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Sample records for 1p36 deletion syndrome

  1. 1p36 deletion syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Valerie K; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Scott, Daryl A

    2015-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are the most common terminal deletions in humans. Medical problems commonly caused by terminal deletions of 1p36 include developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, short stature, distinctive facial features, brain anomalies, orofacial clefting, congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. Although 1p36 deletion syndrome is considered clinically recognizable, there is significant phenotypic variation among affected individuals. This variation is due, at least in part, to the genetic heterogeneity seen in 1p36 deletions which include terminal and interstitial deletions of varying lengths located throughout the 30 Mb of DNA that comprise chromosome 1p36. Array-based copy number variant analysis can easily identify genomic regions of 1p36 that are deleted in an affected individual. However, predicting the phenotype of an individual based solely on the location and extent of their 1p36 deletion remains a challenge since most of the genes that contribute to 1p36-related phenotypes have yet to be identified. In addition, haploinsufficiency of more than one gene may contribute to some phenotypes. In this article, we review recent successes in the effort to map and identify the genes and genomic regions that contribute to specific 1p36-related phenotypes. In particular, we highlight evidence implicating MMP23B, GABRD, SKI, PRDM16, KCNAB2, RERE, UBE4B, CASZ1, PDPN, SPEN, ECE1, HSPG2, and LUZP1 in various 1p36 deletion phenotypes.

  2. 1p36 deletion syndrome: an update

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Valerie K; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Scott, Daryl A

    2015-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are the most common terminal deletions in humans. Medical problems commonly caused by terminal deletions of 1p36 include developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, short stature, distinctive facial features, brain anomalies, orofacial clefting, congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. Although 1p36 deletion syndrome is considered clinically recognizable, there is significant phenotypic variation among affected individuals. This variation is due, at least in part, to the genetic heterogeneity seen in 1p36 deletions which include terminal and interstitial deletions of varying lengths located throughout the 30 Mb of DNA that comprise chromosome 1p36. Array-based copy number variant analysis can easily identify genomic regions of 1p36 that are deleted in an affected individual. However, predicting the phenotype of an individual based solely on the location and extent of their 1p36 deletion remains a challenge since most of the genes that contribute to 1p36-related phenotypes have yet to be identified. In addition, haploinsufficiency of more than one gene may contribute to some phenotypes. In this article, we review recent successes in the effort to map and identify the genes and genomic regions that contribute to specific 1p36-related phenotypes. In particular, we highlight evidence implicating MMP23B, GABRD, SKI, PRDM16, KCNAB2, RERE, UBE4B, CASZ1, PDPN, SPEN, ECE1, HSPG2, and LUZP1 in various 1p36 deletion phenotypes. PMID:26345236

  3. Growth patterns of patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sangu, Noriko; Shimojima, Keiko; Shimada, Shino; Ando, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    1p36 deletion syndrome is one of the most common subtelomeric deletion syndromes. Obesity is frequently observed in patients with this syndrome. Thus, it is important to evaluate the growth status of an individual patient. For this purpose, we accumulated recorded growth data from 44 patients with this syndrome and investigated the growth patterns of patients. Most of the patients showed weight parameters within normal limits, whereas a few of these patients showed intrauterine growth delay and microcephaly. The length of the patients after birth was under the 50th centile in most patients. Many patients showed poor weight gain after birth, and only two female patients were overweight. These findings indicate two different phenotypes of the 1p36 deletion syndrome. The overweight patients with 1p36 deletion started excessive weight gain after two years of life. This characteristic of the patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome is similar to Prader-Willi syndrome.

  4. [Turner syndrome and monosomy 1p36 deletion syndrome misdiagnosed as thyropenia: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xubiao; Li, Zhiming; Liu, Tingting; Wen, Zhiming

    2013-12-01

    A 21-year-old woman with a short stature presented with primary amenorrhoea and a 45X karyotype, and comparative genomic hybridization revealed 1p36 deletion and abnormal genes in multiple chromosomes to support the diagnosis of Turner syndrome and monosomy 1p36 deletion syndrome. The main clinical features of this condition include microsomia, poor sexual development, menoschesis, gigantorectum, absence of internal genitalia, sometimes with thyropenia and low intelligence. This disease can be easily diagnosed for its heterogeneous clinical manifestations.

  5. Novel airway findings in a patient with 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferril, Geoffrey R; Barham, Henry P; Prager, Jeremy D

    2014-01-01

    1p36 deletion syndrome comprises a phenotypic presentation that includes central nervous system, cardiac, and craniofacial anomalies. There has been no report of associated airway anomalies with this syndrome. We present here a case report and literature review. Prenatally, amniocentesis for chromosomal analysis was performed on our patient, with results consistent with 1p36 deletion syndrome. Respiratory distress and unsuccessful attempts at intubation prompted transfer to Children's Hospital of Colorado. Microlaryngoscopy was subsequently performed, revealing a persistent buccopharyngeal membrane and unidentifiable larynx. Emergent tracheostomy was then performed to secure the airway. Airway anomalies may be associated with 1p36 deletion syndrome.

  6. Mini-Review: Monosomy 1p36 syndrome: reviewing the correlation between deletion sizes and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F; Vasques, R B; Santos, S R; Paiva, C L A

    2016-01-01

    The major clinical features of monosomy 1p36 deletion are developmental delay and hypotonia associated with short stature and craniofacial dysmorphisms. The objective of this study was to review the cases of 1p36 deletion that was reported between 1999 and 2014, in order to identify a possible correlation between the size of the 1p36-deleted segment and the clinical phenotype of the disease. Scientific articles published in the (National Center for Biotechnology Information; NCBI http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (www.scielo.com.br) databases were searched using key word combinations, such as "1p36 deletion", "monosomy 1p36 deletion", and "1p36 deletion syndrome". Articles in English or Spanish reporting the correlation between deletion sizes and the respective clinical phenotypes were retrieved, while letters, reviews, guidelines, and studies with mouse models were excluded. Among the 746 retrieved articles, only 17 (12 case reports and 5 series of cases), comprising 29 patients (9 males and 20 females, aged 0 months (neonate) to 22 years) bearing the 1p36 deletions and whose clinical phenotypes were described, met the inclusion criteria. The genotype-phenotype correlation in monosomy 1p36 is a challenge because of the variability in the size of the deleted segment, as well as in the clinical manifestations of similar size deletions. Therefore, the severity of the clinical features was not always associated with the deletion size, possibly because of the other influences, such as stochastic factors, epigenetic events, or reduced penetration of the deleted genes.

  7. Mild developmental delay and obesity in two patients with mosaic 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Shino; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Osawa, Makiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-01

    We identified mosaic 1p36 deletions in two patients with developmental delay, distinctive features, and obesity, who can walk alone and communicate with others. Thus, their neurological defects are milder than those in typical patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome because most patients with 1p36 deletion cannot acquire expressive language. Chromosomal microarray testing revealed 3.0 and 4.5 Mb aberrations in the subtelomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 1. Mean signal ratios of the identified aberrations were -0.4 and -0.5, indicating mosaicism, which was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with a mosaic ratio of 70% and 77%, respectively. Previous studies demonstrated that deletion of the distal 2-3 Mb region would be responsible for hyperphagia and obesity seen in patients. On the other hand, the severity of the neurological defect often correlates with the size of the terminal deletion of 1p36, and patients with larger deletions of 1p36 would usually show severely impaired developmental milestones and be immobile and aphasic. In such cases, hyperphagia and obesity could be clinically masked. In this study, two patients with mosaic deletions of 1p36 showed obesity as a consequence of hyperphagia. This study suggests that patients with 1p36 deletion would be at risk for hyperphagia and obesity when they have both risk factors, that is, (1) deletions including the 2-3 Mb critical region and (2) milder phenotypes that allow them to reach food on their own and to overeat.

  8. Identification of 1p36 deletion syndrome in patients with facial dysmorphism and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Go Hun; Kim, Ja Hye; Cho, Ja Hyang; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Seo, Eul-Ju; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The 1p36 deletion syndrome is a microdeletion syndrome characterized by developmental delays/intellectual disability, craniofacial dysmorphism, and other congenital anomalies. To date, many cases of this syndrome have been reported worldwide. However, cases with this syndrome have not been reported in Korean populations anywhere. This study was performed to report the clinical and molecular characteristics of five Korean patients with the 1p36 deletion syndrome. Methods The clinical characteristics of the 5 patients were reviewed. Karyotyping and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses were performed for genetic diagnoses. Results All 5 patients had typical dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, flat right parietal bone, low-set ears, straight eyebrows, down-slanting palpebral fissure, hypotelorism, flat nasal roots, midface hypoplasia, pointed chins, small lips, and variable degrees of developmental delay. Each patient had multiple and variable anomalies such as a congenital heart defect including ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and patent duct arteriosus, ventriculomegaly, cryptorchism, or hearing loss. Karyotyping revealed the 1p36 deletion in only 1 patient, although it was confirmed in all 5 patients by MLPA analyses. Conclusion All the patients had the typical features of 1p36 deletion. These hallmarks can be used to identify other patients with this condition in their early years in order to provide more appropriate care. PMID:26893599

  9. Polymicrogyria and infantile spasms in a patient with 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Masaya; Kurosawa, Kenji; Ichihashi, Izumi; Kaneko, Yuu; Hattori, Ayako; Komaki, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2011-05-01

    A 3-months-old boy presented with partial seizures that soon evolved into infantile spasms. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria with right-sided predominance. ACTH therapy successfully controlled epilepsy and electroencephalograms were normalized. Conventional G-banded chromosomal analysis was performed due to his distinctive features and a derivative chromosome 1 derived from parental balanced translocation with a karyoptype of 46,XY,der(1)t(1;4)(p36.23;q35) was detected. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis confirmed the deleted region of 1p36 as large as 8.6Mb. This is the first delineation of concurrent complications of infantile spasms and polymicrogyria in patient with 1p36 deletion. 1p36 deletion syndrome should be broadly recognized as a differential diagnosis of regional polymicrogyria and/or infantile spasms.

  10. Complex structural rearrangement features suggesting chromoanagenesis mechanism in a case of 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zanardo, Évelin Aline; Piazzon, Flavia Balbo; Dutra, Roberta Lelis; Dias, Alexandre Torchio; Montenegro, Marília Moreira; Novo-Filho, Gil Monteiro; Costa, Thaís Virgínia Moura Machado; Nascimento, Amom Mendes; Kim, Chong Ae; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici

    2014-12-01

    Genome rearrangements are caused by the erroneous repair of DNA double-strand breaks, leading to several alterations that result in loss or gain of the structural genomic of a dosage-sensitive genes. However, the mechanisms that promote the complexity of rearrangements of congenital or developmental defects in human disease are unclear. The investigation of complex genomic abnormalities could help to elucidate the mechanisms and causes for the formation and facilitate the understanding of congenital or developmental defects in human disease. We here report one case of a patient with atypical clinical features of the 1p36 syndrome and the use of cytogenomic techniques to characterize the genomic alterations. Analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array revealed a complex rearrangement in the 1p36.3 region with deletions and duplication interspaced by normal sequences. We also suggest that chromoanagenesis could be a possible mechanism involved in the repair and stabilization of this rearrangement.

  11. Dying at 23 with 1p36 deletion syndrome: Laura's family story.

    PubMed

    Tandy, P A

    2012-09-01

    Laura was unusual. She had always been different and at times difficult. She was born with a genetic disorder, diagnosed as 1p36 deletion syndrome when she was 21 years old. At 23 she suffered her first cardiac arrest at home and entered the hospital system for the first time apart from infancy. After initially appearing to do well, she suffered a second cardiac arrest 10 weeks after admission. This was followed by an irreversible deterioration and she died 14 weeks after admission. We her family had been with her throughout her traumatic experience. This is our story.

  12. FISH analysis of hematological neoplasias with 1p36 rearrangements allows the definition of a cluster of 2.5 Mb included in the minimal region deleted in 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lahortiga, Idoya; Vázquez, Iria; Belloni, Elena; Román, José P; Gasparini, Patrizia; Novo, Francisco J; Zudaire, Isabel; Pelicci, Pier G; Hernández, Jesús M; Calasanz, María J; Odero, María D

    2005-05-01

    Rearrangements in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 1 are recurrent aberrations in a broad spectrum of human neoplasias. However, neither the location of the breakpoints (BP) on 1p36 nor the candidate genes have been fully determined. We have characterized, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the BP in 26 patients with hematological neoplasias and 1p36 rearrangements in the G-banding karyotype. FISH allowed a better characterization of all samples analyzed. Nine cases (35%) showed reciprocal translocations, 15 (58%) unbalanced rearrangements, and two (7%) deletions. We describe two new recurrent aberrations. In 18 of the 26 cases analyzed the BP were located in band 1p36, which is 25.5 Mb long. In 14 of these 18 cases (78%) and without distinction between myeloid and lymphoid neoplasias, the BP clustered in a 2.5 Mb region located between 1p36.32 and the telomere. Interestingly, this region is contained in the 10.5 Mb cluster on 1p36.22-1pter defined in cases with 1p36 deletion syndrome. The 2.5 Mb region, located on 1p36.32-1pter, has a higher frequency of occurrence of tandem repeats and segmental duplications larger than 1 kb, when compared with the 25.5 Mb of the complete 1p36 band. This could explain its proneness for involvement in chromosomal rearrangements in hematological neoplasias.

  13. Pathologic features of dilated cardiomyopathy with localized noncompaction in a child with deletion 1p36 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pearce, F Bennett; Litovsky, Silvio H; Dabal, Robert J; Robin, Nathaniel; Dure, Leon J; George, James F; Kirklin, James K

    2012-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular noncompaction have been reported in association with deletion 1p36 syndrome. Previous descriptions include echocardiographic and/or gross pathologic descriptions. There are no previous reports of microscopic findings. We report a case with descriptions of echocardiographic, gross pathologic, and microscopic findings.

  14. Fine mapping of the 1p36 deletion syndrome identifies mutation of PRDM16 as a cause of cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; Schafer, Sebastian; Drenckhahn, Jorg-Detlef; Sabeh, M Khaled; Plovie, Eva R; Caliebe, Almuth; Klopocki, Eva; Musso, Gabriel; Werdich, Andreas A; Kalwa, Hermann; Heinig, Matthias; Padera, Robert F; Wassilew, Katharina; Bluhm, Julia; Harnack, Christine; Martitz, Janine; Barton, Paul J; Greutmann, Matthias; Berger, Felix; Hubner, Norbert; Siebert, Reiner; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Cook, Stuart A; MacRae, Calum A; Klaassen, Sabine

    2013-07-11

    Deletion 1p36 syndrome is recognized as the most common terminal deletion syndrome. Here, we describe the loss of a gene within the deletion that is responsible for the cardiomyopathy associated with monosomy 1p36, and we confirm its role in nonsyndromic left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). With our own data and publically available data from array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified a minimal deletion for the cardiomyopathy associated with 1p36del syndrome that included only the terminal 14 exons of the transcription factor PRDM16 (PR domain containing 16), a gene that had previously been shown to direct brown fat determination and differentiation. Resequencing of PRDM16 in a cohort of 75 nonsyndromic individuals with LVNC detected three mutations, including one truncation mutant, one frameshift null mutation, and a single missense mutant. In addition, in a series of cardiac biopsies from 131 individuals with DCM, we found 5 individuals with 4 previously unreported nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of PRDM16. None of the PRDM16 mutations identified were observed in more than 6,400 controls. PRDM16 has not previously been associated with cardiac disease but is localized in the nuclei of cardiomyocytes throughout murine and human development and in the adult heart. Modeling of PRDM16 haploinsufficiency and a human truncation mutant in zebrafish resulted in both contractile dysfunction and partial uncoupling of cardiomyocytes and also revealed evidence of impaired cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity. In conclusion, mutation of PRDM16 causes the cardiomyopathy in 1p36 deletion syndrome as well as a proportion of nonsyndromic LVNC and DCM.

  15. De Novo Mutations of RERE Cause a Genetic Syndrome with Features that Overlap Those Associated with Proximal 1p36 Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Fregeau, Brieana; Kim, Bum Jun; Hernández-García, Andrés; Jordan, Valerie K.; Cho, Megan T.; Schnur, Rhonda E.; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Juusola, Jane; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Bhoj, Elizabeth; Zackai, Elaine H.; Sacharow, Stephanie; Barañano, Kristin; Bosch, Daniëlle G.M.; de Vries, Bert B.A.; Lindstrom, Kristin; Schroeder, Audrey; James, Philip; Kulch, Peggy; Lalani, Seema R.; van Haelst, Mieke M.; van Gassen, Koen L.I.; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Barkovich, A. James; Scott, Daryl A.; Sherr, Elliott H.

    2016-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and defects involving the brain, eye, ear, heart, and kidney. Arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats (RERE) is located in the proximal 1p36 critical region. RERE is a widely-expressed nuclear receptor coregulator that positively regulates retinoic acid signaling. Animal models suggest that RERE deficiency might contribute to many of the structural and developmental birth defects and medical problems seen in individuals with 1p36 deletion syndrome, although human evidence supporting this role has been lacking. In this report, we describe ten individuals with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and/or autism spectrum disorder who carry rare and putatively damaging changes in RERE. In all cases in which both parental DNA samples were available, these changes were found to be de novo. Associated features that were recurrently seen in these individuals included hypotonia, seizures, behavioral problems, structural CNS anomalies, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, and genitourinary abnormalities. The spectrum of defects documented in these individuals is similar to that of a cohort of 31 individuals with isolated 1p36 deletions that include RERE and are recapitulated in RERE-deficient zebrafish and mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that mutations in RERE cause a genetic syndrome and that haploinsufficiency of RERE might be sufficient to cause many of the phenotypes associated with proximal 1p36 deletions. PMID:27087320

  16. De Novo Mutations of RERE Cause a Genetic Syndrome with Features that Overlap Those Associated with Proximal 1p36 Deletions.

    PubMed

    Fregeau, Brieana; Kim, Bum Jun; Hernández-García, Andrés; Jordan, Valerie K; Cho, Megan T; Schnur, Rhonda E; Monaghan, Kristin G; Juusola, Jane; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Bhoj, Elizabeth; Zackai, Elaine H; Sacharow, Stephanie; Barañano, Kristin; Bosch, Daniëlle G M; de Vries, Bert B A; Lindstrom, Kristin; Schroeder, Audrey; James, Philip; Kulch, Peggy; Lalani, Seema R; van Haelst, Mieke M; van Gassen, Koen L I; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Barkovich, A James; Scott, Daryl A; Sherr, Elliott H

    2016-05-01

    Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and defects involving the brain, eye, ear, heart, and kidney. Arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats (RERE) is located in the proximal 1p36 critical region. RERE is a widely-expressed nuclear receptor coregulator that positively regulates retinoic acid signaling. Animal models suggest that RERE deficiency might contribute to many of the structural and developmental birth defects and medical problems seen in individuals with 1p36 deletion syndrome, although human evidence supporting this role has been lacking. In this report, we describe ten individuals with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and/or autism spectrum disorder who carry rare and putatively damaging changes in RERE. In all cases in which both parental DNA samples were available, these changes were found to be de novo. Associated features that were recurrently seen in these individuals included hypotonia, seizures, behavioral problems, structural CNS anomalies, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, and genitourinary abnormalities. The spectrum of defects documented in these individuals is similar to that of a cohort of 31 individuals with isolated 1p36 deletions that include RERE and are recapitulated in RERE-deficient zebrafish and mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that mutations in RERE cause a genetic syndrome and that haploinsufficiency of RERE might be sufficient to cause many of the phenotypes associated with proximal 1p36 deletions.

  17. Clinical presentation of two β-thalassemic Indian patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome: Case report.

    PubMed

    De, Puspal; Chatterjee, Tridip; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakravarty, Amit

    2014-09-01

    Here, we present two thalassemic patients (one male and one female), having unusual clinical phenotypes. Both had mental retardation in which one was associated with microcephaly and other had congenital cataract. They were referred to our institute for clinical evaluation and cytogenetic testing. Both patients were tested for presence of abnormal hemoglobin by high performance liquid chromatography and found to be thalassemic. Their β-globin mutation was also determined by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. The male patient was found to have intervening sequence 1-5 (G-C)/+, indicating β-thalassemia trait and the female was found to have Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), indicating hemoglobin E-β thalassemia. Their cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes were studied with high-resolution GTG-banding analysis by using chromosome profiling (Cyto-vision software 3.6) on their chromosomes. Results revealed 46,XY,del(1)(p36.21) in the male and 46,XX,del(1)(p36.3) in the female. Their genotype variation showed (based on genome browser) significant gene loss which probably leads to marked phenotype variation. We believe, thalassemia with mental retardation associated with microcephaly and congenital cataract, both having loss in chromosome 1, p36 position, is reported probably first time from India. This report will definitely enlighten all concerns and add to the information in growing literature.

  18. Clinical presentation of two β-thalassemic Indian patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome: Case report

    PubMed Central

    De, Puspal; Chatterjee, Tridip; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakravarty, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present two thalassemic patients (one male and one female), having unusual clinical phenotypes. Both had mental retardation in which one was associated with microcephaly and other had congenital cataract. They were referred to our institute for clinical evaluation and cytogenetic testing. Both patients were tested for presence of abnormal hemoglobin by high performance liquid chromatography and found to be thalassemic. Their β-globin mutation was also determined by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. The male patient was found to have intervening sequence 1-5 (G-C)/+, indicating β-thalassemia trait and the female was found to have Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), indicating hemoglobin E-β thalassemia. Their cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes were studied with high-resolution GTG-banding analysis by using chromosome profiling (Cyto-vision software 3.6) on their chromosomes. Results revealed 46,XY,del(1)(p36.21) in the male and 46,XX,del(1)(p36.3) in the female. Their genotype variation showed (based on genome browser) significant gene loss which probably leads to marked phenotype variation. We believe, thalassemia with mental retardation associated with microcephaly and congenital cataract, both having loss in chromosome 1, p36 position, is reported probably first time from India. This report will definitely enlighten all concerns and add to the information in growing literature. PMID:27625875

  19. Clinical presentation of two β-thalassemic Indian patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome: Case report.

    PubMed

    De, Puspal; Chatterjee, Tridip; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakravarty, Amit

    2014-09-01

    Here, we present two thalassemic patients (one male and one female), having unusual clinical phenotypes. Both had mental retardation in which one was associated with microcephaly and other had congenital cataract. They were referred to our institute for clinical evaluation and cytogenetic testing. Both patients were tested for presence of abnormal hemoglobin by high performance liquid chromatography and found to be thalassemic. Their β-globin mutation was also determined by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. The male patient was found to have intervening sequence 1-5 (G-C)/+, indicating β-thalassemia trait and the female was found to have Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), indicating hemoglobin E-β thalassemia. Their cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes were studied with high-resolution GTG-banding analysis by using chromosome profiling (Cyto-vision software 3.6) on their chromosomes. Results revealed 46,XY,del(1)(p36.21) in the male and 46,XX,del(1)(p36.3) in the female. Their genotype variation showed (based on genome browser) significant gene loss which probably leads to marked phenotype variation. We believe, thalassemia with mental retardation associated with microcephaly and congenital cataract, both having loss in chromosome 1, p36 position, is reported probably first time from India. This report will definitely enlighten all concerns and add to the information in growing literature. PMID:27625875

  20. Contiguous ∼16 Mb 1p36 deletion: Dominant features of classical distal 1p36 monosomy with haplo-lethality.

    PubMed

    Nicoulaz, A; Rubi, F; Lieder, L; Wolf, R; Goeggel-Simonetti, B; Steinlin, M; Wiest, R; Bonel, H M; Schaller, A; Gallati, S; Conrad, B

    2011-08-01

    Monosomy 1p36 results from heterozygous deletions of the terminal short chromosome 1 arm, the most common terminal deletion in humans. The microdeletion is split in two usually non-overlapping and clinically distinct classical distal and proximal 1p36 monosomy syndromes. Using comparative genome hybridization, MLPA and qPCR we identified the largest contiguous ∼16 Mb terminal 1p36 deletion reported to date. It covers both distal and proximal regions, causes a neonatally lethal variant with virtually exclusive features of distal 1p36 monosomy, highlighting the key importance of the gene-rich distal region for the "compound" 1p36 phenotype and a threshold deletion-size effect for haplo-lethality.

  1. Delineating the phenotype of 1p36 deletion in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Ashley; Stanford, Kevin; Smolarek, Teresa; Hopkin, Robert

    2014-10-01

    1p36 deletion is the most common telomeric deletion syndrome, with an incidence of 1/5,000-1/10,000. A variety of clinical complications have been reported including seizures, hypotonia, heart malformations, cardiomyopathy, vision problems, and hearing loss. Approximately 90% are reported to have severe to profound intellectual disability and 75% to have absent expressive language. Little is known about long-term outcomes. The current literature suggests a poor prognosis for most patients. This study attempted to assess medical conditions and function of adolescent and adult patients with 1p36 deletion. A survey was distributed through three support groups to identify patients >12 years of age to assess functional status and medical problems in older patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome. 40 patients were identified between 12 and 46 years old. Among our survey sample, medical complications including seizures, hypotonia, structural heart defects, hearing loss, and vision problems, were similar to previous reports. However, functional skills were better than anticipated, with an overwhelming majority reported to independently sit, walk, and receive the majority of nutrition orally. Forty-four percent were reported to use complex speech abilities. While medical problems in patients with 1p36 deletion were similar to those that have been previously reported, we also demonstrated these same concerns persist into adolescence and adulthood. Additionally, patients were reported to have better functional skills than anticipated. Thus, quality of life and level of function appear to be better than anticipated from previous studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Recurrent interstitial 1p36 deletions: Evidence for germline mosaicism and complex rearrangement breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Gajecka, Marzena; Saitta, Sulagna C; Gentles, Andrew J; Campbell, Lindsey; Ciprero, Karen; Geiger, Elizabeth; Catherwood, Anne; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaikh, Tamim; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2010-12-01

    Deletions of chromosome 1p36 are one of the most frequently encountered subtelomeric alterations. Clinical features of monosomy 1p36 include neurocognitive impairment, hearing loss, seizures, cardiac defects, and characteristic facial features. The majority of cases have occurred sporadically, implying that genomic instability plays a role in the prevalence of the syndrome. Here, we report two siblings with mild phenotypic features of the deletion syndrome, including developmental delay, hearing loss, and left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC). Microarray analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome and oligonucleotide microarrays indicated the deletions were identical, suggesting germline mosaicism. Parental phenotypes were normal, and analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) did not show mosaicism. These small interstitial deletions were not detectable by conventional subtelomeric FISH analysis. To investigate the mechanism of deletion further, the breakpoints were cloned and sequenced, demonstrating the presence of a complex rearrangement. Sequence analysis of genes in the deletion interval did not reveal any mutations on the intact homologue that may have contributed to the LVNC seen in both children. This is the first report of apparent germline mosaicism for this disorder. Thus, our findings have important implications for diagnostic approaches and for recurrence risk counseling in families with a child with monosomy 1p36. In addition, our results further refine the minimal critical region for LVNC and hearing loss.

  3. Is 1p36 deletion associated with anterior body wall defects?

    PubMed

    Çöllü, Medis; Yüksel, Şirin; Şirin, Başak Kumbasar; Abbasoğlu, Latif; Alanay, Yasemin

    2016-07-01

    Epispadias and exstrophy of the cloaca, also known as OEIS complex (omphalocele, exstrophy, imperforate anus, spinal defects), respectively constitute the most benign and severe ends of the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) spectrum. In 2009, El-Hattab et al. reported the first patient with OEIS complex associated with a chromosome 1p36 deletion. Here we report a second patient with 1p36 deletion who also has classic bladder exstrophy, supporting the possible role of genes in this region in the development of BEEC. The absence of omphalocele and imperforate anus in our patient places him toward classic bladder exstrophy while presence of spina bifida and the absence of coccyx suggest an overlap with OEIS complex. An additional differential diagnosis is the pentalogy of Cantrell in our patient as he also has a diaphragmatic hernia and an incomplete sternum. This is the second observation of a ventral midline birth defect in association with 1p36 deletion syndrome, following El-Hattab et al.'s report [2009]. The three genes (NOCL2, DVL1, and MMP23B) discussed as possible candidates are also among the deleted ones in our patient, supporting the possible role of these genes in BEEC spectrum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Are Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes more similar than we thought? Food-related behavior problems in Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, fragile X, Prader-Willi and 1p36 deletion syndromes.

    PubMed

    Welham, Alice; Lau, Johnny; Moss, Joanna; Cullen, Jenny; Higgs, Suzanne; Warren, Gemma; Wilde, Lucy; Marr, Abby; Cook, Faye; Oliver, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Food-related behavior problems are well documented in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), with impaired satiety, preoccupation with food and negative food-related behaviors (such as taking and storing food) frequently reported as part of the behavioral phenotype of older children and adults. Food-related behavior problems in other genetic neurodevelopmental syndromes remain less well studied, including those seen in Angelman Syndrome (AS), the 'sister imprinted disorder' of PWS. Food-related behavior problems were assessed in 152 participants each with one of five genetic neurodevelopmental syndromes – PWS, AS, 1p36 deletion, Cornelia de Lange, and fragile X. Predictably, levels of food-related behavior problems reported in participants with PWS significantly exceeded those of at least one other groups in most areas (impaired satiety; preoccupation with food; taking and storing food; composite negative behavior). However, in some areas people with AS were reported to display food-related problems at least as severe as those with PWS, with the AS group reported to display significantly more food-related behavior problems than at least one comparison group on measures of taking and storing food, composite negative behaviors, impaired satiety and preoccupation with food. Over 50% of participants in the AS group scored above the median point of the distribution of PWS scores on a measure of taking and storing food. These findings indicate further investigation of eating problems in AS are warranted and have implications for current theoretical interpretations of the behavioral differences between AS and PWS. PMID:25691410

  5. Are Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes more similar than we thought? Food-related behavior problems in Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, fragile X, Prader-Willi and 1p36 deletion syndromes.

    PubMed

    Welham, Alice; Lau, Johnny; Moss, Joanna; Cullen, Jenny; Higgs, Suzanne; Warren, Gemma; Wilde, Lucy; Marr, Abby; Cook, Faye; Oliver, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Food-related behavior problems are well documented in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), with impaired satiety, preoccupation with food and negative food-related behaviors (such as taking and storing food) frequently reported as part of the behavioral phenotype of older children and adults. Food-related behavior problems in other genetic neurodevelopmental syndromes remain less well studied, including those seen in Angelman Syndrome (AS), the 'sister imprinted disorder' of PWS. Food-related behavior problems were assessed in 152 participants each with one of five genetic neurodevelopmental syndromes – PWS, AS, 1p36 deletion, Cornelia de Lange, and fragile X. Predictably, levels of food-related behavior problems reported in participants with PWS significantly exceeded those of at least one other groups in most areas (impaired satiety; preoccupation with food; taking and storing food; composite negative behavior). However, in some areas people with AS were reported to display food-related problems at least as severe as those with PWS, with the AS group reported to display significantly more food-related behavior problems than at least one comparison group on measures of taking and storing food, composite negative behaviors, impaired satiety and preoccupation with food. Over 50% of participants in the AS group scored above the median point of the distribution of PWS scores on a measure of taking and storing food. These findings indicate further investigation of eating problems in AS are warranted and have implications for current theoretical interpretations of the behavioral differences between AS and PWS.

  6. Refinement of causative genes in monosomy 1p36 through clinical and molecular cytogenetic characterization of small interstitial deletions.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Jill A; Crolla, John A; Tomkins, Susan; Bader, Patricia; Morrow, Bernice; Gorski, Jerome; Troxell, Robin; Forster-Gibson, Cynthia; Cilliers, Deirdre; Hislop, R Gordon; Lamb, Allen; Torchia, Beth; Ballif, Blake C; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2010-08-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome seen in humans, occurring in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. Common features include mental retardation, characteristic dysmorphic features, hypotonia, seizures, hearing loss, heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and behavior abnormalities. Similar phenotypes are seen among patients with a variety of deletion sizes, including terminal and interstitial deletions, complex rearrangements, and unbalanced translocations. Consequently, critical regions harboring causative genes for each of these features have been difficult to identify. Here we report on five individuals with 200-823 kb overlapping deletions of proximal 1p36.33, four of which are apparently de novo. They present with features of monosomy 1p36, including developmental delay and mental retardation, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities including hyperphagia, and seizures. The smallest region of deletion overlap is 174 kb and contains five genes; these genes are likely candidates for some of the phenotypic features in monosomy 1p36. Other genes deleted in a subset of the patients likely play a contributory role in the phenotypes, including GABRD and seizures, PRKCZ and neurologic features, and SKI and dysmorphic and neurologic features. Characterization of small deletions is important for narrowing critical intervals and for the identification of causative or candidate genes for features of monosomy 1p36 syndrome.

  7. Morbid obesity in a child with monosomy 1p36 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zagalo, Ana; Dias, Patricia; Pereira, Carla; Sampaio, Maria de Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    The monosomy 1p36 syndrome is a cause of syndromic obesity. It is characterised by psychomotor delay, hypotonia and typical craniofacial dysmorphism. Other features commonly associated are behavioural anomalies including hyperphagia and self-injuring, seizures, congenital heart disease and hypothyroidism. The authors report the case of a 9-year and 5-month-boy referred to the paediatric endocrinology clinics for morbid obesity. Clinical findings were generalised obesity with a body mass index >95th centile, acanthosis nigricans of the neck, arms with self inflicted lesions, deep-set eyes, straight eyebrows, broad nasal bridge and pointed chin. He was unable to walk and had no expressive language. Cytogenetic analysis identified 1p36.33-pter deletion (~139 Mb terminal deletion in chromosome 1 short arm) and Y chromosome duplication. The blood analysis showed insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. The authors emphasise the need to consider monosomy 1p36 as a cause of severe psychomotor delay and obesity. PMID:22605691

  8. Morbid obesity in a child with monosomy 1p36 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zagalo, Ana; Dias, Patricia; Pereira, Carla; Sampaio, Maria de Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    The monosomy 1p36 syndrome is a cause of syndromic obesity. It is characterised by psychomotor delay, hypotonia and typical craniofacial dysmorphism. Other features commonly associated are behavioural anomalies including hyperphagia and self-injuring, seizures, congenital heart disease and hypothyroidism. The authors report the case of a 9-year and 5-month-boy referred to the paediatric endocrinology clinics for morbid obesity. Clinical findings were generalised obesity with a body mass index >95th centile, acanthosis nigricans of the neck, arms with self inflicted lesions, deep-set eyes, straight eyebrows, broad nasal bridge and pointed chin. He was unable to walk and had no expressive language. Cytogenetic analysis identified 1p36.33-pter deletion (~139 Mb terminal deletion in chromosome 1 short arm) and Y chromosome duplication. The blood analysis showed insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. The authors emphasise the need to consider monosomy 1p36 as a cause of severe psychomotor delay and obesity.

  9. 576 kb deletion in 1p36.33-p36.32 containing SKI is associated with limb malformation, congenital heart disease and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Jin-Fu; Yang, Yi-Feng; Tan, Zhi-Ping

    2013-10-10

    1p36 deletion (monosomy 1p36) is one of the most common terminal deletions observed in humans, characterized by special facial features, mental retardation, heart defects, development delay and epilepsy. Previously, we reported molecular findings in patients with limb, congenital heart disease (CHD) and other malformations with SNP-array. In a syndromic patient of the same cohort, we detected a small deletion of 1p36.33-p36.32 containing SKI (Sloan-Kettering Institute protooncoprotein). Recently, dominant mutations in SKI were identified to be correlated with Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome. Retrospective examination revealed this patient with limb malformations, CHD, epilepsy and mild development delay. Together with previous reports, our study suggests that the 1p36.33-1p36.32 deletion encompassing SKI may represents a previous undescribed microdeletion disorder.

  10. Extending the phenotype of monosomy 1p36 syndrome and mapping of a critical region for obesity and hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Carla S; Kohl, Ilana; Varela, Monica Castro; de Castro, Cláudia I E; Kim, Chong A; Bertola, Débora R; Lourenço, Charles M; Koiffmann, Célia P

    2010-01-01

    Rearrangements of 1p36 are the most frequently detected abnormalities in diagnostic testing for chromosomal cryptic imbalances and include variably sized simple terminal deletions, derivative chromosomes, interstitial deletions, and complex rearrangements. These rearrangements result in the specific pattern of malformation and neurodevelopmental disabilities that characterizes monosomy 1p36 syndrome. Thus far, no individual gene within this region has been conclusively determined to be causative of any component of the phenotype. Nor is it known if the rearrangements convey phenotypes via a haploinsufficiency mechanism or through a position effect. We have used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to screen for deletions of 1p36 in a group of 154 hyperphagic and overweight/obese, PWS negative individuals, and in a separate group of 83 patients initially sent to investigate a variety of other conditions. The strategy allowed the identification and delineation of rearrangements in nine subjects with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Our work reinforces the association of monosomy 1p36 and obesity and hyperphagia, and further suggests that these features may be associated with non-classical manifestations of this disorder in addition to a submicroscopic deletion of approximately 2-3 Mb in size. Multiplex ligation probe amplification using the monosomy 1p36 syndrome-specific kit coupled to the subtelomeric kit is an effective approach to identify and delineate rearrangements at 1p36.

  11. Monosomy 1p36 - a multifaceted and still enigmatic syndrome: four clinically diverse cases with shared white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Õiglane-Shlik, Eve; Puusepp, Sanna; Talvik, Inga; Vaher, Ulvi; Rein, Reet; Tammur, Pille; Reimand, Tiia; Teek, Rita; Žilina, Olga; Tomberg, Tiiu; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-05-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome seen in humans. Uniform features of the syndrome include early developmental delay and consequent intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. The gene-rich nature of the chromosomal band, inconsistent deletion sizes and overlapping clinical features have complicated relevant genotype-phenotype correlations. We describe four patients with isolated chromosome 1p36 deletions. All patients shared white matter abnormalities, allowing us to narrow the critical region for white matter involvement to the deletion size of up to 2.5 Mb from the telomere. We hypothesise that there might be a gene(s) responsible for myelin development in the 1p36 subtelomeric region. Other significant clinical findings were progressive spastic paraparesis, epileptic encephalopathy, various skeletal anomalies, Prader-Willi-like phenotype, neoplastic changes - a haemangioma and a benign skin tumour, and in one case, sleep myoclonus, a clinical entity not previously described in association with 1p36 monosomy. Combined with prior studies, our results suggest that the clinical features seen in monosomy 1p36 have more complex causes than a classical contiguous gene deletion syndrome.

  12. Deletion of the mouse homolog of KCNAB2, a gene linked to monosomy 1p36, results in associative memory impairments and amygdala hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Perkowski, John J; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2011-01-01

    Ablation of the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 1 [1p36 deletion syndrome (1p36DS)] is one of the most commonly occurring terminal deletion syndromes in humans, occurring in ∼1 in 5000 newborns. Subjects with 1p36DS manifest a wide range of clinical features including growth delay, congenital heart defects, and craniofacial dysmorphism. In addition, individuals with 1p36DS often exhibit some form of neurological abnormality and are typically cognitively impaired. Although there is significant variability with regard to the extent of the deletion, several genes have been mapped to region 1p36 that are known to regulate neuronal function. One such gene--KCNAB2--encodes the potassium channel auxiliary subunit Kvβ2, which has been previously shown to modulate voltage-gated potassium currents in heterologous expression systems. Here, we present experiments characterizing mice in which the ortholog of KCNAB2 was deleted. We find that deletion of Kcnab2 in mice leads to deficits in associative learning and memory. In addition, using whole-cell current-clamp, we find that deletion of Kcnab2 leads to a reduction in the slow afterhyperpolarization following a burst of action potentials and a concomitant increase in neuronal excitability in projection neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. Our results suggest that loss of Kvβ2 likely contributes to the cognitive and neurological impairments observed in 1p36DS patients.

  13. Identification of critical regions and candidate genes for cardiovascular malformations and cardiomyopathy associated with deletions of chromosome 1p36.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Hitisha P; Beck, Tyler F; Hernández-García, Andrés; Shelly, Katharine E; Montgomery, Tara; van Haeringen, Arie; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Patel, Chirag; Goel, Himanshu; Houge, Gunnar; Morrow, Bernice E; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lalani, Seema R; Scott, Daryl A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular malformations and cardiomyopathy are among the most common phenotypes caused by deletions of chromosome 1p36 which affect approximately 1 in 5000 newborns. Although these cardiac-related abnormalities are a significant source of morbidity and mortality associated with 1p36 deletions, most of the individual genes that contribute to these conditions have yet to be identified. In this paper, we use a combination of clinical and molecular cytogenetic data to define five critical regions for cardiovascular malformations and two critical regions for cardiomyopathy on chromosome 1p36. Positional candidate genes which may contribute to the development of cardiovascular malformations associated with 1p36 deletions include DVL1, SKI, RERE, PDPN, SPEN, CLCNKA, ECE1, HSPG2, LUZP1, and WASF2. Similarly, haploinsufficiency of PRDM16-a gene which was recently shown to be sufficient to cause the left ventricular noncompaction-SKI, PRKCZ, RERE, UBE4B and MASP2 may contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy. When treating individuals with 1p36 deletions, or providing prognostic information to their families, physicians should take into account that 1p36 deletions which overlie these cardiac critical regions may portend to cardiovascular complications. Since several of these cardiac critical regions contain more than one positional candidate gene-and large terminal and interstitial 1p36 deletions often overlap more than one cardiac critical region-it is likely that haploinsufficiency of two or more genes contributes to the cardiac phenotypes associated with many 1p36 deletions.

  14. A region of consistent deletion in neuroblastoma maps within human chromosome 1p36.2-36.3

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.S.; Maris, J.M.; Beltinger, C.

    1995-06-06

    Deletion of the short arm of human chromosome 1 is the most common cytogenetic abnormality observed in neuroblastoma. To characterize the region of consistent deletion, we performed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies on 122 neuroblastoma tumor samples with 30 distal chromosome 1p polymorphisms. LOH was detected in 32 of the 122 tumors (26%). A single region of LOH, marked distally by D1Z2 and proximally by D1S228, was detected in all tumors demonstrating loss. Also, cells from a patient with a constitutional deletion of 1p36, and from a neuroblastoma cell line with a small 1p36 deletion, were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cells from both sources had interstitial deletions of 1p36.2-36.3 which overlapped the consensus region of LOH defined by the tumors. Interstitial deletion in the constitutional case was confirmed by allelic loss studies using the panel of polymorphic markers. Four proposed candidate genes-DAN, ID3 (heir-1), CDC2L1 (p58), and TNFR2-were shown to lie outside of the consensus region of allelic loss, as defined by the above deletions. These results more precisely define the location of a neuroblastoma suppressor gene within 1p36.2-36.3, eliminating 33 centimorgans of proximal 1p36 from consideration. Furthermore, a consensus region of loss, which excludes the four leading candidate genes, was found in all tumors with 1p36 LOH. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Interstitial deletion 1p36.32 in two brothers with a distinct phenotype--overgrowth, macrocephaly and nearly normal intellectual function.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, N; Klink, B; Hahn, G; Schrock, E; Hackmann, K

    2014-09-01

    We report on two adult patients, who both presented with overgrowth and one of them additionally with macrocephaly while carrying an 1p36 microdeletion of about 2.1 Mb. They are full brothers born to unaffected parents. Although both brothers attended special schools, they lived independently without a legal guardian and were able to succeed in regular jobs. One of the brothers received a professional education. Genetic analysis of the parents revealed neither the microdeletion nor a cryptical translocation or inversion. We suggest that the recurrent deletion is a result of germline mosaicism, a phenomenon reported only once in the context of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome. Our report confirms the recurrence of the apparently de novo 1p36 microdeletion due to a likely germline mosaicism of one of the parents. Furthermore, it illustrates the possibility of the distinct phenotype with a nearly normal intellectual outcome of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome that might be due to the region involved in our patients.

  16. Partial monosomy of chromosome 1p36.3: Characterization of the critical region and delineation of a syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Reish, O.; Berry, S.A.; Hirsch, B.

    1995-12-04

    We describe 5 patients ranging in age from 3 to 47 years, with karyotypic abnormalities resulting in monosomy for portion of 1p36.3, microcephaly, mental retardation, prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, depressed nasal bridge, flat midface, relative prognathism, and abnormal ears. Four patients have small hands and feet. All exhibited selfabusive behavior. Additional findings in some of the patients include brain anomalies, optic atrophy, hearing loss and skeletal deformities. The breakpoints within chromosome 1 were designated at 1p36.31 (3 cases), 1p36.32 (1 case) and 1p36.33 (1 case). Thus, the smallest region of deletion overlap is 1p36.33{r_arrow}pter. Detection of the abnormal 1 relied on high resolution G-band analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) utilizing a DNA probe (Oncor D1Z2) containing the repetitive sequences in distal 1p36, confirmed a deletion of one 1 homologue in all 5 cases. The abnormal 1 resulted from a de novo deletion in only one patient. The remaining patients were either confirmed (3 cases) or suspected (1 case) to have unbalanced translocations. Despite the additional genetic imbalance present in these four cases, monosomy of 1p36.33 appears to be responsible for a specific clinical phenotype. Characterization of this phenotype should assist in the clinical diagnosis of this chromosome abnormality. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Prader-Willi-like phenotype: investigation of 1p36 deletion in 41 patients with delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, obesity and/or hyperphagia, learning disabilities and behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Carla S; Da Paz, José A; Kim, Chong A; Bertola, Débora R; Castro, Claudia I E; Varela, Monica C; Koiffmann, Célia P

    2006-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is one of the most commonly observed mental retardation (MR) syndromes that results in a clinically recognizable phenotype including delayed psychomotor development and/or MR, hypotonia, epilepsy, hearing loss, growth delay, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, flat nasal bridge and pointed chin. Besides, a Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)-like phenotype has been described in patients with 1p36 monosomy. Forty-one patients presenting hypotonia, developmental delay, obesity and/or hyperphagia and behavioral problems who tested negative for PWS were investigated by FISH and/or microsatellite markers. Twenty-six were analyzed with a 1p-specific subtelomeric probe, and one terminal deletion was identified. Thirty patients (15 of which also studied by FISH) were investigated by microsatellite markers, and no interstitial 1p36 deletion was found. Our patient presenting the 1p36 deletion did not have the striking features of this monosomy, but her clinical and behavioral features were quite similar to those observed in patients with PWS, except for the presence of normal sucking at birth. The extent of the deletion could be limited to the most terminal 2.5 Mb of 1p36, within the chromosomal region 1p36.33-1p36.32, that is smaller than usually seen in monosomy 1p36 patients. Therefore, chromosome 1p36.33 deletion should be investigated in patients with hypotonia, developmental delay, obesity and/or hyperphagia and behavioral problems who test negative for PWS.

  18. Deletion or epigenetic silencing of AJAP1 on 1p36 in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ningjing; Di, Chunhui; Bortoff, Kathy; Fu, Jinrong; Truszkowski, Peter; Killela, Patrick; Duncan, Chris; McLendon, Roger; Bigner, Darell; Gregory, Simon; Adamson, David Cory

    2012-02-01

    Glioblastoma is universally fatal because of its propensity for rapid recurrence due to highly migratory tumor cells. Unraveling the genomic complexity that underlies this migratory characteristic could provide therapeutic targets that would greatly complement current surgical therapy. Using multiple high-resolution genomic screening methods, we identified a single locus, adherens junctional associated protein 1 (AJAP1) on chromosome 1p36 that is lost or epigenetically silenced in many glioblastomas. We found AJAP1 expression absent or reduced in 86% and 100% of primary glioblastoma tumors and cell lines, respectively, and the loss of expression correlates with AJAP1 methylation. Restoration of AJAP1 gene expression by transfection or demethylation agents results in decreased tumor cell migration in glioblastoma cell lines. This work shows the significant loss of expression of AJAP1 in glioblastoma and provides evidence of its role in the highly migratory characteristic of these tumors.

  19. Significance of the small subtelomeric area of chromosome 1 (1p36.3) in the progression of malignant melanoma: FISH deletion screening with YAC DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Poetsch, M; Woenckhaus, C; Dittberner, T; Pambor, M; Lorenz, G; Herrmann, F H

    1999-08-01

    The short arm of chromosome 1 (1p), especially the subtelomeric region of 1p36, is a common site for abnormalities in malignant melanoma of the skin. In a recent study nodular melanomas displayed deletions of 1p36 in an augmented percentage of cases. To evaluate the dimension of these deletions and to study their significance for the progression of malignant melanoma we analyzed seven melanoma cell lines, 32 primary tumors, and 32 metastatic tumors by fluorescence in situ hybridization with the DNA probe D1Z2 in 1p36.3 and eight YAC DNA probes hybridizing to 1p36, 1p32, 1p31, and 1p21. All cell lines, 91% of the metastatic tumors and 63% of nodular melanomas showed a deletion of 1p36.3. In the YAC hybridization experiments, the most frequent deletions were found in 1p36 in all cell lines, in 13% of nodular melanoma, and in 44% of metastatic tumors. Deletions in 1p36 were mostly confined to a rather small area near the locus D1Z2. The frequent occurrence of this deletion in melanomas with a high metastatic potential and the abundant accumulation of this deletion in metastasis point to genes located on 1p36, which might be of significance for the metastatic capability of malignant melanoma.

  20. Telomeric 1p36.3 deletion and Ki-67 expression in B-Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma patients associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mosad, E; Said Abd El-Rahman Allam, M; Moustafa, H M; Mohammed, A Eliaw; El kebeer, A M; Abdel-Moneim, S S

    2014-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is able to accumulate genetic p53 mutations and may be considered co-oncogenic. This study investigates 1p36.3 telomere deletion in B-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients with chronic HCV infection using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in relation to survival to assess Ki-67 antigen expression. A study group and a control group of 100 patients with B-NHL (50 HCV positive and 50 HCV negative) and 60 control bone marrow biopsies were subjected to FISH for the detection of 1P36.3 deletion and to immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67 antigens. 1p36.3 deletion by FISH was detected in 40% of the study group, and Ki-67 was expressed in approximately 74% of patients. A significant difference was found between positive and negative HCV patients in their overall survival, the qualitative expression of Ki-67 and the quantitative detection of 1p36.3 deletion by FISH. The overall survival was shorter with the presence of an 1p36 deletion by FISH and HCV positive. We concluded that the coexistence of Ki-67 positivity, HCV positivity and 1p36.3 deletion may contribute to infection-related cancers at the 1p36.3 locus.

  1. Duplication of the DR3 gene on human chromosome 1p36 and its deletion in human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Grenet, J; Valentine, V; Kitson, J; Li, H; Farrow, S N; Kidd, V J

    1998-05-01

    The human DR3 gene, whose product is also known as Wsl-1/APO-3/TRAMP/LARD, encodes a tumor necrosis factor-related receptor that is expressed primarily on the surface of thymocytes and lymphocytes. DR3 is capable of inducing both NF-kappa B activation and apoptosis when overexpressed in mammalian cells, although its ligand has not yet been identified. We report here that the DR3 gene locus is tandemly duplicated on human chromosome band 1p36.2-p36.3 and that these genes are hemizygously deleted and/or translocated to another chromosome in neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines with amplified MYCN. Duplication of at least a portion of the DR3 gene, including the extracellular and transmembrane regions but not the cytoplasmic domain, was demonstrated by both fluorescence in situ hybridization and genomic Southern blotting. In most NB cell lines, both the DR3 and the DR3L sequences are simultaneously deleted and/or translocated to another chromosome. Finally, DR3/ Wsl-1 protein expression is quite variable among these NB cell lines, with very low or undetectable levels in 7 of 17 NB cell lines.

  2. FISH analysis of a patient with a constitutional 1p36 deletion defines a region for a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Biegel, J.; Hilliard, C.; White, P.

    1994-09-01

    Molecular and cytogenetic studies of neuroblastoma have implicated the presence of one or more tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 1p. We previously reported a neuroblastoma patient with a constitutional interstitial deletion of 1p36. As one means of further defining the deleted region, we have analyzed a series of chromosome 1p36 specific probes by FISH to metaphase chromosomes from a lymphoblastoid cell line established from the patient. We have also tested these probes on a neuroblastoma cell line, NGP, which has a t(1;15) translocation involving 1p36. The probes analyzed to date in order from centromere to telomere include ID-3 (heir-1), D1S56, D1S160, and CDC2L1 (p58). Cosmids for ID-3 and D1S56 were present in 2 copies and proximal to the breakpoint in the constitutional case, and retained on the derivative 1 in NGP. CDC2L1 was also present in 2 copies in the constitutional case, but is distal to the deletion. In NGP, CDC2L1 was translocated to the derivative 15. The D1S160 locus was deleted from one of the chromosomes 1 in the constitutional case, and was present in three copies in NGP: on the normal chromosome 1, the derivative chromosome 1, and the derivative chromosome 15. Molecular studies have suggested that there is a duplication involving this region in NGP, and so it is not clear where the translocation breakpoint is in this cell line. These studies have localized a critical region for a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene to 1p36.2, distal to D1S56, proximal to CDC2L1, and including D1S160. This region overlaps with the smallest area of deletion defined by loss of heterozygosity studies of primary neuroblastomas and neuroblastoma cell lines. Additional studies with probes that flank the D1S160 locus will facilitate a molecular cloning approach for a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene.

  3. An allelic series of mice reveals a role for RERE in the development of multiple organs affected in chromosome 1p36 deletions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jun; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Yu, Zhiyin; Hernández-García, Andrés; Seymour, Michelle L; Oghalai, John S; Pereira, Fred A; Stockton, David W; Justice, Monica J; Lee, Brendan; Scott, Daryl A

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions of chromosome 1p36 have a spectrum of defects that includes eye anomalies, postnatal growth deficiency, structural brain anomalies, seizures, cognitive impairment, delayed motor development, behavior problems, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. The proximal 1p36 genes that contribute to these defects have not been clearly delineated. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats gene (RERE) is located in this region and encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator that plays a critical role in embryonic development as a positive regulator of retinoic acid signaling. Rere-null mice die of cardiac failure between E9.5 and E11.5. This limits their usefulness in studying the role of RERE in the latter stages of development and into adulthood. To overcome this limitation, we created an allelic series of RERE-deficient mice using an Rere-null allele, om, and a novel hypomorphic Rere allele, eyes3 (c.578T>C, p.Val193Ala), which we identified in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-based screen for autosomal recessive phenotypes. Analyses of these mice revealed microphthalmia, postnatal growth deficiency, brain hypoplasia, decreased numbers of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN)-positive hippocampal neurons, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations-aortic arch anomalies, double outlet right ventricle, and transposition of the great arteries, and perimembranous ventricular septal defects-spontaneous development of cardiac fibrosis and renal agenesis. These findings suggest that RERE plays a critical role in the development and function of multiple organs including the eye, brain, inner ear, heart and kidney. It follows that haploinsufficiency of RERE may contribute-alone or in conjunction with other genetic, environmental, or stochastic factors-to the development of many of the phenotypes seen in individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions that include the proximal region of

  4. Frequent hemizygous deletion at 1p36 and hypermethylation downregulate RUNX3 expression in human lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yanada, Masashi; Yaoi, Takeshi; Shimada, Junichi; Sakakura, Chouhei; Nishimura, Motohiro; Ito, Kazuhiro; Terauchi, Kunihiko; Nishiyama, Katsuhiko; Itoh, Kyoko; Fushiki, Shinji

    2005-10-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) has been recognized as a tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer because its expression level was reduced or disappeared due to epigenetic changes. To evaluate the usefulness of the RUNX3 gene as a biomarker of lung cancer, we have analyzed the expression of the RUNX3 gene in 15 lung cancer cell lines by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and demonstrated that RUNX3 gene expression was reduced or disappeared in all cell lines examined (100%). In addition, we have attempted to classify all the cell lines into three groups according to the expression level; less than 10% (group I), 10-30% (group II) and approximately 50% (group III). We further investigated methylation status of the CpG sites in the exon 1 region of RUNX3 by methylation specific PCR (MSP), and studied the correlation between the expression level and hemizygous deletion as revealed by bicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The CpG sites were hypermethylated in 8 cell lines (53%) and the RUNX3 loci were hemizygously deleted in another 8 cell lines (53%). Furthermore group I, II, and III corresponded well to methylation-positive cell lines, cell lines showing hemizygous deletion, and the rest of cell lines without methylation or hemizygous deletion, respectively. These results suggest that a comprehensive study on RUNX3 using real-time RT-PCR, MSP, and FISH could be beneficial in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of human lung cancer at the molecular level. PMID:16142337

  5. Primary Cutaneous Follicle Center Lymphomas Expressing BCL2 Protein Frequently Harbor BCL2 Gene Break and May Present 1p36 Deletion: A Study of 20 Cases.

    PubMed

    Szablewski, Vanessa; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Baia, Maryse; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Helene; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Ortonne, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The classification of cutaneous follicular lymphoma (CFL) into primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) or secondary cutaneous follicular lymphoma (SCFL) is challenging. SCFL is suspected when tumor cells express BCL2 protein, reflecting a BCL2 translocation. However, BCL2 expression is difficult to assess in CFLs because of numerous BCL2+ reactive T cells. To investigate these issues and to further characterize PCFCL, we studied a series of 25 CFLs without any extracutaneous disease at diagnosis, selected on the basis of BCL2 protein expression using 2 BCL2 antibodies (clones 124 and E17) and BOB1/BCL2 double immunostaining. All cases were studied using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization with BCL2, BCL6, IGH, IGK, IGL breakapart, IGH-BCL2 fusion, and 1p36/1q25 dual-color probes. Nineteen CFLs were BCL2 positive, and 6 were negative. After a medium follow-up of 24 (6 to 96) months, 5 cases were reclassified as SCFL and were excluded from a part of our analyses. Among BCL2+ PCFCLs, 60% (9/15) demonstrated a BCL2 break. BCL2-break-positive cases had a tendency to occur in the head and neck and showed the classical phenotype of nodal follicular lymphoma (CD10+, BCL6+, BCL2+, STMN+) compared with BCL2-break-negative PCFCLs. Del 1p36 was observed in 1 PCFCL. No significant clinical differences were observed between BCL2+ or BCL2- PCFCL. In conclusion, we show that a subset of PCFCLs harbor similar genetic alterations, as observed in nodal follicular lymphomas, including BCL2 breaks and 1p36 deletion. As BCL2 protein expression is usually associated with the presence of a BCL2 translocation, fluorescence in situ hybridization should be performed to confirm this hypothesis.

  6. Setleis syndrome due to inheritance of the 1p36.22p36.21 duplication: evidence for lack of penetrance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Hee; Kasparis, Christos; Chen, Brenden; Mei, Hui; Edelmann, Lisa; Moss, Celia; Weaver, David D; Desnick, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Setleis syndrome, focal facial dermal dysplasia type III (FFDD3, MIM #227260), is characterized by scar-like bitemporal lesions and other ocular and facial dysmorphic features. The syndrome results from recessive mutations in the TWIST2 gene, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor or de novo genomic duplication or triplication, which include 1.3 Mb at 1p36.22p36.21, or other yet undefined lesions, emphasizing the syndrome's genetic heterogeneity. Recently, three patients were reported with 1p36.22p36.21 duplications/triplication that had the characteristic FFDD3 features and developmental delay or intellectual disabilities. Here, we describe a male with this microduplication, and the typical FFDD3 phenotype, but normal intelligence. Notably, his duplication was inherited from his father who did not have any FFDD3 manifestations, indicating lack of penetrance of the 1p36.22p36.21 microduplication. These findings emphasize phenotypic heterogeneity of the 1p36.22p36.21 copy number variant and the importance of screening the parents of patients with the 1p36.22p36.21 copy number variant to determine whether the duplication/triplication is de novo or inherited, for informed reproductive and genetic counseling.

  7. Chromosome 1p36.22p36.21 duplications/triplication causes Setleis syndrome (focal facial dermal dysplasia type III).

    PubMed

    Weaver, David D; Norby, Audrey R; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Proud, Virginia K; Spangler, Brooke E; Ming, Jeffrey E; Chisholm, Elizabeth; Zackai, Elaine H; Lee, Beom Hee; Edelmann, Lisa; Desnick, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    Focal facial dermal dysplasias (FFDD) are characterized by congenital bitemporal or preauricular atrophic skin lesions, and either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. Setleis syndrome (SS), FFDD type III, is a severe form of FFDD with the ectodermal lesions plus other striking facial features. Autosomal recessive nonsense and frameshift mutations in TWIST2 have been found to cause SS in some but not all individuals. Here, we report on four unrelated individuals, one with an unclassified FFDD and the other three with classic SS. Chromosomal microarray analyses revealed unique copy number variants of 1p36 in two individuals with duplications at 1p36.22p36.21 and one with a triplication at 1p36.22p36.21. The fourth patient had normal chromosomes by microarray analysis. All four patients had normal TWIST2 exonic sequences. We propose that a dosage effect of one or more of the 30 genes in the 1.3 Mb 1p36.22p36.21 region of overlap is responsible for FFDD/SS manifestations in some individuals, and this mechanism would be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. In patients with no duplication/triplication of the 1p36.22p36.21 region and no mutations in TWIST2, there are mutation(s) in one of the 30 genes in this region or mutations in other as yet unidentified genes at different locations that may affect the expressions of genes in this region or act independently to cause this developmental disease phenotype.

  8. Monosomy 1p36 uncovers a role for OX40 in survival of activated CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Suhoski, M M; Perez, E E; Heltzer, M L; Laney, A; Shaffer, L G; Saitta, S; Nachman, S; Spinner, N B; June, C H; Orange, J S

    2008-08-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is a subtelomeric deletion syndrome associated with congenital anomalies presumably due to haploinsufficiency of multiple genes. Although immunodeficiency has not been reported, genes encoding costimulatory molecules of the TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) are within 1p36 and may be affected. In one patient with monosomy 1p36, comparative genome hybridization and fluorescence in- situ hybridization confirmed that TNFRSF member OX40 was included within the subtelomeric deletion. T cells from this patient had decreased OX40 expression after stimulation. Specific, ex vivo T cell activation through OX40 revealed enhanced proliferation, and reduced viability of patient CD4+ T cells, providing evidence for the association of monosomy 1p36 with reduced OX40 expression, and decreased OX40-induced T cell survival. These results support a role for OX40 in human immunity, and calls attention to the potential for haploinsufficiency deletions of TNFRSF costimulatory molecules in monosomy 1p36.

  9. Role of Evaluating MGMT Status and 1p36 Deletion in Radiosurgery-Induced Anaplastic Ependymoma That Rapidly and Completely Resolved by Temozolomide Alone: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Seiichiro; Iwadate, Yasuo; Kambe, Michiyo; Hiwasa, Takaki; Takiguchi, Masaki; Nakatani, Yukio; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic gamma knife surgery (GKS)-induced brain tumors are extremely rare, and no ependymal tumors induced by GKS have been reported. Therefore, little is known about their clinical, pathologic, and genetic features. In addition, a regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymoma (AE) has not been established. A 77-year-old man presented with a gait disturbance and left-side cerebellar ataxia more than 19 years after GKS performed for a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation. Imaging studies demonstrated an enhancing mass in the irradiated field with signs of intraventricular dissemination. Surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis of AE. Temozolomide (TMZ) was administrated postoperatively because the methylated promoter region of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and 1p36 deletion were observed. Surprisingly, images 16 days after TMZ initiation demonstrated a complete resolution of the residual tumor that was maintained after three cycles of TMZ. This first case report of GKS-induced AE emphasizes the importance of genetic evaluation of MGMT and chromosomal deletion of 1p36 that are not commonly performed in primary ependymal tumors. In addition, it is speculated that a GKS-induced tumor may have a different genetic background compared with the primary tumor because the pathogenesis of the tumors differed.

  10. Accurate, fast and cost-effective diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36 using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5-0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  11. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B.; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs. PMID:24839341

  12. Partial monosomy of chromosome 1p36.3: A distinctive phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Reish, O.; Berry, S.A.; King. R.A.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a series of five patients with a partial monosomy of 1p36.3 presenting with a similar syndromic appearance. The phenotype of deletion 1p36.3 patients includes abnormal facies, multiple congenital malformations, and mental retardation.The ages of the patients in our series ranged from 3 to 50 years. As the deletion is very small, detection in the present cases relied upon high resolution G-band analyses and was confirmed with FISH in cases 3 and 5. Patients 2 and 3 were diagnosed as adults; thus smaller deletions in 1p36.33 may be associated with longer life expectancy, but include the critical region for the above phenotype. We noted that the dysmorphic features of the patients are more prominent with older age and are difficult to appreciate in infancy. Observation of this specific 1p36 appears as a white, terminal G-band; detection of a small partial deletion or rearrangement may require greater than 550 band level resolution. FISH utilizing a probe to 1pter can facilitate and confirm these analyses.

  13. 1p36 tumor suppression--a matter of dosage?

    PubMed

    Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Schwab, Manfred; Westermann, Frank

    2012-12-01

    A broad range of human malignancies is associated with nonrandom 1p36 deletions, suggesting the existence of tumor suppressors encoded in this region. Evidence for tumor-specific inactivation of 1p36 genes in the classic "two-hit" manner is scarce; however, many tumor suppressors do not require complete inactivation but contribute to tumorigenesis by partial impairment. We discuss recent data derived from both human tumors and functional cancer models indicating that the 1p36 genes CHD5, CAMTA1, KIF1B, CASZ1, and miR-34a contribute to cancer development when reduced in dosage by genomic copy number loss or other mechanisms. We explore potential interactions among these candidates and propose a model where heterozygous 1p36 deletion impairs oncosuppressive pathways via simultaneous downregulation of several dosage-dependent tumor suppressor genes.

