery using a Probabilistic Learning Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, S.; Ganguly, S.; Michaelis, A.; Votava, P.; Roy, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Tree cover delineation is a useful instrument in deriving Above Ground Biomass (AGB) density estimates from Very High Resolution (VHR) airborne imagery data. Numerous algorithms have been designed to address this problem, but most of them do not scale to these datasets which are of the order of terabytes. In this paper, we present a semi-automated probabilistic framework for the segmentation and classification of 1-m National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) for tree-cover delineation for the whole of Continental United States, using a High Performance Computing Architecture. Classification is performed using a multi-layer Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network and segmentation is performed using a Statistical Region Merging algorithm. The results from the classification and segmentation algorithms are then consolidated into a structured prediction framework using a discriminative undirected probabilistic graphical model based on Conditional Random Field, which helps in capturing the higher order contextual dependencies between neighboring pixels. Once the final probability maps are generated, the framework is updated and re-trained by relabeling misclassified image patches. This leads to a significant improvement in the true positive rates and reduction in false positive rates. The tree cover maps were generated for the whole state of California, spanning a total of 11,095 NAIP tiles covering a total geographical area of 163,696 sq. miles. The framework produced true positive rates of around 88% for fragmented forests and 74% for urban tree cover areas, with false positive rates lower than 2% for both landscapes. Comparative studies with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) algorithm and the LiDAR canopy height model (CHM) showed the effectiveness of our framework for generating accurate high-resolution tree-cover maps.

  4. RTCB-1 mediates neuroprotection via XBP-1 mRNA splicing in the unfolded protein response pathway.

    PubMed

    Ray, Arpita; Zhang, Siyuan; Rentas, Courtney; Caldwell, Kim A; Caldwell, Guy A

    2014-11-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons and age-dependent formation of protein inclusions that contain the α-synuclein (α-syn) protein. RNA interference (RNAi) screening using Caenorhabditis elegans identified RTCB-1, an uncharacterized gene product, as one of several significant modifiers of α-syn protein misfolding. RTCB-1 is the worm ortholog of the human HSPC117 protein, a component of RNA trafficking granules in mammalian neurons. Here we show that RTCB-1 protects C. elegans DA neurons from age-dependent degeneration induced by human α-syn. Moreover, neuronal-specific RNAi depletion of rtcb-1 enhanced α-syn-induced degeneration. Similar results were obtained when worms were exposed to the DA neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. HSPC117 has been characterized recently as an essential subunit of the human tRNA splicing ligase complex. tRNA ligases have alternative functions in RNA repair and nonconventional mRNA splicing events. For example, in yeast, unconventional splicing of HAC1, a transcription factor that controls the unfolded protein response (UPR), is mediated by a tRNA ligase. In C. elegans, we demonstrate that RTCB-1 is necessary for xbp-1 (worm homolog of HAC1) mRNA splicing. Moreover, using a RNA ligase-dead mutant, we determine that the ligase activity of worm RTCB-1 is required for its neuroprotective role, which, in turn, is mediated through XBP-1 in the UPR pathway. Collectively, these studies highlight the mechanistic intersection of RNA processing and proteostasis in mediating neuroprotection. PMID:25429148

