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Sample records for 1s1 turboshaft engines

  1. 76 FR 11940 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Model Arriel 1E2, 1S, and 1S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... AD, after receipt of the emergency AD, and expands the AD applicability by including helicopters... evolution of gas generator (NG) rating during engine starting. In one of these cases, this resulted in an...-off'' abnormal evolution of gas generator (NG) rating during engine starting. In one of these...

  2. Computer Simulation Of A Small Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.

    1991-01-01

    Component-type mathematical model of small turboshaft engine developed for use in real-time computer simulations of dynamics of helicopter flight. Yields shaft speeds, torques, fuel-consumption rates, and other operating parameters with sufficient accuracy for use in real-time simulation of maneuvers involving large transients in power and/or severe accelerations.

  3. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  4. 77 FR 1009 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... (76 FR 77378, December 13, 2011), currently requires removing from service certain gas generator...; AD 2010-19-06R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Turboshaft Engines AGENCY: Federal... series turboshaft engines. The AD number is incorrect in the preamble and in the Regulatory text....

  5. A simplified dynamic model of the T700 turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Gu, Zhen; Litt, Jonathan S.

    1992-01-01

    A simplified open-loop dynamic model of the T700 turboshaft engine, valid within the normal operating range of the engine, is developed. This model is obtained by linking linear state space models obtained at different engine operating points. Each linear model is developed from a detailed nonlinear engine simulation using a multivariable system identification and realization method. The simplified model may be used with a model-based real time diagnostic scheme for fault detection and diagnostics, as well as for open loop engine dynamics studies and closed loop control analysis utilizing a user generated control law.

  6. Infrared suppressor effect on T63 turboshaft engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, E. E.; Civinskas, K. C.; Walker, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine if there are performance penalties associated with the installation of infrared (IR) suppressors on the T63-A-700 turboshaft engine. The testing was done in a sea-level, static test cell. The same engine (A-E402808 B) was run with the standard OH-58 aircraft exhaust stacks and with the ejector-type IR suppressors in order to make a valid comparison. Repeatability of the test results for the two configurations was verified by rerunning the conditions over a period of days. Test results showed no measurable difference in performance between the standard exhaust stacks and the IR suppressors.

  7. Neural Network-Based Sensor Validation for Turboshaft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moller, James C.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    1998-01-01

    Sensor failure detection, isolation, and accommodation using a neural network approach is described. An auto-associative neural network is configured to perform dimensionality reduction on the sensor measurement vector and provide estimated sensor values. The sensor validation scheme is applied in a simulation of the T700 turboshaft engine in closed loop operation. Performance is evaluated based on the ability to detect faults correctly and maintain stable and responsive engine operation. The set of sensor outputs used for engine control forms the network input vector. Analytical redundancy is verified by training networks of successively smaller bottleneck layer sizes. Training data generation and strategy are discussed. The engine maintained stable behavior in the presence of sensor hard failures. With proper selection of fault determination thresholds, stability was maintained in the presence of sensor soft failures.

  8. Contingency power concepts for helicopter turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Davis, R. H.; Goldstein, D. N.; Haynes, J. F.; Gauntner, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by power requirement of safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 minute Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, cooling flow modulation, throttle push and an auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military life cycle cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter direct operating cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine/rubber aircraft scenario.

  9. Automated Power Assessment for Helicopter Turboshaft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2008-01-01

    An accurate indication of available power is required for helicopter mission planning purposes. Available power is currently estimated on U.S. Army Blackhawk helicopters by performing a Maximum Power Check (MPC), a manual procedure performed by maintenance pilots on a periodic basis. The MPC establishes Engine Torque Factor (ETF), an indication of available power. It is desirable to replace the current manual MPC procedure with an automated approach that will enable continuous real-time assessment of available power utilizing normal mission data. This report presents an automated power assessment approach which processes data currently collected within helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) units. The overall approach consists of: 1) a steady-state data filter which identifies and extracts steady-state operating points within HUMS data sets; 2) engine performance curve trend monitoring and updating; and 3) automated ETF calculation. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and currently runs on a PC. Results from the application of this technique to HUMS mission data collected from UH-60L aircraft equipped with T700-GE-701C engines are presented and compared to manually calculated ETF values. Potential future enhancements are discussed.

  10. Army/NASA small turboshaft engine digital controls research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Baez, A. N.

    1981-01-01

    The emphasis of a program to conduct digital controls research for small turboshaft engines is on engine test evaluation of advanced control logic using a flexible microprocessor based digital control system designed specifically for research on advanced control logic. Control software is stored in programmable memory. New control algorithms may be stored in a floppy disk and loaded directly into memory. This feature facilitates comparative evaluation of different advanced control modes. The central processor in the digital control is an Intel 8086 16 bit microprocessor. Control software is programmed in assembly language. Software checkout is accomplished prior to engine test by connecting the digital control to a real time hybrid computer simulation of the engine. The engine currently installed in the facility has a hydromechanical control modified to allow electrohydraulic fuel metering and VG actuation by the digital control. Simulation results are presented which show that the modern control reduces the transient rotor speed droop caused by unanticipated load changes such as cyclic pitch or wind gust transients.

  11. The Case for Distributed Engine Control in Turbo-Shaft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Paluszewski, Paul J.; Storey, William; Smith, Bert J.

    2009-01-01

    The turbo-shaft engine is an important propulsion system used to power vehicles on land, sea, and in the air. As the power plant for many high performance helicopters, the characteristics of the engine and control are critical to proper vehicle operation as well as being the main determinant to overall vehicle performance. When applied to vertical flight, important distinctions exist in the turbo-shaft engine control system due to the high degree of dynamic coupling between the engine and airframe and the affect on vehicle handling characteristics. In this study, the impact of engine control system architecture is explored relative to engine performance, weight, reliability, safety, and overall cost. Comparison of the impact of architecture on these metrics is investigated as the control system is modified from a legacy centralized structure to a more distributed configuration. A composite strawman system which is typical of turbo-shaft engines in the 1000 to 2000 hp class is described and used for comparison. The overall benefits of these changes to control system architecture are assessed. The availability of supporting technologies to achieve this evolution is also discussed.

  12. 78 FR 19982 - Special Conditions: Turbomeca Ardiden 3K Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... drives the engine output shaft. The control system includes a dual-channel full-authority digital-electronic control. The engine will incorporate a novel or unusual design feature, which is a 30-minute... turboshaft engine was published on November 8, 2012 (77 FR 66936). We received no comments....

  13. A high fidelity real-time simulation of a small turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.

    1988-01-01

    A high-fidelity component-type model and real-time digital simulation of the General Electric T700-GE-700 turboshaft engine were developed for use with current generation real-time blade-element rotor helicopter simulations. A control system model based on the specification fuel control system used in the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter is also presented. The modeling assumptions and real-time digital implementation methods particular to the simulation of small turboshaft engines are described. The validity of the simulation is demonstrated by comparison with analysis-oriented simulations developed by the manufacturer, available test data, and flight-test time histories.

  14. 76 FR 8321 - Special Conditions: Pratt and Whitney Canada Model PW210S Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... main output shaft and power turbine to be brought to a stop and to remain stationary, while the gas... turboshaft engine types. Future rulemaking may occur to expand the applicability of Sec. 33.96 to include... shaft and power turbine locked and stationary, while the gas generator portion of the engine...

  15. 77 FR 2015 - Special Conditions: Pratt and Whitney Canada Model PW210S Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Special Conditions: Pratt and Whitney Canada Model PW210S Turboshaft Engine Correction In rule document 2011-14113 appearing on pages 33981-33982 in the issue of Friday, June 10, 2011, make...

  16. 76 FR 54143 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1B Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Turboshaft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  17. 75 FR 22693 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Makila 2A Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Turboshaft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request...

  18. 77 FR 40479 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Corporation Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... NPRM published in the Federal Register on December 20, 2011 (76 FR 78863). That NPRM proposed to... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR..., -C20B, and -C20R/2 turboshaft engines. This AD was prompted by seven cases reported of released...

  19. 77 FR 73557 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT....

  20. 77 FR 61303 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 2D turboshaft engines. This proposed AD was prompted by a low fuel pressure event caused by a deterioration and a loss of the low-pressure drive function within the hydro-mechanical... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The...

  1. 77 FR 42677 - Special Conditions: General Electric CT7-2E1 Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Special Conditions: General Electric CT7-2E1 Turboshaft.... SUMMARY: This action proposes special conditions for the General Electric CT7-2E1 engine model. This.... Background On September 10, 2009, General Electric applied for an amendment to type certificate E8NE to...

  2. Fault diagnostics for turbo-shaft engine sensors based on a simplified on-board model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient. PMID:23112645

  3. Fault Diagnostics for Turbo-Shaft Engine Sensors Based on a Simplified On-Board Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient. PMID:23112645

  4. Fault diagnostics for turbo-shaft engine sensors based on a simplified on-board model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient.

  5. Simulating a small turboshaft engine in real-time multiprocessor simulator (RTMPS) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.; Arpasi, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A Real-Time Multiprocessor Simulator (RTMPS) has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The RTMPS uses parallel microprocessors to achieve computing speeds needed for real-time engine simulation. This report describes the use of the RTMPS system to simulate a small turboshaft engine. The process of programming the engine equations and distributing them over one, two, and four processors is discussed. Steady-state and transient results from the RTMPS simulation are compared with results from a main-frame-based simulation. Processor execution times and the associated execution time savings for the two and four processor cases are presented using actual data obtained from the RTMPS system. Included is a discussion of why the minimum achievable calculation time for the turboshaft engine model was attained using four processors. Finally, future enhancements to the RTMPS system are discussed including the development of a generalized partitioning algorithm to automatically distribute the system equations among the processors in optimum fashion.

  6. Performance Benefits for a Turboshaft Engine Using Nonlinear Engine Control Technology Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    The potential benefits of nonlinear engine control technology applied to a General Electric T700 helicopter engine were investigated. This technology is being developed by the U.S. Navy SPAWAR Systems Center for a variety of applications. When used as a means of active stability control, nonlinear engine control technology uses sensors and small amounts of injected air to allow compressors to operate with reduced stall margin, which can improve engine pressure ratio. The focus of this study was to determine the best achievable reduction in fuel consumption for the T700 turboshaft engine. A customer deck (computer code) was provided by General Electric to calculate the T700 engine performance, and the NASA Glenn Research Center used this code to perform the analysis. The results showed a 2- to 5-percent reduction in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at the three Sikorsky H-60 helicopter operating points of cruise, loiter, and hover.

  7. A New Turbo-shaft Engine Control Law during Variable Rotor Speed Transient Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Miao, Lizhen; Zhang, Haibo; Huang, Jinquan

    2015-12-01

    A closed-loop control law employing compressor guided vanes is firstly investigated to solve unacceptable fuel flow dynamic change in single fuel control for turbo-shaft engine here, especially for rotorcraft in variable rotor speed process. Based on an Augmented Linear Quadratic Regulator (ALQR) algorithm, a dual-input, single-output robust control scheme is proposed for a turbo-shaft engine, involving not only the closed loop adjustment of fuel flow but also that of compressor guided vanes. Furthermore, compared to single fuel control, some digital simulation cases using this new scheme about variable rotor speed have been implemented on the basis of an integrated system of helicopter and engine model. The results depict that the command tracking performance to the free turbine rotor speed can be asymptotically realized. Moreover, the fuel flow transient process has been significantly improved, and the fuel consumption has been dramatically cut down by more than 2% while keeping the helicopter level fight unchanged.

  8. Design description of a microprocessor based Engine Monitoring and Control unit (EMAC) for small turboshaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baez, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    Research programs have demonstrated that digital electronic controls are more suitable for advanced aircraft/rotorcraft turbine engine systems than hydromechanical controls. Commercially available microprocessors are believed to have the speed and computational capability required for implementing advanced digital control algorithms. Thus, it is desirable to demonstrate that off-the-shelf microprocessors are indeed capable of performing real time control of advanced gas turbine engines. The engine monitoring and control (EMAC) unit was designed and fabricated specifically to meet the requirements of an advanced gas turbine engine control system. The EMAC unit is fully operational in the Army/NASA small turboshaft engine digital research program.

  9. Response of a small-turboshaft-engine compression system to inlet temperature distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Klann, G. A.; Little, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted into the response of a small-turboshaft-engine compression system to steady-state and transient inlet temperature distortions. Transient temperature ramps range from less than 100 K/sec to above 610 K/sec and generated instantaneous temperatures to 420 K above ambient. Steady-state temperature distortion levels were limited by the engine hardware temperature list. Simple analysis of the steady-state distortion data indicated that a particle separator at the engine inlet permitted higher levels of temperature distortion before onset of compressor surge than would be expected without the separator.

  10. Preliminary study of advanced turboprop and turboshaft engines for light aircraft. [cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, G.; Plencner, R. M.; Eisenberg, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of engine configuration, advanced component technology, compressor pressure ratio and turbine rotor-inlet temperature on such figures of merit as vehicle gross weight, mission fuel, aircraft acquisition cost, operating, cost and life cycle cost are determined for three fixed- and two rotary-wing aircraft. Compared with a current production turboprop, an advanced technology (1988) engine results in a 23 percent decrease in specific fuel consumption. Depending on the figure of merit and the mission, turbine engine cost reductions required to achieve aircraft cost parity with a current spark ignition reciprocating (SIR) engine vary from 0 to 60 percent and from 6 to 74 percent with a hypothetical advanced SIR engine. Compared with a hypothetical turboshaft using currently available technology (1978), an advanced technology (1988) engine installed in a light twin-engine helicopter results in a 16 percent reduction in mission fuel and about 11 percent in most of the other figures of merit.

  11. Real-time hybrid computer simulation of a small turboshaft engine and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, C. E.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an analytical model of a small turboshaft engine designed for helicopter propulsion systems is described. The model equations were implemented on a hybrid computer system to provide a real time nonlinear simulation of the engine performance over a wide operating range. The real time hybrid simulation of the engine was used to evaluate a microprocessor based digital control module. This digital control module was developed as part of an advanced rotorcraft control program. After tests with the hybrid engine simulation the digital control module was used to control a real engine in an experimental program. A hybrid simulation of the engine's electrical hydromechanical control system was developed. This allowed to vary the fuel flow and torque load inputs to the hybrid engine simulation for simulating transient operation. A steady-state data and the experimental tests are compared. Analytical model equations, analog computer diagrams, and a digital computer flow chart are included.

