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  1. Building 9401-2 Plating Shop Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This document provides a plan for implementing surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities to ensure that Building 9401-2 Plating Shop is maintained in a cost effective and environmentally secure configuration until subsequent closure during the final disposition phase of decommissioning. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) G430.1A-2, Surveillance and Maintenance During Facility Disposition (1997), was used as guidance in the development of this plan. The S and M Plan incorporates DOE O 430.1A, Life Cycle Asset Management (LCAM) (1998a) direction to provide for conducting surveillance and maintenance activities required to maintain the facility and remaining hazardous and radioactive materials, wastes, and contamination in a stable and known condition pending facility disposition. Recommendations in the S and M plan have been made that may not be requirement-based but would reduce the cost and frequency of surveillance and maintenance activities. During the course of S and M activities, the facility's condition may change so as to present an immediate or developing hazard or unsatisfactory condition. Corrective action should be coordinated with the appropriate support organizations using the requirements and guidance stated in procedure Y10-202, Rev. 1, Integrated Safety Management Program, (Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES), 1998a) implemented at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the methodology of the Nuclear Operations Conduct of Operations Manual (LMES, 1999) for the Depleted Uranium Operations (DUO) organization. The key S and M objectives applicable to the Plating Shop are to: Ensure adequate containment of remaining residual material in exhaust stacks and outside process piping, stored chemicals awaiting offsite shipment, and items located in the Radioactive Material Area (RMA); Provide access control into the facility and physical safety to S and M personnel; Maintain the facility in a manner that will protect the public, the environment, and the S

  2. Diagonally Symmetric Form Ultrasonic Motor Using LiNbO3 Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Hideki; Kawai, Koujiro; Takano, Takehiro; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Hirose, Seiji; Aoyagi, Manabu

    2007-07-01

    An ultrasonic motor fabricated from a LiNbO3 plate for high-speed revolution is presented. To obtain a high-speed motor, a large vibration velocity is required, and LiNbO3 is suitable because it can maintain stable vibrational characteristics even when the vibration velocity exceeds 2 m/s. Additionally, a coupling mode in a diagonally symmetric form vibrator is introduced to realize a small single-phase motor. In this paper, we describe the experimental results for a LiNbO3 plate ultrasonic motor whose revolution speed exceeds 5,000 rpm, which is obtained by the driving input voltage and power of 2 Vrms and 34 mW, respectively. Moreover, to know the operating limit in terms of material strength, a finite element method analysis and experimental results are presented.

  3. The Levitation Characteristics of MGB2 Plates on Tracks of Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, E.; Bassani, E.; Giunchi, G.

    2010-04-01

    The bulk MgB2 can be manufactured in large plates by an innovative process: the reactive liquid Mg infiltration (Mg-RLI). According to this process it is possible to produce, even at lab scale, plates of 10÷20 cm in lateral dimensions. The superconducting material resulting is very dense and, even if it is in polycrystalline form, it levitates with respect to Permanent Magnets (PM), like the textured YBCO samples, up to 35 K. In order to control the levitation forces and stiffnesses of an MgB2 plate (10×10×1 cm3) moving with respect to a track of PM's (NdFeB bars arranged in 4 lines according to an Halbach disposition and separated by Iron flux concentrators), we have used an instrumented Cryogenic Levitation Apparatus (CLA). We have studied different kind of movements of the PM's track with respect to the MgB2 plate. First, we consider the vertical movement, assumed z direction, which describes the properly levitation characteristics. Secondly, we consider two kinds of lateral movements of the track, assumed x direction, with the long size of the magnets either perpendicular or parallel to the movement direction. The resulting configurations simulate the main movements that a superconducting levitating vehicle will do in a real track, either of axial or of guidance type. The levitation axial forces, measured in Field Cooling or Zero Field Cooling conditions, indicate that at the distance between superconducting plate and PM's of 4 mm it is possible to have an overall levitating pressure of 7 N/cm2.

  4. Reflection polarizers for the vacuum ultraviolet using Al + MgF2 mirrors and an MgF2 plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, G.; Hunter, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design and operation of a three-mirror reflecting polarizer where one of the reflecting surfaces is an MgF2 plate, the other surfaces are Al + MgF2 coatings, and one reflection occurs at or near the true Brewster angle. It is found that the polarizer is most efficient in the 1200-2000 A wavelength region, and that by optimum selection of the angle of incidence on the MgF2 plate, polarization values of 100 and over are yielded from 900 to 3000 A. The polarizer may be used at wavelengths as short as 500 A, although it is observed that at such wavelengths the polarization value decreases to about 10. It is noted that all reflecting polarizers operating in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength may manifest changing characteristics as their mirrors become contaminated, and that polarization must therefore be occasionally remeasured.

  5. Ultra-wideband ladder filters using zero-th shear mode plate wave in ultrathin LiNbO3 plate with apodized interdigital transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Michio; Tanaka, Shuji

    2016-07-01

    There are two kinds of plate waves propagating in a thin plate, Lamb and shear horizontal (SH) waves. The former has a velocity higher than 15,000 m/s when the plate is very thin. On the contrary, 0th SH (SH0) mode plate wave in an ultrathin LiNbO3 plate has an electro-mechanical coupling factor larger than 50%. Authors fabricated an ultra-wideband T-type ladder filter with a relative bandwidth (BW) of 41% using the SH0 mode plate wave. Although the BW of the filter fully covers the digital TV band in Japan, it does not have sufficient margin at the lower and higher end of BW. Besides, periodic small ripples due to transverse mode in pass-band of the filter were observed. In this study π-type ladder filters were fabricated by changing the pitch ratio of interdigital transducer (IDT) of parallel and series arm resonators (PR(IDT)) to control the BW, and by apodizing IDTs to improve the periodic small ripples due to transverse mode. Ultra-wideband filters without periodic small transverse mode with ultrawide bandwidth from 41 to 49% were fabricated. The BWs fully cover ultrawide digital television bands in Japan and U.S.A. These filters with an ultrawide BW and a steep characteristic show the possibility to be applied to a reported cognitive radio system and other communication systems requiring an ultrawide BW.

  6. Ovarian neoplasia in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D J

    1987-01-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of 210 spontaneous ovarian tumors from 7748 Sprague-Dawley rats are described. The tumors were classified as tubular adenoma, anaplastic adenocarcinoma, papillary cystadenoma, papillary cystadenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, sertoliform tubular adenoma, Sertoli's cell tumor, granulosa cell tumor, thecal cell tumor, polycystic sex cord/stromal tumor, and lipoid cell tumor. The histogenesis of the tumor types is discussed. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PMID:2822382

  7. Inward spread of activation in vertebrate muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    González-Serratos, H.

    1971-01-01

    1. A method for detecting the activation of individual myofibrils or groups of myofibrils within an isolated muscle fibre is described. It consists in making all the myofibrils wavy by setting the fibre in gelatine and compressing it longitudinally; active shortening of myofibrils can then be recognized by the straightening out of the waves. 2. The time course of this straightening during a twitch was found by high-speed ciné micrography. 3. There is a delay of activation between the superficial and central myofibrils, from which the velocity of inward spread of activation can be found. 4. This velocity has a Q10 of 2, and is about 7 cm/sec at 20° C. The mechanism of the inward spread of activation is discussed. 5. On relaxation the waves reappear, showing that there is a spontaneous elongation of the myofibrils. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3Plate 4 PMID:5557071

  8. Potential injury mechanisms to the climber's belayer.

    PubMed Central

    Butlin, P A

    1985-01-01

    Photographs and transparencies of the techniques used in belaying, combined with information gained from discussions amongst experienced climbers, provided evidence of the potential injury mechanisms which may be subjected to the belayer in having to arrest a falling climber, whilst moving towards the belayer. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Figure 1 Plate 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:4092137

  9. Studies on sex-organ development. Changes in nuclear and chromatin composition and genomic activity during spermatogenesis in the maturing rooster testis.

    PubMed Central

    Mezquita, C; Teng, C S

    1977-01-01

    We developed a technique to separate nuclei of rooster testis by centrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose density gradient and by sedimentation at unit gravity. Four different major fractions obtained from testicular nuclei and one from the vas deferens were characterized according to their velocity of sedimentation, morphology and DNA content. The ratios (w/w) of basic proteins, non-histone proteins and RNA to DNA decreased during spermiogenesis both in nuclei and chromatin. Changes in the electrophoretic patterns of histones and non-histone proteins were detected especially in the elongated spermatids. The lack of uptake of [3H]uridine in elongating and elongated spermatids and in spermatozoa was demonstrated by radioautography and by the detection of labelled RNA extracted from different fractions of nuclei. Template activity for RNA synthesis and the binding of actinomycin D by testicular nuclei reached a peak in the elongated spermatid stage, when the histones are replaced by the protamine. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PLATE 5 PMID:560187

  10. Transmission at a 'direct' electrical connexion mediated by an interneurone in the leech.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, K J; Scott, S A

    1981-01-01

    1. Touch sensory neurones in the leech excite a rapidly conducting interneurone called the S-cell. Although the electrical synaptic connexion between the two cells is monosynaptic by physiological criteria, intracellular staining reveals that the touch cells and the S-cell do not make contact, but instead are linked by a pair of small interneurones. 2. The electrical coupling between touch cells and S-cells rectifies, in that depolarizing current but not hyperpolarizing current passes from the touch cell into the S-cell. The rectifying junction is between the touch cells and coupling interneurones, while the connexion between coupling interneurones and the S-cell passes current in both directions. 3. Selective destruction of the coupling interneurones by intracellular injection of a protease interrupts the disynaptic electrical connexion between touch and S-cells. 4. The touch cell's geometry and membrane properties account for the failure of impulses that are generated in certain portions of the receptive field in the skin to propagate beyond the first branch-points of the touch cell axon within the ganglion. Conduction block at branch-points is used to examine physiologically the spatial distribution of contacts between the touch cell and the coupling interneurones. In addition, it is shown that under natural conditions branch-point failure presynaptically reduces the effectiveness of the electrical synaptic connexions. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 PMID:6267257

  11. The primary inhibitor of plasmin in human plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Müllertz, S; Clemmensen, I

    1976-01-01

    A complex between plasmin and an inhibitor was isolated by affinity chromatography from urokinase-activated human plasma. The complex did not react with antibodies against any of the known proteinase inhibitors in plasma. A rabbit antiserum against the complex was produced. It contained antibodies agianst plasminogen+plasmin and an alpha2 protein. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis the alpha2 protein was shown to form a complex with plasmin, when generated by urokinase in plasma, and with purified plasmin. The alpha2 protein was eluted by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration with KD approx. 0.35, different from the other inhibitors of plasmin in plasma, and corresponding to an apparent relative molecular mass (Mr) of about 75000. By sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the Mr of the complex was found to be approx. 130000. After reduction of the complex two main bands of protein were observed, with Mr, about 72000 and 66000, probably representing an acyl-enzyme complex of plasmin-light chain and inhibitor-heavy chain, and a plasmin-heavy chain. A weak band with Mr 9000 was possibly an inhibitor-light chain. The inhibitor was partially purified and used to titrate purified plasmin of known active-site concentration. The inhibitor bound plasmin rapidly and strongly. Assuming an equimolar combining ratio, the concentration of active inhibitor in normal human plasma was estimated to be 1.1 mumol/1. A fraction about 0.3 of the antigenic inhibitor protein appeared to be functionally inactive. In plasma, plasmin is primarily bound to the inhibitor. Only after its saturation does lysis of fibrinogen and fibrin occur and a complex between plasmin and alpha2 macroglobulin appear. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PMID:137718

  12. Near-field radiative heat transfer between two parallel SiO{sub 2} plates with and without microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ijiro, T.; Yamada, N.

    2015-01-12

    Near-to-far-field radiative heat transfer between two macroscopic SiO{sub 2} plates—with and without microcavities—was observed using a highly precise and accurate optical gap-measurement method. The experiments, conducted near 300 K, measured heat transfer as a function of gap separation from 1.0 μm to 50 μm and also as a function of temperature differences between 4.1 and 19.5 K. The gap-dependent heat flux was in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the effects of microcavities on the plate surfaces were clearly observed and significant enhancement of near-field radiative heat transfer was confirmed between gold-coated microcavities with narrow vacuum separation.

  13. Enhancing visible light photocatalytic and photocharge separation of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} plate via dramatic I{sup −} ions doping effect

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Lei; Cao, Jing; Lin, Haili; Guo, Xiaomin; Zhang, Meiyu; Chen, Shifu

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Novel I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was prepared by a facile chemical precipitation method. • I{sup −} ions impurity level located on the top of valence band of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • I{sup −} ions doping largely improved photocatalytic activity of I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} displayed excellent photocharge separation efficiency. - Abstract: Novel I{sup −} ions doped (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} (I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile chemical precipitation method. Under visible light (λ > 400 nm), I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} displayed much higher activity for rhodamine B and dichlorophenol degradation than the undoped (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The pseudo-first-order rate constant k{sub app} of RhB degradation over 15.0% I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was 0.54 h{sup −1}, which is 11.3 times higher than that of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The doped I{sup −} ions formed an impurity level on the top of valence band of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and induced much more visible light to be absorbed. The enhanced photocurrent and surface photovoltage properties were detected, which strongly ensures the efficient separation of electrons and holes in I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} system under visible light. It provides a facile way to improve the photocatalytic activity of the wide-band-gap (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} via intense doping effect of I{sup −} ions.

  14. Luminescence properties of Na3SrB5O10:Dy3+ plate-like microstructures for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillip, G. R.; Dhoble, S. J.; Raju, B. Deva Prasad

    2013-10-01

    A series of novel plate-like microstructure Na3SrB5O10 doped with various Dy3+ ions concentration have been synthesized for the first time by solid-state reaction (SSR) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrated that the prepared Na3SrB5O10:Dy3+ phosphors are single-phase pentaborates with triclinic structure. The plate-like morphology of the phosphor is examined by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The existence of both BO3 and BO4 groups in Na3SrB5O10:Dy3+ phosphors are identified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Upon excitation at 385 nm, the PL spectra mainly comprising of two broad bands: one is a blue light emission (˜486 nm) and another is a yellow light emission (˜581 nm), originating from the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 in 4f9 configuration of Dy3+ ions, respectively and the optimized dopant concentration is determined to be 3 at.%. Interestingly, the yellow-to-blue (Y/B) emission integrated intensity ratio is close to unity (0.99) for 3 at.% Dy3+ ions, suggesting that the phosphors are favor for white illumination. Moreover, the calculated Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of Na3SrB5O10:Dy3+ phosphors shows the values lie in white light region and the estimated CCT values are located in cool/day white light region.

  15. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of horses.

    PubMed Central

    Allam, N. M.; Lemcke, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    other four species were found in normal horses as well as those with respiratory disease, although three out of the four strains of M. equirhinis were from sick horses. Images Plate 2 Plate 5 Plate 3 Plate 1 Plate 4 PMID:807616

  16. The effect orientation of features in reconstructed atom probe data on the resolution and measured composition of T1 plates in an A2198 aluminium alloy.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Maria A; Araullo-Peters, Vicente J; Gault, Baptiste; Cairney, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    Artefacts in atom probe tomography can impact the compositional analysis of microstructure in atom probe studies. To determine the integrity of information obtained, it is essential to understand how the positioning of features influences compositional analysis. By investigating the influence of feature orientation within atom probe data on measured composition in microstructural features within an AA2198 Al alloy, this study shows differences in the composition of T1 (Al2CuLi) plates that indicates imperfections in atom probe reconstructions. The data fits a model of an exponentially-modified Gaussian that scales with the difference in evaporation field between solutes and matrix. This information provides a guide for obtaining the most accurate information possible.

  17. Development and structure of {alpha}{sub 2} plates in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides due to the {gamma} to {alpha} transformation on heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, E.A.; Pollock, T.M.

    1999-03-19

    Interest in the gamma-based titanium aluminide system for elevated temperature structural components has driven a large research effort in the materials community to understand the physical, metallurgical, and mechanical properties of this class of alloys. The evolution of microstructure in the aluminum lean {gamma} alloys has been shown to be highly dependent upon heat treatment temperature and cooling rate. To date the {gamma} to {alpha} transformation has been studied primarily with the use of isothermal annealing treatments. However it has been reported that the transformation is substantially complete at relatively short annealing times. Therefore, the objective of the study reported here was to examine the development of such structures as a function of heating rate and in the early stages of isothermal anneals.

  18. Morphology of Gambierdiscus scabrosus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales): a new epiphytic toxic dinoflagellate from coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Sato, Shinya; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2014-06-01

    A new epiphytic dinoflagellate is described, G ambierdiscus scabrosus sp. nov., from tidal pools and rocky shores along the coastal areas of Japan. Cells are 63.2 ± 5.7 μm in depth, 58.2 ± 5.7 μm in width, and 37.3 ± 3.5 μm in length. The plate formula of G . scabrosus is Po, 4', 0a, 6'', 6c, ?s, 5''', 0p, and 2''''. Morphologically, G . scabrosus resembles G . belizeanus as follows: anterioposteriorly compressed cell shape, narrow 2'''' plate, and areolated surface. Despite this similarity, the cells of G . scabrosus can be distinguishable by the presence of the asymmetric shaped 3'' plate and the rectangular shaped 2' plate.

  19. The effect of lesions in the neural crest on the formation of synaptic connexions in the embryonic chick spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Anne-Lill; Jansen, Jan K. S.; Ribchester, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    spindles in the muscle. 6. These results suggest that when motoneurones are deprived of part of their normal synaptic input before the formation of peripheral connexions, the identity of the motoneurones (in terms of the origin of their synaptic input) is preserved. Missing synaptic inputs are either replaced by appropriate afferent fibres, if they are available, or not at all. The chick sensory ganglion cells with monosynaptic connexions to motoneurones appear to be unable to compensate significantly for peripheral or central defects in the innervation of the hind limb. They behave as if their developmental possibilities were quite rigidly determined at an early embryonic stage. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3Plate 4 PMID:6212673

  20. Light path and photon capture in turtle photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, D A; Fettiplace, R

    1975-01-01

    efficiency with which axial rays are concentrated by red receptors gave a mean value of 55%. 7. Receptors in histological sections of the whole eye were found to be oriented with their long axes directed approximately toward the pupil. 8. The observed directional selectivities and collecting efficiencies agree well with the behaviour of a model retinal cone developed by Winston & Enoch (1971) on a geometrical optical treatment. 9. Effective collecting areas are derived for red-, green- and blue-sensitive cones; these permit conversion of observed flash sensitivities into the mean peak hyperpolarization produced by isomerization of a visual pigment molecule. The figure obtained is about 25 muV for red-sensitive cones and 21muV for green-sensitive cones. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 PMID:1151792

  1. Fractographic and Microstructural Analysis of Stress Corrosion Cracking of A533 Grade B Class 1 Plate and A508 Class 2 Forging in Pressurized Reactor-Grade Water at 93 C.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-25

    N UMBER Z.GOVT ACCESSION NO: 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NUREG /CR 11277 NRL Memorandum Report 4121 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT...13, No. 2, 1978, pp. 75-78. (81 Cullen, W.H., et al., "Fatigue Crack Growth of A508 Steel in High Temperature, Pressurized, Reactor Grade Water," NUREG

  2. Giant self-biased magnetoelectric response with obvious hysteresis in layered homogeneous composites of negative magnetostrictive material Samfenol and piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jitao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; He, Wei; Yang, Aichao; Lu, Caijiang

    2013-11-01

    Giant self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) response and obvious hysteresis are observed in trilayer homogenous ME laminate composite consisting of negative magnetostrictive Samfenol (SmFe2) plates and piezoelectric ceramic PZT (Pb(Zr,Ti)O3) plates. The large anisotropic field of SmFe2 oriented the direction [111] of easy magnetization results in an enhanced internal bias due to its huge intrinsic anisotropic constant. The experimental results demonstrate that this composite exhibits ˜30 times higher ME voltage coefficient than that of composite FeNi/PZT/FeNi with weak ME coupling at zero bias. These results provide the possibility of this homogeneous ME composite for ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensing without bias.

  3. Identification of the immunoglobulin class active in the Rose Bengal plate test for bovine brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The antibodies active in the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) for bovine brucellosis have been studied. The results of fractionation experiments showed that RBPT activity was associated with fractions containing immunoglobulin of the IgG1 class; other immunoglobulin classes were inactive in this respect although active in other tests. These results were confirmed by inhibition tests with specific antisera and by elution of the antibody from agglutinated RBPT antigen. The major proportion of the serum complement-fixing activity was also present in the IgG1 fraction and it is suggested that the RBPT and CF reactions are probably mediated by the same antibodies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Plate 2Plate 2 PMID:4630606

  4. Histological evidence against the view that the cat's optic nerve contains centrifugal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, G. S.; Hamasaki, D. I.

    1966-01-01

    1. Degeneration that can be shown by the Nauta—Gygax technique in the orbital part of the cat's optic nerve does not begin until 10 days after intracranial transection of the nerve, though after enucleation of the eye it is conspicuous in 4 days. 2. We were not able to tell, by any silver-staining technique applied to an optic nerve at any interval after an operation, whether at that operation the nerve had been cut peripherally only or both peripherally and centrally. 3. From these and subsidiary observations we conclude that either the cat's optic nerve contains no centrifugal fibres detectable by silver staining and light microscopy, or, if there are such fibres, they are much less susceptible to prograde (Wallerian) degeneration and much more susceptible to retrograde degeneration than most of the centripetal fibres. The former is the simpler and, we suggest, the more likely conclusion. ImagesPlate 3Plate 4Plate 1Plate 2 PMID:4162347

  5. Excellent performances of energy harvester using cantilever driving double-clamped 0.7Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.3PbTiO{sub 3} plates and symmetric middle-stops

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Zhou; Xu, Qing; Ren, Bo; Lin, Di; Di, Wenning; Luo, Haosu Wang, Dong

    2015-10-26

    We present a high performance nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester constituted by a cantilever with symmetrically middle-stops and double-clamped piezoelectric plates based on piezoelectric single crystal 0.7Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.3PbTiO{sub 3}. Electrical properties of the device under different excitation frequencies, accelerations, and load resistances are studied systematically. Under a low acceleration of 3 m/s{sup 2} (0.3 g), a peak voltage of 26.2 V and a maximum normalized power of 25.6 mW/g{sup 2} were obtained across a matching impedance of 600 kΩ with favorable bandwidths. The low excitation acceleration and excellent performances indicate that the device can be a promising candidate for energy harvesting in low-power electronics and wireless sensors.

  6. Loading-unloading response of circular GLARE fiber-metal laminates under lateral indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamasphyros, George J.; Bikakis, George S.

    2015-01-01

    GLARE is a Fiber-Metal laminated material used in aerospace structures which are frequently subjected to various impact damages. Hence, the response of GLARE plates subjected to lateral indentation is very important. In this paper, analytical expressions are derived and a non-linear finite element modeling procedure is proposed in order to predict the static load-indentation curves of circular GLARE plates during loading and unloading by a hemispherical indentor. We have recently published analytical formulas and a finite element procedure for the static indentation of circular GLARE plates which are now used during the loading stage. Here, considering that aluminum layers are in a state of membrane yield and employing energy balance during unloading, the unloading path is determined. Using this unloading path, an algebraic equation is derived for calculating the permanent dent depth of the GLARE plate after the indentor's withdrawal. Furthermore, our finite element procedure is modified in order to simulate the unloading stage as well. The derived formulas and the proposed finite element modeling procedure are applied successfully to GLARE 2-2/1-0.3 and to GLARE 3-3/2-0.4 circular plates. The analytical results are compared with corresponding FEM results and a good agreement is found. The analytically calculated permanent dent depth is within 6 % for the GLARE 2 plate, and within 7 % for the GLARE 3 plate, of the corresponding numerically calculated result. No other solution of this problem is known to the authors.

  7. Patterning in the regeneration of type I cutaneous receptors

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, P. R.; English, Kathleen B.; Horch, K. W.; Stensaas, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    1. Type I sensory fibres in cat hairy skin innervate structures characterized by twenty to fifty specialized epithelial (Merkel) cells aggregated in a small dome-shaped elevation. Only one fibre enters each dome and it branches repeatedly to supply at least one terminal to each Merkel cell. After the nerve is cut, the Merkel cells and the dome ultimately disappear. 2. The distribution of domes on the posterior thigh was mapped before interruption of the femoral cutaneous nerve and after its regeneration. Regeneration after nerve crush was apparently complete, producing a coincidence pattern similar to those seen in control studies where the nerve was not damaged. After cutting the nerve fewer domes returned, but coincidence of regenerated femoral cutaneous domes with old sites generally was significantly greater than would be expected by chance alone. Non-femoral cutaneous fibres sprouting into the denervated femoral cutaneous field tended to form domes at old sites. Domes were also reformed on scars where domes had been excised. 3. Domes appearing at new locations and on excision scars were often small and close together (clustered). Individual domes in a cluster could be innervated by different Type I fibres. 4. Type I fibres are directed by some mechanism to sites formerly occupied by domes and to sites where domes are being induced. ImagesPlate 2Plate 3Plate 4Plate 1 PMID:4818522

  8. U-Pb zircon geochronology and geological evolution of the Halaban- Al Amar region of the eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.B.; Greenwood, W.R.; Fischer, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    U/Pb zircon model ages for 11 major units from this region indicate three stages of evolution: 1) plate convergence, 2) plate collision and 3) post-orogenic intracratonic activity. Convergence occurred between the western Afif and eastern Ar Rayn plates that were separated by oceanic crust. Remnants of crust now comprise the ophiolitic complexes of the Urd group; the oldest plutonic unit studied is from one such complex, and gave an age of 694-698 m.y., while detrital zircons from an intercalated sedimentary formation were derived from source rocks with a mean age of 710 m.y. Plate convergence was terminated by collision of the two plates during the Al Amar orogeny which began at -670 m.y.; during collision, the Urd group rocks were deformed and in part obducted on to one or other of the plates. Synorogenic granitic rocks were intruded from 670 to 640 m.y., followed from 640 to 630 m.y. by unfoliated dioritic plutons emplaced in the Ar Rayn block.-R.A.H.