  5. Effective conductivity and permittivity of unsaturated porous materials in the frequency range 1 mHz–1GHz

    PubMed Central

    Revil, A

    2013-01-01

    A model combining low-frequency complex conductivity and high-frequency permittivity is developed in the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 GHz. The low-frequency conductivity depends on pore water and surface conductivities. Surface conductivity is controlled by the electrical diffuse layer, the outer component of the electrical double layer coating the surface of the minerals. The frequency dependence of the effective quadrature conductivity shows three domains. Below a critical frequency fp, which depends on the dynamic pore throat size Λ, the quadrature conductivity is frequency dependent. Between fp and a second critical frequency fd, the quadrature conductivity is generally well described by a plateau when clay minerals are present in the material. Clay-free porous materials with a narrow grain size distribution are described by a Cole-Cole model. The characteristic frequency fd controls the transition between double layer polarization and the effect of the high-frequency permittivity of the material. The Maxwell-Wagner polarization is found to be relatively negligible. For a broad range of frequencies below 1 MHz, the effective permittivity exhibits a strong dependence with the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area. At high frequency, above the critical frequency fd, the effective permittivity reaches a high-frequency asymptotic limit that is controlled by the two Archie's exponents m and n like the low-frequency electrical conductivity. The unified model is compared with various data sets from the literature and is able to explain fairly well a broad number of observations with a very small number of textural and electrochemical parameters. It could be therefore used to interpret induced polarization, induction-based electromagnetic methods, and ground penetrating radar data to characterize the vadose zone. PMID:23576823

  6. Performance of the seasonal forecasting of the Asian summer monsoon by BCC_CSM1.1(m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangwen; Wu, Tongwen; Yang, Song; Jie, Weihua; Nie, Suping; Li, Qiaoping; Cheng, Yanjie; Liang, Xiaoyun

    2015-08-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of Asian summer monsoon prediction skill as a function of lead time and its relationship to sea surface temperature prediction using the seasonal hindcasts of the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model, BCC CSM1.1(m). For the South and Southeast Asian summer monsoon, reasonable skill is found in the model's forecasting of certain aspects of monsoon climatology and spatiotemporal variability. Nevertheless, deficiencies such as significant forecast errors over the tropical western North Pacific and the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean are also found. In particular, overestimation of the connections of some dynamical monsoon indices with large-scale circulation and precipitation patterns exists in most ensemble mean forecasts, even for short lead-time forecasts. Variations of SST, measured by the first mode over the tropical Pacific and Indian oceans, as well as the spatiotemporal features over the Ni˜no3.4 region, are overall well predicted. However, this does not necessarily translate into successful forecasts of the Asian summer monsoon by the model. Diagnostics of the relationships between monsoon and SST show that difficulties in predicting the South Asian monsoon can be mainly attributed to the limited regional response of monsoon in observations but the extensive and exaggerated response in predictions due partially to the application of ensemble average forecasting methods. In contrast, in spite of a similar deficiency, the Southeast Asian monsoon can still be forecasted reasonably, probably because of its closer relationship with large-scale circulation patterns and El Ni˜no-Southern Oscillation.

  7. Binding affinity and specificity of neuromyelitis optica autoantibodies to aquaporin-4 M1/M23 isoforms and orthogonal arrays.

    PubMed

    Crane, Jonathan M; Lam, Chiwah; Rossi, Andrea; Gupta, Tripta; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Verkman, A S

    2011-05-01

    Autoantibodies against astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are highly specific for the neuroinflammatory disease neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We measured the binding of NMO autoantibodies to AQP4 in human astrocyte-derived U87MG cells expressing M1 and/or M23 AQP4, or M23 mutants that do not form orthogonal array of particles (OAPs). Binding affinity was quantified by two-color fluorescence ratio imaging of cells stained with NMO serum or a recombinant monoclonal NMO autoantibody (NMO-rAb), together with a C terminus anti-AQP4 antibody. NMO-rAb titrations showed binding with dissociation constants down to 44 ± 7 nm. Different NMO-rAbs and NMO patient sera showed a wide variation in NMO-IgG binding to M1 versus M23 AQP4. Differences in binding affinity rather than stoichiometry accounted for M1 versus M23 binding specificity, with consistently greater affinity of NMO-IgG binding to M23 than M1 AQP4. Binding and OAP measurements in cells expressing different M1:M23 ratios or AQP4 mutants indicated that the differential binding of NMO-IgG to M1 versus M23 was due to OAP assembly rather than to differences in the M1 versus M23 N termini. Purified Fab fragments of NMO-IgG showed similar patterns of AQP4 isoform binding, indicating that structural changes in the AQP4 epitope upon array assembly, and not bivalent cross-linking of whole IgG, result in the greater binding affinity to OAPs. Our study establishes a quantitative assay of NMO-IgG binding to AQP4 and indicates remarkable, OAP-dependent heterogeneity in NMO autoantibody binding specificity. PMID:21454592