  12. 75 FR 11072 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1B, 1D, 1D1, and 1S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may examine the.... Discussion On March 17, 2008, the FAA issued AD 2008-07-01, Amendment 39-15442 (73 FR 15866, March 26, 2008... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Would not have a...

  13. 75 FR 27411 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1B, 1D, 1D1, and 1S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... INFORMATION: The FAA proposed to amend 14 CFR part 39 by superseding AD 2008-07-01, Amendment 39-15442 (73 FR... the proposed AD in the Federal Register on March 10, 2010 (75 FR 11072). That action proposed to...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have...

  14. Source localization of turboshaft engine broadband noise using a three-sensor coherence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacodon, Daniel; Lewy, Serge

    2015-03-01

    Turboshaft engines can become the main source of helicopter noise at takeoff. Inlet radiation mainly comes from the compressor tones, but aft radiation is more intricate: turbine tones usually are above the audible frequency range and do not contribute to the weighted sound levels; jet is secondary and radiates low noise levels. A broadband component is the most annoying but its sources are not well known (it is called internal or core noise). Present study was made in the framework of the European project TEENI (Turboshaft Engine Exhaust Noise Identification). Its main objective was to localize the broadband sources in order to better reduce them. Several diagnostic techniques were implemented by the various TEENI partners. As regards ONERA, a first attempt at separating sources was made in the past with Turbomeca using a three-signal coherence method (TSM) to reject background non-acoustic noise. The main difficulty when using TSM is the assessment of the frequency range where the results are valid. This drawback has been circumvented in the TSM implemented in TEENI. Measurements were made on a highly instrumented Ardiden turboshaft engine in the Turbomeca open-air test bench. Two engine powers (approach and takeoff) were selected to apply TSM. Two internal pressure probes were located in various cross-sections, either behind the combustion chamber (CC), the high-pressure turbine (HPT), the free-turbine first stage (TL), or in four nozzle sections. The third transducer was a far-field microphone located around the maximum of radiation, at 120° from the intake centerline. The key result is that coherence increases from CC to HPT and TL, then decreases in the nozzle up to the exit. Pressure fluctuations from HPT and TL are very coherent with the far-field acoustic spectra up to 700 Hz. They are thus the main acoustic source and can be attributed to indirect combustion noise (accuracy decreases above 700 Hz because coherence is lower, but far-field sound spectra

  15. 76 FR 67594 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call (781) 238-7125. Examining the AD Docket You may... Engineer, Engine & Propeller Directorate, FAA, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA 01803;...

  16. Model-Based Fault Diagnosis for Turboshaft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Michael D.; Duyar, Ahmet; Litt, Jonathan S.

    1998-01-01

    Tests are described which, when used to augment the existing periodic maintenance and pre-flight checks of T700 engines, can greatly improve the chances of uncovering a problem compared to the current practice. These test signals can be used to expose and differentiate between faults in various components by comparing the responses of particular engine variables to the expected. The responses can be processed on-line in a variety of ways which have been shown to reveal and identify faults. The combination of specific test signals and on-line processing methods provides an ad hoc approach to the isolation of faults which might not otherwise be detected during pre-flight checkout.

  17. Experimental study of the acoustic spinning modes generated by a helicopter turboshaft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewy, S.; Gounet, H.

    Turboshaft engines may be the main noise source radiated by helicopters during take-off if the sound levels are measured in dBa or PNdB. The engine inlet is often non-axisymmetric and one can take advantage of this for reducing the ground perceived noise simply by modifying the radiated directivity. The study is focused on the blade passing frequency of the first axial compressor, which dominates the acoustic spectra. The objective is to better understand the space structure (spinning modes) of the generated waves in order to predict the directivity pattern (model of Tyler and Sofrin). The tests were performed at the Turbomeca outdoor facility. Some experiments using an array of fixed microphones in an inlet cross section of a TM333 engine show that the spinning mode analysis can yield useful results even if the cross section is far from being circular. However, the number of microphones remains necessarily small, which entails a spatial aliasing on high-order modes. Tests were thus conducted with moving microphones in the very near field of an Arriel engine, just outside the intake. The measured spinning modes can be used as input data into a computer code predicting the far field directivity.

  18. Small Engine Technology. Task 4: Advanced Small Turboshaft Compressor (ASTC) Performance and Range Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jeff L.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    This contact had two main objectives involving both numerical and experimental investigations of a small highly loaded two-stage axial compressor designated Advanced Small Turboshaft Compressor (ASTC) winch had a design pressure ratio goal of 5:1 at a flowrate of 10.53 lbm/s. The first objective was to conduct 3-D Navier Stokes multistage analyses of the ASTC using several different flow modelling schemes. The second main objective was to complete a numerical/experimental investigation into stall range enhancement of the ASTC. This compressor was designed wider a cooperative Space Act Agreement and all testing was completed at NASA Lewis Research Center. For the multistage analyses, four different flow model schemes were used, namely: (1) steady-state ADPAC analysis, (2) unsteady ADPAC analysis, (3) steady-state APNASA analysis, and (4) steady state OCOM3D analysis. The results of all the predictions were compared to the experimental data. The steady-state ADPAC and APNASA codes predicted similar overall performance and produced good agreement with data, however the blade row performance and flowfield details were quite different. In general, it can be concluded that the APNASA average-passage code does a better job of predicting the performance and flowfield details of the highly loaded ASTC compressor.

  19. 76 FR 77446 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ..., Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call (781) 238-7125. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD... Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive...

  20. Wide speed range turboshaft study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, Martin

    1995-01-01

    NASA-Lewis and NASA-Ames have sponsored a series of studies over the last few years to identify key high speed rotorcraft propulsion and airframe technologies. NASA concluded from these studies that for near term aircraft with cruise speeds up to 450 kt, tilting rotor rotorcraft concepts are the most economical and technologically viable. The propulsion issues critical to tilting rotor rotorcraft are: (1) high speed cruise propulsion system efficiency and (2) adequate power to hover safely with one engine inoperative. High speed cruise propeller efficiency can be dramatically improved by reducing rotor speed, yet high rotor speed is critical for good hover performance. With a conventional turboshaft, this wide range of power turbine operating speeds would result in poor engine performance at one or more of these critical operating conditions. This study identifies several wide speed range turboshaft concepts, and analyzes their potential to improve performance at the diverse cruise and hover operating conditions. Many unique concepts were examined, and the selected concepts are simple, low cost, relatively low risk, and entirely contained within the power turbine. These power turbine concepts contain unique, incidence tolerant airfoil designs that allow the engine to cruise efficiently at 51 percent of the hover rotor speed. Overall propulsion system efficiency in cruise is improved as much as 14 percent, with similar improvements in engine weight and cost. The study is composed of a propulsion requirement survey, a concept screening study, a preliminary definition and evaluation of selected concepts, and identification of key technologies and development needs. In addition, a civil transport tilting rotor rotorcraft mission analysis was performed to show the benefit of these concepts versus a conventional turboshaft. Other potential applications for this technology are discussed.

  1. 77 FR 32437 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ..., Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 781-238-7125. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD..., Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive...

  2. 76 FR 72091 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Makila 1A2 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: James Lawrence, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive...

  3. 78 FR 6725 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ..., Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England... Register on October 9, 2012 (77 FR 61303). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... the NPRM (77 FR 61303). Conclusion We reviewed the available data and determined that air safety...

  4. 75 FR 78937 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International LTS101 Series Turboshaft Engines and LTP101...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may... the Federal Register on December 21, 2009 (74 FR 67829). That action proposed to require removing... Should Apply to Engines on Multi-Engine Helicopters One commenter, the National Transportation...

  5. 76 FR 33981 - Special Conditions: Pratt and Whitney Canada Model PW210S Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... for the PW210S engine model was published on February 14, 2011 (76 FR 8321). One comment letter was... unit (APU) mode. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety... novel or unusual design feature, which is engine operation in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode....

  6. 78 FR 15597 - Special Conditions: GE Aviation CT7-2E1 Turboshaft Engine Model

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... conditions are issued for the General Electric Aviation (GE) CT7-2E1 engine model. This engine model will...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code of... published on July 20, 2012 (77 FR 42677). We received six comments from European Aviation Safety...

  7. Dynamic and Transient Performance of Turbofan/Turboshaft Convertible Engine With Variable Inlet Guide Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArdle, Jack G.; Barth, Richard L.; Wenzel, Leon M.; Biesiadny, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    A convertible engine called the CEST TF34, using the variable inlet guide vane method of power change, was tested on an outdoor stand at the NASA Lewis Research Center with a waterbrake dynamometer for the shaft load. A new digital electronic system, in conjunction with a modified standard TF34 hydromechanical fuel control, kept engine operation stable and safely within limits. All planned testing was completed successfully. Steady-state performance and acoustic characteristics were reported previously and are referenced. This report presents results of transient and dynamic tests. The transient tests measured engine response to several rapid changes in thrust and torque commands at constant fan (shaft) speed. Limited results from dynamic tests using the pseudorandom binary noise technique are also presented. Performance of the waterbrake dynamometer is discussed in an appendix.

  8. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  9. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  10. 77 FR 66936 - Special Conditions: Turbomeca Ardiden 3K Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... system includes a dual-channel full-authority digital-electronic control. The engine will incorporate a... function of the docket Web site, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at...

  11. 75 FR 7027 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 2S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ... transient deceleration of engine 2 was caused by the untimely reset of its digital electronic control unit... after the effective date of this AD, perform an upgrade of the digital electronic control unit (DECU... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55491). That NPRM proposed...

  12. 78 FR 32551 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 2001-08-14R1, Amendment 39 14423 (71 FR 2993... Federal Register on February 7, 2013 (78 FR 9007). That NPRM proposed to require, depending on the engine... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will...

  13. 77 FR 9874 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... one work-hour per engine to comply with this proposed AD. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  14. 77 FR 66767 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA....

  15. 78 FR 47581 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... information at the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA....

  16. 76 FR 73494 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 2B Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call (781) 238-7125. Examining the AD Docket You... & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA 01803; phone: (781) 238-7758; fax:...

  17. 76 FR 77378 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1 Series Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... information at the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call (781) 238-7125. Examining the AD Docket You... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to revise AD 2010-19-06, amendment 39-16434 (75 FR...

  18. 76 FR 78863 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Corporation Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... of power and engine in-flight shutdowns (IFSDs). This proposed AD would require a one-time visual... proposing a one-time visual and FPI on the 3rd stage turbine wheel, part number (P/N) 23065818, and on the... performing a one-time visual inspection and FPI on the 3rd stage turbine wheel, P/N 23065818, and on the...

  19. Comparisons of Rig and Engine Dynamic Events in the Compressor of an Axi-Centrifugal Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, A. Karl; Mattern, Duane L.; Le, Dzu K.

    1996-01-01

    Steady state and dynamic data were acquired in a T55-L-712 compressor rig. In addition, a T55-L-12 engine was instrumented and similar data were acquired. Rig and engine stall/surge data were analyzed using modal techniques. This paper compares rig and engine preliminary results for the ground idle (approximately 60% of design speed) point. The results of these analyses indicate both rig and engine dynamic event are preceded by indications of traveling wave energy in front of the compressor face. For both rig and engine, the traveling wave energy contains broad band energy with some prominent narrow peaks and, while the events are similar in many ways, some noticeable differences exist between the results of the analyses of rig data and engine data.

  20. 76 FR 68661 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 2B and 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... information at the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA 01803... Rosa, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA 01803; phone: (781) 238-7152; fax: (781) 238-7199; email:...

  1. 75 FR 59060 - Airworthiness Directives; Turboméca S.A. ARRIEL 2B Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...) metering valve body. We are issuing this AD to prevent loss of control of engine fuel flow in manual... stuck controller axles in the metering valve body. We are issuing this AD to prevent loss of control of engine fuel flow in manual control mode or mixed control mode, which can lead to engine overspeed, and...

  2. 75 FR 16022 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. MAKILA 1A and 1A1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0... TU250 CS boards, however, has resulted in a few occurrences of erratic engine behaviour, in the form of... signed the comment on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review the...

  3. 76 FR 40222 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. ARRIEL 2B and 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA 01803; e-mail... FR 9515). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  4. 76 FR 39795 - Special Conditions: Pratt and Whitney Canada Model PT6C-67E Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... centrifugal compressor driven by a single stage high pressure turbine (HPT) and a two-stage power turbine (PT... FAA for approval of these features on the engine. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 33 Air... developed under static conditions at the specified altitude and temperature, and within the...

  5. Study of LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  6. Analysis of a topping-cycle, aircraft, gas-turbine-engine system which uses cryogenic fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    A topping-cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel was investigated. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine that is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop, which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping-cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping-cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping-cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping-cycle engine is comparable with that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  7. Experimental program for the evaluation of turbofan/turboshaft c conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, J. G.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    A TF34 turbofan engine is being modified to produce shaft power from an output coupling on the fan disk when variable inlet guide vanes are closed to reduce fan airflow. The engine, called a convertible engine, could be used on advanced rotorcraft such as X-wing, ABC (Advanced Blade Concept), and Folding Tilt Rotor, and on V/STOL craft in which two engines are cross-coupled. The engine will be tested on an outdoor static test stand at NASA Lewis Research Center. Steady-state tests will be made to measure performance in turbofan, turboshaft, and combined power output modes. Transient tests will be made to determine the response to the engine and a new digital engine control system for several types of rapid changes in thrust and shaft loads. The paper describes the engine modifications, the test facility equipment, proposed testing techniques for several types of tests, and typical test results predicted from engine performance computer programs.

  8. A simplified life-cycle cost comparison of various engines for small helicopter use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Fishbach, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    A ten-year, life-cycle cost comparison is made of the following engines for small helicopter use: (1) simple turboshaft; (2) regenerative turboshaft; (3) compression-ignition reciprocator; (4) spark-ignited rotary; and (5) spark-ignited reciprocator. Based on a simplified analysis and somewhat approximate data, the simple turboshaft engine apparently has the lowest costs for mission times up to just under 2 hours. At 2 hours and above, the regenerative turboshaft appears promising. The reciprocating and rotary engines are less attractive, requiring from 10 percent to 80 percent more aircraft to have the same total payload capability as a given number of turbine powered craft. A nomogram was developed for estimating total costs of engines not covered in this study.