  9. The effect of aminoacetonitrile on calcium metabolism and bone in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Kemm, J R

    1976-01-01

    1. The effect of the osteolathyrogen aminoacetonitrile (AAN) on plasma calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, on bone, on growth rates, on absorption of calcium and phosphate in the gut and on their urinary excretion, has been examined in rats. 2. AAN caused a general deterioration in the health of the rat and reduced its rate of growth. 3. AAN reduced plasma calcium and increased plasma alkaline phosphatase but did not affect plasma phosphate. 4. AAN caused obvious deformity of the long bones with large exostoses. The femurs of the lathyritic rats had an increased fat-free weight and increased fat-free weight to ash weight ratio. 5. AAN increased true and apparent absorption of calcium but did not consistently affect urinary excretion of phosphate or apparent absorption of phosphate. 6. AAN did not produce a significant reduction in the plasma calcium of parathyroidectomized or thyroparathyroidectomized rats. 7. Absorption of calcium from ligated jejunal loops was increased in AAN-treated parathyroidectomized rats. 8. In some experiments parathyroidectomy or thyroparathyroidectomy protected the bones from the effect of AAN. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 PMID:994026

  10. Multilocular adipocytes from muscovy ducklings differentiated in response to cold acclimation.

    PubMed Central

    Barré, H; Cohen-Adad, F; Duchamp, C; Rouanet, J L

    1986-01-01

    Morphological and functional aspects of adipose tissue from 6-week-old cold-acclimated muscovy ducklings reared at 4 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta) from the age of 1 week were examined for the occurrence of brown adipose tissue (b.a.t.) in order to explain non-shivering thermogenesis (n.s.t.) observed at this age. Metabolic rate and integrated muscle electrical activity (e.m.g.) were measured at different Ta (from -10 to +28 degrees C) in cold-acclimated and in control ducklings reared at thermoneutrality. The results confirm the existence of n.s.t. in 6-week-old cold-acclimated muscovy ducklings. In cold-acclimated ducklings, typical multilocular adipocytes were found in subcutaneous adipose deposits instead of the unilocular white adipocytes as in control ducklings. Mitochondria isolated from this differentiated tissue were less abundant than in b.a.t. of mammals. Their respiration rate was similar to the respiration rate of white adipose tissue mitochondria from control rats and much lower than the b.a.t. mitochondria rate from cold-acclimated rats. It is therefore unlikely that this differentiated adipose tissue contributes to the n.s.t. observed, an n.s.t. whose capacity reached 5.26 W/kg (+73.5% above resting metabolic rate) in cold-acclimated ducklings. The role of this differentiated adipose tissue in the metabolic adaptation to cold is discussed. Images Plate 4 Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 PMID:3795059

  11. Voltage-dependent dye coupling at a rectifying electrotonic synapse of the crayfish.

    PubMed Central

    Giaume, C; Korn, H

    1984-01-01

    At the crayfish giant motor synapse, the lateral giant axon (l.g.a.) and the giant motor fibre (g.m.f.) form an electrotonic junction which exhibits two states of ionic coupling (Furshpan & Potter, 1959a; Giaume & Korn, 1983). Junctional conductance is low at resting membrane potentials (i.e. with lateral axon more negative than the motor fibre) and high when the polarity of the voltage difference (delta V) across the synapse is reversed. For these two states of conductance, junctional permeability was investigated using the intercellular tracer Lucifer Yellow. The dye was ionophoretically injected into either the presynaptic (l.g.a.) or the post-synaptic (g.m.f.) cell. In the high conductance state (delta V greater than 0), fluorescence was detected in both neurones whether Lucifer Yellow had been injected pre- or post-synaptically. By contrast, at the resting junctional polarization (delta V less than 0) Lucifer Yellow spread from the giant axon to the g.m.f., but not from the g.m.f. to the giant axons. These data demonstrate that dye transfer at the giant motor synapse, like ionic coupling, is sensitive to junctional polarization and is more marked in the high conductance state. Possible explanations for the asymmetry observed in the low conductance state are discussed. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PMID:6097668

  12. Lithospheric-scale effects of a subduction-driven Alboran plate: improved neotectonic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, Marta; Carafa, Michele; Terrinha, Pedro; Fernandes, Rui; Matias, Luis; Duarte, João; Barba, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The presence of a subducted slab under the Gibraltar arc is now widely accepted. However, discussion still remains on whether subduction is active and what is its influence in the lithospheric processes, in particular in the observed geodesy, deformation rates and seismicity. Aiming at bringing new insights into the discussion, we have performed a neotectonic numerical study of a segment of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary, from the Gloria fault to the Northern Algerian margin. Specifically, we have tested the effect of including or excluding an independently driven Alboran plate, i.e. testing active subduction versus inactive subduction (2plates versus 3plates scenarios). We used the dynamic code SHELLS (Bird et al., 2008) to model the surface velocity field and the ongoing deformation, using a new up-to-date simplified tectonic map of the region, new available lithospheric data and boundary conditions determined from two alternative Africa-Eurasia angular velocities, respectively: SEGAL2013, a new pole based on stable Africa and stable Eurasia gps data (last decades); and MORVEL, a geological-scale pole (3.16 Ma). We also extensively studied the variation within the parametric space of fault friction coefficient, subduction resistance and surface velocities imposed to the Alboran plate. The final run comprised a total of 5240 experiments, and each generated model was scored against geodetic velocities, stress direction data and seismic strain rates. The preferred model corresponds to the 3plates scenario, SEGAL2013 pole and fault friction of 0.225, with scoring results: gps misfit of 0.78 mm/yr; SHmax misfit of 13.6° and correlation with seismic strain rate of 0.62, significantly better than previous models. We present predicted fault slip rates for the recognized active structures and off-faults permanent strain rates, which can be used for seismic and tsunami hazard calculations (the initial motivation for this work was contributing for calculation of

  13. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  14. A study of frog muscle maintained in organ culture

    PubMed Central

    Harris, A. J.; Miledi, R.

    1972-01-01

    1. Frog muscles are isolated and maintained in organ culture conditions for periods of up to 2 months. During the first 2 weeks, muscle fibres have normal resting membrane and action potentials. Subsequently the potentials decline in amplitude. 2. Slow muscle fibres also survive in culture and retain their ability to give maintained contractures. 3. Muscle sensory receptors continue to function in culture until the axon terminals degenerate at about 2 weeks. 4. Neuromuscular transmission is normal during the first few days of culture, after which the motor endings degenerate. Transmission persists longer (up to 17 days) if a long segment of nerve is left attached to the muscle. With short-nerve preparations failure of transmission in vivo occurs at about the same time as in culture. With long-nerve preparations failure of transmission is delayed even further in culture. 5. In short-nerve preparations miniature end-plate potentials disappear, in general, at about the time that transmission fails. In long-nerve preparations some end-plates continue to have miniature end-plate potential activity for a short time after nerve impulses cease to evoke any response; but eventually miniature potential activity disappears from all end-plates. 6. After a few days of electrical silence, miniature end-plate potentials reappear at some of the denervated end-plates. The proportion of denervated end-plates which show miniature end-plate potentials in culture is smaller than in muscles denervated in situ. 7. Electron microscopy shows that muscle structure is well preserved in culture, that the axons degenerate and that the Schwann cells move to occupy the space vacated by the axons. The Schwann cells are very probably the source of the acetylcholine which evokes miniature potentials in the denervated end-plates. ImagesPlate 3Plate 4Plate 5Plate 6Plate 7Plate 1Plate 2 PMID:4335913

  15. Competitive labelling, a method for determining the reactivity of individual groups in proteins. The amino groups of porcine elastase

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, H.; Stevenson, K. J.; Hartley, B. S.

    1971-01-01

    1. A method is described for determining the ionization constants and reactivities of individual amino groups in proteins. The principle is that in the presence of a trace amount of radioactive label, the various reactive groups in a protein molecule will compete for the label and the amount incorporated into any one group will be determined by its nucleophilicity, pK and micro-environment. The relative amounts of label incorporated into various groups will be proportional to their second-order rate constants and by comparing these rate constants with those expected on the basis of a linear free-energy relationship obtained with a series of standard compounds, the micro-environment can be defined for a particular amino group. 2. The method consists of treating a protein and an internal standard with a limiting amount of radioactive reagent and then with an excess of unlabelled reagent to yield a chemically homogeneous but heterogeneously labelled compound. After appropriate enzymic digestion peptides containing each labelled group are isolated and their rates of reaction, relative to the internal standard, are determined from their specific radioactivities. The entire procedure is repeated at several pH values. 3. When the method was applied to the amino groups of porcine elastase by using tritiated acetic anhydride as the labelling reagent, the N-terminus was found to have pKa 9.7 and a much lower than normal reactivity. Lysine-87 and lysine-224 were found to have pKa 10.3 and normal reactivities. At pH values greater than 10.5 there are discontinuities in all the titration curves, indicating that the entire molecule is undergoing a structural reorganization. ImagesPLATE 3PLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5158490

  16. Lead and wine. Eberhard Gockel and the colica Pictonum

    PubMed Central

    Eisinger, Josef

    1982-01-01

    The colica Pictonum or colic of Poitou, under these and many other names, was a frequent, widespread, and deadly disease from Roman times until the eighteenth century. Its unique pathognomonic, notably a severe colic succeeded by paralysis and other central nervous system dysfunction, makes it possible to identify the disease with certainty as chronic lead disease, usually caused by the ingestion of lead-adulterated wines. The custom of sweetening and preserving sour wines with lead-containing additives is traced to the Romans. They had made the empirical discovery that sapa, a syrup prepared by concentrating must in a lead vessel, kept wine from spoiling and that it had, moreover, an agreeable flavour. Reports of outbreaks of the colica Pictonum appear in the medical literature from Roman times, but the correct aetiology of the disease was not discovered until the seventeenth century following a series of outbreaks in Southern Germany which were related to unfavourable climatic and political conditions. The connexion between the disease and prevailing methods for “correcting” wines was drawn in 1696 by Eberhard Gockel, then the city physician of Ulm. This achievement can be traced to his familiarity with Samuel Stockhausen's work on plumbism among miners and potters, as well as to the favourable epidemiological situation presented by Gockel's monastic patients. From the literary evidence assembled here and from experimental determinations of the lead content of sapa and similar concentrates, it is possible to estimate the lead levels and toxicity of wines from various eras. The levels range up to 80 mg/l and make it apparent that many wines were sufficiently toxic to account for the incidence and severity of the colica Pictonum. Explanations for the disastrous persistence of the colic of Poitou are discussed, as are the similarities between Gockel's approach and the methods of modern environmental medicine. ImagesPlate 4.Plate 1.Plate 2.Plate 3. PMID:6750289

  17. Fukuyoa paulensis gen. et sp. nov., a new genus for the globular species of the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; Qiu, Dajun; Lopes, Rubens M; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus is a toxicologically important genus responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, the principal cause of non-bacterial illness associated with fish consumption. The genus currently contains species exhibiting either globular or anterior-posteriorly compressed morphologies with marked differences in cell shape and plate arrangement. Here we report a third globular, epiphytic and tychoplanktonic species from the coasts of Ubatuba, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from G. yasumotoi and G. ruetzleri by its broader first apical plate that occupies a larger portion of the epitheca. Accordingly, phylogenetic trees from small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequences also showed strongly supported separation of the new species from the G. yasumotoi/G. ruetzleri group albeit with short distance. The molecular phylogenies, which included new sequences of the planktonic species Goniodoma polyedricum, further indicated that the globular species of Gambierdiscus formed a tight clade, clearly separated (with strong bootstrap support) from the clade of lenticular species including the type for Gambierdiscus. The morphological and molecular data in concert support the split of Gambierdiscus sensu lato into two genera. Gambierdiscus sensu stricto should be reserved for the species with lenticular shapes, highly compressed anterioposteriorly, with short-shank fishhook apical pore plate, large 2' plate, low and ascending cingular displacement, and pouch-like sulcal morphology. The new genus name Fukuyoa gen. nov. should be applied to the globular species, slightly laterally compressed, with long-shank fishhook apical pore plate, large 1' plate, greater and descending cingular displacement, and not pouch-like vertically-oriented sulcal morphology. Fukuyoa contains the new species Fukuyoa paulensis gen. et sp. nov., and F. yasumotoi comb. nov. and F. ruetzleri comb. nov.

  18. Fukuyoa paulensis gen. et sp. nov., a New Genus for the Globular Species of the Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Fernando; Qiu, Dajun; Lopes, Rubens M.; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus is a toxicologically important genus responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, the principal cause of non-bacterial illness associated with fish consumption. The genus currently contains species exhibiting either globular or anterior-posteriorly compressed morphologies with marked differences in cell shape and plate arrangement. Here we report a third globular, epiphytic and tychoplanktonic species from the coasts of Ubatuba, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from G. yasumotoi and G. ruetzleri by its broader first apical plate that occupies a larger portion of the epitheca. Accordingly, phylogenetic trees from small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequences also showed strongly supported separation of the new species from the G. yasumotoi / G. ruetzleri group albeit with short distance. The molecular phylogenies, which included new sequences of the planktonic species Goniodoma polyedricum, further indicated that the globular species of Gambierdiscus formed a tight clade, clearly separated (with strong bootstrap support) from the clade of lenticular species including the type for Gambierdiscus. The morphological and molecular data in concert support the split of Gambierdiscus sensu lato into two genera. Gambierdiscus sensu stricto should be reserved for the species with lenticular shapes, highly compressed anterioposteriorly, with short-shank fishhook apical pore plate, large 2' plate, low and ascending cingular displacement, and pouch-like sulcal morphology. The new genus name Fukuyoa gen. nov. should be applied to the globular species, slightly laterally compressed, with long-shank fishhook apical pore plate, large 1' plate, greater and descending cingular displacement, and not pouch-like vertically-oriented sulcal morphology. Fukuyoa contains the new species Fukuyoa paulensis gen. et sp. nov., and F. yasumotoi comb. nov. and F. ruetzleri comb. nov. PMID:25831082

  19. Finite element analysis of customized reconstruction plates for mandibular continuity defect therapy.

    PubMed

    Narra, Nathaniel; Valášek, Jiří; Hannula, Markus; Marcián, Petr; Sándor, George K; Hyttinen, Jari; Wolff, Jan

    2014-01-03

    Large mandibular continuity defects pose a significant challenge in oral maxillofacial surgery. One solution to this problem is to use computer-guided surgical planning and additive manufacturing technology to produce patient-specific reconstruction plates. However, when designing customized plates, it is important to assess potential biomechanical responses that may vary substantially depending on the size and geometry of the defect. The aim of this study was to assess the design of two customized plates using finite element method (FEM). These plates were designed for the reconstruction of the lower left mandibles of two ameloblastoma cases (patient 1/plate 1 and patient 2/plate 2) with large bone resections differing in both geometry and size. Simulations revealed maximum von Mises stresses of 63 MPa and 108 MPa in plates 1 and 2, and 65 MPa and 190 MPa in the fixation screws of patients 1 and 2. The equivalent strain induced in the bone at the screw-bone interface reached maximum values of 2739 micro-strain for patient 1 and 19,575 micro-strain for patient 2. The results demonstrate the influence of design on the stresses induced in the plate and screw bodies. Of particular note, however, are the differences in the induced strains. Unphysiologically high strains in bone adjacent to screws can cause micro-damage leading to bone resorption. This can adversely affect the anchoring capabilities of the screws. Thus, while custom plates offer optimal anatomical fit, attention should be paid to the expected physiological forces on the plates and the induced stresses and strains in the plate-screw-bone assembly.

  20. Comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G.

    1999-10-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ({approx}260 C) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature ({approx}970 C) -- a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behavior characterized by a 41J. Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program; this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the

  1. Incoming synapses and size of small granule-containing cells in a rat sympathetic ganglion after post-ganglionic axotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Case, C P; Matthews, M R

    1986-01-01

    or contralateral ganglia, at whatever stage this was performed throughout the range of survival intervals. There was some evidence that the synapses had increased by sprouting, including terminal sprouting, of the preganglionic nerve fibres. In the shorter term there was an increase in the proportion of small nerve terminal profiles. In the longer term the mean size of the terminal profiles increased, and very large terminals of unusual form were seen. After post-ganglionic axotomy, and in particular after a bilateral lesion, the small granule-containing cells became hypertrophied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Plate 4 Plate 5 Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 PMID:3746691

  2. Multiple supramolecular structures formed by interaction of actin with protamine

    PubMed Central

    Grazi, Enrico; Magri, Ermes; Pasquali-Ronchetti, Ivonne

    1982-01-01

    When protamine is added to actin, different supramolecular structures are formed depending on the molar ratio of the two proteins and of the ionic strength of the medium. At low ionic strength, and going from a molar ratio of protamine to G-actin of 4:1, 2:1 and 1:1, globular aggregates are first converted into extended structures and then to long threads in which the constituent ATP–G-actin is rapidly exchangeable with the actin of the medium. At high ionic strength {Tyrode [(1910) Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 20, 205–212] solution}, starting from G-actin and protamine in the 1:1 molar ratio, long ropes are formed that can be resolved into intertwining filaments of 4–5nm diameter. The addition of protamine in a 1:1 molar ratio to a solution of F-actin in Tyrode solution causes the breakage of the actin filaments, which is also revealed by the decrease of the viscosity of the solution and the formation of ordered latero-lateral aggregates. The structures formed by reaction of protamine with G-actin can be separated from free G-actin and protamine by filtration through 0.45μm-pore-size Millipore filters. This technique has been exploited to study the exchange reaction between free actin and the actin–protamine complexes. For these studies the 1:1 actin–protamine complex formed at low ionic strength and the 2:1 actin–protamine complex formed in the presence of 23nm-free Mg2+ have been selected. In the first case the exchange reaction is practically complete in the dead time of the experiment (20s). In the second case, where the complex operates like a true ATPase, the rate of the exchange is initially comparable with the rate of the ATP cleavage. Later on, however, the complex undergoes a change and the rate of the exchange between free actin and the actin bound to protamine becomes lower than the rate of the ATPase reaction. It is proposed that the ATP exchanges for ADP directly on the G-actin bound in the complex. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3 PMID

  3. Calcium release by noradrenaline from central sarcoplasmic reticulum in rabbit main pulmonary artery smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kowarski, D; Shuman, H; Somlyo, A P; Somlyo, A V

    1985-01-01

    .05) between the distributions of P in relaxed and contracted smooth muscle. The total cell [Ca]i in relaxed Rb-containing tissue, measured with randomly positioned small probes (3.6 mmol/kg dry wt.), was the same as that measured with large defocused probes, indicating the validity of random sampling. A mathematical model was used to estimate the frequency of including s.r. (35 nm diameter and 5% of cell volume) by a randomly positioned electron probe (50 nm), because we could not visualize s.r. in the cryosections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PLATE 1 PMID:4057086

  4. 7 CFR 58.135 - Bacterial estimate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Milk § 58.135 Bacterial estimate. (a) Methods of Testing. Milk shall be tested for bacterial estimate by using one of the following methods or by any other method approved by Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. (1) Direct Microscopic clump count; (2) Standard plate count; (3) Plate...

  5. 7 CFR 58.135 - Bacterial estimate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Milk § 58.135 Bacterial estimate. (a) Methods of Testing. Milk shall be tested for bacterial estimate by using one of the following methods or by any other method approved by Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. (1) Direct Microscopic clump count; (2) Standard plate count; (3) Plate...

  6. Plate Tectonic Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Plate Tectonics Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) volcanoes (covering formation, distribution, and major volcanic groups); (2) earthquakes (with investigations on wave movements, seismograms and sub-suface earth currents); (3) plate tectonics (providing maps…

  7. Unique organic remains from an upper Permian coal bearing sequence in the Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, A.

    2004-07-01

    The playnological assemblage of coal bearing upper Permian sequence of Talcher Coalfield registers presence of some peculiar organic remains. These are described as Orissiella gen. nov., which is characterized by a vesicle with collar-like structure at the oral end, spines and or corrugations on the body. The affinity and palaeoecological significance of Orissiella is also discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 plates.

  8. Macquarie Island: the introduction of the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) as a possible vector for myxomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sobey, W. R.; Adams, K. M.; Johnston, G. C.; Gould, L. R.; Simpson, K. N. G.; Keith, K.

    1973-01-01

    The European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) was first released on Macquarie Island in December 1968. The flea has survived and bred on the island and about 30% of the rabbits sampled from the original release area in January 1972 were flea-infested. ImagesPlate 1Plate 1 PMID:4515880

  9. Numerical simulation of friction stir welding (FSW): Prediction of the heat affect zone using a softening model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, R. M. F.; Carlone, P.; Valente, R. A. F.; Teixeira-Dias, F.; Palazzo, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    In this work a numerical model is proposed to simulate Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process in AA2024-T3 plates. This model included a softening model that account for the temperature history and the hardness distribution on a welded plate can thus be predicted. The validation of the model was performed using experimental measurements of the hardness in the plate cross-section. There is an acceptable prediction of the material softening in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) using the adopted model.

  10. Electron microscopy studies of lutetium doped erbium silicide (Er{sub 0.9}Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Q. Chumbley, L.S.

    2011-08-15

    Examination of bulk microstructures of lutetium doped erbium silicide (Er{sub 0.9}Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4} (space group: Pnma) using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) reveals the existence of thin plates of a hexagonal phase (space group: P6{sub 3}/mcm) where the stoichiometric ratio in moles between the rare earths and Si is 5 to 3, i. e the 5:3 phase. The orientation relationship between the matrix and the plates was determined as [010]{sub m} {approx} -parallel [-1010]{sub p.} This observation adds credence to the assumption that all linear features noted in alloys of the rare-earth intermetallic family R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} are of the stoichiometric ratio 5:3 and possess a common orientation relationship with the parent 5:4 alloys. - Highlights: {yields} The linear features observed in the (Er{sub 0.9}Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4} sample are hexagonal 5:3 plates. {yields} Thickness of 5:3 plates in 5:4 alloys made by tri-arc pulling is greater than made by arc-melting. {yields} The orientation relationship between 5:3 plates and the matrix is [010]{sub m} {approx} ||[-1010]{sub p}.

  11. Biomechanical analysis of the cephalomedullary nail versus the trochanteric stabilizing plate for unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, David; Nicayenzi, Bruce; Kuzyk, Paul Rt; Machin, Alan; Bougherara, Habiba; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan

    2016-10-26

    Unstable intertrochanteric fractures are commonly treated with a cephalomedullary nail due to high failure rates with a sliding hip screw. The Omega3 Trochanteric Stabilizing Plate is a relatively new device that functions like a modified sliding hip screw with a proximal extension; however, its mechanical properties have not been evaluated. This study biomechanically compared a cephalomedullary nail, that is, Gamma3 Nail against the Omega3 plate. Unstable intertrochanteric fractures were created in 24 artificial femurs. Experimental groups were as follows: Nail (i.e. Gamma3 Nail) (n = 8), Plate A (i.e. Omega3 plate with four distal non-locking screws and no proximal locking screws) (n = 8), Plate B (i.e. Plate A plus five proximal locking screws) (n = 8), Plate C (i.e. Omega3 plate with three distal locking screws and no proximal locking screws) (n = 8), and Plate D (i.e. Plate C plus five proximal locking screws) (n = 8). All specimens were stiffness tested, while the Nail and Plate D groups were also strength tested. For lateral bending, Plate B was less stiff than the Nail (p = 0.001) and Plate A (p = 0.009). For torsion, Plate A was less stiff than Plate D (p = 0.020). For axial compression, the Nail was less stiff than Plate A (p = 0.036) and Plate B (p = 0.008). Axial strength for the Nail (5014 ± 308 N) was 66% higher than the Plate D construct (2940 ± 411 N) (p < 0.001). All Nails failed by partial or complete cutout through the femoral head and neck, but Plate D failed by varus collapse and deformation of the lag screw. When the cephalomedullary nail is clinically contra-indicated, this study supports the use of the Omega3 plate, since it had similar stiffness in three test modes to the Gamma3 Nail, but had lower strength. Stability of Omega3 plate constructs was not improved with locked fixation proximally or distally.

  12. Polyfibroblast: A Self-Healing and Galvanic Protection Additive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    microencapsulated MCPU would have a limited shelf life. The shelf-life is expected to improve even further once the zinc outer shell is added and the microcapsules ...MEMBRANE 4 3.3 PREPARATION OF POLYURETHANE MICROCAPSULES 5 3.4 ELECTROLESS ZINC DEPOSITION 7 4 NEXT STEPS 4.1 ELECTROCHEMICAL ROUTE 7 4.2...Plating conditions must be adjusted to form thicker walls, however. We were also successful in microencapsulating uncured polyurethane resin in a hard

  13. A Comparison of Spiral Tracers in M81: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Michele; Bash, Frank N.; Hine, Butler; Rots, Arnold H.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Hodge, Paul W.

    1990-05-01

    In the paper "A Comparison of Spiral Tracers in M81" by Michele Kaufman, Frank N. Bash, Butler Hine, Arnold H. Rots, Debra M. Elmegreen, and Paul W. Hodge (Ap. J., 345, 674 [1989]), Figure 1 (Plate 7) was miscentered, and as a result the labels on be vertical axis on the left-hand side of the H I image were cut off. The separation between tick marks on the vertical axis is 200", the same as on the horizontal axis.

  14. Guam USA: America’s Forward Fortress in Asia Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    uninhabited island for naval gunnery and aircraft target practice. The Farallon de Mendinilla Island north of Saipan and Tinian is currently being used by both...33 "New Japan Leader Urges Stronger Military," The Honolulu Advertiser 28 April 2001, sec. A, p.2. and Thomas Plate , "Would a Militarized Japan...Mission Brings B-2 Bombers to Guam." Hagatna (GU) Pacific Daily News. 30 March 2002, p. 1. Plate , Thomas. "Would a Militarized Japan Benefit Asia?" The

  15. Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-14

    3 400 Fig.2 Gand specimas - 1--plate; 2--washer; 3--screw head; 4-- crack warning transducer The Ko,* at stress concentration point in the structure...628 office 1975 [4] R. E. Peterson, Design Stress Concentrating Coefficient, China Industrial Publication Co. 1965. 66 I- THE CRACK -FREE LIFE...this large scale structural component was carried out using these two spectra. The stress spectrum was obtained by directly measuring at the cracked f

  16. Thermal self-oscillations in radiative heat exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Dyakov, S. A.; Dai, J.; Yan, M.; Qiu, M.

    2015-02-09

    We report the effect of relaxation-type self-induced temperature oscillations in the system of two parallel plates of SiO{sub 2} and VO{sub 2} which exchange heat by thermal radiation in vacuum. The non-linear feedback in the self-oscillating system is provided by metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2}. Using the method of fluctuational electrodynamics, we show that under the action of an external laser of a constant power, the temperature of VO{sub 2} plate oscillates around its phase transition value. The period and amplitude of oscillations depend on the geometry of the structure. We found that at 500 nm vacuum gap separating bulk SiO{sub 2} plate and 50 nm thick VO{sub 2} plate, the period of self-oscillations is 2 s and the amplitude is 4 K, which is determined by phase switching at threshold temperatures of phase transition.

  17. Effects of Proposed Harbor Modifications on Wave Conditions, Harbor Resonance, and Tidal Circulation at Fish Harbor, Los Angeles, California. Physical and Numerical Model Investigations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    VELOCITY SCALEFP PLA IL PLT 63 𔃾f PLA IL PLT 64 PLA IL- -PLATE 65 -® I-J r z C -CO- PLATEM :z CD LL z --j (T) - C, C). (OAON idA ’N0 1i UAP3 PLATE 67...C - El + (OA’N).L ’NOIIHA~I’l PLATE 70 CD 6-4 CrD C~CD - c C3 oo* P0 0 G IC ooa. 0. ffJADN)±.A ’NOIiAATI PLATE 71 ~uj cl: r -, L L J - Cl

  18. Partial analysis of LDEF experiment A-0114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1991-01-01

    During the contract period, work concentrated on four main components. Data from the UAH silver pin hole camera was analyzed for determination of the mean Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite attitude and stability in orbit, to include pitch and yaw. Chemical testing performed on the AO-114 hot plate determined the form and locus of absorption of cosmogenic beryllium-7. Reaction rates of atomic oxygen with Kapton and other polymeric solids integrated over the whole LDEF orbital lifetime were analyzed. These rates were compared with the JSC estimated values for Space Station exposures. Metal and polymer films exposed on A0114 (C-9 and C-3 plates) were also analyzed.

  19. Electrical activity of ferroelectric biomaterials and its effects on the adhesion, growth and enzymatic activity of human osteoblast-like cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaněk, P.; Kolská, Z.; Luxbacher, T.; García, J. A. L.; Lehocký, M.; Vandrovcová, M.; Bačáková, L.; Petzelt, J.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectrics have been, among others, studied as electroactive implant materials. Previous investigations have indicated that such implants induce improved bone formation. If a ferroelectric is immersed in a liquid, an electric double layer and a diffusion layer are formed at the interface. This is decisive for protein adsorption and bioactive behaviour, particularly for the adhesion and growth of cells. The charge distribution can be characterized, in a simplified way, by the zeta potential. We measured the zeta potential in dependence on the surface polarity on poled ferroelectric single crystalline LiNbO3 plates. Both our results and recent results of colloidal probe microscopy indicate that the charge distribution at the surface can be influenced by the surface polarity of ferroelectrics under certain ‘ideal’ conditions (low ionic strength, non-contaminated surface, very low roughness). However, suggested ferroelectric coatings on the surface of implants are far from ideal: they are rough, polycrystalline, and the body fluid is complex and has high ionic strength. In real cases, it can therefore be expected that there is rather low influence of the sign of the surface polarity on the electric diffusion layer and thus on the specific adsorption of proteins. This is supported by our results from studies of the adhesion, growth and the activity of alkaline phosphatase of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells on ferroelectric LiNbO3 plates in vitro.

  20. Double-layer PVDF transducer and V(z) measurement system for measuring leaky Lamb waves in a piezoelectric plate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Chun; Kuo, Shi Hoa

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a new experimental measurement method for leaky Lamb waves propagating in a piezoelectric plate immersed in a conductive fluid. The measurement system is a low-frequency version of lens-less acoustic microscopy which has been developed based on a line-focus double-layer PVDF transducer. The transducer and its defocusing measurement system can perform V(z) measurements on a sample plate immersed in a fluid, and therefore can obtain the leaky Lamb wave velocities with high accuracy. An X-cut LiNbO(3) plate is investigated with this experimental measurement system to find out its fluid-loading effects, especially the conductive loading effects by water of various conductivities. Angular dependence of this conductive loading effect along different propagating directions on the X-cut LiNbO(3) plate is measured. It is found out the conductive loading effects are strongly dependent on the piezoelectric coupling factor. Theoretical calculations based on partial wave theory have also been carried out and compared with experimental data. Good agreements have been observed.