  8. Aberrant REDD1-mTORC1 responses to insulin in skeletal muscle from Type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David L; Dungan, Cory M; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Mey, Jacob T; Blackburn, Brian K; Haus, Jacob M

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to establish whether alterations in the REDD1-mTOR axis underlie skeletal muscle insensitivity to insulin in Type 2 diabetic (T2D), obese individuals. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from lean, control and obese, T2D subjects under basal and after a 2-h hyperinsulinemic (40 mU·m(-2)·min(-1))-euglycemic (5 mM) clamp. Muscle lysates were examined for total REDD1, and phosphorylated Akt, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), 4E-BP1, ERK1/2, and MEK1/2 via Western blot analysis. Under basal conditions [(-) insulin], T2D muscle exhibited higher S6K1 and ERK1/2 and lower 4E-BP1 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), as well as elevations in blood cortisol, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (P < 0.05) vs. lean controls. Following insulin infusion, whole body glucose disposal rates (GDR; mg/kg/min) were lower (P < 0.05) in the T2D vs. the control group. The basal-to-insulin percent change in REDD1 expression was higher (P < 0.05) in muscle from the T2D vs. the control group. Whereas, the basal-to-insulin percent change in muscle Akt, S6K1, ERK1/2, and MEK1/2 phosphorylation was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the T2D vs. the control group. Findings from this study propose a REDD1-regulated mechanism in T2D skeletal muscle that may contribute to whole body insulin resistance and may be a target to improve insulin action in insulin-resistant individuals. PMID:26269521

  9. Radio-Quiet Quasars in the VIDEO Survey: Evidence for AGN-powered radio emission below 1 mJy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Sarah; Jarvis, Matt; Haeussler, Boris; Maddox, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the interaction between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation is responsible for the co-evolution of black hole mass with galaxy bulge mass. Therefore studying this interplay is crucial to our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The new generation of radio surveys are able to play a key role in this area, as both processes produce radio emission.We use a combination of optical and near-infrared photometry to select a sample of 72 quasars from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) Survey, over 1 deg2. The depth of VIDEO allows us to study very low accretion rates and/or lower-mass black holes. 26% of the candidate quasar sample has been spectroscopically confirmed using the Southern African Large Telescope and the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. We then use a radio-stacking technique to sample below the nominal flux-density threshold of existing Very Large Array data at 1.4 GHz. In agreement with other work, we show that a power-law fit to the radio number counts is inadequate, with an upturn in the counts being observed at these faint luminosities. Previous authors attribute this to an emergent star-forming population. However, by comparing radio emission from our quasars with that from a control sample of galaxies, we suggest that this emission is predominantly caused by accretion activity. Further support for an AGN origin is provided by a comparison of two independent estimates of star formation rate. These findings have important implications for modelling radio populations below 1 mJy, which is necessary for the development of the Square Kilometre Array.

  10. Adoptive immunotherapy with MUC1-mRNA transfected dendritic cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes plus gemcitabine for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported the clinical efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with mucin 1 (MUC1) peptide and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We also reported that gemcitabine (GEM) enhances anti-tumor immunity by suppressing regulatory T cells. Therefore, in the present study, we performed combination therapy with AIT and GEM for patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer. Patients and methods Forty-two patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer were treated. DCs were generated by culture with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4 and then exposed to tumor necrosis factor-α. Mature DCs were transfected with MUC1-mRNA by electroporation (MUC1-DCs). MUC1-CTLs were induced by co-culture with YPK-1, a human pancreatic cancer cell line, and then with interleukin-2. Patients were treated with GEM, while MUC1-DCs were intradermally injected, and MUC1-CTLs were intravenously administered. Results Median survival time (MST) was 13.9 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 51.1%. Of 42 patients, one patient had complete response (2.4%), three patients had partial response (7.1%) and 22 patients had stable disease (52.4%). The disease control ratio was 61.9%. The MST and 1-year survival rate of 35 patients who received more than 1 × 107 MUC1-DCs per injection was 16.1 months and 60.3%, respectively. Liver metastasis occurred in only 5 patients among 35 patients without liver metastasis before treatment. There were no severe toxicities associated with AIT. Conclusion AIT with MUC1-DCs and MUC1-CTLs plus GEM may be a feasible and effective treatment for pancreatic cancer. PMID:24947606