  9. The design of a turboshaft speed governor using modern control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delosreyes, G.; Gouchoe, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this program were: to verify the model of off schedule compressor variable geometry in the T700 turboshaft engine nonlinear model; to evaluate the use of the pseudo-random binary noise (PRBN) technique for obtaining engine frequency response data; and to design a high performance power turbine speed governor using modern control methods. Reduction of T700 engine test data generated at NASA-Lewis indicated that the off schedule variable geometry effects were accurate as modeled. Analysis also showed that the PRBN technique combined with the maximum likelihood model identification method produced a Bode frequency response that was as accurate as the response obtained from standard sinewave testing methods. The frequency response verified the accuracy of linear models consisting of engine partial derivatives and used for design. A power turbine governor was designed using the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) method of full state feedback control. A Kalman filter observer was used to estimate helicopter main rotor blade velocity. Compared to the baseline T700 power turbine speed governor, the LQR governor reduced droop up to 25 percent for a 490 shaft horsepower transient in 0.1 sec simulating a wind gust, and up to 85 percent for a 700 shaft horsepower transient in 0.5 sec simulating a large collective pitch angle transient.

  10. 76 FR 80228 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54143). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... (GG) turbine rotor, potentially resulting in turbine damage and an uncommanded in-flight shutdown....

  11. 76 FR 70334 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... site: http://portal.honeywell.com/wps/portal/aero . (l) Material Incorporated by Reference None....

  12. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  13. The Design and Testing of a Miniature Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, Gary B.; Murray, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Off-the-shelf jet propulsion in the 50 - 500 lb thrust class sparse. A true twin-spool turbofan in this range does not exist. Adapting an off-the-shelf turboshaft engine is feasible. However the approx.10 Hp SPT5 can t quite make 50 lbs. of thrust. Packaging and integration is challenging, especially the exhaust. Building on our engine using a 25 Hp turboshaft seems promising if the engine becomes available. Test techniques used, though low cost, adequate for the purpose.

  14. SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242 impairs the onset of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Sureau, Camille; Guévin, Carl; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, approximately 170 million individuals are afflicted with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To prevent the development of inherent diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, tremendous efforts have been made, leading to the development of promising new treatments. However, their efficiency is still dependent on the viral genotype. Additionally, these treatments that target the virus directly can trigger the emergence of resistant variants. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a long-term (72h) inhibition of SKI-1/S1P, a master lipogenic pathway regulator through activation of SREBP, resulted in impaired HCV genome replication and infectious virion secretion. In the present study, we sought to investigate the antiviral effect of the SKI-1/S1P small molecule inhibitor PF-429242 at the early steps of the HCV lifecycle. Our results indicate a very potent antiviral effect of the inhibitor early in the viral lifecycle and that the overall action of the compound relies on two different contributions. The first one is SREBP/SKI-1/S1P dependent and involves LDLR and NPC1L1 proteins, while the second one is SREBP independent. Overall, our study confirms that SKI-1/S1P is a relevant target to impair HCV infection and that PF-429242 could be a promising candidate in the field of HCV infection treatment.

  15. General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerst, C. F.; Furst, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of turbine engines for the smaller general aviation aircraft was investigated and a technology program for developing the necessary technology was identified. Major results included the definition of the 1988 general aviation market, the identification of turboprop and turboshaft engines that meet the requirements of the aircraft studies, a benefit analysis showing the superiority of gas turbine engines for portions of the market studied, and detailed plans for the development of the necessary technology.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Ignisphaera aggregans type strain (AQ1.S1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Goker, Markus; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Spring, Stefan; Yasawong, Montri; Lucas, Susan; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Tapia, Roxanne; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Palaniappan, Krishna; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Brettin, Thomas S; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Rohde, Manfred; Sikorski, Johannes; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Ignisphaera aggregans Niederberger et al. 2006 is the type and sole species of genus Ignisphaera. This archaeal species is characterized by a cocci-shaped, strictly anaerobic, moderately acidophilic, heterotrophic hyperthermophile and fermentative phenotype. The type strain AQ1.S1T was isolated from a near neutral, boiling spring in Kuirau Park, Rotorua, New Zealand. This is the first completed genome sequence of the genus Ignisphaera and the fifth genome (fourth type strain) sequence in the family Desulfurococcaceae. The 1,875,953 bp long genome with its 2,061 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. New fluorinated agonists for targeting the sphingosin-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rizwan S; Keul, Petra; Schäfers, Michael; Levkau, Bodo; Haufe, Günter

    2015-11-15

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) is involved in fundamental biological processes such as regulation of immune cell trafficking, vascular barrier function and angiogenesis. This Letter presents multistep syntheses of various fluorine substituted 12-aryl analogues of the drug fingolimod (FTY720) and a seven-steps route to 2-amino-17,17-difluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)heptadecan-1-ol. In vitro and in vivo tests proved all these compounds as potent S1P1 receptor agonists.

  18. Human casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) skews in vitro differentiation of monocytes towards macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The milk-derived protein human Casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) has recently been detected in blood cells and was shown to possess proinflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CSN1S1 on the differentiation of monocytes. Methods Primary human monocytes were stimulated with recombinant CSN1S1 and compared to cells stimulated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or M-CSF/IFNγ. Morphological changes were assessed by microscopy and quantification of surface markers of differentiation by FACS analysis. Phagocytic activity of CSN1S1 stimulated cells was measured by quantification of zymosan labeled particle uptake. The role of mitogen activated protein kinases for CSN1S1-induced differentiation of monocytes and proinflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by supplementation of specific inhibitors. Results CSN1S1 at a concentration of 10 μg/ml resulted in morphological changes (irregular shape, pseudopodia) and aggregation of cells, comparable to changes observed in M-CSF/IFNγ differentiated macrophages. Surface marker expression was altered after 24 h with an upregulation of CD14 (mean 2.5 fold) and CD64 (1.9 fold) in CSN1S1 stimulated cells. CSN1S1 treated cells showed a characteristic surface marker pattern for macrophages after 120 h of incubation (CD14high, CD64high, CD83low, CD1alow) comparable to changes observed in M-CSF/IFNγ treated monocytes. Furthermore, phagocytic activity was increased 1.4 and 1.9 fold following stimulation with 10 μg/ml CSN1S1 after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Early GM-CSF, but not GM-CSF/IL-4 induced differentiation of monocytes towards dendritic cells (DC) was inhibited by addition of CSN1S1. Finally, CSN1S1 induced upregulation of CD14 was impeded by inhibition of ERK1/2, while inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases JNK and p38 did not influence cellular differentiation. However, JNK and p38 inhibitors impeded CSN1S1 induced secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1b or IL-6. Conclusions CSN1S1

  19. PS-1/S1 picosecond streak camera application for multichannel laser system diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Garanin, S G; Bel'kov, S A; Rogozhnikov, G S; Rukavishnikov, N N; Romanov, V V; Voronich, I N; Vorob'ev, N S; Gornostaev, P B; Lozovoi, V I; Shchelev, M Ya

    2014-08-31

    A PS-1/S1 picosecond image-tube streak camera (ITSC) with slit scan (streak camera), developed and manufactured at the General Physics Institute RAS, has been used to measure the spatiotemporal characteristics of ultrashort laser pulses generated by a petawatt-power laser installation 'FEMTO' at the Institute of Laser Physics Research in Sarov. It is found that such a camera is suitable for measuring the spatial and temporal parameters of single laser pulses with an accuracy of about one picosecond. It is shown that the intensity time profile of a train of picosecond pulses may be precisely defined for the pulses separated in time by a few picoseconds. The camera allows the contrast of radiation to be determined with a high (no less than 10{sup 3}) accuracy; spatial distribution of the laser pulses can be measured with an accuracy of tens of microns, and the temporal separation of single laser pulses can be identified with an accuracy of 1 – 1.5 ps. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  20. The apoptotic effect of 1's-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate from Alpinia conchigera on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Awang, Khalijah; Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Aun, Lionel In Lian; Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Ibrahim, Halijah; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2010-11-09

    1'-(S)-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff. was investigated for its potential as an anticancer drug. In this communication, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of ACA on five human tumour cell lines. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that ACA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity on all tumour cell lines tested and had no adverse cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Total mortality of the entire tumour cell population was achieved within 30 hrs when treated with ACA at 40.0 µM concentration. Flow cytometric analysis for annexin-V and PI dual staining demonstrated that cell death occurred via apoptosis, followed by secondary necrosis. The apoptotic effects of ACA were confirmed via the DNA fragmentation assay, in which consistent laddering of genomic DNA was observed for all tumour cell lines after a 24 hrs post-treatment period at the IC(50) concentration of ACA. A cell cycle analysis using PI staining also demonstrated that ACA induced cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase, corresponding to oral tumour cell lines. In conclusion, ACA exhibits enormous potential for future development as a chemotherapeutic drug against various malignancies.

  1. Disruption of AP1S1, Causing a Novel Neurocutaneous Syndrome, Perturbs Development of the Skin and Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Drouin, Christian A.; Lapointe, Line; Boudreau, Michèle; Meloche, Caroline; Drouin, Régen; Hudson, Thomas J.; Drapeau, Pierre; Cossette, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes regulate clathrin-coated vesicle assembly, protein cargo sorting, and vesicular trafficking between organelles in eukaryotic cells. Because disruption of the various subunits of the AP complexes is embryonic lethal in the majority of cases, characterization of their function in vivo is still lacking. Here, we describe the first mutation in the human AP1S1 gene, encoding the small subunit σ1A of the AP-1 complex. This founder splice mutation, which leads to a premature stop codon, was found in four families with a unique syndrome characterized by mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratodermia (MEDNIK). To validate the pathogenic effect of the mutation, we knocked down Ap1s1 expression in zebrafish using selective antisens morpholino oligonucleotides (AMO). The knockdown phenotype consisted of perturbation in skin formation, reduced pigmentation, and severe motility deficits due to impaired neural network development. Both neural and skin defects were rescued by co-injection of AMO with wild-type (WT) human AP1S1 mRNA, but not by co-injecting the truncated form of AP1S1, consistent with a loss-of-function effect of this mutation. Together, these results confirm AP1S1 as the gene responsible for MEDNIK syndrome and demonstrate a critical role of AP1S1 in development of the skin and spinal cord. PMID:19057675

  2. A single nucleotide polymorphism and sequence analysis of CSN1S1 gene promoter region in Chinese Bos grunniens (yak).

    PubMed

    Bai, W L; Yin, R H; Dou, Q L; Yang, J C; Zhao, S J; Ma, Z J; Yin, R L; Luo, G B; Zhao, Z H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the CSN1S1 gene promoter region in 4 Chinese yak breeds, and compare the yak CSN1S1 gene promoter region sequences with other ruminants. A Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism protocol was developed for rapid genotyping of the yak CSN1S1 gene. One hundred fifty-eight animals from 4 Chinese yak breeds were genotyped at the CSN1S1 locus using the protocol developed. A single nucleotide polymorphism of the CSN1S1 gene promoter region has been identified in all yak breeds investigated. The polymorphism consists of a single nucleotide substitution G-->A at position 386 of the CSN1S1 gene promoter region, resulting in two alleles named, respectively, G(386) and A(386), based on the nucleotide at position 386. The allele G(386) was found to be more common in the animals investigated. The corresponding nucleotide sequences in GenBank of yak (having the same nucleotides as allele G(386) in this study), bovine, water buffalo, sheep, and goat had similarity of 99.68%, 99.35%, 97.42%, 95.14%, and 94.19%, respectively, with the yak allele A(386.).

  3. Experimental study of ceramic coated tip seals for turbojet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Klann, G. A.; Lassow, E. S.; Mchenry, M.; Mcdonald, G.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Ceramic gas-path seals were fabricated and successfully operated over 1000 cycles from flight idle to maximum power in a small turboshaft engine. The seals were fabricated by plasma spraying zirconia over a NiCoCrAlX bond boat on the Haynes 25 substrate. Coolant-side substrate temperatures and related engine parameters were recorded. Post-test inspection revealed mudflat surface cracking with penetration to the ceramic bond-coat interface.

  4. SKI-1/S1P inhibition: a promising surrogate to statins to block hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is often associated with steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Statins (HMG-CoAR inhibitors) have been shown to exert an antiviral effect in vitro, principally on replicon harboring cells, but the effect of their use alone in vivo remains controversial. In clinical trials, when used in combination with the standards of care (SOC), they led to an increased proportion of sustained virological responder (SVR). Here we investigated the implication of SKI-1/S1P, a master lipogenic pathways regulator upstream of HMG-CoAR, on different steps of HCV life cycle. We compared the HCV antiviral effect of the most potent SKI-1/S1P small molecule inhibitor (PF-429242) with a set of two statins on different steps of the viral life cycle, and showed that SKI-1/S1P inhibitor blocked HCVcc (strain JFH-1) RNA replication (EC(50)= 5.8 μM) more efficiently than statins. Moreover, we showed that PF-429242 could reduce lipid droplets accumulation in Huh7 cells. Interestingly, PF-429242 dramatically reduced infectious particles production (EC(90)= 4.8 μM). Such inhibition could not be achieved with statins. SKI-1/S1P activity is thus essential for viral production and its inhibition should be considered for antiviral drug development. PMID:22626636

  5. NASA Glenn's Engine Components Research Lab, Cell 2B, Reactivated to Support the U.S. Army Research Laboratory T700 Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Luis R.; Griffin, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been directed by their parent command, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), to demonstrate active stall technology in a turboshaft engine as the next step in transitioning this technology to the Army and aerospace industry. Therefore, the Vehicle Technology Directorate requested the reactivation of Glenn's Engine Components Research Lab, Cell 2B, (ECRL 2B). They wanted to test a T700 engine that had been used previously for turboshaft engine research as a partnership between the Army and NASA on small turbine engine research. ECRL 2B had been placed in standby mode in 1997. Glenn's Testing Division initiated reactivation in May 2002 to support the new research effort, and they completed reactivation and improvements in September 2003.