  14. CNV analysis in a large schizophrenia sample implicates deletions at 16p12.1 and SLC1A1 and duplications at 1p36.33 and CGNL1.

    PubMed

    Rees, Elliott; Walters, James T R; Chambert, Kimberly D; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Szatkiewicz, Jin; Richards, Alexander L; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Mahoney-Davies, Gerwyn; Legge, Sophie E; Moran, Jennifer L; Genovese, Giulio; Levinson, Douglas; Morris, Derek W; Cormican, Paul; Kendler, Kenneth S; O'Neill, Francis A; Riley, Brien; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Sklar, Pamela; Hultman, Christina; Pato, Carlos; Pato, Michele; Sullivan, Patrick F; Gejman, Pablo V; McCarroll, Steven A; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Kirov, George

    2014-03-15

    Large and rare copy number variants (CNVs) at several loci have been shown to increase risk for schizophrenia. Aiming to discover novel susceptibility CNV loci, we analyzed 6882 cases and 11 255 controls genotyped on Illumina arrays, most of which have not been used for this purpose before. We identified genes enriched for rare exonic CNVs among cases, and then attempted to replicate the findings in additional 14 568 cases and 15 274 controls. In a combined analysis of all samples, 12 distinct loci were enriched among cases with nominal levels of significance (P < 0.05); however, none would survive correction for multiple testing. These loci include recurrent deletions at 16p12.1, a locus previously associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (P = 0.0084 in the discovery sample and P = 0.023 in the replication sample). Other plausible candidates include non-recurrent deletions at the glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1, a CNV locus recently suggested to be involved in schizophrenia through linkage analysis, and duplications at 1p36.33 and CGNL1. A burden analysis of large (>500 kb), rare CNVs showed a 1.2% excess in cases after excluding known schizophrenia-associated loci, suggesting that additional susceptibility loci exist. However, even larger samples are required for their discovery.

  15. 1p36.32 rearrangements and the role of PI-PLC η2 in nervous tumours.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita

    2011-07-01

    Deletions in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p36) are widely diffuse, both in congenital 1p36 Deletion Syndrome and as somatic abnormalities in tumours. Rearrangements in 1p36 have been described in a broad spectrum of human neoplasias in addition to other chromosomal abnormalities. In neuroblastomas, wide hemizygous deletions in 1p36.23-1p36.32 have been described suggesting that the 1p36 region contains a tumour-suppressor gene involved in malignancy. A role for phosphoinositide (PI)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) η2, whose gene maps on 1p36.32, was suggested. PI-PLC η2 belongs to a family of enzymes related to the phosphoinositide signalling pathway, which provide an important intracellular signalling system involved in a variety of cell functions such as hormone secretion, neurotransmitter signal transduction, cell growth, membrane trafficking, ion channel activity, regulation of the cytoskeleton, cell cycle control and apoptosis. Expression of PI-PLC η2 occurs after birth and continues throughout the life. Synapse formation occurs during a short period of postnatal development. Thus, it is likely that PI-PLC η2 acts in formation and maintenance of the neuronal network in the brain. The fact that PI-PLC η2, a highly neuron-specific isozyme, is abundantly expressed in the postnatal brain suggests the importance of PI-PLC η2 in formation and maintenance of the neuronal network in the postnatal brain. Further studies are required to verify the possible involvement of PI-PLC η2 mutation/deletion in central nervous tumour tissues presenting abnormalities of the 1p36 chromosomal band.

  16. Further delineation of novel 1p36 rearrangements by array-CGH analysis: narrowing the breakpoints and clarifying the "extended" phenotype.

    PubMed

    Giannikou, Krinio; Fryssira, Helen; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Syrmou, Areti; Kosma, Konstantina; Tzetis, Maria; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sofia; Kanavakis, Emmanouel

    2012-09-15

    High resolution oligonucleotide array Comparative Genome Hybridization technology (array-CGH) has greatly assisted the recognition of the 1p36 contiguous gene deletion syndrome. The 1p36 deletion syndrome is considered to be one of the most common subtelomeric microdeletion syndromes and has an incidence of ~1 in 5000 live births, while respectively the "pure" 1p36 microduplication has not been reported so far. We present seven new patients who were referred for genetic evaluation due to Developmental Delay (DD), Mental Retardation (MR), and distinct dysmorphic features. They all had a wide phenotypic spectrum. In all cases previous standard karyotypes were negative. Array-CGH analysis revealed five patients with interstitial 1p36 microdeletion (four de novo and one maternal) and two patients with de novo reciprocal duplication of different sizes. These were the first reported "pure" 1p36 microduplication cases so far. Three of our patients carrying the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome were also found to have additional pathogenetic aberrations. These findings (del 3q27.1; del 4q21.22-q22.1; del 16p13.3; dup 21q21.2-q21.3; del Xp22.12) might contribute to the patients' severe phenotype, acting as additional modifiers of their clinical manifestations. We review and compare the clinical and array-CGH findings of our patients to previously reported cases with the aim of clearly delineating more accurate genotype-phenotype correlations for the 1p36 syndrome that could allow for a more precise prognosis.

  17. Ebstein anomaly: Genetic heterogeneity and association with microdeletions 1p36 and 8p23.1.

    PubMed

    Digilio, Maria Cristina; Bernardini, Laura; Lepri, Francesca; Giuffrida, Maria Grazia; Guida, Valentina; Baban, Anwar; Versacci, Paolo; Capolino, Rossella; Torres, Barbara; De Luca, Alessandro; Novelli, Antonio; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    Ebstein anomaly is an uncommon congenital heart defect (CHD), characterized by downward displacement of the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. To uncover the genetic associations with Ebstein anomaly, we have searched chromosomal imbalances using standard cytogenetic and array-CGH analysis, and single gene conditions associated with syndromic Ebstein anomaly (with extracardiac anomalies), and screened GATA4 and NKX2.5 mutations in nonsyndromic patients (without extracardiac anomalies). Between January 1997 and September 2009, 44 consecutive patients with Ebstein anomaly were evaluated in two centers of Pediatric Cardiology. Ebstein anomaly was syndromic in 12 (27%) patients, and nonsyndromic in 32 (73%). A recognizable syndrome or complex was diagnosed by clinical criteria in seven patients. In one syndromic patient an 18q deletion was diagnosed by standard cytogenetic analysis. Array-CGH analysis performed in 10 of the 12 syndromic patients detected an interstitial deletion of about 4 Mb at 8p23.1 in one patient, and a deletion 1pter > 1p36.32/dup Xpter- > Xp22.32 in another patient. In the 28 of 32 nonsyndromic patients who underwent molecular testing, no mutation in GATA4 and NKX2.5 genes were detected. We conclude that Ebstein anomaly is a genetically heterogeneous defect, and that deletion 1p36 and deletion 8p23.1 are the most frequent chromosomal imbalances associated with Ebstein anomaly. Candidate genes include the GATA4 gene (in patients with del 8p23.1), NKX2.5 (based on published patients with isolated Ebstein anomaly) and a hypothetical gene in patients with del 1p36).

  18. Detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization of microdeletions at 1p36 in lymphomas, unidentified on cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Achuthan; Carr, Ian M; Leek, Jack P; Hodge, Donald; Bell, Sandra M; Roberts, Paul; Horgan, Kieran; Bonthron, David T; Selby, Peter J; Markham, Alexander F; MacLennan, Kenneth A

    2003-04-01

    The chromosomal band 1p36 exhibits frequent loss of heterozygosity in a variety of human malignancies, suggesting the presence of an as yet unidentified tumor suppressor gene. The faint terminal subbands often make cytogenetic analysis of 1p36 particularly difficult. Small deletions at this locus may therefore escape detection on analysis by conventional cytogenetics, a hypothesis that we have explored using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in malignant lymphoma. The study cohort consisted of 20 cases of lymphoma of various subtypes without any 1p abnormality on G-banded karyotyping. FISH was performed using a human chromosome 1 paint and a bacterial artificial chromosome probe RP4-755G5 localizing to 1p36.33, the most telomeric subband of 1p36. Tumors demonstrating 1p36.33 deletions were additionally analyzed by FISH using a second probe from the proximal 1p36.1 subband, to further define the breakpoint. Eight cases of follicular lymphoma (FL), 5 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2 Hodgkin disease, 2 B-cell small lymphocytic lymphomas, 2 T-cell lymphomas, and 1 marginal zone lymphoma were analyzed. FISH identified deletions at 1p36.33 in 5 of the 20 cases: 3 DLBCL and 2 FL. FISH is considerably more sensitive for identifying lymphoma genetic alterations than conventional cytogenetics. Deletion of the distal part of the 1p36 may be a much more common aberration than previously recognized in lymphoma.

  19. Neuropathology of brain and spinal malformations in a case of monosomy 1p36

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is the most common subtelomeric chromosomal deletion linked to mental retardation and seizures. Neuroimaging studies suggest that monosomy 1p36 is associated with brain malformations including polymicrogyria and nodular heterotopia, but the histopathology of these lesions is unknown. Here we present postmortem neuropathological findings from a 10 year-old girl with monosomy 1p36, who died of respiratory complications. The findings included micrencephaly, periventricular nodular heterotopia in occipitotemporal lobes, cortical dysgenesis resembling polymicrogyria in dorsolateral frontal lobes, hippocampal malrotation, callosal hypoplasia, superiorly rotated cerebellum with small vermis, and lumbosacral hydromyelia. The abnormal cortex exhibited “festooned” (undulating) supragranular layers, but no significant fusion of the molecular layer. Deletion mapping demonstrated single copy loss of a contiguous 1p36 terminal region encompassing many important neurodevelopmental genes, among them four HES genes implicated in regulating neural stem cell differentiation, and TP73, a monoallelically expressed gene. Our results suggest that brain and spinal malformations in monosomy 1p36 may be more extensive than previously recognized, and may depend on the parental origin of deleted genes. More broadly, our results suggest that specific genetic disorders may cause distinct forms of cortical dysgenesis. PMID:24252393

  20. Neuropathology of brain and spinal malformations in a case of monosomy 1p36.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Naoko; Daza, Ray A M; Shaffer, Lisa G; Barkovich, A James; Dobyns, William B; Hevner, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is the most common subtelomeric chromosomal deletion linked to mental retardation and seizures. Neuroimaging studies suggest that monosomy 1p36 is associated with brain malformations including polymicrogyria and nodular heterotopia, but the histopathology of these lesions is unknown. Here we present postmortem neuropathological findings from a 10 year-old girl with monosomy 1p36, who died of respiratory complications. The findings included micrencephaly, periventricular nodular heterotopia in occipitotemporal lobes, cortical dysgenesis resembling polymicrogyria in dorsolateral frontal lobes, hippocampal malrotation, callosal hypoplasia, superiorly rotated cerebellum with small vermis, and lumbosacral hydromyelia. The abnormal cortex exhibited "festooned" (undulating) supragranular layers, but no significant fusion of the molecular layer. Deletion mapping demonstrated single copy loss of a contiguous 1p36 terminal region encompassing many important neurodevelopmental genes, among them four HES genes implicated in regulating neural stem cell differentiation, and TP73, a monoallelically expressed gene. Our results suggest that brain and spinal malformations in monosomy 1p36 may be more extensive than previously recognized, and may depend on the parental origin of deleted genes. More broadly, our results suggest that specific genetic disorders may cause distinct forms of cortical dysgenesis.

  1. Correlation of modified Shimada classification with MYCN and 1p36 status detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Altungoz, Oguz; Aygun, Nevim; Tumer, Sait; Ozer, Erdener; Olgun, Nur; Sakizli, Meral

    2007-01-15

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a childhood cancer derived from neural crest cells, with a highly variable clinical course and biologic behavior. NB cells harbor complex genetic changes. Also, MYCN amplification is a well-known molecular marker for aggressive progression, and deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 is frequently observed in NB. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between genetic markers and prognostic morphological parameters to address the biology and underlying the clinical complexity of NB. Therefore, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of chromosome band 1p36 and MYCN in a series of tumors from 43 cases classified according to the recommendation of International Neuroblastoma Pathology Committee (modification of Shimada classification). The correlations of MYCN amplification status and two distinct types of 1p36 alterations (deletion and imbalance) with Shimada classification and histologic prognostic factors were statistically analyzed. Amplification of MYCN and 1p36 deletion was present in 14 (32.6%) and 18 (41.9%) cases, respectively. Sixteen cases (37.2%) displayed a favorable histology, while 27 (62.8%) had an unfavorable histology. The 1p36 deletion was found to be an independent predictor of unfavorable histology by multivariate analysis (logistic regression test, P = 0.03), but the 1p36 imbalance did not show any significance. Both 1p36 deletion and MYCN amplification showed significant correlation with undifferentiated tumors (chi-square test, P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively). Highly significant correlation was found between the higher mitotic karyorrhectic index (MKI) and MYCN amplification (chi-square test, P < 0.001), whereas neither 1p36 deletion nor 1p36 imbalance significantly correlated with a higher MKI (chi-square test, P > 0.05). We conclude that 1p36 deletion may be a reliable parameter in determining unfavorable histology and predicting prognosis in NB. Further studies with prognostic data

  2. Chromothripsis with at least 12 breaks at 1p36.33-p35.3 in a boy with multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Bruno Faulin; Richieri-Costa, Antônio; Costa, Silvia; Rosenberg, Carla; Ribeiro-Bicudo, Lucilene Arilho

    2015-12-01

    Terminal deletion in the short arm of chromosome 1 results in a disorder described as 1p36 deletion syndrome. The resulting phenotype varies among patients including mental retardation, developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, seizures, heart defects, and distinct facies. In the present case, we performed array-comparative genomic hybridization in a boy with multiple congenital malformations presenting some features overlapping the 1p36 deletion phenotype for whom chromosomal analysis did not reveal a terminal deletion in 1p. Results showed complex chromosome rearrangements involving the 1p36.33-p35.3 region. While the mechanism of origin of these rearrangements is still unclear, chromothripsis-a single catastrophic event leading to shattering chromosomes or chromosome regions and rejoining of the segments-has been described to occur in a fraction of cancers. The presence of at least 12 clustered breaks at 1p and apparent lack of mosaicism in the present case suggests that a single event like chromothripsis occurred. This finding suggests that chromothripsis is responsible for some constitutive complex chromosome rearrangements.

  3. Refinement of 1p36 alterations not involving PRDM16 in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Duhoux, Francois P; Ameye, Geneviève; Lambot, Virginie; Herens, Christian; Lambert, Frédéric; Raynaud, Sophie; Wlodarska, Iwona; Michaux, Lucienne; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Labis, Elise; Taviaux, Sylvie; Chapiro, Elise; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Khac, Florence Nguyen; Struski, Stéphanie; Dobbelstein, Sophie; Dastugue, Nicole; Lippert, Eric; Speleman, Frank; Van Roy, Nadine; De Weer, An; Rack, Katrina; Talmant, Pascaline; Richebourg, Steven; Mugneret, Francine; Tigaud, Isabelle; Mozziconacci, Marie-Joëlle; Laibe, Sophy; Nadal, Nathalie; Terré, Christine; Libouton, Jeanne-Marie; Decottignies, Anabelle; Vikkula, Miikka; Poirel, Hélène A

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to characterize 81 cases of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies with cytogenetic 1p36 alterations not affecting the PRDM16 locus. In total, three subgroups were identified: balanced translocations (N = 27) and telomeric rearrangements (N = 15), both mainly observed in myeloid disorders; and unbalanced non-telomeric rearrangements (N = 39), mainly observed in lymphoid proliferations and frequently associated with a highly complex karyotype. The 1p36 rearrangement was isolated in 12 cases, mainly myeloid disorders. The breakpoints on 1p36 were more widely distributed than previously reported, but with identifiable rare breakpoint cluster regions, such as the TP73 locus. We also found novel partner loci on 1p36 for the known multi-partner genes HMGA2 and RUNX1. We precised the common terminal 1p36 deletion, which has been suggested to have an adverse prognosis, in B-cell lymphomas [follicular lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with t(14;18)(q32;q21) as well as follicular lymphomas without t(14;18)]. Intrachromosomal telomeric repetitive sequences were detected in at least half the cases of telomeric rearrangements. It is unclear how the latter rearrangements occurred and whether they represent oncogenic events or result from chromosomal instability during oncogenesis.

  4. Alagille syndrome and deletion of 20p.

    PubMed Central

    Anad, F; Burn, J; Matthews, D; Cross, I; Davison, B C; Mueller, R; Sands, M; Lillington, D M; Eastham, E

    1990-01-01

    We add five cases of 20p deletion to the 10 cases already published. Four had craniofacial, vertebral, ocular, and cardiovascular features of Alagille syndrome, which adds weight to the assignment of this disorder to the short arm of chromosome 20. Included in our series is the first report of familial transmission of a 20p deletion. Images PMID:2074558

  5. RAP1GA1: A candidate tumor suppressor locus in 1p36.1

    SciTech Connect

    Ranade, K.; Hussussian, C.J.; Higgins, P.

    1994-09-01

    The rap1/Krev-1 gene (RAP1A) encodes a p21-related protein that suppresses transformation by activated p21{sup ras}. The GTPase activating protein (GAP) gene for p21{sup rap1A} (RAP1GA1) has recently been assigned to chromosome 1p36.1-p35, a region of the genome that is frequently involved in deletions and rearrangements in several different tumors including breast, colon and hepatocellular carcinomas, melanoma, and neuroblastoma. GAP genes negatively regulate the activity of p21 proteins by catalyzing the conversion of the active GTP-bound forms to the inactive GDP-bound forms. The physiological function of p21{sup rap1A}-GAP makes it a strong candidate as a tumor suppressor gene that may have a role in the development of one or more of these malignancies. We have refined the localization of RAP1GA1 by linkage analysis with a highly informative (CA){sub n} repeat contained within the gene, and demonstrated that it is within the minimal deleted region for breast and colon carcinomas, and that it is excluded from the minimally deleted region in melanoma and neuroblastoma. Genetic mapping in the mouse demonstrated that Rap1ga1 is located {approximately}10 cM proximal to Pnd and therefore maps within the interval containing the modifier of Min gene (Mom-1) and the plasmocytoma susceptibility locus (Pcts). The human RAP1GA1 gene contains at least 27 exons. The coding region contains 22 exons, and there are at least five 5{prime}-UT exons that are assembled in a complex pattern of alternative splicing in different tissues. The localization of RAP1GA1 makes it a very strong candidate for a role as a modifier gene involved in the common secondary abnormalities involving 1p36 in several different carcinomas. The potential role of RAP1GA1 in these malignancies is currently being investigated by sequence analysis of breast and colon carcinomas with loss of heterozygosity in 1p36.

  6. Disruption of chromosomal locus 1p36 differentially modulates TAp73 and ΔNp73 expression in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Hesham M.; Varney, Michelle L.; Jain, Smrati; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Singh, Rakesh K.; Dave, Bhavana J.

    2015-01-01

    The TP73 gene is located at the chromosome 1p36 locus that is commonly disrupted or deleted in follicular lymphoma (FL) with poor prognosis. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of the pro-apoptotic TAp73 and anti-apoptotic ΔNp73 isoforms in FL cases with normal or abnormal 1p36. We observed a significant increase in ΔNp73 expression and ΔNp73:TAp73 ratio, lower expression of cleaved caspase-3 and a higher frequency of Ki-67 and PCNA positive cells in FL cases with abnormal 1p36. A negative correlation between the ΔNp73:TAp73 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and a positive correlation between ΔNp73 expression and Ki-67 or PCNA were observed. The expression of TAp73 and its pro-apoptotic transcriptional targets Bim, Puma, and Noxa were significantly lower in FL compared to reactive follicular hyperplasia. Together, our data demonstrates that 1p36 disruption is associated with increased ΔNp73 expression, decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation in FL. PMID:24660851

  7. Disruption of chromosomal locus 1p36 differentially modulates TAp73 and ΔNp73 expression in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hesham M; Varney, Michelle L; Jain, Smrati; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Singh, Rakesh K; Dave, Bhavana J

    2014-12-01

    The TP73 gene is located at the chromosome 1p36 locus that is commonly disrupted or deleted in follicular lymphoma (FL) with poor prognosis. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of the pro-apoptotic TAp73 and anti-apoptotic ΔNp73 isoforms in cases of FL with normal or abnormal 1p36. We observed a significant increase in ΔNp73 expression and ΔNp73:TAp73 ratio, lower expression of cleaved caspase-3 and a higher frequency of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells in cases of FL with abnormal 1p36. A negative correlation between the ΔNp73:TAp73 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and a positive correlation between ΔNp73 expression and Ki-67 or PCNA, were observed. The expression of TAp73 and its pro-apoptotic transcriptional targets BIM. PUMA and NOXA were significantly lower in FL compared to reactive follicular hyperplasia. Together, our data demonstrate that 1p36 disruption is associated with increased ΔNp73 expression, decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation in FL.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (which is also known by several ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: 22q13.3 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions 22q13.3 deletion syndrome 22q13.3 deletion syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description 22q13.3 deletion syndrome , which is also commonly known as ...

  10. 22q11 deletion syndrome: current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Delil, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11 is characterized by the presence of chromosome-specific low-copy repeats or segmental duplications. This region of the chromosome is very unstable and susceptible to mutations. The misalignment of low-copy repeats during nonallelic homologous recombination leads to the deletion of the 22q11.2 region, which results in 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). The 22q11.2 deletion is associated with a wide variety of phenotypes. The term 22q11DS is an umbrella term that is used to encompass all 22q11.2 deletion-associated phenotypes. The haploinsufficiency of genes located at 22q11.2 affects the early morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arches, heart, skeleton, and brain. TBX1 is the most important gene for 22q11DS. This syndrome can ultimately affect many organs or systems; therefore, it has a very wide phenotypic spectrum. An increasing amount of information is available related to the pathogenesis, clinical phenotypes, and management of this syndrome in recent years. This review summarizes the current clinical and genetic status related to 22q11DS. PMID:26056486

  11. Mapping of the chromosome 1p36 region surrounding the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A locus

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, P.; Gere, S.; Wolpert, C.

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. Although CMT2 is clinically indistinguishable from CMT1, the two forms can be differentiated by pathological and neurophysiological methods. We have established one locus, CMT2A on chromosome 1p36, and have established genetic heterogeneity. This locus maps to the region of the deletions associated with neuroblastoma. We have now identified an additional 11 CMT2 families. Three families are linked to chromosome 1p36 while six families are excluded from this region. Another six families are currently under analysis and collection. To date the CMT2A families represent one third of those CMT2 families examined. We have established a microdissection library of the 1p36 region which is currently being characterized for microsatellite repeats and STSs using standard hybridization techniques and a modified degenerate primer method. In addition, new markers (D1S253, D1S450, D1S489, D1S503, GATA27E04, and GATA4H04) placed in this region are being mapped using critical recombinants in the CEPH reference pedigrees. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to confirm mapping. A YAC contig is being assembled from the CEPH megabase library using STSs to isolate key YACs which are extended by vectorette end clone and Alu-PCR. These findings suggest that the CMT2 phenotype is secondary to at least two different genes and demonstrates further heterogeneity in the CMT phenotype.

  12. Further delineation of nonhomologous-based recombination and evidence for subtelomeric segmental duplications in 1p36 rearrangements.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Carla S; Gajecka, Marzena; Kim, Chong A; Gentles, Andrew J; Glotzbach, Caron D; Shaffer, Lisa G; Koiffmann, Célia P

    2009-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the formation of subtelomeric rearrangements are now beginning to be elucidated. Breakpoint sequencing analysis of 1p36 rearrangements has made important contributions to this line of inquiry. Despite the unique architecture of segmental duplications inherent to human subtelomeres, no common mechanism has been identified thus far and different nonexclusive recombination-repair mechanisms seem to predominate. In order to gain further insights into the mechanisms of chromosome breakage, repair, and stabilization mediating subtelomeric rearrangements in humans, we investigated the constitutional rearrangements of 1p36. Cloning of the breakpoint junctions in a complex rearrangement and three non-reciprocal translocations revealed similarities at the junctions, such as microhomology of up to three nucleotides, along with no significant sequence identity in close proximity to the breakpoint regions. All the breakpoints appeared to be unique and their occurrence was limited to non-repetitive, unique DNA sequences. Several recombination- or cleavage-associated motifs that may promote non-homologous recombination were observed in close proximity to the junctions. We conclude that NHEJ is likely the mechanism of DNA repair that generates these rearrangements. Additionally, two apparently pure terminal deletions were also investigated, and the refinement of the breakpoint regions identified two distinct genomic intervals ~25-kb apart, each containing a series of 1p36 specific segmental duplications with 90-98% identity. Segmental duplications can serve as substrates for ectopic homologous recombination or stimulate genomic rearrangements.

  13. CAMTA1, a 1p36 tumor suppressor candidate, inhibits growth and activates differentiation programs in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Bauer, Tobias; Schulte, Johannes; Ehemann, Volker; Deubzer, Hedwig; Gogolin, Sina; Muth, Daniel; Fischer, Matthias; Benner, Axel; König, Rainer; Schwab, Manfred; Westermann, Frank

    2011-04-15

    A distal portion of human chromosome 1p is often deleted in neuroblastomas and other cancers and it is generally assumed that this region harbors one or more tumor suppressor genes. In neuroblastoma, a 261 kb region at 1p36.3 that encompasses the smallest region of consistent deletion pinpoints the locus for calmodulin binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1). Low CAMTA1 expression is an independent predictor of poor outcome in multivariate survival analysis, but its potential functionality in neuroblastoma has not been explored. In this study, we used inducible cell models to analyze the impact of CAMTA1 on neuroblastoma biology. In neuroblastoma cells that expressed little endogenous CAMTA1, its ectopic expression slowed cell proliferation, increasing the relative proportion of cells in G(1)/G(0) phases of the cell cycle, inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation, and suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts. CAMTA1 also induced neurite-like processes and markers of neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma cells. Further, retinoic acid and other differentiation- inducing stimuli upregulated CAMTA1 expression in neuroblastoma cells. Transciptome analysis revealed 683 genes regulated on CAMTA1 induction and gene ontology analysis identified genes consistent with CAMTA1-induced phenotypes, with a significant enrichment for genes involved in neuronal function and differentiation. Our findings define properties of CAMTA1 in growth suppression and neuronal differentiation that support its assignment as a 1p36 tumor suppressor gene in neuroblastoma.

  14. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Marino, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Scambler, Peter J.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder, estimated to result mainly from de novo non-homologous meiotic recombination events occurring in approximately 1 in every 1,000 fetuses. The first description in the English language of the constellation of findings now known to be due to this chromosomal difference was made in the 1960s in children with DiGeorge syndrome, who presented with the clinical triad of immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism and congenital heart disease. The syndrome is now known to have a heterogeneous presentation that includes multiple additional congenital anomalies and later-onset conditions, such as palatal, gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities, autoimmune disease, variable cognitive delays, behavioural phenotypes and psychiatric illness — all far extending the original description of DiGeorge syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving paediatrics, general medicine, surgery, psychiatry, psychology, interventional therapies (physical, occupational, speech, language and behavioural) and genetic counselling. Although common, lack of recognition of the condition and/or lack of familiarity with genetic testing methods, together with the wide variability of clinical presentation, delays diagnosis. Early diagnosis, preferably prenatally or neonatally, could improve outcomes, thus stressing the importance of universal screening. Equally important, 22q11.2DS has become a model for understanding rare and frequent congenital anomalies, medical conditions, psychiatric and developmental disorders, and may provide a platform to better understand these disorders while affording opportunities for translational strategies across the lifespan for both patients with 22q11.2DS and those with these associated features in the general population. PMID:27189754

  15. Genetics Home Reference: 18q deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veltman JA, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM. Genotype-phenotype mapping of chromosome 18q deletions by high-resolution array ... L, Pihko H. 18q deletions: clinical, molecular, and brain MRI findings of 14 individuals. Am J Med ...

  16. The 1p36 Tumor Suppressor KIF 1Bβ Is Required for Calcineurin Activation, Controlling Mitochondrial Fission and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuijie; Fell, Stuart M; Surova, Olga; Smedler, Erik; Wallis, Karin; Chen, Zhi Xiong; Hellman, Ulf; Johnsen, John Inge; Martinsson, Tommy; Kenchappa, Rajappa S; Uhlén, Per; Kogner, Per; Schlisio, Susanne

    2016-01-25

    KIF1Bβ is a candidate 1p36 tumor suppressor that regulates apoptosis in the developing sympathetic nervous system. We found that KIF1Bβ activates the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CN) by stabilizing the CN-calmodulin complex, relieving enzymatic autoinhibition and enabling CN substrate recognition. CN is the key mediator of cellular responses to Ca(2+) signals and its deregulation is implicated in cancer, cardiac, neurodegenerative, and immune disease. We show that KIF1Bβ affects mitochondrial dynamics through CN-dependent dephosphorylation of Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), causing mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Furthermore, KIF1Bβ actuates recognition of all known CN substrates, implying a general mechanism for KIF1Bβ in Ca(2+) signaling and how Ca(2+)-dependent signaling is executed by CN. Pathogenic KIF1Bβ mutations previously identified in neuroblastomas and pheochromocytomas all fail to activate CN or stimulate DRP1 dephosphorylation. Importantly, KIF1Bβ and DRP1 are silenced in 1p36 hemizygous-deleted neuroblastomas, indicating that deregulation of calcineurin and mitochondrial dynamics contributes to high-risk and poor-prognosis neuroblastoma.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: 19p13.13 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources (1 link) National Human Genome Research Institute: Chromosome Abnormalities Educational Resources (5 links) MalaCards: chromosome 19p13.13 deletion syndrome March of Dimes: Chromosomal ...

  18. Molecular dissection of the 5q deletion in myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    The 5q- syndrome is a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with a defined clinical phenotype associated with heterozygous deletions of Chromosome 5q. While no genes have been identified that undergo recurrent homozygous inactivation, functional studies have revealed individual genes that contribute to the clinical phenotype of MDS through haploinsufficient gene expression. Heterozygous loss of the RPS14 gene on 5q leads to activation of p53 in the erythroid lineage and the macrocytic anemia characteristic of the 5q- syndrome. The megakaryocytic and platelet phenotype of the 5q- syndrome has been attributed to heterozygous deletion of miR145 and miR146a. Murine models have implicated heterozygous loss of APC, EGR1, DIAPH1, and NPM1 in the pathophysiology of del(5q) MDS. These findings indicate that the phenotype of MDS patients with deletions of Chromosome 5q is due to haploinsufficiency of multiple genes. PMID:21943668

  19. A case of 9p deletion syndrome with Duane retraction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rahul; Dalal, Shamsher; Raju, Uma; John, Biju M.; Negi, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome 9p deletion syndrome is a rare but specific clinical event. The clinical manifestations include dysmorphic facial features (trigonocephaly, midface hypoplasia, upward slanting palpebral fissures, and a long philtrum) and psychomotor retardation. Here we report a child with chromosome 9p deletion with Duane retraction syndrome, which has never been reported in the literature before.

  20. Deletions of the elastin gene in Williams Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, F.; Nickerson, E.; McCaskill, C.

    1994-09-01

    To investigate deletions in the elastin gene in patients with Williams Syndrome (WS), we screened 37 patients and their parents for deletions in the elastin gene by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using cosmid cELN272 containing the 5{prime} end of the elastin gene and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer pair which amplifies intron 17 in the elastin gene, producing a polymorphic amplification product. Thirty-two patients have been investigated by both the FISH and PCR techniques, one patient was studied only by PCR, and 4 patients were studied only by FISH. Overall, 34 of 37 patients (92%) were deleted for the elastin gene. Using the PCR marker, 14 patients were informative and 12 were shown to be deleted [maternal (n=5) and paternal (n=7)]. Using cosmid cELN272, 33 of 36 patients demonstrated a deletion of chromosome 7q11.23. In one family, both the mother and daughter were deleted due to an apparently de novo deletion arising in the mother. Three patients were not deleted using the elastin cosmid; 2 of these patients have classic WS. Another non-deleted patient has the typical facial features and hypercalcemia but normal intelligence. These three patients will be important in delineating the critical region(s) responsible for the facial features, hypercalcemia, mental retardation and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). There was not an absolute correlation between deletions in elastin and SVAS, although these individuals may be at risk for other cardiovascular complications such as hypertention. Since the majority of WS patients are deleted for a portion of the elastin gene, most likely this marker will be an important diagnostic tool, although more patients will need to be studied. Those patients who are not deleted but clinically have WS will be missed using only this one marker. Expansion of the critical region to other loci and identification of additional markers will be essential for identifying all patients with WS.

  1. Cloning and characterization of CpG islands of the human chromosome 1p36 region

    SciTech Connect

    Ellmeier, W.; Barnas, C.; Kobrna, A.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the localization of CpG islands to human chromosome 1p36 as a means for the isolation of genes using hybridization techniques. Two cDNA clones encode the human transcription factor E2F-2 and the dominant-negative helix-loop-helix gene ID3. Further information regarding the organization of human chromosome 1 was accomplished using electrophoresis. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Phenotypic variability in Angelman syndrome: comparison among different deletion classes and between deletion and UPD subjects.

    PubMed

    Varela, Monica Castro; Kok, Fernando; Otto, Paulo Alberto; Koiffmann, Celia Priszkulnik

    2004-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) can result from either a 15q11-q13 deletion (del), paternal uniparental disomy (UPD), imprinting, or UBE3A mutations. Here, we describe the phenotypic and behavioral variability detected in 49 patients with different classes of deletions and nine patients with UPD. Diagnosis was made by methylation pattern analysis of exon 1 of the SNRPN-SNURF gene and by microsatellite profiling of loci within and outside the 15q11-q13 region. There were no major phenotypic differences between the two main classes (BP1-BP3; BP2-BP3) of AS deletion patients, except for the absence of vocalization, more prevalent in patients with BP1-BP3 deletions, and for the age of sitting without support, which was lower in patients with BP2-BP3 deletions. Our data suggest that gene deletions (NIPA1, NIPA2, CYF1P1, GCP5) mapped to the region between breakpoints BP1 and BP2 may be involved in the severity of speech impairment, since all BP1-BP3 deletion patients showed complete absence of vocalization, while 38.1% of the BP2-BP3 deletion patients were able to pronounce syllabic sounds, with doubtful meaning. Compared to UPD patients, deletion patients presented a higher incidence of swallowing disorders (73.9% del x 22.2% UPD) and hypotonia (73.3% del x 28.57% UPD). In addition, children with UPD showed better physical growth, fewer or no seizures, a lower incidence of microcephaly, less ataxia and higher cognitive skills. As a consequence of their milder or less typical phenotype, AS may remain undiagnosed, leading to an overall underdiagnosis of the disease.

  3. Analysis of chromosome band 1p36 alterations by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization with a microclone DNA bank.

    PubMed

    Zink, D; Weith, A; Martinsson, T; Schwab, M

    1991-09-01

    Alterations of the distal portion of chromosome Ip are a recurrent abnormality of several types of human cancer. In this study we show that chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization with a regional 1p36 DNA bank generated by microdissection and microcloning can be employed to detect translocations involving 1p36.

  4. Dissecting the phenotypes of Dravet syndrome by gene deletion

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Moran; Han, Sung; Tai, Chao; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Hunker, Avery; Scheuer, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Neurological and psychiatric syndromes often have multiple disease traits, yet it is unknown how such multi-faceted deficits arise from single mutations. Haploinsufficiency of the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1 causes Dravet syndrome, an intractable childhood-onset epilepsy with hyperactivity, cognitive deficit, autistic-like behaviours, and premature death. Deletion of Nav1.1 channels selectively impairs excitability of GABAergic interneurons. We studied mice having selective deletion of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons. In brain slices, these deletions cause increased threshold for action potential generation, impaired action potential firing in trains, and reduced amplification of postsynaptic potentials in those interneurons. Selective deletion of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons increases susceptibility to thermally-induced seizures, which are strikingly prolonged when Nav1.1 is deleted in both interneuron types. Mice with global haploinsufficiency of Nav1.1 display autistic-like behaviours, hyperactivity and cognitive impairment. Haploinsufficiency of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin-expressing interneurons causes autistic-like behaviours, but not hyperactivity, whereas haploinsufficiency in somatostatin-expressing interneurons causes hyperactivity without autistic-like behaviours. Heterozygous deletion in both interneuron types is required to impair long-term spatial memory in context-dependent fear conditioning, without affecting short-term spatial learning or memory. Thus, the multi-faceted phenotypes of Dravet syndrome can be genetically dissected, revealing synergy in causing epilepsy, premature death and deficits in long-term spatial memory, but interneuron-specific effects on hyperactivity and autistic-like behaviours. These results show that multiple disease traits can arise from similar functional deficits in specific interneuron types. PMID:26017580

  5. Xp22. 3 deletions in isolated familial Kallmann's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hardelin, J.P.; Levilliers, J.; Legouis, R.; Petit, C. ); Young, J.; Pholsena, M.; Schaison, G. ); Kirk, J.; Bouloux, P. )

    1993-04-01

    Several familial cases of Kallmann's syndrome (KS) have been reported, among which the X-chromosome-linked mode of inheritance is the most frequent. The gene responsible for the X-linked KS has been localized to the terminal part of the X-chromosome short arm (Xp22.3 region), immediately proximal to the steroid sulfatase gene responsible for X-linked ichthyosis. Large deletions of this region have been previously shown in patients affected with both X-linked ichthyosis and KS. The authors report here the search for Xp22.3 deletions in 20 unrelated males affected with isolated X-linked KS. Only 2 deletions were found using Southern blot analysis, indicating that large deletions are uncommon in patients affected with KS alone. Both deletions were shown to include the entire KAL gene responsible for X-linked KS. The patients carrying these deletions exhibit additional clinical anomalies, which are discussed: unilateral renal aplasia, unilateral absence of vas deferens, mirror movements, and sensory neural hearing loss. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Adherens junctional associated protein-1: a novel 1p36 tumor suppressor candidate in gliomas (Review).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Fee, Brian E; Rivas, Miriam V; Lin, James; Adamson, David Cory

    2014-07-01

    In a broad range of human cancers 1p36 has been a mutational hotspot which strongly suggests that the loss of tumor suppressor activity maps to this genomic region during tumorigenesis. Adherens junctional associated protein-1 (AJAP1; also known as Shrew1) was initially discovered as a novel transmembrane protein of adherent junctions in epithelial cells. Gene profiling showed AJAP1 on 1p36 is frequently lost or epigenetically silenced. AJAP1 may affect cell motility, migration, invasion and proliferation by unclear mechanisms. AJAP1 may be translocated to the nucleus, via its interaction with β-catenin complexes, where it can regulate gene transcription, then possibly have a potent impact on cell cycling and apoptosis. Significantly, loss of AJAP1 expression predicts poor clinical outcome of patients with malignant gliomas such as GBM and it may serve as a promising tumor suppressor-related target. In this review, we summarize and discuss current knowledge that may identify AJAP1 as a tumor suppressor in gliomas.

  7. Characterization of a variant of t(14;18) negative nodal diffuse follicular lymphoma with CD23 expression, 1p36/TNFRSF14 abnormalities, and STAT6 mutations.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Imran N; Friedman, Julia; Barry-Holson, Keegan Q; Ma, Charles; Thodima, Venkata; Kang, Irene; Padmanabhan, Raghavendra; Dias, Lizalynn M; Kelly, Kevin R; Brynes, Russell K; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Houldsworth, Jane

    2016-06-01

    A predominantly diffuse growth pattern and CD23 co-expression are uncommon findings in nodal follicular lymphoma and can create diagnostic challenges. A single case series in 2009 (Katzenberger et al) proposed a unique morphologic variant of nodal follicular lymphoma, characterized by a predominantly diffuse architecture, lack of the t(14;18) IGH/BCL2 translocation, presence of 1p36 deletion, frequent inguinal lymph node involvement, CD23 co-expression, and low clinical stage. Other studies on CD23+ follicular lymphoma, while associating inguinal location, have not specifically described this architecture. In addition, no follow-up studies have correlated the histopathologic and cytogenetic/molecular features of these cases, and they remain a diagnostic problem. We identified 11 cases of diffuse, CD23+ follicular lymphoma with histopathologic features similar to those described by Katzenberger et al. Along with pertinent clinical information, we detail their histopathology, IGH/BCL2 translocation status, lymphoma-associated chromosomal gains/losses, and assessment of mutations in 220 lymphoma-associated genes by massively parallel sequencing. All cases showed a diffuse growth pattern around well- to ill-defined residual germinal centers, uniform CD23 expression, mixed centrocytic/centroblastic cytology, and expression of at least one germinal center marker. Ten of 11 involved inguinal lymph nodes, 5 solely. By fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, the vast majority lacked IGH/BCL2 translocation (9/11). Deletion of 1p36 was observed in five cases and included TNFRSF14. Of the six cases lacking 1p36 deletion, TNFRSF14 mutations were identified in three, highlighting the strong association of 1p36/TNFRSF14 abnormalities with this follicular lymphoma variant. In addition, 9 of the 11 cases tested (82%) had STAT6 mutations and nuclear P-STAT6 expression was detectable in the mutated cases by immunohistochemistry. The proportion of STAT6 mutations is higher than

  8. ECK, a human EPH-related gene, maps to 1p36.1, a common region of alteration in human cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Sulman, E.P.; Brodeur, G.M.; Ikegaki, N.

    1997-03-01

    Mouse eck, a member of the EPH gene family, has been mapped to mouse chromosome 4. The syntenic relationship between this chromosome and human chromosome 1 suggests that the human ECK gene maps to the distal short arm of human chromosome 1 (1p). Since this region is frequently deleted or altered in certain tumors of neuroectodermal origin, it is important to define the specific chromosomal localization of the human ECK gene. PCR screening of a rodent-human somatic cell hybrid panel by ECK-specific primers showed that ECK is indeed localized to human chromosome 1. Additional PCR screening of a regional screening panel for chromosome 1p indicated that ECK is localized to 1p36, distal to FUCA1. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with an ECK-specific P1 clone showed that ECK maps proximal to genetic marker D1S228. Taken together, the data suggest that ECK maps to 1p36.1, a region that is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma, melanoma, and other neuroectodermal tumors. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Common variants at 1p36 are associated with superior frontal gyrus volume.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, R; Ikeda, M; Yamashita, F; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Fukunaga, M; Nemoto, K; Takahashi, T; Tochigi, M; Onitsuka, T; Yamasue, H; Matsuo, K; Iidaka, T; Iwata, N; Suzuki, M; Takeda, M; Kasai, K; Ozaki, N

    2014-01-01

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG), an area of the brain frequently found to have reduced gray matter in patients with schizophrenia, is involved in self-awareness and emotion, which are impaired in schizophrenia. However, no genome-wide association studies of SFG volume have investigated in patients with schizophrenia. To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SFG volumes, we demonstrated a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gray matter volumes in the right or left SFG of 158 patients with schizophrenia and 378 healthy subjects. We attempted to bioinformatically ascertain the potential effects of the top hit polymorphism on the expression levels of genes at the genome-wide region. We found associations between five variants on 1p36.12 and the right SFG volume at a widely used benchmark for genome-wide significance (P<5.0 × 10(-8)). The strongest association was observed at rs4654899, an intronic SNP in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 3 (EIF4G3) gene on 1p36.12 (P=7.5 × 10(-9)). No SNP with genome-wide significance was found in the volume of the left SFG (P>5.0 × 10(-8)); however, the rs4654899 polymorphism was identified as the locus with the second strongest association with the volume of the left SFG (P=1.5 × 10(-6)). In silico analyses revealed a proxy SNP of rs4654899 had effect on gene expression of two genes, HP1BP3 lying 3' to EIF4G3 (P=7.8 × 10(-6)) and CAPN14 at 2p (P=6.3 × 10(-6)), which are expressed in moderate-to-high levels throughout the adult human SFG. These results contribute to understand genetic architecture of a brain structure possibly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  10. Supporting Children with Genetic Syndromes in the Classroom: The Example of 22q Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Stedman, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of children are likely to have a known genetic cause for their special educational needs. One such genetic condition is 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), a genetic syndrome associated with early speech and language difficulties, global and specific cognitive impairments, difficulties with attention and difficulties with…

  11. Deletion involving D15S113 in a mother and son without Angelman syndrome: Refinement of the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelis, R.C.; Skinner, S.A.; Lethco, B.A.

    1995-01-02

    Deletions of 15q11-q13 typically result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has recently been restricted by a report of an Angelman syndrome patient with a deletion spanning less than 200 kb around the D15S113 locus. We report here on a mother and son with a deletion of chromosome 15 that includes the D15S113 locus. The son has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor anomalies, while the mother has a borderline intellectual deficit and slightly downslanting palpebral fissures. Neither patient has the seizures, excessive laughter and hand clapping, ataxia or the facial anomalies which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The proximal boundary of the deletion in our patients lies between the D15S10 and The D15S113 loci. Our patients do not have Angelman syndrome, despite the deletion of the D15S113 marker. This suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region is now defined as the overlap between the deletion found in the previously reported Angelman syndrome patient and the region that is intact in our patients. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Terminal 6p deletion syndrome mimicking CHARGE syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Freire, Gabrielle; Russell, Laura; Oskoui, Maryam

    2013-06-01

    The clinical features associated with terminal 6p deletion syndrome include anterior eye chamber defects, hearing loss, congenital heart anomalies and characteristic facies along with developmental delays. These features overlap with a number of other conditions including CHARGE syndrome. This acronym stands for non-random association of anomalies including coloboma of the eye, heart anomalies, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genital hypoplasia and ear anomalies/deafness now known to be caused by CHD7 mutations. We describe a boy initially diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome who was subsequently found to have a terminal 6p deletion. Screening for 6p deletions in individuals presenting with atypical CHARGE syndrome may be warranted, with direct consequences for genetic counseling. PMID:27625847

  13. Terminal 6p deletion syndrome mimicking CHARGE syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Gabrielle; Russell, Laura; Oskoui, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The clinical features associated with terminal 6p deletion syndrome include anterior eye chamber defects, hearing loss, congenital heart anomalies and characteristic facies along with developmental delays. These features overlap with a number of other conditions including CHARGE syndrome. This acronym stands for non-random association of anomalies including coloboma of the eye, heart anomalies, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genital hypoplasia and ear anomalies/deafness now known to be caused by CHD7 mutations. We describe a boy initially diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome who was subsequently found to have a terminal 6p deletion. Screening for 6p deletions in individuals presenting with atypical CHARGE syndrome may be warranted, with direct consequences for genetic counseling. PMID:27625847

  14. Chromosome 1p36 in migraine with aura: association study of the 5HT(1D) locus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Miles D; Noble-Topham, Sandra; Percy, Maire E; Andrade, Danielle M; Ebers, George C

    2012-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) may share some but not all risk factors with other forms of migraine. As common migraine without aura (MO) has been associated with the chromosome 1p36 locus, we tested its involvement in MA by using two-point parametric linkage analysis to analyze 64 multiplex MA families. A logarithm of the odds score of 1.9 was suggestive of chromosome 1p36 linkage to MA. The transmission disequilibrium test analysis was then performed in 79 nuclear families with one MA parent and one MA offspring. We identified the presence of genetic association at chromosome 1p36 with MA (P=0.045, Bonferroni corrected): the locus encoding the 5HT(1D) receptor gene. Although these data suggest that the 1p36 locus may protect against MA, consistent with the role of the 5HT(1D) receptor in migraine treatment with triptan drugs, the study is subject to the limitations associated with studying a small number of affected families. As a result, we contrast evidence suggesting that the chromosome 1p36 locus is strongly MO associated with our finding that 1p36 has a more limited contribution to MA in the families we analyzed. Further work using a genome-wide association study approach in familial typical migraine, consisting of those affected by MO or MA, will serve to further distinguish how and why MA differs from MO.

  15. Cardiac Defects and Results of Cardiac Surgery in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carotti, Adriano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Gerardo; Saffirio, Claudia; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Marino, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Specific types and subtypes of cardiac defects have been described in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as well as in other genetic syndromes. The conotruncal heart defects occurring in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic…

  16. 22q11 Deletion Syndrome: A Genetic Subtype of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Anne S.; Chow, Eva W.C.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is likely to be caused by several susceptibility genes and may have environmental factors that interact with susceptibility genes and/or nongenetic causes. Recent evidence supports the likelihood that 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS) represents an identifiable genetic subtype of schizophrenia. 22qDS is an under-recognized genetic syndrome associated with microdeletions on chromosome 22 and a variable expression that often includes mild congenital dysmorphic features, hypernasal speech, and learning difficulties. Initial evidence indicates that a minority of patients with schizophrenia (~2%) may have 22qDS and that prevalence may be somewhat higher in subpopulations with developmental delay. This paper proposes clinical criteria (including facial features, learning disabilities, hypernasal speech, congenital heart defects and other congenital anomalies) to aid in identifying patients with schizophrenia who may have this subtype and outlines features that may increase the index of suspicion for this syndrome. Although no specific causal gene or genes have yet been identified in the deletion region, 22qDS may represent a more homogeneous subtype of schizophrenia. This subtype may serve as a model for neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia that could aid in delineating etiologic and pathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:10509171

  17. Further delineation of the chromosome 14q terminal deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Quik, Safira; Sluijter, Sigrid; Hulsbeek, Miriam M F; Hoovers, Jan M N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2002-06-01

    A patient with hypotonia, blepharophimosis, ptosis, a bulbous nose, a long philtrum, upturned corners of the mouth, and mild developmental delay was found to have a small subtelomeric deletion of the long arm of chromosome 14 (q32.31-qter). In comparing her phenotype with previously reported patients with similar 14q deletions, due to either a linear deletion or to a ring chromosome 14, a clinically recognizable terminal 14q microdeletion syndrome was evident. Due to the limited number of cases reported, it was not possible to assign specific features to specific regions of terminal 14q. The comparison of features in cases with a linear deletion of 14qter (n = 19) to those in cases with a deletion due to a ring chromosome 14 (n = 23), both with the same breakpoint in 14q, showed that seizures and retinitis pigmentosa have been found only in patients with ring chromosomes. Several hypotheses are put forward to explain this difference: mitotic instability of ring chromosomes; a telomere position effect in ring chromosomes in which the 14p telomere silences nearby gene(s) on the q-arm; and dose-dependent gene(s) involved in seizures and retinitis pigmentosa located on the short arm of chromosome 14. In our opinion, only seizures may be explained by the mitotic instability of ring chromosomes, while both seizures and retinitis pigmentosa may be explained by silencing of gene(s) on 14q by the 14p telomere; the third hypothesis seems unlikely to explain either symptom.

  18. Recurrent loss of heterozygosity in 1p36 associated with TNFRSF14 mutations in IRF4 translocation negative pediatric follicular lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Salaverria, Itziar; Burkhardt, Birgit; Szczepanowski, Monika; Baudis, Michael; Bens, Susanne; de Leval, Laurence; Garcia-Orad, Africa; Horn, Heike; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Pellissery, Shoji; Klapper, Wolfram; Oschlies, Ilske; Siebert, Reiner

    2013-08-01

    Pediatric follicular lymphoma is a rare disease that differs genetically and clinically from its adult counterpart. With the exception of pediatric follicular lymphoma with IRF4-translocation, the genetic events associated with these lymphomas have not yet been defined. We applied array-comparative genomic hybridization and molecular inversion probe assay analyses to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 18 patients aged 18 years and under with IRF4 translocation negative follicular lymphoma. All evaluable cases lacked t(14;18). Only 6 of 16 evaluable cases displayed chromosomal imbalances with gains or amplifications of 6pter-p24.3 (including IRF4) and deletion and copy number neutral-loss of heterozygosity in 1p36 (including TNFRSF14) being most frequent. Sequencing of TNFRSF14 located in the minimal region of loss in 1p36.32 showed nine mutations in 7 cases from our series. Two subsets of pediatric follicular lymphoma were delineated according to the presence of molecular alterations, one with genomic aberrations associated with higher grade and/or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma component and more widespread disease, and another one lacking genetic alterations associated with more limited disease.

  19. Mathematical Learning Disabilities in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Swillen, Ann; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) occur frequently in children with specific genetic disorders, like Turner syndrome, fragile X syndrome and neurofibromatosis. This review focuses on MLD in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). This syndrome is the most common known microdeletion syndrome with a prevalence of at…

  20. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Patients with Schizophrenia and 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eva W.C.; Zipursky, Robert B.; Mikulis, David J.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background 22q11 Deletion Syndrome is a genetic syndrome associated with an increased risk for developing schizophrenia. Brain abnormalities have been reported in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome, but little is known about whether differences in brain structure underlie the psychotic disorders associated with this syndrome. In the current study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the structural brain abnormalities found in adults who have both 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans of 14 adults (7 male, 7 female) with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed to derive measures of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Differences between the two groups were tested using student t tests. Results 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia subjects had significantly smaller total gray matter volume (t = 2.88, p < .01) and larger lateral ventricles (t = 4.08, p < .001) than healthy controls. Gray matter deficits were most prominent in the frontal and temporal lobes. Total white matter volumes did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions Findings from this 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia study are similar to those reported in other patients with schizophrenia, but only partially consistent with those reported in nonpsychotic children with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. 22q11 Deletion Syndrome may provide a valuable genetic neurodevelop-mental model for investigating the relationship between abnormalities in brain development and the expression of schizophrenia. PMID:11839363

  1. Duplication and deletion of CFC1 associated with heterotaxy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ruixue; Long, Fei; Wang, Liping; Xu, Yuejuan; Guo, Ying; Li, Fen; Chen, Sun; Sun, Kun; Xu, Rang

    2015-02-01

    Heterotaxy syndrome, which causes significant morbidity and mortality, is a class of congenital disorders, in which normal left-right asymmetry cannot be properly established. To explore the role of copy number variants (CNVs) in the occurrence of heterotaxy syndrome, we recruited 93 heterotaxy patients and studied 12 of them by the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 Array. The results were confirmed in the remaining 81 patients and 500 healthy children by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The analysis of the SNP6.0 array showed a duplication of chromosome 2q21.1, which was verified by qPCR. The result of qPCR in the other 81 patients showed that 8/81 patients had the CNVs of 2q21.1 and the only overlapping gene in these patients is CFC1. However, in the 500 healthy children, only one carried the duplication of CFC1 (p=3.5×10(-7)). The duplication and deletion of CFC1 may play key roles in the occurrence of heterotaxy syndrome. Moreover, the transposed great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, single atrium, and single ventricle may share a common genetic etiology with the heterotaxy syndrome. PMID:25423076

  2. A Case of Concurrent Miller-Dieker Syndrome (17p13.3 Deletion) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Macmurdo, C

    2015-12-01

    Features of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS, 17p13.3 deletion syndrome, LIS1-associated lissencephaly) include classic lissencephaly, microcephaly, cardiac malformations, growth restriction, and characteristic facial changes. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) are known to have congenital cardiac malformations (in particular conotruncal defects), palatal abnormalities (especially velopharyngeal insufficiency), hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial features. This case report describes phenotypic characteristics of a patient with extremely rare instance of having both MDS and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that is unique in the medical literature. Prognosis in this concurrent phenotype is poor with our patient suffering from several malformations seen in both conditions and expiring in the neonatal period.

  3. A Case of Concurrent Miller-Dieker Syndrome (17p13.3 Deletion) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Macmurdo, C

    2015-12-01

    Features of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS, 17p13.3 deletion syndrome, LIS1-associated lissencephaly) include classic lissencephaly, microcephaly, cardiac malformations, growth restriction, and characteristic facial changes. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) are known to have congenital cardiac malformations (in particular conotruncal defects), palatal abnormalities (especially velopharyngeal insufficiency), hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial features. This case report describes phenotypic characteristics of a patient with extremely rare instance of having both MDS and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that is unique in the medical literature. Prognosis in this concurrent phenotype is poor with our patient suffering from several malformations seen in both conditions and expiring in the neonatal period. PMID:27617133

  4. Physical mapping of the retinoblastoma interacting zinc finger gene RIZ to D1S228 on chromosome 1p36

    SciTech Connect

    Buyse, I.M.; Huang, Shi; Takahashi, Ei-ichi

    1996-05-15

    The retinoblastoma interacting zinc finger gene RIZ is a member of the recently discovered PR domain family that includes the MDS1-EVI1 breakpoint gene involved in human leukemia. To help understand the role of RIZ in human diseases, we have determined the cytogenetic and physical localizations of the RIZ gene. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we determined that RIZ maps to 1p36. On the physical map, RIZ is adjacent to the polymorphic marker D1S228. We suggest that the RIZ gene may be a candidate target of 1p36 alterations that commonly occur in neuroendocrine, breast, liver, colon, and lymphoid tumors. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  5. PRDM16 (1p36) translocations define a distinct entity of myeloid malignancies with poor prognosis but may also occur in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Duhoux, Francois P; Ameye, Geneviève; Montano-Almendras, Carmen P; Bahloula, Khadija; Mozziconacci, Marie J; Laibe, Sophy; Wlodarska, Iwona; Michaux, Lucienne; Talmant, Pascaline; Richebourg, Steven; Lippert, Eric; Speleman, Frank; Herens, Christian; Struski, Stéphanie; Raynaud, Sophie; Auger, Nathalie; Nadal, Nathalie; Rack, Katrina; Mugneret, Francine; Tigaud, Isabelle; Lafage, Marina; Taviaux, Sylvie; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Latinne, Dominique; Libouton, Jeanne M; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Poirel, Hélène A

    2012-01-01

    The PRDM16 (1p36) gene is rearranged in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with t(1;3)(p36;q21), sharing characteristics with AML and MDS with MECOM (3q26.2) translocations. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization to study 39 haematological malignancies with translocations involving PRDM16 to assess the precise breakpoint on 1p36 and the identity of the partner locus. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in selected cases in order to confirm the partner locus. PRDM16 expression studies were performed on bone marrow samples of patients, normal controls and CD34(+) cells using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. PRDM16 was rearranged with the RPN1 (3q21) locus in 30 cases and with other loci in nine cases. The diagnosis was AML or MDS in most cases, except for two cases of lymphoid proliferation. We identified novel translocation partners of PRDM16, including the transcription factors ETV6 and IKZF1. Translocations involving PRDM16 lead to its overexpression irrespective of the consequence of the rearrangement (fusion gene or promoter swap). Survival data suggest that patients with AML/MDS and PRDM16 translocations have a poor prognosis despite a simple karyotype and a median age of 65 years. There seems to be an over-representation of late-onset therapy-related myeloid malignancies.

  6. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15

    SciTech Connect

    Fryns, J.P.

    1995-09-11

    In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Growth hormone deficiency in 18q deletion syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ghidoni, P.D.; Cody, J.; Danney, J.

    1994-09-01

    The 18q- syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal deletion syndromes. Clinical characteristics are variable but may include: hypotonia, cleft palate, mental retardation and hearing impairment. Growth failure (GF) (<3% weight/height) is present in 80% of affected individuals. We evaluated growth hormone (GH) sufficiency in 15 patients with 18q- syndrome. Of these 15 patients, 10 have growth failure (<3% weight/height); of the remaining 5, 3 had normal growth parameters and 2 had growth along the 5%. Twelve patients failed to produce adequate GH following standard stimulation testing. Of these 12 patients with inadequate GH production, 2 had normal growth (above 3%). Of the 15, only 1 has normal GH production and normal growth parameters. Bone age was obtained on 1 patient with both GH deficiency and GF, and revealed significant delays. GH levels in response to GH releasing factor were normal in 3 out of 4 patients. MRI studies of GH-deficient patients indicated normal midline structures. Myelination in the few studied GH-deficient patients appeared delayed. The gene for myelin basic protein (MBP) is known to be located on the terminal portion of the long arm of chromosome 18. Neither the gene for GH, GH releasing factor nor GH releasing factor receptor is on chromosome 18. These genes are located on chromosomes 17, chromosome 20 and chromosome 7, respectively. Findings to date suggest that GH deficiency is common in individuals with 18q- syndrome. The etiology of this finding is unknown. We postulate that a gene(s) on chromosome 18q is involved in GH expression.

  8. Thrombocytopenia and Postpartum Hemorrhage in a Woman with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kathy; Nanda, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome, is associated with a wide spectrum of phenotypic features. It is known to be associated with severe macrothrombocytopenia. Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is rare cause of thrombocytopenia that can be a significant risk factor for life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage. We report a case of postpartum hemorrhage in a woman with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome causing severe macrothrombocytopenia. PMID:27366335

  9. Thrombocytopenia and Postpartum Hemorrhage in a Woman with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pachtman, Sarah L; Deng, Kathy; Nanda, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome, is associated with a wide spectrum of phenotypic features. It is known to be associated with severe macrothrombocytopenia. Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is rare cause of thrombocytopenia that can be a significant risk factor for life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage. We report a case of postpartum hemorrhage in a woman with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome causing severe macrothrombocytopenia. PMID:27366335

  10. Sequence Homology at the Breakpoint and Clinical Phenotype of Mitochondrial DNA Deletion Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Sadikovic, Bekim; Wang, Jing; El-Hattab, Ayman; Landsverk, Megan; Douglas, Ganka; Brundage, Ellen K.; Craigen, William J.; Schmitt, Eric S.; Wong, Lee-Jun C.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are a common cause of mitochondrial disorders. Large mtDNA deletions can lead to a broad spectrum of clinical features with different age of onset, ranging from mild mitochondrial myopathies (MM), progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), and Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), to severe Pearson syndrome. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular signatures surrounding the deletion breakpoints and their association with the clinical phenotype and age at onset. MtDNA deletions in 67 patients were characterized using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) followed by PCR-sequencing of the deletion junctions. Sequence homology including both perfect and imperfect short repeats flanking the deletion regions were analyzed and correlated with clinical features and patients' age group. In all age groups, there was a significant increase in sequence homology flanking the deletion compared to mtDNA background. The youngest patient group (<6 years old) showed a diffused pattern of deletion distribution in size and locations, with a significantly lower sequence homology flanking the deletion, and the highest percentage of deletion mutant heteroplasmy. The older age groups showed rather discrete pattern of deletions with 44% of all patients over 6 years old carrying the most common 5 kb mtDNA deletion, which was found mostly in muscle specimens (22/41). Only 15% (3/20) of the young patients (<6 years old) carry the 5 kb common deletion, which is usually present in blood rather than muscle. This group of patients predominantly (16 out of 17) exhibit multisystem disorder and/or Pearson syndrome, while older patients had predominantly neuromuscular manifestations including KSS, PEO, and MM. In conclusion, sequence homology at the deletion flanking regions is a consistent feature of mtDNA deletions. Decreased levels of sequence homology and increased levels of deletion mutant heteroplasmy appear to correlate with earlier onset and

  11. Early onset intellectual disability in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco; Muzio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome, is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. This syndrome is commonly caused by a microdelection from chromosome 22 at band q11.2. Although this genetic disorder may reflect several clinical abnormalities and different degrees of organ commitment, the clinical features that have driven the greatest amount of attention are behavioral and developmental features, because individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have a 30-fold risk of developing schizophrenia. There are differing opinions about the cognitive development, and commonly a cognitive decline rather than an early onset intellectual disability has been observed. We report a case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with both early assessment of mild intellectual disabilities and tetralogy of Fallot as the only physic manifestation.

  12. Early onset intellectual disability in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco; Muzio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome, is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. This syndrome is commonly caused by a microdelection from chromosome 22 at band q11.2. Although this genetic disorder may reflect several clinical abnormalities and different degrees of organ commitment, the clinical features that have driven the greatest amount of attention are behavioral and developmental features, because individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have a 30-fold risk of developing schizophrenia. There are differing opinions about the cognitive development, and commonly a cognitive decline rather than an early onset intellectual disability has been observed. We report a case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with both early assessment of mild intellectual disabilities and tetralogy of Fallot as the only physic manifestation. PMID:26358864

  13. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: Frequency and textent of 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Goldberg, R.; Jurecic, V.

    1995-07-03

    Velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome is associated with deletions in a region of chromosome 22q11.2 also deleted in DiGeorge anomaly and some forms of congenital heart disease. Due to the variability of phenotype, the evaluation of the incidence of deletions has been hampered by uncertainty of diagnosis. In this study, 54 patients were diagnosed with VCFS by a single group of clinicians using homogeneous clinical criteria independent of the deletion status. Cell lines of these patients were established and the deletion status evaluated for three loci within the commonly deleted region at 22q11.2 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 81% of the patients all three loci were hemizygous. In one patient we observed a smaller interstitial deletion than that defined by the three loci. The phenotype of this patient was not different from that observed in patients with larger deletions. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. L1CAM whole gene deletion in a child with L1 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chidsey, Brandalyn A; Baldwin, Erin E; Toydemir, Reha; Ahles, Lauren; Hanson, Heather; Stevenson, David A

    2014-06-01

    L1 syndrome is a group of overlapping, X-linked disorders caused by mutations in L1CAM. Clinical phenotypes within L1 syndrome include X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius (HSAS); mental retardation, adducted thumbs, shuffling gait, and aphasia (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia type 1; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Over 200 mutations in L1CAM have been reported; however, only a few large gene deletions have been observed. We report on a 4-month-old male with a de novo whole gene deletion of L1CAM presenting with congenital hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, and adducted thumbs. Initial failure of L1CAM gene sequencing suggested the possibility of a whole gene deletion of L1CAM. Further investigation through chromosome microarray analysis showed a 62Kb deletion encompassing the first exon of the PDZD4 gene and the entire L1CAM gene. Investigations into genotype-phenotype correlations have suggested that mutations leading to truncated or absent L1 protein cause more severe forms of L1 syndrome. Based on the presentation of the proband and other reported patients with whole gene deletions, we provide further evidence that L1CAM whole gene deletions result in L1 syndrome with a severe phenotype, deletions of PDZD4 do not cause additional manifestations, and that X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus reported in a subset of patients with large L1CAM deletions results from the loss of AVPR2. PMID:24668863

  15. 5q14.3 deletion neurocutaneous syndrome: Contiguous gene syndrome caused by simultaneous deletion of RASA1 and MEF2C: A progressive disease.