  11. Calpain-2 activates Akt via TGF-β1-mTORC2 pathway in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Abeyrathna, Prasanna; Kovacs, Laszlo; Han, Weihong; Su, Yunchao

    2016-07-01

    Calpain is a family of calcium-dependent nonlysosomal neutral cysteine endopeptidases. Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to AGC kinases and plays important roles in cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell metabolism. Both calpain and Akt are the downstream signaling molecules of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and mediate PDGF-induced collagen synthesis and proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in pulmonary vascular remodeling. We found that inhibitions of calpain-2 by using calpain inhibitor MDL28170 and calpain-2 small interfering RNA attenuated Akt phosphorylations at serine-473 (S473) and threonine-308 (T308), as well as collagen synthesis and cell proliferation of PASMCs induced by PDGF. Overexpression of calpain-2 in PASMCs induced dramatic increases in Akt phosphorylations at S473 and T308. Moreover, knockout of calpain attenuated Akt phosphorylations at S473 and T308 in smooth muscle of pulmonary arterioles of mice with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. The cell-permeable-specific transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor inhibitor SB431542 attenuated Akt phosphorylations at both S473 and T308 induced by PDGF and by overexpressed calpain-2 in PASMCs. Furthermore, SB-431452 and knocking down activin receptor-like kinase-5 significantly reduced PDGF-induced collagen synthesis and cell proliferation of PASMCs. Nevertheless, neutralizing extracellular TGF-β1 using a cell-impermeable TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody did not affect PDGF-induced Akt phosphorylations at S473 and T308. Furthermore, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) by knocking down its component protein Rictor prevented Akt phosphorylations at S473 and T308 induced by PDGF and by overexpressed calpain-2. These data provide first evidence supporting that calpain-2 upregulates PDGF-induced Akt phosphorylation in pulmonary vascular remodeling via an intracrine TGF-β1/mTORC2 mechanism. PMID:27099352

  12. IL-35 Decelerates the Inflammatory Process by Regulating Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion and M1/M2 Macrophage Ratio in Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Lin, Yi; Li, Chunlei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Cheng, Lin; Dai, Lei; Wang, Youcui; Wang, Fangfang; Shi, Gang; Li, Yiming; Yang, Qianmei; Cui, Xueliang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Huiling; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Yang; Xiang, Rong; Li, Jiong; Yu, Dechao; Wei, Yuquan; Deng, Hongxin

    2016-09-15

    IL-35 downregulates Th17 cell development and suppresses certain types of autoimmune inflammation such as collagen-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune uveitis. Psoriasis is thought to be initiated by abnormal interactions between cutaneous keratinocytes and systemic immune cells. However, the role of IL-35 in psoriasis remains unclear. In this study, we assessed IL-35 in three well-known psoriasis models: a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), a keratin 14 (K14)-vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-transgenic (Tg) mouse model, and an imiquimod-induced psoriasis mouse model. First, we found that IL-35 suppressed the expression of IL-6, CXCL8, and S100A7, which are highly upregulated by a mixture of five proinflammatory cytokines in HaCaT. Second, a plasmid coding for the human IL-35 sequence coated with cationic liposomes showed potent immunosuppressive effects on K14-VEGF-A-Tg and imiquimod-induced psoriasis mouse models. In the K14-VEGF-A-Tg model, our results showed that several types of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced, whereas IL-10 was remarkably induced by IL-35. Compared with pcDNA3.1, there was a small number of CD4(+)IL-17(+) T cells and a large number of CD4(+)IL-10(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells in the IL-35 group. Most importantly, we found that IL-35 decreased the total number of macrophages and ratio of M1/M2 macrophages, which has not been reported previously. In addition, compared with dexamethasone, IL-35 showed long-term therapeutic efficacy. In summary, our results strongly indicate that IL-35 plays a potent immunosuppressive role in psoriasis. Thus, IL-35 has potential for development as a new therapeutic strategy for patients with chronic psoriasis and other cutaneous inflammatory diseases. PMID:27527600