  1. Understanding the differences between the wear of metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Pina, C G; Yan, Y; Neville, A; Fisher, J

    2008-04-01

    Hip simulator studies have been carried out extensively to understand and test artificial hip implants in vitro as an efficient alternative to obtaining long-term results in vivo. Recent studies have shown that a ceramic-on-metal material combination lowers the wear by up to 100 times in comparison with a typical metal-on-metal design. The reason for this reduction remains unclear and for this reason this study has undertaken simple tribometer tests to understand the fundamental material loss mechanisms in two material combinations: metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic. A simple-configuration reciprocating pin-on-plate wear study was performed under open-circuit potential (OCP) and with applied cathodic protection (CP) in a serum solution using two tribological couples: firstly, cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) pins against Co-Cr plates; secondly, Co-Cr pins against alumina (Al2O3) plates. The pin and plate surfaces prior to and after testing were examined by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a marked reduction in wear when CP was applied, indicating that total material degradation under the OCP condition was attributed to corrosion processes. The substitution of the Co-Cr pin with an Al2O3 plate also resulted in a dramatic reduction in wear, probably due to the reduction in the corrosion-wear interactions between the tribological pair.

  2. Joint Logistics Commanders Guide for the Management of Multinational Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Technology 7.5.1 Magnetic Bubble Memories D-5 7.5.2 Plated Wire Memories 7.5.3 Cross-Tie Memories 7.6 Passive Component Technology 7.6.1 Ferrite Materials...7.8.5 Lead Zirconium Titanate (Pb(Zr,Ti)O ,PZT) 7.8.6 MgO ( Magnesium Oxide, Periclase) 7.8.7 Thin Film Interference Coatings for Optics and Other... samarium cobalt and substituted samarium cobalt) 7.8.24 Galdolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) and Substitued GGG as a Substrate for Magnetic Oxide Films

  3. Autologous Minced Muscle Grafts: A Tissue Engineering Therapy for the Volumetric Loss of Skeletal Muscle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-24

    allotted to one of three time points postinjury: 2, 8, or 16 wk. At these times, tissue was collected for histological and molecular analyses. At 8 and 16...from the CyQUANT kit, and read on a SpectraMax M2 plate reader ( Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) with excitation at 480 nm and emission at 520 nm. DNA...auto-, homo, and hetero-transplantation]. Biologia (Bratislava) 13: 514–522, 1958. 25. Huijing PA, Jaspers RT. Adaptation of muscle size and myofascial

  4. Electrical resistance of SrFeO2 at ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masayoshi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    SrFeO2 shows antiferromagnetic and insulating order at ambient pressure. The crystal structure of SrFeO2 has 2-dementional FeO2 plate and is interested in because this is common structure of high temperature superconductor. SrFeO2 has M-I, magnetic and spin transition with applying pressure. If magnetism disappears and metallization occurs with applying pressure, SrFeO2 may show superconductivity because of the crystal structure, so we measured electrical resistance at high pressure up to 150 GPa and low temperature down to 100 mK.

  5. Note: Comparative experimental studies on the performance of 2-2 piezocomposite for medical ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinozzi, F.; Bini, F.; Biagioni, A.; Grandoni, A.; Spicci, L.

    2013-09-01

    The paper reports the experimental investigation of the behavior of 2-2 Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)-polymer composite transducers array for clinical ultrasound equipments. Several 2-2 plate composites having the same dicing pitch of 0.11 mm and different volume fractions were manufactured and investigated. Measurements were performed through different techniques such as electrical impedance, pulse-echo, and Laser Doppler Vibrometer. With the last one, maps of the surface displacement were presented relative to thickness mode and first lateral mode resonance frequencies. The transducers with volume fractions of the 40% resulted markedly inefficient, whereas the largest bandwidth and best band shape were achieved by the 50%.

  6. Baltimore Harbor and Channels Deepening Study; Chesapeake Bay Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    neap-spring salinity vari- ability. Stations within the Patapsco River (Plates 78-90), and the Magothy River station (MA-I-1, Plate 74), immediately...to-base salinity variations are found at upper bay stations above the constriction at range CB-4. Only Magothy River sta MA-l, and sta CB-7-1 have...Across the bay at the western shore Magothy River sta MA-I-I (Plate 74) no appreciable plan-to-base salinity differences are found, although during

  7. A comparative study of the effect of aflatoxin B1 and actinomycin D on HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Harley, E. H.; Rees, K. R.; Cohen, A.

    1969-01-01

    1. The cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 on HeLa cells were examined and effects of short exposures of the cells to the toxin were found to be reversible. 2. Aflatoxin B1 inhibited the synthesis of both ribosomal and heterodisperse RNA. It is proposed that the toxin's mechanism of action on ribosomal RNA synthesis is related to its inhibitory effect on the maturation of the 45s-ribosomal-RNA precursor. 3. Protein synthesis is inhibited to a greater extent by aflatoxin B1 than by actinomycin D. In contrast with actinomycin D, aflatoxin B1 was shown to disaggregate polyribosomes directly. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:4897460

  8. The volume of the T-system and its association with the sarcoplasmic reticulum in slow muscle fibres of the frog

    PubMed Central

    Flitney, F. W.

    1971-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the T-system and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in slow muscle fibres of the frog, Rana temporaria. 2. The size of the T-system was measured by an autoradiographic method, using tritium-labelled albumin as a marker. Its volume, expressed as a fraction of that of the fibre, was found to be 1·8 × 10-3, as compared with a figure of 3·9 × 10-3 for the T-system in a twitch fibre. 3. The spatial distribution of the T-tubules, and their association with the SR, was studied with the electron microscope, employing ferritin and the enzyme peroxidase as markers. The observations show (a) the tubules form a three dimensional, rather than transverse, network and (b) the area of triadic (and diadic) contact with the SR is 5-10 × smaller than in a twitch fibre. 4. The possibility that the T-system and SR of the slow fibre participate in linking membrane excitation with contraction is discussed in the light of these findings. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Plate 2Figs. 1 and 2Plate 4 PMID:5571928

  9. A new Gambierdiscus species (Dinophyceae) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Gambierdiscus cheloniae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirsty F; Rhodes, Lesley; Verma, Arjun; Curley, Belinda G; Harwood, D Tim; Kohli, Gurjeet S; Solomona, Dorothy; Rongo, Teina; Munday, Rex; Murray, Shauna A

    2016-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been reported for many years in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and has had the world's highest reported incidence of this illness for the last 20 years. Following intensive sampling to understand the distribution of the causative organisms of CFP, an undescribed Gambierdiscus species was isolated from the Rarotongan lagoon. Gambierdiscus cheloniae sp. nov. has the common Gambierdiscus Kofoidian plate formula (except for a variability in the number of precingular plates in aberrant cells): Po, 3', 6″ (7″), 6C?, 6 or 7S, 5'″, 1p and 2″″. The 2' plate is hatchet shaped and the dorsal end of 1p is pointed and the relatively narrow 1p plate. Morphologically G. cheloniae is similar to the genetically closely related species G. pacificus, G. toxicus and G. belizeanus, although smaller (depth and length) than G. toxicus. The apical pore plate varies from those of G. belizeanus and G. pacificus, which are shorter and narrower, and from G. toxicus, which is larger. G. cheloniae also differs from G. pacificus in the shape of the 2' plate. The description of this new species is supported by phylogenetic analyses using three different gene regions. G. cheloniae produced the putative maitotoxin-3 analogue, MTX-3, but neither maitotoxin or monitored ciguatoxin. Extracts of G. cheloniae were shown to be highly toxic to mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, although they were less toxic by gavage. It is possible that this species produces toxins other than putative MTX-3.

  10. Optical properties of dielectric plates coated with gapped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    The optical properties of dielectric plates coated with gapped graphene are investigated on the basis of first principles of quantum electrodynamics. The reflection coefficients and reflectivities of graphene-coated plates are expressed in terms of the polarization tensor of gapped graphene and the dielectric permittivity of plate material. Simple approximate expressions for the required combinations of components of the polarization tensor applicable in the wide frequency region, where the presence of a gap influences the optical properties, are found. Numerical computations of the reflectivities of graphene-coated SiO 2 plates are performed for different values of the mass-gap parameter at different temperatures. It is shown that with an increasing gap width the reflectivity of a graphene-coated plate at the normal incidence decreases by up to a factor of 8 depending on the values of frequency and mass-gap parameter. The angle dependences of reflectivities for both polarizations of the incident electromagnetic waves have been computed for Si and SiO 2 plates coated with gapped graphene. We demonstrate that the TM reflectivity has a minimum value at some angle of incidence depending on the mass-gap parameter, frequency and temperature, whereas the TE reflectivity depends on the angle of incidence monotonously. However, for the graphene coatings with a nonzero mass-gap parameter the reflected light cannot be fully polarized. Possible applications of the obtained results are discussed.

  11. Planar frictional micro-conveyors with two degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, Byron; Hubbard, Ted; Kujath, Marek

    2008-06-01

    The design, fabrication and operation of planar frictional micro-conveyors with two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) were investigated. The frictional micro-conveyors consisted of two parts: a driving unit and a mobile plate. The driving unit was comprised of thermal actuators which were attached to inverted feet. The plate was in constant frictional contact with the feet surfaces and by properly sequencing the motion of the feet, the plate moved with stepwise advances. Two different 2-DOF designs were constructed: an X-θ conveyor capable of linear and rotational yaw motions and an X-Y conveyor capable of planar translation. Both types of micro-conveyors were fabricated using 10 µm thick silicon-on-insulator technology. The X-θ driving unit's size was 580 × 960 µm2 and it moved a 700 × 380 µm2 plate. The X-Y driving unit's size was 720 × 720 µm2 and it moved a 530 × 530 µm2 plate. The X-θ conveyor was capable of moving the plate at a linear speed of up to 33 µm s-1 and a rotational speed of up to 7° s-1. The X-Y conveyor was capable of translating the plate at a speed of 20 µm s-1 along either axis. The conveyors were able to transport loads in excess of 850 µg.

  12. A novel titanium dioxide-polydimethylsiloxane plate for phosphopeptide enrichment and mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Chun; Liu, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chiou, Liang-Wei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2014-02-17

    The phosphorylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that is required for the regulation of many cellular processes and activities. Mass spectrometry signals of low-abundance phosphorylated peptides are commonly suppressed by the presence of abundant non-phosphorylated peptides. Therefore, one of the major challenges in the detection of low-abundance phosphopeptides is their enrichment from complex peptide mixtures. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been proven to be a highly efficient approach for phosphopeptide enrichment and is widely applied. In this study, a novel TiO2 plate was developed by coating TiO2 particles onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated MALDI plates, glass, or plastic substrates. The TiO2-PDMS plate (TP plate) could be used for on-target MALDI-TOF analysis, or as a purification plate on which phosphopeptides were eluted out and subjected to MALDI-TOF or nanoLC-MS/MS analysis. The detection limit of the TP plate was ∼10-folds lower than that of a TiO2-packed tip approach. The capacity of the ∼2.5 mm diameter TiO2 spots was estimated to be ∼10 μg of β-casein. Following TiO2 plate enrichment of SCC4 cell lysate digests and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis, ∼82% of the detected proteins were phosphorylated, illustrating the sensitivity and effectiveness of the TP plate for phosphoproteomic study.

  13. Constraints on Thermal Evolution of Mars from Relaxation Models of Crustal and Topographic Dichotomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    The early thermal evolution of Mars is largely unconstrained. Models such as degree one convection [1,2,3], plate tectonics [4], and a transition to stagnant lid [5] have been proposed to explain formation of the dichotomy, the Tharsis rise, crustal production, and dynamo evolution. Here we model both the early deformation of the dichotomy and the long-term preservation as a means of examining the plausibility of a range of early thermal evolution models. Constraints include the preservation of crustal thickness and topographic differences between the northern and southern hemispheres and the geologic history of the dichotomy [6]). Our previous modeling indicates that the lower crust must have been weak enough to allow for relaxation early on, but the Martian interior had to cool fast enough to preserve the crustal difference and the associated topographic difference (5 km) over approx. 3-3.5 Gyr [7].

  14. Development of large scale production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for megajoule-scale laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ficini, G.; Campbell, J.H.

    1996-05-01

    Nd-doped phosphate glasses are the preferred gain medium for high-peak-power lasers used for Inertial Confinement Fusion research because they have excellent energy storage and extraction characteristics. In addition, these glasses can be manufactured defect-free in large sizes and at relatively low cost. To meet the requirements of the future mega-joule size lasers, advanced laser glass manufacturing methods are being developed that would enable laser glass to be continuously produced at the rate of several thousand large (790 x 440 x 44 mm{sup 3}) plates of glass per year. This represents more than a 10 to 100-fold improvement in the scale of the present manufacturing technology.

  15. Characterisation of a dielectric barrier surface twin discharge using defined gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offerhaus, Björn; Kogelheide, Friederike; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Bibinov, Nikita; Smith, Ryan; Bracht, Vera; Stapelmann, Katharina; Awakowicz, Peter; Aept Team; Bimap Team

    2016-09-01

    In the last decades extensive study has been performed on dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in several fields of applications of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas. Their applicability ranges from health-promoting effects to the human skin to air decontamination combined with a rather good scalability. Further insight into their physical and chemical properties is mandatory for a proper configuration of plasma sources for a given application. In our case a dielectric barrier surface twin discharge is ignited in different gas mixtures. The surface discharge electrode is made of an Al2O3 plate working as a dielectric barrier and grid-structured copper traces on each side of the plate. The electrode is connected to a HV-HF plasma generator with external transformer. The plasma parameters are determined via OES using an absolutely calibrated Echelle-spectrometer.

  16. Freestanding GaN-based light-emitting diode membranes on Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ crystal phosphor plate for efficient white light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lungang; Li, Yufeng; Xiong, Han; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jiangteng; Ding, Wen; Zhang, Ye; Yun, Feng

    2016-08-01

    GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) membranes were peeled from the substrate using electrochemical etching of the bottom sacrificial layer. The freestanding membranes were transferred onto a Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce3+) crystal phosphor plate to realize a compact white light source. Verified by the Raman test, the initial strain within the original GaN layers was greatly released after the exfoliation process, which induced alleviation of the quantum confined stark effect. The electroluminescence measurement of a blue LED membranes-on-YAG:Ce3+ plate-structured device was conducted exhibiting color coordinates and a correlated color temperature of (0.3367,0.4525) and 5450 K at 10 mA, respectively.

  17. Leaky lamb waves of a piezoelectric plate subjected to conductive fluid loading: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Chun; Kuo, Shi Hoa

    2006-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel experimental method for measuring the propagating characteristics of leaky Lamb waves in a piezoelectric plate surrounded by a fluid. It is a differential type of measurement and is very sensitive to the velocity change and wave attenuation of leaky Lamb waves induced by fluid-loading effects. Experimental measurements on an X-cut LiNbO3 plate immersed in a dielectric and conductive fluid have been carried out. The velocity change and wave attenuation of the leaky Lamb waves caused by dielectric and conductive loadings of the fluid have been experimentally determined. The measured data have been compared with the theoretical ones that are calculated from a partial wave analysis. For the wave velocity, very good agreements between the experimental and theoretical results are observed. For the wave attenuation, there are some discrepancies, but an important characteristic in the relationship between wave attenuation and fluid conductivity as predicted by the theory have been verified experimentally.

  18. Project environmental microbiology as related to planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological analyses of soil particles allow for the following conclusions: (1) there is a considerable range in the values of aerobic, mesophilic microbial counts associated with different size soil fractions; (2) as soil particle size increases, there is an increase in the mean microbial concentration per particle; (3) plate counts of aerobic, mesophilic organisms in unheated soils yielded a mean concentration of about six organisms per particle for the smallest soil fraction; (4) aerobic, mesophilic counts for sonicated particles heated at 80 C for 20 minutes yielded mean values of about two organisms per particle for the smallest particles; (5) some actinomycetes associated with the soil fractions could survive dry heat treatment at 110 C for one hour; and (6) soil particles stored under ambient laboratory conditions for 2.5 years aerobic, mesophilic plate counts which were comparable or slightly greater than the counts for more recently collected soil.

  19. Acoustic Plate Mode sensing in liquids based on free and electrically shorted plate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Anisimkin, V I; Caliendo, C; Verona, E

    2016-05-01

    The sensing behavior to liquids for Acoustic Plate Modes (APMs) propagating along 64°Y, 90°X LiNbO3 plate was investigated vs. two electric boundary conditions. The changes in the APMs phase velocity and attenuation were measured upon exposure to different liquids wetting one of the surfaces of the plate, either free or electrically shorted by a thin conductive Al layer. The experimental data confirm that the presence of a metallic layer covering one of the plate surfaces affects the viscosity and temperature sensitivity of the device. The differences between the sensor response for various liquids, with free or metalized faces, are interpreted in terms of the APM polarization.

  20. Direct detection of delayed high energy electrons from the 181Ta target irradiated by a moderate intensity femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savel’ev, A.; Chefonov, O.; Ovchinnikov, A.; Agranat, M.; Spohr, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    We depict an experimental study of delayed fast, negatively charged particles from femtosecond laser-plasma interaction at an intensity of I ∼ 1017 W cm‑2. Plates of 2 mm thickness made of 181Ta (∼100% abundance) and natural W were used as targets. We distinguished certain delayed events due to detection of negative H‑, C‑ and O‑ ions. However, most events which were delayed by 0.5–5 μs with respect to the instantaneous plasma formation caused by the laser pulses, were identified as electrons with energies of 3–7 keV. A comparative analysis between the tantalum and tungsten spectra was undertaken. This revealed a close similarity between the measured spectrum for tantalum and the predicted spectrum for electrons arising from to the internal conversion decay of the 6.237 keV nuclear isomeric state in 181Ta.

  1. The composite of nitrogen-doped anatase titania plates with exposed {001} facets/graphene nanosheets for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-Wen; Ai, Hui-Ying; Chen, Jian-Wei; Cui, Hao-Jie; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2014-09-15

    Composite photocatalysts composed of nitrogen-doped anatase TiO2 plates with exposed {001} facets (NTS) and graphene nanosheets (G) were firstly synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal process. The morphologies, structural properties, and photocatalytic activities of the resultant NTS/G composites were investigated in detail. Graphene nanosheets were demonstrated play three important roles in the NTS/G composites, as transporter of photo-excited electrons, extender of light absorption range and enhancer of adsorptive capacity, respectively. Due to the effective charge anti-recombination, the efficient utilization of the visible light and the high adsorptive capacity to target pollutants, the composites exhibited significant improvement in photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. Based on the results, the mechanism of enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity on NTS/G composites was proposed.

  2. An ultrasonic array sensor for spacecraft leak direction finding.

    PubMed

    Holland, Stephen D; Roberts, Ron; Chimenti, D E; Song, Jun Ho

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an ultrasonic array sensor useable for locating air leaks in manned spacecraft and have found that this sensor locates leaks in a 1-m(2) plate to within 2 cm. The sensor consists of a 63-element multiplexed array plus a reference element, all constructed from a single PZT disc and a printed circuit board. Cross-correlations of signals from the array elements with signals from the single reference element provide a measurement of the leak noise passing through the spacecraft skin under the array. A spatial Fourier transform reveals the dominant direction of propagation. Triangulation from multiple sensor locations can be used to find the source of the leak.

  3. Human placental coated vesicles contain receptor-bound transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, A G; Wilson, M J

    1981-01-01

    Human placental coated vesicles have been purified by a method involving sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation and treatment with wheat-germ agglutinin. These preparations were free of contamination by placental microvillus fragments. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated that the coated vesicles contained a single serum protein, which was identified as transferrin. This transferrin was only observed after the vesicles were treated with a non-ionic detergent, and its behaviour during crossed hydrophobic-interaction immunoelectrophoresis suggested that a large proportion of it was receptor-bound. No other serum proteins, including immunoglobulin G, could be detected in these preparations. Receptor-bound transferrin was the only antigen common to placental coated vesicles and microvilli, implying that other plasma-membrane proteins are excluded from the region of membrane involved in coated-vesicle formation. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6272755

  4. Cycloid kinematics of relative plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, V.S.

    1987-11-01

    The trajectory of a point on one plate as observed from another plate is generally a complex curve and not a small circle around a single axis of relative motion, as is commonly assumed. The shape of the relative-motion path is given the general name spherical cycloid because of its morphological similarity to cycloid planetary trajectories described by early astronomers. The cycloid relative-motion model predicts that the following phenomena occur during finite displacements: (1) the relative velocity and the curvature of the trajectory of a point on one plate relative to another plate varies systematically; (2) plates wobble relative to one another; and (3) the angle of convergence and/or divergence varies systematically along the length of any given transform fault. The small-circle relative-motion model, whereby transform faults have been considered lines of pure slip along which crust is conserved, is not generally valid for finite relative displacements.

  5. Electrocaloric effect of metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunami, Daichi; Fujita, Asaya

    2015-01-26

    The electrocaloric effect was observed in association with an electric-field induced metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2} using a calorimetric measurement under an applied voltage. For a VO{sub 2} plate with a 0.4 mm thickness located in the center of a capacitor-like structure, the metal-insulator transition was manipulated by applying a few volts. The occurrence of a transition in such a thick sample with relatively low voltage indicates that a surface charge accumulation mechanism is effective. The isothermal entropy change reached 94 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}, while the adiabatic temperature change was calculated as −3.8 K under a voltage change of 0–3 V. The large entropy change is attributed to correlation of the complex freedom among spin, charge, and lattice.

  6. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, B.W.

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  7. Four mass coupled oscillator guitar model.

    PubMed

    Popp, John E

    2012-01-01

    Coupled oscillator models have been used for the low frequency response (50 to 250 Hz) of a guitar. These 2 and 3 mass models correctly predict measured resonance frequency relationships under various laboratory boundary conditions, but did not always represent the true state of a guitar in the players' hands. The model presented has improved these models in three ways, (1) a fourth oscillator includes the guitar body, (2) plate stiffnesses and other fundamental parameters were measured directly and effective areas and masses used to calculate the responses, including resonances and phases, directly, and (3) one of the three resultant resonances varies with neck and side mass and can also be modeled as a bar mode of the neck and body. The calculated and measured resonances and phases agree reasonably well.

  8. Prolonged acousto-optic interaction with Lamb waves in crystalline plates

    PubMed

    Parygin; Vershoubskiy; Mozhaev; Weihnacht

    2000-03-01

    The propagation and acousto-optic interaction of Lamb modes in an anisotropic plate of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) are studied numerically and analytically. In the case of a Y-cut X-propagating TeO2 plate, the very high elastic anisotropy of the crystal greatly modifies the dispersion curves, giving rise to their multiple oscillations. The existence ranges of backward Lamb modes increase with the mode order contrary to the case of isotropic plates. The quasi-collinear light scattering by Lamb waves is considered. Owing to the structure of Lamb wave field, a simultaneous light diffraction at two different optical frequencies can take place while Lamb waves are excited only at the single frequency. It is demonstrated with the Z-cut (110)-propagating plate that a small change in the acoustic frequency can result in a significant shift in the frequency of the scattered light.

  9. Subcellular localization of the heparin-neutralizing factor in blood platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Da Prada, M; Jakábová, M; Lüscher, E F; Pletscher, A; Richards, J G

    1976-01-01

    1. The distribution of the heparin-neutralizing factor (platelet factor 4, PF4) in subcellular organelles of blood platelets of rabbits and man was investigated. 2. In both species the organelles storing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT storage organelles) contained only trivial amounts of PF4. 3. In contrast, the content of PF4 was highest in the subcellular fractions rich in alpha-granules. 4. In conclusion, PF4 is probably localized in the alpha-granules and therefore the platelets contain at least two types of organelles (5-HT organelles and alpha-granules) capable of releasing their contents in response to the same stimuli, such as exposure to collagen, thrombin, etc. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:950602

  10. Reconstruction of mandibular defects in irradiated patients

    SciTech Connect

    Klotch, D.W.; Gump, J.; Kuhn, L. )

    1990-10-01

    In this prospective study, mandibular reconstruction using titanium plates was evaluated in 31 patients treated between July 1988 and January 1990. Sixteen patients had prior surgery; 13 had prior radiotherapy. In 11 patients, prior radiation and surgery had failed. Sixteen patients received postoperative radiotherapy either in standard or accelerated fractions. Twelve patients had complications of either intraoral (8), extraoral (5), or combined (1) plate exposure or fistula formation (2). Factors significantly related to complications were poor nutrition, accelerated radiation, and recurrence. Sixty-one percent of all patients healed uneventfully. When patients with complications secondary to recurrence who subsequently died were excluded, the success rate was 73%. Only one patient had an unacceptable result that produced a cosmetic and functional deformity despite secondary repair.

  11. A predictive model for corrosion fatigue crack growth rates in RPV steels exposed to PWR environments

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, J.D.; Chen, Z.; Yu, J.

    1995-12-31

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation rates have been measured in A533B Class 1 plate in stagnant PWR primary water for a range of steel sulphur contents, temperature and corrosion potential values. Parametric descriptions of the data collected under constant rig conditions give good correlations for each variable and are consistent with a crack tip environment controlled process related to sulphur chemistry. A modified crack velocity equation is proposed to include temperature, sulphur content, polarization potential, frequency and {Delta}K values and it is shown how the predictions compare with the proposed ASME XI revision. Critical fatigue situations are identified for 0.003% and 0.019% sulphur steels typical of modern and old plant. The use of the equation in assessing the synergistic effect of variables is discussed.

  12. Iron-binding fragments from the carboxyl-terminal region of hen ovotransferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J

    1975-01-01

    1. When iron-saturated hen ovotransferrin was treated with subtilisin the N-terminal half was digested at a faster rate than the C-terminal half, allowing the latter to be isolated as a single-chain fragment of mol.wt 35000. 2. In mildly acid conditions iron-ovotransferrin loses iron preferentially from its N-terminal binding site. Trypsin digestion of the resulting monoferric ovotransferrin also gave rise to a C-terminal fragment. 3. Comparison of the N-terminal fragment with the C-terminal fragments shows differences in composition, peptide 'maps', CNBr-cleavage patterns and antigenic structures. The C-terminal fragments carry the carbohydrate group of ovotransferrin. 4. Both N-terminal and C-terminal fragments donate their bound iron to rabbit reticulocytes. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:811217

  13. X-ray imaging using a consumer-grade digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winch, N. M.; Edgar, A.

    2011-10-01

    The recent advancements in consumer-grade digital camera technology and the introduction of high-resolution, high sensitivity CsBr:Eu 2+ storage phosphor imaging plates make possible a new cost-effective technique for X-ray imaging. The imaging plate is bathed with red stimulating light by high-intensity light-emitting diodes, and the photostimulated image is captured with a digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera. A blue band-pass optical filter blocks the stimulating red light but transmits the blue photostimulated luminescence. Using a Canon D5 Mk II camera and an f1.4 wide-angle lens, the optical image of a 240×180 mm 2 Konica CsBr:Eu 2+ imaging plate from a position 230 mm in front of the camera lens can be focussed so as to laterally fill the 35×23.3 mm 2 camera sensor, and recorded in 2808×1872 pixel elements, corresponding to an equivalent pixel size on the plate of 88 μm. The analogue-to-digital conversion from the camera electronics is 13 bits, but the dynamic range of the imaging system as a whole is limited in practice by noise to about 2.5 orders of magnitude. The modulation transfer function falls to 0.2 at a spatial frequency of 2.2 line pairs/mm. The limiting factor of the spatial resolution is light scattering in the plate rather than the camera optics. The limiting factors for signal-to-noise ratio are shot noise in the light, and dark noise in the CMOS sensor. Good quality images of high-contrast objects can be recorded with doses of approximately 1 mGy. The CsBr:Eu 2+ plate has approximately three times the readout sensitivity of a similar BaFBr:Eu 2+ plate.

  14. The Volatility and condensation behaviour of elements in dependence of T and fO2: a novel experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Dingwell, Don B.