    PubMed

    Ilari, Rita; Agosta, Guillermo; Bacino, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a young girl who was presented with complex clinical symptoms caused by the deletion of contiguous genes: RASA1 and MEF2C, located on chromosome 5q14.3. Specifically, the diagnosis of her skin disorder and vascular malformations involving central nervous system is consistent with a RASopathy. The child's neurological manifestations are observed in most patients suffering from 5q14.3 by deletion or mutation of the MEF2C gene. A review of the literature allowed us to conclude that the contiguous deletion of genes RASA1 and MEF2C fulfills the criteria for the diagnosis of a Neurocutaneous syndrome as proposed by Carr et al. [2011]. We also assessed the penetrance of RASA1 and clinical manifestations of MEF2C according to the type of deletion. This child described presents the complete symptomatology of both deleted genes. We would also like to highlight the progression of the disorder.

  16. Choanal atresia in a patient with the deletion (9p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Shashi, V.; Golden, W.L.; Fryburg, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a child with choanal atresia and deletion 9p. A review of the literature documented one previous instance of choanal atresia in a patient with del(9p). Choanal atresia may be part of the spectrum of malformations in the deletion (9p) syndrome and its presence should prompt a search for this particular deletion as part of the differential diagnosis. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion in a boy with Opitz (G/BBB) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Fryburg, J.S.; Lin, K.Y.; Golden, W.L.

    1996-03-29

    This report is on a 14-month-old boy with manifestations of Opitz (G/BBB) syndrome in whom a 22q11.2 deletion was found. Deletion analysis was requested because of some findings in this patient reminiscent of velocardiofacial (VCF) syndrome. The extent of aspiration and of respiratory symptoms in this child is not usually seen in VCF syndrome. Opitz syndrome maps to at least two loci, one on Xp, the other on 22q11.2. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Acute Dystonia in a Patient with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Maillis, Antonis; Maltezou, Maria; Tsiori, Sofia; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (di George syndrome) is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders. The clinical features of the syndrome are distinct facial appearance, velopharyngeal insufficiency, conotruncal heart disease, parathyroid and immune dysfunction; however, little is known about possible neurodegenerative diseases. We describe the case of an 18-year old patient suffering from 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Since adolescence, he presented with behavioral disorders, recommended treatment with 2 mg aloperidin and he presented cervical dystonia and emergence of torticollis and trunk dystonia. Antipsychotic medications either accelerate or reveal dystonic symptoms. PMID:26605035

  19. Nasal dimple as part of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gripp, K.W.; Reed, L.A.; Emanuel, B.S. |

    1997-03-31

    The phenotype of the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is quite variable. We describe 2 patients with a 22q11.2 deletion and a dimpled nasal tip, which, we suggest can be the extreme of the broad or bulbous nose commonly found in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and should not be confused with the more severe nasal abnormalities seen in frontonasal dysplasia. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  20. A deletion and a duplication in distal 22q11.2 deletion syndrome region. Clinical implications and review

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Luis; Nevado, Julián; Santos, Fernando; Heine-Suñer, Damià; Martinez-Glez, Victor; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Palomo, Rebeca; Delicado, Alicia; Pajares, Isidora López; Palomares, María; García-Guereta, Luis; Valverde, Eva; Hawkins, Federico; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals affected with DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes present with both phenotypic diversity and variable expressivity. The most frequent clinical features include conotruncal congenital heart defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency, hypocalcemia and a characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. The etiology in most patients is a 3 Mb recurrent deletion in region 22q11.2. However, cases of infrequent deletions and duplications with different sizes and locations have also been reported, generally with a milder, slightly different phenotype for duplications but with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation to date. Methods We present a 7 month-old male patient with surgically corrected ASD and multiple VSDs, and dysmorphic facial features not clearly suggestive of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and a newborn male infant with cleft lip and palate and upslanting palpebral fissures. Karyotype, FISH, MLPA, microsatellite markers segregation studies and SNP genotyping by array-CGH were performed in both patients and parents. Results Karyotype and FISH with probe N25 were normal for both patients. MLPA analysis detected a partial de novo 1.1 Mb deletion in one patient and a novel partial familial 0.4 Mb duplication in the other. Both of these alterations were located at a distal position within the commonly deleted region in 22q11.2. These rearrangements were confirmed and accurately characterized by microsatellite marker segregation studies and SNP array genotyping. Conclusion The phenotypic diversity found for deletions and duplications supports a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in the vicinity of the LCRC-LCRD interval of the 22q11.2 chromosomal region, whereas the high presence of duplications in normal individuals supports their role as polymorphisms. We suggest that any hypothetical correlation between the clinical phenotype and the size and location of these alterations may be masked by other genetic and/or epigenetic modifying factors. PMID

  1. Molecular cytogenetic detection of chromosome 15 deletions in patients with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.E.; Weksberg, R.; Shuman, C.

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are clinically distinct genetic disorders involving alterations of chromosome 15q11-q13. Approximately 75% of individuals with PWS and AS have deletions within 15q11-q13 by molecular analysis. We have evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the clinical laboratory detection of del(15)(q11q13) using the cosmid probes D15S11 and GABRB3 (ONCOR, Gaithersburg, NY). 4/4 PWS and 1/1 AS patients previously identified as having cytogenetic deletions were deleted for both probes. In a prospectively ascertained series of 54 patient samples referred to rule out either PWS or AS, 8 were deleted for D15S11 and GABRB3. In addition, an atypical deletion patient with PWS was also identified who was found to be deleted for GABRB3 but not D15S11. The SNRPN locus was also deleted in this patient. Only 4 of the 9 patient samples having molecular cytogenetic deletions were clearly deleted by high resolution banding (HRB) analysis. The microscopic and submicroscopic deletions have been confirmed by dinucleotide (CA) repeat analysis. Microsatellite polymorphism analysis was also used to demonstrate that five non-deletion patients in this series had biparental inheritance of chromosome 15, including region q11-q13. Deletions were not detected by either HRB, FISH or microsatellite polymorphism analysis in samples obtained from parents of the deletion patients. Methylation studies of chromosome 15q11-q13 are in progress for this series of PWS and AS families. FISH analysis of chromosome 15q11-q13 in patients with PWS and AS is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for deletion detection.

  2. Neurocognitive profile in 22q11 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eva W. C.; Watson, Mark; Young, Donald A.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with neurocognitive deficits, but its etiologic heterogeneity may complicate the delineation of a neurocognitive profile. Schizophrenia associated with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS) represents a more genetically homogeneous subtype for study. We hypothesized that in adults with 22qDS the neurocognitive profiles would differ between those with and without schizophrenia. Method Using a comprehensive battery of tests, we compared the neurocognitive performance profiles in those with schizophrenia (n=27; 14 M, 13 F; mean age=30.6 years, SD=7.7 years) and those with no history of psychosis (n=29; 16 M, 13 F; mean age=25.0 years, SD=9.0 years). Results The 22qDS groups with and without schizophrenia had similar mean estimated IQ (71.6, SD=8.2 and 74.8, SD=6.1, respectively) and academic achievement, however the neurocognitive profiles of the two groups differed significantly on multivariate analysis (F(24,31)=2.25, p=0.017). The group with schizophrenia performed significantly more poorly on tests of motor skills, verbal learning, and social cognition (effect sizes≥0.8) after correction for multiple comparisons. Other tests, but not the attentional measures used, showed nominally significant differences. Conclusions In adults with 22qDS, the pattern of neurocognitive differences between those with and without schizophrenia appears similar to that between patients with schizophrenia and controls. Attentional dysfunction may be a more general feature of 22qDS. The findings support 22qDS-schizophrenia as a genetic model for neurodevelopmental investigations of schizophrenia. PMID:16753283

  3. CD137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is located on chromosome 1p36, in a cluster of related genes, and colocalizes with several malignancies.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, H; Arden, K; Lotz, M

    1997-06-27

    CD137 (ILA/4-1BB) is a member of the tumor-necrosis-factor receptor family. Members of this receptor family and their structurally related ligands are important regulators of a wide variety of physiological processes and play an especially important role in the regulation of immune responses. CD137 regulates cell proliferation and survival of T-lymphocytes. Using Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction, we localized the CD137 gene to chromosome 1p36. This chromosomal region harbors the genes of several other members of this receptor family and is associated with deletions and rearrangements in several malignancies.

  4. The human paired domain gene PAX7 (Hup1) maps to chromosome 1p35-1p36. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.W. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1993-07-01

    The human PAX7 gene encodes a protein containing a domain homologous to the Drosophila paired box first described in three segmentation genes. In addition to the paired box, the gene contains the conserved octa-peptide and a paired-type homeobox. Two of the five known human PAX genes have been implicated in human disorders so far. Here the authors have used a somatic cell hybrid panel to localize PAX7 to human chromosome 1. In situ hybridization shows that PAX7 is confined to the short arm of chromosome 1 at 1p35-1p36.2. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  5. The Neural Correlates of Non-Spatial Working Memory in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Krauss, Beth R.; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Colgan, Deirdre; Antshel, Kevin M.; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with both learning disabilities and a consistent neuropsychological phenotype, including deficits in executive function, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Anatomic imaging studies have identified significant…

  6. Mapping Cortical Morphology in Youth with Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Bansal, Ravi; Fremont, Wanda; Antshel, Kevin M.; Hao, Xuejun; Higgins, Anne Marie; Liu, Jun; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) represents one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Insofar as up to 30% of individuals with this genetic disorder develop schizophrenia, VCFS constitutes a unique, etiologically homogeneous model for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Method:…

  7. Fine mapping of variants associated with endometriosis in the WNT4 region on chromosome 1p36.

    PubMed

    Luong, Hien Tt; Painter, Jodie N; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Chapman, Brett; Henders, Anjali K; Powell, Joseph E; Nyholt, Dale R; Montgomery, Grant W

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies show strong evidence of association with endometriosis for markers on chromosome 1p36 spanning the potential candidate genes WNT4, CDC42 and LINC00339. WNT4 is involved in development of the uterus, and the expression of CDC42 and LINC00339 are altered in women with endometriosis. We conducted fine mapping to examine the role of coding variants in WNT4 and CDC42 and determine the key SNPs with strongest evidence of association in this region. We identified rare coding variants in WNT4 and CDC42 present only in endometriosis cases. The frequencies were low and cannot account for the common signal associated with increased risk of endometriosis. Genotypes for five common SNPs in the region of chromosome 1p36 show stronger association signals when compared with rs7521902 reported in published genome scans. Of these, three SNPs rs12404660, rs3820282, and rs55938609 were located in DNA sequences with potential functional roles including overlap with transcription factor binding sites for FOXA1, FOXA2, ESR1, and ESR2. Functional studies will be required to identify the gene or genes implicated in endometriosis risk.

  8. Opitz GBBB syndrome and the 22q11.2 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Lacassie, Y.; Arriaza, M.I.

    1996-03-29

    Recently, McDonald-McGinn et al. reported the presence of a deletion 22q11.2 in a family with autosomal dominant inheritance and in a sporadic case with the Opitz GBBB syndrome. The presence of a vascular ring in these patients prompted them to look for this deletion, since this anomaly may be associated with the 22q11.2 deletion. They reviewed the Opitz GBBB syndrome and the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome, finding considerable overlap of manifestations. They proposed that, in some patients, the Opitz GBBB syndrome may be due to a 22q11.2 deletion. We recently examined a newborn boy referred because of MCA. The cardinal findings in this patient (hypertelorism, hypospadias with descended testicles, characteristic nose and truncus arteriosus type I) were suggestive of the Opitz GBBB syndrome and of the velocardiofacial syndrome. The chromosomes were apparently normal (46,XY), but the FISH study showed a 22q11.2 deletion. The patient developed hypocalcemia with very low level of PTH and heart failure requiring surgery. His immunological status was normal except that CD4 cells were mildly low and natural killer cells were increased in number. The family history was noncontributory, but the full evaluation of the family is pending. The mother at first glance presents apparent hypertelorism. 3 refs.

  9. A case report of 22q11 deletion syndrome confirmed by array-CGH method

    PubMed Central

    Sedghi, Maryam; Nouri, Narges; Abdali, Hossein; Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Nouri, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is caused by a submicroscopic deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 and affects approximately 1 in 4000 persons, making it the second most prevalent genetic syndrome after Down syndrome and the most common genetic syndrome associated with cleft palate. Most of the 22q11.2 deletion cases are new occurrences or sporadic; however, in about 10 % of families, the deletion is inherited and other family members are affected or at risk for passing this deletion to their children. This report describes a 1.5 years-old male child with clinical signs of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) presented with heart defect, soft cleft palate, developmental delay, acrocephaly, seizure, MRI abnormalities and descriptive facial feature, such as hypertelorism. Array-CGH test was done to confirm the diagnosis; the result revealed a 2.6 Mbp deletion in 22q11.2 chromosome that containing TBX1 and COMT genes. Our data suggest that haploinsufficiency of TBX1 gene is probably a major contributor to some of the syndrome characteristic signs, such as heart defect. Because of developmental delay and dysmorphic facial feature were observed in the index's mother and relatives, inherited autosomal dominant form of VCF is probable, and MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) test should be performed for parents to estimate the recurrent risk in next pregnancy. PMID:23267387

  10. Bone mineral density is linked to 1p36 and 7p15-13 in a southern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Hoi Yee Gloria; Kung, Wai Chee Annie; Huang, Qing Yang

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide linkage scans have identified a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting bone mineral density (BMD), mainly in the Caucasian population. In this study, we aim to determine whether seven well-replicated QTLs also contribute to BMD variation in the southern Han Chinese population. Thirty-three microsatellite markers in the proximity of seven QTLs were genotyped in 1,459 subjects from 306 families ascertained through a proband with BMD Z-score equal to or less than -1.3 at either the lumbar spine or hip. Regression-based multipoint linkage analysis was performed. In the entire study population, good linkage evidence of total hip BMD to 7p14 [maximum log of odds (LOD) score (MLS) = 2.75; nominal P = 0.0002] and 1p36 (MLS = 1.6, P = 0.003) was revealed. In the subgroup analysis of 1,166 female subjects, MLS of 3.42, 2.65, 2.42, and 1.54 were obtained on 7p12 for total hip, lumbar spine, trochanter, and femoral neck BMD, respectively. A suggestive linkage signal was achieved at 7p14-15 with a MLS of 3.38 and 3.15 for trochanter and total hip BMD in the 678 premenopausal women, and at 7p12 for femoral neck and total hip BMD with MLS of 2.22 and 3.04 in postmenopausal women. Subgroup analysis of premenopausal women also provided additional evidence of suggestive linkage of total hip BMD to 1p36, with a MLS of 2.84 at 17.07 cM. Thus, linkage of BMD to 1p36 and 7p15-13 is confirmed in southern Chinese. Computational prioritization strategy and published genome-wide association studies suggested RERE and SFRP4 as two promising candidate genes in which variants responsible for the linkage signal may be identified by follow-up gene-wide association studies.

  11. Localization of the human B-type natriuretic peptide precursor (NPPB) gene to chromosome 1p36

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, K.C.; Viars, C.S.; Weiss, S.

    1995-03-20

    Cardiac myocytes synthesize and secrete a family of peptide hormones with potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilatory properties. These peptides are derived from precursor molecules that are encoded by two different genes, the atrial natriuretic peptide precursor A (NPPA) and the B-type natriuretic peptide or natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB). A human genomic clone for the NPPB gene was used to determine the chromosomal location of the NPPB gene. Analysis of Southern blot hybridization to DNAs from various somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization allowed assignment of the NPPB locus to human chromosome 1p36. This location coincided with that of the NPPA locus; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis placed NPPA and NPPB within 50 kb of each other. This close chromosomal linkage, together with the conserved primary sequences and structural organization of the two natriuretic peptide precursor genes, suggests that the natriuretic peptide loci may have evolved from a common ancestor gene. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Marfan syndrome with a complex chromosomal rearrangement including deletion of the FBN1 gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The majority of Marfan syndrome (MFS) cases is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1), mapped to chromosome 15q21.1. Only few reports on deletions including the whole FBN1 gene, detected by molecular cytogenetic techniques, were found in literature. Results We report here on a female patient with clinical symptoms of the MFS spectrum plus craniostenosis, hypothyroidism and intellectual deficiency who presents a 1.9 Mb deletion, including the FBN1 gene and a complex rearrangement with eight breakpoints involving chromosomes 6, 12 and 15. Discussion This is the first report of MFS with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving a deletion of FBN1 and contiguous genes. In addition to the typical clinical findings of the Marfan syndrome due to FBN1 gene haploinsufficiency, the patient presents features which may be due to the other gene deletions and possibly to the complex chromosome rearrangement. PMID:22260333

  13. Use of a multiethnic approach to identify rheumatoid- arthritis-susceptibility loci, 1p36 and 17q12.

    PubMed

    Kurreeman, Fina A S; Stahl, Eli A; Okada, Yukinori; Liao, Katherine; Diogo, Dorothée; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Freudenberg, Jan; Kochi, Yuta; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Gupta, Namrata; Sandor, Cynthia; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Padyukov, Leonid; Suzuki, Akari; Siminovitch, Kathy; Worthington, Jane; Gregersen, Peter K; Hughes, Laura B; Reynolds, Richard J; Bridges, S Louis; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Plenge, Robert M

    2012-03-01

    We have previously shown that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk alleles overlap between different ethnic groups. Here, we utilize a multiethnic approach to show that we can effectively discover RA risk alleles. Thirteen putatively associated SNPs that had not yet exceeded genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10(-8)) in our previous RA genome-wide association study (GWAS) were analyzed in independent sample sets consisting of 4,366 cases and 17,765 controls of European, African American, and East Asian ancestry. Additionally, we conducted an overall association test across all 65,833 samples (a GWAS meta-analysis plus the replication samples). Of the 13 SNPs investigated, four were significantly below the study-wide Bonferroni corrected p value threshold (p < 0.0038) in the replication samples. Two SNPs (rs3890745 at the 1p36 locus [p = 2.3 × 10(-12)] and rs2872507 at the 17q12 locus [p = 1.7 × 10(-9)]) surpassed genome-wide significance in all 16,659 RA cases and 49,174 controls combined. We used available GWAS data to fine map these two loci in Europeans and East Asians, and we found that the same allele conferred risk in both ethnic groups. A series of bioinformatic analyses identified TNFRSF14-MMEL1 at the 1p36 locus and IKZF3-ORMDL3-GSDMB at the 17q12 locus as the genes most likely associated with RA. These findings demonstrate empirically that a multiethnic approach is an effective strategy for discovering RA risk loci, and they suggest that combining GWASs across ethnic groups represents an efficient strategy for gaining statistical power.

  14. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium in chromosome band 1p36 in American Chaldeans with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Cho, J H; Nicolae, D L; Ramos, R; Fields, C T; Rabenau, K; Corradino, S; Brant, S R; Espinosa, R; LeBeau, M; Hanauer, S B; Bodzin, J; Bonen, D K

    2000-05-22

    The idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are complex genetic disorders involving chronic inflammation of the intestines. Multiple genetic loci have been implicated through genome-wide searches, but refinement of localization sufficient to undertake positional cloning efforts has been problematic. This difficulty can be obviated through identification of ancestrally shared regions in genetic isolates, such as the Chaldean population, a Roman Catholic group from Iraq. We analyzed four multiply affected American Chaldean families with inflammatory bowel disease not known to be related. We observed evidence for linkage and linkage disequilibrium in precisely the same region of chromosome band 1p36 reported previously in an outbred population. Maximal evidence for linkage was observed near D1S1597 by multipoint analysis (MLOD = 3.01, P = 6.1 x 10(-5)). A shared haplotype (D1S507 to D1S1628) was observed over 27 cM between two families. There was homozygous sharing of a 5 cM portion of that haplotype in one family and over a <1 cM region in the second family. Homozygous sharing of this haplotype near D1S2697 and D1S3669 was observed in one individual in a third multiply affected family, with heterozygous sharing in a fourth family. Linkage in outbred families as well as in this genetic isolate indicates that a pathophysiologically crucial IBD susceptibility gene is located in 1p36. These findings provide a unique opportunity to refine the localization and identify a major susceptibility gene for a complex genetic disorder.

  15. Angelman syndrome: Validation of molecular cytogenetic analysis of chromosome 15q11-q13 for deletion detection

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.; Knoll, J.H.M.

    1995-03-13

    In a series of 18 individuals comprising parents of Angelman syndrome (AS) patients and AS patients with large deletions, microdeletions, and no deletions, we utilized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with genomic phage clones for loci D15S63 and GABRB3 for deletion detection of chromosome 15q11-q13. Utilization of probes at these loci allows detection of common large deletions and permits discrimination of less common small deletions. In all individuals the molecular cytogenetic data were concordant with the DNA deletion analyses. FISH provides an accurate method of deletion detection for chromosome 15q11-q13. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Molecular definition of the smallest region of deletion overlap in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gandelman, K.Y.; Gibson, L.; Meyn, M.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L. )

    1992-09-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), associated with a deletion of chromosome 4p, is characterized by mental and growth retardation and typical dysmorphism. A girl with clinical features of WHS was found to carry a subtle deletion of chromosome 4p. Initially suggested by high-resolution chromosome analysis, her deletion was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with cosmid probes, E13, and Y2, of D4S113. To delineate this 4p deletion, the authors performed a series of FISH and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis by using probes from 4p16.3. A deletion of [approximately]2.5 Mb with the breakpoint at [approximately]80 kb distal to D4S43 was defined in this patient and appears to be the smallest WHS deletion so far identified. To further refine the WHS critical region, they have studied three unrelated patients with presumptive 4p deletions, two resulting from unbalanced segregations of parental chromosomal translocations and one resulting from an apparently de novo unbalanced translocation. Larger deletions were identified in two patients with WHS. One patient who did not clinically present with WHS had a smaller deletion that thus eliminates the distal 100-300 kb from the telomere as being part of the WHS region. This study has localized the WHS region to [approximately]2 MB between D4S43 and D4S142. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Candidate Genes and the Behavioral Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Sarah E.; Howley, Sarah; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2008-01-01

    There is an overwhelming evidence that children and adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a characteristic behavioral phenotype. In particular, there is a growing body of evidence that indicates an unequivocal association between 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia, especially in adulthood. Deletion of 22q11.2 is the third highest risk…

  18. Neuroblastoma in a boy with MCA/MR syndrome, deletion 11q, and duplication 12q

    SciTech Connect

    Koiffmann, C.P.; Vianna-Morgante, A.M.; Wajntal, A.

    1995-07-31

    Deletion 11q23{r_arrow}qter and duplication 12q23{r_arrow}qter are described in a boy with neuroblastoma, multiple congenital anomalies, and mental retardation. The patient has clinical manifestations of 11q deletion and 12q duplication syndromes. The possible involvement of the segment 11q23{r_arrow}24 in the cause of the neuroblastoma is discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Prevalence and Nature of Hearing Loss in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eynde, Charlotte; Swillen, Ann; Lambeens, Elien; Verhaert, Nicolas; Desloovere, Christian; Luts, Heleen; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Devriendt, Koenraad; Hens, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence, type, severity, and age-dependency of hearing loss in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Method: Extensive audiological measurements were conducted in 40 persons with proven 22q11.2 deletion (aged 6-36 years). Besides air and bone conduction thresholds in the frequency range between 0.125…

  20. A new autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment locus DFNB96 on chromosome 1p36.31-p36.13.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Muhammad; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Naqvi, Syed Kamran-Ul-Hassan; Andrade, Paula B; Basit, Sulman; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M

    2011-12-01

    A novel locus for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI), DFNB96, was mapped to the 1p36.31-p36.13 region. A whole-genome linkage scan was performed using DNA samples from a consanguineous family from Pakistan with ARNSHI. A maximum two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 3.2 was obtained at marker rs8627 (chromosome 1: 8.34 Mb) at θ=0 and a significant maximum multipoint LOD score of 3.8 was achieved at 15 contiguous markers from rs630075 (9.3 Mb) to rs10927583 (15.13 Mb). The 3-unit support interval and the region of homozygosity were both delimited by markers rs3817914 (6.42 Mb) and rs477558 (18.09 Mb) and contained 11.67 Mb. Of the 125 genes within the DFNB96 interval, the previously identified ARNSHI gene for DFNB36, ESPN, and two genes that cause Bartter syndrome, CLCNKA and CLCNKB, were sequenced, but no potentially causal variants were identified.

  1. A patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Eryılmaz, Sema Kabataş; Baş, Firdevs; Satan, Ali; Darendeliler, Feyza; Bundak, Rüveyde; Günöz, Hülya; Saka, Nurçin

    2009-01-01

    22q11 deletion is one of the most frequently encountered genetic syndromes. The phenotypic spectrum shows a wide variability. We report a boy who presented at age 11.9 years with seizures due to hypocalcemia as a result of hypoparathyroidism. FISH analysis revealed a heterozygote deletion at 22q11.2. Positive findings for the syndrome were delayed speech development due to velofacial dysfunction, recurrent croup attacks in early childhood due to latent hypocalcemia and mild dysmorphic features. The findings of this patient indicate that 22q11 deletion syndrome may present with a wide spectrum of clinical findings and that this diagnosis needs to be considered even in patients of older ages presenting with hypocalcemia.

  2. A rare case of de novo mosaicism: Deletion 18p and isochromosome 18q syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumar, Achandira M.; Al-Kindy, Adila

    2013-01-01

    Monosomy 18p syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder with varying phenotypic and clinical manifestations. Dysmorphism, growth delay, delayed speech and mental retardation are a few of the commonest features observed. The cytogenetic findings also vary and may comprise a pure deletion of the entire 18p arm or a deletion of a part of the 18p arm, if involved in a translocation with other chromosomes. Monosomy 18p may either occur by itself or with a structural alteration of the remaining chromosome 18, as a ring or as an isochromosome. The clinical presentation of this syndrome often overlaps with other syndromes. Establishing a cytogenetic diagnosis and understanding the location of the breakpoints is crucial for precise management and follow-up. We present here a rare case with mosaicism for a de novo deletion of 18p with isochromosome 18q in a boy born to a consanguineous Omani couple.

  3. A patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Eryılmaz, Sema Kabataş; Baş, Firdevs; Satan, Ali; Darendeliler, Feyza; Bundak, Rüveyde; Günöz, Hülya; Saka, Nurçin

    2009-01-01

    22q11 deletion is one of the most frequently encountered genetic syndromes. The phenotypic spectrum shows a wide variability. We report a boy who presented at age 11.9 years with seizures due to hypocalcemia as a result of hypoparathyroidism. FISH analysis revealed a heterozygote deletion at 22q11.2. Positive findings for the syndrome were delayed speech development due to velofacial dysfunction, recurrent croup attacks in early childhood due to latent hypocalcemia and mild dysmorphic features. The findings of this patient indicate that 22q11 deletion syndrome may present with a wide spectrum of clinical findings and that this diagnosis needs to be considered even in patients of older ages presenting with hypocalcemia. PMID:21274400

  4. FISH detection of chromosome 15 deletions in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Teshima, I.; Chadwick, D.; Chitayat, D.

    1996-03-29

    We have evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for the clinical laboratory detection of the 15q11-q13 deletion seen in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) using probes for loci D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10, and GABRB3. In a series of 118 samples from patients referred for PWS or AS, 29 had deletions by FISH analysis. These included two brothers with a paternally transmitted deletion detectable with the probe for SNRPN only. G-banding analysis was less sensitive for deletion detection but useful in demonstrating other cytogenetic alterations in four cases. Methylation and CA-repeat analyses of 15q11-q13 were used to validate the FISH results. Clinical findings of patients with deletions were variable, ranging from newborns with hypotonia as the only presenting feature to children who were classically affected. We conclude that FISH analysis is a rapid and reliable method for detection of deletions within 15q11-q13 and whenever a deletion is found, FISH analysis of parental chromosomes should also be considered. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Schizophrenia in an Adult With 6p25 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Caluseriu, O.; Mirza, G.; Ragoussis, J.; Chow, E.W.C.; MacCrimmon, D.; Bassett, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions at 6p25-p24 are rare findings in patients with developmental delay. There is limited information about the adult phenotype. We present a 36-year-old patient with schizophrenia, mild mental retardation, progressive hearing deficits, and characteristic facial features. Ocular (Axenfeld–Rieger anomaly) abnormalities were diagnosed in infancy; vision, however, has remained unimpaired. There were no other major congenital anomalies. Brain imaging showed only minor changes. There was no family history of intellectual deficits or psychosis. Karyotyping revealed a 6p25 deletion, and detailed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses using 23 probes confirmed a 6.7 Mb 6p25-pter deletion. The breakpoint is near a possible 6p25-p24 locus for schizophrenia. Psychotic illness may be part of the neurodevelopmental abnormalities and long-term outcome of patients with 6p terminal deletions. Other similarly affected patients likely remain to be diagnosed in adult populations of schizophrenia and/or mental retardation. PMID:16642507

  6. An atypical case of fragile X syndrome caused by a deletion that includes FMRI gene

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, F.; Zonana, J.; Gunter, K.; Peterson, K.L.; Magenis, R.E., Popovich, B.W.

    1995-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and results from the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR1 gene. In the vast majority of cases, this is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat in the first exon of the FMR1 gene. We describe here a phenotypically atypical case of fragile X syndrome, caused by a deletion that includes the entire FMR1 gene and {ge}9.0 Mb of flanking DNA. The proband, RK, was a 6-year-old mentally retarded male with obesity and anal atresia. A diagnosis of fragile X syndrome was established by the failure of RK`s DNA to hybridize to a 558-bp PstI-XhoI fragment (pfxa3) specific for the 5{prime}-end of the FMR1 gene. The analysis of flanking markers in the interval from Xq26.3-q28 indicated a deletion extending from between 160-500 kb distal and 9.0 Mb proximal to the FMR1 gene. High-resolution chromosome banding confirmed a deletion with breakpoints in Xq26.3 and Xq27.3. This deletion was maternally transmitted and arose as a new mutation on the grandpaternal X chromosome. The maternal transmission of the deletion was confirmed by FISH using a 34-kb cosmid (c31.4) containing most of the FMR1 gene. These results indicated that RK carried a deletion of the FMR1 region with the most proximal breakpoint described to date. This patient`s unusual clinical presentation may indicate the presence of genes located in the deleted interval proximal to the FMR1 locus that are able to modify the fragile X syndrome phenotype. 36 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Molecular analyses of 17p11.2 deletions in 62 Smith-Magenis syndrome patients.

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, R. C.; Figuera, L. E.; Hauge, X.; Elsea, S. H.; Lupski, J. R.; Greenberg, F.; Baldini, A.; Patel, P. I.

    1996-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable, multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion involving band p11.2 of chromosome 17. Toward the molecular definition of the interval defining this microdeletion syndrome, 62 unrelated SMS patients in conjunction with 70 available unaffected parents were molecularly analyzed with respect to the presence or absence of 14 loci in the proximal region of the short arm of chromosome 17. A multifaceted approach was used to determine deletion status at the various loci that combined (i) FISH analysis, (ii)PCR and Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted chromosome 17 from selected patients, and (iii) genotype determination of patients for whom a parent(s) was available at four microsatellite marker loci and at four loci with associated RFLPs. The relative order of two novel anonymous markers and a new microsatellite marker was determined in 17p11.2. The results confirmed that the proximal deletion breakpoint in the majority of SMS patients is located between markers D17S58 (EW301) and D17S446 (FG1) within the 17p11.1-17p11.2 region. The common distal breakpoint was mapped between markers cCI17-638, which lies distal to D17S71, and cCI17-498, which lies proximal to the Charcot Marie-Tooth disease type 1A locus. The locus D17S258 was found to be deleted in all 62 patients, and probes from this region can be used for diagnosis of the SMS deletion by FISH. Ten patients demonstrated molecularly distinct deletions; of these, two patients had smaller deletions and will enable the definition of the critical interval for SMS. Images Figure 2 PMID:8651284

  8. Investigation of TBX1 gene deletion in Iranian children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: correlation with conotruncal heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Hamid; Salehi, Mansoor; Sedghi, Maryam; Abdali, Hossein; Nouri, Nayereh; Sadri, Leyli; Hosseinzadeh, Majid; Vakili, Bahareh; Lotfi, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Background DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is the result of a microdeletion in chromosome 22q11.2 in over 90% of cases. DGS is the second most frequent syndrome after Down syndrome and has an incidence of 1/4000 births. Unequal crossover between low-copy repeats, on the proximal part of the long arm of chromosome 22, usually results in a 3 Mb deletion in one of the chromosome 22 and a reciprocal and similarly sized duplication on the other one. Several studies have indicated that TBX1 (T-box 1) haploinsufficiency is responsible for many of the phenotypic traits of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Conotruncal heart defects (CTDs) are present in 75–85% of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in Western countries. Methods Among 78 patients fulfilling the criteria for DGS diagnosed by the fluorescence in situ hybridisation test, 24 had 22q11.2 deletion. Screening for TBX1 gene deletion was performed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Results Our results revealed that of 24 patients with TBX1 gene deletion, 12 had CTDs while 12 did not show any heart defects. Conclusions Our findings indicate that other genes or gene interactions may play a role in penetrance or the severity of heart disease among patients with DGS. PMID:27326128

  9. Strong correlation of elastin deletions, detected by FISH, with Williams syndrome: Evaluation of 235 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, M.C.; Brothman, L.J.; Leonard, C.O.

    1995-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is generally characterized by mental deficiency, gregarious personality, dysmorphic facies, supravalvular aortic stenosis, and idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. Patients with WS show allelic loss of elastin (ELN), exhibiting a submicroscopic deletion, at 7q11.23, detectable by FISH. Hemizygosity is likely the cause of vascular abnormalities in WS patients. A series of 235 patients was studied, and molecular cytogenetic deletions were seen in 96% of patients with classic WS. Patients included 195 solicited through the Williams Syndrome Association (WSA), plus 40 clinical cytogenetics cases referred by primary-care physicians. Photographs and medical records of most WSA subjects were reviewed, and patients were identified as {open_quotes}classic{open_quotes} (n = 114) or{open_quotes}uncertain{close_quotes} (n = 39). An additional 42 WSA patients were evaluated without clinical information. FISH was performed with biotinylated ELN cosmids on metaphase cells from immortalized lymphoblastoid lines from WSA patients and after high-resolution banding analysis on clinical referral patients. An alpha-satellite probe for chromosome 7 was included in hybridizations, as an internal control. Ninety-six percent of the patients with classic WS showed a deletion in one ELN allele; four of these did not show a deletion. Of the uncertain WS patients, only 3 of 39 showed a deletion. Of the 42 who were not classified phenotypically, because of lack of clinical information, 25 patients (60%) showed a deletion. Thirty-eight percent (15/40) of clinical cytogenetics cases showed an ELN deletion and no cytogenetic deletion by banded analysis. These results support the usefulness of FISH for the detection of elastin deletions as an initial diagnostic assay for WS. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Novel features of 3q29 deletion syndrome: Results from the 3q29 registry

    PubMed Central

    Glassford, Megan R.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Freedman, Alexa A.; Zwick, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    3q29 deletion syndrome is caused by a recurrent, typically de novo heterozygous 1.6 Mb deletion, but because incidence of the deletion is rare (1 in 30,000 births) the phenotype is not well described. To characterize the range of phenotypic manifestations associated with 3q29 deletion syndrome, we have developed an online registry (3q29deletion.org) for ascertainment of study subjects and phenotypic data collection via Internet‐based survey instruments. We report here on data collected during the first 18 months of registry operation, from 44 patients. This is the largest cohort of 3q29 deletion carriers ever assembled and surveyed in a systematic way. Our data reveal that 28% of registry participants report neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including anxiety disorder, panic attacks, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Other novel findings include a high prevalence (64%) of feeding problems in infancy and reduced weight at birth for 3q29 deletion carriers (average reduction 13.9 oz (394 g), adjusted for gestational age and sex, P = 6.5e‐07). We further report on the frequency of heart defects, autism, recurrent ear infections, gastrointestinal phenotypes, and dental phenotypes, among others. We also report on the expected timing of delayed developmental milestones. This is the most comprehensive description of the 3q29 deletion phenotype to date. These results are clinically actionable toward improving patient care for 3q29 deletion carriers, and can guide the expectations of physicians and parents. These data also demonstrate the value of patient‐reported outcomes to reveal the full phenotypic spectrum of rare genomic disorders. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26738761

  11. Maternal origin of 15q11-13 deletions in Angelman syndrome suggests a role for genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A; Zori, R T; Stone, J W; Gray, B A; Cantu, E S; Ostrer, H

    1990-03-01

    Six persons with the classical Angelman syndrome (AS) phenotype and de novo deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13 were studied to determine the parental origin of the chromosome deletion. Four of the 6 patients had informative cytogenetic studies and all demonstrated maternal inheritance of the deletion. These findings, together with other reported cases of the origin of the chromosome 15 deletion in AS, suggest that deletion of the maternally contributed chromosome leads to the AS phenotype. This contrasts with the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in which a similar deletion of the paternally contributed chromosome 15 is observed. In deletion cases, a parental gamete effect such as genomic imprinting may be the best model to explain why apparently identical 15q11-q13 deletions may develop the different phenotypes of AS or PWS.

  12. A VARIANT CASE OF 6p24 DELETION SYNDROME (OMIM #612582).

    PubMed

    Ergin, R N; Cigerciogullari, E; Alanay, Y; Yayla, M

    2015-01-01

    The 6p24 deletion syndrome, a contiguous gene deletion syndrome is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. In this case report we present an antenatal case of 6p 24 deletion syndrome variant involving FOXC1 gene. First trimester fetal screening of a 34 year old pregnant female revealed ultrasonographic anomalies and chorionic villus sampling was performed to rule out any chromosomal anomaly. Cytogenetic examination resulted in normal 46,XY karyotype. In the following weeks further anomalies like cleft palate/lip, thick nuchal fold, ventral septal defect and low set ear were detected with ultrasonography. At 20 weeks of gestation, amniocentesis and whole genome array-CGH analysis revealed a 9.6 Mb interstitial deletion in the 6p25.2p24.1 region which has many genes including an important gene, FOXC1 and 119 Kb interstitial deletion at 9q22.31. The pregnancy was terminated. Postmortem morphological examination revealed turricephaly, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, broad nasal tip, left sided cleft lip, low-set small ears, micrognathia, short neck, increased nuchal fold, short broad distal phalanges, broad thumbs, broad halluces and broad toes. PMID:26349195

  13. Genotype-phenotype analysis of 4q deletion syndrome: proposal of a critical region.

    PubMed

    Strehle, Eugen-Matthias; Yu, Linbo; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Donkervoort, Sandra; Zhou, Yulin; Chen, Tian-Jian; Martinez, Jose E; Fan, Yao-Shan; Barbouth, Deborah; Zhu, Hongbo; Vaglio, Alicia; Smith, Rosemarie; Stevens, Cathy A; Curry, Cynthia J; Ladda, Roger L; Fan, Zheng Jane; Fox, Joyce E; Martin, Judith A; Abdel-Hamid, Hoda Z; McCracken, Elizabeth A; McGillivray, Barbara C; Masser-Frye, Diane; Huang, Taosheng

    2012-09-01

    Chromosome 4q deletion syndrome (4q- syndrome) is a rare condition, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 100,000. Although variable, the clinical spectrum commonly includes craniofacial, developmental, digital, skeletal, and cardiac involvement. Data on the genotype-phenotype correlation within the 4q arm are limited. We present detailed clinical and genetic information by array CGH on 20 patients with 4q deletions. We identified a patient who has a ∼465 kb deletion (186,770,069-187,234,800, hg18 coordinates) in 4q35.1 with all clinical features for 4q deletion syndrome except for developmental delay, suggesting that this is a critical region for this condition and a specific gene responsible for orofacial clefts and congenital heart defects resides in this region. Since the patients with terminal deletions all had cleft palate, our results provide further evidence that a gene associated with clefts is located on the terminal segment of 4q. By comparing and contrasting our patients' genetic information and clinical features, we found significant genotype-phenotype correlations at a single gene level linking specific phenotypes to individual genes. Based on these data, we constructed a hypothetical partial phenotype-genotype map for chromosome 4q which includes BMP3, SEC31A, MAPK10, SPARCL1, DMP1, IBSP, PKD2, GRID2, PITX2, NEUROG2, ANK2, FGF2, HAND2, and DUX4 genes.

  14. AB097. Clinical and molecular characterization of patients with 6p25 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jiin Ying; Jamuar, Saumya Shekhar; Cham, Breana Wen Min; Brett, Maggie; Tan, Ee Shien; Ng, Ivy; Law, Hai Yang; Tan, Ene Choo; Lai, Angeline Hwei Meeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chromosomal imbalances and rearrangements have been implicated in the etiology of intellectual disability and congenital anomalies. Many of these imbalances are caused by submicroscopic deletions or duplications not detected through conventional cytogenetic analysis. The advances in technology for detecting copy number changes, most notably chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has allowed the detection of these submicroscopic deletions or duplications. Submicroscopic 6p25 deletion is now recognized as a clinically identifiable syndrome. Clinical features in this syndrome include intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, sensorineural hearing loss, midface hypoplasia, ocular anomalies, cardiac defects and varying central nervous system anomalies. The aim of this report is to describe the phenotypic range of individuals with 6p25 deletion syndrome in the South East Asian population. Methods We reviewed the records of patients who are follow up in the Genetics clinic at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital (KKH) and have CMA carried out using the Agilent 4×400 K and 4×180 K CGH+SNP catalogue array at KK Research Centre and DNA Diagnostic & Research Laboratory, respectively. Results We provide detailed molecular cytogenetic descriptions and clinical presentation of four unrelated patients with submicroscopic 6p25 deletion syndrome. Patient 1 has 5.1 Mb deletion (chr6: 224,712-5,352,662 hg19), while Patient 2 has 2 Mb deletion (chr6: 381,537-2,408,671 hg19). Patient 3 has 1.2 Mb deletion (chr6:1,486,461-2,692,219 hg19) and Patient 4 has 4.1 Mb deletion (chr6: 206,749-4,320,368 hg19). All of these patients have congenital heart defects, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and additional phenotypic abnormalities: Patient 1 has sensorineural hearing loss, hernia, bilateral undescended testes and buried penis, while Patient 2 has mild intellectual disability, bilateral mixed hearing loss, microphthalmia and submucous cleft palate. Patient

  15. Subtypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Associated with Behaviour and Neurofacial Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F.; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among…

  16. Functional outcomes of adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Costain, Gregory; Karas, Dominique; Ho, Andrew; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a common multisystem genomic disorder with congenital and later-onset manifestations, including congenital heart disease, intellectual disability, and psychiatric illness, that may affect long-term functioning. There are limited data on adult functioning in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Methods We used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to assess functioning in 100 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n = 46 male; mean age = 28.8 (standard deviation = 9.7) years) where intellect ranged from average to borderline (n = 57) to mild intellectual disability (n = 43). Results More than 75% of the subjects scored in the functional deficit range. Although personal, vocational, and financial demographics confirmed widespread functional impairment, daily living skills and employment were relative strengths. Intelligence quotient was a significant predictor (P < 0.001) of overall and domain-specific adaptive functioning skills. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of overall adaptive functioning, daily living skills, and socialization scores. Notably, congenital heart disease, history of mood/anxiety disorders, sex, and age were not significant predictors of functioning. Conclusion Despite functional impairment in adulthood that is primarily mediated by cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes, relative strengths in activities of daily living and employment have important implications for services and long-term planning. These results may help to inform expectations about outcomes for patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:22744446

  17. Domain Specific Attentional Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Joel P.; Chiodo, Renee; Mattei, Victoria; Simon, Tony J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the defining cognitive characteristics of the chromosome 22q deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2) is visuospatial processing impairments. The purpose of this study was to investigate and extend the specific attentional profile of children with this disorder using both an object-based attention task and an inhibition of return task. A group of…

  18. Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…

  19. Evidence for a new contiguous gene syndrome, the chromosome 16p13.3 deletion syndrome alias severe Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Oliver; Rasi, Sasan; Delicado, Alicia; Dyack, Sarah; Neumann, Luitgard M; Seemanová, Eva; Volleth, Marianne; Haaf, Thomas; Kalscheuer, Vera M

    2006-09-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a well-known autosomal dominant mental retardation syndrome with typical facial and skeletal abnormalities. Previously, we have reported two patients presenting with RSTS and additional clinical features including failure to thrive, seizures, and intractable infections (Bartsch et al. in Eur J Hum Genet 7:748-756, 1999). Recently we identified a third patient with this condition, termed here severe RSTS, or chromosome 16p13.3 deletion syndrome. The three patients died in infancy, and all displayed a specific mutation, a chromosomal microdeletion including the 3'-end of the CREBBP gene. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and closely spaced DNA probes, we characterized the deletion intervals in these patients and in three individuals with a deletion of CREBBP and typical RSTS. The deleted DNA segments were found to greatly vary in size, spanning from approximately 40 kb to >3 Mb. Four individuals, including the patients with severe RSTS, exhibited deletions containing gene/s in addition to CREBBP. The patients with severe RSTS all had deletions comprising telomeric neighbor genes of CREBBP, including DNASE1, a dominant gene encoding a nuclease that has been associated with systemic lupus erythematodes. Our findings suggest that severe RSTS is distinct from RSTS and represents a novel true contiguous gene syndrome (chromosome 16p13.3 deletion syndrome). Because of the risk of critical infections and high mortality rate, we recommend that the size of the deletion interval should be determined in CREBBP deletion-positive patients with RSTS, especially in young children. Further studies are needed to delineate the clinical spectrum of the new disorder and to clarify the role of DNASE1.

  20. Metyrosine in psychosis associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Carandang, Carlo G; Scholten, Monique C

    2007-02-01

    This report describes the use of metyrosine (Demser) in an adolescent male with psychosis associated with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial syndrome; VCFS), diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). He presented with multiple features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, including ventricular septal defect, palatal abnormalities, speech and motor delays, attention deficits, mood lability, and psychosis. After a failed trial of an atypical antipsychotic to address the psychosis, metyrosine was initiated, with significant reduction of psychotic symptoms and mood lability. Metyrosine treatment allowed this youth to live at home and to attend school, after months of recurrent psychiatric hospitalizations. The successful treatment of metyrosine for psychosis associated with VCFS represents a first in psychiatry, where a known biochemical abnormality in a psychiatric disorder was corrected by a treatment that targets the biochemical pathway, leading to reduction of psychiatric symptoms and improvement of functioning.

  1. Deletion of 7q33-q35 in a Patient with Intellectual Disability and Dysmorphic Features: Further Characterization of 7q Interstitial Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dilzell, Kristen; Darcy, Diana; Sum, John; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This case report concerns a 16-year-old girl with a 9.92 Mb, heterozygous interstitial chromosome deletion at 7q33-q35, identified using array comparative genomic hybridization. The patient has dysmorphic facial features, intellectual disability, recurrent infections, self-injurious behavior, obesity, and recent onset of hemihypertrophy. This patient has overlapping features with previously reported individuals who have similar deletions spanning the 7q32-q36 region. It has been difficult to describe an interstitial 7q deletion syndrome due to variations in the sizes and regions in the few patients reported in the literature. This case contributes to the further characterization of an interstitial distal 7q deletion syndrome. PMID:26064708

  2. Chronic granulomatous disease, the McLeod phenotype and the contiguous gene deletion syndrome-a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), a disorder of the NADPH oxidase system, results in phagocyte functional defects and subsequent infections with bacterial and fungal pathogens (such as Aspergillus species and Candida albicans). Deletions and missense, frameshift, or nonsense mutations in the gp91phox gene (also termed CYBB), located in the Xp21.1 region of the X chromosome, are associated with the most common form of CGD. When larger X-chromosomal deletions occur, including the XK gene deletion, a so-called "Contiguous Gene Deletion Syndrome" may result. The contiguous gene deletion syndrome is known to associate the Kell phenotype/McLeod syndrome with diseases such as X-linked chronic granulomatous disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. These patients are often complicated and management requires special attention to the various facets of the syndrome. PMID:22111908

  3. The use of two different MLPA kits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evers, L J M; Engelen, J J M; Houben, L M H; Curfs, L M G; van Amelsvoort, T A M J

    2016-04-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the most common recurrent copy-number variant disorder, caused by a microdeletion in chromosome band 22q11.2 and occurring with a population prevalence of 1 in 2000. Until today there has been no evidence that the size of the deletion has an influence on the clinical phenotype. Most studies report that 22q11DS is associated with mild or borderline intellectual disability. There are a limited number of reports on 22q11DS subjects with moderate or severe intellectual disability. In this study we describe 63 adult patients with 22q11DS, including 22q11DS patients functioning at a moderate to severe intellectual disabled level. Deletion size was established with an experimental Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) mixture (P324) in addition to the commonly used MLPA kit (P250). We compared deletion size with intellectual functioning and presence of psychotic symptoms during life. The use of the experimental MLPA kit gives extra information on deletion size, only when combined with the common MLPA kit. We were able to detect eleven atypical deletions and in two cases the deletion size was shorter than all other "typical ones". We conclude that the use of the experimental kit P324 gives extra information about the deletion size, but only when used together with the standard P250 kit. We did not found any relation of deletion size with intelligence or presence of psychosis. PMID:26921528

  4. Mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with combined features of Leigh and Pearson syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Blok, R.B.; Thorburn, D.R.; Danks, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a heteroplasmic 4237 bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in an 11 year old girl who has suffered from progressive illness since birth. She has some features of Leigh syndrome (global developmental delay with regression, brainstem dysfunction and lactic acidosis), together with other features suggestive of Pearson syndrome (history of pancytopenia and failure to thrive). The deletion was present at a level greater than 50% in skeletal muscle, but barely detectable in skin fibroblasts following Southern blot analysis, and only observed in blood following PCR analysis. The deletion spanned nt 9498 to nt 13734, and was flanked by a 12 bp direct repeat. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, NADH dehydrogenase subunits 3, 4L, 4 and 5, and tRNAs for glycine, arginine, histidine, serine({sup AGY}) and leucine({sup CUN}) were deleted. Southern blotting also revealed an altered Apa I restriction site which was shown by sequence analysis to be caused by G{r_arrow}A nucleotide substitution at nt 1462 in the 12S rRNA gene. This was presumed to be a polymorphism. No abnormalities of mitochondrial ultrastructure, distribution or of respiratory chain enzyme complexes I-IV in skeletal muscle were observed. Mitochondrial disorders with clinical features overlapping more than one syndrome have been reported previously. This case further demonstrates the difficulty in correlating observed clinical features with a specific mitochondrial DNA mutation.

  5. Genotype/phenotype correlation in women with nonmosaic X chromosome deletions and Turner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, A.R.

    1994-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a complex human developmental disorder associated with the absence of the second sex chromosome (monosomy X). Cardinal features of the Turner phenotype include high intrauterine lethality, growth retardation, gonadal failure, and the variable presence of specific somatic abnormalities such as webbed neck, lymphedema, and skeletal abnormalities. Recent observations support the hypothesis that the phenotype associated with monosomy X results from haploid dosage of genes common the X and Y chromosomes that escape X-inactivation ({open_quotes}Turner genes{close_quotes}). Apart from a locus causing short stature that maps to the pseudoautosomal region on the distal short arm, the location of X-linked Turner genes is not known. Karyotype/phenotype correlations in women with partial X deletions have been inconsistent. However, previous studies have focused on sporadic sex chromosome aberrations and may have been confounded by occult mosaicism. In addition, mapping of deletions was limited by the resolution of cytogenetic techniques. I am reexamining genotype/phenotype correlations in partial X monosomy, focusing on a subset of cases in which mosaicism is highly unlikely (e.g., unbalanced X-autosome translocations, familial X deletions), and using molecular techniques to map deletions. I have collected eight cases of nonmosaic X deletions in women with varied manifestations of Turner syndrome. Cytogenetic data suggests that genes responsible for Turner anatomic abnormalities may lie within a critical region of the very proximal portion of the short arm (Xp11). Molecular characterization of the deletions is in progress. Methods include (1) fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads from patient-derived cell lines, using cosmid probes that map to known locations on Xp, and (2) sequence tagged site (STS) content mapping of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted X chromosomes derived from these cell lines.

  6. Constitutional Ip36 deletion in a child with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Biegel, J.A.; Zackai, E.H.; Scher, C.D.; Emanuel, B.S. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia ); White, P.S.; Marshall, H.N.; Fujimori, Minoru; Brodeur, G.M. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a child with dysmorphic features, as well as developmental and growth delay, who developed neuroblastoma at 5 mo of age. Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes revealed an interstitial deletion of 1p36.1 [r arrow] 1p36.2, which was apparent only with high-resolution banding. Molecular analysis with a collection of polymorphic DNA probes for 1p confirmed an interstitial deletion involving subbands of 1p36. Deletions of this region are a common finding in neuroblastoma cells from patients with advanced stages of disease. Therefore, these results (a) suggest that constitutional deletion of this region predisposed the patient to the development of neuroblastoma and (b) support the localization of a neuroblastoma tumor-suppressor locus to 1p36. 48 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Comparison of phenotype in uniparental disomy and deletion Prader-Willi syndrome: Sex specific differences

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.; Langlois, S.; Robinson, W.P.

    1996-10-16

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) results primarily from either a paternal deletion of 15q11-q13 or maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. Birth parameters and clinical presentation of 79 confirmed UPD cases and 43 deletion patients were compared in order to test whether any manifestations differ between the two groups. There were no major clinical differences between the two classes analyzed as a whole, other than the presence of hypopigmentation predominantly in the deletion group. However, there was a significant bias in sex-ratio (P<.001) limited to the UPD group with a predominance (68%) of males. An equal number of males and females was observed in the deletion group. When analyzed by sex, several significant differences between the UPD and deletion groups were observed. Female UPD patients were found to be less severely affected than female deletion patients in terms of length of gavage feeding and a later onset of hyperphagia. Although these traits are likely to be influenced by external factors, they may reflect a milder presentation of female UPD patients which could explain the observed sex bias by causing under-ascertainment of female UPD. Alternatively, there may be an effect of sex on either early trisomy 15 survival or the probability of somatic loss of a chromosome from a trisomic conceptus. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Further delineation of 9q22 deletion syndrome associated with basal cell nevus (Gorlin) syndrome: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kayono; Yoshihashi, Hiroshi; Furuya, Noritaka; Adachi, Masanori; Ito, Susumu; Tanaka, Yukichi; Masuno, Mitsuo; Chiyo, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2009-03-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS; Gorlin syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by a predisposition to neoplasms and developmental abnormalities. BCNS is caused by mutations in the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene-1, PTCH1, which is mapped on chromosome 9q22.3. Nonsense, frameshift, in-frame deletions, splice-site, and missense mutations have been found in the syndrome. Haploinsufficiency of PTCH1, which is caused by interstitial deletion of 9q22.3, is also responsible for the syndrome. To date, 19 cases with interstitial deletion of long arm of chromosome 9 involving the region of q22 have been reported. We describe two unrelated patients with some typical features of BCNS associated with deletion of 9q21.33-q31.1 and determined the boundary of the deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The results showed that the size of deletions is between 15.33 and 16.04 Mb in patient 1 and between 18.08 and 18.54 Mb in patient 2. Although the size and breakpoints were different from those of previously reported cases, the clinical features are common to patients with 9q22 deletion associated with BCNS. Delineation of the 9q22 deletions and further consideration of the genes responsible for the characteristic manifestations may provide insight into this newly recognized deletion syndrome. PMID:19243411

  9. An Fgf8 Mouse Mutant Phenocopies Human 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah U.; Fotheringham, Lori K.; Brewer, Judson A.; Muglia, Louis J.; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Capecchi, Mario R.; Moon, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Deletion of chromosome 22q11, the most common microdeletion detected in humans, is associated with a life-threatening array of birth defects. Although 90% of affected individuals share the same three megabase deletion, their phenotype is highly variable and includes craniofacial and cardiovascular anomalies, hypoplasia or aplasia of the thymus with associated deficiency of T cells, hypocalcemia with hypoplasia or aplasia of the parathyroids, and a variety of central nervous system abnormalities. Because ablation of neural crest in chicks produces many features of the deletion 22q11 syndrome, it has been proposed that haploinsufficiency in this region impacts neural crest function during cardiac and pharyngeal arch development. Few factors required for migration, survival, proliferation and subsequent differentiation of pharyngeal arch neural crest and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme into their respective cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and glandular derivatives have been identified. However, the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and pharyngeal endoderm function is becoming increasingly clear. Fibroblast growth factor 8 is a signaling molecule expressed in the ectoderm and endoderm of the developing pharyngeal arches and known to play an important role in survival and patterning of first arch tissues. We demonstrate a dosage-sensitive requirement for FGF8 during development of pharyngeal arch, pharyngeal pouch and neural crest-derived tissues. We show that FGF8 deficient embryos have lethal malformations of the cardiac outflow tract, great vessels and heart due, at least in part, to failure to form the fourth pharyngeal arch arteries, altered expression of Fgf10 in the pharyngeal mesenchyme, and abnormal apoptosis in pharyngeal and cardiac neural crest. The Fgf8 mutants described herein display the complete array of cardiovascular, glandular and craniofacial phenotypes seen in human deletion 22q11 syndromes. This represents the first single gene

  10. Velopharyngeal Anatomy in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruotolo, Rachel A.; Veitia, Nestor A.; Corbin, Aaron; McDonough, Joseph; Solot, Cynthia B.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine H.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Cnaan, Avital; LaRossa, Don; Arens, Raanan; Kirschner, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common genetic cause of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising method for noninvasive, three-dimensional (3D) assessment of velopharyngeal (VP) anatomy. The purpose of this study was to assess VP structure in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome by using 3D MRI analysis. Design This was a retrospective analysis of magnetic resonance images obtained in patients with VPD associated with a 22q11.2 deletion compared with a normal control group. Setting This study was conducted at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, a pediatric tertiary care center. Patients, Participants The study group consisted of 5 children between the ages of 2.9 and 7.9 years, with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. All had VPD confirmed by nasendoscopy or videofluoroscopy. The control population consisted of 123 unaffected patients who underwent MRI for reasons other than VP assessment. Interventions Axial and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images with 3-mm slice thickness were obtained from the orbit to the larynx in all patients by using a 1.5T Siemens Visions system. Outcome Measures Linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of VP structures were obtained from the magnetic resonance images with VIDA image- processing software. Results The study group demonstrated greater anterior and posterior cranial base and atlanto-dental angles. They also demonstrated greater pharyngeal cavity volume and width and lesser tonsillar and adenoid volumes. Conclusion Patients with a 22q11.2 deletion demonstrate significant alterations in VP anatomy that may contribute to VPD. PMID:16854203

  11. Secondary Immunologic Consequences in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DiGeorge Syndrome/Velocardiofacial Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Zemble, R.; Prak, E. Luning; McDonald, K.; McDonald-McGinn, D.; Zackai, E.; Sullivan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that patients with Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (Ch22q11.2D) have an increased prevalence of atopic and autoimmune disease and this has been without explanation. We hypothesized that the increase in atopy was due to homeostatic proliferation of T cells leading to a Th2 skew. We performed intracellular cytokine staining to define Th1/Th2 phenotypes in toddlers (early homeostatic proliferation) and adults (post homeostatic proliferation) with this syndrome. To attempt to understand the predisposition to autoimmunity we performed immunophenotyping analyses to define Th17 cells and B cell subsets. Adult Ch22q11.2D patients had a higher percentage of IL-4+CD4+ T cells than controls. Th17 cells were no different in patients and controls. In addition, adult Ch22q11.2D syndrome patients had significantly lower switched memory B cells, suggesting a dysregulated B cell compartment. These studies demonstrate that the decrement in T cell production has secondary consequences in the immune system, which could mold the patients’ clinical picture. PMID:20472505

  12. Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

    2014-09-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice.

  13. The RAP1GA1 locus for human Rap1-GTPase activating protein 1 maps to chromosome 1p36.1-->p35.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J; Rubinfeld, B; Polakis, P G; McCormick, F; Cavenee, W K; Arden, K C

    1994-01-01

    Using a panel of somatic cell hybrids we have mapped the locus for Rap1-GTPase activating protein 1 (RAP1GA1) to human chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments independently confirmed the chromosomal localization and refined it to 1p36.1-->p35.

  14. Assignment of the human FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP) gene to chromosome 1p36 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.A.; Rosen, C.A.; Carter, K.C.

    1996-04-15

    This report describes the localization of the human FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP) gene to human chromosome 1p36 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This protein is the binding site for rapamycin and FK506, two potent immunosuppressive drugs. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes: Deletion quantitation with bivariate flow karyotyping allows mapping of patient breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, E.R.B.; Towbin, J.A. ); Engh, G. van den; Trask, B.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Bivariate flow karyotyping was used to estimate the deletion sizes for a series of patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes. The deletion estimates were used to develop an approximate scale for the genomic map in Xp21. The bivariate flow karyotype results were compared with clinical and molecular genetic information on the extent of the patients' deletions, and these various types of data were consistent. The resulting map spans >15 Mb, from the telomeric interval between DXS41 (99-6) and DXS68 (1-4) to a position centromeric to the ornithine transcarbamylase locus. The deletion sizing was considered to be accurate to [plus minus]1 Mb. The map provides information on the relative localization of genes and markers within this region. For example, the map suggests that the adrenal hypoplasia congenita and glycerol kinase genes are physically close to each other, are within 1-2 Mb of the telomeric end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, and are nearer to the DMD locus than to the more distal marker DXS28 (C7). Information of this type is useful in developing genomic strategies for positional cloning in Xp21. These investigations demonstrate that the DNA from patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes can be valuable reagents, not only for ordering loci and markers but also for providing an approximate scale to the map of the Xp21 region surrounding DMD. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Deletion of 19q13 reveals clinical overlap with Dubowitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Jill E; Williams, Simon G; Bhaskar, Sanjeev S; Bowers, Naomi; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Newman, William G

    2015-12-01

    Dubowitz syndrome is a presumed autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital abnormalities: microcephaly, learning and developmental delay, growth failure, and a predisposition to allergies and eczema. There have been more than 150 individuals reported to have this diagnosis, but no unifying genetic alteration has been identified indicating genetic heterogeneity. We report on a pair of monozygotic twins diagnosed clinically with Dubowitz syndrome by Professor Dubowitz over 30 years ago and identified to have a de novo heterozygous 3.2-Mb deletion at 19q13.11q13.12. Exome sequencing did not identify either a putative pathogenic variant on the trans allele supporting recessive inheritance or any other causative sequence variants. Comparison of the phenotype in our cases shows considerable overlap with the 19q13.11 microdeletion syndrome, suggesting that a subset of individuals diagnosed with Dubowitz syndrome may be due to deletions at 19q13. Our finding further reinforces the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of Dubowitz syndrome. PMID:26377242

  17. Christianson syndrome in a patient with an interstitial Xq26.3 deletion.

    PubMed

    Tzschach, Andreas; Ullmann, Reinhard; Ahmed, Alischo; Martin, Thomas; Weber, Georg; Decker-Schwering, Oliver; Pauly, Fernand; Shamdeen, Mohammed Ghiath; Reith, Wolfgang; Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    Interstitial deletions of chromosome band Xq26.3 are rare. We report on a 2-year-old boy in whom array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed an interstitial 314 kb deletion in Xq26.3 affecting SLC9A6 and FHL1. Mutations in SLC9A6 are associated with Christianson syndrome (OMIM 300243), a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) characterized by microcephaly, severe global developmental delay, ataxia and seizures. FHL1 mutations cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (OMIM 310300), X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy (XMPMA, OMIM 300696), scapuloperoneal myopathy (OMIM 300695), or reducing body myopathy (OMIM 300717, 300718). The clinical problems of the patient reported here comprised severe intellectual disability, absent speech, ataxia, epilepsy, and gastroesophageal reflux, and could mostly be attributed to SLC9A6 insufficiency. In contrast to the majority of reported Christianson syndrome patients who were microcephalic, this patient was normocephalic, but his head circumference had decelerated from the 50th centile at birth to the 25th centile at the age of 2 ²/¹² years. Muscle problems due to the FHL1 deletion are not to be expected before late childhood, which is the earliest age of onset for FHL1 associated Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. This patient broadens the spectrum of SLC9A6 mutations and contributes to the clinical delineation of Christianson syndrome. This is also the first patient with a deletion affecting both SLC9A6 and the complete FHL1 gene.

  18. The Neuropsychology of 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. A Neuropsychiatric Study of 100 Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklasson, Lena; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to study the impact of ASD/ADHD on general intellectual ability and profile, executive functions and visuo-motor skills in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). A secondary aim was to study if gender, age, heart disease, ASD, ADHD or ASD in combination with ADHD had an impact on general…

  19. Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome: Altered phenotype of a contiguous gene syndrome by the presence of a chromosomal deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, J.H.; Williams, P.G.; Yen, F.F.