  13. Inhibitory effect of xanthan gum and synergistic surfactant additives for mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl.

    PubMed

    Mobin, Mohammad; Rizvi, Marziya

    2016-01-20

    Natural polymer xanthan gum (XG) was investigated as eco friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M HCl at 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C, respectively. The inhibition studies were performed using gravimetric analysis, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), quantum chemical calculations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectrophotometry. XG significantly reduces the corrosion rates of mild steel. The inhibition efficiency (IE) of the XG increased with increase in concentration, but decreased with temperature; the maximum IE of 74.24% was obtained at concentration of 1000 ppm at 30 °C. The inhibiting action of XG is synergistically enhanced on addition of very small amount of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and Triton X-100 (TX). The effect of SDS is more pronounced than other surfactants. Potentiodynamic polarization studies confirm XG as a mixed type inhibitor. Results of weight loss measurements are in good agreement of the results of electrochemical measurements. The UV-visible spectroscopic results indicate the formation of complex between XG and Fe(2+) ions during corrosion reaction. Mechanism of inhibition was also investigated by calculating the thermodynamic and activation parameters like ΔG(0), Ea, ΔH and ΔS. The adsorption of inhibitor on mild steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM micrographs show a clearly different morphology in presence of XG and XG-surfactant additives and confirmed the existence of an adsorbed protective film on the mild steel surface. PMID:26572368

  14. A High Performance Computing Approach to Tree Cover Delineation in 1-m NAIP Imagery Using a Probabilistic Learning Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Saikat; Ganguly, Sangram; Michaelis, Andrew; Votava, Petr; Roy, Anshuman; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Tree cover delineation is a useful instrument in deriving Above Ground Biomass (AGB) density estimates from Very High Resolution (VHR) airborne imagery data. Numerous algorithms have been designed to address this problem, but most of them do not scale to these datasets, which are of the order of terabytes. In this paper, we present a semi-automated probabilistic framework for the segmentation and classification of 1-m National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) for tree-cover delineation for the whole of Continental United States, using a High Performance Computing Architecture. Classification is performed using a multi-layer Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network and segmentation is performed using a Statistical Region Merging algorithm. The results from the classification and segmentation algorithms are then consolidated into a structured prediction framework using a discriminative undirected probabilistic graphical model based on Conditional Random Field, which helps in capturing the higher order contextual dependencies between neighboring pixels. Once the final probability maps are generated, the framework is updated and re-trained by relabeling misclassified image patches. This leads to a significant improvement in the true positive rates and reduction in false positive rates. The tree cover maps were generated for the whole state of California, spanning a total of 11,095 NAIP tiles covering a total geographical area of 163,696 sq. miles. The framework produced true positive rates of around 88% for fragmented forests and 74% for urban tree cover areas, with false positive rates lower than 2% for both landscapes. Comparative studies with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) algorithm and the LiDAR canopy height model (CHM) showed the effectiveness of our framework for generating accurate high-resolution tree-cover maps.

  15. Decay of {sup 161m1,m2}Dy isomers under conditions of a resonance environment (Moessbauer Screen)

    SciTech Connect

    Loginov, Yu. E. Zinoviev, V. G.; Kabina, L. P.; Lisin, S. S.; Maljutenkov, Ed. I.