  6. Nondestructive post-irradiation examination of Loop-1, S1 and B1 rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    As a part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Tritium Target Development Program, eleven tritium target rods were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory during 1991. Both nondestructive and destructive post-irradiation examination on all eleven rods was planned under the Tritium Target Development Program. Funding for the program was reduced in 1991 resulting in the early removal of the program experiments before reaching their irradiation goals. Post-irradiation examination was only performed on one of the irradiated rods at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory before the program was terminated in 1992. On December 6, 1995, the Secretary of Energy announced the pursuit of the Commercial Light-Water Reactor option for producing tritium establishing the Tritium Target Qualification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This program decided to pursue nondestructive and destructive post-irradiation examination of the ten remaining rods from the previous program. The ten rods comprise three experiments. The Loop-1 experiment irradiated eight target rods in a loop configuration for 217 irradiation days. The other two rods were irradiated in two separate irradiation experiments, designated as S1 and B1 for 143 effective full-power days, but at different power levels. After the ten rods were transferred from the ATR Canal to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility, the following examinations were performed: (1) visual examination and photography; (2) neutron radiography; (3) axial gamma scanning; (4) contact profilometry measurement; (5) bow and length measurements; (6) rod puncture and plenum gas analysis/measurement of plenum gas quantity; (7) void volume determination; and (8) internal pressure determination. This report presents the data collected during these examinations.

  7. Tumor suppressor PRSS8 targets Sphk1/S1P/Stat3/Akt signaling in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Li, Zexin; Yang, Yiqiong; Chen, Zhiguo; Wang, Jianguo; Zhao, Weixing; Zhang, Huijuan; Chen, Jiwang; Dong, Huali; Shen, Kui; Diamond, Alan M.; Yang, Wancai

    2016-01-01

    PRSS8 is a membrane-anchored serine protease prostasin and has been shown an association with carcinogenesis. Herein we found that PRSS8 expression was significantly reduced in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The decreased PRSS8 was well correlated with clinical stages, poor differentiation and shorter survival time of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, increase of PRSS8 led to the inhibition of colorectal cancer cell proliferation, knockdown of PRSS8 accelerated cell proliferation in vitro, and overexpressing PRSS8 retarded cancer cell growth in nude mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that PRSS8 inhibited Sphk1/S1P/Stat3/Akt signaling pathway, in terms of inverse association between PRSS8 and Sphk1 in human colorectal cancers and in Sphk1-/− mice. In conclusion, PRSS8 acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting Sphk1/S1P/Stat3/Akt signaling pathway, and could be used as a biomarker to monitor colorectal carcinogenesis and predict outcomes. PMID:27050145

  8. Tumor suppressor PRSS8 targets Sphk1/S1P/Stat3/Akt signaling in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yonghua; Li, Kai; Guo, Yongchen; Wang, Qian; Li, Zexin; Yang, Yiqiong; Chen, Zhiguo; Wang, Jianguo; Zhao, Weixing; Zhang, Huijuan; Chen, Jiwang; Dong, Huali; Shen, Kui; Diamond, Alan M; Yang, Wancai

    2016-05-01

    PRSS8 is a membrane-anchored serine protease prostasin and has been shown an association with carcinogenesis. Herein we found that PRSS8 expression was significantly reduced in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The decreased PRSS8 was well correlated with clinical stages, poor differentiation and shorter survival time of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, increase of PRSS8 led to the inhibition of colorectal cancer cell proliferation, knockdown of PRSS8 accelerated cell proliferation in vitro, and overexpressing PRSS8 retarded cancer cell growth in nude mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that PRSS8 inhibited Sphk1/S1P/Stat3/Akt signaling pathway, in terms of inverse association between PRSS8 and Sphk1 in human colorectal cancers and in Sphk1-/- mice. In conclusion, PRSS8 acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting Sphk1/S1P/Stat3/Akt signaling pathway, and could be used as a biomarker to monitor colorectal carcinogenesis and predict outcomes. PMID:27050145

  9. Acetoxybenzhydrols as highly active and stable analogues of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol, a potent antiallergic principal from Alpinia galanga.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Manse, Yoshiaki; Morimoto, Takayuki; Qilong, Wang; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2009-06-01

    Through SAR studies on 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (1) against Type I antiallergic activity by indexing release of beta-hexosaminidase, a marker of antigen-IgE-mediated degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells, more stable and potent analogue, 4-(methoxycarbonyloxyphenylmethyl)phenyl acetate (16), has been developed. The compound 16 also strongly inhibited the antigen-IgE-mediated TNF-alpha and IL-4 production.

  10. Ordering of the 0 d5 /2 and 1 s1 /2 proton levels in light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, C. R.; Kay, B. P.; Schiffer, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    A survey of the available single-proton data in A ≤17 nuclei was completed. These data, along with calculations using a Woods-Saxon potential, show that the ordering of the 0 d5 /2 and 1 s1 /2 proton orbitals are determined primarily by the proximity of the s -state proton energy to the Coulomb barrier. This is analogous to the dependence of the corresponding neutron orbitals in proximity to the neutron threshold, which was previously discussed.

  11. An update of engine system research at the Army Propulsion Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, George A.

    1990-01-01

    The Small Turboshaft Engine Research (STER) program provides a vehicle for evaluating the application of emerging technologies to Army turboshaft engine systems and to investigate related phenomena. Capitalizing on the resources at hand, in the form of both the NASA facilities and the Army personnel, the program goal of developing a physical understanding of engine system dynamics and/or system interactions is being realized. STER entries investigate concepts and components developed both in-house and out-of-house. Emphasis is placed upon evaluations which have evolved from on-going basic research and advanced development programs. Army aviation program managers are also encouraged to make use of STER resources, both people and facilities. The STER personnel have established their reputations as experts in the fields of engine system experimental evaluations and engine system related phenomena. The STER facility has demonstrated its utility in both research and development programs. The STER program provides the Army aviation community the opportunity to perform system level investigations, and then to offer the findings to the entire engine community for their consideration in next generation propulsion systems. In this way results of the fundamental research being conducted to meet small turboshaft engine technology challenges expeditiously find their way into that next generation of propulsion systems.

  12. 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate: a new chemotherapeutic natural compound against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hasima, Noor; Aun, Lionel In Lian; Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Ibrahim, Halijah; Awang, Khalijah

    2010-10-01

    Medicinal plants containing active natural compounds have been used as an alternative treatment for cancer patients in many parts of the world especially in Asia (Itharat et al. 2004). In this report, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), an analogue of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) on human breast cancer cells. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that AEA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity with an IC(50) value of 14.0 μM within 36 h of treatment on MCF-7 cells, but not in HMEC normal control cells. Both annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation assays confirmed that AEA induced cell death via apoptosis. AEA was also found to induce cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase with no adverse cell cycle arrest effects on HMEC normal control cells. It was concluded that AEA isolated from the Malaysian tropical ginger represents a potential chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer cells with higher cytotoxicity potency than its analogue, ACA. PMID:20729047

  13. 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate: a new chemotherapeutic natural compound against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hasima, Noor; Aun, Lionel In Lian; Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Ibrahim, Halijah; Awang, Khalijah

    2010-10-01

    Medicinal plants containing active natural compounds have been used as an alternative treatment for cancer patients in many parts of the world especially in Asia (Itharat et al. 2004). In this report, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), an analogue of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) on human breast cancer cells. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that AEA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity with an IC(50) value of 14.0 μM within 36 h of treatment on MCF-7 cells, but not in HMEC normal control cells. Both annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation assays confirmed that AEA induced cell death via apoptosis. AEA was also found to induce cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase with no adverse cell cycle arrest effects on HMEC normal control cells. It was concluded that AEA isolated from the Malaysian tropical ginger represents a potential chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer cells with higher cytotoxicity potency than its analogue, ACA.

  14. The GATE studies - Assessing the potential of future small general aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Four studies have been completed that explore the opportunities for future General Aviation Turbine Engines (GATE) in the 150-1000 SHP class. These studies forecasted the potential impact of advanced technology turbine engines in the post-1988 market, identified important aircraft and missions, desirable engine sizes, engine performance and cost goals. Parametric evaluations of various engine cycles, configurations, design features, and advanced technology elements defined baseline conceptual engines for each of the important missions identified by the market analysis. Both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, and turboshaft, turboprop, and turbofan engines were considered. Key technology areas were recommended for NASA support in order to realize proposed improvements.

  15. Wave rotor-enhanced gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.; Scott, Jones M.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of wave rotor-topping in small (400 to 600 hp-class) and intermediate (3000 to 4000 hp-class) turboshaft engines, and large (80,000 to 100,000 lb(sub f)-class) high bypass ratio turbofan engines are evaluated. Wave rotor performance levels are calculated using a one-dimensional design/analysis code. Baseline and wave rotor-enhanced engine performance levels are obtained from a cycle deck in which the wave rotor is represented as a burner with pressure gain. Wave rotor-toppings is shown to significantly enhance the specific fuel consumption and specific power of small and intermediate size turboshaft engines. The specific fuel consumption of the wave rotor-enhanced large turbofan engine can be reduced while operating at significantly reduced turbine inlet temperature. The wave rotor-enhanced engine is shown to behave off-design like a conventional engine. Discussion concerning the impact of the wave rotor/gas turbine engine integration identifies tenable technical challenges.

  16. Importance of engine as a source of helicopter external noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, R. D.; Smith, M. J.; Tadghighi, H.

    1989-01-01

    A turboshaft engine's importance as a source of helicopter external noise is presently evaluated experimentally and analytically on the basis of test data from an MD500E helicopter, with and without engine muffler, during level flyovers and climbing flight. A strong engine noise component is noted for helicopter positions nearly overhead and beyond observed position, especially in the 200-1000 Hz range; its strong rearward directivity suggests the noise source to be the broadband exhaust or combustion noise radiated from the exhaust duct. The engine muffler furnished estimated perceived noise level reductions of 2-3 dB for the centerline.

  17. 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate isolated from Alpinia galanga inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by blocking Rev transport.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ying; Li, Baoan

    2006-07-01

    AIDS remains a major global health concern. Despite a number of therapeutic advancements, there is still an urgent need to develop a new class of therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, it was shown that 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a small molecular compound isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, inhibited Rev transport at a low concentration by binding to chromosomal region maintenance 1 and accumulating full-length HIV-1 RNA in the nucleus, resulting in a block in HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Additionally, ACA and didanosine acted synergistically to inhibit HIV-1 replication. Thus, ACA may represent a novel treatment for HIV-1 infection, especially in combination with other anti-HIV drugs.

  18. 77 FR 23380 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... inspections of the P3 air pipe (first section) and right-hand (RH) rear half-wall for proper clearance and..., eliminates readjusting of the P3 air pipe (first section), requires replacement of the RH rear half-wall... determining that the clearance between the P3 air pipe (first section) and the RH rear half-wall might...

  19. 78 FR 68697 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ..., Amendment 39-17321 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013), and adding the following new AD: 2013-22-22 Turbomeca S.A...-17321 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013). (c) Applicability This AD applies to all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 2D...-07, Amendment 39-17321 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013), (``AD 2013-01-07''). AD 2013-01-07 applied...

  20. 78 FR 11563 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Register on October 25, 2012 (77 FR 65142). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... opportunity to participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (77 FR 65142, October 25... require adopting the AD as proposed (77 FR 65142, October 25, 2012). Costs of Compliance Based on...

  1. 78 FR 11565 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    .... This AD was prompted by the discovery that certain power turbine (PT) disks were made to specific heat...) disks, part number (P/N) 3044188-01, made to specific heat codes may not achieve the established maximum... power turbine (PT) disks, part number (P/N) 3044188-01, made to specific heat codes that may not...

  2. 77 FR 37283 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... February 21, 2012 (77 FR 9874). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... public the opportunity to participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (77...

  3. 77 FR 24585 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... the Federal Register on January 20, 2012 (77 FR 2930). That NPRM proposed to require removing the... on the NPRM (77 FR 2930, January 20, 2012). Clarification of Compliance Time Since we issued the... Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  4. 77 FR 2930 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... certain power turbine (PT) blade fir-tree roots. This proposed AD would require removing the affected...

  5. 75 FR 13451 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD... September 11, 2007, the FAA issued AD 2007-19-09, Amendment 39- 15200 (72 FR 53112, September 18, 2007... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Would not have a significant economic impact, positive...

  6. 75 FR 30687 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Register on March 22, 2010 (75 FR 13451). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by removing amendment 39-15200 (72 FR 53112, September 18, 2007),...

  7. 77 FR 43550 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... 39-13199 (68 FR 36900, June 20, 2003), for all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 1A, 1A1, 1A2, 1B, 1C, 1C1, 1C2... Existing AD Was Issued Since we issued AD 2003-12-14, Amendment 39-13199 (68 FR 36900, June 20, 2003), in...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not...

  8. 77 FR 71483 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ..., Amendment 39-13199 (68 FR 36900, June 20, 2003). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on July 25, 2012 (77 FR 43550). That NPRM proposed to require determining... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in...

  9. 78 FR 34284 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... 2013-01-07, Amendment 39-17321 (78 FR 6725, January 31, 2013), for all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 2D... a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca...

  10. 78 FR 9007 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...-14R1, Amendment 39-14423 (71 FR 2993, January 19, 2006), and adding the following new AD: Turbomeca S.A..., Amendment 39-14423 (71 FR 2993, January 19, 2006). (c) Applicability This AD applies to all Turbomeca S.A... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca...

  11. 76 FR 42610 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1 Series Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... affected discs. We are proposing this AD to prevent failure of the gas generator second stage turbine disc... service gas generator second stage turbine discs, P/N 0 292 25 040 0 that do not have the ``CFR'' marking... later. That AD also requires removing from service gas generator second stage turbine discs, P/N 0...

  12. 77 FR 43552 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... 2009-03-04, Amendment 39-15805 (74 FR 7796, February 20, 2009), for all Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 1E2, 1S.... Proposed AD Requirements This proposed AD would retain all of the requirements of AD 2009- 03-04, (74 FR... a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...

  13. 77 FR 71491 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 2009-03-04, Amendment 39-15805 (74 FR 7796... on July 25, 2012 (77 FR 43552). That NPRM proposed to require a one-time inspection and torque check... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  14. 75 FR 5689 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 2B and 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... November 5, 2009 (74 FR 57277). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... partially agree. The work-hour labor rate estimate is established by the FAA's Regulatory Analysis Division... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and...

  15. 76 FR 18130 - Special Conditions: Turbomeca Arriel 2D Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... generally intended to be used for hovering at increased power for search and rescue missions. The applicable... a 30-minute power rating. This rating was requested by the applicant to support rotorcraft search... that for search and rescue, extended hovering maneuvers may require more than maximum continuous...