    2010-05-01

    The volatility of elements is one of the most important variables during geological processes on Earth: its impact ranges from daily out gassing of volcanic vents to catastrophic emissions during volcanic eruptions which might scale up to global impacts on our climate. Volatility played, however, already a major role during the formation of our solar system: the nebular gases and their element budget passed through an elemental fractionation process based on differences in the evaporation and condensation behaviour of matter within the solar nebula - the origin of all the planets within our solar system. Precise knowledge of the parameters controlling volatility as well as condensation of elements is still lacking. Whether an element behaves volatile or refractory depends highly on the temperature and oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions prevailing. To address this issue, we initiated a systematic study of the volatility of 18 volatile elements in respect to fO2 and temperature applying a modified mechanically assisted equilibration technique (MAE): Approx. 60 g of a haplobasaltic starting composition (An-Di) doped with up to 5000 ppm of volatile elements (Li, K, Na, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Tl) was heated to run temperatures. To investigate the fO2 dependence 2 experiments at logfO2 = -11.3 (~ IW -0.5) and - 0,7 (pure air) at a constant temperature of 1300 °C were performed, while T dependence was investigated at 1300 and 1500 °C at constant fO2 in pure air. The original MAE technique was modified by two Al2O3 plates extending from the hot spot region up to the upper, cooler regions of the muffle tube. These plates function as condensation traps. The temperature profile of the entire setup including the Al2O3 plates under run conditions was calibrated prior to any run. Experiments lasted for up two weeks while experimental conditions were kept strictly constant and were monitored. Up to 46 samples were taken from the melt by time

  15. Contribution to the large and stable electric field induced strain for textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.675Ti0.325O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jiangtao; Zhao, Kunyu; Ruan, Wei; Ruan, Xuezheng; Zheng, Liaoying; Li, Guorong

    2016-08-01

    Textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.675Ti0.325O3 (PMN-PT) ceramics were prepared by the templated grain growth method with 3% plate-like BaTiO3 as templates. The degree of grain orientation was about 81% by calculating from the XRD pattern. Temperature dependence of electric field induced strain was measured for both untextured and textured PMN-PT ceramics. The results show that the electric field induced strain for textured PMN-PT ceramics is much larger and more stable than that for untextured PMN-PT ceramics in a wide temperature range. The contribution from the piezoelectric effect and electrostrictive effect to the strain was analyzed, and it was found that textured PMN-PT ceramics exhibited electrostrictive coefficient Q33 as high as 5.19 × 10-2 m4 C-2 and it was comparable to that of PMN-PT single crystals. The electrostrictive effect contributed the main part of the enhancement of electric field induced strain for textured PMN-PT ceramics.

  16. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Ostreopsis (Dinophyceae) and the description of a new species, Ostreopsis rhodesae sp. nov., from a subtropical Australian lagoon.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arjun; Hoppenrath, Mona; Dorantes-Aranda, Juan José; Harwood, D Tim; Murray, Shauna A

    2016-12-01

    Cryptic and pseudo-cryptic species are common amongst marine phytoplankton, and may cause misleading inferences of ecological and physiological data of plankton community studies. Deciphering the diversity and distribution of species of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis is one example, as there are many morphologically indistinct clades that differ greatly genetically and toxicologically from one another. In this study, a new species, Ostreopsis rhodesae from the southern Great Barrier Reef was described. While it initially appeared to be highly similar to several other Ostreopsis species, we found O. rhodesae can be distinguished based on the relative size of the second apical plate (2'), which is twice as long as the APC plate, and separates the third apical (3') from the third precingular (3'') plate. Phylogenetic trees based on the SSU, ITS/5.8S and D1-D2 and D8-D10 regions of the LSU rRNA were well supported, and showed a clear difference to other Ostreopsis clades. Compensatory base changes (CBCs) were identified in helices of the ITS2 between O. rhodesae and O. cf. ovata and O. cf. siamensis, which were also present in the same habitat. Fish gill cell lines were toxic to O. rhodesae, cell extracts but no palytoxin-like analogues were found in them. The findings highlight a case of pseudo-cryptic speciation, found in sympatry with closely related and morphologically similar species, but biologically and functionally distinct.

  17. In situ synthesis of CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Faqi; Li, Jie; Li, Wenzhang; Yang, Yahui; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Yaomin

    2016-09-01

    CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are for the first time prepared as an efficient photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation by an in situ conversion process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet visible spectrometry (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The CdS hollow spheres (∼80 nm) sensitized WO3 plate film with a CdWO4 buffer-layer exhibits increased visible light absorption and a significantly improved photoelectrochemical performance. The photocurrent density at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) of the CdS/CdWO4/WO3 anode is ∼3 times higher than that of the CdWO4/WO3 anode, and ∼9 times higher than that of pure WO3 under illumination. The highest incident-photon-to-current-efficiency (IPCE) value increased from 16% to 63% when the ternary heterojunction was formed. This study demonstrates that the synthesis of ternary composite photocatalysts by the in situ conversion process may be a promising approach to achieve high photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  18. Reversible Halide Exchange Reaction of Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Colloidal Nanocrystals for Full-Range Band Gap Tuning.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dong Myung; Park, Kidong; Kim, Duk Hwan; Park, Jeunghee; Shojaei, Fazel; Kang, Hong Seok; Ahn, Jae-Pyung; Lee, Jong Woon; Song, Jae Kyu

    2015-08-12

    In recent years, methylammonium lead halide (MAPbX3, where X = Cl, Br, and I) perovskites have attracted tremendous interest caused by their outstanding photovoltaic performance. Mixed halides have been frequently used as the active layer of solar cells, as a result of their superior physical properties as compared to those of traditionally used pure iodide. Herein, we report a remarkable finding of reversible halide-exchange reactions of MAPbX3, which facilitates the synthesis of a series of mixed halide perovskites. We synthesized MAPbBr3 plate-type nanocrystals (NCs) as a starting material by a novel solution reaction using octylamine as the capping ligand. The synthesis of MAPbBr(3-x)Clx and MAPbBr(3-x)Ix NCs was achieved by the halide exchange reaction of MAPbBr3 with MACl and MAI, respectively, in an isopropyl alcohol solution, demonstrating full-range band gap tuning over a wide range (1.6-3 eV). Moreover, photodetectors were fabricated using these composition-tuned NCs; a strong correlation was observed between the photocurrent and photoluminescence decay time. Among the two mixed halide perovskite series, those with I-rich composition (x = 2), where a sole tetragonal phase exists without the incorporation of a cubic phase, exhibited the highest photoconversion efficiency. To understand the composition-dependent photoconversion efficiency, first-principles density-functional theory calculations were carried out, which predicted many plausible configurations for cubic and tetragonal phase mixed halides.

  19. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen.

  20. High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, G.V.; Bass, I.L.; Hackel, R.P.; Jenkins, S.L.; Kanz, V.K.; Paisner, J.A.

    1993-09-21

    A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the second and third mirrors and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:sapphire rod is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers. For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter and an etalon are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors are disposed between the first and second mirrors to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers. 5 figures.

  1. High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Bass, Isaac L.; Hackel, Richard P.; Jenkins, Sherman L.; Kanz, Vernon K.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator (10) is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors (11-16) form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:Sapphire rod (17) is disposed between the second and third mirrors (12,13) and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:Sapphire rod (18) is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors (14,15) at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:Sapphire rod (17,18) is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers (21-22, 23-24). For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter (36) and an etalon (37) are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors (101, 192) are disposed between the first and second mirrors (11, 12) to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:Sapphire rod (103) is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors (101, 102) at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers (104, 105).

  2. Diagnosing deltoid injury in ankle fractures: the gravity stress view.

    PubMed

    Michelson, J D; Varner, K E; Checcone, M

    2001-06-01

    In the lateral malleolar ankle fracture without talar shift there is much uncertainty regarding the diagnosis of deltoid ligament injury severe enough to require surgical treatment. The current study evaluated the mechanical integrity of the ankle using a novel gravity-stress mortise radiographic view, which is practical for clinical use. Eight cadaveric lower extremities were tested under the following conditions: (1) intact ankle, (2) distal fibular oblique osteotomy, (3) plated fibula after osteotomy, (4) transection of the superficial deltoid with fibula osteotomized or plated, and (5) all possible combinations of deep deltoid transection with superficial deltoid transected or repaired and fibula osteotomized or plated. For each condition, a mortise radiograph was taken of the specimen while it was mounted horizontally, lateral side down. Fibular osteotomy with or without transection of the superficial deltoid did not alter the mortise radiograph appearance of the ankles. With combined deep and superficial deltoid transection and fibular osteotomy, the talus always (eight of eight specimens) showed a lateral shift of 2 mm or greater and a valgus tilt of 15 degrees or more. The gravity stress view of the ankle was found to reproducibly document destabilizing deltoid ligament damage.

  3. Microbial contamination of the environment after the irradiation of Er:YAG laser in infected root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Sampaio Moura, Marcelo; Heredia Seixas, Fabio; Rodrigues de Araujo Estrela, Cyntia; Estrela, Carlos; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the environment microbial contamination produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation in infected root canals. A total of 20 human anterior teeth were prepared, sterilized and, then, inoculated with a mixture of the following microorganisms: S. Aureus, E. Faecalis, P. Aeruginosa, B. Subtilis and C. Albicans. After the contamination period (28 days), the teeth were irrigated with sterile distilled water or 1% sodium hypochlorite and, then, irradiated with an Er:YAG laser with two different laser parameters: 52 mJ or 110 mJ output at the fiber tip. Eighteen Petri dishes with 20 ml of BHI Agar were used in the study. For each group, 3 plates with BHIA were used for the analysis of the microbial contamination of the environment during the activation of the laser in infected root canals. The plates were positioned in differing distances away from the irradiated tooth (plate 1 - distance of 15 cm, plate 2 - distance of 50 cm and plate 3 - distance of 3 meters). After the analysis of the results, it was observed that the larger microbial contamination occurred in Group 1 (teeth irrigated with sterile distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 52 mJ output at the fiber tip), plate 1 (positioned 15 cm away from the irradiated tooth), with values greater than 30 Colony-Forming Units (CFU).

  4. A general method to measure the Hall effect in nanowires: examples of FeS2 and MnSi.

    PubMed

    DeGrave, John P; Liang, Dong; Jin, Song

    2013-06-12

    We present a general methodology for measuring the Hall effect on nanostructures with one-dimensional (1D) nanowire morphology. Relying only on typical e-beam lithography, the methodology developed herein utilizes an angled electrode evaporation technique so that the nanowire itself is a shadow mask and an intimate sidewall contact can be formed for the Hall electrodes. A six-contact electrode scheme with offset transverse contacts is utilized that allows monitoring of both the longitudinal resistivity and the Hall resistivity which is extracted from the raw voltage from the transverse electrodes using an antisymmetrization procedure. Our method does not require the use of a highly engineered lithographic process to produce directly opposing Hall electrodes with a very small gap. Hall effect measurements on semiconducting iron pyrite (FeS2) nanowire devices are validated by comparing to Hall effect measurements in the conventional Hall geometry using FeS2 plate devices. This Hall effect measurement is further extended to MnSi nanowires, and the distinct anomalous Hall effect signature is identified for the first time in chiral magnetic MnSi nanowires, a significant step toward identifying the topological Hall effect due to skyrmions in chiral magnetic nanowires.

  5. Isolation and characterization of rabbit kidney brush borders

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, S. J.; Robinson, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    1. Brush borders were isolated from rabbit kidney-cortex homogenates by rate-zonal centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient in a B-XIV zonal rotor, followed by differential centrifugation. 2. The method of preparation gave brush borders of high purity with a reasonable yield. The morphological appearance supported the evidence from enzymic and chemical investigations, that the brush borders were only slightly contaminated with endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes and nuclei. 3. The molar ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid lay within the range found in other plasma membranes, but the carbohydrate content was double that found in liver plasma membranes. 4. Alkaline phosphatase, maltase, trehalase and aminopeptidase were major enzymic constituents of the brush borders, and had an approximately equal yield and enrichment, but none of these enzymes fulfilled the criteria for marker enzymes. 5. Mg2+-dependent and Na+,K+-dependent adenosine triphosphatases, although found in brush borders, had low yields and low enrichments. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1 PMID:4264701

  6. Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy: A nondestructive method for assay of defects in large engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, P. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Dutta, D.; Maheshwari, P.; Sharma, S. K.; Srivastava, D.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology for volumetric assay of defects in large engineering materials nondestructively. It utilizes high energy photons produced by nuclear reaction to create positrons in situ whose fate is followed using conventional positron spectroscopic techniques. The photon induced positron annihilation (PIPA) spectroscopy system has been set-up using a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). Possibility of using prompt γ-rays produced in nuclear reactions 27Al( 1H,γ) 28Si and 19F( 1H,αγ) 16O has been examined. The reaction 19F( 1H,αγ) 16O is seen to provide higher photon flux (and positron yield) and measurements have been carried out in large samples of metals and polymers. We could establish good sensitivity of the technique as well as reproducibility in a number of measurements. This technique has been used to carry out defect studies in cold worked zircaloy-2 plates. The measured S-parameter, indicative of defect concentration, was seen to correlate well with the measured residual stress using X-ray technique. The results were validated by γ-induced positron annihilation lifetime measurements at ELBE LINAC based GiPS facility.

  7. Investigation of the solar influence on the cosmic muon flux using WILLI detector

    SciTech Connect

    Saftoiu, A.; Brancus, I. M.; Duma, M.; Mitrica, B.; Petcu, M.; Toma, G.; Bercuci, A.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2010-11-24

    A fesibility study to explore the capability of the WILLI detector to observe the solar events/activity by recording the muon intensity at ground level is presented.The WILLI detector, set up in National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, is a 1 m{sup 2} incident area sampling calorimeter. It can measure simultaneously muon events with the muon energy {>=}0.4 GeV and, if the muons are stopped in the detector, and muon energy between 0.42 plates of the detector stack.Taking into account muon events with energy {>=}0.4 GeV, a modulation of the muon intensity as a diurnal variation is observed. Muon events for a smaller energy range (0.4-0.6 GeV) seem to exhibit an aperiodic variation of the muon intensity, which could be correlated with magnetic activity indicated by the planetary K{sub p} index.

  8. Crustal structure of Precambrian terranes in the southern African subcontinent with implications for secular variation in crustal genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachingwe, Marsella; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    New estimates of crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio and crustal shear wave velocity have been obtained for 39 stations in Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia by modelling P-wave receiver functions using the H-κ stacking method and jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These estimates, combined with similar results from previous studies, have been examined for secular trends in Precambrian crustal structure within the southern African subcontinent. In both Archean and Proterozoic terranes we find similar Moho depths [38-39 ± 3 km SD (standard deviation)], crustal Poisson's ratio (0.26 ± 0.01 SD), mean crustal shear wave velocity (3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 SD), and amounts of heterogeneity in the thickness of the mafic lower crust, as defined by shear wave velocities ≥4.0 km s-1. In addition, the amount of variability in these crustal parameters is similar within each individual age grouping as between age groupings. Thus, the results provide little evidence for secular variation in Precambrian crustal structure, including between Meso- and Neoarchean crust. This finding suggests that (1) continental crustal has been generated by similar processes since the Mesoarchean or (2) plate tectonic processes have reworked and modified the crust through time, erasing variations in structure resulting from crustal genesis.

  9. Fabrication and performance studies of a cable-type flexible asymmetric supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, S T; Kalai Selvan, R

    2014-08-07

    In the present work a novel cable-type asymmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using plate-like β-Ni(OH)2 as the positive and activated carbon as the negative electrode, with polyvinyl alcohol-KOH (PVA-KOH) as the gel polymer electrolyte. The β-Ni(OH)2 plates were prepared by a reflux method and the activated carbon was derived from Tamarindus indica fruit shell by chemical activation. The working voltage of the fabricated cable-type asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was 1.4 V, and it achieved per-unit-length and gravimetric capacitances of 40.7 mF cm(-1) and 37.5 F g(-1) respectively at 2 mA. Besides, the fabricated ASC delivered a maximum per-unit-length (gravimetric) energy density of 10.7 μW h cm(-1) (9.8 W h kg(-1)) at a power density of 169 μW cm(-1) (154 W kg(-1)). In addition, it exhibited a better capacitance retention, of 88% over 1000 cylces and 76% over 2000 cycles.

  10. Two-incision technique for rotational acetabular osteotomy: good outcome in 35 hips.

    PubMed

    Pajarinen, Jarkko; Hirvensalo, Eero

    2003-04-01

    We have developed a 2-incision technique for rotational acetabular osteotomy. This includes both an extraperitoneal and an anterolateral exposure of the pelvic bones allowing an unconstrained approach without dissection of the muscle insertion. 2 plates are used to stabilize the osteotomy and full range motion of the hip is permitted within 2 days of surgery, while weight bearing is restricted for 6 weeks after the operation. We reviewed the complications and technical results in 27 patients (28 hips) after a minimum follow-up of mean 3 (1-5) years. No major surgical complications occurred, but dysfunction of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve occurred frequently (14 patients). The radiographical correction of the femoral head covering was similar to those in previous reports of rotational osteotomy. The range of hip motion was not affected by the operation. A significant increase in the mean Merle D'Aubigné and Harris Hip scores was observed in a subgroup of 20 patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. In conclusion, the method we have used is safe and the early results are satisfactory.

  11. Attempts to control clothes-borne infection in a burn unit, 3. An open-roofed plastic isolator or plastic aprons to prevent contact transfer of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Ransjö, U.

    1979-01-01

    An open-roofed plastic isolator was built in a single patient isolation room in a burn unit. It was designed to prevent contact contamination only, as this had been shown to be the important route of cross-colonization in the unit. To exclude any possible effect on airborne transfer of bacteria, the isolator was first examined by means of an airborne particle tracer of the same size as bacteria-carrying particles. Such experiments indicated that the isolator might prevent some transfer out of but not into the isolator. This was not confirmed in simulated nursing experiments nor in a patient study, where the air counts of bacteria were practically the same inside and outside the isolator wall. Two patients only were nursed in the isolator. Both patients acquired exogenous colonizations from other patients, one with Ps. aeruginosa and the other with S. aureus. Nursing in the isolator was difficult and staff-demanding. In simulated nursing experiments, plastic aprons and gauntlets as the only protective measures against contact contamination gave as much protection to a mock patient as did the isolator. S. aureus were released from nurses' clothes more easily during work with the isolator than in open nursing with aprons and gauntlets. In conclusion, the isolator did not seem to be a realistic alternative to impermeable clothes such as plastic aprons as a means of preventing clothes-borne cross-contamination between burn patients. Images Plate 2 Plate 1 PMID:109499

  12. MTR plates modeling with MAIA

    SciTech Connect

    Marelle, V.; Dubois, S.; Ripert, M.; Noirot, J.

    2008-07-15

    MAIA is a thermo-mechanical code dedicated to the modeling of MTR fuel plates. The main physical phenomena modeled in the code are the cladding oxidation, the interaction between fuel and Al-matrix, the swelling due to fission products and the Al/fuel particles interaction. The creeping of the plate can be modeled in the mechanical calculation. MAIA has been validated on U-Mo dispersion fuel experiments such as IRIS 1 and 2 and FUTURE. The results are in rather good agreement with post-irradiation examinations. MAIA can also be used to calculate in-pile behavior of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates as in the SHARE experiment irradiated in the SCK/Mol BR2 reactor. The main outputs given by MAIA throughout the irradiation are temperatures, cladding oxidation thickness, interaction thickness, volume fraction of meat constituents, swelling, displacements, strains and stresses. MAIA is originally a two-dimensional code but a three-dimensional version is currently under development. (author)

  13. Highly Efficient and Robust Nickel Phosphides as Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Overall Water-Splitting.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiayuan; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xuemei; Xia, Zhaoming; Gao, Wei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Qu, Yongquan

    2016-05-04

    To search for the efficient non-noble metal based and/or earth-abundant electrocatalysts for overall water-splitting is critical to promote the clean-energy technologies for hydrogen economy. Herein, we report nickel phosphide (NixPy) catalysts with the controllable phases as the efficient bifunctional catalysts for water electrolysis. The phases of NixPy were determined by the temperatures of the solid-phase reaction between the ultrathin Ni(OH)2 plates and NaH2PO2·H2O. The NixPy with the richest Ni5P4 phase synthesized at 325 °C (NixPy-325) delivered efficient and robust catalytic performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the electrolytes with a wide pH range. The NixPy-325 catalysts also exhibited a remarkable performance for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in a strong alkaline electrolyte (1.0 M KOH) due to the formation of surface NiOOH species. Furthermore, the bifunctional NixPy-325 catalysts enabled a highly performed overall water-splitting with ∼100% Faradaic efficiency in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte, in which a low applied external potential of 1.57 V led to a stabilized catalytic current density of 10 mA/cm(2) over 60 h.

  14. USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Research Presented at the NAAMLP Meeting in Billings, Mont., Sept. 25, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kate; Church, Stan

    2006-01-01

    The following talk was an invited presentation given at the National Association of Abandoned Mine Lands Programs meeting in Billings, Montana on Sept. 25, 2006. The objective of the talk was to outline the scope of the U.S. Geological Survey research, past, present and future, in the area of abandoned mine research. Two large Professional Papers have come out of our AML studies: Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., 2004, Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder mining districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652, 524 p., 2 plates, 1 DVD, URL: http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp1652 Church, S.E., von Guerard, Paul, and Finger, S.E., eds., 2006, Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, 1,096 p., 6 plates, 1 DVD (in press). Additional publications and links can be found on the USGS AML website at URL: http://amli.usgs.gov/ or are accessible from the USGS Mineral Resource Program website at URL: http://minerals.usgs.gov/.

  15. Development of technology for modeling of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of the shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, A.; Zalesak, J.; Bernstein, M.; Mason, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    A NASTRAN analysis of the solid rocket booster (SRB) substructure of the space shuttle 1/8-scale structural dynamics model. The NASTRAN finite element modeling capability was first used to formulate a model of a cylinder 10 in. radius by a 200 in. length to investigate the accuracy and adequacy of the proposed grid point spacing. Results were compared with a shell analysis and demonstrated relatively accurate results for NASTRAN for the lower modes, which were of primary interest. A finite element model of the full SRB was then formed using CQUAD2 plate elements containing membrane and bending stiffness and CBAR offset bar elements to represent the longerons and frames. Three layers of three-dimensional CHEXAI elements were used to model the propellant. This model, consisting of 4000 degrees of freedom (DOF) initially, was reduced to 176 DOF using Guyan reduction. The model was then submitted for complex Eigenvalue analysis. After experiencing considerable difficulty with attempts to run the complete model, it was split into two substructres. These were run separately and combined into a single 116 degree of freedom A set which was successfully run. Results are reported.

  16. A simple and inclusive method to determine the habit plane in transmission electron microscope based on accurate measurement of foil thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Dong Zhang, Mingxing

    2014-08-15

    A simple and inclusive method is proposed for accurate determination of the habit plane between bicrystals in transmission electron microscope. Whilst this method can be regarded as a variant of surface trace analysis, the major innovation lies in the improved accuracy and efficiency of foil thickness measurement, which involves a simple tilt of the thin foil about a permanent tilting axis of the specimen holder, rather than cumbersome tilt about the surface trace of the habit plane. Experimental study has been done to validate this proposed method in determining the habit plane between lamellar α{sub 2} plates and γ matrix in a Ti–Al–Nb alloy. Both high accuracy (± 1°) and high precision (± 1°) have been achieved by using the new method. The source of the experimental errors as well as the applicability of this method is discussed. Some tips to minimise the experimental errors are also suggested. - Highlights: • An improved algorithm is formulated to measure the foil thickness. • Habit plane can be determined with a single tilt holder based on the new algorithm. • Better accuracy and precision within ± 1° are achievable using the proposed method. • The data for multi-facet determination can be collected simultaneously.

  17. Experimental induction of vascular tissue in an undifferentiated plant callus

    PubMed Central

    Jeffs, R. A.; Northcote, D. H.

    1966-01-01

    1. By the implantation of wedges containing indol-3-ylacetic acid and sucrose into blocks of undifferentiated bean-callus tissue it has been possible to induce the formation of xylem and phloem cells. 2. The differentiation has been investigated cytologically and measured chemically. 3. The optimum concentrations of the nutrients in the wedge, which gave differentiation closely resembling the vascular development found in the stem of the intact plant, was 0·1mg. of indol-3-ylacetic acid/l. and 2% sucrose. 4. The ratios of the xylose/arabinose concentrations of the tissues increased in the differentiated callus tissue compared with those of the undifferentiated tissue. A similar increase has been found for the ratios determined for xylem tissue compared with those for cambium. 5. The lignin content of the differentiated tissue compared with the undifferentiated tissue was greater in both the callus and stem tissue. 6. Chemical analysis of lignin showed that in the differentiated callus tissue it consisted of sub-units based on p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin. This was compared with the lignin obtained from undifferentiated callus tissue and that obtained from the tissues of the intact stem. 7. The results of the investigation have been discussed with reference to the problems of cell growth and differentiation and related to the changing patterns of the ultrastructure of the cell during its development. ImagesPlate 2.Plate 1. PMID:5971774

  18. Community-level physiological profiling analyses show potential to identify the copiotrophic bacteria present in soil environments

    PubMed Central

    Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) analyses from very diverse environments are frequently used with the aim of characterizing the metabolic versatility of whole environmental bacterial communities. While the limitations of the methodology for the characterization of whole communities are well known, we propose that CLPP combined with high-throughput sequencing and qPCR can be utilized to identify the copiotrophic, fast-growing fraction of the bacterial community of soil environments, where oligotrophic taxa are usually dominant. In the present work we have used this approach to analyze samples of litter and soil from a coniferous forest in the Czech Republic using BIOLOG GN2 plates. Monosaccharides and amino acids were utilized significantly faster than other C substrates, such as organic acids, in both litter and soil samples. Bacterial biodiversity in CLPP wells was significantly lower than in the original community, independently of the carbon source. Bacterial communities became highly enriched in taxa that typically showed low abundance in the original soil, belonging mostly to the Gammaproteobacteria and the genus Pseudomonas, indicating that the copiotrophic strains, favoured by the high nutrient content, are rare in forest litter and soil. In contrast, taxa abundant in the original samples were rarely found to grow at sufficient rates under the CLPP conditions. Our results show that CLPP is useful to detect copiotrophic bacteria from the soil environments and that bacterial growth is substrate specific. PMID:28170446

  19. Growth of Nanostructure of Metal Oxides by Laser Ablation and by SiO2 Assisted Thermal Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL Nadi, Lotfia M.; Mehena, Galila; Omar, Mgdy M.; Moneim, Hussein A.; Taieb, Fakiha H. A.; Rahiem, Faried A.

    2007-02-01

    We report the results of growing nanostructures of gallium oxide and indium oxide by two methods. In the first one we applied laser ablation in air of pure graphite rod filled with Gallium or Indium metals. The ablated plume then deposited on SS substrates in air. In the second method the oxides were synthesized by thermal heating of the Ga or In metals mixed with powder of graphite and covered with SiO2 plates, supported by ceramic, in high temperature oven. The ablation method produced nanowires of Ga2O3 and nano particles of In2O3 developing in nanowires. . The solid carbon ablated from the graphite rod existing in the ablated plum as fine solid particles mixed with metal Ga or In melt in contact with oxygen gas in air, produced the growth of the metal oxide nano structures by solid -liquid-gas mechanism. The silica assisted catalytic growth oxides produce only nano particle of each metal. The reaction of the metals with SiO2 melt and graphite produced Si and carbon. The then formed Si carbide can effectively initiate vapor- liquid-solid growth of nano structure metal oxide. It seems that SiO2 in addition to the atmospheric oxygen provide the oxygen source for forming metal oxide nano dots.

  20. Optical, structural and electrochromic properties of sputter- deposited W-Mo oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesheva, K.; Arvizu, M. A.; Bodurov, G.; Ivanova, T.; Niklasson, G. A.; Iliev, M.; Vlakhov, T.; Terzijska, P.; Popkirov, G.; Abrashev, M.; Boyadjiev, S.; Jágerszki, G.; Szilágyi, I. M.; Marinov, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Thin metal oxide films were investigated by a series of characterization techniques including impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Thin film deposition by reactive DC magnetron sputtering was performed at the Ångström Laboratory. W and Mo targets (5 cm diameter) and various oxygen gas flows were employed to prepare samples with different properties, whereas the gas pressure was kept constant at about 30 mTorr. The substrates were 5×5 cm2 plates of unheated glass pre-coated with ITO having a resistance of 40 ohm/sq. Film thicknesses were around 300 nm as determined by surface profilometry. Newly acquired equipment was used to study optical spectra, optoelectronic properties, and film structure. Films of WO3 and of mixed W- Mo oxide with three compositions showed coloring and bleaching under the application of a small voltage. Cyclic voltammograms were recorded with a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. Ellipsometric data for the optical constants show dependence on the amount of MoOx in the chemical composition. Single MoOx film, and the mixed one with only 8% MoOx have the highest value of refractive index, and similar dispersion in the visible spectral range. Raman spectra displayed strong lines at wavenumbers between 780 cm-1 and 950 cm-1 related to stretching vibrations of WO3, and MoO3. AFM gave evidence for domains of different composition in mixed W-Mo oxide films.