    2013-06-15

    The half-lives of the isomers {sup 161m1}Dy and {sup 161m2}Dy (E = 25.6 keV and T{sub 1/2} {approx} 30 ns for the former and E = 74.6 keV and T{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 ns for the latter) placed in a {sup 160}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal lattice at T = 300 K and surrounded by stable {sup 161}Dy nuclei in the composition of {sup 161}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} were measured by the method of ({beta}-{gamma}) coincidences in the beta-decay process {sup 161}Tb {yields} {sup 161}Dy. Nuclei of {sup 161m1,m2}Dy were obtained according to the chain {sup 160}Gd(n, {gamma}){sup 161}Gd {yields} {sup 161}Tb {yields} {sup 161}Dy from {sup 160}Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} weighted portions irradiated at the PWR-M reactor of the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI, Gatchina, Russia). The T{sub 1/2} value observed for the isomer {sup 161m1}Dy was found to be correlated with the number of surrounding {sup 161}Dy nuclei. The presence of this correlation in {sup 161m1}Dy can be explained by the multiple resonance scattering of photons from isomer decay within the sample used. No such correlation was observed for {sup 161m2}Dy. The half-lives measured for the isomers {sup 161m1}Dy and {sup 161m2}Dy in the absence of the above environment are 29.2(1) and 3.50(1) ns, respectively.

  16. Specific PABP effect on translation of YB-1 mRNA is neutralized by polyadenylation through a "mini-loop" at 3' UTR.

    PubMed

    Eliseeva, Irina A; Ovchinnikov, Lev P; Lyabin, Dmitry N

    2012-12-01

    YB-1 is a multifunctional cold shock domain containing protein that is involved virtually in all DNA- and mRNA-dependent cellular events. Its amount is regulated at the level of both transcription and translation. We showed previously that translation of poly A(-) YB-1 mRNA in vitro is selectively controlled by two proteins, YB-1 and PABP, through their specific and competitive binding to a regulatory element (RE) within 3' UTR of this mRNA. Here, we describe effects of these two proteins on translation of poly A(+) as compared with poly A(-) YB-1 mRNA in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translation system. We have found that YB-1 inhibits translation of both poly A(+) and poly A(-) YB-1 mRNAs at the same comparatively low YB-1/mRNA ratio. PABP has no positive effect on translation of poly A(+) YB-1 mRNA, although it has a stimulating effect on translation of poly A(-) YB-1 mRNA. A positive PABP effect on translation of poly A(+) YB-1 mRNA arose after removal of a portion of the sequence between RE and the poly(A) tail and disappeared after its replacement by another non-specific sequence of the same length. We also report that the RE fragment forms a complex with the poly(A) fragment in the presence of rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) proteins. For its formation PABP is necessary but not sufficient. These results are in agreement with the proposed model implying formation of a mini-loop at 3' UTR of YB-1 mRNA that includes RE, RRL proteins and the poly(A) tail. PMID:23134843

  17. Polarity-Dependent Asymmetric Distribution and MEX-5/6–Mediated Translational Activation of the Era-1 mRNA in C. elegans Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Spiró, Zoltán; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The early C. elegans embryo is an attractive model system to investigate fundamental developmental processes. With the exception of mex-3 mRNA, maternally contributed mRNAs are thought to be distributed uniformly in the one-cell embryo. Here, we report and characterize the striking distribution of the mRNA encoding the novel protein ERA-1. We found that era-1 mRNA is enriched in the anterior of the one-cell embryo and present solely in anterior blastomeres thereafter. Although era-1 is not an essential gene, we uncovered that era-1 null mutant embryos are sensitive to slight impairment of embryonic polarity. We found that the asymmetric distribution of era-1 mRNA depends on anterior-posterior polarity cues and on the era-1 3’UTR. Similarly to the era-1 mRNA, the YFP-ERA-1 protein is enriched in anterior blastomeres. Interestingly, we found that the RNA-binding protein MEX-5 is required for era-1 mRNA asymmetry. Furthermore, we show that MEX-5, together with its partially redundant partner MEX-6, are needed to activate era-1 mRNA translation in anterior blastomeres. These findings lead us to propose that MEX-5/6–mediated regulation of era-1 mRNA contributes to robust embryonic development. PMID:25821955