  16. 76 FR 30819 - Special Conditions: Turbomeca Arriel 2D Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... published on April 1, 2011 (76 FR 18130). One comment letter was received. The commenter agreed with the... power for search and rescue missions. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate... rating. This rating was requested by the applicant to support rotorcraft search and rescue missions...

  17. 76 FR 11172 - Special Conditions: Pratt and Whitney Canada Model PW210S Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Operating (AEO) power rating. This rating is intended to be used for hovering at increased power for search... applicant to support rotorcraft search and rescue missions that require extensive hover operations at high... anticipates that for search and rescue, extended hovering maneuvers may require more than maximum...

  18. 76 FR 40594 - Special Conditions: Pratt and Whitney Canada Model PW210S Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... published on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11172). One comment letter was received. The commenter stated disagreement...) power rating. This rating is generally intended to be used for hovering at increased power for search... requested by the applicant to support rotorcraft search and rescue missions that require...

  19. 75 FR 57371 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1 Series Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United States Code... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... gas generator (GG) second stage turbine discs introduced by Turbomeca Modification TU347 (P/N 0 292...

  20. 75 FR 30270 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Astazou XIV B and XIV H Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 30, 2010 (75 FR 15627). That NPRM... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... AB 173 in order to improve the vibration characteristics of the turbine wheel. Modification AB...

  1. 75 FR 15627 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Astazou XIV B and XIV H Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... riveted plugs, were introduced by modification AB 173 in order to improve the vibration characteristics...

  2. 77 FR 56585 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... would require performing a high gas generator speed (NG) rating vibration check. We are proposing...

  3. 75 FR 2787 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Turmo IV A and IV C Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have... authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The...

  4. 78 FR 14442 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... November 9, 2011, we issued AD 2011-24-08, Amendment 39-16872 (76 FR 72091, November 22, 2011), for all... helicopter. Actions Since AD Was Issued Since we issued AD 2011-24-08 (76 FR 72091, November 22, 2011... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  5. 77 FR 65142 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The Transport Canada, which is the... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pratt &...

  6. 78 FR 23830 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2012 (77 FR 73557). That... opportunity to participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (77 FR 73557, December 11, 2012). Actions Since We Issued the Proposed Rule Since we issued the NPRM (77 FR 73557,...

  7. 77 FR 8092 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... listed in this AD as of March 11, 2010 (75 FR 5689, February 4, 2010). ADDRESSES: For service information... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 2010-03-06, Amendment 39-16189 (75 FR... Register on November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68661). That NPRM proposed to require inspection and...

  8. 78 FR 77569 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... (78 FR 48824). The NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (78 FR 48824, August 12, 2013). Conclusion We reviewed the... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the...

  9. 78 FR 48824 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca...

  10. 76 FR 20231 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. LTS101 Series Turboshaft Engines and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... SNPRM published in the Federal Register on December 17, 2010 (75 FR 78937). The original notice of proposed rulemaking (74 FR 67829, December 21, 2009) proposed to require removing power turbine blades... not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...

  11. 77 FR 58002 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... as of August 12, 2011 (76 FR 40222, July 8, 2011). ADDRESSES: For service information identified in... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 2011-13-05, Amendment 39-16728 (76 FR 40222, July 8... the Federal Register on June 1, 2012 (77 FR 32437). That NPRM proposed to continue to...

  12. 78 FR 2198 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on September 13, 2012 (77 FR... participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (77 FR 56585, September 13, 2012... adopting the AD as proposed (77 FR 56585, September 13, 2012). Costs of Compliance Based on the...

  13. 78 FR 44897 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The... effect on the States, on the relationship between the national Government and the States, or on the... (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent...

  14. 78 FR 77614 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...-09R1, Amendment 39-16322 (75 FR 30687, June 2, 2010). That AD applies to all Turbomeca S.A. 2B1... Since Existing AD Was Issued Since we issued AD 2007-19-09R1, Amendment 39-16322 (75 FR 30687, June 2... requirements of AD 2007-19- 09R1, Amendment 39-16322 (75 FR 30687, June 2, 2010) but would reduce...

  15. MRI enables measurement of therapeutic nanoparticle uptake in rat N1-S1 liver tumors after nanoablation

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Joseph L.; Mouli, Samdeep; Tyler, Patrick D.; Li, Weiguo; Nicolai, Jodi; Procissi, Daniele; Ragin, Ann B.; Wang, Y. Andrew; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Salem, Riad; Larson, Andrew C.; Omary, Reed A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) functionalized with doxorubicin (DOX) can serve dual diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Nanoablation is an approach to increase intratumoral nanoparticle uptake that combines IV nanoparticle delivery with reversible electroporation. However, a method to quantify drug delivery during this therapy is needed. This study tested the hypothesis that MRI can quantify intratumoral SPIO uptake after nanoablation. Methods DOX-SPIOs were synthesized. N1-S1 hepatomas were successfully induced in 17 Sprague-Dawley rats distributed into three dosage groups. Baseline tumor R2* values (the reciprocal of T2*) were determined using 7T MRI. Following IV injection of SPIOs, reversible electroporation (1300 V/cm, 8 pulses, 100 µs pulse duration) was applied. Animals were imaged to determine post-procedural tumor R2* and change in R2* (ΔR2*) was calculated. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine post-procedure intratumoral iron concentration, which served as a proxy for SPIO uptake. Mean tumor iron concentration and ΔR2* for each subject were assessed for correlation with linear regression, and mean iron concentration for each dosage group was compared with analysis of variance. Results ΔR2* significantly correlated with tumor SPIO uptake after nanoablation (r=0.50, p=0.039). On average, each 0.1 ms−1 increase in R2* corresponded to a 0.1394 mM increase in iron concentration. There was no significant difference in mean SPIO uptake among dosage groups (p=0.57). Conclusion Intratumoral SPIO uptake after nanoablation can be successfully quantified non-invasively with 7T MRI. Imaging can thus be used as a method to estimate localized drug delivery after nanoablation. PMID:24854392

  16. Polymorphic AP-1 binding site in bovine CSN1S1 shows quantitative differences in protein binding associated with milk protein expression.

    PubMed

    Kuss, A W; Gogol, J; Bartenschlager, H; Geldermann, H

    2005-06-01

    Polymorphisms in 5'-flanking regions of milk protein encoding genes can influence the binding activity of the affected response elements and thus have an impact on the expression of the gene products. However, precise quantitative data concerning the binding properties of such variable response elements have so far not been described. In this study we present the results of a quantitative fluorescent electromobility shift assay comparing the allelic variants of a polymorphic activator protein-1 binding site in the promoter region of the bovine alphas1-casein encoding gene (CSN1S1), which is affected by an A-->G exchange at -175 bp (CSN1S1(-175bp)). A supershift assay using a commercial c-jun antibody was carried out to verify the specificity of protein binding. The gel shift analysis revealed specific and significantly reduced protein binding of oligonucleotides containing the G variant of the CSN1S1(-175bp) binding site. Further investigations comprised genotyping of the variable CSN1S1(-175bp) activator protein-1 element by an NmuCl restriction fragment length polymorphism in 62 cows of the breed Simmental and 80 cows of the breed German Holstein. Single milk proteins from at least 4 milk samples per cow were quantified by alkaline urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Homozygotes for CSN1S1(-175bp)*G were not observed, and the allele frequencies were 0.19 in Simmental and 0.05 in German Holstein. Carriers of CSN1S1(-175bp)*G showed higher content (%) as well as quantity (g/d) of alphas1-casein than CSN1S1(-175bp)*A homozygotes, independent of breed. We assume that the positive association of the CSN1S1(-175bp)*G variant with CSN1S1 expression is likely to be caused by a reduced affinity of the affected response element to a c-jun-containing CSN1S1 dimer with repressor properties. PMID:15905454

  17. Wave Engine Topping Cycle Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The performance benefits derived by topping a gas turbine engine with a wave engine are assessed. The wave engine is a wave rotor that produces shaft power by exploiting gas dynamic energy exchange and flow turning. The wave engine is added to the baseline turboshaft engine while keeping high-pressure-turbine inlet conditions, compressor pressure ratio, engine mass flow rate, and cooling flow fractions fixed. Related work has focused on topping with pressure-exchangers (i.e., wave rotors that provide pressure gain with zero net shaft power output); however, more energy can be added to a wave-engine-topped cycle leading to greater engine specific-power-enhancement The energy addition occurs at a lower pressure in the wave-engine-topped cycle; thus the specific-fuel-consumption-enhancement effected by ideal wave engine topping is slightly lower than that effected by ideal pressure-exchanger topping. At a component level, however, flow turning affords the wave engine a degree-of-freedom relative to the pressure-exchanger that enables a more efficient match with the baseline engine. In some cases, therefore, the SFC-enhancement by wave engine topping is greater than that by pressure-exchanger topping. An ideal wave-rotor-characteristic is used to identify key wave engine design parameters and to contrast the wave engine and pressure-exchanger topping approaches. An aerodynamic design procedure is described in which wave engine design-point performance levels are computed using a one-dimensional wave rotor model. Wave engines using various wave cycles are considered including two-port cycles with on-rotor combustion (valved-combustors) and reverse-flow and through-flow four-port cycles with heat addition in conventional burners. A through-flow wave cycle design with symmetric blading is used to assess engine performance benefits. The wave-engine-topped turboshaft engine produces 16% more power than does a pressure-exchanger-topped engine under the specified topping

  18. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  19. 1'S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate as a new type inhibitor of interferon-beta production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shin; Matsuda, Hisashi; Morikawa, Toshio; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2005-05-01

    1'S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga was known to show potent inhibitory effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. To clarify its mechanism of action, the effects of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate on the expression of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) mRNA and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), both of which participate in the induction of inducible NO synthase, were examined in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. The results were compared with those of two inhibitors of the NF-kappaB activation, costunolide and caffeic acid phenethyl ester. 1'S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate inhibited IFN-beta mRNA expression as well as NF-kappaB activation, and two related compounds, (+/-)-1-acetoxy-1-(2-acetoxyphenyl)-2-propene and (+/-)-1-acetoxy-1-(4-acetoxyphenol)-3-butene, also inhibited IFN-beta mRNA expression. In addition, 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate inhibited the production of NO stimulated by poly(I:C) via Toll-like receptor 3.

  20. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Andrea D; Knecht, Wolfgang; Lazarov, Ina; Dixit, Surjit B; Jean, François

    2012-01-01

    HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs). One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1)--or site-1 protease (S1P). SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP)/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow development of

  1. Overview of Lightweight Structures for Rotorcraft Engines and Drivetrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    This is an overview presentation of research being performed in the Advanced Materials Task within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project. This research is focused on technology areas that address both national goals and project goals for advanced rotorcraft. Specific technology areas discussed are: (1) high temperature materials for advanced turbines in turboshaft engines; (2) polymer matrix composites for lightweight drive system components; (3) lightweight structure approaches for noise and vibration control; and (4) an advanced metal alloy for lighter weight bearings and more reliable mechanical components. An overview of the technology in each area is discussed, and recent accomplishments are presented.

  2. Structure-activity relationships of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate for inhibitory effect on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi; Ando, Shin; Morikawa, Toshio; Kataoka, Shinya; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2005-04-01

    1'S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages with an IC(50) value of 2.3 microM. To clarify the structure-activity relationship of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, various natural and synthetic phenylpropanoids and synthetic phenylbutanoids were examined, and the following structural requirements were clarified. (1) The para or ortho substitution of the acetoxyl and 1-acetoxypropenyl groups at the benzene ring was essential. (2) The S configuration of the 1'-acetoxyl group was preferable. (3) The presence of the 3-methoxyl group and disappearance of the 2'-3' double bond by hydrogenation reduced the activity. (4) The substitution of acetyl groups with propionyl or methyl groups reduced the activity. (5) Lengthening of the carbon chain between the 1'- and 2'-positions reduced the activity.

  3. A Cofacially Stacked Electron-Deficient Small Molecule with a High Electron Mobility of over 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in Air.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jin-Hu; Zheng, Yu-Qing; Yao, Ze-Fan; Lei, Ting; Shen, Xingxing; Luo, Xu-Yi; Yu, Zhi-Ao; Zhang, Shi-Ding; Han, Guangchao; Wang, Zhi; Yi, Yuanping; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2015-12-22

    A strong, electron-deficient small molecule, F4 -BDOPV, has a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level down to -4.44 eV and exhibits cofacial packing in single crystals. These features provide F4 -BDOPV with good ambient stability and large charge-transfer integrals for electrons, leading to a high electron mobility of up to 12.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in air.

  4. Essential role for SphK1/S1P signaling to regulate hypoxia-inducible factor 2α expression and activity in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bouquerel, P; Gstalder, C; Müller, D; Laurent, J; Brizuela, L; Sabbadini, R A; Malavaud, B; Pyronnet, S; Martineau, Y; Ader, I; Cuvillier, O

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine kinase-1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) signaling pathway has been reported to modulate the expression of the canonical transcription factor hypoxia-inducible HIF-1α in multiple cell lineages. HIF-2α is also frequently overexpressed in solid tumors but its role has been mostly studied in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, where HIF-2α has been established as a driver of a more aggressive disease. In this study, the role of SphK1/S1P signaling with regard to HIF-2α was investigated in various cancer cell models including ccRCC cells. Under hypoxic conditions or in ccRCC lacking a functional von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and expressing high levels of HIF-2α, SphK1 activity controls HIF-2α expression and transcriptional activity through a phospholipase D (PLD)-driven mechanism. SphK1 silencing promotes a VHL-independent HIF-2α loss of expression and activity and reduces cell proliferation in ccRCC. Importantly, downregulation of SphK1 is associated with impaired Akt and mTOR signaling in ccRCC. Taking advantage of a monoclonal antibody neutralizing extracellular S1P, we show that inhibition of S1P extracellular signaling blocks HIF-2α accumulation in ccRCC cell lines, an effect mimicked when the S1P transporter Spns2 or the S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) is silenced. Here, we report the first evidence that the SphK1/S1P signaling pathway regulates the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible HIF-2α in diverse cancer cell lineages notably ccRCC, where HIF-2α has been established as a driver of a more aggressive disease. These findings demonstrate that SphK1/S1P signaling may act as a canonical regulator of HIF-2α expression in ccRCC, giving support to its inhibition as a therapeutic strategy that could contribute to reduce HIF-2 activity in ccRCC. PMID:26974204

  5. Components for digitally controlled aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Control system components suitable for use in digital electronic control systems are defined. Compressor geometry actuation concepts and fuel handling system concepts suitable for use in large high performance turbofan/turbojet engines are included. Eight conceptual system designs were formulated for the actuation of the compressor geometry. Six conceptual system designs were formulated for the engine fuel handling system. Assessment criteria and weighting factors were established and trade studies performed on their candidate systems to establish the relative merits of the various concepts. Fuel pumping and metering systems for small turboshaft engines were also studied. Seven conceptual designs were formulated, and trade studies performed. A simplified bypassing fuel metering scheme was selected and a preliminary design defined.