    1994-09-01

    Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is characterized by craniofacial anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, polydactyly of the hands and feet, and variable syndactyly. Intellectual abilities are usually normal. Inheritance is in an autosomal dominant fashion. The disorder has been mapped to chromosome 7p13, suggesting that the condition represents a contiguous gene syndrome (CGS). A male infant presented with multiple congenital anomalies, including omphalocele, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, esotropia, broad thumbs and halluces, syndactyly, polydactyly of one foot, hypotonia and developmental delay. A de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 7p was detected, 46,XY,del(7)(p13p15). Although clinical findings in this case were reminiscent of GCPS, and the chromosomal abnormality included the region assigned to the candidate gene for this syndrome, additional physical abnormalities were present, as well as cognitive deficits. Some of these features have been previously described in patients with chromosomal deletions of 7p. The chromosomal abnormality in our case provides supportive evidence of the gene locus in GCPS, and that GCPS represents a new CGS. However, a larger deletion, extending beyond the limits of the gene, significantly altered the phenotype. Isolation of the gene responsible for GCPS, and identification of additional patients with chromosomal abnormalities in this region of chromosome 7, should help to provide more accurate genotype-phenotype correlations.

  20. Third case of 8q23.3-q24.13 deletion in a patient with Langer-Giedion syndrome phenotype without TRPS1 gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Pereza, Nina; Severinski, Srećko; Ostojić, Saša; Volk, Marija; Maver, Aleš; Dekanić, Kristina Baraba; Kapović, Miljenko; Peterlin, Borut

    2012-03-01

    Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS) is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 8q23.3-q24.11 involving TRPS1 and EXT1 genes. We report on a girl with LGS phenotype and a 7.5 Mb interstitial deletion at chromosome 8q23.3-q24.13. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) revealed a deletion encompassing only the EXT1 and not the TRPS1 gene. Even though the deletion of TRPS1 and EXT1 genes is responsible for craniofacial and skeletal features of LGS, there have been previous reports of patients with LGS phenotype and 8q24 deletions leaving the TRPS1 gene intact. To our knowledge, this is the third such case. Our patient differs from previously reported LGS patients without TRPS1 gene deletion in that she has the typical LGS facial dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities. However, the girl is of normal height and has only a mild developmental delay. Additionally, she has dyslalia and premature adrenarche classified as Tanner stage 3 premature pubarche which have not yet been described as features of LGS. We examine the molecular breakpoints and phenotypes of our patient and previously reported cases.

  1. Cognitive, Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome has become an important model for understanding the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental conditions, particularly schizophrenia which develops in about 20–25% of individuals with a chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion. From the initial discovery of the syndrome, associated developmental delays made it clear that changes in brain development were a key part of the expression. Once patients were followed through childhood into adult years, further neurobehavioural phenotypes became apparent, including a changing cognitive profile, anxiety disorders and seizure diathesis. The variability of expression is as wide as for the myriad physical features associated with the syndrome, with the addition of evolving phenotype over the developmental trajectory. Notably, variability appears unrelated to length of the associated deletion. Several mouse models of the deletion have been engineered and are beginning to reveal potential molecular mechanisms for the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes observable in animals. Both animal and human studies hold great promise for further discoveries relevant to neurodevelopment and associated cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21573985

  2. First Report of a Single Exon Deletion in TCOF1 Causing Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beygo, J; Buiting, K; Seland, S; Lüdecke, H-J; Hehr, U; Lich, C; Prager, B; Lohmann, D R; Wieczorek, D

    2012-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare craniofacial disorder characterized by facial anomalies and ear defects. TCS is caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene and follows autosomal dominant inheritance. Recently, mutations in the POLR1D and POLR1C genes have also been identified to cause TCS. However, in a subset of patients no causative mutation could be found yet. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability is high as is the variety of mainly family-specific mutations identified throughout TCOF1. No obvious correlation between pheno- and genotype could be observed. The majority of described point mutations, small insertions and deletions comprising only a few nucleotides within TCOF1 lead to a premature termination codon. We investigated a cohort of 112 patients with a tentative clinical diagnosis of TCS by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to search for larger deletions not detectable with other methods used. All patients were selected after negative screening for mutations in TCOF1, POLR1D and POLR1C. In 1 patient with an unequivocal clinical diagnosis of TCS, we identified a 3.367 kb deletion. This deletion abolishes exon 3 and is the first described single exon deletion within TCOF1. On RNA level we observed loss of this exon which supposedly leads to haploinsufficiency of TREACLE, the nucleolar phosphoprotein encoded by TCOF1.

  3. Copy number increase of 1p36.33 and mitochondrial genome amplification in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jae-Pil; Shim, Sung-Mi; Nam, Hye-Young; Baik, Seung-Youn; Kim, Jun-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2007-03-01

    Array CGH has been applied to detect chromosomal aberrations in cancer and genetic diseases. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B lymphocytes are transformed to continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), which are a very common genome resource for human genetic studies. We used bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array CGH to assess a chromosomal aberration of LCLs in EBV-induced B-cell transformation. At early passages, LCLs exhibited a greater copy number variation in 1p36.33 compared to primary B-cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the increase in the copy number in 1p36.33. Because a segment of 1p36.33 is nearly identical to a part of the mitochondrial DNA, this increase was attributed to an increase in the copy number of mitochondrial DNA. The expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes were elevated in the LCLs, which is consistent with the increased copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA, suggesting that increased mitochondrial biogenesis is indicative of the progression of EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. In addition, our array CGH of LCLs revealed potential copy number polymorphisms of chromosomal segments among Korean populations. Taken together, these findings suggest that LCLs in the early passages preserve the chromosomal integrity of primary B-cells at the cytogenetic level during EBV-transformed B-cell immortalization, except for a copy number variation in 1p36.33 due to increased mitochondrial DNA copy numbers. Thus, analyses of array CGH profiles of diseases should take into account the potential for copy number variation of 1p36.33.

  4. Molecular definition of 22q11 deletions in 151 velo-cardio-facial syndrome patients.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, C; Sirotkin, H; Pandita, R; Goldberg, R; McKie, J; Wadey, R; Patanjali, S R; Weissman, S M; Anyane-Yeboa, K; Warburton, D; Scambler, P; Shprintzen, R; Kucherlapati, R; Morrow, B E

    1997-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a relatively common developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies and conotruncal heart defects. Many VCFS patients have hemizygous deletions for a part of 22q11, suggesting that haploinsufficiency in this region is responsible for its etiology. Because most cases of VCFS are sporadic, portions of 22q11 may be prone to rearrangement. To understand the molecular basis for chromosomal deletions, we defined the extent of the deletion, by genotyping 151 VCFS patients and performing haplotype analysis on 105, using 15 consecutive polymorphic markers in 22q11. We found that 83% had a deletion and >90% of these had a similar approximately 3 Mb deletion, suggesting that sequences flanking the common breakpoints are susceptible to rearrangement. We found no correlation between the presence or size of the deletion and the phenotype. To further define the chromosomal breakpoints among the VCFS patients, we developed somatic hybrid cell lines from a set of VCFS patients. An 11-kb resolution physical map of a 1,080-kb region that includes deletion breakpoints was constructed, incorporating genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated by the hybridization selection method. The ordered markers were used to examine the two separated copies of chromosome 22 in the somatic hybrid cell lines. In some cases, we were able to map the chromosome breakpoints within a single cosmid. A 480-kb critical region for VCFS has been delineated, including the genes for GSCL, CTP, CLTD, HIRA, and TMVCF, as well as a number of novel ordered ESTs. PMID:9326327

  5. High-resolution cytogenetic mapping of the short arm of chromosome 1 with newly isolated 411 cosmid markers by fluorescence in situ hybridization: The precise order of 18 markers on 1p36.1 on prophase chromosomes and {open_quotes}stretched{close_quotes} DNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Ariyama, Takeshi; Inazawa, Johji; Abe, Toshihiko

    1995-01-01

    A high-resolution cytogenetic map of the short arm of chromosome 1 with newly isolated 411 cosmid markers was constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These markers were scattered throughout chromosome 1p, but they were preferentially concentrated on R-band dominant regions such as 1p36, 1p34, 1p32, 1p22, and 1p13. Among these markers, 197 were localized on chromosome band 1p36, a region frequently deleted in neuroblastoma. Of these, 18 were precisely ordered on 1p36.1 by multicolor FISH of prophase chromosomes and {open_quotes}stretched{close_quotes} DNAs as follows: 1pter-163-41-11-1-226-586-568-614-631-665-451-199-190-561-241-74-176-652-1cen. The high-density map of chromosome 1p constructed here can provide useful landmarks for constructing a contig map of the short arm of chromosome 1 with YACs and cosmid clones and will expedite the identification of breakpoints and/or tumor suppressor gene(s) associated with several types of malignant tumors that frequently exhibit chromosomal aberrations or deletions of chromosome 1p. 30 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. RAI1 variations in Smith–Magenis syndrome patients without 17p11.2 deletions

    PubMed Central

    Girirajan, S; Elsas, L; Devriendt, K; Elsea, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) (OMIM No 182290) is a mental retardation syndrome characterised by behavioural abnormalities, including self injurious behaviours, sleep disturbance, and distinct craniofacial and skeletal anomalies. It is usually associated with deletion involving 17p11.2 and is estimated to occur in 1/25 000 births. Heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation in retinoic acid induced 1 gene (RAI1) have been identified in individuals with phenotypic features consistent with SMS. RAI1 lies within the 17p11.2 locus, but these patients did not have 17p11.2 deletions. Objective: Analysis of four individuals with features consistent with SMS for variations in RAI1, using a polymerase chain reaction and sequencing strategy. None of these patients carry 17p11.2 deletions. Results: Two patients had small deletions in RAI1 resulting in frameshift and premature truncation of the protein. Missense mutations were identified in the other two. Orthologs across other genomes showed that these missense mutations occurred in identically conserved regions of the gene. The mutations were de novo, as all parental samples were normal. Several polymorphisms were also observed, including new and reported SNPs. The patients' clinical features differed from those found in 17p11.2 deletion by general absence of short stature and lack of visceral anomalies. All four patients had developmental delay, reduced motor and cognitive skills, craniofacial and behavioural anomalies, and sleep disturbance. Seizures, not previously thought to be associated with RAI1 mutations, were observed in one patient of the cohort. Conclusions: Haploinsufficiency of the RAI1 gene is associated with most features of SMS, including craniofacial, behavioural, and neurological signs and symptoms. PMID:15788730

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome after Operative Intervention for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, David Jeffrey; Goudy, Steven L.; Chinnadurai, Sivakumar; Wootten, Christopher Todd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is often warranted. In this patient population, VPI is characterized by poor palatal elevation and muscular hypotonia with an intact palate. We hypothesize that 22q11.2 deletion patients are at greater risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after surgical correction of VPI, due, in part, to their functional hypotonia, large velopharyngeal gap size, and the need to surgically obstruct the velopharynx. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome treated at a tertiary pediatric hospital between the years of 2002 and 2012. The incidence of VPI, need for surgery, post-operative polysomnogram, post-operative VPI assessment, and OSA treatments were evaluated. Results: Forty-three patients (18 males, 25 females, ages 1–14 years) fitting the inclusion criteria were identified. Twenty-eight patients were evaluated by speech pathology due to hypernasality. Twenty-one patients had insufficient velopharyngeal function and required surgery. Fifteen underwent pharyngeal flap surgery, three underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty, two underwent Furlow palatoplasty, and one underwent combined sphincter pharyngoplasty with Furlow palatoplasty. Of these, eight had post-operative snoring. Six of these underwent polysomnography (five underwent pharyngeal flap surgeries and one underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty). Four patients were found to have OSA based on the results of the polysomnography (average apnea/hypopnea index of 4.9 events/h, median = 5.1, SD = 2.1). Two required continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) due to moderate OSA. Conclusion: Surgery is often necessary to correct VPI in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Monitoring for OSA should be considered after surgical correction of VPI due to a high occurrence in this population. Furthermore, families should be counseled of the risk of OSA after surgery and the

  8. Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome: the first Italian case of BCOR and co-occurring OTC gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, C; Lombardo, B; Fabbricatore, C; Munno, C; Caliendo, I; Gallo, F; Pastore, L

    2015-04-01

    Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder affecting ocular, facial, dental and cardiac systems. The syndrome is an X-linked dominant trait and it might be lethal in males. This syndrome is usually caused by mutations in the BCL6 interacting co-repressor gene (BCOR). We described a female child with mild phenotype of oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis revealed a de novo heterozygous deletion in the Xp11.4 region of approximately 2.3 Mb, involving BCOR and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase (OTC) genes. The deletion observed was subsequently confirmed by real time PCR. In this study we report a first case with co-occurrence of BCOR and OTC genes completely deleted in OFCD syndrome.

  9. Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome: the first Italian case of BCOR and co-occurring OTC gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, C; Lombardo, B; Fabbricatore, C; Munno, C; Caliendo, I; Gallo, F; Pastore, L

    2015-04-01

    Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder affecting ocular, facial, dental and cardiac systems. The syndrome is an X-linked dominant trait and it might be lethal in males. This syndrome is usually caused by mutations in the BCL6 interacting co-repressor gene (BCOR). We described a female child with mild phenotype of oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis revealed a de novo heterozygous deletion in the Xp11.4 region of approximately 2.3 Mb, involving BCOR and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase (OTC) genes. The deletion observed was subsequently confirmed by real time PCR. In this study we report a first case with co-occurrence of BCOR and OTC genes completely deleted in OFCD syndrome. PMID:25620158

  10. Alagille syndrome with interstitial 20p deletion derived from maternal ins(7;20)

    SciTech Connect

    Pi-Hsien Li; San-Ging Shu; Ching-Shiang Chi

    1996-06-28

    We present a 6-year-old Chinese boy with Alagille syndrome and an interstitial 20p deletion, with a karyotype of 46,XY,der(20)dir ins(7;20)(q11.23;p11.23p12.2 or p12.2p13)mat. He had a peculiar face and suffered from congenital heart disease, growth retardation, severe cholestasis, hepatosplenomegaly, and impaired renal function. The karyotype of his mother showed a balanced translocation, 46,XX,dir ins(7;20)(q11.23; p11.23p12.2 or p12.2p13), and her phenotype was normal. His dead elder brother was highly suspected as another victim of Alagille syndrome. The findings in the present family suggested that if Alagille syndrome is a single gene defect, the putative gene responsible for the syndrome would not be located at the insertion breakpoints but located within the deletion extent. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  11. 22q11 deletion syndrome: a review of the neuropsychiatric features and their neurobiological basis

    PubMed Central

    Squarcione, Chiara; Torti, Maria Chiara; Di Fabio, Fabio; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by an autosomal dominant microdeletion of chromosome 22 at the long arm (q) 11.2 band. The 22q11DS is among the most clinically variable syndromes, with more than 180 features related with the deletion, and is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, accounting for up to 1%–2% of schizophrenia cases. In recent years, several genes located on chromosome 22q11 have been linked to schizophrenia, including those encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase and proline dehydrogenase, and the interaction between these and other candidate genes in the deleted region is an important area of research. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of some genes within the 22q11.2 region may contribute to the characteristic psychiatric phenotype and cognitive functioning of schizophrenia. Moreover, an extensive literature on neuroimaging shows reductions of the volumes of both gray and white matter, and these findings suggest that this reduction may be predictive of increased risk of prodromal psychotic symptoms in 22q11DS patients. Experimental and standardized cognitive assessments alongside neuroimaging may be important to identify one or more endophenotypes of schizophrenia, as well as a predictive prodrome that can be preventively treated during childhood and adolescence. In this review, we summarize recent data about the 22q11DS, in particular those addressing the neuropsychiatric and cognitive phenotypes associated with the deletion, underlining the recent advances in the studies about the genetic architecture of the syndrome. PMID:24353423

  12. Molecular Definition of the 22q11 Deletions in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Bernice; Goldberg, Rosalie; Carlson, Christine; Gupta, Ruchira Das; Sirotkin, Howard; Collins, John; Dunham, Ian; O'Donnell, Hilary; Scambler, Peter; Shprintzen, Robert; Kucherlapati, Raju

    1995-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a common genetic disorder among individuals with cleft palate and is associated with hemizygous deletions in human chromosome 22q11. Toward the molecular definition of the deletions, we constructed a physical map of 22q11 in the form of overlapping YACs. The physical map covers >9 cM of genetic distance, estimated to span 5 Mb of DNA, and contains a total of 64 markers. Eleven highly polymorphic short tandem-repeat polymorphic (STRP) markers were placed on the physical map, and 10 of these were unambiguously ordered. The 11 polymorphic markers were used to type the DNA from a total of 61 VCFS patients and 49 unaffected relatives. Comparison of levels of heterozygosity of these markers in VCFS patients and their unaffected relatives revealed that four of these markers are commonly hemizygous among VCFS patients. To confirm these results and to define further the breakpoints in VCFS patients, 15 VCFS individuals and their unaffected parents were genotyped for the 11 STRP markers. Haplotypes generated from this study revealed that 82% of the patients have deletions that can be defined by the STRP markers. The results revealed that all patients who have a deletion share a common proximal breakpoint, while there are two distinct distal breakpoints. Markers D22S941 and D22S944 appear to be consistently hemizygous in patients with deletions. Both of these markers are located on a single nonchimeric YAC that is 400 kb long. The results also show that the parental origin of the deleted chromosome does not have any effect on the phenotypic manifestation ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:7762562

  13. Deletion of locus D15S113 in a mother and son without features of Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelis, R.C.; Tarleton, J.C.; Donlon, T.A.; Simensen, R.J.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The minimal critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has been reported to include D15S74 (B1.5), D15S10 (TD3-21), and D15S113 (LS6-1). We report a mother and son who have deletions that include D15S113 but who do not have features of Angelman syndrome. D.H. is a 10-year-old white male referred for genetic evaluation due to mental retardation. He has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor dysmorphic features, including downslanting palpebral fissures, prominent nose, broad forehead, small chin, midface hypoplasia, and large ears. His mother (B.S.) has slightly downslanting palpebral fissures and a borderline intellectual deficit. Neither individual has the seizures, excessive laughter, hand clapping, ataxia or facial dysmorphism which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The linear order of probes mapping to 15q11-q13 is 15cen-D15S11-D15S13-D15S10-D15S113-GABRB3-D15S12-tel. The proximal border of the deletion in our patients lies between D15S10 and D15S113. The fact that these two individuals do not have Angelman syndrome, despite deletion of D15S113, suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region should be further refined to exclude the D15S113 locus. In addition, the findings of a more severe intellectual impairment in the son than in the mother suggests that the region immediately telomeric to the critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome may contain imprintable genes that influence intellectual function.

  14. Deletion at chromosome 16p13. 3 as a cause of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: Clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Hennekam, R.C.M.; Tilanus, M.; Boogaard, M.J.H. van den ); Hamel, B.C.J.; Voshart-van Heeren, H.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Beersum, S.E.C. van ); Breuning, M.H. )

    1993-02-01

    In the accompanying paper, a chromosomal localization of the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome by cytogenetic investigations with fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques at chromosome 16p13.3 is described. The authors investigated 19 of these patients and their parents (a) to ascertain the parental origin of the chromosome with the deletion in families where such a deletion was detected, (b) to disclose whether uniparental disomy plays a role in etiology, and (c) to compare clinical features in patients with a deletion to those in individuals in whom deletions were not detectable. Molecular studies showed a copy of chromosome 16 from each parent in all 19 patients. Uniparental disomy was also excluded for five other chromosome arms known to be imprinted in mice. None of the probes used for determining the origin of the deleted chromosome proved to be informative. The clinical features were essentially the same in patients with and without visible deletion, with a possible exception for the incidence of microcephaly, angulation of thumbs and halluces, and partial duplication of the halluces. A small deletion at 16p13.3 may be found in some patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Cytogenetically undetectable deletions, point mutations, mosaicism, heterogeneity, or phenocopy by a nongenetic cause are the most probable explanations for the absence of cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities in other patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. 26 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. PHF6 Deletions May Cause Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome in Females.

    PubMed

    Berland, S; Alme, K; Brendehaug, A; Houge, G; Hovland, R

    2011-09-01

    In a 16-year-old girl with intellectual disability, irregular teeth, slight body asymmetry, and striated skin pigmentation, highly skewed X-inactivation increased the likelihood of an X-linked cause of her condition. Among these, prominent supraorbital ridges and hearing loss suggested a filaminopathy, but no filamin A mutation was found. The correct diagnosis, Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS, MIM#301900), was first made when a copy number array identified a de novo 15-kb deletion of the terminal 3 exons of the PHF6 gene. In retrospect, her phenotype resembled that of males with BFLS. Such deletions of PHF6 have not been reported previously. This might be because PHF6 mutations are rarely looked for in females since classical BFLS so far has been thought to be a male-specific syndrome, and large PHF6 deletions might be incompatible with male fetal survival. If this is the case, sporadic BFLS could be more frequent in females than in males.

  16. Fifty microdeletions among 112 cases of sotos syndrome: Low copy repeats possibly mediate the common deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurotaki, Naohiro; Harada, Naoki; Shimokawa, Osamu; Miyake, Noriko; Kawame, Hiroshi; Uetake, Kimiaki; Makita, Yoshio; Kondoh, Tatsuro; Ogata, Tsutomu; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nagai, Toshiro; Ozaki, Takao; Touyama, Mayumi; Shenhav, Ruthie; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Medne, Livija; Shiihara, Takashi; Ohtsu, Shigeyuki; Kato, Zen-ichiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Nishimoto, Junji; Lev, Dorit; Miyoshi, Yoko; Ishikiriyama, Satoshi; Sonoda, Tohru; Sakazume, Satoru; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kurosawa, Kenji; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Ohta, Tohru; Kishino, Tatsuya; Niikawa, Norio; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2003-04-15

    Sotos syndrome (SoS) is an autosomal dominant overgrowth syndrome with characteristic craniofacial dysmorphic features and various degrees of mental retardation. We previously showed that haploin sufficiency of the NSD1 gene is the major cause of SoS, and submicroscopic deletions at 5q35, including NSD1, were found in about a half (20/42) of our patients examined. Since the first report, an additional 70 SoS cases consisting of 53 Japanese and 17 non-Japanese have been analyzed. We found 50 microdeletions (45 percent) and 16 point mutations (14 percent) among all the 112 cases. A large difference in the frequency of microdeletions between Japanese and non-Japanese patients was noted: 49 (52 percent) of the 95 Japanese patients and only one (6 percent) of the 17 non-Japanese had microdeletions. A sequence-based physical map was constructed to characterize the microdeletions. Most of the microdeletions were confirmed to be identical by FISH analysis. We identified highly homologous sequences, i.e., possible low copy repeats (LCRs), in regions flanking proximal and distal breakpoints of the common deletion. This suggests that LCRs may mediate the deletion. Such LCRs seem to be present in different populations. Thus the different frequency of microdeletions between Japanese and non-Japanese cases in our study may have been caused by patient-selection bias.

  17. miRNA-mediated risk for schizophrenia in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, the most common genomic disorder is a hemizygous deletion of a 1.5–3 Mb region of chromosome 22q11.2. The resultant 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can affect multiple organ systems, and most notably includes cardiac, craniofacial, and neurodevelopmental defects. Individuals with 22q11.2DS have a 20–25-fold risk of developing schizophrenia compared to individuals from the general population, making 22q11.2DS the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the deleted region includes DGCR8, a gene coding for a miRNA processing protein, the exact mechanism by which this deletion increases risk is unknown. Importantly, several lines of evidence suggest that miRNAs may modulate risk for schizophrenia in other, non-22q11.2DS populations. Here we present a theory which mechanistically explains the link between 22q11.2DS, miRNAs, and schizophrenia risk. We outline the testable predictions generated by this theory and present preliminary data in support of our model. Further experimental validation of this model could provide important insights into the etiology of both 22q11.2DS and more common forms of schizophrenia. PMID:23248646

  18. MECP2 deletions and genotype-phenotype correlation in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scala, Elisa; Longo, Ilaria; Ottimo, Federica; Speciale, Caterina; Sampieri, Katia; Katzaki, Eleni; Artuso, Rosangela; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; D'Ambrogio, Tatiana; Vonella, Giuseppina; Zappella, Michele; Hayek, Giuseppe; Battaglia, Agatino; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

    2007-12-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that represents one of the most common genetic causes of mental retardation in girls. MECP2 point mutations in exons 2-4 account for about 80% of classic Rett cases and for a lower percentage of variant patients. We investigated the genetic cause in 77 mutation-negative Rett patients (33 classic, 31 variant, and 13 Rett-like cases) by searching missed MECP2 defects. DHPLC analysis of exon 1 and MLPA analysis allowed us to identify the defect in 17 Rett patients: one exon 1 point mutation (c.47_57del) in a classic case and 16 MECP2 large deletions (15/33 classic and 1/31 variant cases). One identical intragenic MECP2 deletion, probably due to gonadal mosaicism, was found in two sisters with discordant phenotype: one classic and one "highly functioning" preserved speech variant. This result indicates that other epigenetic or genetic factors, beside MECP2, may contribute to phenotype modulation. Three out of 16 MECP2 deletions extend to the adjacent centromeric IRAK1 gene. A putative involvement of the hemizygosity of this gene in the ossification process is discussed. Finally, results reported here clearly indicate that MECP2 large deletions are a common cause of classic Rett, and MLPA analysis is mandatory in MECP2-negative patients, especially in those more severely affected (P = 0.044).

  19. Comparison of facial features of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) due to deletion 10p13-10pter with DGS due to 22q11 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Goodship, J.; Lynch, S.; Brown, J.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital anomaly consisting of cardiac defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathroid glands, and dysmorphic facial features. The majority of DGS cases have a submicroscopic deletion within chromosome 22q11. However there have been a number of reports of DGS in association with other chromosomal abnormalities including four cases with chromosome 10p deletions. We describe a further 10p deletion case and suggest that the facial features in children with DGS due to deletions of 10p are different from those associated with chromosome 22 deletions. The propositus was born at 39 weeks gestation to unrelated caucasian parents, birth weight 2580g (10th centile) and was noted to be dysmorphic and cyanosed shortly after birth. The main dysmorphic facial features were a broad nasal bridge with very short palpebral fissures. Echocardiography revealed a large subsortic VSD and overriding aorta. She had a low ionised calcium and low parathroid hormone level. T cell subsets and PHA response were normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed duplex kidneys and on further investigation she was found to have reflux and raised plasma creatinine. She had an anteriorly placed anus. Her karyotype was 46,XX,-10,+der(10)t(3;10)(p23;p13)mat. The dysmorphic facial features in this baby are strikingly similar to those noted by Bridgeman and Butler in child with DGS as the result of a 10p deletion and distinct from the face seen in children with DiGeorge syndrome resulting from interstitial chromosome 22 deletions.

  20. Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion or Turner Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, T. J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Ross, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor…

  1. Memory in Intellectually Matched Groups of Young Participants with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Those with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M.; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors…

  2. Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

  3. The human CHC1 gene encoding RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation) (CHC1) is localized to human chromosome 1p36.1

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, T.; Seino, H.; Seki, N. |; Hori, T.A.

    1994-10-01

    The human CHC1 gene encoding RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation) encodes a chromosomal protein of 45 kDa that has seven internal homologous repeats and functions as a guanine nucleotide releasing factor on the nuclear Ras-like small G protein. We report here the precise localization of the RCC1 gene to human chromosome 1p36.1. There is a conserved region of homology between the 1p36 region of human and a distal region of mouse chromosome 4. Thus, the assignment of the human gene encoding RCC1 adds another marker to the conserved region of homology between human chromosome 1p and mouse chromosome 4. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  4. [First two Mexican cases of monosomy 1p36: possible diagnosis in patients with mental retardation and dysmorphism].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Camilo E; Álvarez, Rosa M; Gómez-Laguna, Laura; Ramos, Sandra; González-Del Ángel, Ariadna

    2011-06-01

    It is calculated that distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 occurs in one out of every 5000 live births and causes approximately 1.2% of cases of mental retardation of unknown origin. This alteration usually cannot be detected in the standard karyotype, requiring molecular cytogenetic techniques for the diagnosis. In addition to the neurological manifestations, it may cause internal organs malformations, such as congenital heart disease, and a characteristic facial phenotype. This report describes the clinical and cytogenetic findings from the first two cases diagnosed in Mexico, confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization test, and compares them to those described in the literature. The probable subdiagnosis of this entity, the importance of improves its recognition and the useful data for the clinical suspicion are also discussed.

  5. Deletions at the SOX10 Gene Locus Cause Waardenburg Syndrome Types 2 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Bondurand, Nadege ; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence ; Stanchina, Laure ; Collot, Nathalie ; Baral, Viviane ; Marlin, Sandrine ; Attie-Bitach, Tania ; Giurgea, Irina ; Skopinski, Laurent ; Reardon, William ; Toutain, Annick ; Sarda, Pierre ; Echaieb, Anis ; Lackmy-Port-Lis, Marilyn ; Touraine, Renaud ; Amiel, Jeanne ; Goossens, Michel ; Pingault, Veronique 

    2007-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder that exhibits varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair and skin. Depending on additional symptoms, WS is classified into four subtypes, WS1–WS4. Absence of additional features characterizes WS2. The association of facial dysmorphic features defines WS1 and WS3, whereas the association with Hirschsprung disease (aganglionic megacolon) characterizes WS4, also called “Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease.” Mutations within the genes MITF and SNAI2 have been identified in WS2, whereas mutations of EDN3, EDNRB, and SOX10 have been observed in patients with WS4. However, not all cases are explained at the molecular level, which raises the possibility that other genes are involved or that some mutations within the known genes are not detected by commonly used genotyping methods. We used a combination of semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization to search for SOX10 heterozygous deletions. We describe the first characterization of SOX10 deletions in patients presenting with WS4. We also found SOX10 deletions in WS2 cases, making SOX10 a new gene of WS2. Interestingly, neurological phenotypes reminiscent of that observed in WS4 (PCWH syndrome [peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, WS, and Hirschsprung disease]) were observed in some WS2-affected patients with SOX10 deletions. This study further characterizes the molecular complexity and the close relationship that links the different subtypes of WS. PMID:17999358

  6. Large deletions encompassing the TCOF1 and CAMK2A genes are responsible for Treacher Collins syndrome with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Marie; Collet, Corinne; Verloes, Alain; Lambert, Laetitia; Herlin, Christian; Blanchet, Catherine; Sanchez, Elodie; Drunat, Séverine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Puechberty, Jacques; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

    2014-01-01

    Mandibulofacial dysostosis is part of a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of craniofacial development, which lead to malar and mandibular hypoplasia. Treacher Collins syndrome is the major cause of mandibulofacial dysostosis and is due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Usually patients with Treacher Collins syndrome do not present with intellectual disability. Recently, the EFTUD2 gene was identified in patients with mandibulofacial dysostosis associated with microcephaly, intellectual disability and esophageal atresia. We report on two patients presenting with mandibulofacial dysostosis characteristic of Treacher Collins syndrome, but associated with unexpected intellectual disability, due to a large deletion encompassing several genes including the TCOF1 gene. We discuss the involvement of the other deleted genes such as CAMK2A or SLC6A7 in the cognitive development delay of the patients reported, and we propose the systematic investigation for 5q32 deletion when intellectual disability is associated with Treacher Collins syndrome.

  7. Association Between Early-Onset Parkinson Disease and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Chow, Eva W. C.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Lang, Anthony E.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Clinical case reports of parkinsonism co-occurring with hemizygous 22q11.2 deletions and the associated multisystem syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), suggest that 22q11.2 deletions may lead to increased risk of early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). The frequency of PD and its neuropathological presentation remain unknown in this common genetic condition. OBJECTIVE To evaluate a possible association between 22q11.2 deletions and PD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational study of the occurrence of PD in the world’s largest cohort of well-characterized adults with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS (n = 159 [6 with postmortem tissue]; age range, 18.1–68.6 years) was conducted in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Rare postmortem brain tissue from individuals with 22q11.2DS and a clinical history of PD was investigated for neurodegenerative changes and compared with that from individuals with no history of a movement disorder. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A clinical diagnosis of PD made by a neurologist and neuropathological features of PD. RESULTS Adults with 22q11.2DS had a significantly elevated occurrence of PD compared with standard population estimates (standardized morbidity ratio = 69.7; 95% CI, 19.0–178.5). All cases showed early onset and typical PD symptom pattern, treatment response, and course. All were negative for family history of PD and known pathogenic PD-related mutations. The common use of antipsychotics in patients with 22q11.2DS to manage associated psychiatric symptoms delayed diagnosis of PD by up to 10 years. Postmortem brain tissue revealed classic loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in all 3 postmortem 22q11.2DS-PD cases. Typical α-synuclein–positive Lewy bodies were present in the expected distribution in 2 cases but absent in another. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that 22q11.2 deletions represent a novel genetic risk factor for early-onset PD with variable neuropathological

  8. Treacher Collins syndrome with a de Novo 5-bp deletion in the TCOF1 gene.

    PubMed

    Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yu; Chen, Suh-Jen; Yu, Ju-Shan

    2006-06-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with features including malar hypoplasia, micrognathia, microtia, downward slanting palpebral fissures, lower eyelid coloboma, conductive hearing loss, and cleft palate. TCS is caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene, which encodes the nuclear phosphoprotein treacle. Here, we describe a 1-day-old male infant with classical TCS presentation. A 5-bp deletion in exon 22 of the TCOF1 gene (3469del ACTCT) was found to cause a premature stop codon. This is the first report of TCOF1 gene mutation in the Taiwanese population.

  9. Definition of 5q11.2 microdeletion syndrome reveals overlap with CHARGE syndrome and 22q11 deletion syndrome phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Snijders Blok, Charlotte; Corsten-Janssen, Nicole; FitzPatrick, David R; Romano, Corrado; Fichera, Marco; Vitello, Girolamo Aurelio; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Schoots, Jeroen; Pfundt, Rolph; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; Hoefsloot, Lies; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2014-11-01

    Microdeletions of the 5q11.2 region are rare; in literature only two patients with a deletion in this region have been reported so far. In this study, we describe four additional patients and further define this new 5q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. A comparison of the features observed in all six patients with overlapping 5q11.2 deletions showed a phenotypic spectrum that overlaps with CHARGE syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome including choanal atresia, developmental delay, heart defects, external ear abnormalities, and short stature. No colobomas or abnormalities of semicircular canals and olfactory nerves were reported. Two male patients had genital abnormalities. We estimated a 2.0 Mb (53.0-55.0 Mb) Shortest Region of Overlap (SRO) for the main clinical characteristics of the syndrome. This region contains nine genes and two non-coding microRNAs. In this region DHX29 serves as the candidate gene as it encodes an ATP-dependent RNA-helicase that is involved in the initiation of RNA translation. Screening a small cohort of 14 patients who presented the main features, however, did not reveal any pathogenic abnormalities of DHX29.

  10. Mother-Child Interaction as a Window to a Unique Social Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Omri; Feldman, Ruth; Burg-Malki, Merav; Keren, Miri; Geva, Ronny; Diesendruck, Gil; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Mother-child interactions in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) were coded for maternal sensitivity/intrusiveness, child's expression of affect, levels of engagement, and dyadic reciprocity. WS children were found to express more positive emotions towards their mothers compared to 22q11.2DS children and those with…

  11. A Comparative Study of Cognition and Brain Anatomy between Two Neurodevelopmental Disorders: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda E.; Stevens, Angela; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Azuma, Rayna; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with intellectual disability, poor social interaction and a high prevalence of psychosis. However, to date there have been no studies comparing cognition and neuroanatomical characteristics of 22q11DS with other syndromes to investigate if the cognitive strengths and difficulties and…

  12. Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    de la Morena, M Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L; Dozmorov, Igor M; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S C

    2013-04-01

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance.

  13. Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de la Morena, M. Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Dozmorov, Igor M.; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R.; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M. Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3 Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance. PMID:23454892

  14. Practical guidelines for managing adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Butcher, Nancy J.; Costain, Gregory; Andrade, Danielle M.; Boot, Erik; Chow, Eva W.C.; Chung, Brian; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Faghfoury, Hanna; Fishman, Leona; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; George, Susan; Lang, Anthony E.; Repetto, Gabriela; Shugar, Andrea; Silversides, Candice; Swillen, Ann; van Amelsvoort, Therese; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans, estimated to affect up to 1 in 2,000 live births. Major features of this multisystem condition include congenital anomalies, developmental delay, and an array of early- and later-onset medical and psychiatric disorders. Advances in pediatric care ensure a growing population of adults with 22q11.2DS. Informed by an international panel of multidisciplinary experts and a comprehensive review of the existing literature concerning adults, we present the first set of guidelines focused on managing the neuropsychiatric, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, psychosocial, genetic counseling, and other issues that are the focus of attention in adults with 22q11.2DS. We propose practical strategies for the recognition, evaluation, surveillance, and management of the associated morbidities. PMID:25569435

  15. Detection of classical 17p11.2 deletions, an atypical deletion and RAI1 alterations in patients with features suggestive of Smith–Magenis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Gustavo H; Rodriguez, Jayson D; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Cao, Lei; Gamba, Bruno F; Carvalho, Daniel R; de Rezende Duarte, Andréa; Santos, Suely R; de Souza, Deise H; DuPont, Barbara R; Walz, Katherina; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Srivastava, Anand K

    2012-01-01

    Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder whose clinical features include mild to severe intellectual disability with speech delay, growth failure, brachycephaly, flat midface, short broad hands, and behavioral problems. SMS is typically caused by a large deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses multiple genes including the retinoic acid induced 1, RAI1, gene or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. Here we have evaluated 30 patients with suspected SMS and identified SMS-associated classical 17p11.2 deletions in six patients, an atypical deletion of ∼139 kb that partially deletes the RAI1 gene in one patient, and RAI1 gene nonsynonymous alterations of unknown significance in two unrelated patients. The RAI1 mutant proteins showed no significant alterations in molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Clinical features of patients with or without 17p11.2 deletions and mutations involving the RAI1 gene were compared to identify phenotypes that may be useful in diagnosing patients with SMS. PMID:21897445

  16. Cognitive-behavioral characteristics and developmental trajectories in children with deletion 11qter (Jacobsen syndrome), and their relation to deletion size.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Gene S

    2015-01-01

    Subtelomeric deletions represent an important class of abnormalities to be considered when investigating genetic links to intellectual disability (ID). One subtelomeric deletion found on the long arm of chromosome 11q produces a characteristic phenotype that includes ID and is often referred to as Jacobsen syndrome (JBS). Previously, researchers found an inverse relationship between IQ and deletion size. While useful, IQ does not provide a comprehensive picture of the cognitive-behavioral strengths and weaknesses in JBS, nor does it reveal how the profiles evolve as these individuals age. One purpose of this study was to confirm the relationship between IQ or adaptive behavior (DQ) and deletion size. We also examined cognitive-behavioral profiles of children with JBS and the extent to which they changed over time. Initially, at T1, we examined 10 children, ages 5-20 years, diagnosed with JBS. Cognitive ability was assessed with the Stanford-Binet (4th Edition). Adaptive behavoir was evaluated with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Eight children were reassessed 2 years later (T2). Results show a negative but non-significant correlation between IQ and deletion size. There was no statistically significant relationship between DQ and deletion size. As for our second aim, IQ and DQ scores were stable from T1 to T2. Cognitive profiles were not significantly different from T1 to T2. However, there were significant changes in adaptive behavior domain scores from T1 to T2. Lack of a significant relationship between cognitive-behavioral measures and deletion size, as well as changes in cognitive-behavioral profiles are discussed.

  17. Cognitive-behavioral characteristics and developmental trajectories in children with deletion 11qter (Jacobsen syndrome), and their relation to deletion size.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Gene S

    2015-01-01

    Subtelomeric deletions represent an important class of abnormalities to be considered when investigating genetic links to intellectual disability (ID). One subtelomeric deletion found on the long arm of chromosome 11q produces a characteristic phenotype that includes ID and is often referred to as Jacobsen syndrome (JBS). Previously, researchers found an inverse relationship between IQ and deletion size. While useful, IQ does not provide a comprehensive picture of the cognitive-behavioral strengths and weaknesses in JBS, nor does it reveal how the profiles evolve as these individuals age. One purpose of this study was to confirm the relationship between IQ or adaptive behavior (DQ) and deletion size. We also examined cognitive-behavioral profiles of children with JBS and the extent to which they changed over time. Initially, at T1, we examined 10 children, ages 5-20 years, diagnosed with JBS. Cognitive ability was assessed with the Stanford-Binet (4th Edition). Adaptive behavoir was evaluated with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Eight children were reassessed 2 years later (T2). Results show a negative but non-significant correlation between IQ and deletion size. There was no statistically significant relationship between DQ and deletion size. As for our second aim, IQ and DQ scores were stable from T1 to T2. Cognitive profiles were not significantly different from T1 to T2. However, there were significant changes in adaptive behavior domain scores from T1 to T2. Lack of a significant relationship between cognitive-behavioral measures and deletion size, as well as changes in cognitive-behavioral profiles are discussed. PMID:25425441

  18. Neuroimaging correlates of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: implications for schizophrenia research.

    PubMed

    Boot, E; van Amelsvoort, T A M J

    2012-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common known recurrent copy-number variant disorder. It is also the most common known genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. The greater homogeneity of subjects with schizophrenia in 22q11DS compared with schizophrenia in the wider non-deleted population may help to identify much needed information on neuroanatomical substrates, and neurochemical and neurofunctional mechanisms that may modulate the risk for schizophrenia. Identification of the underlying pathophysiology creates opportunities for developing genotype-specific, biology-based and targeted treatments to prevent, delay or minimize the severity of schizophrenia in both 22q11DS and the wider non-deleted population. This article reviews neuroimaging studies that focused on brain structure and function in this high-risk population, with particular attention to schizophrenia research. We also discuss the evidence on the role of candidate genes within the 22q11.2 region, with particular reference to catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH). PMID:23279171

  19. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome with an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M F; Gerresheim, F; Pfeiffer, A; Epplen, J T; Schatz, H

    2000-01-01

    Several pathways have been implicated in the etiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The observation of familial aggregation of PCOS is consistent with a genetic component of this disorder. We report on a 21-year-old woman with menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, elevated serum androgen levels and polycystic ovarian morphology on ultrasonography, meeting the diagnostic criteria of PCOS. A cytogenetic investigation was performed because of a congenital heart defect, craniofacial anomalies in infancy (quadricephaly with protruding forehead, flat nasal bridge, low set ears with attached earlobes, small mouth, high arched palate with submucous palatal cleft, retrognathia), broad neck, motor and speech developmental delay. Chromosomal analysis revealed an unbalanced interstitial deletion of one of the chromosomes 11 [del (11) (q21q23.1)]. Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 11 have been reported in at least 18 patients. Candidate genes for PCOS have not been suspected at this chromosomal location so far. Follistatin and CYP11A, the genes with the strongest evidence for linkage with PCOS, are located on chromosomes 5 and 15. In the chromosomal region deleted in our patient a progesterone receptor gene is located in band q22. Lowered progesterone receptor concentration is associated with retardation of endometrial development. A disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, due to a reduction of hypothalamic and pituitary progesterone receptors might be a component in the etiology of PCOS.

  20. Autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome associated with an 8.5 kb mtDNA single deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, A.; Casademont, J.; Cardellach, F.

    1996-05-01

    Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, neurosensory hearing loss, urinary tract abnormalities, and neurological dysfunction. The association of clinical manifestations in tissues and organs unrelated functionally or embryologically suggested the possibility of a mitochondrial implication in the disease, which has been demonstrated in two sporadic cases. Nonetheless, familial studies suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission, and recent data demonstrated linkage with markers on the short arm of human chromosome 4. The patient reported here, as well as her parents and unaffected sister, carried a heteroplasmic 8.5-kb deletion in mtDNA. The deletion accounted for 23% of mitochondrial genomes in lymphocytes from the patient and {approximately}5% in the tissues studied from members of her family. The presence of the deletion in the patient in a proportion higher than in her unaffected parents suggests a putative defect in a nuclear gene that acts at the mitochondrial level. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome associated with an 8.5-kb mtDNA single deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, A.; Casademont, J.; Saiz, A.; Cardellach, F.; Volpini, V.; Solans, A.; Tolosa, E.; Urbano-Marquez, A.; Estivill, X.; Nunes, V.

    1996-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, neurosensory hearing loss, urinary tract abnormalities, and neurological dysfunction. The association of clinical manifestations in tissues and organs unrelated functionally or embryologically suggested the possibility of a mitochondrial implication in the disease, which has been demonstrated in two sporadic cases. Nonetheless, familial studies suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission, and recent data demonstrated linkage with markers on the short arm of human chromosome 4. The patient reported here, as well as her parents and unaffected sister, carried a heteroplasmic 8.5-kb deletion in mtDNA. The deletion accounted for 23% of mitochondrial genomes in lymphocytes from the patient and approximately 5% in the tissues studied from members of her family. The presence of the deletion in the patient in a proportion higher than in her unaffected parents suggests a putative defect in a nuclear gene that acts at the mitochondrial level. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8651280

  2. Submicroscopic deletion of chromosome 16p13.3 in patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taine, L; Goizet, C; Wen, Z Q; Petrij, F; Breuning, M H; Aymé, S; Saura, R; Arveiler, B; Lacombe, D

    1998-07-01

    The Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a well-defined entity characterized by growth and mental retardation, broad thumbs and halluces, and typical face. The RTS locus was assigned to 16p13.3, and interstitial submicroscopic deletions of this region (RT1 cosmid, D16S237) were initially identified in 25% of RTS patients. The gene for the human CREB binding protein, the transcriptional coactivator CBP, is included in the RT1 cosmid, and mutations in CBP have recently been identified in nondeleted RTS patients. We investigated 30 French patients with RTS. Among these patients, 3 had the RT1 microdeletion (frequency 10%). There is no obvious phenotypic difference between the patients with and without the RT1 deletion. The RT1 probe appears useful for confirmation of the diagnosis but is of little interest as a screening tool. By pooling data including the previous series and our current series, the cumulative frequency of the 16p13.3 microdeletion is 11.9% (19 in 159). This frequency of approximately 12% deleted patients appears more accurate than the 25% previously reported. Molecular investigations of CBP are in process in our series to clarify the cause of RTS.

  3. Highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 region is implicated in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bieth, Eric; Eddiry, Sanaa; Gaston, Véronique; Lorenzini, Françoise; Buffet, Alexandre; Conte Auriol, Françoise; Molinas, Catherine; Cailley, Dorothée; Rooryck, Caroline; Arveiler, Benoit; Cavaillé, Jérome; Salles, Jean Pierre; Tauber, Maïthé

    2015-02-01

    The SNORD116 locus lies in the 15q11-13 region of paternally expressed genes implicated in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a complex disease accompanied by obesity and severe neurobehavioural disturbances. Cases of PWS patients with a deletion encompassing the SNORD116 gene cluster, but preserving the expression of flanking genes, have been described. We report a 23-year-old woman who presented clinical criteria of PWS, including the behavioural and nutritional features, obesity, developmental delay and endocrine dysfunctions with hyperghrelinemia. We found a paternally transmitted highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 gene cluster, the shortest described to date (118 kb). This deletion was also present in the father. This finding in a human case strongly supports the current hypothesis that lack of the paternal SNORD116 gene cluster has a determinant role in the pathogenesis of PWS. Moreover, targeted analysis of the SNORD116 gene cluster, complementary to SNRPN methylation analysis, should be carried out in subjects with a phenotype suggestive of PWS.

  4. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome caused by submicroscopic deletions within 16p13. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Breuning, M.H.; Dauwerse, H.G.; Fugazza, G.; Saris, J.J.; Spruit, L.; Winjnen, H.; Beverstock, G.C.; Ommen, G.J.B. van ); Tommerup, N. Avd. for Medisinsk Genetikk, Oslo ); Hagen, C.B. van der ); Imaizumi, Kiyoshi; Kuroki, Yoshikazu ); Boogaard, M.J. van den; Pater, J.M. de; Hennekam, R.C.M. ); Mariman, E.C.M.; Hamel, B.C.J. ); Himmelbauer, H.; Frischauf, A.M. ); Stallings, R.L. )

    1993-02-01

    The Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a well-defined complex of congenital malformations characterized by facial abnormalities, broad thumbs and big toes, and mental retardation. The breakpoint of two distinct reciprocal translocations occurring in patients with a clinical diagnosis of RTS was located to the same interval on chromosome 16, between the cosmids N2 and RT1, in band 16p13.3. By using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization, the signal from RT1 was found to be missing from one chromosome 16 in 6 of 24 patients with RTS. The parents of five of these patients did not show a deletion of RT1, indicating a de novo rearrangement. RTS is caused by submicroscopic interstitial deletions within 16p13.3 in approximately 25% of the patients. The detection of microdeletions will allow the objective confirmation of the clinical diagnosis in new patients and provides an excellent tool for the isolation of the gene causally related to the syndrome. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Chromosome 4q deletion syndrome: narrowing the cardiovascular critical region to 4q32.2-q34.3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenbo; Ahmad, Ayesha; Dagenais, Susan; Iyer, Ramaswamy K; Innis, Jeffrey W

    2012-03-01

    The 4q deletion syndrome is a rare chromosome deletion syndrome with a wide range of clinical phenotypes. There is limited clinical phenotype and molecular correlation for congenital heart defects (CHDs) reported so far for this region primarily because many cases are large deletions, often terminal, and because high-resolution array has not been reported in the evaluation of this group of patients. CHDs are reported in about 60% of patients with 4q deletion syndrome, occurring in the presence or absence of dHAND deletion, implying the existence of additional genes in 4q whose dosage influences cardiac development. We report an 8-month-old patient with a large mid-muscular to outlet ventricular septal defect (VSD), moderate-sized secundum-type atrial septal defect (ASD), thickened, dysplastic pulmonary valve with mild stenosis and moderate pulmonic regurgitation, and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Illumina CytoSNP array analysis disclosed a de novo, heterozygous, interstitial deletion of 11.6 Mb of genomic material from the long arm of chromosome 4, at 4q32.3-q34.3 (Chr4:167236114-178816031; hg18). The deleted region affects 37 RefSeq genes (hg18), including two provisional microRNA stemloops. Three genes in this region, namely TLL1 (Tolloid-like-1), HPGD (15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase), and HAND2 (Heart and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 2), are known to be involved in cardiac morphogenesis. This report narrows the critical region responsible for CHDs seen in 4q deletion syndrome. PMID:22302627

  6. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and 21q22.3 deletion.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Laura; Digilio, M Cristina; Lombardo, Antonietta; D'Elia, Gemma; Baban, Anwar; Capolino, Rossella; Petrocchi, Stefano; Russo, Serena; Sirleto, Pietro; Roberti, M Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Angioni, Adriano; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect (CHD), associated with extracardiac anomalies in the 15-28% of cases, in the setting of chromosomal anomalies, mendelian disorders, and organ defects. We report on a syndromic female newborn with HLHS and terminal 21q22.3 deletion (del 21q22.3), investigated by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using a panel of 26 contiguous BAC probes. Although rare, del 21q22.3 has been described in two additional patients with HLHS. In order to investigate the frequency and role of this chromosomal imbalance in the pathogenesis of left-sided obstructive heart defects, we screened for del 21q22.3 a series of syndromic and non-syndromic children with HLHS, aortic coarctation and valvular aortic stenosis, consecutively admitted to our hospital in a three-year period. Although none of the 56 analyzed patients were hemizygous for this region, the present case report and published patients argue that del 21q22 should be added to the list of chromosomal imbalances associated with HLHS. Accordingly, the presence of a cardiac locus mapping in the critical region cannot be excluded.

  7. Narrowing and genomic annotation of the commonly deleted region of the 5q- syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Boultwood, Jacqueline; Fidler, Carrie; Strickson, Amanda J.; Watkins, Fiona; Gama, Susana; Kearney, Lyndal; Tosi, Sabrina; Kasprzyk, Arek; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Jaju, Rina J.; Wainscoat, James S.

    2002-01-15

    The 5q syndrome is the most distinct of the myelodysplastic syndromes, and the molecular basis for this disorder remains unknown. We describe the narrowing of the common deleted region (CDR) of the 5q syndrome to the approximately 1.5-megabases interval at 5q32 flanked by D5S413 and the GLRA1 gene. The Ensemblgene prediction program has been used for the complete genomic annotation of the CDR. The CDR is gene rich and contains 24 known genes and 16 novel (predicted) genes. Of 40 genes in the CDR, 33 are expressed in CD34 cells and, therefore, represent candidate genes since they are expressed within the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment. A number of the genes assigned to the CDR represent good candidates for the 5q syndrome, including MEGF1, G3BP, and several of the novel gene predictions. These data now afford a comprehensive mutational/expression analysis of all candidate genes assigned to the CDR.

  8. 17q12 Deletion in a patient with Williams syndrome: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lilian; Samanich, Joy; Pan, Quilu; Mehta, Lakshmi; Marion, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a complex genomic disorder entailing distinctive facial dysmorphism, cardiovascular abnormalities, intellectual disabilities, unusual behavioral features, and a specific cognitive profile with considerable variability. Additional symptoms include endocrine abnormalities, renal anomalies and connective tissue disorders. We report a monozygotic twin patient with WS who presented with multicystic kidneys in the newborn period, and, in addition to the typical WS deletion at 7q11.23, was found to have a de novo 1.7 Mb deletion in the 17q12 region on microarray comparative genomic hybridization. The co-twin was selectively terminated at 23 wk of gestation after being diagnosed with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys and anhydramnios. Review of the literature shows that deletion of chromosome 17q12, encompassing hepatocyte nuclear factor 1beta gene, is associated with cystic renal disease and is the first recurrent genomic deletion associated with maturity onset diabetes of the young. In addition, reports of female reproductive tract malformations and patients with neurocognitive or psychiatric phenotypes have recently been described. This review of the literature summarizes 47 other cases involving 17q12 deletions with wide variability in phenotype, possibly suggesting a contiguous gene syndrome. It is likely that the additional 17q12 deletion has played a role in modifying the phenotype in our patient. This case highlights the importance of using array comparative genomic hybridization in the clinical setting to uncover the etiology of atypical findings in individuals with known microdeletion syndromes.

  9. An unusual clinical severity of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome caused by unmasked recessive mutation of CLN3.

    PubMed

    Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Debost-Legrand, Anne; Eymard-Pierre, Eléonore; Greze, Victoria; Kemeny, Stéphan; Gay-Bellile, Mathilde; Gouas, Laetitia; Tchirkov, Andreï; Vago, Philippe; Goumy, Carole; Francannet, Christine

    2014-03-01

    With the introduction of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) techniques in the diagnostic setting of patients with developmental delay and congenital malformations, many new microdeletion syndromes have been recognized. One of these recently recognized microdeletion syndromes is the 16p11.2 deletion syndrome, associated with variable clinical outcomes including developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and obesity, but also apparently normal phenotype. We report on a 16-year-old patient with developmental delay, exhibiting retinis pigmentosa with progressive visual failure from the age of 9 years, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified a 1.7-Mb 16p11.2 deletion encompassing the 593-kb common deletion (∼29.5 to ∼30.1 Mb; Hg18) and the 220-kb distal deletion (∼28.74 to ∼28.95 Mb; Hg18) that partially included the CLN3 gene. As the patient's clinical findings were different from usual 16p11.2 microdeletion phenotypes and showed some features reminiscent of juvenile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (JNCL, Batten disease, OMIM 204200), we suspected and confirmed a mutation of the remaining CLN3 allele. This case further illustrates that unmasking of hemizygous recessive mutations by chromosomal deletion represents one explanation for the phenotypic variability observed in chromosomal deletion disorders.

  10. 17q12 Deletion in a patient with Williams syndrome: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lilian; Samanich, Joy; Pan, Quilu; Mehta, Lakshmi; Marion, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a complex genomic disorder entailing distinctive facial dysmorphism, cardiovascular abnormalities, intellectual disabilities, unusual behavioral features, and a specific cognitive profile with considerable variability. Additional symptoms include endocrine abnormalities, renal anomalies and connective tissue disorders. We report a monozygotic twin patient with WS who presented with multicystic kidneys in the newborn period, and, in addition to the typical WS deletion at 7q11.23, was found to have a de novo 1.7 Mb deletion in the 17q12 region on microarray comparative genomic hybridization. The co-twin was selectively terminated at 23 wk of gestation after being diagnosed with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys and anhydramnios. Review of the literature shows that deletion of chromosome 17q12, encompassing hepatocyte nuclear factor 1beta gene, is associated with cystic renal disease and is the first recurrent genomic deletion associated with maturity onset diabetes of the young. In addition, reports of female reproductive tract malformations and patients with neurocognitive or psychiatric phenotypes have recently been described. This review of the literature summarizes 47 other cases involving 17q12 deletions with wide variability in phenotype, possibly suggesting a contiguous gene syndrome. It is likely that the additional 17q12 deletion has played a role in modifying the phenotype in our patient. This case highlights the importance of using array comparative genomic hybridization in the clinical setting to uncover the etiology of atypical findings in individuals with known microdeletion syndromes. PMID:27625814

  11. 7q11.23 deletions in Williams syndrome arise as a consequence of unequal meiotic crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Z.; Csiszar, K.; Boyd, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by mental retardation, a specific neurobehavioral profile, characteristic facies, infantile hypercalcemia, cardiovascular abnormalities, progressive joint limitation, hermas, and soft skin. Recent studies have shown that hemizygosity at the elastin (ELN) gene locus on chromosome 7q is associated with WS. Furthermore, two FISH studies using cosmid recombinants containing the 5{prime} or the 3{prime} end of the ELN gene revealed deletion of the entire ELN gene in 90%-96% of classical WS cases. However, the size of the 7q11.23 deletions and the mechanism by which these deletions arise are not known. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The Contribution of Whole Gene Deletions and Large Rearrangements to the Mutation Spectrum in Inherited Tumor Predisposing Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Miriam J; Urquhart, Jill E; Harkness, Elaine F; Miles, Emma K; Bowers, Naomi L; Byers, Helen J; Bulman, Michael; Gokhale, Carolyn; Wallace, Andrew J; Newman, William G; Evans, D Gareth

    2016-03-01

    Heterozygous whole gene deletions (WGDs), and intragenic microdeletions, account for a significant proportion of mutations underlying cancer predisposition syndromes. We analyzed the frequency and genotype-phenotype correlations of microdeletions in 12 genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2, NF1, NF2, APC, PTCH1, and VHL) representing seven tumor predisposition syndromes in 5,897 individuals (2,611 families) from our center. Overall, microdeletions accounted for 14% of identified mutations. As expected, smaller deletions or duplications were more common (12%) than WGDs (2.2%). Where a WGD was identified in the germline in NF2, the mechanism of somatic second hit was not deletion, as previously described for NF1. For neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, we compared the mechanism of germline deletion. Unlike NF1, where three specific deletion sizes account for most germline WGDs, NF2 deletion breakpoints were different across seven samples tested. One of these deletions was 3.93 Mb and conferred a severe phenotype, thus refining the region for a potential NF2 modifier gene to a 2.04-Mb region on chromosome 22. The milder phenotype of NF2 WGDs may be due to the apparent absence of chromosome 22 loss as the second hit. These observations of WGD phenotypes will be helpful for interpreting incidental findings from microarray analysis and next-generation sequencing. PMID:26615784

  13. Deletion 2q37 syndrome: Cognitive-behavioral trajectories and autistic features related to breakpoint and deletion size.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Gene S; Falk, Rena E; Carey, John C; Imitola, Jaime; Sederberg, Maria; Caravalho, Karen S; South, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Subtelomeric deletions have been reported in ∼2.5% of individuals with developmental disabilities. Subtelomeric deletion 2q37 has been detected in many individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previously, genotype-phenotype correspondences were examined for their relationship to breakpoints 37.1, 37.2, or 37.3. Our purpose was to ascertain whether there were phenotypic differences at these breakpoints, elucidate the cognitive-behavioral phenotype in del2q37, and examine the genotype-phenotype association in the deletion with respect to cognitive-behavioral profiles and ASD. We administered a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral battery to nine children diagnosed with del 2q37, ages 3.9-17.75 years. ID for five tested with the Stanford-Binet (4th Edition) (SBFE) ranged from severe to mild [IQ Range: 36-59]. Adaptive behavior scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) were much below adequate levels (DQ Range: floor value ["19"] to 55). Autism scores from the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS) ranged from 22 [non-autistic] to 56 [extremely autistic]; 5/8 [63%] children received scores on the autism spectrum. Participants with the largest deletions, 10.1 and 9.5 Mb, attained the highest IQ and DQ scores while those with the smallest deletions, 7.9 and 6.6 Mb, made the lowest IQ and DQ scores. No association between deletion breakpoint and phenotype were found. Assessment of the various deleted regions suggested histone deacetylase 4 gene (HDAC4) was a likely candidate gene for ASD in our sample. However, two earlier reports found no association between HDAC4 haploinsufficiency and ASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27282419

  14. Deletion 2q37 syndrome: Cognitive-behavioral trajectories and autistic features related to breakpoint and deletion size.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Gene S; Falk, Rena E; Carey, John C; Imitola, Jaime; Sederberg, Maria; Caravalho, Karen S; South, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Subtelomeric deletions have been reported in ∼2.5% of individuals with developmental disabilities. Subtelomeric deletion 2q37 has been detected in many individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previously, genotype-phenotype correspondences were examined for their relationship to breakpoints 37.1, 37.2, or 37.3. Our purpose was to ascertain whether there were phenotypic differences at these breakpoints, elucidate the cognitive-behavioral phenotype in del2q37, and examine the genotype-phenotype association in the deletion with respect to cognitive-behavioral profiles and ASD. We administered a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral battery to nine children diagnosed with del 2q37, ages 3.9-17.75 years. ID for five tested with the Stanford-Binet (4th Edition) (SBFE) ranged from severe to mild [IQ Range: 36-59]. Adaptive behavior scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) were much below adequate levels (DQ Range: floor value ["19"] to 55). Autism scores from the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS) ranged from 22 [non-autistic] to 56 [extremely autistic]; 5/8 [63%] children received scores on the autism spectrum. Participants with the largest deletions, 10.1 and 9.5 Mb, attained the highest IQ and DQ scores while those with the smallest deletions, 7.9 and 6.6 Mb, made the lowest IQ and DQ scores. No association between deletion breakpoint and phenotype were found. Assessment of the various deleted regions suggested histone deacetylase 4 gene (HDAC4) was a likely candidate gene for ASD in our sample. However, two earlier reports found no association between HDAC4 haploinsufficiency and ASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. CD5+ true SLL/CLL with plasmacytic differentiation and an unusual 1p36 translocation: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Evans, H L; Polski, J M; Deshpande, V; Dunphy, C H

    2000-11-01

    Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL)are distinct clinicopathologic entities. Although some cases of SLL/CLL may show plasmacytic differentiation and be associated with monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum, such cases appear to be very rare, and if plasma cell differentiation were marked, differentiation of SLL/CLL from LPL could be difficult. We report a rare case of true CD5-positive small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia with unequivocal plasmacytic differentiation. This case also showed an abnormality of chromosome 1p36 not previously described in small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  16. The gene for PAX7, a member of the paired-box-containing genes, is localized on human chromosome arm 1p36

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.N.; Morris, S.W. Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN ); Sublett, J.E.; Li, Baitao; Valentine, M.B. ); Noll, M. )

    1993-09-01

    The murine Pax-7 gene and the cognate human gene, formerly designated HuP1, are members of the multigene paired-box-containing class of developmental regulatory genes first identified in Drosophila. By analysis of somatic cell hybrids segregating human chromosomes, the gene encoding PAX7 was localized to human chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed this assignment and allowed mapping of the gene to the terminal region of the short arm (1p36) of the extensive homology between human chromosome 1p and the distal segment of mouse chromosome 4, extending from bands C5 through E2. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15: Report of three cases and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Chitayat, D.; Babul, R.; Teshima, I.E.

    1995-01-16

    We report on two boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4 including the segment p15.2p15.33. All had normal growth with psychomotor retardation, multiple minor congenital anomalies, and a characteristic face distinct from that of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. One of the patients had congenitally enlarged penis. These patients resemble some of the previously reported patients with similar cytogenetic abnormalities and suggests the recognition of a specific clinical chromosome deletion syndrome. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Deletion of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) in Prader-Willi syndrome detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization: Two sibs with the typical phenotype without a cytogenetic deletion in chromosome 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kibe, Tetsuya; Wada, Yoshiro

    1996-04-24

    The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) gene is regarded as one of the candidates for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We describe two sibs with typical PWS presenting deletion of SNRPN detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Neither a cytogenetically detectable 15q12 deletion nor a deletion for the D15S11, D15S10, and GABRB3 cosmid probes were found in either patient. This implies a smaller deletion limited to the PWS critical region. FISH with a SNRPN probe will permit analysis of PWS patients with limited deletions not detectable with other probes. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  19. A coalescence of two syndromes in a girl with terminal deletion and inverted duplication of chromosome 5

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rearrangements involving chromosome 5p often result in two syndromes, Cri-du-chat (CdC) and Trisomy 5p, caused by a deletion and duplication, respectively. The 5p15.2 has been defined as a critical region for CdC syndrome; however, genotype-phenotype studies allowed isolation of particular characteristics such as speech delay, cat-like cry and mental retardation, caused by distinct deletions of 5p. A varied clinical outcome was also observed in patients with Trisomy 5p. Duplications of 5p10-5p13.1 manifest themselves in a more severe phenotype, while trisomy of regions distal to 5p13 mainly causes mild and indistinct features. Combinations of a terminal deletion and inverted duplication of 5p are infrequent in literature. Consequences of these chromosomal rearrangements differ, depending on size of deletion and duplication in particular cases, although authors mainly describe the deletion as the cause of the observed clinical picture. Case presentation Here we present a 5-month-old Slovenian girl, with de novo terminal deletion and inverted duplication of chromosome 5p. Our patient presents features of both CdC and Trisomy 5. The most prominent features observed in our patient are a cat-like cry and severe malformations of the right ear. Conclusion The cat-like cry, characteristic of CdC syndrome, is noted in our patient despite the fact that the deletion is not fully consistent with previously defined cat-like cry critical region in this syndrome. Features like dolichocephaly, macrocephaly and ear malformations, associated with duplication of the critical region of Trisomy 5p, are also present, although this region has not been rearranged in our case. Therefore, the true meaning of the described chromosomal rearrangements is discussed. PMID:24517234

  20. An atypical case of fragile X syndrome caused by a deletion that includes the FMR-1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, F.; Johnson, D.B.; Anoe, K.S.