  1. Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Anna Liza; Verma, Arjun; Harwood, Tim; Hoppenrath, Mona; Murray, Shauna

    2016-11-25

    Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) that bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in CFP endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to CFP cases occurring in this region. In this study, we characterized five strains of Gambierdiscus collected from Heron Island, Australia, a region in which ciguatera is endemic. Clonal cultures were assessed using (i) light microscopy; (ii) scanning electron microscopy; (iii) DNA sequencing based on the nuclear encoded ribosomal 18S and D8-D10 28S regions; (iv) toxicity via mouse bioassay; and (v) toxin profile as determined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Both the morphological and phylogenetic data indicated that these strains represent a new species of Gambierdiscus, G. lapillus sp. nov. (plate formula Po, 3', 0a, 7″, 6c, 7-8s, 5‴, 0p, 2″″ and distinctive by size and hatchet-shaped 2' plate). Culture extracts were found to be toxic using the mouse bioassay. Using chemical analysis, it was determined that they did not contain maitotoxin (MTX1) or known algal-derived ciguatoxin analogs (CTX3B, 3C, CTX4A, 4B), but that they contained putative MTX3, and likely other unknown compounds.

  2. Depth profiles of oxygen precipitates in nitride-coated silicon wafers subjected to rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronkov, V. V.; Falster, R.; Kim, TaeHyeong; Park, SoonSung; Torack, T.

    2013-07-01

    Silicon wafers, coated with a silicon nitride layer and subjected to high temperature Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) in Ar, show—upon a subsequent two-step precipitation anneal cycle (such as 800 °C + 1000 °C)—peculiar depth profiles of oxygen precipitate densities. Some profiles are sharply peaked near the wafer surface, sometimes with a zero bulk density. Other profiles are uniform in depth. The maximum density is always the same. These profiles are well reproduced by simulations assuming that precipitation starts from a uniformly distributed small oxide plates originated from RTA step and composed of oxygen atoms and vacancies ("VO2 plates"). During the first step of the precipitation anneal, an oxide layer propagates around this core plate by a process of oxygen attachment, meaning that an oxygen-only ring-shaped plate emerges around the original plate. These rings, depending on their size, then either dissolve or grow during the second part of the anneal leading to a rich variety of density profiles.

  3. Q-plates as higher order polarization controllers for orbital angular momentum modes of fiber.

    PubMed

    Gregg, P; Mirhosseini, M; Rubano, A; Marrucci, L; Karimi, E; Boyd, R W; Ramachandran, S

    2015-04-15

    We demonstrate that a |q|=1/2 plate, in conjunction with appropriate polarization optics, can selectively and switchably excite all linear combinations of the first radial mode order |l|=1 orbital angular momentum (OAM) fiber modes. This enables full mapping of free-space polarization states onto fiber vector modes, including the radially (TM) and azimuthally polarized (TE) modes. The setup requires few optical components and can yield mode purities as high as ∼30  dB. Additionally, just as a conventional fiber polarization controller creates arbitrary elliptical polarization states to counteract fiber birefringence and yield desired polarizations at the output of a single-mode fiber, q-plates disentangle degenerate state mixing effects between fiber OAM states to yield pure states, even after long-length fiber propagation. We thus demonstrate the ability to switch dynamically, potentially at ∼GHz rates, between OAM modes, or create desired linear combinations of them. We envision applications in fiber-based lasers employing vector or OAM mode outputs, as well as communications networking schemes exploiting spatial modes for higher dimensional encoding.

  4. Investigations on the mechanism of superlubricity achieved with phosphoric acid solution by direct observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinjin; Ma, Liran; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Chenhui; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the contact region between a Si3N4 ball and a SiO2 plate with the lubrication of phosphoric acid solution is observed directly by an optical microscope combined with a Raman microscope to understand the superlubricity mechanism. It is found that the wear on the friction surfaces mainly occurs at the beginning of the test and nearly disappears after the friction coefficient reduces to 0.05. When the superlubricity appears (μ = 0.004), there is only a limited amount of solution available to the contact (forming starvation state), resulting in an "H" distribution surrounding the contact region. Moreover, it is observed that the hydrogen bond effect in the solution is enhanced with time going by, and finally a thin film with hydrogen bond network among H3PO4, H2PO4-, and H2O is formed on the friction surfaces, leading to the superlubricity. By employing this direct observation approach, the structure of the confined solution and the superlubricity mechanism of phosphoric acid solution are finally investigated and discussed.

  5. A simple, specific high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative determination of melatonin in cell culture medium.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Cassone, Vincent M

    2015-09-01

    A simple, specific, high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative determination of melatonin was developed for directly measuring melatonin in cell culture medium with 10% FBS. This assay adopts a commercial monoclonal melatonin antibody and melatonin-HRP conjugate, so it can be applied in multiple labs rapidly with low cost compared with commercial RIA and ELISA kits. In addition, the procedure is much simpler with only four steps: 1) sample/conjugate incubation, 2) plate washing, 3) TMB color reaction and 4) reading of results. The standards of the assay cover a wide working range from 100 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL. The sensitivity was 68 pg/mL in cell culture medium with 10% FBS and 26 pg/mL in PBS with as little as 25 μL sample volume. The recovery of melatonin from cell culture medium was 101.0%. The principal cross-reacting compound was 5-methoxytryptophol (0.1%). The variation coefficients of the assay, within and between runs, ranged between 6.68% and 15.76% in cell culture medium. The mean linearity of a series diluted cell culture medium sample was 105% (CV=5%), ranging between 98% and 111%, y=5.5263x+0.0646, R(2)=0.99. The assay enables small research and teaching labs to reliably measure this important neurohormone.

  6. Management of pediatric mandibular fractures using bioresorbable plating system – Efficacy, stability, and clinical outcomes: Our experiences and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mahinder; Singh, R.K.; Passi, Deepak; Aggarwal, Mohit; Kaur, Guneet

    2015-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and stability of the biodegradable fixation system for treatment of mandible fractures in pediatric patients by measuring the bite force. Methods Sixty pediatric patients with mandibular fractures (36 males, 24 females) were included in this study. The 2.5-mm resorbable plates were adapted along Champy's line of ideal osteosynthesis and secured with four 2.5 mm diameter monocortical resorbable screws, 8 mm in length. All patients were followed for 10 months. Clinical parameters, such as soft tissue infection, nonunion, malunion, implant exposure, malocclusion, nerve injury, and bite force for stability, were prospectively assessed. Results Adequate fixation and primary bone healing was achieved in 100% of the cases. Six minor complications (10%) were observed: 2 soft tissue infections (3%), 1 plate dehiscence (2%), 1 malocclusion (2%), and 2 paresthesia (3%). Conclusion 2.5-mm resorbable plating system along Champy's line of ideal osteosynthesis is a good treatment modality for mandible fractures in pediatric patients. PMID:27195206

  7. Effect of cold compression on precipitation and conductivity of an Al-Li-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Khan, A K; Robinson, J S

    2008-12-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate the effect of increasing the degree of deformation applied by cold compression on the ageing kinetics and electrical conductivity response of an Al-Li-Cu alloy containing Mg and Ag. When cold compressed greater than 3%, the increased dislocation density accelerates the widespread precipitation of the T(1) phase resulting in an enhanced age hardening response. The lengthening rate of T(1) precipitates is also reduced in this cold compressed condition owing to the reduced local solute supersaturation, a result of the widespread precipitation of T(1) plates. Cold compression by less than 3% does not increase the age hardening response, and the precipitation of GP zones/theta'' appears to be suppressed. Precipitation of the T(1) phase is also not significantly enhanced compared with that of the more than 3% cold compressed conditions. The anomalous decrease in electrical conductivity is associated with the nucleation and growth of the T(1) phase. Strain fields around T(1) precipitates combined with the increased volume fraction of T(1) are thought to be the cause of the anomalous conductivity behaviour.

  8. First geodetic measurement of convergence across the Java Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tregoning, P.; Brunner, F. K.; Bock, Y.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Mccraffrey, R.; Genrich, J. F.; Calais, E.; Rais, J.; Subarya, C.

    1994-01-01

    Convergence across the Java Trench has been estimated for the first time, from annual Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements commencing in 1989. The directions of motion of Christmas and Cocos Island are within 1 deg of that predicted by the No-Net Rotation (NNR) NUVEL-1 plate motion model for the Australian plate although their rates are 25% and 37% less than predcited, respectively. The motion of West Java differs significantly from the NNR NUVEL-1 prediction for the Eurasian plate with a 1 deg difference in direction and a 40% increase in rate. We infer that either West Java moves with a distinct Southeast Asian plate or this region experiences plate margin deformation. The convergence of Christmas Island with respect to West Java is 67 +/- mm/yr in a direction N11 deg E +/- 4 deg which is orthogonal to the trench. The magnitude of convergence agrees well with rescaled NUVEL-1 relative plate model which predicts a value of 71 mm/yr between Australia and Eurasia. The direction of motion matches the direction inferred from earthquake slip vectors at the trench but may be more northerly than the N20 deg E +/- 3 deg predicted by NUVEL-1. On June 2, 1994, almost a year after the last GPS survey, an M(sub W) = 7.5 earthquake with slip vector direction N5 deg occurred south of central Java.

  9. Comparative pathology of the nasal mucosa in laboratory animals exposed to inhaled irritants.

    PubMed Central

    Harkema, J R

    1990-01-01

    The nasal cavity is susceptible to chemically induced injury as a result of exposure to inhaled irritants. Some responses of the nasal mucosa to inhaled toxicants are species specific. These species-related differences in response may be due to variations in structural, physiologic, and biochemical factors, such as gross nasal cavity structure, distribution of luminal epithelial cell populations along the nasal airway, intranasal airflow patterns, nasal mucociliary apparatus, and nasal xenobiotic metabolism among animal species. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy and irritant-induced pathology of the nasal cavity in laboratory animals. The toxicologist, pathologist, and environmental risk assessor must have a good working knowledge of the similarities and differences in normal nasal structure and response to injury among species before they can select animal models for nasal toxicity studies, recognize toxicant-induced lesions in the nasal airway, and extrapolate experimental results to estimate the possible effects of an inhaled toxicant on the human nasal airway. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. A PLATE 2. B PLATE 3. PMID:2116960

  10. Mercaptan-induced fragmentation of a subunit-like proteolytic fragment of immunoglobulin M

    PubMed Central

    Butchko, G. M.; Inman, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Limited papain hydrolysis of immunoglobulin M (IgM) produces a subunit-like proteolytic fragment designated IgMp (Inman & Hazen, 1968). In the presence of mercaptans, IgMp partially dissociated into Fcμ-like and Fabμ fragments. Treatment of residual IgM (that remaining after a papain digestion) with 2mm-mercaptoethylamine resulted in fragmentation of the same type that occurs in a routine limited digestion of IgM with papain, although exogenous enzyme was not added to the mixture. When IgM was hydrolysed with 14C-labelled papain, a small quantity of the enzyme was found to be associated with the residual IgM and IgMp fractions. IgM and IgM 7S subunit (IgMs) that had been exposed to papain in the absence of activating mercaptan and separated from the enzyme by gel filtration also fragmented when subsequently treated with 2mm-mercaptoethylamine. The fragments resembled those produced during a typical limited papain digestion of IgM. It was concluded that mercaptoethylamine induced fragmentation of IgMp by activating adsorbed papain. ImagesFig. 1.PLATE 1 PMID:5076228

  11. The effect of angiotensin, noradrenaline and vasopressin on blood flow distribution in the rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Finberg, J. P. M.; Peart, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    1. The effect of val5-angiotensin II amide, noradrenaline and vasopressin, on kidney volume and intrarenal distribution of carbon particles and thioflavine S was examined in the rat. 2. Angiotensin produced a dose-dependent shrinkage of the kidney coinciding with the rise in systemic blood pressure. Noradrenaline and vasopressin, however, produced reduction in kidney volume only in much higher doses than were necessary to produce a pressor effect. 3. An intravenous infusion of angiotensin sufficient to produce a diuretic response resulted in a striking increase in glomerular content of injected carbon particles, and a marked reduction in filling of the capillary plexuses of the subcortex and outer medulla. The reduction in outer medullary filling was also observed using the thioflavine S technique. 4. Noradrenaline infused in amounts sufficient to produce diuresis, aortic constriction above the kidney and vasopressin injection produced no measurable change in carbon particle distribution. 5. The reduction in capillary blood flow produced by angiotensin may result in impaired tubular reabsorptive capacity by reducing peritubular removal of reabsorbate, or by reducing oxygen availability. Thus the vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin may explain its diuretic action. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:4333828

  12. Extracellular space and diffusion barriers in muscle fibres from Megabalanus psittacus (Darwin).

    PubMed Central

    Bacigalupo, J; Luxoro, M; Rissetti, S; Vergara, C

    1979-01-01

    1. Muscle fibres from Megabalanus psittacus (Darwin) were used to measure the exchange of Na+ and Ca2+ between intracellular and extracellular compartments. 2. The size of the extracellular space was evaluated directly from electron micrographs at 6.1 +/- 0.5% (percentage of the fibre volume). The more conventional estimates using Na+ and 134Cs+ as space markers gave higher values, namely, 8.9 +/- 0.7 and 9.5 +/- 1.5%. 3. An average value of 9.2% was used to correct the total Na+ and K+ in the muscle fibres and to estimate the intracellular concentrations of Na+ and K+ as 39 +/- 4 and 202 +/- 11 mM respectively. 4. Na+ (and similar Ca2+) washout curves could be described using a three compartments diffusion model. The data analysed in terms of this model enabled us to estimate membrane permeabilities as PNa+ = 2.7 x 10(-7) and PCa2+ = 2.7 x 10(-7) cm/sec. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:469719

  13. Iodination of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean O.; Harris, J. Ieuan

    1970-01-01

    1. A high degree of homology in the positions of tyrosine residues in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from lobster and pig muscle, and from yeast, prompted an examination of the reactivity of tyrosine residues in the enzyme. 2. Iodination of the enzyme from lobster muscle with low concentrations of potassium tri-[125I]-iodide led to the identification of tyrosine residues of differing reactivity. Tyrosine-46 appeared to be the most reactive in the native enzyme. 3. When the monocarboxymethylated enzyme was briefly treated with small amounts of iodine, iodination could be confined almost entirely to tyrosine-46 in the lobster enzyme; tyrosine-39 or tyrosine-42, or both, were also beginning to react. 4. These three tyrosine residues were also those that reacted most readily in the carboxymethylated pig and yeast enzymes. 5. The difficulties in attaining specific reaction of the native enzyme are considered. 6. The differences between our results and those of other workers are discussed. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5530750

  14. The purification and properties of the second component of human complement.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, M A; Porter, R R

    1978-01-01

    The second component of human complement (C2) was purified by a combination of euglobulin precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and affinity chromatography. The final product was homogeneous by the criterion of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and represents a purification of about 4000-fold from serum with 15-20% yield. Component C2 comprises a single carbohydrate-containing polypeptide chain, with an apparent mol.wt. of 102000; alanine is the N-terminal amino acid. The molecule is rapidly cleaved by activated subcomponent C1s with the loss of haemolytic activity to yield two fragments with apparent mol.wts. of 74000 and 34000. These fragments are not linked by disulphide bonds and can be easily separated. A second protein isolated during the purification of component C2 was identified by its haemolytic and antigenic properties as complement Factor B, the protein serving an analogous function to component C2 in the alternative pathway. The protein, which is also a single carbohydrate-containing polypeptide chain, has an apparent mol.wt. of 95000 and threonine as N-terminal amino acid. The amino acid analyses of component C2 and Factor B are compared. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:417728

  15. Mitochondrial development in liver of foetal and newborn rats

    PubMed Central

    Jakovcic, S.; Haddock, J.; Getz, G. S.; Rabinowitz, M.; Swift, H.

    1971-01-01

    The development of the inner mitochondrial membrane in foetal and neonatal rat liver was studied by following three parameters: (1) the activity of several respiratory enzymes in homogenates and purified mitochondria, (2) the spectrophotometric determination of cytochrome content in the mitochondria and (3) the cardiolipin content in both homogenates and purified mitochondria. Respiratory-enzyme activities of homogenates of foetal liver were one-quarter to one-twentieth of those of homogenates of adult liver, and the enzyme specific activities in purified mitochondria from foetal liver were one-half to one-eighth of those in mitochondria from adult liver. The cardiolipin content of liver homogenates increased approximately twofold during the development period, but there was no significant change in the cardiolipin content of purified mitochondria. It is concluded that cell mitochondrial content approximately doubles in the immediate postnatal period. There was no evidence for an increase in the relative amount of cristae protein in mitochondria during this period to account for increases in mitochondrial enzyme specific activity, since cardiolipin and cytochrome concentrations remained unchanged and electron micrographs revealed no differences. The cause of the lower respiratory-enzyme specific activity in foetal liver mitochondria is unclear. Qualitative differences in respiratory units in foetal and mature animals are suggested. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:4330092

  16. Geodynamic and Seismic Constraints on the Evolution of the Oceanic Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahy, E. H.; Hall, P. S.; Dalton, C. A.; Faul, U.

    2011-12-01

    We report on a series of numerical geodynamic experiments undertaken to investigate the evolution the oceanic lithosphere and the characteristics of the underlying asthenosphere. In particular, we used the CitcomCU finite element package to model mantle flow beneath an oceanic plate. Experiments incorporated deformation by both diffusion creep and dislocation creep mechanisms, with experimentally constrained constants used for the relevant flow laws. We find that the use of flow laws appropriate for wet olivine aggregates leads to the formation of instabilities at the base of the thermal boundary layer corresponding to the lithosphere, which are not found in the experiments employing flow laws for dry olivine. These instabilities effectively thin the older portions of the thermal boundary layer, resulting in an average temperature structure closely resembling the GDH1 plate model [Stein and Stein, 1992] within the model domain. In contrast, the thermal structure of experiments in which instabilities do not form resembles resembles that of a half-space cooling model. Comparison of experimental results to seismic models of variations in shear wave velocity and shear attenuation with both depth and age within the oceanic upper mantle indicates that experiments in which instabilities occur provide a better match to seismic observations than do experiments without such instabilities.

  17. Immunochemical studies with a specific antiserum to rabbit fibroblast collagenase.

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Z; Reynolds, J J

    1975-01-01

    1. Antisera were raised against the collagenase from rabbit synovial fibroblasts and characterized by immunoprecipitation and immunoinhibition reactions. 2. Immunoglobulins from the antisera were potent inhibitors of the action of rabbit collagenase on both reconstituted collagen fibrils and collagen in solution. 3. The antibody-binding fragment, Fab', produced by digesting the IgG (immunoglobulin G) with pepsin, inhibited collagenase activity just as well as whole IgG. 4. A specific antiserum to the rabbit collagenase was raised by a multi-step procedure. An initial antiserum was made by injecting partially purified collagenase as a complex with sheep alpha2-macroglobulin into a sheep. The non-specific antiserum so obtained was used to produce precipitin lines with the purified enzyme, and these lines were used as antigen for the production of the specific antiserum. 5. An IgG preparation from the specific antiserum was a specific and potent inhibitor of the rabbit synovial fibroblast collagenase. Neutral metallo-proteinase activity secreted by the rabbit fibroblasts was not inhibited by the antibody to the rabbit collagenase. 6. Criteria for determination of the specificity of antisera are discussed. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:175786

  18. Grading atherosclerosis in aorta and coronary arteries obtained at autopsy

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Kazuo; Sternby, Nils; Vaněček, Rudolf; Vihert, Anatoli; Kagan, Aubrey

    1964-01-01

    A method of assessing “atherosclerosis”, if used according to certain rules, was shown in an earlier study to be capable of discriminating between groups of aortas or coronary arteries according to the quantity of certain defined lesions. It would not measure absolute amounts, but would show whether one group of specimens had more or less of the factor assessed than another and would indicate the statistical significance of this finding according to the number of specimens in each group. The method has now been applied to a study of material from six communities in three countries. This paper outlines how the rules of procedure were applied. Intra-observer and inter-observer calibration tests carried out in a routine manner during four “grading sessions” and inter-sessional tests are described. The discriminatory power in comparing groups of specimens from nearly 3000 subjects is calculated and shown according to artery (thoracic aorta, descending aorta, right coronary, left anterior descending coronary, left circumflex coronary) and type of lesion (“total amount of atherosclerosis”, “fatty streak”, “fibrous plaque”, “complicated lesion” and “calcification”). Observations on “coronary stenosis” were also made. The discriminatory power of the method was calculated for this factor and, contrary to many expectations, was found to be of practical value. Definitions and general procedure are described in annexes. ImagesFIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15PLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:14267740

  19. A physiological study of chick myotubes grown in tissue culture

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. B.; Marshall, M. W.; Wilson, P.

    1973-01-01

    1. A study has been made of some passive and active membrane properties of myotubes of different ages obtained in culture from explants of chick embryo thigh muscle. 2. After 3 days in vitro the mean values for the myotube resting membrane potential and input resistance were - 63·8 mV and 1·30 MΩ respectively. By 13 days these values had fallen to - 51·0 mV and 0·80 MΩ. 3. Current/voltage relations were measured in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The relations were linear for membrane potentials between - 120 and - 35 mV. Further depolarization usually resulted in a delayed increase in conductance which inactivated with time. 4. All myotubes tested using anodal break excitation were capable of generating action potentials. Action potentials were blocked by tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin and procaine. 5. All myotubes were sensitive to iontophoretically applied ACh. The potential change produced by ACh reversed polarity at a membrane potential between 0 and + 10 mV. The depolarization produced by ACh was unaffected by anticholinesterases. 6. The ACh response was blocked by cobra neurotoxin, D-tubocurarine and atropine. 7. The electrical properties of the myotubes appear to resemble those of normal adult twitch-type skeletal muscle fibres. 8. The pharmacological properties of the myotube cholinergic receptor have been compared with those of the neuromuscular junction and the denervated muscle fibre membrane. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:4735059

  20. Localization of calcium channels in Paramecium caudatum.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, K

    1977-01-01

    1. Electrical recordings from Paramecium caudatum were made after removal of the cilia with chloral hydrate and during ciliary regrowth to study the electrical properties of that portion of the surface membrane enclosing the ciliary axoneme. 2. Removal of the somatic cilia (a 50% reduction in membrane surface area) results in an almost complete elimination of the regenerative Ca response, all-or-none Ba2+ spike, and delayed rectification. 3. A twofold increase in input resistance resulted from the 50% reduction in membrane surface area. 4. The electrical properties remained unchanged, despite prolonged exposure to the chloral hydrate, until the cilia were mechanically removed. 5. Restoration of the Ca response accompanied ciliary regrowth, so that complete excitability returns when the cilia regain their original lengths. 6. It is concluded that the voltage-sensitive Ca channels are localized to that portion of surface membrane surrounding the cilia. 7. Measurements of membrane constants before and after deciliation and estimations of the cable constants of a single cilium suggest that the cilia of Paramecium may be fully isopotential along their length and with the major cell compartment. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:915829

  1. Characterization of a 5-fluorouracil-enriched osteoprogenitor population of the murine bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Falla, N; Van Vlasselaer; Bierkens, J; Borremans, B; Schoeters, G; Van Gorp, U

    1993-12-15

    In the presence of beta-glycerophosphate and vitamin C, cultures of normal mouse bone marrow cells form three-dimensional structures that stain positive with the Von Kossa technique and express alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Little is known about the characteristics and frequency of the cells that contribute to this phenomenon. Most likely, mature osteoblastic cells do not contribute to the nodule formation because no osteocalcin expressing cells are detected in the flushed marrow by in situ hybridization. Limiting dilution analysis shows that, in normal bone marrow, 1 of 2.2 x 10(5) cells has the potency to form a bone nodule and to express ALP, collagen, and osteocalcin in a temporal fashion. Upon in vivo treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), this frequency increases 12-fold, eg, 1 in 1.75 x 10(4) cells shows osteogenic activity. In comparison, fibroblast colony forming cells occur at a frequency of 1 of 2.5 x 10(4) or 1 of 5 x 10(3) plated cells in normal or 5-FU-treated marrow, respectively. Using density centrifugation, the majority of the osteoprogenitor cells in 5-FU marrow are found in the low-density (1.066 to 1.067 g/mL) fractions. In addition, these cells bind to nylon wool but not to plastic and aggregate in the presence of wheat germ agglutinin and soybean agglutinin. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy shows that the bone nodules in 5-FU marrow cultures are composed of fibroblastoid cells embedded in a mineralized collagen matrix. In conclusion, our results show that a quiescent cell population in the murine bone marrow with fibroblastoid characteristics contributes to the formation of bone-like nodules in vitro.

  2. Osteotomy and intramedullary nailing for the correction of progressive deformity in vitamin D-resistant hypophosphataemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Eyres, K S; Brown, J; Douglas, D L

    1993-02-01

    We have reviewed the results of surgical treatment of vitamin D-resistant hypophosphataemic rickets (VDRR) and describe a technique of corrective osteotomy and intramedullary nailing. From 1978 to 1986, epiphysiodesis (n = 4) and osteotomy (n = 8) was performed in 6 children (mean age 13, range 10-16 years) for the correction of progressive lower limb deformity. Realignment and internal fixation of a pathological fracture of the femur was performed in an adult (aged 24). Epiphysiodesis resulted in recurrent deformity in all patients and reapplication of staples for loosening was required in three. Corrective osteotomies were secured with staples (n = 3), plates (n = 4), or plaster alone (n = 1) and were complicated by non-union in one patient, and recurrent deformity in two patients. Double-plating of the femoral fracture resulted in union but recurrent deformity. Compliance to treatment with phosphate and vitamin D was variable. In order to manage progressive recurrent deformity, we have performed corrective osteotomy and closed intramedullary nailing of the tibia (n = 2) and femur (n = 3) in 4 skeletally mature patients (mean age 31). All osteotomies united and no complications were encountered. Deformity has been corrected in all cases and all patients are satisfied with the outcome at least 2 years after surgery. We conclude that rigid methods of fixation spanning the whole length of the bone are required to maintain limb alignment in skeletally mature patients with VDRR. Since the quality of bone in VDRR is variable, experience with intramedullary techniques is essential. We stress the importance of appropriate medical therapy throughout the treatment of these patients.

  3. Electroless plating of silver nanoparticles on porous silicon for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong; Xu, Ning; Huang, Wen-Yi; Han, Huan-Mei; Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2009-03-01

    An improved DIOS (desorption ionization on porous silicon) method for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) by electroless plating of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on porous silicon (PSi) was developed. By addition of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) into the AgNO3 plating solution, the plating speed can be slowed down and simultaneously 4-ATP self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on AgNPs (4-ATP/AgNPs) were formed. Both AgNPs and 4-ATP/AgNPs coated PSi substrates present much higher stability, sensitivity and reproducibility for LDI MS than the un-treated porous silicon ones. Their shelf life in air was tested for several weeks to a month and their mass spectra still displayed the same high quality and sensitivity as the freshly prepared ones. And more 4-ATP SAMs partly play a role of matrix to increase the ionization efficiency. A small organic molecule of tetrapyridinporphyrin (TPyP), oligomers of polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 and 2300), and a peptide of oxytocin were used as examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the silver-plated PSi as a matrix-free-like method for LDI MS. This approach can obtain limits of detection to femtomoles for TPyP, subpicomoles for oxytocin, and picomoles for PEG 400 and 2300, comparable to the traditional matrix method and much better than the DIOS method. It simplifies the sample preparation as a matrix-free-like method without addition of matrix molecules and homogenizes the sample spread over the spot for better and more even mass signals.