  6. The gate studies: Assessing the potential of future small general aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Four studies were completed that explore the opportunities for future General Aviation turbine engines (GATE) in the 150-1000 SHP class. These studies forecasted the potential impact of advanced technology turbine engines in the post-1988 market, identified important aircraft and missions, desirable engine sizes, engine performance, and cost goals. Parametric evaluations of various engine cycles, configurations, design features, and advanced technology elements defined baseline conceptual engines for each of the important missions identified by the market analysis. Both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, and turboshaft, turboprop, and turbofan engines were considered. Sizable performance gains (e.g., 20% SFC decrease), and large engine cost reductions of sufficient magnitude to challenge the reciprocating engine in the 300-500 SHP class were predicted.

  7. Real-time measurements of jet aircraft engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Fred; Arnott, Pat; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F

    2005-05-01

    Particulate-phase exhaust properties from two different types of ground-based jet aircraft engines--high-thrust and turboshaft--were studied with real-time instruments on a portable pallet and additional time-integrated sampling devices. The real-time instruments successfully characterized rapidly changing particulate mass, light absorption, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The integrated measurements included particulate-size distributions, PAH, and carbon concentrations for an entire test run (i.e., "run-integrated" measurements). In all cases, the particle-size distributions showed single modes peaking at 20-40nm diameter. Measurements of exhaust from high-thrust F404 engines showed relatively low-light absorption compared with exhaust from a turboshaft engine. Particulate-phase PAH measurements generally varied in phase with both net particulate mass and with light-absorbing particulate concentrations. Unexplained response behavior sometimes occurred with the real-time PAH analyzer, although on average the real-time and integrated PAH methods agreed within the same order of magnitude found in earlier investigations.

  8. Real-time measurements of jet aircraft engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Fred; Arnott, Pat; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F

    2005-05-01

    Particulate-phase exhaust properties from two different types of ground-based jet aircraft engines--high-thrust and turboshaft--were studied with real-time instruments on a portable pallet and additional time-integrated sampling devices. The real-time instruments successfully characterized rapidly changing particulate mass, light absorption, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The integrated measurements included particulate-size distributions, PAH, and carbon concentrations for an entire test run (i.e., "run-integrated" measurements). In all cases, the particle-size distributions showed single modes peaking at 20-40nm diameter. Measurements of exhaust from high-thrust F404 engines showed relatively low-light absorption compared with exhaust from a turboshaft engine. Particulate-phase PAH measurements generally varied in phase with both net particulate mass and with light-absorbing particulate concentrations. Unexplained response behavior sometimes occurred with the real-time PAH analyzer, although on average the real-time and integrated PAH methods agreed within the same order of magnitude found in earlier investigations. PMID:15991667

  9. Widely bandgap tunable amorphous Cd-Ga-O oxide semiconductors exhibiting electron mobilities ≥10 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Chiyuki; Kimura, Yota; Suzuki, Issei; Omata, Takahisa; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors exhibit large electron mobilities; however, their bandgaps are either too large for solar cells or too small for deep ultraviolet applications depending on the materials system. Herein, we demonstrate that amorphous Cd-Ga-O semiconductors display bandgaps covering the entire 2.5-4.3 eV region while maintaining large electron mobilities ≥10 cm2 V-1 s-1. The band alignment diagram obtained by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and the bandgap values reveal that these semiconductors form type-II heterojunctions with p-type Cu2O, which is suitable for solar cells and solar-blind ultraviolet sensors.

  10. Short communication: CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes affect detailed milk protein composition of Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of composite CSN1S1-CSN3 [α(S1)-κ-casein (CN)] genotype on milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κ-CN, glycosylated and unglycosylated κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC using 621 individual milk samples. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were also obtained by reversed-phase HPLC. Two alleles were detected at CSN1S1 (corresponding to the A and B variants, O62823: p.Leu193Ser,) and at CSN3 (corresponding to the X1 and X2 variants, CAP12622.1: p.Ile156Thr). Increased proportions of α(S1)-CN in total casein (TCN) were associated with genotypes carrying CSN1S1 A. Genotypes associated with a marked decrease of the proportion of α(S1)-CN in TCN (composite genotypes AB-X1X1 and BB-X1X2) were associated with marked increases in the proportion of α(S2)-CN. In addition, composite genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 were associated with a greater proportion of α(S2)-CN in TCN relative to those carrying CSN3 X2. Composite genotypes greatly affected also the variability of ratios of κ-CN to TCN, with genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 being associated with decreased ratios. The decreased content of glycosylated κ-CN associated with CSN3 X1 was responsible for the overall lower content of total κ-CN in milk of X1-carrying animals. Increasing the frequency of specific genotypes might be an effective way to alter milk protein composition, namely the proportion of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, and κ-CN in TCN, and the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN. PMID:22959943

  11. Short communication: CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes affect detailed milk protein composition of Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of composite CSN1S1-CSN3 [α(S1)-κ-casein (CN)] genotype on milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κ-CN, glycosylated and unglycosylated κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC using 621 individual milk samples. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were also obtained by reversed-phase HPLC. Two alleles were detected at CSN1S1 (corresponding to the A and B variants, O62823: p.Leu193Ser,) and at CSN3 (corresponding to the X1 and X2 variants, CAP12622.1: p.Ile156Thr). Increased proportions of α(S1)-CN in total casein (TCN) were associated with genotypes carrying CSN1S1 A. Genotypes associated with a marked decrease of the proportion of α(S1)-CN in TCN (composite genotypes AB-X1X1 and BB-X1X2) were associated with marked increases in the proportion of α(S2)-CN. In addition, composite genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 were associated with a greater proportion of α(S2)-CN in TCN relative to those carrying CSN3 X2. Composite genotypes greatly affected also the variability of ratios of κ-CN to TCN, with genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 being associated with decreased ratios. The decreased content of glycosylated κ-CN associated with CSN3 X1 was responsible for the overall lower content of total κ-CN in milk of X1-carrying animals. Increasing the frequency of specific genotypes might be an effective way to alter milk protein composition, namely the proportion of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, and κ-CN in TCN, and the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN.

  12. Selection for genetic markers in beef cattle reveals complex associations of thyroglobulin and casein1-s1 with carcass and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G L; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Smith, T P L

    2013-02-01

    Genetic markers in casein (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genes have previously been associated with fat distribution in cattle. Determining the nature of these genetic associations (additive, recessive, or dominant) has been difficult, because both markers have small minor allele frequencies in most beef cattle populations. This results in few animals homozygous for the minor alleles. selection to increase the frequencies of the minor alleles for 2 SNP markers in these genes was undertaken in a composite population. The objective was to obtain better estimates of genetic effects associated with these markers and determine if there were epistatic interactions. Selection increased the frequencies of minor alleles for both SNP from <0.30 to 0.45. Bulls (n = 24) heterozygous for both SNP were used in 3 yr to produce 204 steer progeny harvested at an average age of 474 d. The combined effect of the 9 CSN1S1 × TG genotypes was associated with carcass-adjusted fat thickness (P < 0.06) and meat tenderness predicted at the abattoir by visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (P < 0.04). Genotype did not affect BW from birth through harvest, ribeye area, marbling score, slice shear force, or image-based yield grade (P > 0.10). Additive, dominance, and epistatic SNP association effects were estimated from genotypic effects for adjusted fat thickness and predicted meat tenderness. Adjusted fat thickness showed a dominance association with TG SNP (P < 0.06) and an epistatic additive CSN1S1 × additive TG association (P < 0.03). For predicted meat tenderness, heterozygous TG meat was more tender than meat from either homozygote (P < 0.002). Dominance and epistatic associations can result in different SNP allele substitution effects in populations where SNP have the same linkage disequilibrium with causal mutations but have different frequencies. Although the complex associations estimated in this study would contribute little to within-population selection response

  13. Technical note: A simple salting-out method for DNA extraction from milk somatic cells: investigation into the goat CSN1S1 gene.

    PubMed

    d'Angelo, F; Santillo, A; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2007-07-01

    In this study, a sensitive, rapid, and toxic solvent-free method to extract DNA from milk somatic cells was implemented for characterization of the goat alphaS1-casein gene (CSN1S1). Methods reported for purification of DNA from milk often involve organic extraction, overnight incubation, or use of expensive commercial kits. The present method was implemented for goat milk and is based on a salting-out protocol. The method yielded an amount of DNA suitable for PCR-RFLP without the need for sample enrichment. The PCR-RFLP of DNA extracted from milk produced amplified and digested products of correct size, comparable with those obtained using PCR-RFLP of DNA extracted from blood. Therefore, milk can be used as an alternative source of DNA, making sample collection easier and reducing stressful practices such as capture, handling, and venipuncture in animal management.

  14. Effect of CSN1S1 gene polymorphism and stage of lactation on milk yield and composition of extensively reared goats.

    PubMed

    Balia, Filippo; Pazzola, Michele; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Mura, Maria Consuelo; Luridiana, Sebastiano; Carcangiu, Vincenzo; Piras, Gianpiera; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2013-05-01

    The effect of CSN1S1 genotype and lactation stage on milk yield and composition were investigated in 80 extensively reared goats. Milk yield was recorded in early, mid and late lactation and individual milk samples were collected to determine: fat, protein, lactose and casein content, pH, freezing point, somatic cell count (SCC) and total microbic mesophilic count (TMC). Relative casein composition and amino acid profile were quantified by HPLC. Fatty acid profile was measured by gas-chromatography. Genotype did not affect milk yield, while this trait was significantly affected by lactation stage (P < 0.01). CSN1S1 BB goats produced significantly higher protein and casein percentages (P < 0.05). αs1-casein (CN) was significantly higher in BB and AB goats than AF and BF, showing intermediate values in AA goats (P < 0.01). The protein percentage and the αs1 and αs2-CN fractions were not affected by lactation stage, while the casein content and the β and κ-CN significantly increased throughout lactation (P < 0.01). C4 : 0 and C6 : 0 were not affected by genotype, while C8 : 0 and C10 : 0 were higher in the AA goats than BB; most of the long chain FA were higher in BB than AA goats. MUFA and PUFA increased in late lactation. In addition, BB goats showed higher essential amino acids, resulting in an optimal composition from the nutritional point of view, when compared with AA goats. The increase of MUFA, PUFA, essential and cis-FA in late lactation indicate that the lipid composition of goat's milk, with the progress of lactation, tends to improve its nutritional value.

  15. 75 FR 26681 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Arriel 2B and 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion On April 16, 2009, the FAA issued AD 2009-09-03, Amendment 39-15889 (74 FR 18981, April 27, 2009). That AD requires performing an initial and..., agree with their substance. But we required different actions in this AD from those in the MCAI in...

  16. 76 FR 56097 - Special Conditions: Pratt and Whitney Canada Model PT6C-67E Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39795). No comments were received. We added a statement to paragraph 2(c)(1) of the... search and rescue missions. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or... by the applicant to support rotorcraft search and rescue missions that require extensive...

  17. 76 FR 9515 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. ARRIEL 2B and 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: Several cases of Gas Generator... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... MCAI states: Several cases of Gas Generator (GG) Turbine Blade rupture occurred in service on ARRIEL...

  18. Design of Distributed Engine Control Systems with Uncertain Delay

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanxi; Sun, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Future gas turbine engine control systems will be based on distributed architecture, in which, the sensors and actuators will be connected to the controllers via a communication network. The performance of the distributed engine control (DEC) is dependent on the network performance. This study introduces a distributed control system architecture based on a networked cascade control system (NCCS). Typical turboshaft engine-distributed controllers are designed based on the NCCS framework with a H∞ output feedback under network-induced time delays and uncertain disturbances. The sufficient conditions for robust stability are derived via the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality approach. Both numerical and hardware-in-loop simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the presented method. PMID:27669005

  19. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft noise has been a problem near airports for many years. It is a quality of life issue that impacts millions of people around the world. Solving this problem has been the principal goal of noise reduction research that began when commercial jet travel became a reality. While progress has been made in reducing both airframe and engine noise, historically, most of the aircraft noise reduction efforts have concentrated on the engines. This was most evident during the 1950 s and 1960 s when turbojet engines were in wide use. This type of engine produces high velocity hot exhaust jets during takeoff generating a great deal of noise. While there are fewer commercial aircraft flying today with turbojet engines, supersonic aircraft including high performance military aircraft use engines with similar exhaust flow characteristics. The Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229, pictured in Figure la, is an example of an engine that powers the F-15 and F-16 fighter jets. The turbofan engine was developed for subsonic transports, which in addition to better fuel efficiency also helped mitigate engine noise by reducing the jet exhaust velocity. These engines were introduced in the late 1960 s and power most of the commercial fleet today. Over the years, the bypass ratio (that is the ratio of the mass flow through the fan bypass duct to the mass flow through the engine core) has increased to values approaching 9 for modern turbofans such as the General Electric s GE-90 engine (Figure lb). The benefits to noise reduction for high bypass ratio (HPBR) engines are derived from lowering the core jet velocity and temperature, and lowering the tip speed and pressure ratio of the fan, both of which are the consequences of the increase in bypass ratio. The HBPR engines are typically very large in diameter and can produce over 100,000 pounds of thrust for the largest engines. A third type of engine flying today is the turbo-shaft which is mainly used to power turboprop aircraft and helicopters

  20. Toward a Real-Time Measurement-Based System for Estimation of Helicopter Engine Degradation Due to Compressor Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Simo, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary demonstration of an automated health assessment tool, capable of real-time on-board operation using existing engine control hardware. The tool allows operators to discern how rapidly individual turboshaft engines are degrading. As the compressor erodes, performance is lost, and with it the ability to generate power. Thus, such a tool would provide an instant assessment of the engine s fitness to perform a mission, and would help to pinpoint any abnormal wear or performance anomalies before they became serious, thereby decreasing uncertainty and enabling improved maintenance scheduling. The research described in the paper utilized test stand data from a T700-GE-401 turboshaft engine that underwent sand-ingestion testing to scale a model-based compressor efficiency degradation estimation algorithm. This algorithm was then applied to real-time Health Usage and Monitoring System (HUMS) data from a T700-GE-701C to track compressor efficiency on-line. The approach uses an optimal estimator called a Kalman filter. The filter is designed to estimate the compressor efficiency using only data from the engine s sensors as input.