    1994-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome results from the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR-1 gene. This is commonly caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the FMR-1 gene. We describe here an atypical case of fragile X syndrome caused by a deletion that includes the FMR-1 gene. RK is a 6-year-old hyperactive, mentally retarded male. Southern analysis of PstI digested genomic DNA was performed using a 558 bp XhoI-PstI fragment specific for the 5`-end of the FMR-1 gene. This analysis revealed the absence of the normal 1.0 kb PstI fragment, indicating the deletion of at least a portion of the FMR-1 gene. PCR analysis using Xq27.3 microsatellite and STS markers confirmed the presence of a deletion of at least 600 kb encompassing the FMR-1 gene. Southern blot and PCR analysis demonstrated that this deletion was maternally transmitted and arose as a new mutation on the grandpaternal X-chromosome. High resolution chromosome banding revealed an extremely small deletion of a portion of band Xq27 which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridrization (FISH) analysis using a 34 kb cosmid containing the FMR-1 gene. As expected, RK manifests physical features typical of fragile X syndrome, including a high arched palate, prognathism, and large ears. Interestingly, RK also presents with anal atresia, obesity and short stature, features not part of fragile X syndrome. In addition, RK has normal sized testicles and does not exhibit the characteristic gaze avoidance, hand-flapping, and crowd anxiety behaviors. These atypical features may result from the deletion of additional genes in the vicinity of the FMR-1 gene. Further work is underway to determine more precisely the extent of the deletion in RK`s DNA.

  1. Cognitive phenotype and psychiatric disorder in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Asit B; Furniss, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, frequently includes intellectual disability (ID) together with high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Candidate cognitive endophenotypes include problems with retrieval of contextual information from memory and in executive control and focussing of attention. 22q11DS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of psychiatric disorder. This paper reviews research on the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and the development of psychiatric disorders in 22q11DS. Aspects of cognitive function including verbal I.Q., visual memory, and executive function, are associated with mental health outcome in people with 22q11DS. This relationship may result from a common neurobiological basis for the cognitive difficulties and psychiatric disorders. Some of the cognitive difficulties experienced by people with 22q11DS, especially in attention, memory retrieval, and face processing, may, however, in themselves constitute risk factors for development of hallucinations and paranoid delusions. Future research into factors leading to psychiatric disorder in people with 22q11DS should include assessment of social and psychological factors including life events, symptoms associated with trauma, attachment, and self-esteem, which together with cognitive risk factors may mediate mental health outcome. PMID:26942704

  2. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in African-American patients: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Veerapandiyan, Aravindhan; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Adam, Margaret P; Lyons, Michael J; Manning, Melanie; Coleman, Karlene; Kobrynski, Lisa; Taneja, Deeksha; Schoch, Kelly; Zimmerman, Holly H; Shashi, Vandana

    2011-09-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with numerous and variable clinical manifestations including conotruncal heart abnormalities, palatal anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, immune deficiency, and cognitive deficits. The clinical suspicion of this syndrome is often heightened by the presence of characteristic facial features. A previous report highlighted the under-diagnosis of this condition in African Americans, thought to be related to a paucity of typical facial features. We ascertained the largest cohort (n = 50) of African-American individuals with 22q11DS reported thus far, across five genetics centers in the United States and report on their facial and other phenotypic features. About 3/4 of our cohort has at least one dysmorphic facial feature. Auricular abnormalities, especially small ears, are the most common dysmorphic facial feature followed by nasal and ocular abnormalities. Skeletal findings are seen in about 2/3 of our cohort, higher than the typical frequency reported in 22q11DS. Cardiac anomalies, developmental delay, and palatal abnormalities are seen at a lower frequency in our cohort. Thus, it is evident that the features traditionally associated with 22q11DS are difficult to recognize in African-American individuals with this syndrome, due to both altered frequencies of major anomalies and a non-classic facial appearance. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is needed to recognize 22q11DS in African-American individuals. PMID:21834039

  3. Temporal Lobe Anatomy and Psychiatric Symptoms in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Miller, Adam M.; Abdulsabur, Nuria; Antshel, Kevin M.; Conchelos, Jena; Fremont, Wanda; Roizen, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between mesial temporal lobe morphology, ratios of prefrontal cortex to amygdala and hippocampus volumes, and psychiatric symptomatology in children and adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Method: Scores on behavioral rating scales and volumetric measures of the amygdala, hippocampus, and…

  4. Independent De Novo 22q11.2 Deletions in First Cousins With DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saitta, Sulagna C.; Harris, Stacy E.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Tonnesen, Melissa K.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Seitz, Suzanne C.; Driscoll, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 22q11.2 are found in the vast majority of patients with DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS). This most frequent microdeletion syndrome is estimated to occur in 1 in 4,000 live births. The majority of deletions are de novo, with 10% or less inherited from an affected parent. Here, we report two separate families with recurrence of a 22q11.2 deletion in first cousins. In each family, unaffected siblings (brother and sister) had an affected child. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies of the parents of each affected child were normal and hence, relatives were not considered at an increased risk for recurrence in another pregnancy. We used highly polymorphic microsatellite repeat markers from within 22q11.2 to determine the parental origin of each cousin’s deletion and to assess whether parental germline mosaicism for the 22q11.2 deletion might be a factor in these cases. This analysis confirmed that in each case, the deletion occurred on a chromosome 22 derived from unrelated parents, consistent with independent de novo deletion events. Thus, we concluded that germline mosaicism as the underlying mechanism for affected cousins in these families was unlikely. Our findings underscore the high frequency with which the 22q11.2 deletion occurs in the general population and demonstrate the important role that PCR-based parental origin determination can have in recurrence risk counselling. Furthermore, relatives of affected individuals may benefit from genetic counselling and consider prenatal testing for the 22q11.2 deletion in future pregnancies, despite a low recurrence risk. PMID:14708107

  5. Genome-wide scan for serum ghrelin detects linkage on chromosome 1p36 in Hispanic children: results from the Viva La Familia study.

    PubMed

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Göring, Harald H H; Diego, Vincent P; Cai, Guowen; Mehta, Nitesh R; Haack, Karin; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2007-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate genetic influence on serum ghrelin and its relationship with adiposity-related phenotypes in Hispanic children (n=1030) from the Viva La Familia study (VFS). Anthropometric measurements and levels of serum ghrelin were estimated and genetic analyses conducted according to standard procedures. Mean age, body mass index (BMI), and serum ghrelin were 11+/-0.13 y, 25+/-0.24 kg/m2 and 38+/-0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Significant heritabilities (p<0.001) were obtained for BMI, weight, fat mass, percent fat, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and ghrelin. Bivariate analyses of ghrelin with adiposity traits showed significant negative genetic correlations (p<0.0001) with weight, BMI, fat mass, percent fat, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. A genome-wide scan for ghrelin detected significant linkage on chromosome 1p36.2 between STR markers D1S2697 and D1S199 (LOD=3.2). The same region on chromosome 1 was the site of linkage for insulin (LOD=3.3), insulinlike growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) (LOD=3.4), homeostatic model assessment method (HOMA) (LOD=2.9), and C-peptide (LOD=2.0). Several family-based studies have reported linkages for obesity-related phenotypes in the region of 1p36. These results indicate the importance of this region in relation to adiposity in children from the VFS.

  6. 8p23.1 Interstitial Deletion in a Patient with Congenital Cardiopathy, Neurobehavioral Disorders, and Minor Signs Suggesting 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molck, Miriam C; Monteiro, Fabíola P; Simioni, Milena; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L

    2015-09-01

    Copy number variation studies of known disorders have the potential to improve the characterization of clinical phenotypes and may help identifying candidate genes and their pathways. The authors described a child with congenital heart disease, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, developmental delay, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. There was initially a clinical suspicion of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS), but molecular cytogenetic analysis (array genomic hybridization [aGH]) showed the presence of a de novo 3.6-Mb interstitial microdeletion in 8p23.1. The main features of 8p23.1 DS include congenital heart disease and behavioral problems, in addition to minor dysmorphisms and mental delay. Therefore, this article highlights the application of aGH to investigate 8p23.1 deletion in nonconfirmed 22q11.2 DS patients presenting neurobehavioral disorders, congenital cardiopathy, and minor dysmorphisms.

  7. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  8. Disrupted anatomic networks in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J Eric; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica E; Ruparel, Kosha; Roalf, David R; Cassidy, Amy; Souders, Margaret C; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Gur, Ruben C; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Raquel E

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an uncommon genetic disorder with an increased risk of psychosis. Although the neural substrates of psychosis and schizophrenia are not well understood, aberrations in cortical networks represent intriguing potential mechanisms. Investigations of anatomic networks within 22q11DS are sparse. We investigated group differences in anatomic network structure in 48 individuals with 22q11DS and 370 typically developing controls by analyzing covariance patterns in cortical thickness among 68 regions of interest using graph theoretical models. Subjects with 22q11DS had less robust geographic organization relative to the control group, particularly in the occipital and parietal lobes. Multiple global graph theoretical statistics were decreased in 22q11DS. These results are consistent with prior studies demonstrating decreased connectivity in 22q11DS using other neuroimaging methodologies. PMID:27622139

  9. Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ling M; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. We examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with 22q11.2DS (n = 47) and typically developing controls (n = 49) ages 6–15 years saw images within a grid and after a delay, then indicated the positions of the images in the correct temporal order. Children with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than controls. Females with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than males. These results extend findings of impaired spatiotemporal processing into the memory domain in 22q11.2DS by documenting their influence on working memory performance. PMID:24679349

  10. Molecular characterization of two proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, S.L.; Huang, B.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct mental retardation syndromes caused by paternal and maternal deficiencies, respectively, in chromosome 15q11{minus}q13. Approximately 70% of these patients have a large deletion of {approximately}4 Mb extending from D15S9 (ML34) through D15S12 (IR10A). To further characterize the deletion breakpoints proximal to D15S9, three new polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed that showed observed heterozygosities of 60%-87%. D15S541 and D15S542 were isolated for YAC A124A3 containing the D15S18 (IR39) locus. D15S543 was isolated from a cosmid cloned from the proximal right end of YAC 254B5 containing the D15S9 (ML34) locus. Gene-centromere mapping of these markers, using a panel of ovarian teratomas of known meiotic origin, extended the genetic map of chromosome 15 by 2-3 cM toward the centromere. Analysis of the more proximal S541/S542 markers on 53 Prader-Willi and 33 Angelman deletion patients indicated two classes of patients: 44% (35/80) of the informative patients were deleted for these markers (class I), while 56% (45/80) were not deleted (class II), with no difference between PWS and AS. In contrast, D15S543 was deleted in all informative patients (13/48) or showed the presence of a single allele (in 35/48 patients), suggesting that this marker is deleted in the majority of PWS and AS cases. These results confirm the presence of two common proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and are consistent with the same deletion mechanism being responsible for paternal and maternal deletions. One breakpoint region lies between D15S541/S542 and D15S543, with an additional breakpoint region being proximal to D15S541/S542. 46 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Psychiatric Disorders From Childhood to Adulthood in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Bassett, Anne S.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.; Owen, Michael; Murphy, Kieran C.; Niarchou, Maria; Kates, Wendy R.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Gur, Raquel E.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Vorstman, Jacob; Duijff, Sasja N.; Klaassen, Petra W.J.; Swillen, Ann; Gothelf, Doron; Green, Tamar; Weizman, Abraham; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Evers, Laurens; Boot, Erik; Shashi, Vandana; Hooper, Stephen R.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Murphy, Declan G.; Ousley, Opal; Campbell, Linda E.; Simon, Tony J.; Eliez, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder associated with high rates of schizophrenia and other psychiatric conditions. The authors report what is to their knowledge the first large-scale collaborative study of rates and sex distributions of psychiatric disorders from childhood to adulthood in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The associations among psychopathology, intellect, and functioning were examined in a subgroup of participants. Method The 1,402 participants with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, ages 6–68 years, were assessed for psychiatric disorders with validated diagnostic instruments. Data on intelligence and adaptive functioning were available for 183 participants ages 6 to 24 years. Results Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the most frequent disorder in children (37.10%) and was overrepresented in males. Anxiety disorders were more prevalent than mood disorders at all ages, but especially in children and adolescents. Anxiety and unipolar mood disorders were overrepresented in females. Psychotic disorders were present in 41% of adults over age 25. Males did not predominate in psychotic or autism spectrum disorders. Hierarchical regressions in the subgroup revealed that daily living skills were predicted by the presence of anxiety disorders. Psychopathology was not associated with communication or socialization skills. Conclusions To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest study of psychiatric morbidity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. It validates previous findings that this condition is one of the strongest risk factors for psychosis. Anxiety and developmental disorders were also prevalent. These results highlight the need to monitor and reduce the long-term burden of psychopathology in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:24577245

  12. Dopamine dysfunction in 22q11 deletion syndrome: possible cause of motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Casarelli, Livia; Minnei, Maurizio; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Armando, Marco; Pontillo, Maria; Vicari, Stefano; Pasini, Augusto

    2016-10-01

    22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder, resulting from a hemizygous microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 22. In 22q11DS, the phenotypic expression is highly variable. Approximately one-third of all individuals with 22q11DS develop schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder. Among the genes in the deleted region, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has a particular relevance for psychiatric disorders: lower COMT enzymatic activity decreases the clearance of dopamine (DA), yielding higher levels of catecholamines in the central nervous system. Deficits in myelinogenesis and dysfunctions in the DA system could justify the white matter abnormalities in motor/premotor circuits described in 22q11DS. The alterations in DA could determine the high incidence of psychiatric disorders and the presence of neurological soft signs in 22q11DS. Neurological soft signs are defined as non-normative performance on an examination of motor and sensory tasks without focal neurological deficits. COMT haploinsufficiency, DA dysfunction, and white matter abnormalities may contribute toward the presence of neurological soft signs in 22q11DS. PMID:27548835

  13. Isolation of expressed sequences from the region commonly deleted in Velo-cardio-facial syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sirotkin, H.; Morrow, B.; DasGupta, R.

    1994-09-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a relatively common autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities, learning disabilities and a characteristic facial dysmorphology. Most VCFS patients have interstitial deletions of 22q11 of 1-2 mb. In an effort to isolate the gene(s) responsible for VCFS we have utilized a hybrid selection protocol to recover expressed sequences from three non-overlapping YACs comprising almost 1 mb of the commonly deleted region. Total yeast genomic DNA or isolated YAC DNA was immobilized on Hybond-N filters, blocked with yeast and human ribosomal and human repetitive sequences and hybridized with a mixture of random primed short fragment cDNA libraries. Six human short fragment libraries derived from total fetus, fetal brain, adult brain, testes, thymus and spleen have been used for the selections. Short fragment cDNAs retained on the filter were passed through a second round of selection and cloned into lambda gt10. cDNAs shown to originate from the YACs and from chromosome 22 are being used to isolate full length cDNAs. Three genes known to be present on these YACs, catechol-O-methyltransferase, tuple 1 and clathrin heavy chain have been recovered. Additionally, a gene related to the murine p120 gene and a number of novel short cDNAs have been isolated. The role of these genes in VCFS is being investigated.

  14. Cxcr4 regulation of interneuron migration is disrupted in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meechan, Daniel W.; Tucker, Eric S.; Maynard, Thomas M.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Interneurons are thought to be a primary pathogenic target for several behavioral disorders that arise during development, including schizophrenia and autism. It is not known, however, whether genetic lesions associated with these diseases disrupt established molecular mechanisms of interneuron development. We found that diminished 22q11.2 gene dosage—the primary genetic lesion in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS)—specifically compromises the distribution of early-generated parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the Large Deletion (LgDel) 22q11.2DS mouse model. This change reflects cell-autonomous disruption of interneuron migration caused by altered expression of the cytokine C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (Cxcr4), an established regulator of this process. Cxcr4 is specifically reduced in LgDel migrating interneurons, and genetic analysis confirms that diminished Cxcr4 alters interneuron migration in LgDel mice. Thus, diminished 22q11.2 gene dosage disrupts cortical circuit development by modifying a critical molecular signaling pathway via Cxcr4 that regulates cortical interneuron migration and placement. PMID:23091025

  15. Molecular characterization of an acidic region deletion mutant of Cockayne syndrome group B protein.

    PubMed

    Sunesen, M; Selzer, R R; Brosh, R M; Balajee, A S; Stevnsner, T; Bohr, V A

    2000-08-15

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a human genetic disorder characterized by post-natal growth failure, neurological abnormalities and premature aging. CS cells exhibit high sensitivity to UV light, delayed RNA synthesis recovery after UV irradiation and defective transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Two genetic complementation groups of CS have been identified, designated CS-A and CS-B. The CSB gene encodes a helicase domain and a highly acidic region N-terminal to the helicase domain. This study describes the genetic characterization of a CSB mutant allele encoding a full deletion of the acidic region. We have tested its ability to complement the sensitivity of UV61, the hamster homolog of human CS-B cells, to UV and the genotoxic agent N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NA-AAF). Deleting 39 consecutive amino acids, of which approximately 60% are negatively charged, did not impact on the ability of the protein to complement the sensitive phenotype of UV61 cells to either UV or NA-AAF. Our data indicate that the highly acidic region of CSB is not essential for the TCR and general genome repair pathways of UV- and NA-AAF-induced DNA lesions. PMID:10931931

  16. Hemizygosity for SMCHD1 in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Type 2: Consequences for 18p Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lemmers, Richard J L F; van den Boogaard, Marlinde L; van der Vliet, Patrick J; Donlin-Smith, Colleen M; Nations, Sharon P; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Heard, Patricia; Bakker, Bert; Tapscott, Stephen; Cody, Jannine D; Tawil, Rabi; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2015-07-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is most often associated with variegated expression in somatic cells of the normally repressed DUX4 gene within the D4Z4-repeat array. The most common form, FSHD1, is caused by a D4Z4-repeat array contraction to a size of 1-10 units (normal range 10-100 units). The less common form, FSHD2, is characterized by D4Z4 CpG hypomethylation and is most often caused by loss-of-function mutations in the structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain 1 (SMCHD1) gene on chromosome 18p. The chromatin modifier SMCHD1 is necessary to maintain a repressed D4Z4 chromatin state. Here, we describe two FSHD2 families with a 1.2-Mb deletion encompassing the SMCHD1 gene. Numerical aberrations of chromosome 18 are relatively common and the majority of 18p deletion syndrome (18p-) cases have, such as these FSHD2 families, only one copy of SMCHD1. Our finding therefore raises the possibility that 18p- cases are at risk of developing FSHD. To address this possibility, we combined genome-wide array analysis data with D4Z4 CpG methylation and repeat array sizes in individuals with 18p- and conclude that approximately 1:8 18p- cases might be at risk of developing FSHD. PMID:25820463

  17. Hemizygosity for SMCHD1 in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 2: Consequences for 18p deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lemmers, Richard J.L.F.; van den Boogaard, Marlinde L.; van der Vliet, Patrick J.; Donlin-Smith, Colleen M.; Nations, Sharon P.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A.L.; Heard, Patricia; Bakker, Bert; Tapscott, Stephen; Cody, Jannine D.; Tawil, Rabi; van der Maarel, Silvère M.

    2015-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is most often associated with variegated expression in somatic cells of the normally repressed DUX4 gene within the D4Z4 repeat array. The most common form, FSHD1, is caused by a D4Z4 repeat array contraction to a size of 1-10 units (normal range 10–100 units). The less common form, FSHD2, is characterized by D4Z4 CpG hypomethylation and is most often caused by loss of function mutations in the structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain 1 (SMCHD1) gene on chromosome 18p. The chromatin modifier SMCHD1 is necessary to maintain a repressed D4Z4 chromatin state. Here we describe two FSHD2 families with a 1.2 Mb deletion encompassing the SMCHD1 gene. Numerical aberrations of chromosome 18 are relatively common and the majority of 18p deletion syndrome (18p-) cases have, like these FSHD2 families, only one copy of SMCHD1. Our finding therefore raises the possibility that 18p- cases are at risk of developing FSHD. To address this possibility, we combined genome wide array analysis data with D4Z4 CpG methylation and repeat array sizes in individuals with 18p- and conclude that approximately 1:8 18p- cases might be at risk of developing FSHD. PMID:25820463

  18. Neurocognitive profile in psychotic versus nonpsychotic individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Ronnie; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica; Guri, Yael; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Zackai, Elaine H; Ruparel, Kosha; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Gothelf, Doron

    2016-10-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with increased rates of psychotic disorders and cognitive deficits, but large scale studies are needed to elucidate their interaction. The objective of this two-center study was to identify the neurocognitive phenotype of individuals with 22q11DS and psychotic disorders. We hypothesized that psychotic 22q11DS individuals compared to nonpsychotic deleted individuals would have more severe neurocognitive deficits, especially in executive function and social cognition. These deficits would be present when compared to IQ- matched individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS). Three groups were ascertained from the Tel Aviv and Philadelphia centers: 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder (n=31), nonpsychotic 22q11DS (n=86) and typically-developing controls (TD, n=828). In Tel Aviv a group of individuals with WS (n=18) matched in IQ to the 22q11DS psychotic group was also included. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) was used to assess a wide-range of cognitive functions and all patients underwent structured psychiatric evaluations. 22q11DS individuals performed poorly on all CNB domains compared to TD. Participants with 22q11DS and psychosis, compared to nonpsychotic 22q11DS, had more severe deficits in global neurocognitive performance (GNP), executive function, social cognition and episodic memory domains. The primary deficits were also significant when comparing the Tel Aviv 22q11DS psychotic group to IQ-matched individuals with WS. In conclusion, 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder have specific neurocognitive deficits that are reliably identified cross nationality using the CNB. These cognitive dysfunctions should be further studied as potential endophenotypes of psychosis in 22q11DS and as targets for intervention. PMID:27524298

  19. Behavioral and Psychiatric Phenotypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kerri L; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda P.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2DS is a chromosomal microdeletion that affects approximately 40–50 genes, and impacts various organs and systems throughout the body. Detection is typically achieved by fluorescence in-situ hybridization following diagnosis of one of the major features of the deletion or via chromosomal microarray or non-invasive prenatal testing. The physical phenotype can include congenital heart defects, palatal and pharyngeal anomalies, hypocalcemia/hypoparathyroidism, skeletal abnormalities, and cranial/brain anomalies, although prevalence rates of all of these features are variable. Cognitive function is impaired to some degree in most individuals, with prevalence rates of greater than 90% for motor/speech delays and learning disabilities. Attention, executive function, working memory, visual spatial abilities, motor skills, and social cognition/social skills are affected. The deletion is also associated with an increased risk for behavioral disorders and psychiatric illness. The early onset of psychiatric symptoms common to 22q11.2DS disrupts the development and quality of life of individuals with the syndrome, and is also a potential risk factor for later development of a psychotic disorder. This review discusses prevalence, phenotypic features, and management of psychiatric disorders commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS, including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenia/psychotic disorders. Guidelines for the clinical assessment and management of psychiatric disorders in youth with this syndrome are provided, as are treatment guidelines for the use of psychiatric medications. PMID:26372046

  20. Clinical Features of 78 Adults With 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Anne S.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Husted, Janice; Weksberg, Rosanna; Caluseriu, Oana; Webb, Gary D.; Gatzoulis, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome with multisystem expression. Phenotypic features vary with age, ascertainment, and assessment. We systematically assessed 78 adults (36 M, 42 F; mean age 31.5, SD 10.5 years) with a 22q11.2 deletion ascertained through an adult congenital cardiac clinic (n = 35), psychiatric-related sources (n = 39), or as affected parents of subjects (n = 4). We recorded the lifetime prevalence of features requiring attention, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) not overlapping zero. Subtle learning difficulties, hypernasality and facial gestalt were not included. We investigated ascertainment effects using non-overlapping subgroups ascertained with tetralogy of Fallot (n = 31) or schizophrenia (n = 31). Forty-three features met inclusion criteria and were present in 5% or more patients, including several of later onset (e.g., hypothyroidism, cholelithiasis). Number of features per patient (median 9, range 3–22) correlated with hospitalizations (P=0.0002) and, when congenital features were excluded, with age (P=0.02). Adjusting for ascertainment, 25.8% (95% CI, 9.5–42.1%) of patients had cardiac anomalies and 22.6% (95% CI, 7.0–38.2%) had schizophrenia. Ascertainment subgroups were otherwise similar in median number and prevalence of features. Non-characteristic features are common in 22q11DS. Adjusting for ascertainment effects is important. Many treatable conditions may be anticipated and features may accumulate over time. The results have implications for clinical assessment and management, genetic counseling and research into pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:16208694

  1. Emotion Regulation and Development in Children with Autism and 22q13 Deletion Syndrome: Evidence for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Sarah E.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) abilities and developmental differences were investigated among 19 children with autism and 18 children with 22q13 Deletion Syndrome (a rare chromosomal disorder with certain autistic symptoms). The purpose of this study was to examine the phenotypic similarities between the two disorders. ER was measured by the Temperament…

  2. A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental…

  3. Maladaptive Conflict Monitoring as Evidence for Executive Dysfunction in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Joel P.; Ferrante, Samantha M.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine; Simon, Tony J.

    2005-01-01

    Using an adaptation of the Attentional Networks Test, we investigated aspects of executive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2), a common but not well understood disorder that produces non-verbal cognitive deficits and a marked incidence of psychopathology. The data revealed that children with DS22q11.2…

  4. Social Skills and Associated Psychopathology in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, V.; Veerapandiyan, A.; Schoch, K.; Kwapil, T.; Keshavan, M.; Ip, E.; Hooper, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although distinctive neuropsychological impairments have been delineated in children with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), social skills and social cognition remain less well-characterised. Objective: To examine social skills and social cognition and their relationship with neuropsychological function/behaviour and…

  5. Small Deletions of SATB2 Cause Some of the Clinical Features of the 2q33.1 Microdeletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Ballif, Blake C.; Lucas, Ann; Spence, Edward J.; Powell, Cynthia; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Torchia, Beth A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent deletions of 2q32q33 have recently been reported as a new microdeletion syndrome. Clinical features of this syndrome include severe mental retardation, growth retardation, dysmorphic features, thin and sparse hair, feeding difficulties and cleft or high palate. The commonly deleted region contains at least seven genes. Haploinsufficiency of one of these genes, SATB2, a DNA-binding protein that regulates gene expression, has been implicated as causative in the cleft or high palate of individuals with 2q32q33 microdeletion syndrome. In this study we describe three individuals with smaller microdeletions of this region, within 2q33.1. The deletions ranged in size from 173.1 kb to 185.2 kb and spanned part of SATB2. Review of clinical records showed similar clinical features among these individuals, including severe developmental delay and tooth abnormalities. Two of the individuals had behavioral problems. Only one of the subjects presented here had a cleft palate, suggesting reduced penetrance for this feature. Our results suggest that deletion of SATB2 is responsible for several of the clinical features associated with 2q32q33 microdeletion syndrome. PMID:19668335

  6. Multiple quantitative trait loci for cortical and trabecular bone regulation map to mid-distal mouse chromosome 4 that shares linkage homology to human chromosome 1p36.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Wesley G; Shultz, Kathryn L; Coombs, Harold F; Horton, Lindsay G; Donahue, Leah Rae; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-01-01

    The mid-distal region of mouse chromosome 4 (Chr 4) is homologous with human Chr 1p36. Previously, we reported that mouse Chr 4 carries a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with strong regulatory effect on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). The intent of this study is to utilize nested congenic strains to decompose the genetic complexity of this gene-rich region. Adult females and males from 18 nested congenic strains carrying discrete C3H sequences were phenotyped for femoral mineral and volume by pQCT and for trabecular bone volume (BV), tissue volume (TV), trabecular number (Trab.no), and trabecular thickness (Trab.thk) by MicroCT 40. Our data show that the mouse Chr 4 region consists of at least 10 regulatory QTL regions that affected either or both pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes. The pQCT phenotypes were typically similar between sexes, whereas the MicroCT 40 phenotypes were divergent. Individual congenic strains contained one to seven QTL regions. These regions conferred large positive or negative effects in some congenic strains, depending on the particular bone phenotype. The QTL regions II to X are syntenic with human 1p36, containing from 1 to 102 known genes. We identified 13 candidate genes that can be linked to bone within these regions. Six of these genes were linked to osteoblasts, three linked to osteoclasts, and two linked to skeletal development. Three of these genes have been identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) linked to 1p36. In region III, there is only one gene, Lck, which conferred negative pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes in both sexes. This gene is important to development and functioning of T cells, has been associated with osteoclast activity, and represents a novel bone regulatory gene that merits further experimental evaluation. In summary, congenic strains are powerful tools for identifying regulatory regions that influence bone biology and offer models for testing hypotheses about gene-gene and gene

  7. Multiple quantitative trait loci for cortical and trabecular bone regulation map to mid-distal mouse chromosome 4 that shares linkage homology to human chromosome 1p36.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Wesley G; Shultz, Kathryn L; Coombs, Harold F; Horton, Lindsay G; Donahue, Leah Rae; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-01-01

    The mid-distal region of mouse chromosome 4 (Chr 4) is homologous with human Chr 1p36. Previously, we reported that mouse Chr 4 carries a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with strong regulatory effect on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). The intent of this study is to utilize nested congenic strains to decompose the genetic complexity of this gene-rich region. Adult females and males from 18 nested congenic strains carrying discrete C3H sequences were phenotyped for femoral mineral and volume by pQCT and for trabecular bone volume (BV), tissue volume (TV), trabecular number (Trab.no), and trabecular thickness (Trab.thk) by MicroCT 40. Our data show that the mouse Chr 4 region consists of at least 10 regulatory QTL regions that affected either or both pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes. The pQCT phenotypes were typically similar between sexes, whereas the MicroCT 40 phenotypes were divergent. Individual congenic strains contained one to seven QTL regions. These regions conferred large positive or negative effects in some congenic strains, depending on the particular bone phenotype. The QTL regions II to X are syntenic with human 1p36, containing from 1 to 102 known genes. We identified 13 candidate genes that can be linked to bone within these regions. Six of these genes were linked to osteoblasts, three linked to osteoclasts, and two linked to skeletal development. Three of these genes have been identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) linked to 1p36. In region III, there is only one gene, Lck, which conferred negative pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes in both sexes. This gene is important to development and functioning of T cells, has been associated with osteoclast activity, and represents a novel bone regulatory gene that merits further experimental evaluation. In summary, congenic strains are powerful tools for identifying regulatory regions that influence bone biology and offer models for testing hypotheses about gene-gene and gene

  8. Multi-disciplinary clinical study of Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion 17p11.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, F.; Lewis, R.A.; Potocki, L.

    1996-03-29

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly, mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. As part of a multi-disciplinary clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular approach to SMS, detailed clinical studies including radiographic neurologic, developmental, ophthalmologic, otolaryngologic, and audiologic evaluations were performed on 27 SMS patients. Significant findings include otolaryngologic abnormalities in 94%, eye abnormalities in 85%, sleep abnormalities (especially reduced REM sleep) in 75%, hearing impairment in 68% (approximately 65% conductive and 35% sensorineural), scoliosis in 65% brain abnormalities (predominantly ventriculomegaly) in 52%, cardiac abnormalities in at least 37%, renal anomalies (especially duplication of the collecting system) in 35%, low thyroxine levels in 29%, low immunoglobulin levels in 23%, and forearm abnormalities in 16%. The measured IQ ranged between 20-78, most patients falling in the moderate range of mental retardation at 40-54, although several patients scored in the mild or borderline range. The frequency of these many abnormalities in SMS suggests that patients should be evaluated thoroughly for associated complications both at the time of diagnosis and at least annually thereafter. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. An interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis in an adult patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tastuzawa, Yasutaka; Sekinaka, Kanako; Suda, Tetsufumi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Otabe, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Yoshino, Aihide

    2015-01-01

    In addition to causing polymalformative syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion can lead to various neuropsychiatric disorders including mental retardation, psychosis, and epilepsy. However, few reports regarding epilepsy-related psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) exist. We describe the clinical characteristics and course of 22q11.2DS in a Japanese patient with comorbid mild mental retardation, childhood-onset localization-related epilepsy, and adult-onset, interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis. From a diagnostic viewpoint, early detection of impaired intellectual functioning and hyperprolinemia in patients with epilepsy with 22q11.2DS may be helpful in predicting the developmental timing of interictal psychosis. From a therapeutic viewpoint, special attention needs to be paid to phenytoin-induced hypocalcemia in this syndrome. PMID:25870791

  10. Histology of the Pharyngeal Constrictor Muscle in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Non-Syndromic Children with Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Widdershoven, Josine C. C.; Spruijt, Nicole E.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; Breugem, Corstiaan C.; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic surgeons aim to correct velopharyngeal insufficiency manifest by hypernasal speech with a velopharyngoplasty. The functional outcome has been reported to be worse in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome than in patients without the syndrome. A possible explanation is the hypotonia that is often present as part of the syndrome. To confirm a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, specimens of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle were taken from children with and without the syndrome. Histologic properties were compared between the groups. Specimens from the two groups did not differ regarding the presence of increased perimysial or endomysial space, fiber grouping by size or type, internalized nuclei, the percentage type I fibers, or the diameters of type I and type II fibers. In conclusion, a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome could not be confirmed. PMID:21738760

  11. Cerebriform variant type of T cell prolymphocytic leukemia with complex karyotype including an additional segment at 1p36.1.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Senji; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Shibata, Yuhei; Matsumoto, Takuro; Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Goto, Naoe; Hara, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2012-11-01

    We describe two patients with T cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) who exhibited the same complex karyotype, including an additional segment at 1p36.1. One presented with secondary progression following an initial stable clinical course, and the other with typically progressive disease. Features of the cerebriform variant were identified in the peripheral blood of both patients. Aggressive symptoms, such as lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, cutaneous involvement and hepatosplenomegaly, developed during the progressive phases. Levels of serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor increased when symptoms worsened. These patients did not have the karyotypic 14q11 abnormality and trisomy 8q that are features of non-Japanese patients. The prognoses of these patients were poor; one survived for 2 months and the other survived for 10 months after progression. A chromosomal abnormality may occur in other types of aggressive T-PLL, particularly when extramedullary infiltration is a feature.

  12. 2q37.3 Deletion Syndrome: Two Cases with Highly Distinctive Facial Phenotype, Discordant Association with Schizophrenic Psychosis, and Shared Deletion Breakpoint Region on 2q37.3.

    PubMed

    Mehraein, Yasmin; Pfob, Martina; Steinlein, Ortrud; Aichinger, Eric; Eggert, Marlene; Bubendorff, Valerie; Mannhart, Adelina; Müller, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    2q37.3 deletion syndrome belongs to the chromosomal 2q37 deletion spectrum which clinically resembles Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) syndrome. It is is mainly characterized by short stature, obesity, round face, brachydactyly type E, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and variable intellectual deficits. Different from classical AHO syndrome, patients with 2q37 deletion syndrome lack renal parathyroid hormone resistance (pseudohypoparathyroidism) and soft tissue ossification. So far, deletion mapping or molecular breakpoint analyses of 2q37 have been performed in only few patients. Here, we report on 2 patients with 2q37.3 deletion syndrome. In both patients the breakpoint of the 5.5-Mb terminal microdeletion could be narrowed down to the same ∼ 200-kb interval on 2q37.3 by BAC-FISH and/or array-CGH. Flanking low-copy repeats may indicate a classical microdeletion syndrome genesis for the 2q37.3 microdeletion subgroup. Clinical evaluation revealed intellectual deficits and type E brachydactyly typical for classical AHO syndrome together with distinctive facial dysmorphisms not present in the former. Furthermore, one patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis, an observation that would be in accordance with previous reports about an association between schizophrenia susceptibility and an unknown gene within the chromosomal region 2q37. PMID:26112830

  13. Social Cognition Dysfunction in Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome): Relationship with Executive Functioning and Social Competence/Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, L. E.; McCabe, K. L.; Melville, J. L.; Strutt, P. A.; Schall, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social difficulties are often noted among people with intellectual disabilities. Children and adults with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of executive and social-cognitive skills compared with typically developing young people. However, the relationship…

  14. Decreased DGCR8 Expression and miRNA Dysregulation in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sellier, Chantal; Hwang, Vicki J.; Dandekar, Ravi; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Ander, Bradley P.; Sharp, Frank R.; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J.; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Deletion of the 1.5–3 Mb region of chromosome 22 at locus 11.2 gives rise to the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial Syndromes. It is the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans and one of the most common multiple malformation syndromes. The syndrome is characterized by a broad phenotype, whose characterization has expanded considerably within the last decade and includes many associated findings such as craniofacial anomalies (40%), conotruncal defects of the heart (CHD; 70–80%), hypocalcemia (20–60%), and a range of neurocognitive anomalies with high risk of schizophrenia, all with a broad phenotypic variability. These phenotypic features are believed to be the result of a change in the copy number or dosage of the genes located in the deleted region. Despite this relatively clear genetic etiology, very little is known about which genes modulate phenotypic variations in humans or if they are due to combinatorial effects of reduced dosage of multiple genes acting in concert. Here, we report on decreased expression levels of genes within the deletion region of chromosome 22, including DGCR8, in peripheral leukocytes derived from individuals with 22q11DS compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found dysregulated miRNA expression in individuals with 22q11DS, including miR-150, miR-194 and miR-185. We postulate this to be related to DGCR8 haploinsufficiency as DGCR8 regulates miRNA biogenesis. Importantly we demonstrate that the level of some miRNAs correlates with brain measures, CHD and thyroid abnormalities, suggesting that the dysregulated miRNAs may contribute to these phenotypes and/or represent relevant blood biomarkers of the disease in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25084529

  15. The development of cognitive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Heather M.; Tassone, Flora; Choudhary, Nimrah S.; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by the most common human microdeletion, and it is associated with cognitive impairments across many domains. While impairments in cognitive control have been described in children with 22q11.2DS, the nature and development of these impairments are not clear. Children with 22q11.2DS and typically developing children (TD) were tested on four well-validated tasks aimed at measuring specific foundational components of cognitive control: response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Molecular assays were also conducted in order to examine genotype of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a gene located within the deleted region in 22q11.2DS and hypothesized to play a role in cognitive control. Mixed model regression analyses were used to examine group differences, as well as age-related effects on cognitive control component processes in a cross-sectional analysis. Regression models with COMT genotype were also conducted in order to examine potential effects of the different variants of the gene. Response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were impaired in children with 22q11.2DS relative to TD children, even after accounting for global intellectual functioning (as measured by full-scale IQ). When compared with TD individuals, children with 22q11.2DS demonstrated atypical age-related patterns of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Both groups demonstrated typical age-related associations with working memory. The results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest a specific aberration in the development of systems mediating response inhibition in a sub-set of children with 22q11.2DS. It will be important to follow up with longitudinal analyses to directly examine these developmental trajectories, and correlate neurocognitive variables with clinical and adaptive outcome measures. PMID:24959159

  16. Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome and DiGeorge sequence with meningomyelocele and deletions of the 22q11 region

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, R.E.; Pillers, D.M.; Merkens, M.; Magenis, R.E.; Zonana, J.; Driscoll, D.A.; Emanuel, B.S.

    1994-10-01

    Approximately 5% of children with neural tube defects (NTDs) have a congenital heart defect and/or cleft lip and palate. The cause of isolated meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, or cleft lip and palate has been largely thought to be multifactorial. However, chromosomal, teratogenic, and single gene causes of combinations of NTDs with congenital heart defects and/or cleft lip and palate have been reported. We report on 3 patients with meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, and 22q11 deletions. Two of the children had the clinical diagnosis of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS); both have bifid uvula. The third child had DiGeorge sequence (DGS). The association of NTDs with 22q11 deletion has not been reported previously. An accurate diagnosis of the 22q11 deletion is critical as this micro-deletion and its associated clinical problems is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait due to the inheritance of the deletion-bearing chromosome. We recommend that all children with NTDs and congenital heart defects, with or without cleft palate, have cytogenetic and molecular studies performed to detect 22q11 deletions. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  17. A nuclear defect in the 4p16 region predisposes to multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in families with Wolfram syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, A; Volpini, V; Casademont, J; Genís, D; Manzanares, J M; Ferrer, I; Corral, J; Cardellach, F; Urbano-Márquez, A; Estivill, X; Nunes, V

    1996-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder transmitted in an autosomal recessive mode. We report two Wolfram syndrome families harboring multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA. The deletions reached percentages as high as 85-90% in affected tissues such as the central nervous system of one patient, while in other tissues from the same patient and from other members of the family, the percentages of deleted mitochondrial DNA genomes were only 1-10%. Recently, a Wolfram syndrome gene has been linked to markers on 4p16. In both families linkage between the disease locus and 4p16 markers gave a maximum multipoint lod score of 3.79 at theta = 0 (P<0.03) with respect to D4S431. In these families, the syndrome was caused by mutations in this nucleus-encoded gene which deleteriously interacts with the mitochondrial genome. This is the first evidence of the implication of both genomes in a recessive disease. PMID:8601620

  18. The neurocognitive phenotype of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: selective deficit in visual-spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Bearden, C E; Woodin, M F; Wang, P P; Moss, E; McDonald-McGinn, D; Zackai, E; Emannuel, B; Cannon, T D

    2001-08-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome) is associated with a high frequency of learning disabilities. Although previous work has demonstrated that verbal skills are typically better preserved than non-verbal skills on both IQ and academic achievement testing in children with this syndrome, such measures are not sufficiently specific to determine a selective cognitive deficit. As part of an ongoing prospective study of patients with this syndrome, 29 children aged 5-17 with confirmed 22q11.2 deletions were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, including matched tasks of verbal and visuospatial memory. Results indicate that 22q patients displayed a selective deficit in visual-spatial memory, which was mirrored by deficits in arithmetic and general visual-spatial cognition. Further, a dissociation between visual-spatial and object memory was observed, indicating further selectivity of this pattern of deficit, and providing evidence for the dissociability of these components of visual cognition. These results indicate that children with 22q11.2 deletions display a specific neurocognitive phenotype, and suggest that this region of Chromosome 22q11 may harbor a gene or genes relevant to the etiology of nonverbal learning deficits. PMID:11780945

  19. Overlap of Juvenile polyposis syndrome and Cowden syndrome due to de novo chromosome 10 deletion involving BMPR1A and PTEN: implications for treatment and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Adebisi; Weeth-Feinstein, Lauren A; Stettner, Amy; Caldera, Freddy; Weiss, Jennifer M

    2015-06-01

    We describe a patient with a severe juvenile polyposis phenotype, due to a de novo deletion of chromosome 10q22.3-q24.1. He was initially diagnosed with Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) at age four after presenting with hematochezia due to multiple colonic juvenile polyps. He then re-presented at 23 years with recurrent hematochezia from juvenile polyps in his ileoanal pouch. He is one of the earliest reported cases of JPS associated with a large deletion of chromosome 10. Since his initial diagnosis of JPS further studies have confirmed an association between JPS and mutations in BMPR1A in chromosome band 10q23.2, which is in close proximity to PTEN. Mutations in PTEN cause Cowden syndrome (CS) and other PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes. Due to the chromosome 10 deletion involving contiguous portions of BMPR1A and PTEN in our patient, he may be at risk for CS associated cancers and features, in addition to the polyps associated with JPS. This case presents new challenges in developing appropriate surveillance algorithms to account for the risks associated with each syndrome and highlights the importance of longitudinal follow-up and transitional care between pediatric and adult gastroenterology for patients with hereditary polyposis syndromes.

  20. HIGH COLORECTAL AND LOW ENDOMETRIAL CANCER RISK IN EPCAM DELETION-POSITIVE LYNCH SYNDROME: A COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kempers, Marlies JE; Kuiper, Roland P; Ockeloen, Charlotte W; Chappuis, Pierre O; Hutter, Pierre; Rahner, Nils; Schackert, Hans K; Steinke, Verena; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Morak, Monika; Kloor, Matthias; Büttner, Reinhard; Verwiel, Eugene TP; van Krieken, J. Han; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Goossens, Monique; van der Post, Rachel S.; Niessen, Renée C; Sijmons, Rolf H; Kluijt, Irma; Hogervorst, Frans BL; Leter, Edward M; Gille, Johan JP; Aalfs, Cora M; Redeker, Egbert JW; Hes, Frederik J; Tops, Carli MJ; van Nesselrooij, Bernadette PM; van Gijn, Marielle E; García, Encarna B Gómez; Eccles, Diana M; Bunyan, David J; Syngal, Sapna; Stoffel, Elena M; Culver, Julie O; Palomares, Melanie R; Graham, Tracy; Velsher, Lea; Papp, Janos; Oláh, Edith; Chan, Tsun L; Leung, Suet Y; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; Kiemeney, Lambertus ALM; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn JL

    2013-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes (MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 or PMS2), which lead to a high risk of predominantly colorectal and endometrial cancer. Recently, we found that also constitutional 3′ end deletions of EPCAM can cause Lynch syndrome through epigenetic silencing of MSH2 in EPCAM expressing tissues. This results in a tissue specific MSH2-deficiency, which may evoke a different cancer risk and spectrum. To optimize the care for EPCAM deletion carriers we studied their cancer risk and spectrum. METHODS Clinical data of 194 carriers from 41 EPCAM families were systematically collected and compared to those of 431 carriers from 91 families with mutations in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6. FINDINGS EPCAM deletion carriers exhibited a 75% [95%CI 65–85%] cumulative risk of colorectal cancer before the age of 70 years, with a mean age at diagnosis of 43 years, which is comparable to that of carriers of a combined EPCAM-MSH2 deletion (69% [95%CI 47-91%], p=0·8609) or of a mutation in MSH2 (77% [95%CI 64-90%], p=0·5892) or MLH1 (79% [95%CI 68-90%], p=0·5492) and higher than that of MSH6 mutation carriers (50% [95%CI 38-62%], p<0·0001). In contrast, women with EPCAM deletions (n=87) exhibited a 12% [95%CI 0-27%] cumulative risk of endometrial cancer, which is significantly lower than in carriers of a combined EPCAM-MSH2 deletion (55% [95%CI 20-90%], p<0·0001) or of a mutation in MSH2 (51% [95%CI 33-69%], p=0·0006) or MSH6 (34% [95%CI 20-48%], p=0·0309) and lower than in MLH1 (33% [95%CI 15-51%] p=0·1193) mutation carriers. This risk seems to be restricted to large deletions that extend close to the MSH2 gene promoter. Overall, a relatively high incidence of duodenal (n=3) and pancreatic (n=4) cancers was observed. INTERPRETATION EPCAM deletion carriers do have a high risk of colorectal cancer. Only those with deletions extending close to the MSH2 promoter have an increased risk of endometrial cancer. These results

  1. Noninvasive prenatal testing for microdeletion syndromes and expanded trisomies: proceed with caution.

    PubMed

    Vora, Neeta L; OʼBrien, Barbara M

    2014-05-01

    The identification of circulating cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has led to the introduction of noninvasive prenatal tests with high sensitivity and high specificity for common aneuploidies (trisomy 13, trisomy 18, trisomy 21). A new expanded noninvasive prenatal testing panel that includes five microdeletion syndromes (22q11 deletion syndrome, cri-du-chat [5p minus], Prader Willi or Angelman syndrome, 1p36 deletion syndrome) and two aneuploidies usually associated with nonviable pregnancies (trisomy 16 and trisomy 22) is now available. This expanded panel will be performed unless an opt-out box is checked. Because these disorders are so rare, the positive predictive value is expected to be low. As with all new screening tests and technologies, the expanded panel should be appropriately studied before it is widely adopted. PMID:24785862

  2. A 1.1Mb deletion in distal 13q deletion syndrome region with congenital heart defect and postaxial polydactyly: additional support for a CHD locus at distal 13q34 region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng; Ai, Qi; Huang, Can; Chen, Jin-Lan; Wang, Jian; Xie, Li; Zhang, Wei-Zhi; Yang, Jin-Fu; Tan, Zhi-Ping

    2013-10-01

    13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, especially for group 3 deletion (13q33-q34 deletion). Previously we described a patient with congenital heart defect and mental retardation and proposed that a distal 6Mb region might contain the causative gene of congenital heart defect. Here we present a new patient with congenital heart defects (CHD), hand and foot anomalies and mild mental retardation. We identified a 1.1Mb deletion at chromosome 13q34 with high resolution SNP-array BeadChips (HumanOmni1-Quad, Illumina, USA). This chromosome region contains ten annotated genes, including GRK1, TFDP1, RASA3 and GAS6. To our knowledge, this represents the smallest 13q34 deletion identified to date. Our study provides additional support that distal 13q34 deletion region might contain key gene(s) responsible for cardiac development.

  3. Hearing loss in a mouse model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Zinnamon, Fhatarah A; Taylor, Ruth R; Ivins, Sarah; Scambler, Peter J; Forge, Andrew; Tucker, Abigail S; Linden, Jennifer F

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear), including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM. PMID:24244619

  4. Hearing loss in a mouse model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Zinnamon, Fhatarah A; Taylor, Ruth R; Ivins, Sarah; Scambler, Peter J; Forge, Andrew; Tucker, Abigail S; Linden, Jennifer F

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear), including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM.

  5. Ultra high risk status and transition to psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maude; Armando, Marco; Pontillo, Maria; Vicari, Stefano; Debbané, Martin; Schultze‐Lutter, Frauke; Eliez, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by high rates of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia, making this condition a promising human model for studying risk factors for psychosis. We explored the predictive value of ultra high risk (UHR) criteria in a sample of patients with 22q11DS. We also examined the additional contribution of socio‐demographic, clinical and cognitive variables to predict transition to psychosis within a mean interval of 32.5 ± 17.6 months after initial assessment. Eighty‐nine participants with 22q11DS (age range: 8‐30 years; mean 16.1 ± 4.7) were assessed using the Structured Interview for Psychosis‐Risk Syndromes. Information on Axis I diagnoses, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, level of functioning and IQ was also collected. At baseline, 22 (24.7%) participants met UHR criteria. Compared to those without a UHR condition, they had a significantly lower functioning, more frequent anxiety disorders, and more severe psychopathology. Transition rate to psychosis was 27.3% in UHR and 4.5% in non‐UHR participants. Cox regression analyses revealed that UHR status significantly predicted conversion to psychosis. Baseline level of functioning was the only other additional predictor. This is the first study investigating the predictive value of UHR criteria in 22q11DS. It indicates that the clinical path leading to psychosis is broadly comparable to that observed in other clinical high‐risk samples. Nevertheless, the relatively high transition rate in non‐UHR individuals suggests that other risk markers should be explored in this population. The role of low functioning as a predictor of transition to psychosis should also be investigated more in depth.

  6. Ultra high risk status and transition to psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maude; Armando, Marco; Pontillo, Maria; Vicari, Stefano; Debbané, Martin; Schultze‐Lutter, Frauke; Eliez, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by high rates of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia, making this condition a promising human model for studying risk factors for psychosis. We explored the predictive value of ultra high risk (UHR) criteria in a sample of patients with 22q11DS. We also examined the additional contribution of socio‐demographic, clinical and cognitive variables to predict transition to psychosis within a mean interval of 32.5 ± 17.6 months after initial assessment. Eighty‐nine participants with 22q11DS (age range: 8‐30 years; mean 16.1 ± 4.7) were assessed using the Structured Interview for Psychosis‐Risk Syndromes. Information on Axis I diagnoses, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, level of functioning and IQ was also collected. At baseline, 22 (24.7%) participants met UHR criteria. Compared to those without a UHR condition, they had a significantly lower functioning, more frequent anxiety disorders, and more severe psychopathology. Transition rate to psychosis was 27.3% in UHR and 4.5% in non‐UHR participants. Cox regression analyses revealed that UHR status significantly predicted conversion to psychosis. Baseline level of functioning was the only other additional predictor. This is the first study investigating the predictive value of UHR criteria in 22q11DS. It indicates that the clinical path leading to psychosis is broadly comparable to that observed in other clinical high‐risk samples. Nevertheless, the relatively high transition rate in non‐UHR individuals suggests that other risk markers should be explored in this population. The role of low functioning as a predictor of transition to psychosis should also be investigated more in depth. PMID:27717277

  7. Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Zinnamon, Fhatarah A.; Taylor, Ruth R.; Ivins, Sarah; Scambler, Peter J.; Forge, Andrew; Tucker, Abigail S.; Linden, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear), including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM. PMID:24244619

  8. High proportion of large genomic deletions and a genotype–phenotype update in 80 unrelated families with juvenile polyposis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aretz, S; Stienen, D; Uhlhaas, S; Stolte, M; Entius, M M; Loff, S; Back, W; Kaufmann, A; Keller, K‐M; Blaas, S H; Siebert, R; Vogt, S; Spranger, S; Holinski‐Feder, E; Sunde, L; Propping, P; Friedl, W

    2007-01-01

    Background In patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) the frequency of large genomic deletions in the SMAD4 and BMPR1A genes was unknown. Methods Mutation and phenotype analysis was used in 80 unrelated patients of whom 65 met the clinical criteria for JPS (typical JPS) and 15 were suspected to have JPS. Results By direct sequencing of the two genes, point mutations were identified in 30 patients (46% of typical JPS). Using MLPA, large genomic deletions were found in 14% of all patients with typical JPS (six deletions in SMAD4 and three deletions in BMPR1A). Mutation analysis of the PTEN gene in the remaining 41 mutation negative cases uncovered a point mutation in two patients (5%). SMAD4 mutation carriers had a significantly higher frequency of gastric polyposis (73%) than did patients with BMPR1A mutations (8%) (p<0.001); all seven cases of gastric cancer occurred in families with SMAD4 mutations. SMAD4 mutation carriers with gastric polyps were significantly older at gastroscopy than those without (p<0.001). In 22% of the 23 unrelated SMAD4 mutation carriers, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) was also diagnosed clinically. The documented histologic findings encompassed a wide distribution of different polyp types, comparable with that described in hereditary mixed polyposis syndromes (HMPS). Conclusions Screening for large deletions raised the mutation detection rate to 60% in the 65 patients with typical JPS. A strong genotype‐phenotype correlation for gastric polyposis, gastric cancer, and HHT was identified, which should have implications for counselling and surveillance. Histopathological results in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes must be critically interpreted. PMID:17873119

  9. Analysis of 22q11.2 deletions by FISH in a series of velocardiofacial syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnan, J.B.; Golabi, M.; Lebo, R.V.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions in chromosome 22 band q11.2 have been associated with velocardiofacial (VCF or Shprintzen) syndrome and the DiGeorge anomaly. A study of VCF patients evaluated at the UCSF Medical Center was undertaken to correlate disease phenotype with presence or absence of a deletion. Patients referred for this study had at least two of the following: dysmorphic facial features, frequent ear infections or hearing loss, palate abnormalities, thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcemia, congenital heart defect, hypotonia, and growth or language delay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the DiGeorge critical region probe N25 was used to classify patients according to the presence or absence of a deletion in 22q11.2, and the results were compared to clinical characteristics. We have completed studies on 58 patients with features of VCF. Twenty-one patients (36%) were found to have a deletion in 22q11.2 by FISH. A retrospective study of archived slides from 14 patients originally studied only by prometaphase GTG banding found six patients had a deletion detected by FISH; of these, only two had a microscopically visible chromosome deletion. Our study of 11 sets of parents of children with the deletion found two clinically affected mothers with the deletion, including one with three of three children clinically affected. A few patients who did not fit the classical VCF description had a 22q11.2 deletion detected by FISH. These included one patient with both cleft lip and palate, and another with developmental delay and typical facial features but no cardiac or palate abnormalities. Both patients with the DiGeorge anomaly as part of VCF had the deletion. On the other hand, a number of patients diagnosed clinically with classical VCF did not have a detectable deletion. This raises the question whether they represent a subset of patients with a defect of 22q11.2 not detected by the N25 probe, or whether they represent a phenocopy of VCF.

  10. Deletions and duplications of the 15q11-q13 region in spermatozoa from Prader-Willi syndrome fathers.

    PubMed

    Molina, O; Blanco, J; Vidal, F

    2010-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genomic disorder mostly caused by deletions of 15q11-q13 region (70%). It has been suggested that the particular genomic architecture of 15q11-q13 region, characterized to be flanked by low copy repeats, could predispose it to Non-Allelic Homologous Recombination (NAHR). However, no studies in gametes of fathers of PWS individuals have been published to date. The objective of the study was to assess the incidence of 15q11-q13 deletions and duplications in spermatozoa from PWS fathers and to appraise the value of the data obtained for the estimation of the risk of recurrence for the syndrome. Semen samples from 16 fathers of PWS individuals and 10 control donors, were processed by triple-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. A customized combination of probes was used to discriminate between normal, deleted and duplicated sperm genotypes. A minimum of 10,000 sperm were scored for every single sample. A significant increase in the frequency of 15q11-q13 deletions and duplications were observed in PWS fathers (0.90 +/- 0.14%) compared with control donors (0.47 +/- 0.07%). Ten out of 16 individuals contributed to this population increase (P < 0.01), suggesting a predisposition for 15q11-q13 reorganizations. Statistical differences were observed in the frequency of 15q11-q13 deletions and duplications in fathers of PWS individuals (0.59 versus 0.31%; P = 0.001), indicating that intra-chromatid NAHR exchanges also substantially contribute to the rearrangements. Results demonstrated the increased susceptibility of some fathers of PWS individuals to generate 15q11-q13 deletions, suggesting that the screening of anomalies in sperm should be advisable as a valuable complement for genetic counseling. PMID:20083560

  11. Expanding the ocular phenotype of 14q terminal deletions: A novel presentation of microphthalmia and coloboma in ring 14 syndrome with associated 14q32.31 deletion and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salter, Claire G; Baralle, Diana; Collinson, Morag N; Self, James E

    2016-04-01

    A variety of ocular anomalies have been described in the rare ring 14 and 14q terminal deletion syndromes, yet the character, prevalence, and extent of these anomalies are not well defined. Identification of these ocular anomalies can be central to providing diagnoses and facilitating optimal individual patient management. We report a child with a 14q32.31 terminal deletion and ring chromosome formation, presenting with severe visual impairment secondary to significant bilateral coloboma and microphthalmia. This patient is compared to previously reported patients with similar ocular findings and deletion sizes to further refine a locus for coloboma in the 14q terminal region. Those with ring formation and linear deletions are compared and the possibility of ring formation affecting the proximal 14q region is discussed. This report highlights the severity of ocular anomalies that can be associated with ring 14 and 14q terminal deletion syndromes and reveals the limited documentation of ocular examination in these two related syndromes. This suggests that many children with these genetic changes do not undergo an ophthalmology examination as part of their clinical assessment, yet it is only when this evaluation becomes routine that the true prevalence and extent of ocular involvement can be defined. This report therefore advocates for a thorough ophthalmological exam in children with ring 14 or 14q terminal deletion syndrome.

  12. Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-02-01

    Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism.

  13. Communication of Psychiatric Risk in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Schoch, Kelly; Shashi, Vandana; Callanan, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have an increased chance of developing a psychiatric disorder. While parents of children affected by 22q11.2DS typically receive counseling about risk for non-psychiatric health concerns, genetic counselors may be reluctant to discuss psychiatric risk. Further education of genetic counselors may be necessary to encourage discussion of psychiatric risk with these families. The goal of this project was to develop recommendations for genetic counselors to provide psychiatric risk information to families affected by 22q11.2DS. The recommendations were developed by synthesizing resources in the literature about risk communication. These recommendations were refined following an online focus group meeting with five health care professionals who were recruited for participation from 22q11.2DS clinics across the U.S.A. The focus group data revealed three themes related to discussion of psychiatric risk: 1) Stepwise approach, 2) Discussing treatment options and reducing risks, and 3) Addressing stigma. These recommendations may be used as a foundation for a future clinical protocol to encourage discussion about the risk for psychiatric illness at an earlier point in the diagnostic process for 22q11.2DS and to provide improved information, support and resources to affected families. PMID:26578232

  14. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  15. Constitutional 11q14-q22 chromosome deletion syndrome in a child with neuroblastoma MYCN single copy.

    PubMed

    Passariello, Annalisa; De Brasi, Daniele; Defferrari, Raffaella; Genesio, Rita; Tufano, Maria; Mazzocco, Katia; Capasso, Maria; Migliorati, Roberta; Martinsson, Tommy; Siani, Paolo; Nitsch, Lucio; Tonini, Gian Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Constitutional 11q deletion is a chromosome imbalance possibly found in MCA/MR patients analyzed for chromosomal anomalies. Its role in determining the phenotype depends on extension and position of deleted region. Loss of heterozygosity of 11q (region 11q23) is also associated with neuroblastoma, the most frequent extra cranial cancer in children. It represents one of the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities observed in the tumor of patients with high-risk disease even if germline deletion of 11q in neuroblastoma is rare. Hereby, we describe a 18 months old girl presenting with trigonocephaly and dysmorphic facial features, including hypotelorism, broad depressed nasal bridge, micrognathia, synophrys, epicanthal folds, and with a stage 4 neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification, carrying a germline 11q deletion (11q14.1-q22.3), outside from Jacobsen syndrome and from neuroblastoma 11q critical regions. The role of 11q deletion in determining the clinical phenotype and its association with neuroblastoma development in the patient are discussed. PMID:24035971

  16. Epilepsy phenotype associated with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A: Migrating partial seizures of infancy or atypical Dravet syndrome?

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Hunmin; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    The deletion of a sodium channel gene cluster located on chromosome 2q24.3 is associated with variable epilepsy phenotypes, including Dravet syndrome and migrating partial seizures of infancy. Although SCN1A is considered as the major contributor to the epilepsy phenotype, the role of other sodium channel genes that map within this cluster has not been delineated. We presented five new cases with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A and investigated their epilepsy phenotype in relation to the extent of the deletion. Three cases with deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster (SCN3A, SCN2A, SCN1A, SCN9A, and SCN7A) exhibited a complex epilepsy phenotype that was atypical for Dravet syndrome and suggestive of migrating partial seizures of infancy: early seizure onset (before 2 months of age), severe developmental delay from seizure onset, multifocal interictal spikes, polymorphous focal seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Two cases with partial deletion of SCN1A and SCN9A and whole SCN1A deletion had an epilepsy phenotype of Dravet syndrome. A literature review of cases with chromosome 2q24.3 deletion revealed that, in most Dravet syndrome cases, it does not involve SCN2A and SCN3A, whereas a complex epilepsy phenotype that is shared with migrating partial seizures of infancy was associated with cases of deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster.

  17. Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A.

    1996-10-02

    A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Endocrine phenotype of 6q16.1-q21 deletion involving SIM1 and Prader-Willi syndrome-like features.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kosuke; Housam, Ryan; Kapadia, Chirag; Stallings, Virginia A; Medne, Livija; Shaikh, Tamim H; Kublaoui, Bassil M; Zackai, Elaine H; Grimberg, Adda

    2013-12-01

    Proximal interstitial 6q deletion involving Single-minded 1 (SIM1) gene causes a syndromic form of obesity mimicking Prader-Willi syndrome. In addition to obesity, Prader-Willi syndrome includes several other endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The endocrine phenotype of interstitial 6q deletion remains largely unknown, although clinical similarities between Prader-Willi syndrome and interstitial 6q deletion suggest endocrine abnormalities also may contribute to the interstitial 6q deletion phenotype. This report describes the endocrine phenotype in a propositus with the Prader-Willi-like syndrome associated with an interstitial 6q deletion including the SIM1 gene. Detailed endocrine evaluation of the propositus during childhood and adolescence revealed hypopituitarism, though initial endocrine evaluations during infancy were unremarkable. Our patient raises the possibility that hypopituitarism may be part of the phenotype, especially short stature, caused by interstitial 6q deletion. SIM1 plays an important role in the development of neuroendocrine lineage cells, implicating SIM1 haploinsufficiency in the pathophysiology of hypopituitarism seen in our propositus. Early identification of endocrine abnormalities can improve clinical outcome by allowing timely introduction of hormone replacement therapy. Hence, we suggest that detailed endocrine evaluation and longitudinal endocrine follow up be performed in individuals with proximal interstitial 6q deletion involving SIM1.