  4. SU-E-T-232: Micro Diamonds - Determination of Their Lateral Response Function Via Gap-Beam Dose Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Poppinga, D; Looe, H; Chofor, N; Schoenfeld, A; Fischer, J; Meyners, J; Delfs, B; Stelljes, T; Poppe, B; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Marinelli, M; Harder, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is the measurement of the lateral response function of microDiamonds by comparison with radiochromic film dose measurement. In this study a TM60019 microDiamond (PTW Freiburg, Germany) and a prototype synthetic diamond detector with smaller sensitive volume were investigated. Methods: Two lead blocks were positioned below the gantry head of an Elekta Synergy accelerator using a gantry mount. Between the blocks two sheets of paper were fixed. The water phantom was positioned below the gantry mount, so that the block to water distance was 20 cm. The gap beam profile was measured at 5 cm water depth by radiochromic EBT3 film and diamond detectors. The film was fixed on a RW3 plate, moved by the step motor system of the phantom and digitized by an Epson 10000XL scanner using the red color channel. Results: The lateral response of the prototype diamond detector is comparable to that of film measurements, i.e. has negligible width. This corresponds to the small detector volume of the prototype detector. In contrast to this the FWHM values of the gap-beam dose profiles measured with the TM60019 detector are somewhat larger, which corresponds to the larger sensitive detector volume. Conclusion: This study has illustrated the high spatial resolution of the diamond detectors. In comparison with filmmeasured narrow-beam dose profiles, the TM60019 has a spatial resolution function of about 2 mm FWHM, whereas the FWHM for the prototype is practically negligible. However due to the low signal caused by the small sensitive volume, measurements with the prototype in clinical routine are a challenge. On the other hand the TM60019 is a good compromise between detector volume and signal output and thus a well suited detector for most clinically relevant small field situations.

  5. Susceptibility corrections in solid-state NMR experiments with oriented membrane samples. Part I: applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Ralf W.; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2003-09-01

    Chemical shift referencing of solid-state NMR experiments on oriented membranes has to compensate for bulk magnetic susceptibility effects that are associated with the non-spherical sample shape, as described in the accompanying paper [J. Magn. Reson. 164 (2003) 115-127]. The resulting frequency deviations can be on the order of 10 ppm, which is serious for nuclei with a narrow chemical shift anisotropy such as 1H or 13C, and in some cases even 19F. Two referencing schemes are proposed here to compensate for these effects: A flat (0.4 mm) glass container with an isotropic reference molecule dissolved in a thin film of liquid is stacked on top of the oriented membrane sample. Alternatively, the intrinsic proton signal of the hydrated lipid can be used for chemical shift referencing. Further aspects related to magnetic susceptibility are discussed, such as air gaps in susceptibility-matched probeheads, the benefits of shimming, and limitations in the accuracy of orientational constraints. A biological application is illustrated by a series of experiments on the antimicrobial peptide PGLa, aimed at understanding its concentration-dependent membranolytic effect. To address a wide range of molar peptide/lipid ratios between 1:3000 and 1:8, multilayers of hydrated DMPC containing a 19F-labeled peptide were oriented between stacked glass plates. Maintaining an approximately constant amount of peptide gives rise to thick samples (18 plates) at low, and thin samples (3 plates) at high peptide/lipid ratio. Accurate referencing was critical to reveal a small but significant change over 5 ppm in the anisotropic chemical shift of the 19F label on the peptide, indicative of a change in the orientation and/or dynamics of PGLa in the membrane.

  6. Occurrence of Potentially Pathogenic Bacterial-Endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba Spp.

    PubMed Central

    NIYYATI, Maryam; MAFI, Mahyar; HAGHIGHI, Ali; HAKEMI VALA, Mojdeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acanthamoeba- bacteria interactions enable pathogenic bacteria to tolerate harsh conditions and lead to transmission to the susceptible host. The present study was aimed to address the presence of bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba isolated from recreational water sources of Tehran, Iran. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study regarding occurrence of bacteria in environmental Acanthamoeba spp. in Iran. Methods: A total of 75 samples of recreational water sources were collected. Samples were cultured on non- nutrient agar 1.5% plates. Positive Acanthamoeba spp. were axenically grown. DNA extraction and PCR reaction was performed using JDP1-2 primers. All positive samples of Acanthamoeba were examined for the presence of endosymbionts using staining and molecular methods. The PCR products were then sequenced in order to determine the genotypes of Acanthamoeba and bacteria genera. Results: Out of 75 samples, 16 (21.3%) plates were positive for Acanthamoeba according to the morphological criteria. Molecular analysis revealed that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 and T5 genotypes. Five isolates (35.7%) were positive for bacterial endosymbionts using staining method and PCR test. Sequencing of PCR products confirmed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefasiens. Conclusion: The presence of Acanthamoeba bearing pathogenic endosymbionts in water sources leads us to public health issues including improved sanitation and decontamination measures in recreational water sources in order to prevent amoebae-related infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report regarding the isolation of A. tumefasiens from Acanthamoeba in Iran and worldwide. PMID:26246815

  7. Fabrication of heterostructured Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 photocatalyst and efficient photodegradation of organic contaminants under visible-light.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Li, Shuangli; Yan, Tao; Ji, Pengge; Zhao, Xia; Yuan, Kun; Wei, Dong; Du, Bin

    2017-03-14

    Heterostructured Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 photocatalysts were fabricated by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, in which melem served as the sacrificial reagent to supply carbonate anions. The as-synthesized Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 heterojunction catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The XRD patterns of Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 catalysts showed the distinctive peaks of Bi2O2CO3 and Bi2O4. The SEM and TEM results showed that the pure Bi2O2CO3 possessed large plate morphology, while Bi2O4 were composed of various nanorods and particles. As for Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 heterojunction, it was obviously observed that Bi2O4 nanorods and particles were grown on the surfaces of Bi2O2CO3 plates. The visible light driven photocatalytic activity of Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 heterojunction photocatalyst was evaluated by decomposing dyes, phenol, and bisphenol A in water. Compared with Bi2O2CO3 and Bi2O4, the Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 photocatalysts have exhibited remarkable enhanced activity under visible light. The excellent activity can be mainly attributed to the enhanced separation efficiency of photo-generated carriers. Controlled experiments using different radical scavengers proved that O2(-) and h(+) played the main role in decomposing organic pollutants. The results of this work would provide a new sight for the construction of visible light-responsive photocatalysts with high performance.

  8. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons (lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)). Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure.

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The FY 1980 program continued to involve full-size, prototype cell, module and battery fabrication and evaluation, aimed at advancing the technical capabilities of the nickel-iron battery, while simultaneously reducing its potential cost in materials and process areas. Improved Electroprecipitation Process (EPP) nickel electrodes of design thickness (2.5 mm) are now being prepared that display stable capacities of 23 to 25 Ah for the C/3 drain rate at 200+ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are delivering 24 Ah at the target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron electrodes are displaying capacity stability for > 1000 test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Finished cells have delivered 57 to 61 Wh/kg at C/3, and have demonstrated cyclic stability to 500+ cycles at 80% depth of discharge profiles at Westinghouse. A 6-cell module that demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 48 Wh/kg at the C/3 drain rate has also been evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory, ANL. It operated for 327 test cycles, to a level of 161 Ah at the C/3 rate, before being removed from test. Reduction in nickel electrode swelling (and concurrent stack starvation), to improve cycling, continues to be an area of major effort to reach the final battery cycle life objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes continue to show promise for meeting the life objectives while, simultaneously, providing a low manufacturing cost. Refinements have occurred in the areas of cell hardware, module manifolding and cell interconnections. These improvements have been incorporated into the construction and testing of the cells and modules for this program. Temperature tests at 0/sup 0/C were performed on a 6-cell module and showed a decrease in capacity of only 25% in Ah and .29% in Wh as compared to 25/sup 0/C performance. Additional tests are planned to demonstrate performance at -15/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C.

  10. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The program has progressed to the stage of evaluating full-sized (220 Ah) cells, multicell modules, and 22 kWh batteries. Nickel electrodes that display stable capacities of up to 24 Ah/plate (at C/3 drain rate) at design thickness (2.5 mm) in tests at 200/sup +/ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are also delivering 24 Ah/plate (at C/3) at target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron plates are displaying capacity stability for 300/sup +/ test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Best finished cells are delivering 57 to 63 Wh/kg at C/3, based on cell weights of the finished cells, and in the actual designed cell volume. 6-cell module (6-1) performance has demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 53 WH/kg at the C/3 drain rate. This module is now being evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory. The 2 x 4 battery has been constructed, tested, and delivered for engineering test and evaluation. The battery delivered 22.5 kWh, as required (199 Ah discharge at 113 V-bar) at the C/3 drain rate. The battery has performed satisfactorily under dynamometer and constant current drain tests. Some cell problems, related to construction, necessitated changing 3 modules, but the battery is now ready for further testing. Reduction in nickel plate swelling (and concurrent stack electrolyte starvation), to improve cycling, is one area of major effort to reach the final battery objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes are showing promise in initial full-size cell tests and will continue to be evaluated in finished cells, along with other technology advancements. 30 figures, 14 tables.

  11. The Wsc1p Cell Wall Signaling Protein Controls Biofilm (Mat) Formation Independently of Flo11p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sarode, Neha; Davis, Sarah E.; Tams, Robert N.; Reynolds, Todd B.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of the ∑1278b background generate biofilms, referred to as mats, on low-density agar (0.3%) plates made with rich media (YPD). Mat formation involves adhesion of yeast cells to the surface of the agar substrate and each other as the biofilm matures, resulting in elaborate water channels that create filigreed patterns of cells. The cell wall adhesion protein Flo11p is required for mat formation; however, genetic data indicate that other unknown effectors are also required. For example, mutations in vacuolar protein sorting genes that affect the multivesicular body pathway, such as vps27∆, cause mat formation defects independently of Flo11p, presumably by affecting an unidentified signaling pathway. A cell wall signaling protein, Wsc1p, found at the plasma membrane is affected for localization and function by vps27∆. We found that a wsc1∆ mutation disrupted mat formation in a Flo11p-independent manner. Wsc1p appears to impact mat formation through the Rom2p-Rho1p signaling module, by which Wsc1p also regulates the cell wall. The Bck1p, Mkk1/Mkk2, Mpk1p MAP kinase signaling cascade is known to regulate the cell wall downstream of Wsc1p-Rom2p-Rho1p but, surprisingly, these kinases do not affect mat formation. In contrast, Wsc1p may impact mat formation by affecting Skn7p instead. Skn7p can also receive signaling inputs from the Sln1p histidine kinase; however, mutational analysis of specific histidine kinase receiver residues in Skn7p indicate that Sln1p does not play an important role in mat formation, suggesting that Skn7p primarily acts downstream of Wsc1p to regulate mat formation. PMID:24318926

  12. The purification and properties of ferritin from human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Worwood, M; Dawkins, S; Wagstaff, M; Jacobs, A

    1976-01-01

    1. Ferritin has been isolated from the serum of four patients with iron overload by using two methods. 2. In method A, the serum was adjusted to pH 4.8 and heated to 70 degrees C. After removal of denatured protein, ferritin was concentrated and further purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. In most cases, only a partial purification was achieved. 3. In method B, ferritin was extracted from the serum with a column of immuno-adsorbent [anti-(human ferritin)] and released from the column with 3M-KSCN. Further purification was achieved by anion-exchange chromatography followed by the removal of remaining contaminating serum proteins by means of a second immunoadsorbent. Purifications of up to 31 000-fold were achieved, and the homogeneity of the final preparations was demonstrated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 4. Serum ferritin purified by either method has the same elution volume as human spleen ferritin on gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Serum ferritin has a relatively low iron content and iron/protein ratios of 0.023 and 0.067 (mug of Fe/mug of protein) were found in two pure preparations. On anion-exchange chromatography serum ferritin has a low affinity for the column when compared with various tissue ferritins. Isoelectric focusing has demonstrated the presence of a high proportion of isoferritins of relatively high pI. 5. Possible mechanisms for the release of ferritin into the circulation are briefly discussed. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 PMID:962866

  13. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  14. Swelling of U(Mo) dispersion fuel under irradiation - Non-destructive analyses of the SELENIUM plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Berghe, S.; Parthoens, Y.; Cornelis, G.; Leenaers, A.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V.; Detavernier, C.

    2013-11-01

    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have caused a severe impediment on the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. Surface engineering of the U(Mo) kernel surfaces, where the interaction occurs, is put forward by SCKṡCEN as a possible solution in the Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium Molybdenum fuel (SELENIUM) program. The project involved the construction of a sputter coater, the coating of U(Mo) kernels, the production of fuel plates, the irradiation and post-irradiation examination of 2 plates. The irradiation of 2 distinct (600 nm Si and 1000 nm ZrN coated) full size, flat fuel plates was performed in the BR2 reactor in 2012. The irradiation conditions were: 470 W/cm2 peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ˜70% 235U peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the non-destructive post-irradiation examinations that were performed on these fuel plates and derives a law for the fuel swelling evolution with burnup for this fuel type. It further reports additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in campaigns in the past in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. The fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density, with an increase in swelling rate around 2.5 × 1021 f/cm3, which is associated with the restructuring of the fuel. A further increase in swelling rate is observed at the highest burnups, which is discussed in this article.

  15. Formation of {beta}-nickel hydroxide plate-like structures under mild conditions and their optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, A.P. de; Lima, R.C.; Paris, E.C.; Li, M.S.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2011-10-15

    Nanostructural {beta}-nickel hydroxide ({beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2}) plates were prepared using the microwave-hydrothermal (MH) method at a low temperature and short reaction times. An ammonia solution was employed as the coordinating agent, which reacts with [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. A trigonal {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} single phase was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and the crystal cell was constructed with structural parameters and atomic coordinates obtained from Rietveld refinement. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that the samples consisted of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates with a different particle size distribution. Broad absorption bands assigned as transitions of Ni{sup 2+} in oxygen octahedral sites were revealed by UV-vis spectra. Photoluminescence (PL) properties observed with a maximum peak centered in the blue-green region were attributed to different defects, which were produced during the nucleation process. We present a growth process scheme of the {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoplates. - Graphical abstract: Nanostructural {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} crystalline powders were prepared by rapid microwave-hydrothermal method for 1, 8 and 32 min. The hexagonal-shaped nanoplates obtained presented PL emission in the blue-green region and each decomposed component represents a different type of electronic transition, which can be linked to the structural arrangement or surface defects. Highlights: > Ammonia solution to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. > Regular plates-shape related to crystallization-dissolution-recrystallization. > The surface states and lattice defects generated in growth mechanism of crystals. > Different defects produced in the growth process responsible by photoluminescence. > Each component of photoluminescence curve linked to structural arrangement or surface defects.

  16. Wavefront-Error Performance Characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES). In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing (also known as phase retrieval), and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) plate scale measurements made using a Pseudo-Nonredundant Mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil geometry predictions as a function of SI and field point, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse translation diversity sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a sub-aperture is translated andor rotated across the exit pupil of the system.Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also describes the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis of focus-sweep data, used to establish the

  17. Study of the performance of a novel 1 mm resolution dual-panel PET camera design dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jin; Olcott, Peter D.; Chinn, Garry; Foudray, Angela M. K.; Levin, Craig S.

    2007-02-15

    We studied the performance of a dual-panel positron emission tomography (PET) camera dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. The PET camera under development has two 10x15 cm{sup 2} plates that are constructed from arrays of 1x1x3 mm{sup 3} LSO crystals coupled to novel ultra-thin (<200 {mu}m) silicon position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPD). In this design the photodetectors are configured ''edge-on'' with respect to incoming photons which encounter a minimum of 2 cm thick of LSO with directly measured photon interaction depth. Simulations predict that this camera will have 10-15% photon sensitivity, for an 8-4 cm panel separation. Detector measurements show {approx}1 mm{sup 3} intrinsic spatial resolution, <12% energy resolution, and {approx}2 ns coincidence time resolution. By performing simulated dual-panel PET studies using a phantom comprising active breast, heart, and torso tissue, count performance was studied as a function of coincident time and energy windows. We also studied visualization of hot spheres of 2.5-4.0 mm diameter and various locations within the simulated breast tissue for 1x1x3 mm{sup 3}, 2x2x10 mm{sup 3}, 3x3x30 mm{sup 3}, and 4x4x20 mm{sup 3} LSO crystal resolutions and different panel separations. Images were reconstructed by focal plane tomography with attenuation and normalization corrections applied. Simulation results indicate that with an activity concentration ratio of tumor:breast:heart:torso of 10:1:10:1 and 30 s of acquisition time, only the dual-plate PET camera comprising 1x1x3 mm{sup 3} crystals could resolve 2.5 mm diameter spheres with an average peak-to-valley ratio of 1.3.

  18. A biomechanical comparison of three different lateral tibia locking plates.

    PubMed

    Lindeque, Bennie; Baldini, Todd

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how well laterally placed modern tibia locking plates used in the treatment of Schatzker V tibial plateau fractures would uphold the medial plateau during axial loading. Fifteen third generation Sawbone tibias were obtained and an osteotomy was cut beneath the medial plateau to recreate Schatzker V type plateau fractures. Three groups were created (n=5 per group). Each group was plated with either a Synthes 4.5-mm LCP proximal tibial plate, a Zimmer NCB proximal tibia plate, or a DePuy Polyax tibial plate. A vertical load was applied over the medial plateau using an Instron servohydraulic test machine. Load measurements were analyzed at 2 and 3 mm of subsidence as well as load to failure. Failure was defined as closure of the wedge osteotomy or the medial condyle collapsing. A statistical difference was noted between the 2 plates from Synthes and DePuy and the plate from Zimmer with load carried at 2 and 3 mm of subsidence (Synthes 640.4 N & 943.7 N, Depuy 607.4 N & 891.0 N, Zimmer 459.7 N & 643.2 N). At failure, DePuy (2051.2 N) was statistically stronger than both Synthes (1724.8 N) and Zimmer (1724.8 N). The Synthes and DePuy plates both held up better than the Zimmer plate at 2 and 3 mm of subsidence. Despite this fact, all plates tested held up well above physiological forces of full and partial weight bearing and therefore would be appropriate for the treatment of Schatzker V type tibial plateau fractures.

  19. Gases and water isotopes in a geochemical section across the Larderello, Italy, geothermal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nehring, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    Steam samples from six wells (Colombaia, Pineta, Larderello 57, Larderello 155, Gabbro 6, and Gabbro 1) in a south to north section across the Larderello geothermal field have been analyzed for inorganic and hydrocarbon gases and for oxygen-18 and deuterium of steam. The wells generally decrease in depth and increase in age toward the south. The steam samples are generally characterized by (1) Total gas contents increasing south to north from 0.003 to 0.05 mole fraction; (2) Constant CO2 (95??2 percent); near constant H2S (1.6??0.8), N2 (1.2??0.8), H2 (2??1), CH4 (1.2??1), and no O2 in the dry gas; (3) Presence of numerous, straight chain and branched C2 to C6 hydrocarbons plus benzene in amounts independent of CH4 contents with highest concentrations in the deeper wells; (4) Oxygen-18 contents of steam increasing south to north from -5.0??? to -0.4??? with little change in deuterium (-42??2???). These observations are interpreted as showing: (1) Decreasing gas contents with amount of production because the proportion of steam boiled from liquid water increases with production; (2) Synthesis of CH4 from H2 and CO2 with CO2 and H2 produced by thermal metamorphism and rock-water reactions; (3) Extraction of C2 to C6 hydrocarbons from rock organic matter; (4) Either oxygen isotope exchange followed by distillation of steam from the north toward the south (2 plates at ???220??C) or mixture of deeper more-exchange waters from the north with shallow, less-exchanged recharging waters from the south. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

  20. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on the Disease Severity of Rocket Plants Caused by Fusarium Wilt under Phytotron Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chitarra, Walter; Siciliano, Ilenia; Ferrocino, Ilario; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The severity of F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans on rocket plants grown under simulated climate change conditions has been studied. The rocket plants were cultivated on an infested substrate (4 log CFU g-1) and a non-infested substrate over three cycles. Pots were placed in six phytotrons in order to simulate different environmental conditions: 1) 400-450 ppm CO2, 18-22°C; 2) 800-850 ppm CO2, 18-22°C; 3) 400-450 ppm CO2, 22-26°C, 4) 800-850 ppm CO2, 22-26°C, 5) 400-450 ppm CO2, 26-30°C; 6) 800-850 ppm CO2, 26-30°C. Substrates from the infested and control samples were collected from each phytotron at 0, 60 and 120 days after transplanting. The disease index, microbial abundance, leaf physiological performances, root exudates and variability in the fungal profiles were monitored. The disease index was found to be significantly influenced by higher levels of temperature and CO2. Plate counts showed that fungal and bacterial development was not affected by the different CO2 and temperature levels, but a significant decreasing trend was observed from 0 up to 120 days. Conversely, the F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans plate counts did not show any significantly decrease from 0 up to 120 days. The fungal profiles, evaluated by means of polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), showed a relationship to temperature and CO2 on fungal diversity profiles. Different exudation patterns were observed when the controls and infested plants were compared, and it was found that both CO2 and temperature can influence the release of compounds from the roots of rocket plants. In short, the results show that global climate changes could influence disease incidence, probably through plant-mediated effects, caused by soilborne pathogens.

  1. Geophysical interpretation of satellite laser ranging measurements of crustal movement in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    As determined by satellite laser ranging the rate of contraction of a 900 kilometer baseline between sites located near Quincy in northern California and San Diego in southern California is about 61 to 65 mm/yr with a formal uncertainty of about 10 mm/yr. The measured changes in baseline length are a manifestation of the relative motion between the North America and Pacific tectonic plates. This long baseline result is compared to measurements made by more conventional means on shorter baselines. Additional information based on seismicity, geology, and theoretical modelling is also analyzed. Deformation lying within a few tens of kilometers about the major faults in southern California accounts for most, but not all of the observed motion. Further motion is attributable to a broader scale deformation in southern California. Data suggesting crustal movements north of the Garlock fault, in and near the southern Sierra Nevada and local motion at an observatory are also critically reviewed. The best estimates of overall motion indicated by ground observations lie between 40 and 60 mm/yr. This lies within one or two standard deviations of that deduced by satellite ranging but the possibility of some unresolved deficit cannot be dismissed. The long time scale RM2 plate tectonic model of Minster and Jordan predicts a contraction between 47 and 53 mm/yr depending on the extension rate of the Basin and Range. Thus the ground based observations, satellite laser ranging (SLR) results, and RM2 rates differ at about the 10 mm/yr level and are consistent with one another within the data and model uncertainties.

  2. Geophysical interpretation of satellite laser ranging measurements of crustal movement in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Steven C.

    1985-12-01

    As determined by satellite laser ranging the rate of contraction of a 900 km baseline between sites located near Quincy in northern California and San Diego in southern California is about 61-65 mm/yr with a formal uncertainty of about 10 mm/yr (Christodoulidis et al., 1985). The measured changes in baseline length are a manifestation of the relative motion between the North America and Pacific tectonic plates. This long baseline result is compared to measurements made by more conventional means on shorter baselines. Additional information based on seismiscity, geology, and theoretical modelling is also analyzed. Deformation lying within a few tens of kilometers about the major faults in southern California accounts for most, but not all, of the observed motion. Further motion is attributable to a broader-scale deformation in southern California. Data suggesting crustal movements north of the Garlock fault, in and near the southern Sierra Nevada and local motion at an observatory are also critically reviewed. The best estimates of overall motion indicated by ground observations lie between 40 and 60 mm/yr. This lies within one or two standard deviations of that deduced from satellite ranging but the possibility of some unresolved deficit cannot be entirely dismissed. The long time scale RM2 plate tectonic model of Minster and Jordan (1978) predicts a contraction between 47 and 53 mm/yr depending on the extension rate of the Basin and Range. Thus the ground based observations, SLR results, and RM2 rates differ at about the 10 mm/yr level but are not inconsistent with one another within the data and model uncertainties.

  3. Geophysical interpretation of satellite laser ranging measurements of crustal movement in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1984-08-01

    As determined by satellite laser ranging the rate of contraction of a 900 kilometer baseline between sites located near Quincy in northern California and San Diego in southern California is about 61 to 65 mm/yr with a formal uncertainty of about 10 mm/yr. The measured changes in baseline length are a manifestation of the relative motion between the North America and Pacific tectonic plates. This long baseline result is compared to measurements made by more conventional means on shorter baselines. Additional information based on seismicity, geology, and theoretical modelling is also analyzed. Deformation lying within a few tens of kilometers about the major faults in southern California accounts for most, but not all of the observed motion. Further motion is attributable to a broader scale deformation in southern California. Data suggesting crustal movements north of the Garlock fault, in and near the southern Sierra Nevada and local motion at an observatory are also critically reviewed. The best estimates of overall motion indicated by ground observations lie between 40 and 60 mm/yr. This lies within one or two standard deviations of that deduced by satellite ranging but the possibility of some unresolved deficit cannot be dismissed. The long time scale RM2 plate tectonic model of Minster and Jordan predicts a contraction between 47 and 53 mm/yr depending on the extension rate of the Basin and Range. Thus the ground based observations, satellite laser ranging (SLR) results, and RM2 rates differ at about the 10 mm/yr level and are consistent with one another within the data and model uncertainties.

  4. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  5. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on the Disease Severity of Rocket Plants Caused by Fusarium Wilt under Phytotron Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chitarra, Walter; Siciliano, Ilenia; Ferrocino, Ilario; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The severity of F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans on rocket plants grown under simulated climate change conditions has been studied. The rocket plants were cultivated on an infested substrate (4 log CFU g-1) and a non-infested substrate over three cycles. Pots were placed in six phytotrons in order to simulate different environmental conditions: 1) 400–450 ppm CO2, 18–22°C; 2) 800–850 ppm CO2, 18–22°C; 3) 400–450 ppm CO2, 22–26°C, 4) 800–850 ppm CO2, 22–26°C, 5) 400–450 ppm CO2, 26–30°C; 6) 800–850 ppm CO2, 26–30°C. Substrates from the infested and control samples were collected from each phytotron at 0, 60 and 120 days after transplanting. The disease index, microbial abundance, leaf physiological performances, root exudates and variability in the fungal profiles were monitored. The disease index was found to be significantly influenced by higher levels of temperature and CO2. Plate counts showed that fungal and bacterial development was not affected by the different CO2 and temperature levels, but a significant decreasing trend was observed from 0 up to 120 days. Conversely, the F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans plate counts did not show any significantly decrease from 0 up to 120 days. The fungal profiles, evaluated by means of polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), showed a relationship to temperature and CO2 on fungal diversity profiles. Different exudation patterns were observed when the controls and infested plants were compared, and it was found that both CO2 and temperature can influence the release of compounds from the roots of rocket plants. In short, the results show that global climate changes could influence disease incidence, probably through plant-mediated effects, caused by soilborne pathogens. PMID:26469870

  6. Assimilating lithosphere and slab history in 4-D Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Dan J.; Gurnis, Michael; Flament, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We develop methods to incorporate paleogeographical constraints into numerical models of mantle convection. Through the solution of the convection equations, the models honor geophysical and geological data near the surface while predicting mantle flow and structure at depth and associated surface deformation. The methods consist of four constraints determined a priori from a plate history model: (1) plate velocities, (2) thermal structure of the lithosphere, (3) thermal structure of slabs in the upper mantle, and (4) velocity of slabs in the upper mantle. These constraints are implemented as temporally- and spatially-dependent conditions that are blended with the solution of the convection equations at each time step. We construct Earth-like regional models with oceanic and continental lithosphere, trench migration, oblique subduction, and asymmetric subduction to test the robustness of the methods by computing the temperature, velocity, and buoyancy flux of the lithosphere and slab. Full sphere convection models demonstrate how the methods can determine the flow associated with specific tectonic environments (e.g., back-arc basins, intraoceanic subduction zones) to address geological questions and compare with independent data, both at present-day and in the geological past (e.g., seismology, residual topography, stratigraphy). Using global models with paleogeographical constraints we demonstrate (1) subduction initiation at the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin and flat slab subduction beneath North America, (2) enhanced correlation of model slabs and fast anomalies in seismic tomography beneath North and South America, and (3) comparable amplitude of dynamic and residual topography in addition to improved spatial correlation of dynamic and residual topography lows.

  7. Studies on sex-organ development. Changes in chemical composition and oestradiol-binding capacity in chromatin during the differentiation of chick Müllerian ducts

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ching Sung; Teng, Christina T.