  1. Alterations of microRNA expression patterns in human cervical carcinoma cells (Ca Ski) toward 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Phuah, Neoh Hun; In, Lionel L A; Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Ibrahim, Halijah; Awang, Khalijah; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2013-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the combined effects of a natural compound 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) with cisplatin (CDDP) on HPV-positive human cervical carcinoma cell lines (Ca Ski-low cisplatin sensitivity and HeLa-high cisplatin sensitivity), and to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) modulated in response toward ACA and/or CDDP. It was revealed that both ACA and CDDP induced dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity when used as a stand-alone agent, while synergistic effects were observed when used in combination with a combination index (CI) value of 0.74 ± 0.01 and 0.85 ± 0.01 in Ca Ski and HeLa cells, respectively. A total of 25 miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed in response to ACA and/or CDDP. These include hsa-miR-138, hsa-miR-210, and hsa-miR-744 with predicted gene targets involved in signaling pathways regulating apoptosis and cell cycle progression. In conclusion, ACA acts as a chemosensitizer which synergistically potentiates the cytotoxic effect of CDDP in cervical cancer cells. The altered miRNA expression upon administration of ACA and/or CDDP suggests that miRNAs play an important role in anticancer drug responses, which can be manipulated for therapeutic purposes.

  2. Newly identified mutations at the CSN1S1 gene in Ethiopian goats affect casein content and coagulation properties of their milk.

    PubMed

    Mestawet, T A; Girma, A; Adnøy, T; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E

    2013-08-01

    Very high casein content and good coagulation properties previously observed in some Ethiopian goat breeds led to investigating the αs1-casein (CSN1S1) gene in these breeds. Selected regions of the CSN1S1 gene were sequenced in 115 goats from 5 breeds (2 indigenous: Arsi-Bale and Somali, 1 exotic: Boer, and 2 crossbreeds: Boer × Arsi-Bale and Boer × Somali). The DNA analysis resulted in 35 new mutations: 3 in exons, 3 in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and 29 in the introns. The mutations in exons that resulted in an amino acid shift were then picked to evaluate their influence on individual casein content (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-CN), micellar size, and coagulation properties in the milk from the 5 goat breeds. A mutation at nucleotide 10657 (exon 10) involved a transversion: CAG→CCG, resulting in an amino acid exchange Gln77→Pro77. This mutation was associated with the indigenous breeds only. Two new mutations, at nucleotide 6072 (exon 4) and 12165 (exon 12), revealed synonymous transitions: GTC→GTT in Val15 and AGA→AGG in Arg100 of the mature protein. Transitions G→A and C→T at nucleotides 1374 and 1866, respectively, occurred in the 5' UTR, whereas the third mutation involved a transversion T→G at nucleotide location 1592. The goats were grouped into homozygote new (CC), homozygote reference (AA), and heterozygote (CA) based on the nucleotide that involved the transversion. The content of αs1-CN (15.32g/kg) in milk samples of goats homozygous (CC) for this newly identified mutation, Gln77→Pro77 was significantly higher than in milks of heterozygous (CA; 9.05g/kg) and reference (AA; 7.61g/kg) genotype animals. The αs2-, β-, and κ-CN contents showed a similar pattern. Milk from goats with a homozygous new mutation had significantly lower micellar size. Milk from both homozygote and heterozygote new-mutation goats had significantly shorter coagulation rate and stronger gel than the reference genotype. Except the transversion, the

  3. Effect of CSN1S1 genotype and its interaction with diet energy level on milk production and quality in Girgentana goats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Renato Italo; Pennisi, Pietro; Valenti, Bernardo; Lanza, Massimiliano; Di Trana, Adriana; Di Gregorio, Paola; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella

    2010-05-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate how the energy level of the diet can affect milk production and quality in Girgentana lactating goats in relation to polymorphism at the alphas1-casein (CSN1S1) genotype locus. Twenty-seven goats, homogeneous for milk production (1.5+/-0.3 kg/d), days of lactation (90+/-10 d) and body weight (35.8+/-5.5 kg) were selected on the basis of their CSN1S1 genotype, as follows: nine goats homozygous for strong (AA) alleles, nine goats homozygous for weak alleles (FF) and nine goats heterozygous (AF). The goats were used in a 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with three genotypes (AA, FF, AF) and three diets at different energy levels (100%, 65% and 30% of hay inclusion). The experiment consisted of three simultaneous 3x3 Latin squares for the three genotypes, with one square for each level of hay inclusion in the diet. All the animals were housed in individual pens. Each experimental period lasted 23 d and consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 8 d for data and sample collection, during which the goats received the scheduled diet ad libitum. The animals were fed three different diets designed to have the same crude protein content (about 15%) but different energy levels: a pelleted alfalfa hay (H100) and two feeds including 65% (H65) and 30% (H30) of alfalfa hay (respectively 1099, 1386 and 1590 kcal NE for lactation/kg DM). All the diets were ground and pelleted (6 mm diameter). AA goats were more productive than AF and FF goats (respectively: 1419 v. 1145 and 1014 g/d; P=0.002). Indeed the interaction energy levelxgenotype was significant (P=0.018): in fact AA goats showed their milk increase only when fed with concentrates. Differences in protein and in casein levels between the three genotypes were in line with results expected from the different allele contribution to alphas1-casein synthesis. Milk urea levels were significantly lower in AA goats compared with AF and FF genotypes (respectively 32.7 v. 40.4 and 40.4 mg/dl; P=0

  4. Newly identified mutations at the CSN1S1 gene in Ethiopian goats affect casein content and coagulation properties of their milk.

    PubMed

    Mestawet, T A; Girma, A; Adnøy, T; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E

    2013-08-01

    Very high casein content and good coagulation properties previously observed in some Ethiopian goat breeds led to investigating the αs1-casein (CSN1S1) gene in these breeds. Selected regions of the CSN1S1 gene were sequenced in 115 goats from 5 breeds (2 indigenous: Arsi-Bale and Somali, 1 exotic: Boer, and 2 crossbreeds: Boer × Arsi-Bale and Boer × Somali). The DNA analysis resulted in 35 new mutations: 3 in exons, 3 in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and 29 in the introns. The mutations in exons that resulted in an amino acid shift were then picked to evaluate their influence on individual casein content (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-CN), micellar size, and coagulation properties in the milk from the 5 goat breeds. A mutation at nucleotide 10657 (exon 10) involved a transversion: CAG→CCG, resulting in an amino acid exchange Gln77→Pro77. This mutation was associated with the indigenous breeds only. Two new mutations, at nucleotide 6072 (exon 4) and 12165 (exon 12), revealed synonymous transitions: GTC→GTT in Val15 and AGA→AGG in Arg100 of the mature protein. Transitions G→A and C→T at nucleotides 1374 and 1866, respectively, occurred in the 5' UTR, whereas the third mutation involved a transversion T→G at nucleotide location 1592. The goats were grouped into homozygote new (CC), homozygote reference (AA), and heterozygote (CA) based on the nucleotide that involved the transversion. The content of αs1-CN (15.32g/kg) in milk samples of goats homozygous (CC) for this newly identified mutation, Gln77→Pro77 was significantly higher than in milks of heterozygous (CA; 9.05g/kg) and reference (AA; 7.61g/kg) genotype animals. The αs2-, β-, and κ-CN contents showed a similar pattern. Milk from goats with a homozygous new mutation had significantly lower micellar size. Milk from both homozygote and heterozygote new-mutation goats had significantly shorter coagulation rate and stronger gel than the reference genotype. Except the transversion, the

  5. Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Erhardt, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report for the first time the characterization of llama (Lama glama) caseins at transcriptomic and genetic level. A total of 288 casein clones transcripts were analysed from two lactating llamas. The most represented mRNA populations were those correctly assembled (85.07%) and they encoded for mature proteins of 215, 217, 187 and 162 amino acids respectively for the CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes. The exonic subdivision evidenced a structure made of 21, 9, 17 and 6 exons for the αs1-, β-, αs2- and κ-casein genes respectively. Exon skipping and duplication events were evidenced. Two variants A and B were identified in the αs1-casein gene as result of the alternative out-splicing of the exon 18. An additional exon coding for a novel esapeptide was found to be cryptic in the κ-casein gene, whereas one extra exon was found in the αs2-casein gene by the comparison with the Camelus dromedaries sequence. A total of 28 putative phosphorylated motifs highlighted a complex heterogeneity and a potential variable degree of post-translational modifications. Ninety-six polymorphic sites were found through the comparison of the lama casein cDNAs with the homologous camel sequences, whereas the first description and characterization of the 5’- and 3’-regulatory regions allowed to identify the main putative consensus sequences involved in the casein genes expression, thus opening the way to new investigations -so far- never achieved in this species. PMID:25923814

  6. Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Erhardt, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report for the first time the characterization of llama (Lama glama) caseins at transcriptomic and genetic level. A total of 288 casein clones transcripts were analysed from two lactating llamas. The most represented mRNA populations were those correctly assembled (85.07%) and they encoded for mature proteins of 215, 217, 187 and 162 amino acids respectively for the CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes. The exonic subdivision evidenced a structure made of 21, 9, 17 and 6 exons for the αs1-, β-, αs2- and κ-casein genes respectively. Exon skipping and duplication events were evidenced. Two variants A and B were identified in the αs1-casein gene as result of the alternative out-splicing of the exon 18. An additional exon coding for a novel esapeptide was found to be cryptic in the κ-casein gene, whereas one extra exon was found in the αs2-casein gene by the comparison with the Camelus dromedaries sequence. A total of 28 putative phosphorylated motifs highlighted a complex heterogeneity and a potential variable degree of post-translational modifications. Ninety-six polymorphic sites were found through the comparison of the lama casein cDNAs with the homologous camel sequences, whereas the first description and characterization of the 5'- and 3'-regulatory regions allowed to identify the main putative consensus sequences involved in the casein genes expression, thus opening the way to new investigations -so far- never achieved in this species.

  7. MBTPS1/SKI-1/S1P proprotein convertase is required for ECM signaling and axial elongation during somitogenesis and vertebral development†

    PubMed Central

    Achilleos, Annita; Huffman, Nichole T.; Marcinkiewicyz, Edwidge; Seidah, Nabil G.; Chen, Qian; Dallas, Sarah L.; Trainor, Paul A.; Gorski, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome (sacral agenesis), which impairs development of the caudal region of the body, occurs with a frequency of about 2 live births per 100 000 newborns although this incidence rises to 1 in 350 infants born to mothers with gestational diabetes. The lower back and limbs can be affected as well as the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The axial skeleton is formed during embryogenesis through the process of somitogenesis in which the paraxial mesoderm periodically segments into bilateral tissue blocks, called somites. Somites are the precursors of vertebrae and associated muscle, tendons and dorsal dermis. Vertebral anomalies in caudal regression syndrome may arise through perturbation of somitogenesis or, alternatively, could result from defective bone formation and patterning. We discovered that MBTPS1/SKI-1/S1P, which proteolytically activates a class of transmembrane transcription factors, plays a critical role in somitogenesis and the pathogenesis of lumbar/sacral vertebral anomalies. Conditional deletion of Mbtps1 yields a viable mouse with misshapen, fused and reduced number of lumbar and sacral vertebrae, under-developed hind limb bones and a kinky, shortened tail. We show that Mbtps1 is required to (i) maintain the Fgf8 ‘wavefront’ in the presomitic mesoderm that underpins axial elongation, (ii) sustain the Lfng oscillatory ‘clock’ activity that governs the periodicity of somite formation and (iii) preserve the composition and character of the somitic extracellular matrix containing fibronectin, fibrillin2 and laminin. Based on this spinal phenotype and known functions of MBTPS1, we reason that loss-of-function mutations in Mbtps1 may cause the etiology of caudal regression syndrome. PMID:25652402

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) is expressed by lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelium and modulated during inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Karuppuchamy, Thangaraj; Behrens, En-hui; González-Cabrera, Pedro; Sarkisyan, Gor; Gima, Lauren; Boyer, Joshua D.; Bamias, Giorgos; Jedlicka, Paul; Veny, Marisol; Clark, David; Peach, Robert; Scott, Fiona; Rosen, Hugh; Rivera-Nieves, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) agonist ozanimod ameliorates ulcerative colitis, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. Here we examine the cell subsets that express S1P1 in intestine using S1P1-eGFP mice, the regulation of S1P1 expression in lymphocytes after administration of DSS, after colitis induced by transfer of CD4+CD45RBhi cells and by crossing a mouse with TNF-driven ileitis with S1P1-eGFP mice. We then assayed the expression of enzymes that regulate intestinal S1P levels, and the effect of FTY720 on lymphocyte behavior and S1P1 expression. We found that not only T and B cells express S1P1, but also dendritic (DC) and endothelial cells. Furthermore, chronic but not acute inflammatory signals increased S1P1 expression, while the enzymes that control tissue S1P levels in mice and humans with IBD were uniformly dysregulated, favoring synthesis over degradation. Finally, we observed that FTY720 reduced T cell velocity and induced S1P1 degradation and retention of naïve but not effector T cells. Our data demonstrate that chronic inflammation modulates S1P1 expression and tissue S1P levels and suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of S1PR agonists might not be solely due to their lymphopenic effects, but also due to potential effects on DC migration and vascular barrier function. PMID:27049060

  9. Tumor Response and Apoptosis of N1-S1 Rodent Hepatomas in Response to Intra-arterial and Intravenous Benzamide Riboside

    SciTech Connect

    McLennan, Gordon Bennett, Stacy L.; Ju, Shenghong; Babsky, Andriy; Bansal, Navin; Shorten, Michelle L.; Levitin, Seth; Bonnac, Laurent; Panciewicz, Krystoff W.; Jayaram, Hiramagular N.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Benzamide riboside (BR) induces tumor apoptosis in multiple cell lines and animals. This pilot study compares apoptosis and tumor response in rat hepatomas treated with hepatic arterial BR (IA) or intravenous (IV) BR. Methods: A total of 10{sup 6} N1-S1 cells were placed in the left hepatic lobes of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats. After 2 weeks, BR (20 mg/kg) was infused IA (n = 5) or IV (n = 5). One animal in each group was excluded for technical factors, which prevented a full dose administration (1 IA and 1 IV). Five rats received saline (3 IA and 2 IV). Animals were killed after 3 weeks. Tumor volumes after IA and IV treatments were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. The percentage of tumor and normal liver apoptosis was counted by using 10 fields of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling)-stained slides at 40 Multiplication-Sign magnification. The percentage of apoptosis was compared between IV and IA administrations and with saline sham-treated rats by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Tumors were smaller after IA treatment, but this did not reach statistical significance (0.14 IA vs. 0.57 IV; P = 0.138). There was much variability in percentage of apoptosis and no significant difference between IA and IV BR (44.49 vs. 1.52%; P = 0.18); IA BR and saline (44.49 vs. 33.83%; P = 0.66); or IV BR and saline (1.52 vs. 193%; P = 0.18). Conclusions: Although differences in tumor volumes did not reach statistical significance, there was a trend toward smaller tumors after IA BR than IV BR in this small pilot study. Comparisons of these treatment methods will require a larger sample size and repeat experimentation.