  19. Brain and Behavior in Children with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Volumetric and Voxel-Based Morphometry MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda E.; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2006-01-01

    In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  20. Modeling a model: Mouse genetics, 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, and disorders of cortical circuit development

    PubMed Central

    Meechan, Daniel W.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fernandez, Alejandra; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Rothblat, Lawrence A.; LaMantia, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the developmental etiology of autistic spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia remains a major challenge for establishing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to these common, difficult-to-treat diseases that compromise neural circuits in the cerebral cortex. One aspect of this challenge is the breadth and overlap of ASD, ADHD, and SCZ deficits; another is the complexity of mutations associated with each, and a third is the difficulty of analyzing disrupted development in at-risk or affected human fetuses. The identification of distinct genetic syndromes that include behavioral deficits similar to those in ASD, ADHC and SCZ provides a critical starting point for meeting this challenge. We summarize clinical and behavioral impairments in children and adults with one such genetic syndrome, the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, routinely called 22q11DS, caused by micro-deletions of between 1.5 and 3.0 MB on human chromosome 22. Among many syndromic features, including cardiovascular and craniofacial anomalies, 22q11DS patients have a high incidence of brain structural, functional, and behavioral deficits that reflect cerebral cortical dysfunction and fall within the spectrum that defines ASD, ADHD, and SCZ. We show that developmental pathogenesis underlying this apparent genetic “model” syndrome in patients can be defined and analyzed mechanistically using genomically accurate mouse models of the deletion that causes 22q11DS. We conclude that “modeling a model”, in this case 22q11DS as a model for idiopathic ASD, ADHD and SCZ, as well as other behavioral disorders like anxiety frequently seen in 22q11DS patients, in genetically engineered mice provides a foundation for understanding the causes and improving diagnosis and therapy for these disorders of cortical circuit development. PMID:25866365

  1. Phenotypic and Molecular Convergence of 2q23.1 Deletion Syndrome with Other Neurodevelopmental Syndromes Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mullegama, Sureni V.; Alaimo, Joseph T.; Chen, Li; Elsea, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 20% of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are syndromic with a well-established genetic cause. Studying the genes involved can provide insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ASD. 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (causative gene, MBD5) is a recently identified genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with ASD. Mutations in MBD5 have been found in ASD cohorts. In this study, we provide a phenotypic update on the prevalent features of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome, which include severe intellectual disability, seizures, significant speech impairment, sleep disturbance, and autistic-like behavioral problems. Next, we examined the phenotypic, molecular, and network/pathway relationships between nine neurodevelopmental disorders associated with ASD: 2q23.1 deletion Rett, Angelman, Pitt-Hopkins, 2q23.1 duplication, 5q14.3 deletion, Kleefstra, Kabuki make-up, and Smith-Magenis syndromes. We show phenotypic overlaps consisting of intellectual disability, speech delay, seizures, sleep disturbance, hypotonia, and autistic-like behaviors. Molecularly, MBD5 possibly regulates the expression of UBE3A, TCF4, MEF2C, EHMT1 and RAI1. Network analysis reveals that there could be indirect protein interactions, further implicating function for these genes in common pathways. Further, we show that when MBD5 and RAI1 are haploinsufficient, they perturb several common pathways that are linked to neuronal and behavioral development. These findings support further investigations into the molecular and pathway relationships among genes linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and ASD, which will hopefully lead to common points of regulation that may be targeted toward therapeutic intervention. PMID:25853262

  2. Phenotypic and molecular convergence of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome with other neurodevelopmental syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Alaimo, Joseph T; Chen, Li; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 20% of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are syndromic with a well-established genetic cause. Studying the genes involved can provide insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ASD. 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (causative gene, MBD5) is a recently identified genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with ASD. Mutations in MBD5 have been found in ASD cohorts. In this study, we provide a phenotypic update on the prevalent features of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome, which include severe intellectual disability, seizures, significant speech impairment, sleep disturbance, and autistic-like behavioral problems. Next, we examined the phenotypic, molecular, and network/pathway relationships between nine neurodevelopmental disorders associated with ASD: 2q23.1 deletion Rett, Angelman, Pitt-Hopkins, 2q23.1 duplication, 5q14.3 deletion, Kleefstra, Kabuki make-up, and Smith-Magenis syndromes. We show phenotypic overlaps consisting of intellectual disability, speech delay, seizures, sleep disturbance, hypotonia, and autistic-like behaviors. Molecularly, MBD5 possibly regulates the expression of UBE3A, TCF4, MEF2C, EHMT1 and RAI1. Network analysis reveals that there could be indirect protein interactions, further implicating function for these genes in common pathways. Further, we show that when MBD5 and RAI1 are haploinsufficient, they perturb several common pathways that are linked to neuronal and behavioral development. These findings support further investigations into the molecular and pathway relationships among genes linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and ASD, which will hopefully lead to common points of regulation that may be targeted toward therapeutic intervention. PMID:25853262

  3. Phenotypic and molecular convergence of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome with other neurodevelopmental syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Alaimo, Joseph T; Chen, Li; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 20% of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are syndromic with a well-established genetic cause. Studying the genes involved can provide insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ASD. 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (causative gene, MBD5) is a recently identified genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with ASD. Mutations in MBD5 have been found in ASD cohorts. In this study, we provide a phenotypic update on the prevalent features of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome, which include severe intellectual disability, seizures, significant speech impairment, sleep disturbance, and autistic-like behavioral problems. Next, we examined the phenotypic, molecular, and network/pathway relationships between nine neurodevelopmental disorders associated with ASD: 2q23.1 deletion Rett, Angelman, Pitt-Hopkins, 2q23.1 duplication, 5q14.3 deletion, Kleefstra, Kabuki make-up, and Smith-Magenis syndromes. We show phenotypic overlaps consisting of intellectual disability, speech delay, seizures, sleep disturbance, hypotonia, and autistic-like behaviors. Molecularly, MBD5 possibly regulates the expression of UBE3A, TCF4, MEF2C, EHMT1 and RAI1. Network analysis reveals that there could be indirect protein interactions, further implicating function for these genes in common pathways. Further, we show that when MBD5 and RAI1 are haploinsufficient, they perturb several common pathways that are linked to neuronal and behavioral development. These findings support further investigations into the molecular and pathway relationships among genes linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and ASD, which will hopefully lead to common points of regulation that may be targeted toward therapeutic intervention.

  4. White matter abnormalities in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome with and without schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Schmitz, Nicole; Bloemen, Oswald; van der Meer, Johan; Meijer, Julia; Boot, Erik; Nederveen, Aart; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2011-10-01

    Dysfunction of cerebral white matter (WM) is a potential factor underlying the neurobiology of schizophrenia. People with 22q11 deletion syndrome have altered brain morphology and increased risk for schizophrenia, therefore decreased WM integrity may be related to schizophrenia in 22q11DS. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM volume in 27 adults with 22q11DS with schizophrenia (n=12, 22q11DS SCZ+) and without schizophrenia (n=15, 22q11DS SCZ-), 12 individuals with idiopathic schizophrenia and 31 age-matched healthy controls. We found widespread decreased WM volume in posterior and temporal brain areas and decreased FA in areas of the frontal cortex in the whole 22q11DS group compared to healthy controls. In 22q11DS SCZ+ compromised WM integrity included inferior frontal areas of parietal and occipital lobe. Idiopathic schizophrenia patients showed decreased FA in inferior frontal and insular regions compared to healthy controls. We found no WM alterations in 22q11DS SCZ+ vs. 22q11DS SCZ-. However, there was a negative correlation between FA and PANSS scores (Positive and Negative Symptom Scale) in the whole 22q11DS group in the inferior frontal, cingulate, insular and temporal areas. This is the first study to investigate WM integrity in adults with 22q11DS. Our results suggest that pervasive WM dysfunction is intrinsic to 22q11DS and that psychotic development in adults with 22q11DS involves similar brain areas as seen in schizophrenia in the general population.

  5. Behavior in preschool children with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Petra; Duijff, Sasja; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Beemer, Frits; Sinnema, Gerben

    2013-01-01

    Children with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at an increased risk of psychiatric problems from pre-adolescence; little is known, however, about behavioral problems at a preschool age and the relationship between speech and behavior in this group. Parents of 90 children (aged 1.42-5.99 years) with 22q11DS filled out the Child Behavior Checklist, documenting behaviors including speech problems. Their profiles were compared with those of a comparison group consisting of 33 children with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts without 22q11DS, since both children with 22q11DS and children with clefts are expected to have speech problems. In the 22q11DS group, data on intelligence was acquired by means of formal tests. Parents of children with 22q11DS reported significantly higher mean scores on withdrawn behavior, affective problems and pervasive developmental problems compared to children with nonsyndromic clefts. Approximately 30% of children with 22q11DS had a score above the 97th percentile on at least one of the behavior subscales, indicating psychopathology. In children with 22q11DS, the reported behavioral problems were not associated with speech problems. Behavioral problems were found in 30% of young children with 22q11DS and were unlikely to be caused by speech problems. Within the 22q11DS group, behavioral problems were not related to the degree of cognitive impairment. This shows that many children with 22q11DS, known to be at an increased risk of psychiatric problems from pre-adolescence, already show behavioral problems before the age of 6 years.

  6. Platybasia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Is Not Correlated with Speech Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2014-01-01

    Background An abnormally obtuse cranial base angle, also known as platybasia, is a common finding in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Platybasia increases the depth of the velopharynx and is therefore postulated to contribute to velopharyngeal dysfunction. Our objective was to determine the clinical significance of platybasia in 22q11DS by exploring the relationship between cranial base angles and speech resonance. Methods In this retrospective chart review at a tertiary hospital, 24 children (age, 4.0-13.1 years) with 22q11.2DS underwent speech assessments and lateral cephalograms, which allowed for the measurement of the cranial base angles. Results One patient (4%) had hyponasal resonance, 8 (33%) had normal resonance, 10 (42%) had hypernasal resonance on vowels only, and 5 (21%) had hypernasal resonance on both vowels and consonants. The mean cranial base angle was 136.5° (standard deviation, 5.3°; range, 122.3-144.8°). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant relationship between the resonance ratings and cranial base angles (P=0.242). Cranial base angles and speech ratings were not correlated (Spearman correlation=0.321, P=0.126). The group with hypernasal resonance had a significantly more obtuse mean cranial base angle (138° vs. 134°, P=0.049) but did not have a greater prevalence of platybasia (73% vs. 56%, P=0.412). Conclusions In this retrospective chart review of patients with 22q11DS, cranial base angles were not correlated with speech resonance. The clinical significance of platybasia remains unknown. PMID:25075355

  7. Detection of an atypical 7q11.23 deletion in Williams syndrome patients which does not include the STX1A and FZD3 genes

    PubMed Central

    Botta, A; Novelli, G; Mari, A; Novelli, A; Sabani, M; Korenberg, J; Osborne, L; Digilio, M; Giannotti, A; Dallapiccola, B

    1999-01-01

    We present two patients with the full Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype carrying a smaller deletion than typically observed. The deleted region spans from the elastin gene to marker D7S1870. This observation narrows the minimal region of deletion in WS and suggests that the syntaxin 1A and frizzled genes are not responsible for the major features of this developmental disorder and provides important insight into understanding the genotype-phenotype correlation in WS.


Keywords: Williams syndrome; elastin; syntaxin; frizzled PMID:10874638

  8. Anophthalmia-esophageal atresia syndrome caused by an SOX2 gene deletion in monozygotic twin brothers with markedly discordant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Perez-Cano, Hector J; Aguinaga, Monica

    2006-09-15

    The clinical combination of anophthalmia/microphthalmia and esophageal atresia was first recognized in 1988 as a distinct variable multi-system malformation syndrome and since then at least 17 cases of the disease have been described, all of them sporadic in occurrence. We report a heterozygous SOX2 gene mutation underlying the syndrome of anophthalmia/microphthalmia-esophageal atresia and demonstrate that this entity can be associated to considerable clinical variability as shown by the discordant ocular phenotype observed in monozygotic twin brothers carrying an SOX2 deletion. This is the first report describing a strikingly discordant eye phenotype in monozygotic twins with the condition, with one of our patients being the first reported individual carrying an SOX2 lesion associated with unilateral eye defect. We discuss the probable sources for this remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity of the anophthalmia/microphthalmia syndrome in individuals with an identical genetic constitution.

  9. Tests of linkage and allelic association between markers in the 1p36 PRKCZ (protein kinase C zeta) gene region and bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, Radhika; McQuillin, Andrew; Curtis, David; Gurling, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Three linkage studies of families with multiple cases of bipolar disorder and/or unipolar affective disorder have confirmed the involvement of the chromosome 1p36 region in the etiology of affective disorders with LOD scores of 2.7, 3.6, and 3.97. We investigated the protein kinase C zeta gene (PRKCZ) as a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder because it is highly brain expressed and is localized close to the marker D1S243 which was linked to affective disorder in a single large UCL bipolar disorder family with a LOD of 3.1. PRKCZ encodes an unusual type of protein kinase which affects axonal differentiation through Wnt-signaling. We genotyped four microsatellite markers and nine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within or near the PRKCZ gene in the UCL case-control sample of 600 bipolar disorder patients and up to 605 supernormal controls. Markers D1S243 and rs3128396 were significantly associated with bipolar disorder (empirical P = 0.037 and P = 0.040, respectively). We also included data from eight SNPs which were genotyped as part of our GWA study on bipolar disorder for association analysis. Tests of haplotypic association found that a haplotype block comprising markers rs3128296, rs2503706, and rs3128309 was associated with bipolar disorder (empirical P = 0.004). A previous linkage study had shown greater evidence for linkage within female cases compared to males. Therefore, to assess if the association was sex-specific, we performed a female-only allelic-association analysis, which resulted in SNPs rs3128296 and rs3128309 becoming associated with bipolar disorder (P = 0.004 and P = 0.016, respectively). PRKCZ may play a role in susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder.

  10. Comparison of Genome Screens for Two Independent Cohorts Provides Replication of Suggestive Linkage of Bone Mineral Density to 3p21 and 1p36

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S. G.; Reed, P. W.; Bansal, A.; Chiano, M.; Lindersson, M.; Langdown, M.; Prince, R. L.; Thompson, D.; Thompson, E.; Bailey, M.; Kleyn, P. W.; Sambrook, P.; Shi, M. M.; Spector, T. D.

    2003-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major risk factor for osteoporotic fracture. Studies of BMD in families and twins have shown that this trait is under strong genetic control. To identify regions of the genome that contain quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BMD, we performed independent genomewide screens, using two complementary study designs. We analyzed unselected nonidentical twin pairs (1,094 pedigrees) and highly selected, extremely discordant or concordant (EDAC) sib pairs (254 pedigrees). Nonparametric multipoint linkage (NPL) analyses were undertaken for lumbar spine and total-hip BMD in both cohorts and for whole-body BMD in the unselected twin pairs. The maximum evidence of linkage in the unselected twins (spine BMD, LOD 2.7) and the EDAC pedigrees (spine BMD, LOD 2.1) was observed at chromosome 3p21 (76 cM and 69 cM, respectively). These combined data indicate the presence, in this region, of a gene that regulates BMD. Furthermore, evidence of linkage in the twin cohort (whole-body BMD; LOD 2.4) at chromosome 1p36 (17 cM) supports previous findings of suggestive linkage to BMD in the region. Weaker evidence of linkage (LOD 1.0–2.3) in either cohort, but not both, indicates the locality of additional QTLs. These studies validate the use, in linkage analysis, of large cohorts of unselected twins phenotyped for multiple traits, and they highlight the importance of conducting genome scans in replicate populations as a prelude to positional cloning and gene discovery. PMID:12478480

  11. Deletion 17p11.2 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) is relatively common among patients having mental retardation and myopia

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, B.; Jaeger, E.R.; Freitag, S.K.

    1994-09-01

    We recently reported the finding of moderate to severe myopia in 6 of 10 patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). To investigate the prevalence of SMS among mentally retarded people having myopia, we surveyed a cohort of patients residing at a facility for individuals with mental retardation (MR). Of 547 institutionalized individuals with MR, 72 (13.2%) had moderate to high myopia defined as a visual acuity of minus 3 diopters or more. It should be noted that our institution does not specifically select for people with visual impairment; rather, the facility serves people with a primary diagnosis of MR. Sixty-five of 72 (90.3%) myopic individuals identified were available for cytogenetic analysis. Seventeen (26.2%) of these patients had trisomy 21. Down syndrome (DS) is well known to be associated with eye abnormalities, including myopia. Of 48 individuals with moderate to high myopia not having DS, 5 (10.4%) were shown to have deletions of 17p11.2. This is a high prevalence considering the relative rarity of SMS. By contrast, in a randomized sample of 48 patients without significant myopia at the same facility, we found no individuals with deletion 17p11.2. We conclude that the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in any non-Down syndrome individual having MR and myopia, and that ophthalmologists serving people with MR should be made aware of this deletion syndrome. Furthermore, our results suggest that significant numbers of people having SMS could be identified through selective institutional screening of patients having a combination of MR and moderate to severe myopia.

  12. De novo deletion of chromosome 11q12.3 in monozygotic twins affected by Poland Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poland Syndrome (PS) is a rare disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, variably associated with thoracic and upper limb anomalies. Familial recurrence has been reported indicating that PS could have a genetic basis, though the genetic mechanisms underlying PS development are still unknown. Case presentation Here we describe a couple of monozygotic (MZ) twin girls, both presenting with Poland Syndrome. They carry a de novo heterozygous 126 Kbp deletion at chromosome 11q12.3 involving 5 genes, four of which, namely HRASLS5, RARRES3, HRASLS2, and PLA2G16, encode proteins that regulate cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, mainly through Ras-mediated signaling pathways. Conclusions Phenotype concordance between the monozygotic twin probands provides evidence supporting the genetic control of PS. As genes controlling cell growth and differentiation may be related to morphological defects originating during development, we postulate that the observed chromosome deletion could be causative of the phenotype observed in the twin girls and the deleted genes could play a role in PS development. PMID:24885342

  13. [Catch-22? Wide variety of phenotypes associated with the chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome in two patients].

    PubMed

    Till, Ágnes; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Lőcsei-Fekete, Anett; Czakó, Márta; Duga, Balázs; Melegh, Béla

    2015-11-01

    The chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome may present with a variety of phenotypes. Its symptoms generally include a characteristic facial dysmorphisms and multiplex developmental disorders. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is the current method of choice for the diagnosis if typical multiple defects and/or symptoms are present. The authors present the history of two patients who were followed-up for minor anomalies and various developmental disorders for several years in the genetic counseling office of the authors, but definitive diagnosis was not established. However, when DNA samples of the two patients were recently tested with array comparative genome hybridization, a diagnostic method which has already been used in their institute for several years, the results indicated deletion of the 11.2 region on the long arm of chromosome 22 in both patients. The authors draw attention to the incidence and wide phenotypic spectrum of the chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome, and show that its identification can be aided with the novel molecular cytogenetic method available in their laboratory.

  14. A case of 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including OA1 locus associated with contiguous gene syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Hae; Kim, Sook-Young; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2012-10-01

    Terminal or interstitial deletions of Xp (Xp22.2→Xpter) in males have been recognized as a cause of contiguous gene syndromes showing variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1), mental retardation (NLGN4), ichthyosis (STS), Kallmann syndrome (KAL1), and ocular albinism (GPR143). Here we present a case of a 13.5 yr old boy and sister with a same terminal deletion of Xp22.2 resulting in the absence of genes from the telomere of Xp to GPR143 of Xp22. The boy manifested the findings of all of the disorders mentioned above. We began a testosterone enanthate monthly replacement therapy. His sister, 11 yr old, manifested only Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and had engaged in growth hormone therapy for 3 yr. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a male with a 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including the OA1 locus in Korea. PMID:23091330

  15. Comparison of phenotype between patients with Prader-Willi syndrome due to deletion 15q and uniparental disomy 15.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, S B; Forsythe, M; Heeger, S; Nicholls, R D; Schork, N; Benn, P; Schwartz, S

    1997-02-11

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex multiple anomaly syndrome that has been shown to result from deficient expression of paternal chromosome 15(q11-q13). In most cases, it is caused either by deletion of this region in the paternally inherited chromosome 15 or by maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15. In order to determine whether there are phenotypic differences between patients whose PWS is caused by these two different mechanisms, 54 affected individuals (37 with deletion, 17 with UPD) were personally examined and studied using molecular techniques. The previously recognized increased maternal age in patients with UPD and increased frequency of hypopigmentation in those with deletion were confirmed. Although the frequency and severity of most other manifestations of PWS did not differ significantly between the two groups, those with UPD were less likely to have a "typical" facial appearance. In addition, this group was less likely to show some of the minor manifestations such as skin picking, skill with jigsaw puzzles, and high pain threshold. Females and those with UPD were also older, on average. Possible mechanisms by which these differences could occur and the implications of these differences for diagnosis are described. PMID:9021017

  16. Cornelia de Lange syndrome caused by heterozygous deletions of chromosome 8q24: comments on the article by Pereza et al. [2012].

    PubMed

    Pereza, Nina; Severinski, Srećko; Ostojić, Saša; Volk, Marija; Maver, Aleš; Dekanić, Kristina Baraba; Kapović, Miljenko; Peterlin, Borut

    2015-06-01

    In the March issue of the Journal in 2012, we reported on a girl with Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS) phenotype and a 7.5 Mb interstitial deletion at 8q23.3q24.13, encompassing the EXT1, but not the TRPS1 gene. Recent discoveries have shown that heterozygous intragenic mutations or contiguous gene deletions including the RAD21 gene, which is located downstream of the TRPS1 gene, are the cause of Cornelia de Lange syndrome-4. Considering that the interstitial deletion in our patient included the RAD21 and 30 other RefSeq genes, we would like to suggest a revision of the diagnosis reported in our previous paper and compare our patient to other reported patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome-4 caused by heterozygous deletions of chromosome 8q24. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25899858

  17. The NPHP1 gene deletion associated with juvenile nephronophthisis is present in a subset of individuals with Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Melissa A; Bennett, Craig L; Eckert, Melissa L; Dobyns, William B; Gleeson, Joseph G; Shaw, Dennis W W; McDonald, Ruth; Eddy, Allison; Chance, Phillip F; Glass, Ian A

    2004-07-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disease characterized by cerebellar vermis hypoplasia with prominent superior cerebellar peduncles (the "molar tooth sign" [MTS] on axial magnetic resonance imaging), mental retardation, hypotonia, irregular breathing pattern, and eye-movement abnormalities. Some individuals with JS have retinal dystrophy and/or progressive renal failure characterized by nephronophthisis (NPHP). Thus far, no mutations in the known NPHP genes, particularly the homozygous deletion of NPHP1 at 2q13, have been identified in subjects with JS. A cohort of 25 subjects with JS and either renal and/or retinal complications and 2 subjects with only juvenile NPHP were screened for mutations in the NPHP1 gene by standard methods. Two siblings affected with a mild form of JS were found to have a homozygous deletion of the NPHP1 gene identical, by mapping, to that in subjects with NPHP alone. A control subject with NPHP and with a homozygous NPHP1 deletion was also identified, retrospectively, as having a mild MTS and borderline intelligence. The NPHP1 deletion represents the first molecular defect associated with JS in a subset of mildly affected subjects. Cerebellar malformations consistent with the MTS may be relatively common in patients with juvenile NPHP without classic symptoms of JS.

  18. Occupational hydrocarbon exposure among fathers of Prader-Willi syndrome patients with and without deletions of 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, S.B.; Gainey, A.J.; Butler, M.G.

    1989-06-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multiple-anomaly disorder in which 50%-70% of cases are associated with a de novo interstitial deletion (del 15(q11-13)) on prometaphase cytogenetic analysis, the remainder having apparently normal chromosomes. In most instances, the paternally derived chromosome has become deleted in the affected child, suggesting the possibility of a predisposing environmental factor. Strakowski and Butler found an increased incidence of paternal periconceptional employment in hydrocarbon-exposing occupations in this population. This observation may suggest a causal relationship to PWS. To determine whether this association may distinguish the cytogenetically different groups, we identified 81 patients with the disorder who were physically and cytogenetically examined in three centers, and we compared the frequency of possible periconceptional occupational hydrocarbon exposure between fathers of patients who demonstrate a 15q deletion and those who do not. There was no statistically significant difference between the cytogenetically different groups. In both groups, approximately half of the fathers had been employed in hydrocarbon-exposing jobs. These findings suggest lack of etiologic heterogeneity between the cytogenetically different groups for PWS and affirm the need to seek submicroscopic deletions through molecular genetic studies. These data also provide additional evidence that hydrocarbon exposure among fathers of children with PWS may be causally related to the disorder, and they also suggest the need for more accurate assessment of exposure via a large, controlled study.

  19. Tigroid pattern of cerebral white matter involvement in chromosome 6p25 deletion syndrome with concomitant 5p15 duplication

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Smith, Kath; Williams, Steve; Griffiths, Paul D.; Parker, Michael J.; Mordekar, Santosh R.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-telomeric deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are a well-described clinical entity characterized by developmental impairment, hypotonia, eye abnormalities and defects in the heart and kidneys. Chromosome 5p terminal duplication is a rarer entity, associated with developmental impairment and facial dysmorphism. We report a 3-year-old patient with a chromosome 6p25.1pter deletion and chromosome 5p15.1pter duplication who had global developmental impairment and unusual cerebral white matter changes, with hypoplastic corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis on magnetic resonance imaging -brain scan. We discuss the differential diagnosis to consider in patients with this appearance on magnetic resonance imaging -brain scan and reiterate the need for chromosome analysis in patients with this pattern of developmental anomaly. Tigroid pattern of cerebral white matter involvement has not been reported in chromosomal deletion/duplication syndromes. With the increasing use of molecular karyotyping for patients with multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delay, it is important to consider the exact size and nature of chromosomal deletion/duplication, in order to provide families with prognostic information and recurrence risk. This in turn, will help provide valuable information regarding the natural history of rare chromosomal imbalances.

  20. Tigroid pattern of cerebral white matter involvement in chromosome 6p25 deletion syndrome with concomitant 5p15 duplication.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Smith, Kath; Williams, Steve; Griffiths, Paul D; Parker, Michael J; Mordekar, Santosh R

    2012-12-01

    Sub-telomeric deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are a well-described clinical entity characterized by developmental impairment, hypotonia, eye abnormalities and defects in the heart and kidneys. Chromosome 5p terminal duplication is a rarer entity, associated with developmental impairment and facial dysmorphism. We report a 3-year-old patient with a chromosome 6p25.1pter deletion and chromosome 5p15.1pter duplication who had global developmental impairment and unusual cerebral white matter changes, with hypoplastic corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis on magnetic resonance imaging -brain scan. We discuss the differential diagnosis to consider in patients with this appearance on magnetic resonance imaging -brain scan and reiterate the need for chromosome analysis in patients with this pattern of developmental anomaly. Tigroid pattern of cerebral white matter involvement has not been reported in chromosomal deletion/duplication syndromes. With the increasing use of molecular karyotyping for patients with multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delay, it is important to consider the exact size and nature of chromosomal deletion/duplication, in order to provide families with prognostic information and recurrence risk. This in turn, will help provide valuable information regarding the natural history of rare chromosomal imbalances. PMID:27625832

  1. Prader-Willi syndrome with an unusually large 15q deletion due to an unbalanced translocation t(4;15).

    PubMed

    Varela, Monica C; Lopes, Graziela M P; Koiffmann, Celia P

    2004-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral disorder caused by deletions in the 15q11-q13 region, by maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 or by imprinting defects. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 have been described in about 5% of the patients with typical or atypical PWS phenotype. An 8-year-old boy with a clinical diagnosis of PWS, severe neurodevelopmental delay, absence of speech and mental retardation was studied by cytogenetic and molecular techniques, and an unbalanced de novo karyotype 45,XY,der(4)t(4;15)(q35;q14),-15 was detected after GTG-banding. The patient was diagnosed by SNURF-SNRPN exon 1 methylation assay, and the extent of the deletions on chromosomes 4 and 15 was investigated by microsatellite analysis of markers located in 4qter and 15q13-q14 regions. The deletion of chromosome 4q was distal to D4S1652, and that of chromosome 15 was located between D15S1043 and D15S1010. Our patient's severely affected phenotype could be due to the extent of the deletion, larger than usually seen in PWS patients, although the unbalance of the derivative chromosome 4 cannot be ruled out as another possible cause. The breakpoint was located in the subtelomeric region, very close to the telomere, a region that has been described as having the lowest gene concentrations in the human genome.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Jacobsen syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 11 , Jacobsen syndrome is also known as 11q terminal deletion disorder. The signs and symptoms of Jacobsen ... disorder 11q deletion syndrome 11q- deletion syndrome 11q terminal deletion disorder 11q23 deletion disorder Jacobsen thrombocytopenia Related ...

  3. Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Are Impaired at Explicit, but Not Implicit, Discrimination of Local Forms Embedded in Global Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giersch, Anne; Glaser, Bronwyn; Pasca, Catherine; Chabloz, Mélanie; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are impaired at exploring visual information in space; however, not much is known about visual form discrimination in the syndrome. Thirty-five individuals with 22q11.2DS and 41 controls completed a form discrimination task with global forms made up of local elements. Affected individuals…

  4. Intellectual Functioning in Relation to Autism and ADHD Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; Sonneville, L. M. J.; Engeland, H.; Sijmens-Morcus, M. E. J.; Klaassen, P. W. J.; Duijff, S. N.; Vorstman, J. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is associated with an increased risk of various disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between intellectual functioning and severity of ASD and ADHD…

  5. Prospective investigation of autism and genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q13 deletion syndrome and SHANK3 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 22q13 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, hypotonia, delayed or absent speech, and autistic features. SHANK3 has been identified as the critical gene in the neurological and behavioral aspects of this syndrome. The phenotype of SHANK3 deficiency has been described primarily from case studies, with limited evaluation of behavioral and cognitive deficits. The present study used a prospective design and inter-disciplinary clinical evaluations to assess patients with SHANK3 deficiency, with the goal of providing a comprehensive picture of the medical and behavioral profile of the syndrome. Methods A serially ascertained sample of patients with SHANK3 deficiency (n = 32) was evaluated by a team of child psychiatrists, neurologists, clinical geneticists, molecular geneticists and psychologists. Patients were evaluated for autism spectrum disorder using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-G. Results Thirty participants with 22q13.3 deletions ranging in size from 101 kb to 8.45 Mb and two participants with de novo SHANK3 mutations were included. The sample was characterized by high rates of autism spectrum disorder: 27 (84%) met criteria for autism spectrum disorder and 24 (75%) for autistic disorder. Most patients (77%) exhibited severe to profound intellectual disability and only five (19%) used some words spontaneously to communicate. Dysmorphic features, hypotonia, gait disturbance, recurring upper respiratory tract infections, gastroesophageal reflux and seizures were also common. Analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations indicated that larger deletions were associated with increased levels of dysmorphic features, medical comorbidities and social communication impairments related to autism. Analyses of individuals with small deletions or point mutations identified features related to SHANK3 haploinsufficiency

  6. Genetic Dosage Compensation in a Family with Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alkalay, Avishai A.; Guo, Tingwei; Montagna, Cristina; Digilio, M. Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Morrow, Bernice

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies of a male child carrying the 22q11.2 deletion common in patients with velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome revealed an unexpected rearrangement of the 22q11.2 region in his normal appearing mother. The mother carries a 3 Mb deletion on one copy and a reciprocal, similar sized duplication on the other copy of chromosome 22q11.2 as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and array comparative genome hybridization analysis. The most parsimonious mechanism for the rearrangement is a mitotic non-allelic homologous recombination event in a cell in the early embryo soon after fertilization. The normal phenotype of the mother can be explained by the theory of genetic dosage compensation. This is the second documented case of such an event for this or any genomic disorder. This finding helps to reinforce this phenomenon in a human model, and has significant implications for genetic counseling of future children. PMID:21337693

  7. Rare copy number variants and congenital heart defects in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarski, Elisabeth E.; Xie, Michael; Taylor, Deanne; Sheridan, Molly B.; Guo, Tingwei; Racedo, Silvia E.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Chow, Eva W. C.; Vorstman, Jacob; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koen; Breckpot, Jeroen; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Simon, Tony J.; Roberts, Amy E.; Piotrowicz, Małgorzata; Bearden, Carrie E.; Eliez, Stephan; Gothelf, Doron; Coleman, Karlene; Kates, Wendy R.; Devoto, Marcella; Zackai, Elaine; Heine-Suñer, Damian; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Bassett, Anne S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS; MIM #192430; 188400) is the most common microdeletion syndrome. The phenotypic presentation of 22q11DS is highly variable; approximately 60–75 % of 22q11DS patients have been reported to have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or aortic arch defect. The etiology of the cardiac phenotypic variability is not currently known for the majority of patients. We hypothesized that rare copy number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region may modify the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Rare CNV analysis was performed using Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 data from 946 22q11DS subjects with CHDs (n = 607) or with normal cardiac anatomy (n = 339). Although there was no significant difference in the overall burden of rare CNVs, an overabundance of CNVs affecting cardiac-related genes was detected in 22q11DS individuals with CHDs. When the rare CNVs were examined with regard to gene interactions, specific cardiac networks, such as Wnt signaling, appear to be overrepresented in 22q11DS CHD cases but not 22q11DS controls with a normal heart. Collectively, these data suggest that CNVs outside the 22q11.2 region may contain genes that modify risk for CHDs in some 22q11DS patients. PMID:26742502

  8. Confirmation that the conotruncal anomaly face syndrome is associated with a deletion within 22q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Rumiko; Takao, Atsuyoshi; Kimura, Misa; Kondo, Chisato; Ando, Masahiko; Momma, Kazuo; Imamura, Shin-ichiro; Joh-o, Kunitaka; Ikeda, Kazuo; Nishibatake, Makoto

    1994-11-15

    The so-called {open_quotes}conotruncal anomaly face syndrome{close_quotes} (CTAFS) is characterized by a peculiar facial appearance associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), especially cardiac outflow tract defects such as tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), double outlet ring ventricle (DORV), and truncus arteriosus (TAC). CTAFS and the DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) have many similar phenotypic characteristics, suggesting that they share a common cause. In many cases DGA is known to be associated with monosomy for a region of chromosome 22q11.2. Fifty CTAFS patients and 10 DGA patients, 11 parents couples and 10 mothers of CTAFS patients, and 3 parents couples and 2 mothers of DGA patients were examined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the N25 (D22S75) DGCR probe (Oncor). Monosomy for a region of 22q11.2 was found in 42 CTAFS, 9 DGA, 4 mothers, and 1 father who had CTAF without CHD. The remaining 8 CTAFS patients, 1 DGA patient and 1 mother who had questionable CTAF without CHD, showed no such chromosome abnormality. For the control, 60 patients who had CHD without CTAF or other know malformation syndromes were examined and had no deletion of 22q11.2. Therefore, we conclude that CTAFS is a part of the CATCH 22 syndrome; cardiac defects, abnormal faces, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia (CATCH) resulting from 22q11.2 deletions. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Dysregulation of DGCR6 and DGCR6L: psychopathological outcomes in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, D; Bernal, A J; Schoch, K; Howard, T D; Ip, E H; Hooper, S R; Keshavan, M S; Jirtle, R L; Shashi, V

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. It is typified by highly variable symptoms, which might be explained by epigenetic regulation of genes in the interval. Using computational algorithms, our laboratory previously predicted that DiGeorge critical region 6 (DGCR6), which lies within the deletion interval, is imprinted in humans. Expression and epigenetic regulation of this gene have not, however, been examined in 22q11DS subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if the expression levels of DGCR6 and its duplicate copy DGCR6L in 22q11DS subjects are associated with the parent-of-origin of the deletion and childhood psychopathologies. Our investigation showed no evidence of parent-of-origin-related differences in expression of both DGCR6 and DGCR6L. However, we found that the variability in DGCR6 expression was significantly greater in 22q11DS children than in age and gender-matched control individuals. Children with 22q11DS who had anxiety disorders had significantly lower DGCR6 expression, especially in subjects with the deletion on the maternal chromosome, despite the lack of imprinting. Our findings indicate that epigenetic mechanisms other than imprinting contribute to the dysregulation of these genes and the associated childhood psychopathologies observed in individuals with 22q11DS. Further studies are now needed to test the usefulness of DGCR6 and DGCR6L expression and alterations in the epigenome at these loci in predicting childhood anxiety and associated adult-onset pathologies in 22q11DS subjects. PMID:22832905

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in TBX1 in individuals with and without 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heike, Carrie L.; Starr, Jacqueline R.; Rieder, Mark J.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Edwards, Karen L.; Stanaway, Ian; Crawford, Dana C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a wide range of clinical features. TBX1 has been proposed as a candidate gene for some of the features in this condition. Polymorphisms in the non-deleted TBX1, which may affect the function of the sole TBX1 gene in individuals with the 22q11.2DS, may be a key to understanding the phenotypic variability among individuals with a shared deletion. Comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery by resequencing candidate genes can identify genetic variants that influence a given phenotype. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the sequence variability in TBX1 by identifying all common SNPs in this gene. METHODS We resequenced TBX1 in 29 children with a documented 22q11.2 deletion and 95 non-deleted, healthy individuals. We estimated allele frequencies, performed tagSNP selection, and inferred haplotypes. We also compared SNP frequencies between 22q11.2DS and control samples. RESULTS We identified 355 biallelic markers among the 190 chromosomes resequenced in the control panel. The vast majority of the markers identified were SNPs (n=331), and the remainder indels (n=24). We did not identify SNPs or indels in the cis- regulatory element (FOX–binding site) upstream of TBX1. In children with 22q11.2DS we detected 187 biallelic markers, six of which were indels. Four of the seven coding SNPs identified in the controls were identified in children with 22q11.2DS. CONCLUSIONS This comprehensive SNP discovery data can be used to select SNPs to genotype for future association studies assessing the role of TBX1 and phenotypic variability in individuals with 22q11.2DS. PMID:19645056

  11. Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome in a Family with a Deletion Followed by an Insertion within the HPRT1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khue Vu; Nyhan, William L

    2015-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare X-linked inherited neurogenetic disorder of purine metabolism in which the enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase(HGprt) is defective. The authors report a novel mutation which led to LNS in a family with a deletion followed by an insertion (INDELS) via the serial replication slippage mechanism: c.428_432delTGCAGinsAGCAAA, p.Met143Lysfs*12 in exon 6 of HPRT1 gene. Molecular diagnosis discloses the genetic heterogeneity of HPRT1 gene responsible for HGprt deficiency. It allows fast, accurate carrier detection and genetic counseling. PMID:25965333

  12. Stroke-Like Presentation Following Febrile Seizure in a Patient with 1q43q44 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J. Elliott; Wolfe, Stephanie M.; Kaiser-Rogers, Kathleen; Greenwood, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Hemiconvulsion–hemiplegia–epilepsy syndrome (HHE) is a rare outcome of prolonged hemiconvulsion that is followed by diffuse unilateral hemispheric edema, hemiplegia, and ultimately hemiatrophy of the affected hemisphere and epilepsy. Here, we describe the case of a 3-year-old male with a 1;3 translocation leading to a terminal 1q43q44 deletion and a terminal 3p26.1p26.3 duplication that developed HHE after a prolonged febrile seizure and discuss the pathogenesis of HHE in the context of the patient’s complex genetic background. PMID:27199890

  13. Inherited 5p deletion syndrome due to paternal balanced translocation: Phenotypic heterogeneity due to duplication of 8q and 12p.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Neerja; Chowdhury, Madhumita R; Sapra, Savita; Shukla, Rashmi; Lall, Meena; Kabra, Madhulika

    2013-09-01

    5p deletion syndrome or Cri du Chat syndrome is a autosomal deletion syndrome, caused by the de novo deletion of chromosome 5p in the majority of the cases. Clinical features include developmental delay, microcephaly, subtle facial dysmorphism and high-pitched cry. With the advent of newer techniques such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, rapid diagnosis is possible and chromosomal microarray helps in accurate delineation of the breakpoints. In this study, we characterized probands from two Indian families who had duplication of another chromosome in addition to deletion of 5p region. In the first family, two females of 3 and 5 yr of age had deletion of 5p15.33p15.2 (14.7 Mb) and duplication of 8q24.21q24.3 (15.4 Mb). Proband in the second family was a 2-year-old female and had deletion of 5p15.33p14.3 (22.55 Mb) along with duplication of 12p13.33p13.31 (7.7 Mb). In both the families, father was balanced translocation carrier of the chromosomes involved. Patients in family 1 had overwhelming features of 5p deletion while patient in family 2, besides having features of 5p deletion, showed many features of 12p duplications. Prenatal diagnosis was possible in both the families. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis report of 5p deletion syndrome from India. PMID:27625854

  14. Inherited 5p deletion syndrome due to paternal balanced translocation: Phenotypic heterogeneity due to duplication of 8q and 12p

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Neerja; Chowdhury, Madhumita R.; Sapra, Savita; Shukla, Rashmi; Lall, Meena; Kabra, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    5p deletion syndrome or Cri du Chat syndrome is a autosomal deletion syndrome, caused by the de novo deletion of chromosome 5p in the majority of the cases. Clinical features include developmental delay, microcephaly, subtle facial dysmorphism and high-pitched cry. With the advent of newer techniques such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, rapid diagnosis is possible and chromosomal microarray helps in accurate delineation of the breakpoints. In this study, we characterized probands from two Indian families who had duplication of another chromosome in addition to deletion of 5p region. In the first family, two females of 3 and 5 yr of age had deletion of 5p15.33p15.2 (14.7 Mb) and duplication of 8q24.21q24.3 (15.4 Mb). Proband in the second family was a 2-year-old female and had deletion of 5p15.33p14.3 (22.55 Mb) along with duplication of 12p13.33p13.31 (7.7 Mb). In both the families, father was balanced translocation carrier of the chromosomes involved. Patients in family 1 had overwhelming features of 5p deletion while patient in family 2, besides having features of 5p deletion, showed many features of 12p duplications. Prenatal diagnosis was possible in both the families. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis report of 5p deletion syndrome from India. PMID:27625854

  15. Chromosome 1 aneusomy with 1p36 under-representation is related to histologic grade, DNA aneuploidy, high c-erb B-2 and loss of bcl-2 expression in ductal breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Farabegoli, F; Ceccarelli, C; Santini, D; Trerè, D; Baldini, N; Taffurelli, M; Derenzini, M

    1996-10-21

    Chromosome 1 abnormalities with loss of 1p36 have been investigated in 95 breast-cancer samples by means of a dual-target fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique using the pUC 1.77 and p1-79 probes, specific for the 1q12 and 1p36 regions, respectively. Abnormalities for one or both probes were detected in 83/95 samples. Relative 1p36 under-representation was found in 79/95. The clinical relevance of these alterations was studied by comparing the FISH results with several parameters currently used in breast-cancer pathology. Distinct patterns of chromosome 1 abnormalities were found among the histologic types of breast carcinoma. Lobular or mucinous samples showed few or no alterations, whereas most ductal samples had high chromosome 1 polysomy with under-representation of 1p36. In ductal carcinomas, chromosome 1 alterations increased with histologic grade, DNA aneuploidy, loss of bcl-2 and high c-erb B-2 expression. These associations were found to be statistically significant. No correlation between chromosome 1 alterations and nuclear grade, age, size, lymph-node involvement, hormonal receptor presence, proliferation activity or p53 protein expression was detected. These results indicate the utility of this FISH technique for a better definition of the biological characteristics of ductal carcinomas.

  16. Assignment of the genes encoding the human chloride channels, CLCNKA and CLCNKB, to 1p36 and of CLCN3 to 4q32-q33 by in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Saito-Ohara, Fumiko; Uchida, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Yasuo

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the localization of the genes encoding the human chloride channels, CLCNKA and CLCNKB, to human chromosome 1p36 and of CLCN3 to human chromosome 4q32-33 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mutations in these voltage-gated chloride channel genes have been implicated in various hereditary diseases. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Problem Behaviors Associated with Deletion Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and Cri Du Chat Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David J.; Boer, Harm

    1998-01-01

    Problem behaviors of 38 individuals with Cri-du-Chat syndrome, 55 individuals with Prader Willi syndrome, and 21 individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome were investigated. All three disorders were Associated with greater ratings of problem behaviors (besides eating abnormalities and sleep abnormalities) than comparison groups. (Author/CR)

  18. Atypical Association of Angelman Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome in a Boy with 47,XXY Karyotype and Deletion 15q11.2-q13.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Javier; Peciña, Ana; Alonso-Luengo, Olga; González-Meneses, Antonio; Vázquez, Rocío; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Borrego, Salud

    2014-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS, OMIM 105830) is a neurogenetic disorder with firm clinical diagnostic guidelines, characterized by severe developmental delay and speech impairment, balanced and behavioral disturbance as well as microcephaly, seizures, and a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG). The majority of AS cases (70%) are caused by a 15q11.2-q13 deletion on the maternally derived chromosome. The frequency of AS has been estimated to be between 1/10000 and 1/20000. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) occurs due to the presence of an extra X chromosome (karyotype 47,XXY). The main features in KS are small testes, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, gynecomastia, learning difficulties, and infertility. We present what is, to our knowledge, the first case of a patient with both KS and AS due to a 15q11.2-q13 deletion on the maternally derived chromosome and an extra X chromosome of paternal origin. He showed dysmorphic features, axial hypotonia, and delayed acquisition of motor skills. Early diagnosis is essential for optimal treatment of AS children; this is one of the earliest diagnosed cases of AS probably due to the presence of two syndromes. Clinical findings in this patient here described may be helpful to identify any other cases and to evaluate recurrence risks in these families. PMID:25379297

  19. Functional analysis of a chromosomal deletion associated with myelodysplastic syndromes using isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kotini, Andriana G; Chang, Chan-Jung; Boussaad, Ibrahim; Delrow, Jeffrey J; Dolezal, Emily K; Nagulapally, Abhinav B; Perna, Fabiana; Fishbein, Gregory A; Klimek, Virginia M; Hawkins, R David; Huangfu, Danwei; Murry, Charles E; Graubert, Timothy; Nimer, Stephen D; Papapetrou, Eirini P

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions associated with human diseases, such as cancer are common, but synteny issues complicate modeling of these deletions in mice. We use cellular reprogramming and genome engineering to functionally dissect the loss of chromosome 7q [del(7q)], a somatic cytogenetic abnormality present in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We derive del(7q)- and isogenic karyotypically normal induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from hematopoietic cells of MDS patients and show that the del(7q) iPSCs recapitulate disease-associated phenotypes, including impaired hematopoietic differentiation. These disease phenotypes are rescued by spontaneous dosage correction and can be reproduced in karyotypically normal cells by engineering hemizygosity of defined chr7q segments, in a 20 Mb region. We use a phenotype-rescue screen to identify candidate haploinsufficient genes that might mediate the del(7q)- hematopoietic defect. Our approach highlights the utility of human iPSCs both for functional mapping of disease-associated large-scale chromosomal deletions and for discovery of haploinsufficient genes. PMID:25798938

  20. Overexpression of KLC2 due to a homozygous deletion in the non-coding region causes SPOAN syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melo, Uirá S; Macedo-Souza, Lucia I; Figueiredo, Thalita; Muotri, Alysson R; Gleeson, Joseph G; Coux, Gabriela; Armas, Pablo; Calcaterra, Nora B; Kitajima, João P; Amorim, Simone; Olávio, Thiago R; Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Coatti, Giuliana C; Rocha, Clarissa R R; Martins-Pinheiro, Marinalva; Menck, Carlos F M; Zaki, Maha S; Kok, Fernando; Zatz, Mayana; Santos, Silvana

    2015-12-15

    SPOAN syndrome is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy (SPOAN). Affected patients are wheelchair bound after 15 years old, with progressive joint contractures and spine deformities. SPOAN patients also have sub normal vision secondary to apparently non-progressive congenital optic atrophy. A potential causative gene was mapped at 11q13 ten years ago. Here we performed next-generation sequencing in SPOAN-derived samples. While whole-exome sequencing failed to identify the causative mutation, whole-genome sequencing allowed to detect a homozygous 216-bp deletion (chr11.hg19:g.66,024,557_66,024,773del) located at the non-coding upstream region of the KLC2 gene. Expression assays performed with patient's fibroblasts and motor neurons derived from SPOAN patients showed KLC2 overexpression. Luciferase assay in constructs with 216-bp deletion confirmed the overexpression of gene reporter, varying from 48 to 74%, as compared with wild-type. Knockdown and overexpression of klc2 in Danio rerio revealed mild to severe curly-tail phenotype, which is suggestive of a neuromuscular disorder. Overexpression of a gene caused by a small deletion in the non-coding region is a novel mechanism, which to the best of our knowledge, was never reported before in a recessive condition. Although the molecular mechanism of KLC2 up-regulation still remains to be uncovered, such example adds to the importance of non-coding regions in human pathology. PMID:26385635

  1. Overexpression of KLC2 due to a homozygous deletion in the non-coding region causes SPOAN syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melo, Uirá S; Macedo-Souza, Lucia I; Figueiredo, Thalita; Muotri, Alysson R; Gleeson, Joseph G; Coux, Gabriela; Armas, Pablo; Calcaterra, Nora B; Kitajima, João P; Amorim, Simone; Olávio, Thiago R; Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Coatti, Giuliana C; Rocha, Clarissa R R; Martins-Pinheiro, Marinalva; Menck, Carlos F M; Zaki, Maha S; Kok, Fernando; Zatz, Mayana; Santos, Silvana

    2015-12-15

    SPOAN syndrome is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy (SPOAN). Affected patients are wheelchair bound after 15 years old, with progressive joint contractures and spine deformities. SPOAN patients also have sub normal vision secondary to apparently non-progressive congenital optic atrophy. A potential causative gene was mapped at 11q13 ten years ago. Here we performed next-generation sequencing in SPOAN-derived samples. While whole-exome sequencing failed to identify the causative mutation, whole-genome sequencing allowed to detect a homozygous 216-bp deletion (chr11.hg19:g.66,024,557_66,024,773del) located at the non-coding upstream region of the KLC2 gene. Expression assays performed with patient's fibroblasts and motor neurons derived from SPOAN patients showed KLC2 overexpression. Luciferase assay in constructs with 216-bp deletion confirmed the overexpression of gene reporter, varying from 48 to 74%, as compared with wild-type. Knockdown and overexpression of klc2 in Danio rerio revealed mild to severe curly-tail phenotype, which is suggestive of a neuromuscular disorder. Overexpression of a gene caused by a small deletion in the non-coding region is a novel mechanism, which to the best of our knowledge, was never reported before in a recessive condition. Although the molecular mechanism of KLC2 up-regulation still remains to be uncovered, such example adds to the importance of non-coding regions in human pathology.

  2. Increased Levels of Interferon-Inducible Protein 10 (IP-10) in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aresvik, D M; Lima, K; Øverland, T; Mollnes, T E; Abrahamsen, T G

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS), also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a genetic disorder with an estimated incidence of 1:4000 births. These patients may suffer from affection of many organ systems with cardiac malformations, thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, hypoparathyroidism, palate anomalies and psychiatric disorders being the most frequent. The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increased in older patients. The aim of the present study was to examine a cytokine profile in patients with 22q11.2 DS by measuring a broad spectrum of serum cytokines. Patients with a proven deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 (n = 55) and healthy individuals (n = 54) recruited from an age- and sex-comparable group were included in the study. Serum levels of 27 cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors, were analysed using multiplex technology. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) was also measured by ELISA to confirm the multiplex results. The 22q11.2 DS patients had distinctly and significantly raised levels of pro-inflammatory and angiostatic chemokine IP-10 (P < 0.001) compared to controls. The patients with congenital heart defects (n = 31) had significantly (P = 0.018) raised serum levels of IP-10 compared to patients born without heart defects (n = 24). The other cytokines investigated were either not detectable or did not differ between patients and controls.

  3. 1p13.2 deletion displays clinical features overlapping Noonan syndrome, likely related to NRAS gene haploinsufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Natália Duarte; Freire, Maíra Cristina Menezes; Cardenas, Raony Guimarães Corrêa do Carmo Lisboa; Pena, Heloisa Barbosa; Lachlan, Katherine; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bacino, Carlos; Delobel, Bruno; James, Paul; Thuresson, Ann-Charlotte; Annerén, Göran; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Deletion-induced hemizygosity may unmask deleterious autosomal recessive variants and be a cause of the phenotypic variability observed in microdeletion syndromes. We performed complete exome sequencing (WES) analysis to examine this possibility in a patient with 1p13.2 microdeletion. Since the patient displayed clinical features suggestive of Noonan Syndrome (NS), we also used WES to rule out the presence of pathogenic variants in any of the genes associated with the different types of NS. We concluded that the clinical findings could be attributed solely to the 1p13.2 haploinsufficiency. Retrospective analysis of other nine reported patients with 1p13.2 microdeletions showed that six of them also presented some characteristics of NS. In all these cases, the deleted segment included the NRAS gene. Gain-of-function mutations of NRAS gene are causally related to NS type 6. Thus, it is conceivable that NRAS haploinsufficiency and gain-of-function mutations may have similar clinical consequences. The same phenomenon has been described for two other genes belonging to the Ras/MAPK pathway: MAP2K2 and SHOC2. In conclusion, we here report genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with chromosome 1p13.2 microdeletions and we propose that NRAS may be a critical gene for the NS characteristics in the patients. PMID:27561113

  4. 1p13.2 deletion displays clinical features overlapping Noonan syndrome, likely related to NRAS gene haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Natália Duarte; Freire, Maíra Cristina Menezes; Cardenas, Raony Guimarães Corrêa do Carmo Lisboa; Pena, Heloisa Barbosa; Lachlan, Katherine; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bacino, Carlos; Delobel, Bruno; James, Paul; Thuresson, Ann-Charlotte; Annerén, Göran; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2016-01-01

    Deletion-induced hemizygosity may unmask deleterious autosomal recessive variants and be a cause of the phenotypic variability observed in microdeletion syndromes. We performed complete exome sequencing (WES) analysis to examine this possibility in a patient with 1p13.2 microdeletion. Since the patient displayed clinical features suggestive of Noonan Syndrome (NS), we also used WES to rule out the presence of pathogenic variants in any of the genes associated with the different types of NS. We concluded that the clinical findings could be attributed solely to the 1p13.2 haploinsufficiency. Retrospective analysis of other nine reported patients with 1p13.2 microdeletions showed that six of them also presented some characteristics of NS. In all these cases, the deleted segment included the NRAS gene. Gain-of-function mutations of NRAS gene are causally related to NS type 6. Thus, it is conceivable that NRAS haploinsufficiency and gain-of-function mutations may have similar clinical consequences. The same phenomenon has been described for two other genes belonging to the Ras/MAPK pathway: MAP2K2 and SHOC2. In conclusion, we here report genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with chromosome 1p13.2 microdeletions and we propose that NRAS may be a critical gene for the NS characteristics in the patients. PMID:27561113

  5. 1p13.2 deletion displays clinical features overlapping Noonan syndrome, likely related to NRAS gene haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Natália Duarte; Freire, Maíra Cristina Menezes; Cardenas, Raony Guimarães Corrêa do Carmo Lisboa; Pena, Heloisa Barbosa; Lachlan, Katherine; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bacino, Carlos; Delobel, Bruno; James, Paul; Thuresson, Ann-Charlotte; Annerén, Göran; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2016-01-01

    Deletion-induced hemizygosity may unmask deleterious autosomal recessive variants and be a cause of the phenotypic variability observed in microdeletion syndromes. We performed complete exome sequencing (WES) analysis to examine this possibility in a patient with 1p13.2 microdeletion. Since the patient displayed clinical features suggestive of Noonan Syndrome (NS), we also used WES to rule out the presence of pathogenic variants in any of the genes associated with the different types of NS. We concluded that the clinical findings could be attributed solely to the 1p13.2 haploinsufficiency. Retrospective analysis of other nine reported patients with 1p13.2 microdeletions showed that six of them also presented some characteristics of NS. In all these cases, the deleted segment included the NRAS gene. Gain-of-function mutations of NRAS gene are causally related to NS type 6. Thus, it is conceivable that NRAS haploinsufficiency and gain-of-function mutations may have similar clinical consequences. The same phenomenon has been described for two other genes belonging to the Ras/MAPK pathway: MAP2K2 and SHOC2. In conclusion, we here report genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with chromosome 1p13.2 microdeletions and we propose that NRAS may be a critical gene for the NS characteristics in the patients.

  6. Catechol-O-methyl Transferase and Expression of Schizophrenia in 73 Adults with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Anne S.; Caluseriu, Oana; Weksberg, Rosanna; Young, Donald A.; Chow, Eva W.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is a candidate gene for schizophrenia with a role in dopamine metabolism, particularly in frontal cortex. COMT is within the region commonly deleted in 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a syndrome with high prevalence of schizophrenia. We examined the role of COMT in schizophrenia-related expression in 22q11DS. Methods We genotyped the COMT functional Val158/108Met allele in 73 Caucasian adults with 22q11DS (36 men, 37 women; aged 33.8, SD 10.1 years; 37 Met, 36 Val hemizygosity) blind to clinical data and assessed effects on symptoms and frontal functioning. Results The lower activity Met allele was not significantly more prevalent than the Val allele in 33 subjects with schizophrenia. Excitement symptoms were more severe, however, and three frontal cognitive tests (theory of mind, Trails B, and olfactory identification), communication, and social functioning measures showed significantly worse performance with Met allele hemizygosity, even after accounting for effects of schizophrenia. Conclusions The results suggest that hemizygosity of the COMT functional allele exerts an effect on some measures of frontal functioning in 22q11DS. Elevated levels of tonic dopamine activation associated with the COMT Met allele may underlie these aspects of expression. We must look elsewhere for causes of the high prevalence of schizophrenia in 22q11DS, however. PMID:17217925

  7. Regional brain abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: association with cognitive abilities and behavioral symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Carrie E; van Erp, Theo G M; Monterosso, John R; Simon, Tony J; Glahn, David C; Saleh, Peter A; Hill, Nicole M; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2004-06-01

    Children with 22q11.2 microdeletions (Velocardiofacial Syndrome; VCFS) have previously been shown to exhibit learning deficits and elevated rates of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to assess regional brain abnormalities in children with 22q11DS, and to determine the relationship of these measures to neurocognitive and behavioral function. Thirteen children with confirmed deletions and 9 demographically matched comparison subjects were assessed with a neurocognitive battery, behavioral measures, and high-resolution MRI. Twenty-two qllDS children showed a nonsignificant 4.3% global decrease in total brain volume as compared to healthy controls,with differential reduction in white matter, and significantly increased sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in temporal and posterior brain regions. In 22q11 DS subjects, but not controls, bilateral temporal gray and white matter volumes were significant predictors of overall cognitive performance. Further, reduced temporal gray matter was associated with elevated Thought Problems score on the CBCL. Results indicate that global alterations in brain volume are common in children with 22q deletions, particularly those with low IQ and/or behavioral disturbance. Although preliminary,these findings suggest a possible underlying pathophysiology of the cognitive deficits seen in this syndrome,and provide insight into complex gene-brain-behavior relationships. PMID:15788257

  8. Extra Yq and partial monosomy 12p due to a Y;12 translocation in a boy with features of the 12p deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Orye, E; Craen, M; Laureys, G; van Coster, R; van Mele, B

    1985-06-01

    A Y;12 translocation, resulting in extra Yq material and partial monosomy 12p, was found in a 7 1/2 year old boy. He showed growth and mental retardation and several of the congenital anomalies seen in the 12p deletion syndrome. LDHB activity, the gene for which is located at 12p12, was normal in serum, in accordance with the suspected 12p13 deletion in the patient. PMID:4009644

  9. Epilepsy is a possible feature in Williams-Beuren syndrome patients harboring typical deletions of the 7q11.23 critical region.

    PubMed

    Nicita, Francesco; Garone, Giacomo; Spalice, Alberto; Savasta, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Pantaleoni, Chiara; Spartà, Maria Valentina; Kluger, Gerhard; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Pruna, Dario; Freri, Elena; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are rarely reported in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS)--a contiguous-gene-deletion disorder caused by a 7q11.23 heterozygous deletion of 1.5-1.8 Mb--and no previous study evaluated electro-clinical features of epilepsy in this syndrome. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that atypical deletion (e.g., larger than 1.8 Mb) may be responsible for a more pronounced neurological phenotypes, especially including seizures. Our objectives are to describe the electro-clinical features in WBS and to correlate the epileptic phenotype with deletion of the 7q11.23 critical region. We evaluate the electro-clinical features in one case of distal 7q11.23 deletion syndrome and in eight epileptic WBS (eWBS) patients. Additionally, we compare the deletion size-and deleted genes-of four epileptic WBS (eWBS) with that of four non-epileptic WBS (neWBS) patients. Infantile spasms, focal (e.g., motor and dyscognitive with autonomic features) and generalized (e.g., tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic) seizures were encountered. Drug-resistance was observed in one patient. Neuroimaging discovered one case of focal cortical dysplasia, one case of fronto-temporal cortical atrophy and one case of periventricular nodular heterotopia. Comparison of deletion size between eWBS and neWBS patients did not reveal candidate genes potentially underlying epilepsy. This is the largest series describing electro-clinical features of epilepsy in WBS. In WBS, epilepsy should be considered both in case of typical and atypical deletions, which do not involve HIP1, YWHAG or MAGI2.

  10. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Laboratory Diagnosis and TBX1 and FGF8 Mutation Screening.

    PubMed

    Sgardioli, Ilária C; Vieira, Társis P; Simioni, Milena; Monteiro, Fabíola P; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L

    2015-03-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is one of the recognized forms of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) and has an incidence of 1 of 4,000 to 1 of 6,000 births. Nevertheless, the 22q11 deletion is not found in several patients with a 22q11.2 DS phenotype. In this situation, other chromosomal aberrations and/or mutations in the T-box 1 transcription factor C (TBX1) gene have been detected in some patients. A similar phenotype to that of the 22q11.2 DS has been reported in animal models with mutations in fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) gene. To date, FGF8 mutations have not been investigated in humans. We tested a strategy to perform laboratory testing to reduce costs in the investigation of patients presenting with the 22q11.2 DS phenotype. A total of 109 individuals with clinical suspicion were investigated using GTG-banding karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A conclusive diagnosis was achieved in 33 of 109 (30.2%) cases. In addition, mutations in the coding regions of TBX1 and FGF8 genes were investigated in selected cases where 22q11.2 deletion had been excluded, and no pathogenic mutations were detected in both genes. This study presents a strategy for molecular genetic characterization of patients presenting with the 22q11.2 DS using different laboratory techniques. This strategy could be useful in different countries, according to local resources. Also, to our knowledge, this is the first investigation of FGF8 gene in humans with this clinical suspicion. PMID:27617111

  11. 3 generation pedigree with paternal transmission of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Intrafamilial phenotypic variability.

    PubMed

    Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; Van Esch, Hilde; Claes, Stephan; Van Goethem, Gert; Devriendt, Koenraad

    2015-04-01

    In this case report, we present a paternal transmission of a classic 3 Mb 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) in a 3 generation family. In this family a young girl, her father, her uncle and her grandfather were diagnosed with this disorder. All carriers showed phenotypic expression, there were no unaffected siblings in the second or third generation. Presenting symptoms in the patient in first generation (grandfather) were psoriatic arthritis, thrombocytopenia and a right aortic arch. There was no intellectual disability. The second generation uncle was known with a severe intellectual disability, mild facial characteristics, a septal defect and a clubfoot, whereas the second generation father had a tetralogy of Fallot, no intellectual disability and minimal facial characteristics. The third generation daughter had a moderate intellectual disability, hypernasal speech, triphalangeal thumb, severe speech and language development delay, pronounced facial characteristics and a diagnosis of ADHD. It was notable that the expression in the two brothers of the second generation gives two very different clinical phenotypes with a severe intellectual disability in the oldest brother. This report describes a pronounced clinical variability in a 3 generation familial 22q11.2 deletion with paternal transmission. We can assume that several mechanisms play an important role in the heterogeneity and part of the answer should be found in the genetic background underlying the 22q11.2 deletion. In addition in this family the neuropsychiatric phenotype and intellectual disability seem to be associated with a lower level of social and occupational functioning while a congenital heart disease does not. This clinical report illustrates that a detailed description of these patients can be very informative and still increase the knowledge on this heterogeneous syndrome. For the clinicians working with these patients it emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach that takes

  12. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Laboratory Diagnosis and TBX1 and FGF8 Mutation Screening

    PubMed Central

    Sgardioli, Ilária C.; Vieira, Társis P.; Simioni, Milena; Monteiro, Fabíola P.; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L.