    1978-01-01

    Biochemical and immunochemical techniques were used to probe the changes in composition of the chromatin of differentiating Müllerian ducts. The non-histone protein increases gradually in the left duct and reaches a constant amount at day 15 of incubation, then remains at the same value until after birth. In the regressing right duct, the non-histone protein increases and then decreases. Gel electrophoresis indicated an increased heterogeneity in the composition of the non-histone protein corresponding to Müllerian-duct differentiation. Little variation in quantity and quality of the histone was observed; however, immunochemical assay confirmed the structural change of Müllerian-duct chromatin during development. An antibody against the chromatin of the newborn-chick oviduct was produced in the rabbit. The chromatin of Müllerian ducts from the early embryonic stage showed a small affinity with the antibody; the affinity increased during the late embryonic stages. The affinity was greatly decreased in the regressing right duct. Oestrogen-binding sites were present in the chromatin of the left and right Müllerian ducts during differentiation, with more sites in the left duct than in the right one during the late stages of development. After oestrogen treatment in vivo, the oestrogen-binding sites on the chromatin of both the left and the right ducts were increased, with a greater increase in the left duct than in the right. In the developing left duct the binding sites reach a maximum on day 15 of incubation, and remain constant at that value until birth. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:687351

  8. Electrophysiological properties of ependymal cells (radial glia) in dorsal cortex of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta.

    PubMed Central

    Connors, B W; Ransom, B R

    1987-01-01

    1. We have investigated the electrophysiological properties of ependymal cells in the isolated dorsal cortex of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta. The cell bodies of these radial glia form an epithelium at the ventricular surface, and each cell sends one or more branching processes through the cortex to the pial surface. Very few non-ependymal glia exist in the dorsal cortex. 2. Ependymal cells had high resting membrane potentials (-90 mV), very fast time constants and a lack of intrinsic excitability or synaptic potentials. 3. Changes in the K+ concentration ([K+]) of the bathing solution caused near-Nernstian changes of ependymal membrane potentials. When local neuronal pathways were activated, ependymal cells slowly depolarized while extracellular voltage shifted negatively. Simultaneous measurements of extracellular [K+] ([K+]o) near the impaled ependymal cell body showed that these slow depolarizations were fully accounted for by activity-dependent increases in [K+]o. Similar measurements during focal pressure applications of solutions with high [K+] suggested that intrasomatic recordings reflect predominantly the [K+]o adjacent to the cell body, and not the intracortical process. 4. Intracellular injections of the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow CH, and simultaneous recordings from neighbouring cells, indicated that ependymal cells are chemically and electrically coupled to one another. Increasing the ambient CO2 level from 5 to 40% depolarized cells, increased their input resistance, and abolished interglial dye coupling. 5. The physiological properties of ependymal cells are very similar to those of a variety of glial cell types in a range of vertebrate and invertebrate species. In the absence of other types of glia, radial glia may function as the sole cellular mediators of K+ redistribution (i.e. K+ spatial buffering) following neural activity, as well as the generators of slow extracellular potentials. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:3116210

  9. Analysis of the irradiation data for A302B and A533B correlation monitor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    The results of Charpy V-notch impact tests for A302B and A533B-1 Correlation Monitor Materials (CMM) listed in the surveillance power reactor data base (PR-EDB) and material test reactor data base (TR-EDB) are analyzed. The shift of the transition temperature at 30 ft-lb (T{sub 30}) is considered as the primary measure of radiation embrittlement in this report. The hyperbolic tangent fitting model and uncertainty of the fitting parameters for Charpy impact tests are presented in this report. For the surveillance CMM data, the transition temperature shifts at 30 ft-lb ({Delta}T{sub 30}) generally follow the predictions provided by Revision 2 of Regulatory Guide 1.99 (R.G. 1.99). Difference in capsule temperatures is a likely explanation for large deviations from R.G. 1.99 predictions. Deviations from the R.G. 1.99 predictions are correlated to similar deviations for the accompanying materials in the same capsules, but large random fluctuations prevent precise quantitative determination. Significant scatter is noted in the surveillance data, some of which may be attributed to variations from one specimen set to another, or inherent in Charpy V-notch testing. The major contributions to the uncertainty of the R.G. 1.99 prediction model, and the overall data scatter are from mechanical test results, chemical analysis, irradiation environments, fluence evaluation, and inhomogeneous material properties. Thus in order to improve the prediction model, control of the above-mentioned error sources needs to be improved. In general the embrittlement behavior of both the A302B and A533B-1 plate materials is similar. There is evidence for a fluence-rate effect in the CMM data irradiated in test reactors; thus its implication on power reactor surveillance programs deserves special attention.

  10. Effect of coculturing on the myogenic and adipogenic marker gene expression.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Pandurangan

    2014-05-01

    The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of coculturing on myogenic and adipogenic marker gene expressions with the use of C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 preadipocyte cells under the coculture system. C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 cells were cocultured using transwell inserts with a 0.4-μm porous membrane to separate C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 cells. Each cell type was grown independently on the transwell plates. Following cell differentiation, inserts containing 3 T3-L1 cells were transferred to C2C12 plates, and inserts containing C2C12 cells were transferred to 3 T3-L1 plates. After coculture of the C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 cells for 48 and 72 h, the cells in the lower well were harvested for analysis, and this process was carried out for both cells. Myogenic markers such as myogenin, MyoD, Myf5, PAX3, and PAX7 mRNA expressions were analyzed in the cocultured C2C12 cells. Adipogenic markers such as fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBPA), adiponectin, lipoprotein lipase, and fatty acid synthase mRNA expressions were analyzed in the cocultured 3 T3-L1 cells. Myogenic and adipogenic marker gene mRNA expressions were significantly altered in the cocultured C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 cells when compared with the monocultured C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 cells.

  11. Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots incorporating the NUVEL-1 global plate motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Gripp, A.E.; Gordon, R.G. )

    1990-07-01

    NUVEL-1 is a new global model of current relative plate velocities which differ significantly from those of prior models. Here the authors incorporate NUVEL-1 into HS2-NUVEL1, a new global model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. HS2-NUVEL1 was determined from the hotspot data and errors used by Minster and Jordan (1978) to determine AM1-2, which is their model of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. AM1-2 is consistent with Minster and Jordan's relative plate velocity model RM2. Here the authors compare HS2-NUVEL1 with AM1-2 and examine how their differences relate to differences between NUVEL-1 and RM2. HS2-NUVEL1 plate velocities relative to the hotspots are mainly similar to those of AM1-2. Minor differences between the two models include the following: (1) in HS2-NUVEL1 the speed of the partly continental, apparently non-subducting Indian plate is greater than that of the purely oceanic, subducting Nazca plate; (2) in places the direction of motion of the African, Antarctic, Arabian, Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasian, North American, and South American plates differs between models by more than 10{degree}; (3) in places the speed of the Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Indian, and Nazca plates differs between models by more than 8 mm/yr. Although 27 of the 30 RM2 Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of NUVEL-1, only the AM1-2 Arabia-hotspot and India-hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of HS2-NUVEL1. Thus, substituting NUVEL-1 for RM2 in the inversion for plate velocities relative to the hotspots changes few Euler vectors significantly, presumably because the uncertainty in the velocity of a plate relative to the hotspots is much greater than the uncertainty in its velocity relative to other plates.

  12. Studies on the enzymology of purified preparations of brush border from rabbit kidney

    PubMed Central

    George, S. G.; Kenny, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    neutral peptidase was observed. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:4146672

  13. Symptomatic plate removal in maxillofacial trauma: a review of 76 cases.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ananth S; Lehman, James A

    2005-12-01

    This study reviewed the fate of titanium plates used to correct maxillofacial trauma in 76 patients to define risk factors for plate removal. Medical records of 76 consecutive patients at a single institution, over a 10-year period, were retrospectively reviewed. Variables included age, sex, trauma type, diagnosis, fracture type, fracture diagnosis, plate location, surgical approach, and reasons for plate removal. Fracture diagnosis was described as panfacial (42%), blowout (3%), midface (28%), zygoma (26%), mandible angle (6%), ramus (7%), and symphysis (9%). All plate removals according to fracture diagnosis were in the mandible angle (30%) and symphysis (20%). When plate location was reviewed, 68% of the plates were placed in the upper and midface and 32% were placed in the mandible. Specifically, plates were placed in the frontozygomatic suture (18%), zygomaticomaxillary suture (19%), infraorbital rim (14%) and mandible symphysis (15%), mandible angle (9%), piriform (6%), nasal (5%), mandible ramus (4%) and body (4%), zygoma (2%), and frontal (2%). Of 163 plates that were placed, 6 plates (3.7%) were removed. Three (12%) of the symphysis plates and 3 (20%) of the angle plates were removed. Among all variables, only fracture diagnosis (P = 0.01) and plate location (P = 0.01) were statistically significant in plate removal. Five plates were removed for abscess/infection; 1 plate was removed for osteomyelitis. Further review revealed that 4 out of 6 plates removed involved synchronous mandible fractures. Most infections after maxillofacial trauma occur in the mandible, and often these infections are the main reason for plate removal. More vigilance is needed in the treatment of mandible angle and symphyseal fractures, especially if there are synchronous fractures, to prevent infection, plate removal and subsequent malunion.

  14. Effect of cortisol on caspases in the co-cultured C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Pandurangan

    2014-06-01

    The present study was carried out to understand the effect of cortisol on caspase expression in the C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 cells under co-culture system. Cells were co-cultured by using transwell inserts with a 0.4-μm porous membrane to separate C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. Each cell type was grown independently on the transwell plates. Following cell differentiation, inserts containing 3 T3-L1 cells were transferred to C2C12 plates and inserts containing C2C12 cells were transferred to 3 T3-L1 plates. A total of 10 μg/μl of cortisol was added to the medium. Following treatment of cortisol for 3 days, the cells in the lower well were harvested for analysis. Caspases such as caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 were selected for the analysis. qRT-PCR results indicated the significant increase in the mRNA expression of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9. Caspase 3, 7, and 9 activities were also increased in the mono- and co-cultured C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 cells. In addition, confocal microscopical investigation indicated that cortisol increases caspase expressions in the mono- and co-cultured C2C12 and 3 T3-L1 cells. Taking all these together, we concluded that the co-culture system reflects the exact effect of cortisol on caspase expression, which is quite distinct from one dimensional mono-cultured experiments.

  15. Development of lava tubes in the light of observations at Mauna Ulu, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Holcomb, R.T.; Tilling, R.I.; Christiansen, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption on Kilauea's upper east rift zone, lava tubes were observed to develop by four principal processes: (1) flat, rooted crusts grew across streams within confined channels; (2) overflows and spatter accreted to levees to build arched roofs across streams; (3) plates of solidified crust floating downstream coalesced to form a roof; and (4) pahoehoe lobes progressively extended, fed by networks of distributaries beneath a solidified crust. Still another tube-forming process operated when pahoehoe entered the ocean; large waves would abruptly chill a crust across the entire surface of a molten stream crossing through the surf zone. These littoral lava tubes formed abruptly, in contrast to subaerial tubes, which formed gradually. All tube-forming processes were favored by low to moderate volume-rates of flow for sustained periods of time. Tubes thereby became ubiquitous within the pahoehoe flows and distributed a very large proportionof the lava that was produced during this prolonged eruption. Tubes transport lava efficiently. Once formed, the roofs of tubes insulate the active streams within, allowing the lava to retain its fluidity for a longer time than if exposed directly to ambient air temperature. Thus the flows can travel greater distances and spread over wider areas. Even though supply rates during most of 1970-1974 were moderate, ranging from 1 to 5 m3/s, large tube systems conducted lava as far as the coast, 12-13 km distant, where they fed extensive pahoehoe fields on the coastal flats. Some flows entered the sea to build lava deltas and add new land to the island. The largest and most efficient tubes developed during periods of sustained extrusion, when new lava was being supplied at nearly constant rates. Tubes can play a major role in building volcanic edifices with gentle slopes because they can deliver a substantial fraction of lava erupted at low to moderate rates to sites far down the flank of a volcano. We

  16. Connexions from large, ipsilateral hind limb muscle and skin afferents to the rostral main cuneate nucleus and to the nucleus X region in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, H; Silfvenius, H

    1977-01-01

    the cerebellum, and three were synapitcally activated by axon-collaterals of an undefined non-segmental cell. 5. Two DV-X cells which were activated by cutaneous afferents possibly had their spinal fibres deep in the dorsal column. Both were activated from the cerebellum, one by collaterals of a spinal axon. The functional organization of the three juxtaposed medullary nuclei, Z, rMCN and DV-X is discussed. Images Plate 3 Plates 1 and 2 (cont.) Plates 1 and 2 PMID:850200

  17. Initial stages of misfit stress relaxation through the formation of prismatic dislocation loops in GaN-Ga2O3 composite nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutkin, M. Yu.; Smirnov, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stages of misfit stress relaxation through the formation of rectangular prismatic dislocation loops in model composite nanostructures have been considered. The nanostructures are either spherical or cylindrical GaN shells grown on solid or hollow β-Ga2O3 cores or planar thin GaN films on β-Ga2O3 substrates. Three characteristic configurations of prismatic dislocation loops, namely, square loops, loops elongated along the GaN/Ga2O3 interface, and loops elongated along the normal to the GaN/Ga2O3 interface, have been analyzed. The generation of prismatic dislocation loops from the interface into the bulk of the GaN shell (film), from the free surface into the GaN shell (film), and from the interface into the β-Ga2O3 core (substrate) has been investigated. It has been shown that, for the minimum known estimate of the lattice misfit (2.6%) in some of the considered nanostructures, no any prismatic dislocation loops can be generated. If the generation of prismatic dislocation loops is possible, then in all the considered nanostructures, the energetically more favorable case corresponds to prismatic dislocation loops elongated along the GaN/Ga2O3 interfaces, and the more preferred generation of prismatic dislocation loops occurs from the GaN free surface. The GaN/Ga2O3 nanostructures that are the most and least resistant to the formation of prismatic dislocation loops have been determined. It has been found that, among the considered nanostructures, the planar two-layer GaN/Ga2O3 plate is the most resistant to the generation of prismatic dislocation loops, which is explained by the action of an alternative mechanism for the relaxation of misfit stresses due to the bending of the plate. The least resistant nanostructure is the planar three-layer GaN/Ga2O3/GaN plate, in which GaN films have an identical thickness and which itself as a whole does not undergo bending. The critical thicknesses of the GaN shells (films), which must be exceeded to ensure the

  18. Dielectric Barrier Discharges in Helium at Atmospheric Pressure: Experiments and Model in the Needle-Plane Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Ion; Bartnikas, Raymond; Wertheimer, Michael

    2002-10-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical modeling study of "dielectric barrier discharges" (DBD) at atmospheric pressure in a needle-plane configuration. Synchronous, Ultra High Speed Imaging (UHSI, using a Princeton Instruments PI-MAX 512RB Digital ICCD Camera System) and real-time dual detection (optical-electrical) diagnostics have been carried out in a flow of He. A phase-resolved synchronizing circuit was used to trigger the ICCD camera's shutter for durations varying from 2 ns up to 100 ms. All diagnostics, including the PI-MAX images, could be precisely synchronized and processed on a PC computer. The high voltage electrode was a steel needle with a sharp point of precisely-machined radius, while a thin (1.6 mm) ceramic (Al2O3) plate with a metallized bottom surface was used as the ground electrode. Three different situations have been studied, namely (i) the bare Al2O3, and with an ultra-thin coatings of (ii) graphite (a semiconductor) or (iii) metal, the latter two at floating potential. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate possible effects of surface charging on the discharge behavior [1]. The axial [y(t)] and radial [x(t)] time evolutions of the discharge have been measured by UHSI, plotted, and found to differ very significantly among cases (i) to (iii). In the needle-plane configuration (like in the plane-plane case), the DBD is characterized by a single pulse per half-period of the applied voltage. A two-dimensional model of the needle-plane discharge, based upon the continuity equations for electrons, ions, excited particles, and the Poisson equation, is developed; it assumes a low degree of ionization, so that the transport coefficients of the gas are uniquely determined by the local electric field [2]. In order to determine the electric field and the electrical potential in the (hyperboloidal) needle-plane geometry, the finite element method is used. We have found excellent agreement between measured and calculated [y(t)] and [x

  19. Interseismic coupling and seismic potential along the Central Andes subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlieh, Mohamed; Perfettini, Hugo; Tavera, Hernando; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Remy, Dominique; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Rolandone, FréDéRique; Bondoux, Francis; Gabalda, Germinal; Bonvalot, Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    We use about two decades of geodetic measurements to characterize interseismic strain build up along the Central Andes subduction zone from Lima, Peru, to Antofagasta, Chile. These measurements are modeled assuming a 3-plate model (Nazca, Andean sliver and South America Craton) and spatially varying interseismic coupling (ISC) on the Nazca megathrust interface. We also determine slip models of the 1996 Mw = 7.7 Nazca, the 2001 Mw = 8.4 Arequipa, the 2007 Mw = 8.0 Pisco and the Mw = 7.7 Tocopilla earthquakes. We find that the data require a highly heterogeneous ISC pattern and that, overall, areas with large seismic slip coincide with areas which remain locked in the interseismic period (with high ISC). Offshore Lima where the ISC is high, a Mw˜8.6-8.8 earthquake occurred in 1746. This area ruptured again in a sequence of four Mw˜8.0 earthquakes in 1940, 1966, 1974 and 2007 but these events released only a small fraction of the elastic strain which has built up since 1746 so that enough elastic strain might be available there to generate a Mw > 8.5 earthquake. The region where the Nazca ridge subducts appears to be mostly creeping aseismically in the interseismic period (low ISC) and seems to act as a permanent barrier as no large earthquake ruptured through it in the last 500 years. In southern Peru, ISC is relatively high and the deficit of moment accumulated since the Mw˜8.8 earthquake of 1868 is equivalent to a magnitude Mw˜8.4 earthquake. Two asperities separated by a subtle aseismic creeping patch are revealed there. This aseismic patch may arrest some rupture as happened during the 2001 Arequipa earthquake, but the larger earthquakes of 1604 and 1868 were able to rupture through it. In northern Chile, ISC is very high and the rupture of the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake has released only 4% of the elastic strain that has accumulated since 1877. The deficit of moment which has accumulated there is equivalent to a magnitude Mw˜8.7 earthquake. This study thus

  20. Characterization of a capacitance-coupled contactless conductivity detection system with sidewall electrodes on a low-voltage-driven electrophoresis microchip.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Liang, Jing; Liu, Haitao; Hu, Xiaoguo; Wen, Zhiyu; Wu, Yongjie; Cao, Mingxia

    2010-06-01

    A new type of capacitance-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) system with sidewall electrodes was proposed for integration on a silicon-on-isolator-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (SOI-PDMS) hybrid low-voltage-driven electrophoresis microchip. By a microelectromechanical system process, the sidewall electrodes were fabricated precisely at either side of the separation channel. The area of the capacitor electrodes was the maximum value to improve the detection sensitivity with an enhanced capacitance effect. According to the simulation results, the structural parameters of the sidewall electrodes were determined as 550-microm length, 15-microm width, 80-microm separation distance, and 1-microm isolator thickness. The integrated microdevice with the SOI-PDMS hybrid electrophoresis microchip was very compact and the size was only 15 cm x 15 cm x 10 cm (width x length x height), which permitted miniaturization and portability. The detector performance was evaluated by K(+) testing. The detection limit of the conductivity detector was determined to be 10(-9) and 10(-6) M for K(+) in the static and electric-driven modes, respectively. Finally, the C(4)D was applied to low-voltage-driven electrophoresis on a microchip to carry out real-time measurement of the separation of amino acids. The separations of 10(-4) M lysine and phenylalanine in the low-voltage-driven electrophoresis mode were performed with an electric field of 300 V/cm and were completed in less than 15 min with a resolution of 1.3. The separation efficiency was found to be 1.3 x 10(3) and 2.8 x 10(3) plates for lysine and phenylalanine, respectively, with a migration time reproducibility of 2.7 and 3.2%. The conductivity detection limit of amino acids achieved was 10(-6) M. The proposed method for the construction of a novel C(4)D integrated on an SOI-PDMS hybrid low-voltage-driven electrophoresis microchip showed the most extensive integration and miniaturization of a microdevice, which is a further

  1. Fundamental structure model of island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Shinohara, M.; Hashima, A.

    2015-12-01

    The eastern margin of the Asian continent is a well-known subduction zone, where the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are being subducted. In this region, several island arcs (Kuril, Northeast Japan, Southwest Japan, Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu arcs) meet one another to form a very complicated tectonic environment. At 2014, we started to construct fundamental structure models for island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan. Our research is composed of 6 items of (1) topography, (2) plate geometry, (3) fault models, (4) the Moho and brittle-ductile transition zone, (5) the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and (6) petrological/rheological models. Such information is basic but inevitably important in qualitative understanding not only for short-term crustal activities in the subduction zone (particularly caused by megathrust earthquakes) but also for long-term cumulative deformation of the arcs as a result of strong plate-arc/arc-arc interactions. This paper is the first presentation of our research, mainly presenting the results of items (1) and (2). The area of our modelling is 12o-54o N and 118o-164o E to cover almost the entire part of Japanese Islands together with Kuril, Ryukyu and Izu-Bonin trenches. The topography model was constructed from the 500-m mesh data provided from GSJ, JODC, GINA and Alaska University. Plate geometry models are being constructed through the two steps. In the first step, we modelled very smooth plate boundaries of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates in our whole model area using 42,000 earthquake data from JMA, USGS and ISC. For 7,800 cross sections taken with several directions to the trench axes, 2D plate boundaries were defined by fitting to the earthquake distribution (the Wadati-Benioff zone), from which we obtained equi-depth points of the plate boundary. These equi-depth points were then approximated by spline interpolation technique to eliminate shorter wave length undulation (<50-100 km). The obtained

  2. Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Glen; Miller, Jamie; DeMets, Charles; Jansma, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    The currently accepted kinematic model of the Caribbean plate presented by DeMets et al. (2007) is based on velocities from 6 continuous and 14 campaign GPS sites. COCONet is a multi-hazard GPS-Met observatory, which extends the existing infrastructure of the Plate Boundary Observatory in North America into the Caribbean basin. In 2010, UNAVCO in collaboration with UCAR, was funded by NSF to design, build, and initially maintain a network of 50 new cGPS/Met sites and include data from another 50 existing sites in the Caribbean region. The current COCONet siting plan calls for 46 new stations, 21 refurbished stations, and 77 existing stations across 26 nations in the Caribbean region. Data from all COCONet sites flow into the UNAVCO archive and are processed by the PBO analysis centers and are also processed independently by the UTA Geodesy Lab using GIPSY-OASISII (v.6.2) using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, and Earth orientation parameters from JPL in the IGS08 frame. We present here our refined estimate of Caribbean plate motion by evaluating data from an expanded number of stations with an improved spatial distribution. In order to better constrain the eastern margin of the plate near the Lesser Antilles subduction interface, campaign GPS observations have been collected on the island of Dominica over the last decade. These are combined with additional campaign observations from the western Caribbean, specifically from Honduras and Nicaragua. We have analyzed a total of 117 sites from the Caribbean region, including campaign data and the data from the cGPS stations that comprise COCONet. An updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate is presented and an inversion of the velocities for 24 sites yields a plate angular velocity that differs from previously published models. Our best fitting inversion to GPS velocities from these 24 sites suggests that 2-plate model for the Caribbean is required to fit the GPS

  3. Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, J. A.; DeMets, C.; Jansma, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The kinematic model of the Caribbean plate presented by DeMets et al. (2007) is based on velocities from 6 continuous and 14 campaign GPS sites. COCONet is a multi-hazard GPS-Met observatory, which extends the existing infrastructure of the PBO in North America into the Caribbean basin. In 2010, UNAVCO in collaboration with UCAR, was funded by NSF to design, build, and initially maintain a network of 50 new cGPS/Met sites and include data from another 50 existing sites in the Caribbean region. The COCONet siting plan is for 46 new stations, 21 refurbished stations, and 77 existing stations across 26 nations in the Caribbean region. Data from all COCONet sites flow into the UNAVCO archive and are processed by the PBO analysis centers and are also processed independently by the UTA Geodesy Lab using GIPSY-OASISII (v.6.3) using an APP strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, and EOP from JPL in the IGS08r frame. We present a refined estimate of Caribbean plate motion by evaluating data from an expanded number of stations with an improved spatial distribution. In order to better constrain the eastern margin of the plate near the Lesser Antilles subduction interface, campaign GPS observations have been collected on the island of Dominica over the last decade. These are combined with additional campaign observations from the western Caribbean, specifically from Honduras and Nicaragua. We have analyzed a total of 117 sites from the Caribbean region, including campaign data and the data from the cGPS stations that comprise COCONet. An updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate is presented and an inversion of the velocities for 24 sites yields a plate angular velocity that differs from previously published models. Our best fitting inversion to GPS velocities from these 24 sites suggests that 2-plate model for the Caribbean is required to fit the GPS observations, which implies that the Caribbean is undergoing modest (1-3 mm/yr) deformation within its interior. Some

  4. Preliminary studies on the heat exchanger option for S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle coupled to water cooled SMR

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    For more than a half century, the steam Rankine cycle had been the major power conversion cycle for a nuclear power plant. However, as the interest on the next generation reactors grows, a variety of alternative power conversion systems have been studied. Among them, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle (Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle) is considered as a promising candidate due to several benefits such as 1) Relatively high thermal efficiency at relatively low turbine inlet temperature, 2) High efficiency with simple lay-out 3) Compactness of turbo-machineries. 4) Compactness of total cycle combined with PCHE (Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger). According to the conventional classification of heat exchangers (HE), there are three kind of HE, 1) Tubular HEs, 2) Plate-type HEs, 3) Extended surface HEs. So far, the researcher has mostly assumed PCHE type HE for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle due to its compactness with reasonably low pressure drop. However, PCHE is currently one of the most expensive components in the cycle, which can have a negative effect on the economics of the cycle. Therefore, an alternative for the HE should be seriously investigated. By comparing the operating condition (pressure and temperature) there are three kind of HE in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, 1) IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) 2) Recuperator and 3) Pre-cooler. In each heat exchanger, hot side and cold side coolants are different, i.e. reactor coolant to S-CO{sub 2} (IHX), S-CO{sub 2} to S-CO{sub 2}(Recuperator), S-CO{sub 2} to water (Pre-cooler). By considering all the attributes mentioned above, all existing types of heat exchangers are compared to find a possible alternative to PCHE. The comparing factors are 1) Size(volume), 2) Cost. Plate fin type HEs are considered to be the most competitive heat exchanger regarding the size and the cost after some improvements on the design limit are made. (authors)

  5. Solar CIV Vacuum-Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; West, Edward A.; Rees, David; McKay, Jack A.; Zukic, Maumer; Herman, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: A tunable, high spectral resolution, high effective finesse, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry-Perot interferometer (PPI) is designed for obtaining narrow-passband images, magnetograms, and Dopplergrams of the transition region emission line of CIV (155 nm). Methods: The integral part of the CIV narrow passband filter package (with a 2-10 pm FWHM) consists of a multiple etalon system composed of a tunable interferometer that provides high-spectral resolution and a static low-spectral resolution interferometer that allows a large effective free spectral range. The prefilter for the interferometers is provided by a set of four mirrors with dielectric high-reflective coatings. A tunable interferometer, a VUV piezoelectric-control etalon, has undergone testing using the surrogate F2 eximer laser line at 157 nm for the CIV line. We present the results of the tests with a description of the overall concept for a complete narrow-band CIV spectral filter. The static interferometer of the filter is envisioned as being hudt using a set of fixed MgF2 plates. The four-mirror prefilter is designed to have dielectric multilayer n-stacks employing the design concept used in the Ultraviolet Imager of NASA's Polar Spacecraft. A dual etalon system allows the effective free spectral range to be commensurate with the prefilter profile. With an additional etalon, a triple etalon system would allow a spectrographic resolution of 2 pm. The basic strategy has been to combine the expertise of spaceflight etalon manufacturing with VUV coating technology to build a VUV FPI which combines the best attributes of imagers and spectrographs into a single compact instrument. Results. Spectro-polarimetry observations of the transition region CIV emission can be performed to increase the understanding of the magnetic forces, mass motion, evolution, and energy release within the solar atmosphere at the base of the corona where most of the magnetic field is approximately force-free. The 2D imaging

  6. The relative contributions of the folds and caveolae to the surface membrane of frog skeletal muscle fibres at different sarcomere lengths.