  18. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  19. Bioinformatics approach to evaluate differential gene expression of M1/M2 macrophage phenotypes and antioxidant genes in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; De Bastiani, Marco Antônio; Klamt, Fábio

    2014-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a pro-inflammatory process intrinsically related to systemic redox impairments. Macrophages play a major role on disease development. The specific involvement of classically activated, M1 (pro-inflammatory), or the alternatively activated, M2 (anti-inflammatory), on plaque formation and disease progression are still not established. Thus, based on meta-data analysis of public micro-array datasets, we compared differential gene expression levels of the human antioxidant genes (HAG) and M1/M2 genes between early and advanced human atherosclerotic plaques, and among peripheric macrophages (with or without foam cells induction by oxidized low density lipoprotein, oxLDL) from healthy and atherosclerotic subjects. Two independent datasets, GSE28829 and GSE9874, were selected from gene expression omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) repository. Functional interactions were obtained with STRING (http://string-db.org/) and Medusa (http://coot.embl.de/medusa/). Statistical analysis was performed with ViaComplex(®) (http://lief.if.ufrgs.br/pub/biosoftwares/viacomplex/) and gene score enrichment analysis (http://www.broadinstitute.org/gsea/index.jsp). Bootstrap analysis demonstrated that the activity (expression) of HAG and M1 gene sets were significantly increased in advance compared to early atherosclerotic plaque. Increased expressions of HAG, M1, and M2 gene sets were found in peripheric macrophages from atherosclerotic subjects compared to peripheric macrophages from healthy subjects, while only M1 gene set was increased in foam cells from atherosclerotic subjects compared to foam cells from healthy subjects. However, M1 gene set was decreased in foam cells from healthy subjects compared to peripheric macrophages from healthy subjects, while no differences were found in foam cells from atherosclerotic subjects compared to peripheric macrophages from atherosclerotic subjects. Our data suggest that, different to cancer, in atherosclerosis there is

  20. Variability in Soil Properties at Different Spatial Scales (1 m to 1 km) in a Deciduous Forest Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Kang, S.; Brice, Deanne Jane; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that variability in 11 soil properties, related to soil texture and soil C and N, would increase from small (1 m) to large (1 km) spatial scales in a temperate, mixed-hardwood forest ecosystem in east Tennessee, USA. The results were somewhat surprising and indicated that a fundamental assumption in geospatial analysis, namely that variability increases with increasing spatial scale, did not apply for at least five of the 11 soil properties measured over a 0.5-km2 area. Composite mineral soil samples (15 cm deep) were collected at 1, 5, 10, 50, 250, and 500 m distances from a center point along transects in a north, south, east, and westerly direction. A null hypothesis of equal variance at different spatial scales was rejected (P{le}0.05) for mineral soil C concentration, silt content, and the C-to-N ratios in particulate organic matter (POM), mineral-associated organic matter (MOM), and whole surface soil. Results from different tests of spatial variation, based on coefficients of variation or a Mantel test, led to similar conclusions about measurement variability and geographic distance for eight of the 11 variables examined. Measurements of mineral soil C and N concentrations, C concentrations in MOM, extractable soil NH{sub 4}-N, and clay contents were just as variable at smaller scales (1-10 m) as they were at larger scales (50-500 m). On the other hand, measurement variation in mineral soil C-to-N ratios, MOM C-to-N ratios, and the fraction of soil C in POM clearly increased from smaller to larger spatial scales. With the exception of extractable soil NH4-N, measured soil properties in the forest ecosystem could be estimated (with 95% confidence) to within 15% of their true mean with a relatively modest number of sampling points (n{le}25). For some variables, scaling up variation from smaller to larger spatial domains within the ecosystem could be relatively easy because small-scale variation may be