    2015-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is one of the recognized forms of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) and has an incidence of 1 of 4,000 to 1 of 6,000 births. Nevertheless, the 22q11 deletion is not found in several patients with a 22q11.2 DS phenotype. In this situation, other chromosomal aberrations and/or mutations in the T-box 1 transcription factor C (TBX1) gene have been detected in some patients. A similar phenotype to that of the 22q11.2 DS has been reported in animal models with mutations in fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) gene. To date, FGF8 mutations have not been investigated in humans. We tested a strategy to perform laboratory testing to reduce costs in the investigation of patients presenting with the 22q11.2 DS phenotype. A total of 109 individuals with clinical suspicion were investigated using GTG-banding karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A conclusive diagnosis was achieved in 33 of 109 (30.2%) cases. In addition, mutations in the coding regions of TBX1 and FGF8 genes were investigated in selected cases where 22q11.2 deletion had been excluded, and no pathogenic mutations were detected in both genes. This study presents a strategy for molecular genetic characterization of patients presenting with the 22q11.2 DS using different laboratory techniques. This strategy could be useful in different countries, according to local resources. Also, to our knowledge, this is the first investigation of FGF8 gene in humans with this clinical suspicion. PMID:27617111

  13. Central precocious puberty in a patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ji Won; Kang, So Young; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Yu, Jeesuk

    2013-06-01

    X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is caused by the mutation of DAX-1 gene (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1), and can occur as part of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome in association with glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene deficiency. It is usually associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, although in rare cases, it has been reported to occur in normal puberty or even central precocious puberty. This study addresses a case in which central precocious puberty developed in a boy with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita who had complete deletion of the genes DAX-1, GK and IL1RAPL1 (Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome). Initially he was admitted for the management of adrenal crisis at the age of 2 months, and managed with hydrocortisone and florinef. At 45 months of age, his each testicular volumes of 4 mL and a penile length of 5 cm were noted, with pubic hair of Tanner stage 2. His bone age was advanced and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test showed a luteinizing hormone peak of 8.26 IU/L, confirming central precocious puberty. He was then treated with a GnRH agonist, as well as steroid replacement therapy. In Korea, this is the first case of central precocious puberty developed in a male patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. PMID:24904859

  14. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Laboratory Diagnosis and TBX1 and FGF8 Mutation Screening

    PubMed Central

    Sgardioli, Ilária C.; Vieira, Társis P.; Simioni, Milena; Monteiro, Fabíola P.; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L.

    2015-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is one of the recognized forms of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) and has an incidence of 1 of 4,000 to 1 of 6,000 births. Nevertheless, the 22q11 deletion is not found in several patients with a 22q11.2 DS phenotype. In this situation, other chromosomal aberrations and/or mutations in the T-box 1 transcription factor C (TBX1) gene have been detected in some patients. A similar phenotype to that of the 22q11.2 DS has been reported in animal models with mutations in fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) gene. To date, FGF8 mutations have not been investigated in humans. We tested a strategy to perform laboratory testing to reduce costs in the investigation of patients presenting with the 22q11.2 DS phenotype. A total of 109 individuals with clinical suspicion were investigated using GTG-banding karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A conclusive diagnosis was achieved in 33 of 109 (30.2%) cases. In addition, mutations in the coding regions of TBX1 and FGF8 genes were investigated in selected cases where 22q11.2 deletion had been excluded, and no pathogenic mutations were detected in both genes. This study presents a strategy for molecular genetic characterization of patients presenting with the 22q11.2 DS using different laboratory techniques. This strategy could be useful in different countries, according to local resources. Also, to our knowledge, this is the first investigation of FGF8 gene in humans with this clinical suspicion.

  15. Bicuspid aortic valve and aortic coarctation are linked to deletion of the X chromosome short arm in Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bondy, Carolyn; Bakalov, Vladimir K; Cheng, Clara; Olivieri, Laura; Rosing, Douglas R; Arai, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a cardinal feature of X chromosome monosomy, or Turner syndrome (TS). Haploinsufficiency for gene(s) located on Xp have been implicated in the short stature characteristic of the syndrome, but the chromosomal region related to the CHD phenotype has not been established. Design We used cardiac MRI to diagnose cardiovascular abnormalities in four non-mosaic karyotype groups based on 50-metaphase analyses: 45,X (n=152); 46,X,del(Xp) (n=15); 46,X,del(Xq) (n=4); and 46,X,i(Xq) (n=14) from peripheral blood cells. Results Bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) were found in 52/152 (34%) 45,X study subjects and aortic coarctation (COA) in 19/152 (12.5%). Isolated anomalous pulmonary veins (APV) were detected in 15/152 (10%) for the 45,X study group, and this defect was not correlated with the presence of BAV or COA. BAVs were present in 28.6% of subjects with Xp deletions and COA in 6.7%. APV were not found in subjects with Xp deletions. The most distal break associated with the BAV/COA trait was at cytologic band Xp11.4 and ChrX:41,500 000. One of 14 subjects (7%) with the 46,X,i(Xq) karyotype had a BAV and no cases of COA or APV were found in this group. No cardiovascular defects were found among four patients with Xq deletions. Conclusions The high prevalence of BAV and COA in subjects missing only the X chromosome short arm indicates that haploinsufficiency for Xp genes contributes to abnormal aortic valve and aortic arch development in TS. PMID:23825392

  16. Chromosome deletion of 14q32.33 detected by array comparative genomic hybridization in a patient with features of dubowitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Diana C; Rosenthal, Scott; Wallerstein, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    We report a 4-year-old girl of Mexican origins with a clinical diagnosis of Dubowitz syndrome who carries a de novo terminal deletion at the 14q32.33 locus identified by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Dubowitz syndrome is a rare condition characterized by a constellation of features including growth retardation, short stature, microcephaly, micrognathia, eczema, telecanthus, blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, round-tipped nose, mild to moderate developmental delay, and high-pitched hoarse voice. This syndrome is thought to be autosomal recessive; however, the etiology has not been determined. This is the first report of this deletion in association with this phenotype; it is possible that this deletion may be causal for a Dubowitz phenocopy.

  17. Molecular analysis of 24 Alagille syndrome families identifies a single submicroscopic deletion and further localizes the Alagille region within 20p12

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, E.B.; Piccoli, D.A.; Spinner, N.B.

    1995-11-01

    Alagille syndrome (AGS) is a clinically defined disorder characterized by cholestatic liver disease with bile duct paucity, peculiar facies, structural heart defects, vertebral anomalies, and ocular abnormalities. Multiple patients with various cytogenetic abnormalities involving 20p12 have been identified, allowing the assignment of AGS to this region. The presence of interstitial deletions of varying size led to the hypothesis that AGS is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. This molecular analysis of cytogenetically normal AGS patients was performed in order to test this hypothesis and to refine the localization of the known AGS region. Investigation of inheritance of simple tandem repeat polymorphism alleles in 67 members of 24 cytogenetically normal Alagille families led to the identification of a single submicroscopic deletion. The deletion included loci D20S61, D20S41, D20S186, and D20S188 and presumably intervening uninformative loci D20S189 and D20S27. The six deleted loci are contained in a single YAC of 1.9 Mb. The additional finding of multiple unrelated probands who are heterozygous at each locus demonstrates that microdeletions at known loci within the AGS region are rare in cytogenetically normal patients with this disorder. This suggests that the majority of cases of AGS may be the result of a single gene defect rather than a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Deletion of the Snord116/SNORD116 Alters Sleep in Mice and Patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Glenda; Priano, Lorenzo; Maggi, Silvia; Garcia-Garcia, Celina; Balzani, Edoardo; El-Assawy, Nadia; Pagani, Marco; Tinarelli, Federico; Giardino, Daniela; Mauro, Alessandro; Peters, Jo; Gozzi, Alessandro; Grugni, Graziano; Tucci, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep-wake disturbances are often reported in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome that is associated with paternally-expressed genomic imprinting defects within the human chromosome region 15q11-13. One of the candidate genes, prevalently expressed in the brain, is the small nucleolar ribonucleic acid-116 (SNORD116). Here we conducted a translational study into the sleep abnormalities of PWS, testing the hypothesis that SNORD116 is responsible for sleep defects that characterize the syndrome. Methods: We studied sleep in mutant mice that carry a deletion of Snord116 at the orthologous locus (mouse chromosome 7) of the human PWS critical region (PWScr). In particular, we assessed EEG and temperature profiles, across 24-h, in PWScr m+/p− heterozygous mutants compared to wild-type littermates. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to explore morphoanatomical differences according to the genotype. Moreover, we complemented the mouse work by presenting two patients with a diagnosis of PWS and characterized by atypical small deletions of SNORD116. We compared the individual EEG parameters of patients with healthy subjects and with a cohort of obese subjects. Results: By studying the mouse mutant line PWScrm+/p−, we observed specific rapid eye movement (REM) sleep alterations including abnormal electroencephalograph (EEG) theta waves. Remarkably, we observed identical sleep/EEG defects in the two PWS cases. We report brain morphological abnormalities that are associated with the EEG alterations. In particular, mouse mutants have a bilateral reduction of the gray matter volume in the ventral hippocampus and in the septum areas, which are pivotal structures for maintaining theta rhythms throughout the brain. In PWScrm+/p− mice we also observed increased body temperature that is coherent with REM sleep alterations in mice and human patients. Conclusions: Our study indicates that paternally expressed

  19. Reproductive Health Issues for Adults with a Common Genomic Disorder: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chrystal; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Silversides, Candice K.; Chow, Eva W.C.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Survival to reproductive age and beyond is now the norm. Several manifestations of this syndrome, such as congenital cardiac disease and neuropsychiatric disorders, may increase risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the general population. However, there are limited data on reproductive health in 22q11.2DS. We performed a retrospective chart review for 158 adults with 22q11.2DS (75 male, 83 female; mean age 34.3 years) and extracted key variables relevant to pregnancy and reproductive health. We present four illustrative cases as brief vignettes. There were 25 adults (21>age 35 years; 21 female) with a history of one or more pregnancies. Outcomes for women with 22q11.2DS, compared with expectations for the general population, showed a significantly elevated prevalence of small for gestational age liveborn offspring (p<0.001), associated mainly with infants with 22q11.2DS. Stillbirths also showed elevated prevalence (p<0.05). Not all observed adverse events appeared to be attributable to transmission of the 22q11.2 deletion. Recurring issues relevant to reproductive health in 22q11.2DS included the potential impact of maternal morbidities, inadequate social support, unsafe sexual practices, and delayed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS and/or lack of genetic counseling. These preliminary results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and long term follow-up that could help facilitate genetic counseling for men and women with 22q11.2DS. We propose initial recommendations for pre-conception management, educational strategies, pre-natal planning, and preparation for possible high-risk pregnancy and/or delivery. PMID:25579115

  20. Caregiver and adult patient perspectives on the importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help justify widespread use of new and expensive genetic technologies. Methods We conducted a survey of caregivers on the value of a genetic/aetiologic diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common microdeletion syndrome in ID. We also surveyed the opinion of a high-functioning subset of adults with 22q11.2DS themselves. We used standard quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the responses. Results In total, 73 of 118 surveys were returned (61.9%). There was convergence of quantitative and qualitative results, and consistency between adult patient and caregiver responses. A definitive molecular diagnosis of 22q11.2DS was a critical event with diverse positive repercussions, even if occurring later in life. Frequently cited benefits included greater understanding and certainty, newfound sense of purpose and a platform for advocacy, and increased opportunities to optimise medical, social and educational needs. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise the impact of a diagnosis of this representative microdeletion syndrome on adult patients and their families. The results both validate and expand on the theoretical benefits proposed by clinicians and researchers. The use of genome-wide microarray technologies will provide an increasing number of molecular diagnoses. The importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2DS demonstrated here therefore has implications for changing attitudes about molecular genetic diagnosis that could benefit individuals with ID of currently unknown cause and their families. PMID:22142442

  1. Novel IRF6 mutations in Japanese patients with Van der Woude syndrome: two missense mutations (R45Q and P396S) and a 17-kb deletion.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Shuji; Kure, Shigeo; Suzuki, Yoichi; Kanno, Kiyoshi; Aoki, Yoko; Kondo, Shinji; Schutte, Brian C; Murray, Jeffrey C; Yamada, Atsushi; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2003-01-01

    Three Japanese families with Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) were screened for mutations in the interferon regulatory factor 6 gene (IRF6) by sequencing its entire coding region. Two novel missense mutations, R45Q in exon 3 and P396S in exon 9, were identified in families 1 and 2, respectively. In family 3, no causative base change was found by the sequencing analysis, but a deletion involving exons 4-9 was suggested by multiplex PCR analysis. To confirm the deletion and to determine its 5'- and 3'-boundaries, we amplified a DNA fragment containing a heterozygous polymorphic site in exon 2 by using a 5'-upstream forward PCR primer and eight different reverse primers located 3'-downstream of exon 2. The amplified product was subjected to nested PCR to generate a DNA fragment containing the polymorphic site. When a reverse primer located within the deletion was used for the first PCR amplification, only the nondeletion allele was detected after the second PCR. Repeated analyses with eight different reverse primers allowed us to map the boundaries of the deletion, and subsequently a heterozygous 17,162-bp deletion involving exons 4-9 was identified. Since IRF6 mutations in a significant portion of VWS patients remain undetected by conventional sequencing analysis, it may be important to search for a large deletion in those patients. Our simple methods to identify deletions and to determine the boundaries of a deletion would facilitate the identification of such patients.

  2. SDF1-CXCR4 signaling: A new player involved in DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duband, Jean-Loup; Escot, Sophie; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as velocardiofacial syndrome, is a congenital disease causing numerous structural and behavioral disorders, including cardiac outflow tract anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia, and mental disorders. It results from a unique chromosomal microdeletion on the 22q11.2 region in which the transcriptional activator TBX1 is decisive for the occurrence of the disease. During embryogenesis, Tbx1 is required for patterning of pharyngeal region giving rise to structures of the face, neck and chest. Genetic and developmental studies demonstrated that the severity and variability of the syndrome are determined by Tbx1 targets involved in pharyngeal neural crest cell migration and survival. Recently, we demonstrated that the chemokine Sdf1/Cxcl12 and its receptor Cxcr4 are genetically downstream of Tbx1 during pharyngeal development and that reduction of CXCR4 signaling results in defects which recapitulate the major morphological anomalies of 22q11DS, supporting the possibility of a pivotal role for the SDF1/CXCR4 axis in its etiology. PMID:27500073

  3. SDF1-CXCR4 signaling: A new player involved in DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Duband, Jean-Loup; Escot, Sophie; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as velocardiofacial syndrome, is a congenital disease causing numerous structural and behavioral disorders, including cardiac outflow tract anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia, and mental disorders. It results from a unique chromosomal microdeletion on the 22q11.2 region in which the transcriptional activator TBX1 is decisive for the occurrence of the disease. During embryogenesis, Tbx1 is required for patterning of pharyngeal region giving rise to structures of the face, neck and chest. Genetic and developmental studies demonstrated that the severity and variability of the syndrome are determined by Tbx1 targets involved in pharyngeal neural crest cell migration and survival. Recently, we demonstrated that the chemokine Sdf1/Cxcl12 and its receptor Cxcr4 are genetically downstream of Tbx1 during pharyngeal development and that reduction of CXCR4 signaling results in defects which recapitulate the major morphological anomalies of 22q11DS, supporting the possibility of a pivotal role for the SDF1/CXCR4 axis in its etiology. PMID:27500073

  4. Identification of single gene deletions at 15q13.3: further evidence that CHRNA7 causes the 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hoppman-Chaney, N; Wain, K; Seger, P R; Superneau, D W; Hodge, J C

    2013-04-01

    The 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (OMIM #612001) is characterized by a wide range of phenotypic features, including intellectual disability, seizures, autism, and psychiatric conditions. This deletion is inherited in approximately 75% of cases and has been found in mildly affected and normal parents, consistent with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. The common deletion is approximately 2 Mb and contains several genes; however, the gene(s) responsible for the resulting clinical features have not been clearly defined. Recently, four probands were reported with small deletions including only the CHRNA7 gene. These patients showed a wide range of phenotypic features similar to those associated with the larger 15q13.3 microdeletion. To further correlate genotype and phenotype, we queried our database of >15,000 patients tested in the Mayo Clinic Cytogenetics Laboratory from 2008 to 2011 and identified 19 individuals (10 probands and 9 family members) with isolated heterozygous CHRNA7 gene deletions. All but two infants displayed multiple features consistent with 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome. We also identified the first de novo deletion confined to CHRNA7 as well as the second known case with homozygous deletion of CHRNA7 only. These results provide further evidence implicating CHRNA7 as the gene responsible for the clinical findings associated with 15q13.3 microdeletion.

  5. Velocardiofacial syndrome in father and daughter: What is the mechanism for the deletion 22(q11.2q11.2) in only the daughter?

    SciTech Connect

    Magenis, R.E.; Gunter, K.; Toth-Fejel, S.

    1994-09-01

    E.G. had marked feeding difficulty noted at birth; the cause was determined to be a paralyzed palate. In 1992 chromosome studies were performed because of the provisional diagnosis of velocardiofacial syndrome, and a small interstitial deletion of chromosome 22 was found. Recently the family was seen in our Genetics Clinic. The father had unusual facial features shared by his daughter, a paralyzed upper lip and a history of repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. His chromosomes appeared normal. FISH studies were performed on the child`s peripheral blood using the ONCOR DiGeorge region probe (D22S75) and the deletion verified. However, the father`s chromosomes were not deleted for the ONCOR probe (D22S75) and probe DO832 sent to us by Peter Scambler. Skin cells were then obtained and no deletion was detected in a total of 66 cells examined using both probes. Several questions arise from these data: does the father have velocardiofacial syndrome? Does he have occult mosaicism? Does he have a molecular deletion not detected by the probes used? And was this deletion somehow {open_quotes}amplified{close_quotes} in his daughter?

  6. Potential Novel Mechanism for Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome: Deletion of a Distant Region Containing Regulatory Elements of PITX2

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Bethany A.; Zinkevich, Natalya S.; Mustonen, Aki; Schilter, Kala F.; Bosenko, Dmitry V.; Reis, Linda M.; Broeckel, Ulrich; Link, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Mutations in PITX2 are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), which involves ocular, dental, and umbilical abnormalities. Identification of cis-regulatory elements of PITX2 is important to better understand the mechanisms of disease. Methods. Conserved noncoding elements surrounding PITX2/pitx2 were identified and examined through transgenic analysis in zebrafish; expression pattern was studied by in situ hybridization. Patient samples were screened for deletion/duplication of the PITX2 upstream region using arrays and probes. Results. Zebrafish pitx2 demonstrates conserved expression during ocular and craniofacial development. Thirteen conserved noncoding sequences positioned within a gene desert as far as 1.1 Mb upstream of the human PITX2 gene were identified; 11 have enhancer activities consistent with pitx2 expression. Ten elements mediated expression in the developing brain, four regions were active during eye formation, and two sequences were associated with craniofacial expression. One region, CE4, located approximately 111 kb upstream of PITX2, directed a complex pattern including expression in the developing eye and craniofacial region, the classic sites affected in ARS. Screening of ARS patients identified an approximately 7600-kb deletion that began 106 to 108 kb upstream of the PITX2 gene, leaving PITX2 intact while removing regulatory elements CE4 to CE13. Conclusions. These data suggest the presence of a complex distant regulatory matrix within the gene desert located upstream of PITX2 with an essential role in its activity and provides a possible mechanism for the previous reports of ARS in patients with balanced translocations involving the 4q25 region upstream of PITX2 and the current patient with an upstream deletion. PMID:20881290

  7. Isochromosome 15q of maternal origin in two Prader-Willi syndrome patients previously diagnosed erroneously as cytogenetic deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Shinji; Niikawa, Norio; Mutirangura, A.; Kuwano, A.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1994-03-01

    Since a previous report on two Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) patients with t(15q;15q) was erroneous, the authors report new data and a corrected interpretation. Reexamination of the parental origin of their t(15q;15q) using polymorphic DNA markers that are mapped to various regions of 15q documented no molecular deletions at the 15q11-q13 region in either patient. Both patients were homozygous at all loci examined and their haplotypes on 15q coincided with one of those in their respective mothers. These results indicate that the presumed t(15q;15q) in each patient was actually an isochromosome 15q producing maternal uniparental disomy, consistent with genomic imprinting at the PWS locus. 30 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Mitochondrial Dysfunction in an Imprinting Center Deletion Mouse Model of Prader-Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weiwei; Coskun, Pinar E.; Nalbandian, Angèle; Knoblach, Susan; Resnick, James L.; Hoffman, Eric; Wallace, Douglas C.; Kimonis, Virginia E.

    2013-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from the paternal chromosome 15q11-15q13 and clinically characterized by neonatal hypotonia, short stature, cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, hyperphagia, morbid obesity and diabetes. Previous clinical studies suggest that a defect in energy metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of PWS. We focused our attention on the genes associated with energy metabolism and found that there were 95 and 66 mitochondrial genes differentially expressed in PWS muscle and brain, respectively. Assessment of enzyme activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in the brain, heart, liver and muscle were assessed. We found the enzyme activities of the cardiac mitochondrial complexes II+III were upregulated in the imprinting center deletion (PWS-IC) mice compared to the wild type littermates. These studies suggest that differential gene expression, especially of the mitochondrial genes may contribute to the pathophysiology of PWS. PMID:24127921

  9. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype. PMID:26914469

  10. Potential Role of Cortisol in Social and Memory Impairments in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Daniel; Bursch, Megan; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2016-09-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by physiological and psychological symptoms. This study investigated the role of cortisol on the social and cognitive impairments in children with 22q11.2. A total of 11 children with 22q11.2 were assessed for baseline cortisol levels and received broad neuropsychological testing. Results were compared with 11 controls. Children with 22q11.2 had significantly higher cortisol levels. A significant negative correlation was observed between the general memory and attention/concentration indices of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 2nd edition and cortisol concentrations in the control population. These data provide evidence of a possible causal mechanism that underlies social impairments in stress disorders. PMID:27617156

  11. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype.

  12. Increased Levels of Interferon-Inducible Protein 10 (IP-10) in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aresvik, D M; Lima, K; Øverland, T; Mollnes, T E; Abrahamsen, T G

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS), also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a genetic disorder with an estimated incidence of 1:4000 births. These patients may suffer from affection of many organ systems with cardiac malformations, thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, hypoparathyroidism, palate anomalies and psychiatric disorders being the most frequent. The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increased in older patients. The aim of the present study was to examine a cytokine profile in patients with 22q11.2 DS by measuring a broad spectrum of serum cytokines. Patients with a proven deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 (n = 55) and healthy individuals (n = 54) recruited from an age- and sex-comparable group were included in the study. Serum levels of 27 cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors, were analysed using multiplex technology. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) was also measured by ELISA to confirm the multiplex results. The 22q11.2 DS patients had distinctly and significantly raised levels of pro-inflammatory and angiostatic chemokine IP-10 (P < 0.001) compared to controls. The patients with congenital heart defects (n = 31) had significantly (P = 0.018) raised serum levels of IP-10 compared to patients born without heart defects (n = 24). The other cytokines investigated were either not detectable or did not differ between patients and controls. PMID:26708691

  13. A 1.3-Mb 7q11.23 Atypical Deletion Identified in a Cohort of Patients with Williams-Beuren Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, L.M.; Gutierrez, M.; Augello, B.; Fusco, C.; Micale, L.; Merla, G.; Pastene, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare multisystem neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a 1.55-1.84-Mb hemizygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23. The classical phenotype consists of characteristic facial features, supravalvular aortic stenosis, intellectual disability, overfriendliness, and visuospatial impairment. So far, 26-28 genes have been shown to contribute to the multisystem phenotype associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome. Among them, haploinsufficiency of the ELN gene has been shown to cause the cardiovascular anomalies. Identification of patients with atypical deletions has provided valuable information for genotype-phenotype correlation, in which other genes such as LIMK1,CLIP2, GTF2IRD1, or GTF2I have been correlated with specific cognitive profiles or craniofacial features. Here, we report the clinical and molecular characteristics of a patient with an atypical deletion that does not include the GTF2I gene and only partially includes the GTF2IRD1 gene. PMID:23653586

  14. Relationship between Reaction Time, Fine Motor Control, and Visual-Spatial Perception on Vigilance and Visual-Motor Tasks in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Sarah A.; Prasad, Sarah E.; Pender, Niall P.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2012-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in visual-motor and attentional abilities. Currently there is evidence that the visual-motor profile of 22q11DS is not entirely mediated by intellectual disability and…

  15. Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test and Its Relation to Psychopathology in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockers, K.; Ousley, O.; Sutton, T.; Schoenberg, E.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.; Cubells, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common genetic disorder highly associated with intellectual disabilities, may develop schizophrenia, likely preceded by a mild to moderate cognitive decline. Methods: We examined adolescents and young adults with 22q11DS for the presence of executive…

  16. Abnormal response to the anorexic effect of GHS-R inhibitors and exenatide in male Snord116 deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disease characterized by persistent hunger and hyperphagia. The lack of the Snord116 small nucleolar RNA cluster has been identified as the major contributor to PWS symptoms. The Snord116 deletion (Snord116del) mouse model manifested a subset of PWS symptoms ...

  17. Association of the Family Environment with Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this paediatric population. Method: Guardians of children with 22q11DS…

  18. Social Cognitive Training in Adolescents with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Feasibility and Preliminary Effects of the Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, V.; Harrell, W.; Eack, S.; Sanders, C.; McConkie-Rosell, A.; Keshavan, M. S.; Bonner, M. J.; Schoch, K.; Hooper, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have deficits in social cognition and social skills that contribute to poor adaptive functioning. These deficits may be of relevance to the later occurrence of serious psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Yet, there are no evidence-based interventions to improve…

  19. A New Account of the Neurocognitive Foundations of Impairments in Space, Time, and Number Processing in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Tony J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I present an updated account that attempts to explain, in cognitive processing and neural terms, the nonverbal intellectual impairments experienced by most children with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. Specifically, I propose that this genetic syndrome leads to early developmental changes in the structure and function of clearly…

  20. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome due to a Translocation t(6;22) in a Patient Conceived via in vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Gollo Dantas, Anelisa; Bortolai, Adriana; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Takeno Herrero, Sylvia; Azoubel Antunes, Adriana; Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Ayres Meloni, Vera; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    We report on a patient conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a 22q11.2 deletion due to an unusual unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes. Cytogenomic studies showed that the patient has a 3.3-Mb deletion of chromosome 22q and a 0.4-Mb deletion of chromosome 6p, which resulted in haploinsufficiency of the genes responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and also of the IRF4 gene, a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors, which is expressed in the immune system cells. The rearrangement could be due to the manipulation of the embryo or as a sporadic event unrelated to IVF. Translocation involving chromosome 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes is a rare event, with no previous reports involving chromosomes 6p and 22q. PMID:26997945

  1. Altered ultrasonic vocalization and impaired learning and memory in Angelman syndrome mouse model with a large maternal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Hui; Pan, Yanzhen; Zhu, Li; Landa, Luis; Yoo, Jong; Spencer, Corinne; Lorenzo, Isabel; Brilliant, Murray; Noebels, Jeffrey; Beaudet, Arthur L

    2010-08-20

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurobehavioral disorder associated with mental retardation, absence of language development, characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and epilepsy, happy disposition, movement or balance disorders, and autistic behaviors. The molecular defects underlying AS are heterogeneous, including large maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13 (70%), paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15 (5%), imprinting mutations (rare), and mutations in the E6-AP ubiquitin ligase gene UBE3A (15%). Although patients with UBE3A mutations have a wide spectrum of neurological phenotypes, their features are usually milder than AS patients with deletions of 15q11-q13. Using a chromosomal engineering strategy, we generated mutant mice with a 1.6-Mb chromosomal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3, which inactivated the Ube3a and Gabrb3 genes and deleted the Atp10a gene. Homozygous deletion mutant mice died in the perinatal period due to a cleft palate resulting from the null mutation in Gabrb3 gene. Mice with a maternal deletion (m-/p+) were viable and did not have any obvious developmental defects. Expression analysis of the maternal and paternal deletion mice confirmed that the Ube3a gene is maternally expressed in brain, and showed that the Atp10a and Gabrb3 genes are biallelically expressed in all brain sub-regions studied. Maternal (m-/p+), but not paternal (m+/p-), deletion mice had increased spontaneous seizure activity and abnormal EEG. Extensive behavioral analyses revealed significant impairment in motor function, learning and memory tasks, and anxiety-related measures assayed in the light-dark box in maternal deletion but not paternal deletion mice. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) recording in newborns revealed that maternal deletion pups emitted significantly more USVs than wild-type littermates. The increased USV in maternal deletion mice suggests abnormal signaling behavior between mothers and pups that may reflect abnormal

  2. Neuroendocrine phenotypes in a boy with 5q14 deletion syndrome implicate the regulatory roles of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C in the postnatal hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasunari; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsushita, Yuki; Akamine, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Kenji; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Shaw, Chad A; Lim, Janghoo; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    The 5q14.3 deletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, seizures and dysmorphic features. We report a 14-year-old boy with 5q14.3 deletion syndrome who carried a heterozygous deletion of the myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c (MEF2C) gene. In addition to the typical neurodevelopmental features of 5q14.3 deletion syndrome, he showed recurrent hypoglycemia, appetite loss and hypothermia. Hormonal loading tests using insulin, arginine and growth hormone-releasing factor revealed that growth hormone was insufficiently released into serum in response to these stimuli, thus disclosing the hypothalamic dysfunction in the present case. To uncover the biological roles of MEF2C in the hypothalamus, we studied its expression in the postnatal mouse brain. Notably, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-positive interneurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei highly expressed MEF2C. In contrast, the Rett syndrome-associated protein, Methyl-CpG binding Protein 2 (MECP2) was barely expressed in these neurons. MEF2C knockdown or overexpression experiments using Neuro2a cells revealed that MEF2C activated the endogenous transcription of NPY. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MECP2 led to derepression of the Npy gene. These data support the concept that MEF2C and MECP2 share common molecular pathways regulating the homeostatic expression of NPY in the adult hypothalamus. We propose that individuals with 5q14.3 deletion syndrome may exhibit neuroendocrine phenotypes through the functional loss of MEF2C in the postnatal hypothalamus.

  3. Angelman syndrome with a chromosomal inversion 15 inv(p11q13) accompanied by a deletion in 15q11q13.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, T; Clayton-Smith, J; Cheng, X J; Knoll, J H; Lalande, M; Pembrey, M E; Malcolm, S

    1992-01-01

    A family is described in which an inversion of chromosome 15, 15 inv(p11q13), is segregating. All family members are healthy except the proband who is a 10 year old boy with Angelman syndrome. Although the chromosomal inversion has been passed from the grandfather to both his son and his daughter with no ill effect, passage from daughter to grandson has resulted in a deletion of chromosome 15 material which is presumed to be the cause of Angelman syndrome in this boy. The probabilities of an inversion of this type being instrumental in causing the syndrome are discussed. Images PMID:1362225

  4. Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Velo-Cardio Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Aneja, Alka; Strunge, Leslie; Peebles, Jena; Fremont, Wanda P.; Stallone, Kimberly; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Kates, Wendy R.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which the phenotype of children comorbid for velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) differs from that of VCFS-only has not been studied. The sample consisted of 41 children (20 females) with VCFS, ranging in age from 6.5 years to 15.8 years. Eight children with VCFS met formal DSM-IV diagnostic criteria…

  5. A multilevel analysis of cognitive dysfunction and psychopathology associated with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    SIMON, TONY J.; BISH, JOEL P.; BEARDEN, CARRIE E.; DING, LIJUN; FERRANTE, SAMANTHA; NGUYEN, VY; GEE, JAMES C.; McDONALD–McGINN, DONNA M.; ZACKAI, ELAINE H.; EMANUEL, BEVERLY S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a multilevel approach to developing potential explanations of cognitive impairments and psychopathologies common to individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Results presented support our hypothesis of posterior parietal dysfunction as a central determinant of characteristic visuospatial and numerical cognitive impairments. Converging data suggest that brain development anomalies, primarily tissue reductions in the posterior brain and changes to the corpus callosum, may affect parietal connectivity. Further findings indicate that dysfunction in “frontal” attention systems may explain some executive cognition impairments observed in affected children, and that there may be links between these domains of cognitive function and some of the serious psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia, that have elevated incidence rates in the syndrome. Linking the neural structure and the cognitive processing levels in this way enabled us to develop an elaborate structure/function mapping hypothesis for the impairments that are observed. We show also, that in the case of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, a fairly direct relationship between gene expression, cognitive function, and psychopathology exists in the affected population. Beyond that, we introduce the idea that variation in other genes may further explain the phenotypic variation in cognitive function and possibly the anomalies in brain development. PMID:16262991

  6. Large-scale functional network reorganization in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome revealed by modularity analysis.

    PubMed

    Scariati, Elisa; Schaer, Marie; Karahanoglu, Isik; Schneider, Maude; Richiardi, Jonas; Debbané, Martin; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Eliez, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with cognitive impairments and a 41% risk of developing schizophrenia. While several studies performed on patients with 22q11DS showed the presence of abnormal functional connectivity in this syndrome, how these alterations affect large-scale network organization is still unknown. Here we performed a network modularity analysis on whole-brain functional connectomes derived from the resting-state fMRI of 40 patients with 22q11DS and 41 healthy control participants, aged between 9 and 30 years old. We then split the sample at 18 years old to obtain two age subgroups and repeated the modularity analyses. We found alterations of modular communities affecting the visuo-spatial network and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in both age groups. These results corroborate previous structural and functional studies in 22q11DS that showed early impairment of visuo-spatial processing regions. Furthermore, as ACC has been linked to the development of psychotic symptoms in 22q11DS, the early impairment of its functional connectivity provide further support that ACC alterations may provide potential biomarkers for an increased risk of schizophrenia. Finally, we found an abnormal modularity partition of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) only in adults with 22q11DS, suggesting the presence of an abnormal development of functional network communities during adolescence in 22q11DS. PMID:27371790

  7. Discussing the psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an exploration of clinical practice among medical geneticists

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Emily; Inglis, Angela; Friedman, Jan; Austin, Jehannine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the frequency with which medical geneticists discuss the psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) with families in relation to the frequency with which they discuss the other manifestations of the syndrome and to explore relationships between discussion of these features and stigma toward psychiatric disorders. Methods We surveyed medical geneticists in the United States and Canada regarding the frequency with which they discuss various features of 22q11DS with families in the context of four clinical scenarios in which only the age of the patient at diagnosis differed. Respondents also completed a 20-item validated psychometric measure of stigma towards psychiatric disorders. Results 308/546 medical geneticists completed the survey (56% response rate). Psychiatric disorders were discussed significantly less often than other features of 22q11DS (p<0.0001), but psychiatric disorders were discussed significantly more often when the patient was ≥ 13 years old (p<0.0001), than when the patient was younger. Geneticists who discussed psychiatric disorders the least had significantly higher levels of stigma towards psychiatric disorders (p=0.007). Conclusion Psychiatric risks are less often discussed with families during childhood. Education for physicians to help reduce stigma towards psychiatric disorders (which may impede discussion of psychiatric disorders) may warrant exploration in this population. PMID:23579435

  8. A defect in early myogenesis causes Otitis media in two mouse models of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Linden, Jennifer F.; Baldini, Antonio; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2015-01-01

    Otitis media (OM), the inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common disease and cause for surgery in infants worldwide. Chronic Otitis media with effusion (OME) often leads to conductive hearing loss and is a common feature of a number of craniofacial syndromes, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). OM is more common in children because the more horizontal position of the Eustachian tube (ET) in infants limits or delays clearance of middle ear effusions. Some mouse models with OM have shown alterations in the morphology and angle of the ET. Here, we present a novel mechanism in which OM is caused not by a defect in the ET itself but in the muscles that control its function. Our results show that in two mouse models of 22q11.2DS (Df1/+ and Tbx1+/−) presenting with bi- or unilateral OME, the fourth pharyngeal arch-derived levator veli palatini muscles were hypoplastic, which was associated with an earlier altered pattern of MyoD expression. Importantly, in mice with unilateral OME, the side with the inflammation was associated with significantly smaller muscles than the contralateral unaffected ear. Functional tests examining ET patency confirmed a reduced clearing ability in the heterozygous mice. Our findings are also of clinical relevance as targeting hypoplastic muscles might present a novel preventative measure for reducing the high rates of OM in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:25452432

  9. Two high throughput technologies to detect segmental aneuploidies identify new Williams‐Beuren syndrome patients with atypical deletions

    PubMed Central

    Howald, C; Merla, G; Digilio, M C; Amenta, S; Lyle, R; Deutsch, S; Choudhury, U; Bottani, A; Antonarakis, S E; Fryssira, H; Dallapiccola, B; Reymond, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop and compare two new technologies for diagnosing a contiguous gene syndrome, the Williams‐Beuren syndrome (WBS). Methods The first proposed method, named paralogous sequence quantification (PSQ), is based on the use of paralogous sequences located on different chromosomes and quantification of specific mismatches present at these loci using pyrosequencing technology. The second exploits quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to assess the relative quantity of an analysed locus. Results A correct and unambiguous diagnosis was obtained for 100% of the analysed samples with either technique (n = 165 and n = 155, respectively). These methods allowed the identification of two patients with atypical deletions in a cohort of 182 WBS patients. Both patients presented with mild facial anomalies, mild mental retardation with impaired visuospatial cognition, supravalvar aortic stenosis, and normal growth indices. These observations are consistent with the involvement of GTF2IRD1 or GTF2I in some of the WBS facial features. Conclusions Both PSQ and QPCR are robust, easy to interpret, and simple to set up. They represent a competitive alternative for the diagnosis of segmental aneuploidies in clinical laboratories. They have advantages over fluorescence in situ hybridisation or microsatellites/SNP genotyping for detecting short segmental aneuploidies as the former is costly and labour intensive while the latter depends on the informativeness of the polymorphisms. PMID:15994861

  10. Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Or Turner Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Simon, T.J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn; Zackai, E.H.; Ross, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor reaction time. Despite significant differences in global intellectual abilities, as measured by IQ tests, performance on the two numerical cognition tasks differed little between the two groups of children with genetic disorders. However, both performed significantly more poorly than did controls. The pattern of results are consistent with the hypothesis that impairments were not due to global intellectual ability but arose in specific cognitive functions required by different conditions within the tasks. The fact that no group differences were found in the reaction time task, despite significant differences in the standardized processing speed measure, further supports the interpretation that specific cognitive processing impairments and not global intellectual or processing speed impairments explain the pattern of results. The similarity in performance on these tasks of children with unrelated genetic disorders counters the view that numerical cognition is under any direct genetic control. Instead, our findings are consistent with the view that disturbances in foundational spatiotemporal cognitive functions contribute to the development of atypical representations and processes in the domains of basic magnitude comparison and simple numerical enumeration. PMID:17920087

  11. Malan syndrome: Sotos-like overgrowth with de novo NFIX sequence variants and deletions in six new patients and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Klaassens, Merel; Morrogh, Deborah; Rosser, Elisabeth M; Jaffer, Fatima; Vreeburg, Maaike; Bok, Levinus A; Segboer, Tim; van Belzen, Martine; Quinlivan, Ros M; Kumar, Ajith; Hurst, Jane A; Scott, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    De novo monoallelic variants in NFIX cause two distinct syndromes. Whole gene deletions, nonsense variants and missense variants affecting the DNA-binding domain have been seen in association with a Sotos-like phenotype that we propose is referred to as Malan syndrome. Frameshift and splice-site variants thought to avoid nonsense-mediated RNA decay have been seen in Marshall–Smith syndrome. We report six additional patients with Malan syndrome and de novo NFIX deletions or sequence variants and review the 20 patients now reported. The phenotype is characterised by moderate postnatal overgrowth and macrocephaly. Median height and head circumference in childhood are 2.0 and 2.3 standard deviations (SD) above the mean, respectively. There is overlap of the facial phenotype with NSD1-positive Sotos syndrome in some cases including a prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures and prominent chin. Neonatal feeding difficulties and/or hypotonia have been reported in 30% of patients. Developmental delay/learning disability have been reported in all cases and are typically moderate. Ocular phenotypes are common, including strabismus (65%), nystagmus (25% ) and optic disc pallor/hypoplasia (25%). Other recurrent features include pectus excavatum (40%) and scoliosis (25%). Eight reported patients have a deletion also encompassing CACNA1A, haploinsufficiency of which causes episodic ataxia type 2 or familial hemiplegic migraine. One previous case had episodic ataxia and one case we report has had cyclical vomiting responsive to pizotifen. In individuals with this contiguous gene deletion syndrome, awareness of possible later neurological manifestations is important, although their penetrance is not yet clear. PMID:25118028

  12. The mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation associated to multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in a patient with Wolfram syndrome and cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Mezghani, Najla; Mnif, Mouna; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Kallel, Nozha; Salem, Ikhlass Haj; Charfi, Nadia; Abid, Mohamed; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a patient with Wolfram syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy. {yields} We detected the ND1 mitochondrial m.3337G>A mutation in 3 tested tissues (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). {yields} Long-range PCR amplification revealed the presence of multiple mitochondrial deletions in the skeletal muscle. {yields} The deletions remove several tRNA and protein-coding genes. -- Abstract: Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare hereditary disorder also known as DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). It is a heterogeneous disease and full characterization of all clinical and biological features of this disorder is difficult. The wide spectrum of clinical expression, affecting several organs and tissues, and the similarity in phenotype between patients with Wolfram syndrome and those with certain types of respiratory chain diseases suggests mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) involvement in Wolfram syndrome patients. We report a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome including diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy and neurological complications. The results showed the presence of the mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation in almost homoplasmic form in 3 tested tissues of the proband (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). In addition, the long-range PCR amplifications revealed the presence of multiple deletions of the mitochondrial DNA extracted from the patient's skeletal muscle removing several tRNA and protein-coding genes. Our study reported a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome associated with cardiomyopathy, in whom we detected the ND1 m.3337G>A mutation with mitochondrial multiple deletions.

  13. Compound Heterozygosity of Low-Frequency Promoter Deletions and Rare Loss-of-Function Mutations in TXNL4A Causes Burn-McKeown Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Dagmar; Newman, William G.; Wieland, Thomas; Berulava, Tea; Kaffe, Maria; Falkenstein, Daniela; Beetz, Christian; Graf, Elisabeth; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Douzgou, Sofia; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Daly, Sarah B.; Williams, Simon G.; Bhaskar, Sanjeev S.; Urquhart, Jill E.; Anderson, Beverley; O’Sullivan, James; Boute, Odile; Gundlach, Jasmin; Czeschik, Johanna Christina; van Essen, Anthonie J.; Hazan, Filiz; Park, Sarah; Hing, Anne; Kuechler, Alma; Lohmann, Dietmar R.; Ludwig, Kerstin U.; Mangold, Elisabeth; Steenpaß, Laura; Zeschnigk, Michael; Lemke, Johannes R.; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Hehr, Ute; Prott, Eva-Christina; Waldenberger, Melanie; Böhmer, Anne C.; Horsthemke, Bernhard; O’Keefe, Raymond T.; Meitinger, Thomas; Burn, John; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Strom, Tim M.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in components of the major spliceosome have been described in disorders with craniofacial anomalies, e.g., Nager syndrome and mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida. The U5 spliceosomal complex of eight highly conserved proteins is critical for pre-mRNA splicing. We identified biallelic mutations in TXNL4A, a member of this complex, in individuals with Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS). This rare condition is characterized by bilateral choanal atresia, hearing loss, cleft lip and/or palate, and other craniofacial dysmorphisms. Mutations were found in 9 of 11 affected families. In 8 families, affected individuals carried a rare loss-of-function mutation (nonsense, frameshift, or microdeletion) on one allele and a low-frequency 34 bp deletion (allele frequency 0.76%) in the core promoter region on the other allele. In a single highly consanguineous family, formerly diagnosed as oculo-oto-facial dysplasia, the four affected individuals were homozygous for a 34 bp promoter deletion, which differed from the promoter deletion in the other families. Reporter gene and in vivo assays showed that the promoter deletions led to reduced expression of TXNL4A. Depletion of TXNL4A (Dib1) in yeast demonstrated reduced assembly of the tri-snRNP complex. Our results indicate that BMKS is an autosomal-recessive condition, which is frequently caused by compound heterozygosity of low-frequency promoter deletions in combination with very rare loss-of-function mutations. PMID:25434003

  14. SNP-based Microdeletion and Aneuploidy RegisTry (SMART)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    22q11 Deletion Syndrome; DiGeorge Syndrome; Trisomy 21; Trisomy 18; Trisomy 13; Monosomy X; Sex Chromosome Abnormalities; Cri-du-Chat Syndrome; Angelman Syndrome; Prader-Willi Syndrome; 1p36 Deletion Syndrome

  15. Fine mapping of chromosome 10q deletions in mycosis fungoides and sezary syndrome: identification of two discrete regions of deletion at 10q23.33-24.1 and 10q24.33-25.1.

    PubMed

    Wain, E Mary; Mitchell, Tracey J; Russell-Jones, Robin; Whittaker, Sean J

    2005-02-01

    Previous cytogenetic studies in mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS) have identified a large and poorly defined area of chromosomal deletion on chromosome 10q. We report an extensive fine-mapping allelotyping study using 19 microsatellite markers in the region 10q22.3-10q26.13. Allelic loss was identified by loss of heterozygosity analysis in 26 of 60 (43%) cases: 15 of 45 (33%) with MF and 11 of 15 (73%) with SS. MF and SS samples showed similar patterns of allelic loss with the identification of two discrete regions of deletion which were mutually exclusive in all but two cases. Within the first region of deletion at 10q23.33-10q24.1, around microsatellite marker D10S185 (2.77 Mb), 23 genes were identified, including three (KIF11, HHEX, and HELLS) with functions that, if dysregulated, could be critical in MF and SS. The second region of deletion, 10q24.33-10q25.1, around microsatellite marker D10S530 (3.92 Mb), encodes 11 genes, the majority of which have poorly identified functions. This extensive allelotyping study provides the basis for future highly selective candidate gene analyses.

  16. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Thomas; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Chevalier, Claire; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Afinowi, Nurudeen; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Cowling, Belinda S; Birling, Marie-Christine; Champy, Marie-France; Reymond, Alexandre; Herault, Yann

    2016-02-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice. PMID:26872257

  17. Age-dependent microRNA control of synaptic plasticity in 22q11 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Earls, Laurie R.; Fricke, R. Gaines; Yu, Jing; Berry, Raymond B.; Baldwin, Lisa T.; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.

    2012-01-01

    The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by multiple physical and psychiatric abnormalities and is caused by the hemizygous deletion of a 1.5–3Mb region of chromosome 22. 22q11DS constitutes one of the strongest known genetic risks for schizophrenia; schizophrenia arises in as many as 30% of patients with 22q11DS during adolescence or early adulthood. A mouse model of 22q11DS displays an age-dependent increase in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2), which is responsible for loading Ca2+ into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is elevated in this mouse model. The resulting increase in ER Ca2+ load leads to enhanced neurotransmitter release and increased LTP. However, the mechanism by which the 22q11 microdeletion leads to SERCA2 overexpression and LTP increase has not been determined. Screening of multiple mutant mouse lines revealed that haploinsufficiency of Dgcr8, a microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis gene in the 22q11DS disease-critical region, causes age-dependent, synaptic SERCA2 overexpression and increased LTP. We found that miR-25 and miR-185, regulators of SERCA2, are depleted in mouse models of 22q11DS. Restoration of these miRNAs to presynaptic neurons rescues LTP in Dgcr8+/− mice. Finally, we show that SERCA2 is elevated in the brains of patients with schizophrenia, providing a link between mouse model findings and the human disease. We conclude that miRNA-dependent SERCA2 dysregulation is a pathogenic event in 22q11DS and schizophrenia. PMID:23055483

  18. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Thomas; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Chevalier, Claire; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Afinowi, Nurudeen; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Cowling, Belinda S.; Birling, Marie-Christine; Champy, Marie-France; Reymond, Alexandre; Herault, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice. PMID:26872257

  19. A 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome and a submicroscopic deletion of chromosome 15q11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.G.; Christian, S.L.; Kubota, T.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1996-10-16

    We report on a 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a submicroscopic deletion of 15q11q13 of approximately 100-200 kb in size. High resolution chromosome analysis was normal but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern hybridization, and microsatellite data from the 15q11q13 region demonstrated that the deletion was paternal in origin and included the SNRPN, PAR-5, and PAR-7 genes from the proximal to distal boundaries of the deletion segment. SNRPN and PW71B methylation studies showed an abnormal pattern consistent with the diagnosis of PWS and supported the presence of a paternal deletion of 15q11q13 or an imprinting mutation. Biparental (normal) inheritance of PW71B (D15S63 locus) and a deletion of the SNRPN gene were observed by microsatellite, quantitative Southern hybridization, and/or FISH analyses. Our patient met the diagnostic criteria for PWS, but has no reported behavior problems, hyperphagia, or hypopigmentation. Our patient further supports SNRPN and possibly other genomic sequences which are deleted as the cause of the phenotype recognized in PWS patients. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Novel deletion of the E3A ubiquitin protein ligase gene detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a patient with Angelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Francesco; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Fichera, Marco; Vinci, Mirella; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Schinocca, Pietro; Sturnio, Maurizio; Romano, Salvatore; Elia, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurobehavioural disorder caused by failure of expression of the maternal copy of the imprinted domain located on 15q11-q13. There are different mechanisms leading to AS: maternal microdeletion, uniparental disomy, defects in a putative imprinting centre, mutations of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. However, some of suspected cases of AS are still scored negative to all the latter mutations. Recently, it has been shown that a proportion of negative cases bear large deletions overlapping one or more exons of the UBE3A gene. These deletions are difficult to detect by conventional gene-scanning methods due to the masking effect by the non-deleted allele. In this study, we have used for the first time multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA) to search for large deletions affecting the UBE3A gene. Using this approach, we identified a novel causative deletion involving exon 8 in an affected sibling. Based on our results, we propose the use of MLPA as a fast, accurate and inexpensive test to detect large deletions in the UBE3A gene in a small but significant percentage of AS patients. PMID:21072004

  1. Deletion of UBE3A in brothers with Angelman syndrome at the breakpoint with an inversion at 15q11.2.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Ohashi, Ikuko; Saito, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Jun-Ichi; Ida, Kazumi; Naruto, Takuya; Wada, Takahito; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe intellectual disability with ataxia, epilepsy, and behavioral uniqueness. The underlining molecular deficit is the absence of the maternal copy of the imprinted UBE3A gene due to maternal deletions, which is observed in 70-75% of cases, and can be detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of the UBE3A region. Only a few familial AS cases have been reported with a complete deletion of UBE3A. Here, we report on siblings with AS caused by a microdeletion of 15q11.2-q12 encompassing UBE3A at the breakpoint of an inversion at 15q11.2 and 15q26.1. Karyotyping revealed an inversion of 15q, and FISH revealed the deletion of the UBE3A region. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) demonstrated a 467 kb deletion at 15q11.2-q12, encompassing only UBE3A, SNORD115, and PAR1, and a 53 kb deletion at 15q26.1, encompassing a part of SLCO3A1. Their mother had a normal karyotype and array CGH detected no deletion of 15q11.2-q12, so we assumed gonadal mosaicism. This report describes a rare type of familial AS detected using the D15S10 FISH test. PMID:25099823

  2. Smaller and larger deletions of the Williams Beuren syndrome region implicate genes involved in mild facial phenotype, epilepsy and autistic traits

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Carmela; Micale, Lucia; Augello, Bartolomeo; Teresa Pellico, Maria; Menghini, Deny; Alfieri, Paolo; Cristina Digilio, Maria; Mandriani, Barbara; Carella, Massimo; Palumbo, Orazio; Vicari, Stefano; Merla, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multisystemic disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of 1.5 Mb on chromosome 7q11.23 spanning 28 genes. A few patients with larger and smaller WBS deletion have been reported. They show clinical features that vary between isolated SVAS to the full spectrum of WBS phenotype, associated with epilepsy or autism spectrum behavior. Here we describe four patients with atypical WBS 7q11.23 deletions. Two carry ∼3.5 Mb larger deletion towards the telomere that includes Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxigenase activation protein gamma (YWHAG) genes. Other two carry a shorter deletion of ∼1.2 Mb at centromeric side that excludes the distal WBS genes BAZ1B and FZD9. Along with previously reported cases, genotype–phenotype correlation in the patients described here further suggests that haploinsufficiency of HIP1 and YWHAG might cause the severe neurological and neuropsychological deficits including epilepsy and autistic traits, and that the preservation of BAZ1B and FZD9 genes may be related to mild facial features and moderate neuropsychological deficits. This report highlights the importance to characterize additional patients with 7q11.23 atypical deletions comparing neuropsychological and clinical features between these individuals to shed light on the pathogenic role of genes within and flanking the WBS region. PMID:23756441

  3. Array based characterization of a terminal deletion involving chromosome subband 15q26.2: an emerging syndrome associated with growth retardation, cardiac defects and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Josef; Collin, Anna; Björkhem, Gudrun; Soller, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background Subtelomeric regions are gene rich and deletions in these chromosomal segments have been demonstrated to account for approximately 2.5% of patients displaying mental retardation with or without association of dysmorphic features. However, cases that report de novo terminal deletions on chromosome arm 15q are rare. Methods In this study we present the first example of a detailed molecular genetic mapping of a de novo deletion in involving 15q26.2-qter, caused by the formation of a dicentric chromosome 15, using metaphase FISH and tiling resolution (32 k) genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Results After an initial characterization of the dicentric chromosome by metaphase FISH, array CGH analysis mapped the terminal deletion to encompass a 6.48 megabase (Mb) region, ranging from 93.86–100.34 Mb on chromosome 15. Conclusion In conclusion, we present an additional case to the growing family of reported cases with 15q26-deletion, thoroughly characterized at the molecular cytogenetic level. In the deleted regions, four candidate genes responsible for the phenotype of the patient could be delineated: IGFR1, MEF2A, CHSY1, and TM2D3. Further characterization of additional patients harboring similar 15q-aberrations might hopefully in the future lead to the description of a clear cut clinically recognizable syndrome. PMID:18194513

  4. Deletion of UBE3A in brothers with Angelman syndrome at the breakpoint with an inversion at 15q11.2.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Ohashi, Ikuko; Saito, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Jun-Ichi; Ida, Kazumi; Naruto, Takuya; Wada, Takahito; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe intellectual disability with ataxia, epilepsy, and behavioral uniqueness. The underlining molecular deficit is the absence of the maternal copy of the imprinted UBE3A gene due to maternal deletions, which is observed in 70-75% of cases, and can be detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of the UBE3A region. Only a few familial AS cases have been reported with a complete deletion of UBE3A. Here, we report on siblings with AS caused by a microdeletion of 15q11.2-q12 encompassing UBE3A at the breakpoint of an inversion at 15q11.2 and 15q26.1. Karyotyping revealed an inversion of 15q, and FISH revealed the deletion of the UBE3A region. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) demonstrated a 467 kb deletion at 15q11.2-q12, encompassing only UBE3A, SNORD115, and PAR1, and a 53 kb deletion at 15q26.1, encompassing a part of SLCO3A1. Their mother had a normal karyotype and array CGH detected no deletion of 15q11.2-q12, so we assumed gonadal mosaicism. This report describes a rare type of familial AS detected using the D15S10 FISH test.

  5. Smaller and larger deletions of the Williams Beuren syndrome region implicate genes involved in mild facial phenotype, epilepsy and autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Carmela; Micale, Lucia; Augello, Bartolomeo; Teresa Pellico, Maria; Menghini, Deny; Alfieri, Paolo; Cristina Digilio, Maria; Mandriani, Barbara; Carella, Massimo; Palumbo, Orazio; Vicari, Stefano; Merla, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multisystemic disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of 1.5 Mb on chromosome 7q11.23 spanning 28 genes. A few patients with larger and smaller WBS deletion have been reported. They show clinical features that vary between isolated SVAS to the full spectrum of WBS phenotype, associated with epilepsy or autism spectrum behavior. Here we describe four patients with atypical WBS 7q11.23 deletions. Two carry ~3.5 Mb larger deletion towards the telomere that includes Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxigenase activation protein gamma (YWHAG) genes. Other two carry a shorter deletion of ~1.2 Mb at centromeric side that excludes the distal WBS genes BAZ1B and FZD9. Along with previously reported cases, genotype-phenotype correlation in the patients described here further suggests that haploinsufficiency of HIP1 and YWHAG might cause the severe neurological and neuropsychological deficits including epilepsy and autistic traits, and that the preservation of BAZ1B and FZD9 genes may be related to mild facial features and moderate neuropsychological deficits. This report highlights the importance to characterize additional patients with 7q11.23 atypical deletions comparing neuropsychological and clinical features between these individuals to shed light on the pathogenic role of genes within and flanking the WBS region.

  6. Familial DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2: Report of five families with a review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Leana-Cox, J.; Pangkanon, Suthipong; Eanet, K.R.

    1996-11-11

    The DiGeorge (DG), velocardiofacial (VCF), and conotruncal anomaly-face (CTAF) syndromes were originally described as distinct disorders, although overlapping phenotypes have been recognized. It is now clear that all three syndromes result from apparently similar or identical 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting that they represent phenotypic variability of a single genetic syndrome. We report on 12 individuals in five families with del(22)(q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and define the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in those cases and in 70 individuals from 27 del(22)(q11.2) families from the literature. Common manifestations include mental impairment (97%), abnormal face (93%), cardiac malformations (681%), thymic (64%) and parathyroid (63%) abnormalities, and cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (48%). Familial DG, VCF, and CTAF syndromes due to del(22)(q11.2) show significant inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability consistent with the hypothesis that a single gene or group of tightly linked genes is the common cause of these syndromes. Up to 25% of 22q deletions are inherited, indicating that parents of affected children warrant molecular cytogenetic evaluation. We propose use of the compound term {open_quotes}DiGeorge/velocardiofacial (DGNCF) syndrome{close_quotes} in referring to this condition, as it calls attention to the phenotypic spectrum using historically familiar names. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Translocations involving 4p16.3 in three families: deletion causing the Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome and duplication resulting in a new overgrowth syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Partington, M W; Fagan, K; Soubjaki, V; Turner, G

    1997-01-01

    Three families are reported who have a translocation involving 4p16.3. Nine subjects are described with the clinical features of the Pitt-Rogers-Danks (PRD) syndrome confirming pre- and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, severe mental retardation, seizures, and a distinctive facial appearance; a deletion of 4p16.3 was seen in all eight patients studied with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Eleven subjects had a new syndrome with physical overgrowth, heavy facial features, and mild to moderate mental handicap; a duplication of the chromosome region 4p16.3 was found in the four subjects studied. It is suggested that the growth abnormalities in these two families may be explained by a dosage effect of the fibroblast growth factor receptor gene 3 (FGFR3), which is located at 4p16.3, that is, a single dose leads to growth failure and a triple dose to physical overgrowth. We describe the molecular mapping of the translocation breakpoint and define it to within locus D4S43. Images PMID:9321756

  8. Is theory of mind related to social dysfunction and emotional problems in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velo-cardio-facial syndrome)?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Linda E; Stevens, Angela F; McCabe, Kathryn; Cruickshank, Lynne; Morris, Robin G; Murphy, Declan G M; Murphy, Kieran C

    2011-06-01

    Social dysfunction is intrinsically involved in severe psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychosis and linked with poor theory of mind. Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS, or velo-cardio-facial syndrome) have poor social competence and are also at a particularly high risk of developing mood (40%) and psychotic (up to 30%) disorders in adolescence and young adulthood. However, it is unknown if these problems are associated with theory of mind skills, including underlying social-cognitive and social-perceptual mechanisms. The present cross-sectional study included classic social-cognitive false-belief and mentalising tasks and social-perceptual face processing tasks. The performance of 50 children with 22q11DS was compared with 31 age-matched typically developing sibling controls. Key findings indicated that, while younger children with 22q11DS showed impaired acquisition of social-cognitive skills, older children with 22q11DS were not significantly impaired compared with sibling controls. However, children with 22q11DS were found to have social-perceptual deficits, as demonstrated by difficulties in matching faces on the basis of identity, emotion, facial speech and gaze compared with sibling controls. Furthermore, performance on the tasks was associated with age, language ability and parentally rated social competence and emotional problems. These results are discussed in relation to the importance of a better delineation of social competence in this population.

  9. Hippocampal volume reduction in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is associated with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Tracy; Wu, Zhongle; Lee, Aaron; Simon, Tony J

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous investigations of individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2) have reported alterations in both brain anatomy and cognitive function. Neuroanatomical studies have reported multiple abnormalities including changes in both gray and white matter in the temporal lobe, including the amygdala and hippocampus. Separate investigations of cognitive abilities have established the prevalence of general intellectual impairment, although the actual extent to which a single individual is affected varies greatly within the population. The present study was designed to examine structures within the temporal lobe and assess their functional significance in terms of cognition in children with DS22q11.2. Method A total of 72 children (ages 7–14 years) participated in the investigation: 36 children (19 female, 17 male) tested FISH positive for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (Mean age = 10 years 9 months, ± 2 yr 4 mo) and 36 were age-matched typically developing controls (13 female, 23 male; Mean age = 10 years 6 months, ± 1 yr 11 mo). For each subject, a three-dimensional high-resolution (1 mm isotropic) T1-weighted structural MRI was acquired. Neuroanatomical guidelines were used to define borders of the amygdala and hippocampus bilaterally and volumes were calculated based on manual tracings of the regions. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was also administered. Results Volumetric reductions in total gray matter, white matter, and both the amygdala and hippocampus bilaterally were observed in children with DS22q11.2. Reductions in the left hippocampus were disproportionate to decreases in gray matter after statistically controlling for group differences in total gray matter, age, and data collection site. This specific reduction in hippocampal volume was significantly correlated with performance on standardized measures of intelligence, whereas the other neuroanatomical measures were not (gray/white matter, CSF, and

  10. Trisomy 17 in a bonobo (Pan paniscus) and deletion of 3q in a lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): comparison with human trisomy 18 and human deletion 4q syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lear, T L; Houck, M L; Zhang, Y W; Debnar, L A; Sutherland-Smith, M R; Young, L; Jones, K L; Benirschke, K

    2001-01-01

    A female bonobo (Pan paniscus) born at the San Diego Zoo exhibited inability to nurse and progressive weakness plus multiple congenital abnormalities including aural canal atresia and stenosis, malformed auricles, clenched hands, lordosis, agenesis of the caudal vertebra and cardiac abnormalities. Chromosome analysis identified the bonobo as being trisomic for chromosome 17, the homolog of human chromosome 18. Genotyping with human microsatellites suggested the extra chromosome was maternal in origin. In addition, a male lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), also born at the zoo, exhibited postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphisms and small hands with short fingers. Karyotype analysis revealed the gorilla carried a deletion of the distal q arm of chromosome 3, the homolog of human chromosome 4. The phenotypic and karyotypic abnormalities found in the bonobo and gorilla were consistent with the characteristics of human trisomy 18 and human deletion 4q syndrome, respectively.

  11. White matter microstructural abnormalities in girls with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Fragile X or Turner syndrome as evidenced by diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Villalon, Julio; Jahanshad, Neda; Beaton, Elliott; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Children with chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), or Turner Syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess evidence for common underlying neural microstructural alterations, we set out to determine whether these groups have partially overlapping white matter abnormalities, relative to typically developing controls. We scanned 101 female children between 7 and 14 years old: 25 with 22q11.2DS, 18 with FXS, 17 with TS, and 41 aged-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anisotropy and diffusivity measures were calculated and all brain scans were nonlinearly aligned to population and site-specific templates. We performed voxel-based statistical comparisons of the DTI-derived metrics between each disease group and the controls, while adjusting for age. Girls with 22q11.2DS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) than controls in the association fibers of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the corticospinal tract. FA was abnormally lower in girls with FXS in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, posterior thalami, and precentral gyrus. Girls with TS had lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right internal capsule and left cerebellar peduncle. Partially overlapping neurodevelopmental anomalies were detected in all three neurogenetic disorders. Altered white matter integrity in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and thalamic to frontal tracts may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of all of these disorders. PMID:23602925

  12. A Williams syndrome patient with a familial t(6;7) translocation and deletion of the elastin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pober, B.R.; Gibson, L.H.; Yang-Feng, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    Discovery of a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation [46,XX,t(6;7)(q11.2;q11.23)] on routine amniocentesis prompted clinical and cytogenetic study of additional family members. The same t(6;7) translocation was found in the clincally normal father and in a sibling with Williams syndrome (WS). WS had been diagnosed previously according to clinical criteria including distinctive facial features, supravalvar aortic stenosis requiring surgical repair, dental abnormalties and developmental delay. A clinically normal female was delivered and the translocation was confirmed with a cord blood specimen. Hemizygosity for the gene, elastin, (which has been mapped to the chromosome 7 translocation breakpoint, 7q11.23, in this family) appears to be a cause of WS. We therefore investigated whether the t(6;7) in the phenotypically normal father represented more than a simple reciprocal translocation. FISH using a chromosome 7 specific library revealed no differences between the cytogenetically identical, yet phenotypically distinct, father and son. Hybridization with a cosmid MR127D4 containing elastin sequence showed that the WS patient was missing one allele from the derivative chromosome 7 whereas both his mother and father had two copies of the elastin gene. This family indicates that the de novo loss of one copy of the elastin gene produces the recognizable phenotype of Williams syndrome. Molecular characterization (with additional probes) of the extent of this de novo deletion near the translocation breakpoint is in progress. This information will be valuable for defining the WS-critical region and will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis for WS.