    PubMed Central

    Dulhunty, A F; Franzini-Armstrong, C

    1975-01-01

    caveolae. At a sarcomere length of about 8 mum all the caveolae are open and the fibres rupture with further stretch. (4) The relative contributions of folds and caveolae vary with sarcomere length in a way that is consistent with assumptions of constant volume and plasmalemma area. The maintenance of constant plasmalemma area, even after excessive stretch, suggests that the plasmalemma is relatively inelastic in this situation. Images Text-fig. 2 Plate 2 A B A B C Plate 1 PMID:1080806

  7. Complete erasing of ghost images on computed radiography plates and role of deeply trapped electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchi-Yoshida, Hiroko; Kondo, Yasuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Computed radiography (CR) plates made of europium-doped Ba(Sr)FBr(I) were simultaneously exposed to filtered ultraviolet light and visible light in order to erase ghost images, i.e., latent image that is unerasable with visible light (LIunVL) and reappearing one, which are particularly observed in plates irradiated with a high dose and/or cumulatively over-irradiated. CR samples showing LIunVLs were prepared by irradiating three different types of CR plates (Agfa ADC MD10, Kodak Directview Mammo EHRM2, and Fuji ST-VI) with 50 kV X-ray beams in the dose range 8.1 mGy-8.0 Gy. After the sixth round of simultaneous 6 h exposures to filtered ultraviolet light and visible light, all the LIunVLs in the three types of CR plates were erased to the same level as in an unirradiated plate and no latent images reappeared after storage at 0 °C for 14 days. With conventional exposure to visible light, LIunVLs consistently remained in all types of CR plates irradiated with higher doses of X-rays and latent images reappeared in the Agfa M10 plates after storage at 0 °C. Electrons trapped in deep centers cause LIunVLs and they can be erased by simultaneous exposures to filtered ultraviolet light and visible light. To study electrons in deep centers, the absorption spectra were examined in all types of irradiated CR plates by using polychromatic ultraviolet light from a deep-ultraviolet lamp. It was found that deep centers showed a dominant peak in the absorption spectra at around 324 nm for the Agfa M10 and Kodak EHRM2 plates, and at around 320 nm for the Fuji ST-VI plate, in each case followed by a few small peaks. The peak heights were dose-dependent for all types of CR samples, suggesting that the number of electrons trapped in deep centers increases with the irradiation dose.

  8. X-ray natural birefringence in reflection from graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansing, C.; Mertins, H.-Ch.; Gilbert, M.; Wahab, H.; Timmers, H.; Choi, S.-H.; Gaupp, A.; Krivenkov, M.; Varykhalov, A.; Rader, O.; Legut, D.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    , graphene materials have a potential to be used as tunable x-ray phase shifting λ /4 or λ /2 plates in the design of future high-intensity light sources.

  9. Kinematics and dynamics of the northern North American Cordillera: deformation related to plate convergence, flat-slab subduction, and gravitational potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzel, E.; Flesch, L. M.; Ridgway, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    We use finite element models to investigate the deformational driving forces in Alaska and northwestern Canada as they relate to flat-slab subduction, tectonic extrusion, and existing block models. First, long-term velocity and strain rate fields are quantified using continuous spline functions to interpolate between observed strain rate data inferred from: 1) select GPS sites interpreted to represent the long-term signal of deformation, 2) plate and microplate motion models, 3) ridge spreading rates, 4) seismicity, and 5) Quaternary fault slip rates. Our calculated fault slip rates indicate that ~82% of the mostly dextral motion between the Pacific and North American plates is accommodated along the Queen Charlotte fault system to the east, whereas the Aleutian Megathrust accommodates ~60% of the oblique convergence between the Pacific and North American plates to the west. The highest strain rate magnitudes are located along plate margin faults and above the region of flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate. Furthermore, results from our best-fit kinematic model suggest that the interaction between the Pacific, North American, and Bering plates may be the dominant driver controlling southwestward rotation of the velocity field in southern Alaska. Whereas this outcome cannot conclusively rule out the possibility of tectonic extrusion in the study area, it does not support it either. Next, we calculate the two primary sources of deviatoric stress responsible for driving deformation in Alaska, namely deviatoric stresses associated with gravitational potential energy (GPE) variations in the lithosphere (buoyancy forces) and relative plate motions and basal tractions (boundary forces). We find the affects of incorporating, versus excluding, a subducting slab in GPE calculations for this region to be minimal. Deviatoric stress magnitudes associated with the vertically averaged GPE within a 100-km-thick lithosphere are on the order of 5-10 MPa, whereas magnitudes

  10. Pluronic F68 enhanced the conformational stability of salmon calcitonin in both aqueous solution and lyophilized solid form.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Huei; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2011-11-01

    The effects of different surfactants on the conformational stability and structural similarity of salmon calcitonin (sCT) in aqueous solution and lyophilized forms were investigated by using microscopic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with second-derivative spectral analysis. Six surfactants, HCO-60, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Tween 80, PEG 400, Pluronic 68, and F127 were selected. The sCT aqueous solution with or without different surfactants was, respectively, incubated at 40°C for up to 35 h. sCT films were casted on the CaF(2) plates and IR spectra were collected as a function of incubation time. Second derivative analysis showed that the native sCT having a major α-helical structure was gradually changed to the combination of α-helix, random coil, and β-sheet conformations in aqueous solution at 40°C. Similar conformational changes with delayed β-sheet formation were obtained for sCT after co-incubation with all the surfactants except Pluronic F68. When the native sCT was freeze-dried alone, a marked conformational alteration was found as illustrated by a poor spectral correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.823 as compared to that of the unlyophilized native sCT. This r value was significantly deviated from 1, strongly indicating the influence of lyophilization stress on the surfactant-free sCT. The r value for sCT after lyophilizing with HCO-60, Pluronic F127, PEG 400, or Pluronic F68 was >0.9, suggesting the possible stabilization of these surfactants in the lyophilization process. The sCT sample after lyophilizing with Pluronic F68 showed a highest r value (>0.968), indicating the most optimal stabilization effect of Pluronic F68 for sCT sample via lyophilization. Pluronic F68 was found to be the preferential surfactant for preventing the secondary structure changes in aqueous solution at 40°C as well as in lyophilized powder.

  11. Purification, characterization and inhibition of human skin collagenase

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, David E.; Glanville, Robert W.; Roberts, Dennis R.; Evanson, John M.

    1978-01-01

    and β1-anti-collagenase both inhibited the enzyme, but α1-anti-trypsin did not. 5. The physicochemical and enzymic properties of the skin enzyme are discussed in relation to those of other human collagenases. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.PLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:204294

  12. Folding domains and intramolecular ionic interactions of lysine residues in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, J M; Perham, R N

    1977-01-01

    the view that the ion-pair involving lysine-306 and aspartic acid-241 will be a common structural feature in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases. The B. stearothermophilus enzyme was fully active after modification. 5. No differences could be detected between the enzymes from ox muscle and ox liver, in accord with other evidence that points to the identify of these enzymes. 6. The pattern of slowly reacting amino groups in the enzyme from B. stearothermophilus, although similar to that of the mammalian enzymes, indicated one or two additional intramolecular ionic interactions of lysine residues that might contribute to the thermal stability of this enzyme. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:851424

  13. Requirements for imaging vulnerable plaque in the coronary artery using a coded aperture imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozian, Cynthia

    A coded aperture1 plate was employed on a conventional gamma camera for 3D single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging on small animal models. The coded aperture design was selected to improve the spatial resolution and decrease the minimum detectable activity (MDA) required to image plaque formation in the APoE (apolipoprotein E) gene deficient mouse model when compared to conventional SPECT techniques. The pattern that was tested was a no-two-holes-touching (NTHT) modified uniformly redundant array (MURA) having 1,920 pinholes. The number of pinholes combined with the thin sintered tungsten plate was designed to increase the efficiency of the imaging modality over conventional gamma camera imaging methods while improving spatial resolution and reducing noise in the image reconstruction. The MDA required to image the vulnerable plaque in a human cardiac-torso mathematical phantom was simulated with a Monte Carlo code and evaluated to determine the optimum plate thickness by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) yielding the lowest possible MDA and highest area under the curve (AUC). A partial 3D expectation maximization (EM) reconstruction was developed to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range, and spatial resolution over the linear correlation method of reconstruction. This improvement was evaluated by imaging a mini hot rod phantom, simulating the dynamic range, and by performing a bone scan of the C-57 control mouse. Results of the experimental and simulated data as well as other plate designs were analyzed for use as a small animal and potentially human cardiac imaging modality for a radiopharmaceutical developed at Bristol-Myers Squibb Medical Imaging Company, North Billerica, MA, for diagnosing vulnerable plaques. If left untreated, these plaques may rupture causing sudden, unexpected coronary occlusion and death. The results of this research indicated that imaging and reconstructing with this new partial 3D algorithm improved

  14. Characterization of Sertoli cells cultured in the bicameral chamber system: relationship between formation of permeability barriers and polarized secretion of transferrin.

    PubMed

    Onoda, M; Suárez-Quian, C A; Djakiew, D; Dym, M

    1990-10-01

    of cells. When fewer than 2 x 10(6) Sertoli cells were plated, the apical/basal polarity of Tf secretion declined to below 1 in a 24-h culture period, even though those chambers contained impermeable monolayers (recognized by the lack of hydrodynamic equilibrium). These results indicate that polarized secretion by Sertoli cells is dependent on (1) plating density and (2) formation of an impermeable epithelial sheet.

  15. Major structural controls on the distribution of pre-Tertiary rocks, Nevada Test Site vicinity, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.C.

    1998-10-23

    offset, most likely in the sinistral sense. Low-angle normal faults that are at least older than Oligocene, and may pre-date Late Cretaceous time are also present in the region. These faults are shown to locally displace blocks of pre-Tertiary rock by several kilometers. However, none of these structures can be traced for significant distances beyond its outcrop extent, and the inference is made that they do not exert regional influence on the distribution of pre-Tertiary rocks. The extensional strain accommodated by these low-angle normal faults appears to be local and highly irregular. 1 plate

  16. Near-infrared studies of embedded star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan

    The Fan Mountain Near-Infrared Camera, FanCam, features an 8.7'x8.7' field of view on a 1024x1024 Teledyne Imaging Sensors HAWAII-1 detector array. The instrument mounts at the f/15.5 focus of the 31 inch telescope. Its seeing-limited optical design, optimized for the JHK atmospheric bands, includes a field stop at the telescope focus, a doublet collimator, two 8-position filterwheels straddling a Lyot stop, and a doublet reimager. The 0.51''pixel-1 plate scale leads to a slightly oversampled point spread function for the typical seeing of 1.5''. The entire optical train is encased in a cryogenic dewar cooled by a closed-loop cooling system. Chapter 2 describes the camera design and some early results of camera performance test. Long term near-infrared, J, H, and Ks, photometric monitoring of the embedded cluster NGC 1333 is presented in Chapter 3. We employ the Stetson variability index and reduced chi 2 to identify variable objects. Color-magnitude and color-color diagrams demonstrate that NGC 1333 is extremely young and highly extincted. Light curves in all three bands are well correlated. The spatial distribution of variable stars shows a strong correlation with the peak of the extinction map while non-variable stars are evenly spread over the whole field of view. Spitzer-2MASS-identified IR excess YSOs and Chandra X-ray sources were compared with our variable stars. A total of 25 previously-unknown member candidates are presented, with 15 objects in the mass range of brown dwarfs. The IMF and mass distribution of the cluster are presented. We discuss the implication of Ks vs. H--Ks color-magnitude diagram slope statistics in view of the evolutionary sequence of young star-forming embedded clusters. Another long term near-infrared, J, H, and Ks, photometric monitoring performed with FanCam for the embedded cluster NGC 7129 is presented in Chapter 4.

  17. Searching for the Lost Jurassic and Cretaceous Ocean Basins of the Circum-Arctic Linking Plate Models and Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, G. E.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic since the breakup of Pangea involves the opening and closing of ocean basins including the Oimyakon, Angayucham, South Anuyi, Amerasia and Eurasia basins. The time-dependent configurations and kinematic history of the basins, adjacent continental terranes, and subduction zones involved are not well understood, and many published tectonic models for particular regions are inconsistent with models for adjacent areas. The age, location, geometry and convergence rates of the subduction zones associated with these ancient ocean basins since at least the Late Jurassic have implications for mantle structure, which can be used as an additional constraint for building plate and plate boundary models. Here we integrate an analysis of both surface and deep mantle observations back to 200 Ma. Based on a digitized set of tectonic features with time-dependent rotational histories we present a refined plate model with topologically closed plate polygons for the circum-Arctic with particular focus on the northern Pacific, Siberian and Alaskan margins (Fig 1). We correlate the location, geometry and timing of subduction zones with associated seismic velocities anomalies from global P and S wave tomography models across different depths. We design a plate model that best matches slabs imaged in seismic tomography in an iterative fashion. This match depends on a combination of relative and absolute plate motions. Therefore we test two end-member absolute plate motion models, evaluating a paleomagnetic model and a model based on hotspot tracks and large igneous provinces. This method provides a novel approach to deciphering the Arctic tectonic history in a global context. Fig 1:Plate reconstruction at 200Ma and 140Ma, visualized using GPlates software. Present-day topography raster (ETOPO2) segmented into major tectonic elements of the circum-Arctic. Plate boundaries delineated in black and selected subduction and arc features labeled in

  18. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa; Urbán, Edit

    2015-02-01

    With the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Bacteroides fragilis group isolates the need of susceptibility testing in routine laboratories is increasing. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing in case of different clinical isolates of Bacteroides spp by comparing zone diameter results with MICs obtained earlier during an Europe-wide antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, and to propose zone diameter breakpoints, which correlate for the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. We tested 381 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin and vitamin K1. Plates were incubated at 37 °C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 24 h. The zone diameters were read at 100% inhibition. In case of discrepant results MICs were determined by gradient test and compared with the inhibition zones on the same plate. We found a good agreement between the inhibition zone diameters and the MICs for imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin and tigecyclin. The inhibition zone diameters of meropenem also separated clearly the isolates, which can be considered wild-type isolates. In case of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam intermediate and susceptible isolates according to the MIC determination, overlap during the zone diameter determination. Isolates with an inhibition zone <23 mm for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and <25 mm for piperacillin/tazobactam should be retested by a MIC determination method. The 10 μg clindamycin disc clearly separated the resistant and the susceptible population of B. fragilis group strains. In the case of cefoxitin only resistant population could be separated with an inhibition

  19. Quantitative investigation of a novel small field of view hybrid gamma camera (HGC) capability for sentinel lymph node detection

    PubMed Central

    Lees, John E; Bugby, Sarah L; Jambi, Layal K; Perkins, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The hybrid gamma camera (HGC) has been developed to enhance the localization of radiopharmaceutical uptake in targeted tissues during surgical procedures such as sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. To assess the capability of the HGC, a lymph node contrast (LNC) phantom was constructed to simulate medical scenarios of varying radioactivity concentrations and SLN size. Methods: The phantom was constructed using two clear acrylic glass plates. The SLNs were simulated by circular wells of diameters ranging from 10 to 2.5 mm (16 wells in total) in 1 plate. The second plate contains four larger rectangular wells to simulate tissue background activity surrounding the SLNs. The activity used to simulate each SLN ranged between 4 and 0.025 MBq. The activity concentration ratio between the background and the activity injected in the SLNs was 1 : 10. The LNC phantom was placed at different depths of scattering material ranging between 5 and 40 mm. The collimator-to-source distance was 120 mm. Image acquisition times ranged from 60 to 240 s. Results: Contrast-to-noise ratio analysis and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) measurements of the simulated SLNs were carried out for the images obtained. Over the range of activities used, the HGC detected between 87.5 and 100% of the SLNs through 20 mm of scattering material and 75–93.75% of the SLNs through 40 mm of scattering material. The FWHM of the detected SLNs ranged between 11.93 and 14.70 mm. Conclusion: The HGC is capable of detecting low accumulation of activity in small SLNs, indicating its usefulness as an intraoperative imaging system during surgical SLN procedures. Advances in knowledge: This study investigates the capability of a novel small-field-of-view (SFOV) HGC to detect low activity uptake in small SLNs. The phantom and procedure described are inexpensive and could be easily replicated and applied to any SFOV camera, to provide a comparison between systems with clinically relevant

  20. First Results from a Forward, 3-Dimensional Regional Model of a Transpressional San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a 3-dimensional fault interaction model, with the fault system specified by the geometry and tectonics of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. We use the forward model for earthquake generation on interacting faults of Fitzenz and Miller [2001] that incorporates the analytical solutions of Okada [85,92], GPS-constrained tectonic loading, creep compaction and frictional dilatancy [Sleep and Blanpied, 1994, Sleep, 1995], and undrained poro-elasticity. The model fault system is centered at the Big Bend, and includes three large strike-slip faults (each discretized into multiple subfaults); 1) a 300km, right-lateral segment of the SAF to the North, 2) a 200km-long left-lateral segment of the Garlock fault to the East, and 3) a 100km-long right-lateral segment of the SAF to the South. In the initial configuration, three shallow-dipping faults are also included that correspond to the thrust belt sub-parallel to the SAF. Tectonic loading is decomposed into basal shear drag parallel to the plate boundary with a 35mm yr-1 plate velocity, and East-West compression approximated by a vertical dislocation surface applied at the far-field boundary resulting in fault-normal compression rates in the model space about 4mm yr-1. Our aim is to study the long-term seismicity characteristics, tectonic evolution, and fault interaction of this system. We find that overpressured faults through creep compaction are a necessary consequence of the tectonic loading, specifically where high normal stress acts on long straight fault segments. The optimal orientation of thrust faults is a function of the strike-slip behavior, and therefore results in a complex stress state in the elastic body. This stress state is then used to generate new fault surfaces, and preliminary results of dynamically generated faults will also be presented. Our long-term aim is to target measurable properties in or around fault zones, (e.g. pore pressures, hydrofractures, seismicity

  1. Factors influencing the ascending limb of the sarcomere length-tension relationship in rabbit skinned muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J D; Moss, R L

    1987-01-01

    troponin. Fibres activated in the absence of Ca2+, by the partial removal of whole troponin complexes, produced length-tension relationships similar to those observed in the same fibres before troponin removal at a submaximal [Ca2+] yielding similar active tensions. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:2450989

  2. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal rat explant in vitro: endocrinological studies of the pars intermedia dopaminergic neural input.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M D

    1986-01-01

    neurones in these explants apparently causes a release of dopamine from nerve terminals in the pars intermedia to inhibit MSH secretion and perhaps other pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides as well. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:3958980

  3. A direct pathway for the conversion of propionate into pyruvate in Moraxella lwoffi

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, B.; McGarry, J. D.

    1968-01-01

    ]propionate was chemically degraded. The C(1) of propionate was found only in C(1) of pyruvate. At least 86% of C(2) of pyruvate was derived from C(2) of propionate and at least 92% of C(3) of pyruvate from C(3) of propionate. 8. These results are incompatible with the operation of any of the previously described pathways for propionate metabolism except the direct one, perhaps via an activated acrylate. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1 PMID:4296055

  4. Harnessing Solar Energy Using Photosynthetic and Organic Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Toby Ryan

    Fossil fuels are a finite energy resource that must be supplemented or replaced by more stable forms of electrical energy. Solar technology research strives to supplement and provide eventual replacement for fossil fuel technology. This experiment focused on the use of natural pigments as photo-sensitizers in the current generation of solar cells called dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Pigments from purified chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b, crude spinach (Spinacia oleracea) extract, phycocyanin, and chlorophyllin were used to construct DSSCs and evaluated, along with a control containing no pigment, for solar energy conversion. The anode of the solar cells consisted of titanium dioxide (TiO2) plates soaked in pigment solutions for twenty-four hours. The plates were assembled, along with an electrolyte sandwiched between cells, and a platinum-coated counter plate that functioned as the cathode. A gasket seal was placed between the plates and held together with rubber bands. The DSSCs were each tested for a maximum power (Pmax) point and a resistor was selected that corresponded to the resistance at that point. The cells were randomly placed into a power block assembly located in an environmental chamber with lighting that provided an average of 27,590 lumens at the surface of DSSCs. With appropriate resistors in place, the cells were subjected to twelve-hour days and twelve-hour nights for ten days, and measurements were recorded every ten minutes. Data were collected to obtain values for voltage in millivolts (mV), current in microamps (microA), and power in microwatts (microW), as well as beginning and ending efficiencies in converting light to usable energy. Voltages were substantially higher during the day than at night for all pigments, except for the control, indicating that the pigments functioned as DSSCs. Hence, only daytime values were used for data analysis. Voltage during the ten-day experiment ranged from 3.99 to 274 mV; current ranged

  5. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-17

    is between now and 2016 when the candidate processes are down-selected in preparation for the MP-1, FSP-1, and MP-2 plate manufacturing campaigns. A number of key risks identified by the FFC are discussed in this plan, with recommended mitigating actions for those activities within FFC, and identification of risks that are impacted by activities in other areas of the Convert Program. The R&D Plan does not include discussion of FFC initiatives related to production-scale manufacturing of fuel (e.g., establishment of the Pilot Line Production Facility), rather, the goal of this plan is to document the R&D activities needed ultimately to enable high-quality and cost-effective production of the fuel by the commercial fuel fabricator. The intent is for this R&D Plan to be a living document that will be reviewed and updated on a regular basis (e.g., annually) to ensure that FFC R&D activities remain properly aligned to the needs of the Convert Program. This version of the R&D Plan represents the first annual review and revision.

  6. Sagitally focusing scanning monochromator produces 0.4-mm focus (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Sullivan, M.; Fischetti, R.; Rock, L.

    1992-01-01

    A sagitally focusing stage has been constructed for the double-crystal scanning monochromator on beam line X9-A at the NSLS which can be exchanged with the normally used flat crystal stage. The bending device located at 12.0 m from the source is designed to accept a beam up to 200-mm wide. The monochromator with bending stage can be scanned over Bragg angles from 10° to 71° corresponding to photon energies from 11.4 to 2.1 keV with Si-111 crystals. In conjunction with the vertically focusing mirror a point focus of 0.38 mm×0.18 mm [horizontal×vertical, full width at half maximum (FWHM) each] has been achieved at a focal length of 3.8 m (center of a four-circle diffractometer). Focused at the back of the experimental hutch (focal length=5.4 m) the focal size was 0.55 mm×0.30 mm. The measured horizontal width of the focus equals the calculated size of the demagnified source and is independent of the horizontal convergence used. The horizontal focus produced by the crystal is very clean: the full width at 1% of maximum is 1.5 mm and at 0.01% it is about 4 mm. The flux into the focus is 5×1011 photons/s at a photon energy of 7.4 keV and beam current of 200 mA. The average flux density in the center of the focus (FWHM area) is 5×1011 photons/s/mm2. The preliminary crystal presently used has been made from a thin Si plate of 0.4-mm thickness, 80-mm width, and 75-mm length (in the direction of the beam). Steel ribs of 0.6-mm thickness have been glued at 3-mm pitch to the back of the crystal in order to stiffen the plate and reduce anticlastic bending.1 Plates have been glued to this crystal plate to extend the width to size the bending stage. The crystal was cut in 111 orientation with a 4° angle between the lattice planes and the crystal surface. The asymmetric cut was used to increase the angle of incidence and thus decrease the effect of the remaining anticlastic bending. The bending stage has a bending couple at both ends of the crystal in order to produce the

  7. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  8. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical

  9. Geophysical constraints on geodynamic processes at convergent margins: A global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Convergent margins, being the boundaries between colliding lithospheric plates, form the most disastrous areas in the world due to intensive, strong seismicity and volcanism. We review global geophysical data in order to illustrate the effects of the plate tectonic processes at convergent margins on the crustal and upper mantle structure, seismicity, and geometry of subducting slab. We present global maps of free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, heat flow, seismicity, seismic Vs anomalies in the upper mantle, and plate convergence rate, as well as 20 profiles across different convergent margins. A global analysis of these data for three types of convergent margins, formed by ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, and continent-continent collisions, allows us to recognize the following patterns. (1) Plate convergence rate depends on the type of convergent margins and it is significantly larger when, at least, one of the plates is oceanic. However, the oldest oceanic plate in the Pacific ocean has the smallest convergence rate. (2) The presence of an oceanic plate is, in general, required for generation of high-magnitude (M N 8.0) earthquakes and for generating intermediate and deep seismicity along the convergent margins. When oceanic slabs subduct beneath a continent, a gap in the seismogenic zone exists at depths between ca. 250 km and 500 km. Given that the seismogenic zone terminates at ca. 200 km depth in case of continent-continent collision, we propose oceanic origin of subducting slabs beneath the Zagros, the Pamir, and the Vrancea zone. (3) Dip angle of the subducting slab in continent-ocean collision does not correlate neither with the age of subducting oceanic slab, nor with the convergence rate. For ocean-ocean subduction, clear trends are recognized: steeply dipping slabs are characteristic of young subducting plates and of oceanic plates with high convergence rate, with slab rotation towards a near-vertical dip angle at depths below ca. 500 km at very high

  10. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    objective of this task is to perform bench scale testing on various frits that have been used at DWPF or in test programs at SRNL to determine the quantity of de-ionized (DI) water required to mitigate dusting per mass basis of frit. The quantity of DI water required was determined visually by observing the effluent port of the mixer, and DI water addition was made to the point where no visible dust was observed leaving the effluent port. A total of eight different frits were selected for testing. Secondary objectives in this task include the following: (1) Video taping of the de-dusting procedure, (2) Particle size distribution analyses of the dry and wetted frits at the weight fraction of water required for de-dusting, (3) Plate flow tests to determine angle of flow and quantity of material remaining on plate at 90 degrees, (4) Microscopy of dry and wetted frit, and (5) Effect of excess water for selected frits on plate flow. The above analyses were performed within one hour of water addition, to minimize the effect of evaporative water losses. To better understand the size of dust particles, perform settling tests on selected frits and capture the fines. Analyze the fines for particle size distribution. Finally, it is expected that the surface area of frit is an important parameter in the quantity of water required for dust mitigation. An analysis of particle size distribution (PSD) data of as-received frit analyzed by SRNL over the past two to three years will be performed to determine the variation in the distribution of as-received frit. The following objectives were stated in the Technical Task Request4 as objectives that given adequate time would provide insight in helping DWPF in assessing equipment or processes for de-dusting and processing of dry frit. Due to time constraints, commercial methods for dedusting are provided. These results are detailed in section 3.7. Obtain design information from Hanford with respective to equipment used for dedusting. Suggestions

  11. AB106. Differential regulation of LncRNA-SARCC suppresses VHL-mutant RCC cell proliferation yet promotes VHL-normal RCC cell proliferation via modulating androgen receptor/HIF-2α/C-MYC axis under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    ), treated with RNase-free DNase I (Roche), and purified with an RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA). One milligram of whole-cell lysates from SW839 cells were incubated with 3 µg of purified biotinylated transcripts for 1 hour at 25 °C and complexes were isolated with streptavidin agarose beads (Invitrogen). The AR protein present in the pull-down material was detected by standard immunoblot analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP)—cells were cross-linked with 4% formaldehyde for 10 minutes followed by cell collection and sonication with a predetermined power to yield genomic DNA fragments of 300–1,000 bp long. Lysates were precleared sequentially with normal rabbit IgG (sc-2027, Santa Cruz Biotechnology) and protein A-agarose. Anti-AR antibody (2.0 µg) was added to the cell lysates and incubated at 4 °C overnight. For the negative control, IgG was used in the reaction. Cell-cycle analysis—cells were plated at a density such that they would be 50% confluent on the day of analysis. Treatment (hypoxia) was then initiated over the next several days, so that all cells were in culture for the same amount of time and at similar confluency when harvested. BrdU analysis was performed following the standard protocol (Becton Dickinson) after a 20 min pulse with 10 mM BrdU. Cells were stained with Alexa 488 anti-BrdU (Invitrogen) and 0.1 M propidium iodide and analyzed in an LSR FACS machine (Becton Dickinson). For proliferation analysis with Hoechst staining, 104 cells were plated on 6-cm2 plates, with staining and counting done according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen). Luciferase assay—cells were plated in 24-well plates and transfected with pGL3 reporter constructs using lipofectamine (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instruction. After transfection, DMEM media was added into the culture with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with ethanol as vehicle control. pRL-TK was used as internal control. Luciferase activity was measured