  13. Facial emotion perception by intensity in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leleu, Arnaud; Saucourt, Guillaume; Rigard, Caroline; Chesnoy, Gabrielle; Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Rossi, Massimiliano; Edery, Patrick; Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Difficulties in the recognition of emotions in expressive faces have been reported in people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). However, while low-intensity expressive faces are frequent in everyday life, nothing is known about their ability to perceive facial emotions depending on the intensity of expression. Through a visual matching task, children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS as well as gender- and age-matched healthy participants were asked to categorise the emotion of a target face among six possible expressions. Static pictures of morphs between neutrality and expressions were used to parametrically manipulate the intensity of the target face. In comparison to healthy controls, results showed higher perception thresholds (i.e. a more intense expression is needed to perceive the emotion) and lower accuracy for the most expressive faces indicating reduced categorisation abilities in the 22q11.2DS group. The number of intrusions (i.e. each time an emotion is perceived as another one) and a more gradual perception performance indicated smooth boundaries between emotional categories. Correlational analyses with neuropsychological and clinical measures suggested that reduced visual skills may be associated with impaired categorisation of facial emotions. Overall, the present study indicates greater difficulties for children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS to perceive an emotion in low-intensity expressive faces. This disability is subtended by emotional categories that are not sharply organised. It also suggests that these difficulties may be associated with impaired visual cognition, a hallmark of the cognitive deficits observed in the syndrome. These data yield promising tracks for future experimental and clinical investigations. PMID:26149605

  14. Isolation and characterization of hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells in 5q-deleted myelodysplastic syndromes: evidence for involvement at the hematopoietic stem cell level.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, L; Astrand-Grundström, I; Arvidsson, I; Jacobsson, B; Hellström-Lindberg, E; Hast, R; Jacobsen, S E

    2000-09-15

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and frequent progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Within MDS, 5q- syndrome constitutes a distinct clinical entity characterized by an isolated deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q-), a relatively good prognosis, and infrequent transformation to acute leukemia. The cell of origin in 5q- syndrome as well as in other 5q-deleted MDS patients has not been established, but evidence for involvement of multiple myeloid (but not lymphoid) lineages has suggested that a myeloid-restricted progenitor rather than a pluripotent (lympho-myeloid) stem cell might be the primary target in most patients. Although in 9 patients no evidence of peripheral blood T-cell and only 1 case of B-cell involvement was found, the data herein support that 5q deletions occur in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with a combined lympho-myeloid potential. First, in all investigated patients a minimum of 94% of cells in the minor CD34(+)CD38(-) HSC compartment were 5q deleted as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Second, in 3 of 5 patients 5q aberrations were detected in a large fraction (25% to 90%) of purified CD34(+)CD19(+) pro-B cells. Furthermore, extensive functional characterization with regard to responsiveness to early-acting cytokines, long-term culture-initiating cells, and nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency repopulating cells supported that MDS HSCs in 5q-deleted patients are CD34(+)CD38(-), but inefficient at reconstituting hematopoiesis.

  15. A large deletion/insertion-induced frameshift mutation of the androgen receptor gene in a family with a familial complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cong, Peikuan; Ye, Yinghui; Wang, Yue; Lu, Lingping; Yong, Jing; Yu, Ping; Joseph, Kimani Kagunda; Jin, Fan; Qi, Ming

    2012-06-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder with a normal 46, XY karyotype caused by abnormality of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. One Chinese family consisting of the proband and 5 other members with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) was investigated. Mutation analysis by DNA sequencing on all 8 exons and flanking intron regions of the AR gene revealed a unique large deletion/insertion mutation in the family. A 287 bp deletion and 77 bp insertion (c.933_1219delins77) mutation at codon 312 resulted in a frameshift which caused a premature stop (p.Phe312Aspfs*7) of polypeptide formation. The proband's mother and grandmother were heterozygous for the mutant allele. The proband's father, uncle and grandfather have the normal allele. From the pedigree constructed from mutational analysis of the family, it is revealed that the probably pathogenic mutation comes from the maternal side.

  16. Two male adults with pathogenic AUTS2 variants, including a two-base pair deletion, further delineate the AUTS2 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beunders, Gea; de Munnik, Sonja A; Van der Aa, Nathalie; Ceulemans, Berten; Voorhoeve, Els; Groffen, Alexander J; Nillesen, Willy M; Meijers-Heijboer, Elizabeth J; Frank Kooy, R; Yntema, Helger G; Sistermans, Erik A

    2015-01-01

    AUTS2 syndrome is characterized by low birth weight, feeding difficulties, intellectual disability, microcephaly and mild dysmorphic features. All affected individuals thus far were caused by chromosomal rearrangements, variants at the base pair level disrupting AUTS2 have not yet been described. Here we present the full clinical description of two affected men with intragenic AUTS2 variants (one two-base pair deletion in exon 7 and one deletion of exon 6). Both variants are de novo and are predicted to cause a frameshift of the full-length transcript but are unlikely to affect the shorter 3′ transcript starting in exon 9. The similarities between the phenotypes of both men are striking and further support that AUTS2 syndrome is a single gene disorder. PMID:25205402

  17. Visual scanpath abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: is this a face specific deficit?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Kathryn; Rich, Dominique; Loughland, Carmel Maree; Schall, Ulrich; Campbell, Linda Elisabet

    2011-09-30

    People with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have deficits in face emotion recognition. However, it is not known whether this is a deficit specific to faces, or represents maladaptive information processing strategies to complex stimuli in general. This study examined the specificity of face emotion processing deficits in 22q11DS by exploring recognition accuracy and visual scanpath performance to a Faces task compared to a Weather Scene task. Seventeen adolescents with 22q11DS (11=females, age=17.4) and 18 healthy controls (11=females, age=17.7) participated in the study. People with 22q11DS displayed an overall impoverished scanning strategy to face and weather stimuli alike, resulting in poorer accuracy across all stimuli for the 22q11DS participants compared to controls. While the control subjects altered their information processing in response to faces, a similar change was not present in the 22q11DS group indicating different visual scanpath strategies to identify category within each of the tasks, of which faces appear to represent a particularly difficult subcategory. To conclude, while this study indicates that people with 22q11DS have a general visual processing deficit, the lack of strategic change between tasks suggest that the 22q11DS group did not adapt to the change in stimuli content as well as the controls, indicative of cognitive inflexibility rather than a face specific deficit. PMID:21831452

  18. Altered Brain Structure-Function Relationships Underlie Executive Dysfunction in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Rachel K; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Montojo, Caroline A; Patel, Arati; Kushan, Leila; Chow, Carolyn C; Vesagas, Therese; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-12-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder associated with elevated rates of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders and impaired executive function (EF). Disrupted brain structure-function relationships may underlie EF deficits in 22q11DS. We administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to assess real-world EF in patients with 22q11DS and matched controls (n = 86; age 6-17 years), along with cognitive measures that tap behavioral regulation and metacognition aspects of EF. Using FreeSurfer's whole-brain vertex cortical thickness pipeline, we investigated brain structure-EF relationships in patients with 22q11DS and controls. Behaviorally, patients with 22q11DS were impaired on multiple EF measures. Right orbitofrontal cortical thickness showed a differential relationship between real-world EF in patients with 22q11DS and controls. We also observed a group difference in the relationship between behavioral regulation and metacognition measures with thickness of ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, respectively. Our findings suggest that executive dysfunction characteristic of 22q11DS is underscored by altered prefrontal cortical structure.

  19. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: novel FLCN frameshift deletion in daughter and father with renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Näf, Ernst; Laubscher, Dominik; Hopfer, Helmut; Streit, Markus; Matyas, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutation of the FLCN gene causes Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal tumours. We identified a hitherto unreported pathogenic FLCN frameshift deletion c.563delT (p.Phe188Serfs*35) in a family of a 46-year-old woman presented with macrohematuria due to bilateral chromophobe renal carcinomas. A heritable renal cancer was suspected due to the bilaterality of the tumour and as the father of this woman had suffered from renal cancer. Initially, however, BHD was overlooked by the medical team despite the highly suggestive clinical presentation. We assume that BHD is underdiagnosed, at least partially, due to low awareness of this variable condition and to insufficient use of appropriate genetic testing. Our study indicates that BHD and FLCN testing should be routinely considered in patients with positive family or personal history of renal tumours. In addition, we demonstrate how patients and their families can play a driving role in initiating genetic diagnosis, presymptomatic testing of at-risk relatives, targeted disease management, and genetic counselling of rare diseases such as BHD.

  20. Deletion of Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein triggers Rac2 activity and increased cross-presentation by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Marisa A. P.; Keszei, Marton; Oliveira, Mariana; Sunahara, Karen K. S.; Andersson, John; Dahlberg, Carin I. M.; Worth, Austen J.; Liedén, Agne; Kuo, I-Chun; Wallin, Robert P. A.; Snapper, Scott B.; Eidsmo, Liv; Scheynius, Annika; Karlsson, Mikael C. I.; Bouma, Gerben; Burns, Siobhan O.; Forsell, Mattias N. E.; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Nylén, Susanne; Westerberg, Lisa S.

    2016-01-01

    Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the WASp gene. Decreased cellular responses in WASp-deficient cells have been interpreted to mean that WASp directly regulates these responses in WASp-sufficient cells. Here, we identify an exception to this concept and show that WASp-deficient dendritic cells have increased activation of Rac2 that support cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells. Using two different skin pathology models, WASp-deficient mice show an accumulation of dendritic cells in the skin and increased expansion of IFNγ-producing CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph node and spleen. Specific deletion of WASp in dendritic cells leads to marked expansion of CD8+ T cells at the expense of CD4+ T cells. WASp-deficient dendritic cells induce increased cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells by activating Rac2 that maintains a near neutral pH of phagosomes. Our data reveals an intricate balance between activation of WASp and Rac2 signalling pathways in dendritic cells. PMID:27425374

  1. Deletion of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein triggers Rac2 activity and increased cross-presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Marisa A P; Keszei, Marton; Oliveira, Mariana; Sunahara, Karen K S; Andersson, John; Dahlberg, Carin I M; Worth, Austen J; Liedén, Agne; Kuo, I-Chun; Wallin, Robert P A; Snapper, Scott B; Eidsmo, Liv; Scheynius, Annika; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Bouma, Gerben; Burns, Siobhan O; Forsell, Mattias N E; Thrasher, Adrian J; Nylén, Susanne; Westerberg, Lisa S

    2016-07-18

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the WASp gene. Decreased cellular responses in WASp-deficient cells have been interpreted to mean that WASp directly regulates these responses in WASp-sufficient cells. Here, we identify an exception to this concept and show that WASp-deficient dendritic cells have increased activation of Rac2 that support cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Using two different skin pathology models, WASp-deficient mice show an accumulation of dendritic cells in the skin and increased expansion of IFNγ-producing CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph node and spleen. Specific deletion of WASp in dendritic cells leads to marked expansion of CD8(+) T cells at the expense of CD4(+) T cells. WASp-deficient dendritic cells induce increased cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells by activating Rac2 that maintains a near neutral pH of phagosomes. Our data reveals an intricate balance between activation of WASp and Rac2 signalling pathways in dendritic cells.

  2. A candidate gene approach to identify modifiers of the palatal phenotype in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Widdershoven, Josine C.C.; Bowser, Mark; Sheridan, Molly B.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Solot, Cynthia B.; Kirschner, Richard E.; Beemer, Frits A.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Devoto, Marcella; Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Palatal anomalies are one of the identifying features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) affecting about one third of patients. To identify genetic variants that increase the risk of cleft or palatal anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients, we performed a candidate gene association study in 101 patients with 22q11.2DS genotyped with the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0. Methods Patients from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, USA and Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands were stratified based on palatal phenotype (overt cleft, submucosal cleft, bifid uvula). SNPs in 21 candidate genes for cleft palate were analyzed for genotype-phenotype association. In addition, TBX1 sequencing was carried out. Quality control and association analyses were conducted using the software package PLINK. Results Genotype and phenotype data of 101 unrelated patients (63 non-cleft subjects (62.4%), 38 cleft subjects (37.6%)) were analyzed. A Total of 39 SNPs on 10 genes demonstrated a p-value ≤0.05 prior to correction. The most significant SNPs were found on FGF10. However none of the SNPs remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions Although these results are promising, analysis of additional samples will be required to confirm that variants in these regions influence risk for cleft palate or palatal anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:23121717

  3. AIRE variations in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS): partial gene deletions contribute to APS I.

    PubMed

    Bøe Wolff, A S; Oftedal, B; Johansson, S; Bruland, O; Løvås, K; Meager, A; Pedersen, C; Husebye, E S; Knappskog, P M

    2008-03-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is often associated with other components in autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS). Whereas APS I is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene, the susceptibility genes for AAD and APS II are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether polymorphisms or copy number variations in the AIRE gene were associated with AAD and APS II. First, nine SNPs in the AIRE gene were analyzed in 311 patients with AAD and APS II and 521 healthy controls, identifying no associated risk. Second, in a subgroup of 25 of these patients, AIRE sequencing revealed three novel polymorphisms. Finally, the AIRE copy number was determined by duplex quantitative PCR in 14 patients with APS I, 161 patients with AAD and APS II and in 39 healthy subjects. In two Scandinavian APS I patients previously reported to be homozygous for common AIRE mutations, we identified large deletions of the AIRE gene covering at least exon 2 to exon 8. We conclude that polymorphisms in the AIRE gene are not associated with AAD and APS II. We further suggest that DNA analysis of the parents of patients found to be homozygous for mutations in AIRE, always should be performed.

  4. Deletion of Huntington's disease-linked G8 (D4S10) locus in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gusella, J F; Tanzi, R E; Bader, P I; Phelan, M C; Stevenson, R; Hayden, M R; Hofman, K J; Faryniarz, A G; Gibbons, K

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive involuntary movements and dementia. The symptoms of the disease, although devastating in severity, do not usually appear until the third to fourth decade of life. The gene defect is highly penetrant, and results in the loss of neurones in the basal ganglia, globus pallidus, and more diffusely in the cortex. A DNA marker, G8 (or D4S10), is tightly linked to Huntington's disease and this gene has been localized to chromosome 4 (ref. 3). The discovery of this linkage marker raises the possibility of developing a presymptomatic test for the disorder, and of eventually isolating the disease gene based on its map position. We have now regionally localized the DNA marker G8 to the terminal band of the short arm of the chromosome, a region representing approximately 0.5% of the total human genome. The assignment was made by examining DNA from patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, a birth defect resulting from partial heterozygous deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4.

  5. Selective expansion of regulatory T cells during lenalidomide treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated deletion 5q.

    PubMed

    Balaian, Ekaterina; Schuster, Claudia; Schönefeldt, Claudia; Germing, Ulrich; Haase, Detlef; Tuve, Sebastian; Ordemann, Rainer; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bornhäuser, Martin; Oelschlaegel, Uta; Mohr, Brigitte; von Bonin, Malte; Platzbecker, Uwe; Wermke, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Lenalidomide (LEN) leads to erythroid improvement in the majority of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and isolated deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 (MDS-del(5q)). This effect is believed to be exerted via its immunomodulatory properties, although the precise nature is still incompletely understood. We prospectively performed immune profiling in the bone marrow and blood of MDS-del(5q) patients undergoing LEN therapy for a median of 6 cycles. Therapy with LEN led to a significant increase in the median absolute lymphocyte count (1.3-fold, p = 0.013) without changes in the distribution of the T helper cells within the entire compartment. In parallel, the frequency of Treg increased significantly during treatment both in the peripheral blood (5.0 vs. 9.6 %, p = 0.001) and bone marrow (3.4 vs. 8.1 %, p = 0.001). Surprisingly, LEN treatment led to a decrease in TGFbeta levels, both in the peripheral blood (4.9 vs. 2.3 ng/ml, p = 0.039) and bone marrow (4.5 vs. 0.8 ng/ml, p = 0.023). These changes were not associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory Th17 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LEN induces a shift in lymphocytic populations towards immunosuppression in MDS-del(5q) patients.

  6. Deletion of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein triggers Rac2 activity and increased cross-presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Marisa A P; Keszei, Marton; Oliveira, Mariana; Sunahara, Karen K S; Andersson, John; Dahlberg, Carin I M; Worth, Austen J; Liedén, Agne; Kuo, I-Chun; Wallin, Robert P A; Snapper, Scott B; Eidsmo, Liv; Scheynius, Annika; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Bouma, Gerben; Burns, Siobhan O; Forsell, Mattias N E; Thrasher, Adrian J; Nylén, Susanne; Westerberg, Lisa S

    2016-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the WASp gene. Decreased cellular responses in WASp-deficient cells have been interpreted to mean that WASp directly regulates these responses in WASp-sufficient cells. Here, we identify an exception to this concept and show that WASp-deficient dendritic cells have increased activation of Rac2 that support cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Using two different skin pathology models, WASp-deficient mice show an accumulation of dendritic cells in the skin and increased expansion of IFNγ-producing CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph node and spleen. Specific deletion of WASp in dendritic cells leads to marked expansion of CD8(+) T cells at the expense of CD4(+) T cells. WASp-deficient dendritic cells induce increased cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells by activating Rac2 that maintains a near neutral pH of phagosomes. Our data reveals an intricate balance between activation of WASp and Rac2 signalling pathways in dendritic cells. PMID:27425374

  7. Increased incidence and size of cavum septum pellicidum in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Elliott A.; Qin, Yufeng; Nguyen, Vy; Johnson, Joel; Pinter, Joseph D.; Simon, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a result of a hemizygotic microdeletion that results in a variety of impairments in children including greater risk for psychiatric ailments in adulthood. We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to accurately quantify the length and, for the first time, volume, of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) in children aged 7 to 14 years with 22q11.2DS and typically developing (TD) controls. Significantly greater anteroposterior length and greater CSP volumes were found in children with 22q11.2DS compared to controls. Furthermore, the largest CSP were found only in the 22q11.2DS group and with a much higher incidence than previously reported in the literature. Given the significant midline anomalies in the brains of those affected by 22q11.2DS, large CSP may be a biomarker of atypical brain development. The implication of these larger CSP for cognitive and behavioral development is a topic in need of further investigation. PMID:20074913

  8. Prader-Willi syndrome--a study comparing deletion and uniparental disomy cases with reference to autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Marijcke W M; Thompson, Russell J; Roberts, Sian E; Thomas, N Simon; Whittington, Joyce; Bolton, Patrick F

    2004-02-01

    Prader Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder. It has been reported that cases due to paternal deletion 15q11-13 (Del) behave differently to cases due to uniparental disomy (UPD). Comparison of the two forms of PWS has, to date, not included the frequency of autistic behaviours, even though there are reports of an association between maternal duplications of 15q11-13 and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It was predicted that maternal UPD PWS cases would be more prone to ASD than Del PWS cases due to their duplicated maternally expressed genes. A preliminary test of the hypothesis was conducted using postal and telephone surveys of matched, genetically verified, UPD and Del cases using the Autism Screening Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS). As predicted, UPD cases were reported as exhibiting significantly more autistic symptomatology. They also were born to older mothers and were reported on the VABS to have more deficits in motor control problems and fewer adaptive skills in the Daily Living Skills domain. Del cases were reportedly more skilled at jigsaw puzzles. The results lend further support to the notion that abnormality in the expression of maternal imprinted 15q11-13 genes may confer a susceptibility to ASD. They also suggest that there may be cognitive differences between the groups in processing visuo-spatial information. PMID:14991431

  9. Altered Brain Structure-Function Relationships Underlie Executive Dysfunction in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Rachel K; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Montojo, Caroline A; Patel, Arati; Kushan, Leila; Chow, Carolyn C; Vesagas, Therese; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-12-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder associated with elevated rates of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders and impaired executive function (EF). Disrupted brain structure-function relationships may underlie EF deficits in 22q11DS. We administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to assess real-world EF in patients with 22q11DS and matched controls (n = 86; age 6-17 years), along with cognitive measures that tap behavioral regulation and metacognition aspects of EF. Using FreeSurfer's whole-brain vertex cortical thickness pipeline, we investigated brain structure-EF relationships in patients with 22q11DS and controls. Behaviorally, patients with 22q11DS were impaired on multiple EF measures. Right orbitofrontal cortical thickness showed a differential relationship between real-world EF in patients with 22q11DS and controls. We also observed a group difference in the relationship between behavioral regulation and metacognition measures with thickness of ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, respectively. Our findings suggest that executive dysfunction characteristic of 22q11DS is underscored by altered prefrontal cortical structure. PMID:27606315

  10. Christmas disease (haemophilia B) in a girl with deletion of the short arm of one X-chromosome (functional Turner syndrome).

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Schmid, W; Straub, P W

    1976-09-01

    A I-year-old girl with severe Christmas disease and a factor IX content less than I% of normal is described. The family history was negative and coagulation studies on her relatives were normal. Genetic investigation showed an XXp-karyotype with deletion of the short arm of one X-chromosome, a cytogenetic variant of Turner syndrome. The transmission pathway of the haemophilia gene is discussed.

  11. A Deletion in FOXN1 Is Associated with a Syndrome Characterized by Congenital Hypotrichosis and Short Life Expectancy in Birman Cats

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  12. A deletion in FOXN1 is associated with a syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy in Birman cats.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  13. Diminished dosage of 22q11 genes disrupts neurogenesis and cortical development in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meechan, Daniel W.; Tucker, Eric S.; Maynard, Thomas M.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The 22q11 deletion (or DiGeorge) syndrome (22q11DS), the result of a 1.5- to 3-megabase hemizygous deletion on human chromosome 22, results in dramatically increased susceptibility for “diseases of cortical connectivity” thought to arise during development, including schizophrenia and autism. We show that diminished dosage of the genes deleted in the 1.5-megabase 22q11 minimal critical deleted region in a mouse model of 22q11DS specifically compromises neurogenesis and subsequent differentiation in the cerebral cortex. Proliferation of basal, but not apical, progenitors is disrupted, and subsequently, the frequency of layer 2/3, but not layer 5/6, projection neurons is altered. This change is paralleled by aberrant distribution of parvalbumin-labeled interneurons in upper and lower cortical layers. Deletion of Tbx1 or Prodh (22q11 genes independently associated with 22q11DS phenotypes) does not similarly disrupt basal progenitors. However, expression analysis implicates additional 22q11 genes that are selectively expressed in cortical precursors. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage disrupts cortical neurogenesis and interneuron migration. Such developmental disruption may alter cortical circuitry and establish vulnerability for developmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. PMID:19805316

  14. Deletions involving genes WHSC1 and LETM1 may be necessary, but are not sufficient to cause Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Erica F; Carey, John C; Earl, Dawn L; Corzo, Deyanira; Suttie, Michael; Hammond, Peter; South, Sarah T

    2014-04-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a complex genetic disorder caused by the loss of genomic material from the short arm of chromosome 4. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies indicated that the loss of genes within 4p16.3 is necessary for expression of the core features of the phenotype. Within this region, haploinsufficiency of the genes WHSC1 and LETM1 is thought to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis of WHS. We present clinical findings for three patients with relatively small (<400 kb) de novo interstitial deletions that overlap WHSC1 and LETM1. 3D facial analysis was performed for two of these patients. Based on our findings, we propose that hemizygosity of WHSC1 and LETM1 is associated with a clinical phenotype characterized by growth deficiency, feeding difficulties, and motor and speech delays. The deletion of additional genes nearby WHSC1 and LETM1 does not result in a marked increase in the severity of clinical features, arguing against their haploinsufficiency. The absence of seizures and typical WHS craniofacial findings in our cohort suggest that deletion of distinct or additional 4p16.3 genes is necessary for expression of these features. Altogether, these results show that although loss-of-function for WHSC1 and/or LETM1 contributes to some of the features of WHS, deletion of additional genes is required for the full expression of the phenotype, providing further support that WHS is a contiguous gene deletion disorder.

  15. Deletions involving genes WHSC1 and LETM1 may be necessary, but are not sufficient to cause Wolf–Hirschhorn Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Erica F; Carey, John C; Earl, Dawn L; Corzo, Deyanira; Suttie, Michael; Hammond, Peter; South, Sarah T

    2014-01-01

    Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a complex genetic disorder caused by the loss of genomic material from the short arm of chromosome 4. Genotype–phenotype correlation studies indicated that the loss of genes within 4p16.3 is necessary for expression of the core features of the phenotype. Within this region, haploinsufficiency of the genes WHSC1 and LETM1 is thought to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis of WHS. We present clinical findings for three patients with relatively small (<400 kb) de novo interstitial deletions that overlap WHSC1 and LETM1. 3D facial analysis was performed for two of these patients. Based on our findings, we propose that hemizygosity of WHSC1 and LETM1 is associated with a clinical phenotype characterized by growth deficiency, feeding difficulties, and motor and speech delays. The deletion of additional genes nearby WHSC1 and LETM1 does not result in a marked increase in the severity of clinical features, arguing against their haploinsufficiency. The absence of seizures and typical WHS craniofacial findings in our cohort suggest that deletion of distinct or additional 4p16.3 genes is necessary for expression of these features. Altogether, these results show that although loss-of-function for WHSC1 and/or LETM1 contributes to some of the features of WHS, deletion of additional genes is required for the full expression of the phenotype, providing further support that WHS is a contiguous gene deletion disorder. PMID:23963300

  16. Gastrointestinal involvement in patients affected with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Giuliana; Cirillo, Emilia; Maio, Filomena; Gallo, Vera; Esposito, Tiziana; Naddei, Roberta; Grasso, Fiorentino; Pignata, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Enteropathy is a very common feature in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. In patients with Del22 gastrointestinal (GI) alterations, including feeding disorders and congenital abnormalities have been often reported, mostly in the first year of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Aim of this monocentric study is to better define the GI involvement in a cohort of 26 patients affected with Del22 syndrome. Anamnestic information was retrospectively collected for each patient. Weight and height parameters at the time of the screening were recorded. Plasma levels of hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, albumin, total protein, calcium, phosphorus, transaminase levels, antigliadin (AGA) IgA and IgG, and antitissue transglutaminase (anti-TGase) titers were measured. RESULTS. A GI involvement was identified in the 58% of patients. The prominent problems were abdominal pain, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux and chronic constipation. Weight deficiency, short stature and failure to thrive were reported in 54, 42, and 30% of the patients, respectively. The evidence of sideropenic anemia, in keeping with hypoproteinemia, impaired acid steatocrit or cellobiose/mannitol test suggested an abnormal intestinal permeability. In this cohort, a high prevalence of AGA IgA and IgG positivity was observed. Celiac disease (CD) was suspected in three patients, and in one of them confirmed by histology. In this patient, a long-lasting gluten-free diet failed to restore the intestinal architecture. CONCLUSIONS. In conclusion, GI involvement is a very common feature in Del22 patients. A better characterization of GI involvement would be very useful to improve the management of these patients.

  17. Effect of lenalidomide treatment on clonal architecture of myelodysplastic syndromes without 5q deletion.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Virginie; Renneville, Aline; Toma, Andrea; Lambert, Jérôme; Passet, Marie; Dumont, Florent; Chevret, Sylvie; Lejeune, Julie; Raimbault, Anna; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Rose, Christian; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Delaunay, Jacques; Solary, Eric; Fenaux, Pierre; Dreyfus, François; Preudhomme, Claude; Kosmider, Olivier; Fontenay, Michaela

    2016-02-11

    Non-del(5q) transfusion-dependent low/intermediate-1 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients achieve an erythroid response with lenalidomide in 25% of cases. Addition of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent could improve response rate. The impact of recurrent somatic mutations identified in the diseased clone in response to lenalidomide and the drug's effects on clonal evolution remain unknown. We investigated recurrent mutations by next-generation sequencing in 94 non-del(5q) MDS patients randomized in the GFM-Len-Epo-08 clinical trial to lenalidomide or lenalidomide plus epoetin β. Clonal evolution was analyzed after 4 cycles of treatment in 42 cases and reanalyzed at later time points in 18 cases. The fate of clonal architecture of single CD34(+)CD38(-) hematopoietic stem cells was also determined in 5 cases. Mutation frequency was >10%: SF3B1 (74.5%), TET2 (45.7%), DNMT3A (20.2%), and ASXL1 (19.1%). Analysis of variant allele frequencies indicated a decrease of major mutations in 15 of 20 responders compared with 10 of 22 nonresponders after 4 cycles. The decrease in the variant allele frequency of major mutations was more significant in responders than in nonresponders (P < .001). Genotyping of single CD34(+)CD38(-) cell-derived colonies showed that the decrease in the size of dominant subclones could be associated with the rise of founding clones or of hematopoietic stem cells devoid of recurrent mutations. These effects remained transient, and disease escape was associated with the re-emergence of the dominant subclones. In conclusion, we show that, although the drug initially modulates the distribution of subclones, loss of treatment efficacy coincides with the re-expansion of the dominant subclone. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01718379.

  18. Effect of lenalidomide treatment on clonal architecture of myelodysplastic syndromes without 5q deletion

    PubMed Central

    Chesnais, Virginie; Renneville, Aline; Toma, Andrea; Lambert, Jérôme; Passet, Marie; Dumont, Florent; Chevret, Sylvie; Lejeune, Julie; Raimbault, Anna; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Rose, Christian; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Delaunay, Jacques; Solary, Eric; Fenaux, Pierre; Dreyfus, François; Preudhomme, Claude; Kosmider, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Non-del(5q) transfusion-dependent low/intermediate-1 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients achieve an erythroid response with lenalidomide in 25% of cases. Addition of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent could improve response rate. The impact of recurrent somatic mutations identified in the diseased clone in response to lenalidomide and the drug’s effects on clonal evolution remain unknown. We investigated recurrent mutations by next-generation sequencing in 94 non-del(5q) MDS patients randomized in the GFM-Len-Epo-08 clinical trial to lenalidomide or lenalidomide plus epoetin β. Clonal evolution was analyzed after 4 cycles of treatment in 42 cases and reanalyzed at later time points in 18 cases. The fate of clonal architecture of single CD34+CD38− hematopoietic stem cells was also determined in 5 cases. Mutation frequency was >10%: SF3B1 (74.5%), TET2 (45.7%), DNMT3A (20.2%), and ASXL1 (19.1%). Analysis of variant allele frequencies indicated a decrease of major mutations in 15 of 20 responders compared with 10 of 22 nonresponders after 4 cycles. The decrease in the variant allele frequency of major mutations was more significant in responders than in nonresponders (P < .001). Genotyping of single CD34+CD38− cell–derived colonies showed that the decrease in the size of dominant subclones could be associated with the rise of founding clones or of hematopoietic stem cells devoid of recurrent mutations. These effects remained transient, and disease escape was associated with the re-emergence of the dominant subclones. In conclusion, we show that, although the drug initially modulates the distribution of subclones, loss of treatment efficacy coincides with the re-expansion of the dominant subclone. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01718379. PMID:26626993

  19. Clinical experience with single‐nucleotide polymorphism‐based non‐invasive prenatal screening for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gross, S. J.; Stosic, M.; McDonald‐McGinn, D. M.; Bassett, A. S.; Norvez, A.; Dhamankar, R.; Kobara, K.; Kirkizlar, E.; Zimmermann, B.; Wayham, N.; Babiarz, J. E.; Ryan, A.; Jinnett, K. N.; Demko, Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the performance of a single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)‐based non‐invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for the detection of fetal 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in clinical practice, assess clinical follow‐up and review patient choices for women with high‐risk results. Methods In this study, 21 948 samples were submitted for screening for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome using a SNP‐based NIPT and subsequently evaluated. Follow‐up was conducted for all cases with a high‐risk result. Results Ninety‐five cases were reported as high risk for fetal 22q11.2 deletion. Diagnostic testing results were available for 61 (64.2%) cases, which confirmed 11 (18.0%) true positives and identified 50 (82.0%) false positives, resulting in a positive predictive value (PPV) of 18.0%. Information regarding invasive testing was available for 84 (88.4%) high‐risk cases: 57.1% (48/84) had invasive testing and 42.9% (36/84) did not. Ultrasound anomalies were present in 81.8% of true‐positive and 18.0% of false‐positive cases. Two additional cases were high risk for a maternal 22q11.2 deletion; one was confirmed by diagnostic testing and one had a positive family history. There were three pregnancy terminations related to screening results of 22q11.2 deletion, two of which were confirmed as true positive by invasive testing. Conclusions Clinical experience with this SNP‐based non‐invasive screening test for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome indicates that these deletions have a frequency of approximately 1 in 1000 in the referral population with most identifiable through this test. Use of this screening method requires the availability of counseling and other management resources for high‐risk pregnancies. © 2015 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:26396068

  20. A child with an inherited 0.31 Mb microdeletion of chromosome 14q32.33: further delineation of a critical region for the 14q32 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holder, J Lloyd; Lotze, Timothy E; Bacino, Carlos; Cheung, Sau-Wai

    2012-08-01

    Chromosome 14q32.3 deletions are uncommon, with most described patients harboring a ring chromosome 14. Only 15 deletions have been described not associated with ring formation or other complex chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we describe a child with the smallest deletion of chromosome 14q32.3 reported in the literature. This child's deletion encompasses at most 0.305 Mb and six genes including NUDT14, BRF1, BTBD6, PACS2, MTA1, and TEX22. He has similar clinical findings, including mild facial dysmorphisms and intellectual disability, as other individuals with much larger deletions of the terminus of the long arm of chromosome 14. This suggests that the genes deleted in our patient contribute to the 14q32 deletion syndrome.

  1. Submicroscopic deletions of 11q24-25 in individuals without Jacobsen syndrome: re-examination of the critical region by high-resolution array-CGH

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Christine; Qiao, Ying; Harvard, Chansonette; Liu, Xudong; Bernier, Francois P; McGillivray, Barbara; Farrell, Sandra A; Arbour, Laura; Chudley, Albert E; Clarke, Lorne; Gibson, William; Dyack, Sarah; McLeod, Ross; Costa, Teresa; VanAllen, Margot I; Yong, Siu-li; Graham, Gail E; MacLeod, Patrick; Patel, Millan S; Hurlburt, Jane; Holden, Jeanette JA; Lewis, Suzanne ME; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica

    2008-01-01

    Background Jacobsen syndrome is a rare contiguous gene disorder that results from a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. It is typically characterized by intellectual disability, a variety of physical anomalies and a distinctive facial appearance. The 11q deletion has traditionally been identified by routine chromosome analysis. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) has offered new opportunities to identify and refine chromosomal abnormalities in regions known to be associated with clinical syndromes. Results Using the 1 Mb BAC array (Spectral Genomics), we screened 70 chromosomally normal children with idiopathic intellectual disability (ID) and congenital abnormalities, and identified five cases with submicroscopic abnormalities believed to contribute to their phenotypes. Here, we provide detailed molecular cytogenetic descriptions and clinical presentation of two unrelated subjects with de novo submicroscopic deletions within chromosome bands 11q24-25. In subject 1 the chromosome rearrangement consisted of a 6.18 Mb deletion (from 128.25–134.43 Mb) and an adjacent 5.04 Mb duplication (from 123.15–128.19 Mb), while in subject 2, a 4.74 Mb interstitial deletion was found (from 124.29–129.03 Mb). Higher resolution array analysis (385 K Nimblegen) was used to refine all breakpoints. Deletions of the 11q24-25 region are known to be associated with Jacobsen syndrome (JBS: OMIM 147791). However, neither of the subjects had the typical features of JBS (trigonocephaly, platelet disorder, heart abnormalities). Both subjects had ID, dysmorphic features and additional phenotypic abnormalities: subject 1 had a kidney abnormality, bilateral preauricular pits, pectus excavatum, mild to moderate conductive hearing loss and behavioral concerns; subject 2 had macrocephaly, an abnormal MRI with delayed myelination, fifth finger shortening and squaring of all fingertips, and sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusion Two individuals with ID who

  2. Ranbp1, Deleted in DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, is a Microcephaly Gene That Selectively Disrupts Layer 2/3 Cortical Projection Neuron Generation

    PubMed Central

    Paronett, Elizabeth M.; Meechan, Daniel W.; Karpinski, Beverly A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Maynard, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Ranbp1, a Ran GTPase-binding protein implicated in nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking, is included within the DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS) critical region associated with behavioral impairments including autism and schizophrenia. Ranbp1 is highly expressed in the developing forebrain ventricular/subventricular zone but has no known obligate function during brain development. We assessed the role of Ranbp1 in a targeted mouse mutant. Ranbp1−/− mice are not recovered live at birth, and over 60% of Ranbp1−/− embryos are exencephalic. Non-exencephalic Ranbp1−/− embryos are microcephalic, and proliferation of cortical progenitors is altered. At E10.5, radial progenitors divide more slowly in the Ranpb1−/− dorsal pallium. At E14.5, basal, but not apical/radial glial progenitors, are compromised in the cortex. In both E10.5 apical and E14.5 basal progenitors, M phase of the cell cycle appears selectively retarded by loss of Ranpb1 function. Ranbp1−/−-dependent proliferative deficits substantially diminish the frequency of layer 2/3, but not layer 5/6 cortical projection neurons. Ranbp1−/− cortical phenotypes parallel less severe alterations in LgDel mice that carry a deletion parallel to many (but not all) 22q11.2 DS patients. Thus, Ranbp1 emerges as a microcephaly gene within the 22q11.2 deleted region that may contribute to altered cortical precursor proliferation and neurogenesis associated with broader 22q11.2 deletion. PMID:25452572

  3. Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karpinski, Beverly A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fralish, Matthew S.; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E.; Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia – debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward – within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327

  4. Whole-Genome SNP Association in the Horse: Identification of a Deletion in Myosin Va Responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Samantha A.; Gabreski, Nicole; Miller, Donald; Brisbin, Abra; Brown, Helen E.; Streeter, Cassandra; Mezey, Jason; Cook, Deborah; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR–based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals. PMID:20419149

  5. An affected core drives network integration deficits of the structural connectome in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Váša, František; Griffa, Alessandra; Scariati, Elisa; Schaer, Marie; Urben, Sébastien; Eliez, Stephan; Hagmann, Patric

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disease known to lead to cerebral structural alterations, which we study using the framework of the macroscopic white-matter connectome. We create weighted connectomes of 44 patients with 22q11DS and 44 healthy controls using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and perform a weighted graph theoretical analysis. After confirming global network integration deficits in 22q11DS (previously identified using binary connectomes), we identify the spatial distribution of regions responsible for global deficits. Next, we further characterize the dysconnectivity of the deficient regions in terms of sub-network properties, and investigate their relevance with respect to clinical profiles. We define the subset of regions with decreased nodal integration (evaluated using the closeness centrality measure) as the affected core (A-core) of the 22q11DS structural connectome. A-core regions are broadly bilaterally symmetric and consist of numerous network hubs — chiefly parietal and frontal cortical, as well as subcortical regions. Using a simulated lesion approach, we demonstrate that these core regions and their connections are particularly important to efficient network communication. Moreover, these regions are generally densely connected, but less so in 22q11DS. These specific disturbances are associated to a rerouting of shortest network paths that circumvent the A-core in 22q11DS, “de-centralizing” the network. Finally, the efficiency and mean connectivity strength of an orbito-frontal/cingulate circuit, included in the affected regions, correlate negatively with the extent of negative symptoms in 22q11DS patients, revealing the clinical relevance of present findings. The identified A-core overlaps numerous regions previously identified as affected in 22q11DS as well as in schizophrenia, which approximately 30–40% of 22q11DS patients develop. PMID:26870660

  6. Chromosome breakage in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome deletions may involve recombination between a repeat at the proximal and distal breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Amos-Landgraf J.; Nicholls, R.D.; Gottlieb, W.

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi (PWS) and Angelman (AS) syndromes most commonly arise from large deletions of 15q11-q13. Deletions in PWS are paternal in origin, while those in AS are maternal in origin, clearly demonstrating genomic imprinting in these clinically distinct neurobehavioural disorders. In at least 90% of PWS and AS deletion patients, the same 4 Mb region within 15q11-q13 is deleted with breakpoints clustering in single YAC clones at the proximal and distal ends. To study the mechanism of chromosome breakage in PWS and AS, we have previously isolated 25 independent clones from these three YACs using Alu-vector PCR. Four clones were selected that appear to detect a low copy repeat that is located in the proximal and distal breakpoint regions of chromosome 15q11-q13. Three clones detect the same 4 HindIII bands in genomic DNA, all from 15q11-q13, with differing intensities for the probes located at the proximal or distal breakpoints region, respectively. This suggests that these probes detect related members of a low-copy repeat at either location. Moreover, the 254RL2 probe detects a novel HindIII band in two unrelated PWS deletion patients, suggesting that this may represent a breakpoint fragment, with recombination occurring within a similar interval in both patients. A fourth clone, 318RL3 detects 5 bands in HindIII-digested genomic DNA, all from 15q11-q13. This YAC endclone itself is not deleted in PWS and AS deletion patients, as seen by an invariant strong band. Two other strong bands are variably intact or deleted in different PWS or AS deletion patients, suggesting a relationship of this sequence to the breakpoints. Moreover, PCR using 318RL3 primers from the distal 93C9 YAC led to the isolation of a related clone with 96% identity, demonstrating the existence of a low-copy repeat with members close to the proximal and distal breakpoints. Taken together, our data suggest a complex, low-copy repeat with members at both the proximal and distal boundaries.

  7. NF1 Microdeletion Syndrome: Refined FISH Characterization of Sporadic and Familial Deletions with Locus-Specific Probes

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Paola; Corrado, Lucia; Natacci, Federica; Castorina, Pierangela; Wu, Bai-Li; Schneider, Gretchen H.; Clementi, Maurizio; Tenconi, Romano; Korf, Bruce R.; Larizza, Lidia

    2000-01-01

    Summary Two familial and seven sporadic patients with neurofibromatosis 1—who showed dysmorphism, learning disabilities/mental retardation, and additional signs and carried deletions of the NF1 gene—were investigated by use of a two-step FISH approach to characterize the deletions. With FISH of YAC clones belonging to a 7-Mb 17q11.2 contig, we estimated the extension of all of the deletions and identified the genomic regions harboring the breakpoints. Mosaicism accounted for the mild phenotype in two patients. In subsequent FISH experiments, performed with locus-specific probes generated from the same YACs by means of a novel procedure, we identified the smallest region of overlapping (SRO), mapped the deletion breakpoints, and identified the genes that map to each deletion interval. From centromere to telomere, the ∼0.8-Mb SRO includes sequence-tagged site 64381, the SUPT6H gene (encoding a transcription factor involved in chromatin structure), and NF1. Extending telomerically from the SRO, two additional genes—BLMH, encoding a hydrolase involved in bleomycin resistance, and ACCN1, encoding an amiloride-sensitive cation channel expressed in the CNS—were located in the deleted intervals of seven and three patients, respectively. An apparently common centromeric deletion breakpoint was shared by all of the patients, whereas a different telomeric breakpoint defined a deletion interval of 0.8–3 Mb. There was no apparent correlation between the extent of the deletion and the phenotype. This characterization of gross NF1 deletions provides the premise for addressing correctly any genotype-phenotype correlation in the subset of patients with NF1 deletions. PMID:10631140

  8. A large-scale survey of the novel 15q24 microdeletion syndrome in autism spectrum disorders identifies an atypical deletion that narrows the critical region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The 15q24 microdeletion syndrome has been recently described as a recurrent, submicroscopic genomic imbalance found in individuals with intellectual disability, typical facial appearance, hypotonia, and digital and genital abnormalities. Gene dosage abnormalities, including copy number variations (CNVs), have been identified in a significant fraction of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In this study we surveyed two ASD cohorts for 15q24 abnormalities to assess the frequency of genomic imbalances in this interval. Methods We screened 173 unrelated subjects with ASD from the Central Valley of Costa Rica and 1336 subjects with ASD from 785 independent families registered with the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) for CNVs across 15q24 using oligonucleotide arrays. Rearrangements were confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative PCR. Results Among the patients from Costa Rica, an atypical de novo deletion of 3.06 Mb in 15q23-q24.1 was detected in a boy with autism sharing many features with the other 13 subjects with the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome described to date. He exhibited intellectual disability, constant smiling, characteristic facial features (high anterior hairline, broad medial eyebrows, epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, full lower lip and protuberant, posteriorly rotated ears), single palmar crease, toe syndactyly and congenital nystagmus. The deletion breakpoints are atypical and lie outside previously characterized low copy repeats (69,838-72,897 Mb). Genotyping data revealed that the deletion had occurred in the paternal chromosome. Among the AGRE families, no large 15q24 deletions were observed. Conclusions From the current and previous studies, deletions in the 15q24 region represent rare causes of ASDs with an estimated frequency of 0.1 to 0.2% in individuals ascertained for ASDs, although the proportion might be higher in sporadic cases. These rates compare with a frequency of about 0.3% in

  9. Deletions of Yq11 associated with short stature and the Turner syndrome. Tentative mapping of a region associated with specific Turner stigmata to proximal interval 5.

    SciTech Connect

    McElreavey, K.; Barbaux, S.; Vilain, E.

    1994-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a complex human phenotype, commonly associated with a 45,X karyotype. Mapping the Turner phenotype is difficult since hidden mosaicisms, partial monosomy and complex rearrangements are present in many affected individuals. In addition, attempts to map the genes involved to the X chromosome have failed to yield a consistent localisation. An alternative approach to map and identify Turner genes is to study XY individuals, with sex chromosome abnormalities, who present with or without characteristic Turner stigmata. We report the analysis of 4 individuals with terminal deletions of Yq. The individuals were azoospermic males without phenotypic abnormalities (2 cases) and azoospermic males presenting with a specific subset of Turner stigmata (2 cases). Breakpoints in each of the cytogenetically detectable Yq deletions were mapped by Southern analysis and Y chromosome-specific sequence tagged sites (STS). Correlation between the patients phenotypes and the extent of their deletion indicate a critical region associated with specific Turner stigmata (cubitus valgus, shield chest, short fourth metacarpals) and growth retardation at Yq at proximal interval 5. These data provide evidence that the somatic features of the Turner syndrome are most likely caused by haploinsufficiency of genes at several loci.

  10. A Rare Recurrent 4q25 Proximal Deletion Not Involving the PITX2 Gene: A Genomic Disorder Distinct from Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heithaus, Jennifer L; Twyman, Kimberly A; Batanian, Jacqueline R

    2016-07-01

    Haploinsufficient microdeletions within chromosome 4q25 are often associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. A de novo 4q25 deletion, 675 kb proximal to PITX2, has previously been reported once in an adult patient. The patient did not have Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, but instead had intellectual disability and a complex behavioral phenotype with withdrawn, stereotypic, and ritualistic behavior. Array comparative genome hybridization demonstrated a smaller, overlapping 4q25 deletion in a 2-year-old patient and his mother, both having significant phenotypic overlap with the initially reported patient. All 3 patients have distinct facial features (including mild hypotelorism and subtle mandibular asymmetry), developmental delay, and complex behavioral difficulties. A genotype-phenotype correlation narrows the shared phenotype to a common COL25A1 gene aberration and proposes that the concurrent EGF gene loss has a significant impact on the phenotypic severity. Overall, our patients provide data to support the existence of a novel 4q25 proximal deletion syndrome. PMID:27587989

  11. Review of Disrupted Sleep Patterns in Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Normal Melatonin Secretion in a Patient with an Atypical Interstitial 17p11.2 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Eilis A.; Johnson, Kyle P.; Jackman, Angela R.; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, MaryPat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Lewy, Alfred J.; Smith, Ann C. M.; Magenis, R. Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body’s signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hour melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US & France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion (∼6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.1p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184

  12. Isolation of a transcription factor expressed in neural crest from the region of 22q11 deleted in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wadey, R.; Roberts, C.; Daw, S.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions within chromosome 22q11 cause a wide variety of birth defects including DiGeorge syndrome and Shprintzen syndrome. We have defined a commonly deleted region of over 2 Mb, and a critical region of 300 kb. A gene, TUPLE1, has been isolated from this critical region encoding a transcriptional regulator similar to the yeast HIR1 histone regulator gene. Since it has been suggested that DGS results from a defective neural crest, the expression of Tuple1 was examined in whole mouse and chick embryos, tissue sections and neural tube explants: Tuple1 is expressed in a dynamic pattern with high levels in regions containing migrating crest. Prior to crest migration Tuple1 is expressed in a rhombomere-specific expression pattern. Later Tuple1 is expressed in discrete domains within the developing neural tube. A remarkable feature of the experiments was the detection of a similar dynamic pattern with sense probe; i.e., there is an antisense Tuple1 transcript. This was confirmed using RPA. Tuple1 is being screened for mutations in non-deletion patients and constructs assembled for homologous recombination in ES cells. Tuple1 maps to MMU16 extending the homology of linkage with human chromosome 22. From these data we predict that the human homologue of the murine scid mutation maps to 22q11.

  13. Identification of Nine New RAI1-Truncating Mutations in Smith-Magenis Syndrome Patients without 17p11.2 Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Dubourg, C.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Toutain, A.; Mignot, C.; Jacquette, A.; Dieux, A.; Gérard, M.; Beaumont-Epinette, M.-P.; Julia, S.; Isidor, B.; Rossi, M.; Odent, S.; Bendavid, C.; Barthélémy, C.; Verloes, A.; David, V.

    2014-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is an intellectual disability syndrome with sleep disturbance, self-injurious behaviors and dysmorphic features. It is estimated to occur in 1/25,000 births, and in 90% of cases it is associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1; OMIM 607642) mutations are the second most frequent molecular etiology, with this gene being located in the SMS locus at 17p11.2. Here, we report 9 new RAI1-truncating mutations in nonrelated individuals referred for molecular analysis due to a possible SMS diagnosis. None of these patients carried a 17p11.2 deletion. The 9 mutations include 2 nonsense mutations and 7 heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation. All mutations map in exon 3 of RAI1 which codes for more than 98% of the protein. RAI1 regulates gene transcription, and its targets are themselves involved in transcriptional regulation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucide metabolisms, neurological development, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. We report the clinical features of the patients carrying these deleterious mutations in comparison with those of patients carrying 17p11.2 deletions. PMID:24715852

  14. Identification of multiple complex rearrangements associated with deletions in the 6q23-27 region in Sézary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iżykowska, Katarzyna; Zawada, Mariola; Nowicka, Karina; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Braun, Floriane C M; Delin, Martin; Möbs, Markus; Beyer, Marc; Sterry, Wolfram; Schmidt, Christian A; Przybylski, Grzegorz K

    2013-11-01

    The 6q23-27 region, recurrently deleted in Sézary syndrome (SS), was characterized at the molecular level in 13 SS patients and SS cell line SeAx. Using fine-tiling comparative genomic hybridization, deletions within the 6q23-27 region were detected in half of the samples (six patients and SeAx). All samples with deletions were further analyzed by ligation-mediated PCR. In addition, in one patient sample and in SeAx, paired-end next-generation sequencing was performed on the HiSeq2000 Illumina platform. Using those techniques, 23 rearrangements associated with the deletions were identified. The majority of rearrangements showed enormous complexity and diversity, including eight inversions, three transpositions, and four translocations (with chromosomes 3, 17, 10, and 12). Fifteen genes were disrupted by those rearrangements, the MYB proto-oncogene three times and the interleukin-22 receptor subunit alpha-2 gene (IL22RA2) twice. All three patients with MYB alterations showed low MYB expression, whereas seven of the remaining patients showed overexpression. Most patients overexpressing MYB also presented increased expression of MYC, HSPA8, and BCL2. Five gene fusions were identified, of which two, CCDC28A-IL22RA2 and AIG1-GOSR1, both in SeAx, were in the same orientation and were expressed at the messenger RNA level.

  15. Molecular dissection of a contiguous gene syndrome: Frequent submicroscopic deletions, evolutionarily conserved sequences, and a hypomethylated island in the Miller-Dieker chromosome region

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, D.H.; Ledbetter, S.A.; vanTuinen, P.; Summers, K.M.; Robinson, T.J.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Wolff, R.; White, R.; Barker, D.F.; Wallace, M.R.; Collins, F.S.; Dobyns, W.B. )

    1989-07-01

    The Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), composed of characteristic facial abnormalities and a severe neuronal migration disorder affecting the cerebral cortex, is caused by visible or submicroscopic deletions of chromosome band 17p13. Twelve anonymous DNA markers were tested against a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing 17p deletions from seven MDS patients. All patients, including three with normal karyotypes, are deleted for a variable set of 5-12 markers. Two highly polymorphic VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) probes, YNZ22 and YNH37, are codeleted in all patients tested and make molecular diagnosis for this disorder feasible. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, YNZ22 and YNH37 were shown to be within 30 kilobases (kb) of each other. Cosmid clones containing both VNTR sequences were identified, and restriction mapping showed them to be <15 kb apart. Three overlapping cosmids spanning >100 kb were completely deleted in all patients, providing a minimum estimate of the size of the MDS critical region. A hypomethylated island and evolutionarily conserved sequences were identified within this 100-kb region, indications of the presence of one or more expressed sequences potentially involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. The conserved sequences were mapped to mouse chromosome 11 by using mouse-rat somatic cell hybrids, extending the remarkable homology between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11 by 30 centimorgans, into the 17p telomere region.

  16. Two families with isolated cat cry without the cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype have an inherited 5p15.3 deletion: Delineation of the larynx malformation region

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Overhauser, J.; Pasztor, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth that is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on two families in which the patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry with normal to mildly delayed development. One family has three children with varying levels of developmental delay and a deletion of 5p15.3 that was inherited from the father. The second family has a mother and daughter both presenting with a cat-like cry and normal intelligence. A de novo deletion in a patient with isolated cat cry and mild developmental delay was also identified. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization using lambda phage, cosmids, and YAC clones. Cryptic translocations and mosaicism were not detected in the parents transmitting the deletion. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to the previously defined cri-du-chat critical region. A YAC contig has been constructed for the chromosomal region implicated in the larynx malformation. DNA clones mapping in this region will be useful diagnostic tools for delineating 5p deletions that result in the typical features of cri-du-chat syndrome with deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature which is associated with a better prognosis.

  17. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A.; Morris, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  18. Genomic analysis and pathogenic characteristics of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 deletion strains isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Lee, Yoo Jin; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Chul; Yoon, In-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Shien-Young; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Changhee

    2014-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine virus that exhibits genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity among isolates. The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two Korean type 2 PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion mutants, CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4. The full-length genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 were determined to be 15,018 and 15,019 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, respectively, which were 393- or 392-nucleotide shorter than that of the type 2 NA prototype strain VR-2332 due to the presence of notable large deletions within the nsp2 gene. The genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 consisted of a 189- or 190-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 14,677-nucleotide protein-coding region, and a 151-nucleotide 3' UTR. Whole genome evaluation revealed that the nucleotide sequences of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 are most similar to each other (10.7% sequence divergence), and then to the Korean strain CA-1 (11.3% sequence divergence) and the US strain MN184C (13.1% sequence divergence), respectively. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of nsp2 deletion variants, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM-pCD163 cells infected with each virus strain using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine genes including IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and RANTES were found to be significantly elevated in nsp2 deletion virus-infected PAM cells. In contrast, expression of interferons (IFN-β, γ, and λ) and antiviral genes including ISG-15, -54, and -56 were unchanged or down-regulated in PAM cells infected with the nsp2 deletion mutants. Animal studies to assess the pathogenicity of nsp2 deletion PRRSVs demonstrated that both CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 strains notably produce weight loss in infected pigs. Furthermore, the nsp2 deletion mutants replicated well in pigs with significantly increased and prolonged

  19. Deletion of the entire POU4F3 gene in a familial case of autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Érika L; Oiticica, Jeanne; Silva, Amanda G; Bittar, Roseli S M; Rosenberg, Carla; Mingroni-Netto, Regina C

    2014-03-01

    In 20% of cases, hereditary non-syndromic hearing loss has an autosomal dominant inheritance (ADNSHL). To date, more than 50 loci for ADNSHL have been mapped to different chromosomal regions. In order to verify whether genomic alterations contribute to the hearing loss etiology and to search for novel deafness candidate loci, we investigated probands from families with ADNSHL by oligonucleotide array-CGH. A deletion in the 5q32 region encompassing only one gene, POU4F3, which corresponds to DFNA15, was detected in one family. POU4F3 protein has an important role in the maturation, differentiation and survival of cochlear hair cells. Defects in these cells may therefore explain sensorineural hearing loss. Mutations in this gene have already been associated with autosomal dominant hearing loss but this is the first description of a germline POUF4F3 deletion associated with hearing impairment.

  20. Deletion of the steroid-binding domain of the human androgen receptor gene in one family with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: Evidence for further genetic heterogeneity in this syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.R.; Lubahn, D.B.; Wilson, E.M.; Joseph, D.R.; French, F.S.; Migeon, C.J. )

    1988-11-01

    The cloning of a cDNA for the human androgen receptor gene has resulted in the availability for cDNA probes that span various parts of the gene, including the entire steroid-binding domain and part of the DNA-binding domain, as well as part of the 5' region of the gene. The radiolabeled probes were used to screen for androgen receptor mutations on Southern blots prepared by restriction endonuclease digestion of genomic DNA from human subjects with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). In this investigation, the authors considered only patients presenting complete AIS and with the androgen receptor (-) form as the most probably subjects to show a gene deletion. One subject from each of six unrelated families with the receptor (-) form of complete AIS and 10 normal subjects were studied. In the 10 normal subjects and in 5 of the 6 patients, identical DNA restriction fragment patterns were observed with EcoRI and BamHI. Analysis of other members of this family confirmed the apparent gene deletion. The data provide direct proof that complete AIS in some families can result from a deletion of the androgen receptor structural gene. However, other families do not demonstrate such a deletion, suggesting that point mutations may also result in the receptor (-) form of complete AIS, adding further to the genetic heterogeneity of this syndrome.

  1. Clinical features and molecular analysis of the α thalassemia/mental retardation syndromes. 1. Cases due to deletions involving chromosome band 16p13.3

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, A. O. M.; Buckle, V. J.; Harris, P. C.; Lamb, J.; Barton, N. J.; Reeders, S. T.; Lindenbaum, R. H.; Nicholls, R. D.; Barrow, M.; Bethlenfalvay, N. C.; Hutz, M. H.; Tolmie, J. L.; Weatherall, D. J.; Higgs, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    We describe eight patients who have α thalassemia which cannot be accounted for by the Mendelian inheritance of abnormal α globin genes. Apart from the hematologic abnormality, the other universal clinical finding is mild to moderate mental handicap; there is also a broad spectrum of associated dysmorphic features. Initial analysis of the α globin gene complex (which maps to chromosome band 16p13.3), demonstrated that the α thalassemia results from failure of the patient to inherit an α globin allele from one of the parents. Using a combined molecular and cytogenetic approach, we have extended this analysis to show that all of these patients have 16p deletions which are variable in extent but limited to the terminal band 16p13.3; in at least four cases the deletion results from unbalanced chromosome translocation, and hence aneuploidy of a second chromosome is also present. The relatively nonspecific clinical phenotype contrasts with the other currently known microdeletion syndromes; this may reflect ascertainment bias in the recognition of such syndromes. This work represents the first step in the characterization of a new microdeletion syndrome that is probably underdiagnosed at present. Imagesp[1116]-aFigure 1Figure 3Figure 5 PMID:2339704

  2. Differential splicing of human androgen receptor pre-mRNA in X-linked reifenstein syndrome, because of a deletion involving a putative branch site

    SciTech Connect

    Ris-Stalpers, C.; Verleun-Mooijman, M.C.T.; Blaeij, T.J.P. de; Brinkmann, A.O.; Degenhart, H.J.; Trapman, J. )

    1994-04-01

    The analysis of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, mRNA, and protein in a subject with X-linked Reifenstein syndrome (partial androgen insensitivity) is reported. The presence of two mature AR transcripts in genital skin fibroblasts of the patient is established, and, by reverse transcriptase-PCR and RNase transcription analysis, the wild-type transcript and a transcript in which exon 3 sequences are absent without disruption of the translational reading frame are identified. Sequencing and hybridization analysis show a deletion of >6 kb in intron 2 of the human AR gene, starting 18 bp upstream of exon 3. The deletion includes the putative branch-point sequence (BPS) but not the acceptor splice site on the intron 2/exon 3 boundary. The deletion of the putative intron 2 BPS results in 90% inhibition of wild-type splicing. The mutant transcript encodes an AR protein lacking the second zinc finger of the DNA-binding domain. Western/immunoblotting analysis is used to show that the mutant AR protein is expressed in genital skin fibroblasts of the patient. The residual 10% wild-type transcript can be the result of the use of a cryptic BPS located 63 bp upstream of the intron 2/exon 3 boundary of the mutant AR gene. The mutated AR protein has no transcription-activating potential and does not influence the transactivating properties of the wild-type AR, as tested in cotransfection studies. It is concluded that the partial androgen-insensitivity syndrome of this patient is the consequence of the limited amount of wild-type AR protein expressed in androgen target cells, resulting from the deletion of the intron 2 putative BPS. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A 3.7 Mb Deletion Encompassing ZEB2 Causes a Novel Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome in the Progeny of a Somatic Mosaic Bull

    PubMed Central

    Capitan, Aurélien; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pinton, Alain; Marquant-Le Guienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Grohs, Cécile; Bouet, Stéphan; Clément, Laëtitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Weiss, Bernard; Delpeuch, Arnaud; Noé, Guy; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Barasc, Harmonie; Auguste, Aurélie; Pannetier, Maëlle; Deloche, Marie-Christine; Lhuilier, Emeline; Bouchez, Olivier; Esquerré, Diane; Salin, Gérald; Klopp, Christophe; Donnadieu, Cécile; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Hayes, Hélène; Gallard, Yves; Ponsart, Claire; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome (PMS) is a novel developmental disorder occurring in the progeny of a single bull. Its clinical spectrum includes polledness (complete agenesis of horns), facial dysmorphism, growth delay, chronic diarrhea, premature ovarian failure, and variable neurological and cardiac anomalies. PMS is also characterized by a deviation of the sex-ratio, suggesting male lethality during pregnancy. Using Mendelian error mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 3.7 Mb deletion on the paternal bovine chromosome 2 encompassing ARHGAP15, GTDC1 and ZEB2 genes. We then produced control and affected 90-day old fetuses to characterize this syndrome by histological and expression analyses. Compared to wild type individuals, affected animals showed a decreased expression of the three deleted genes. Based on a comparison with human Mowat-Wilson syndrome, we suggest that deletion of ZEB2, is responsible for most of the effects of the mutation. Finally sperm-FISH, embryo genotyping and analysis of reproduction records confirmed somatic mosaicism in the founder bull and male-specific lethality during the first third of gestation. In conclusion, we identified a novel locus involved in bovid horn ontogenesis and suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition plays a critical role in horn bud differentiation. We also provide new insights into the pathogenicity of ZEB2 loss of heterozygosity in bovine and humans and describe the first case of male-specific lethality associated with an autosomal locus in a non-murine mammalian species. This result sets PMS as a unique model to study sex-specific gene expression/regulation. PMID:23152852

  4. Self-Reported Speech Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, Jacob AS; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2014-01-01

    Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years. PMID:25276637

  5. The 30-Amino-Acid Deletion in the Nsp2 of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Emerging in China Is Not Related to Its Virulence▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jialong; Zeng, Jingwen; Yin, Shuoyan; Li, Yanhua; Zheng, Linying; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun

    2009-01-01

    During the past 2 years, an atypical clinical outbreak, caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with a unique 30-amino-acid deletion in its Nsp2-coding region, was pandemic in China. In this study, we generated four full-length infectious cDNA clones: a clone of the highly virulent PRRSV strain JXwn06 (pWSK-JXwn), a clone of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-HB-1/3.9), a chimeric clone in which the Nsp2 region containing the 30-amino-acid deletion was replaced by the corresponding region of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-JXwn-HB1nsp2), and a mutated HB-1/3.9 clone with the same deletion in Nsp2 as JXwn06 (pWSK-HB1-ND30). We also investigated the pathogenicities of the rescued viruses (designated RvJXwn, RvJXwn-HB1nsp2, RvHB-1/3.9, and RvHB1-ND30, respectively) in specific-pathogen-free piglets in order to determine the role of the 30-amino-acid deletion in the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV. All the rescued viruses could replicate stably in MARC-145 cells. Our findings indicated that RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 retained high virulence for piglets, like RvJXwn and the parental virus JXwn06, although the survival time of piglets infected with RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 was obviously prolonged. RvHB1-ND30 exhibited low virulence for piglets, like RvHB-1/3.9 and the parental virus HB-1/3.9. Therefore, we conclude that the 30-amino-acid deletion is not related to the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV emerging in China. PMID:19244318

  6. Nonrecurrent PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene deletions arise from replication-based mechanisms and result in Smith-Magenis syndrome with evident peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; Neira, Juanita; Gu, Shen; Harel, Tamar; Liu, Pengfei; Briceño, Ignacio; Elsea, Sarah H; Gómez, Alberto; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are genomic disorders associated with deletion copy number variants involving chromosome 17p12 and 17p11.2, respectively. Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated recurrent deletions are responsible for the majority of HNPP and SMS cases; the rearrangement products encompass the key dosage-sensitive genes PMP22 and RAI1, respectively, and result in haploinsufficiency for these genes. Less frequently, nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements occur at this locus. Contiguous gene duplications encompassing both PMP22 and RAI1, i.e., PMP22-RAI1 duplications, have been investigated, and replication-based mechanisms rather than NAHR have been proposed for these rearrangements. In the current study, we report molecular and clinical characterizations of six subjects with the reciprocal phenomenon of deletions spanning both genes, i.e., PMP22-RAI1 deletions. Molecular studies utilizing high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization and breakpoint junction sequencing identified mutational signatures that were suggestive of replication-based mechanisms. Systematic clinical studies revealed features consistent with SMS, including features of intellectual disability, speech and gross motor delays, behavioral problems and ocular abnormalities. Five out of six subjects presented clinical signs and/or objective electrophysiologic studies of peripheral neuropathy. Clinical profiling may improve the clinical management of this unique group of subjects, as the peripheral neuropathy can be more severe or of earlier onset as compared to SMS patients having the common recurrent deletion. Moreover, the current study, in combination with the previous report of PMP22-RAI1 duplications, contributes to the understanding of rare complex phenotypes involving multiple dosage-sensitive genes from a genetic mechanistic standpoint.

  7. Nonrecurrent PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene deletions arise from replication-based mechanisms and result in Smith-Magenis syndrome with evident peripheral neuropathy.