  10. Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  11. Transforming growth factor-β-sphingosine kinase 1/S1P signaling upregulates microRNA-21 to promote fibrosis in renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Quan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Yanyan; Zou, Xin; Xu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is a progressive pathological change characterized by tubular cell apoptosis, tubulointerstitial fibroblast proliferation, and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). miR-21 has been implicated in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-stimulated tissue fibrosis. Recent studies showed that sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (SphK/S1P) are also critical for TGF-β-stimulated tissue fibrosis; however, it is not clear whether SphK/S1P interacts with miR-21 or not. In this study, we hypothesized that SphK/S1P signaling is linked to upregulation of miR-21 by TGF-β. To verify this hypothesis, we first determined that miR-21 was highly expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) stimulated with TGF-β by using qRT-PCR and Northern blotting. Simultaneously, inhibition of miR-21, mediated by the corresponding antimir, markedly decreased the expression and deposition of type I collagen, fibronectin (Fn), cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1), α-smooth muscle actin, and fibroblast-specific protein1 in TGF-β-treated TECs. ELISA and qRT-PCR were used to measure the S1P and SphK1 levels in TECs. S1P production was induced by TGF-β through activation of SphK1. Furthermore, it was observed that TGF-β-stimulated upregulation of miR-21 was abolished by SphK1 siRNA and was restored by the addition of exogenous S1P. Blocking S1PR2 also inhibited upregulation of miR-21. Additionally, miR-21 overexpression attenuated the repression of TGF-β-stimulated ECM deposition and epithelial–mesenchymal transition by SphK1 and S1PR2 siRNA. In summary, our study demonstrates a link between SphK1/S1P and TGF-β-induced miR-21 in renal TECs and may represent a novel therapeutic target in renal fibrosis. PMID:26376826

  12. Performance Benefits for Wave Rotor-Topped Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott M.; Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The benefits of wave rotor-topping in turboshaft engines, subsonic high-bypass turbofan engines, auxiliary power units, and ground power units are evaluated. The thermodynamic cycle performance is modeled using a one-dimensional steady-state code; wave rotor performance is modeled using one-dimensional design/analysis codes. Design and off-design engine performance is calculated for baseline engines and wave rotor-topped engines, where the wave rotor acts as a high pressure spool. The wave rotor-enhanced engines are shown to have benefits in specific power and specific fuel flow over the baseline engines without increasing turbine inlet temperature. The off-design steady-state behavior of a wave rotor-topped engine is shown to be similar to a conventional engine. Mission studies are performed to quantify aircraft performance benefits for various wave rotor cycle and weight parameters. Gas turbine engine cycles most likely to benefit from wave rotor-topping are identified. Issues of practical integration and the corresponding technical challenges with various engine types are discussed.

  13. Feasibility study for convertible engine torque converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility study has shown that a dump/fill type torque converter has excellent potential for the convertible fan/shaft engine. The torque converter space requirement permits internal housing within the normal flow path of a turbofan engine at acceptable engine weight. The unit permits operating the engine in the turboshaft mode by decoupling the fan. To convert to turbofan mode, the torque converter overdrive capability bring the fan speed up to the power turbine speed to permit engagement of a mechanical lockup device when the shaft speed are synchronized. The conversion to turbofan mode can be made without drop of power turbine speed in less than 10 sec. Total thrust delivered to the aircraft by the proprotor, fan, and engine during tansient can be controlled to prevent loss of air speed or altitude. Heat rejection to the oil is low, and additional oil cooling capacity is not required. The turbofan engine aerodynamic design is basically uncompromised by convertibility and allows proper fan design for quiet and efficient cruise operation. Although the results of the feasibility study are exceedingly encouraging, it must be noted that they are based on extrapolation of limited existing data on torque converters. A component test program with three trial torque converter designs and concurrent computer modeling for fluid flow, stress, and dynamics, updated with test results from each unit, is recommended.

  14. Cleavage of BLOC1S1 mRNA by IRE1 Is Sequence Specific, Temporally Separate from XBP1 Splicing, and Dispensable for Cell Viability under Acute Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Itzhak, Daniel N.; Wardell, Christopher P.; Morgan, Gareth J.; Davies, Faith E.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) remediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. IRE1, a component of the UPR, senses misfolded protein and cleaves XBP1 mRNA, which is ligated to code for the prosurvival transcription factor. IRE1 also cleaves other mRNAs preceding their degradation, termed regulated IRE1-dependent mRNA decay (RIDD). It has been reported that RIDD may be involved in cell viability under stress and therefore may contribute to cancer cell viability. To investigate RIDD targets that may have functional relevance in cell survival, we identified conserved RIDD targets containing stringent IRE1 RNase target sequences. Using a systematic bioinformatics approach with quantitative-PCR (qPCR) validation, we show that only BLOC1S1 is consistently a RIDD target in all systems tested. Using cancer cell lines, we show that BLOC1S1 is specifically cleaved by IRE1 at guanine 444, but only under conditions of IRE1 hyperactivation. BLOC1S1 cleavage is temporally separate from XBP1 splicing, occurring after depletion of unspliced XBP1. Expression of an uncleavable BLOC1S1 mutant or inhibition of RIDD using an IRE1 RNase inhibitor did not affect cellular recovery from acute ER stress. These data demonstrate that although hyperactivated IRE1 specifically cleaves BLOC1S1, this cleavage event and RIDD as a whole are dispensable for cell viability under acute stress. PMID:25870107

  15. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  16. Study of an advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, J. C.; Short, F. R.; Staton, D. V.; Zolezzi, B. A.; Curry, C. E.; Orelup, M. J.; Vaught, J. M.; Humphrey, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The best technology program for a small, economically viable gas turbine engine applicable to the general aviation helicopter and aircraft market for 1985-1990 was studied. Turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 112 to 746 kW (150 to 1000 hp) range and turbofan engines up to 6672 N (1500 lbf) thrust were considered. A good market for new turbine engines was predicted for 1988 providing aircraft are designed to capitalize on the advantages of the turbine engine. Parametric engine families were defined in terms of design and off-design performance, mass, and cost. These were evaluated in aircraft design missions selected to represent important market segments for fixed and rotary-wing applications. Payoff parameters influenced by engine cycle and configuration changes were aircraft gross mass, acquisition cost, total cost of ownership, and cash flow. Significant advantage over a current technology, small gas turbine engines was found especially in cost of ownership and fuel economy for airframes incorporating an air-cooled high-pressure ratio engine. A power class of 373 kW (500 hp) was recommended as the next frontier for technology advance where large improvements in fuel economy and engine mass appear possible through component research and development.

  17. KONFIG and REKONFIG: Two interactive preprocessing to the Navy/NASA Engine Program (NNEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NNEP is a computer program that is currently being used to simulate the thermodynamic cycle performance of almost all types of turbine engines by many government, industry, and university personnel. The NNEP uses arrays of input data to set up the engine simulation and component matching method as well as to describe the characteristics of the components. A preprocessing program (KONFIG) is described in which the user at a terminal on a time shared computer can interactively prepare the arrays of data required. It is intended to make it easier for the occasional or new user to operate NNEP. Another preprocessing program (REKONFIG) in which the user can modify the component specifications of a previously configured NNEP dataset is also described. It is intended to aid in preparing data for parametric studies and/or studies of similar engines such a mixed flow turbofans, turboshafts, etc.

  18. Establishing a Ballistic Test Methodology for Documenting the Containment Capability of Small Gas Turbine Engine Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heady, Joel; Pereira, J. Michael; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Bobula, George A.

    2009-01-01

    A test methodology currently employed for large engines was extended to quantify the ballistic containment capability of a small turboshaft engine compressor case. The approach involved impacting the inside of a compressor case with a compressor blade. A gas gun propelled the blade into the case at energy levels representative of failed compressor blades. The test target was a full compressor case. The aft flange was rigidly attached to a test stand and the forward flange was attached to a main frame to provide accurate boundary conditions. A window machined in the case allowed the projectile to pass through and impact the case wall from the inside with the orientation, direction and speed that would occur in a blade-out event. High-peed, digital-video cameras provided accurate velocity and orientation data. Calibrated cameras and digital image correlation software generated full field displacement and strain information at the back side of the impact point.

  19. Effect of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotype on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties (MCP) in Mediterranean water buffalo. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 and coagulation properties [rennet clotting time (RCT), curd firming time (K₂₀), and curd firmness (A₃₀)] were assessed by reversed-phase HPLC and computerized renneting meter analysis, respectively, using single test-day milk samples of 536 animals. Alternative protein variants of α(S1)-CN and κ-CN were detected by HPLC, and identification of the corresponding genetic variants was carried out by DNA analysis. Two genetic variants were detected at CSN1S1 (A and B variants) and 2 at CSN3 (X1 and X2 variants). Statistical inference was based on a linear model including the CSN1S1-CSN3 composite genotype effect (7 genotypes), the effects of herd-test-day (8 levels), and a combined days in milk (DIM)-parity class. Composite genotype AB-X2X2 was associated with decreased test-day milk yield [-0.21 standard deviation (SD) units of the trait] relative to genotype BB-X2X2. Genotypes did not affect milk protein content, but genotype AB-X1X1 was associated with increased fat content compared with genotype BB-X2X2 (+0.28 SD units of the trait) and AB-X1X1 (+0.43 SD units of the trait). For RCT, the largest difference (+1.91 min; i.e., 0.61 SD units of the trait) was observed between genotype AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1. Direction of genotype effects on K(20) was consistent with that for RCT. The maximum variation in K₂₀ due to genotype effects (between AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1 genotypes) was almost 0.9 SD units of the trait. Magnitude of genotype effects was smaller for A₃₀ than for RCT and K₂₀, with a maximum difference of 0.5 SD units of the trait between genotype AA-X1X2 and AA-X1X1. The B allele at CSN1S1 was associated with increased RCT and K₂₀ and with weaker curds compared with allele A. Allele X2 at CSN3 exerted opposite effects on

  20. Effect of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotype on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties (MCP) in Mediterranean water buffalo. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 and coagulation properties [rennet clotting time (RCT), curd firming time (K₂₀), and curd firmness (A₃₀)] were assessed by reversed-phase HPLC and computerized renneting meter analysis, respectively, using single test-day milk samples of 536 animals. Alternative protein variants of α(S1)-CN and κ-CN were detected by HPLC, and identification of the corresponding genetic variants was carried out by DNA analysis. Two genetic variants were detected at CSN1S1 (A and B variants) and 2 at CSN3 (X1 and X2 variants). Statistical inference was based on a linear model including the CSN1S1-CSN3 composite genotype effect (7 genotypes), the effects of herd-test-day (8 levels), and a combined days in milk (DIM)-parity class. Composite genotype AB-X2X2 was associated with decreased test-day milk yield [-0.21 standard deviation (SD) units of the trait] relative to genotype BB-X2X2. Genotypes did not affect milk protein content, but genotype AB-X1X1 was associated with increased fat content compared with genotype BB-X2X2 (+0.28 SD units of the trait) and AB-X1X1 (+0.43 SD units of the trait). For RCT, the largest difference (+1.91 min; i.e., 0.61 SD units of the trait) was observed between genotype AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1. Direction of genotype effects on K(20) was consistent with that for RCT. The maximum variation in K₂₀ due to genotype effects (between AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1 genotypes) was almost 0.9 SD units of the trait. Magnitude of genotype effects was smaller for A₃₀ than for RCT and K₂₀, with a maximum difference of 0.5 SD units of the trait between genotype AA-X1X2 and AA-X1X1. The B allele at CSN1S1 was associated with increased RCT and K₂₀ and with weaker curds compared with allele A. Allele X2 at CSN3 exerted opposite effects on

  1. CTGF/CCN2 exerts profibrotic action in myoblasts via the up-regulation of sphingosine kinase-1/S1P3 signaling axis: Implications in the action mechanism of TGFβ.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Gennaro; Cencetti, Francesca; Pertici, Irene; Japtok, Lukasz; Bernacchioni, Caterina; Donati, Chiara; Bruni, Paola

    2015-02-01

    The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is recognized as key player in the onset of fibrosis in various tissues, including skeletal muscle. In many circumstances, CTGF has been shown to be induced by transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and accounting, at least in part, for its biological action. In this study it was verified that in cultured myoblasts CTGF/CCN2 causes their transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts by up-regulating the expression of fibrosis marker proteins α-smooth muscle actin and transgelin. Interestingly, it was also found that the profibrotic effect exerted by CTGF/CCN2 was mediated by the sphingosine kinase (SK)-1/S1P3 signaling axis specifically induced by the treatment with the profibrotic cue. Following CTGF/CCN2-induced up-regulation, S1P3 became the S1P receptor subtype expressed at the highest degree, at least at mRNA level, and was thus capable of readdressing the sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling towards fibrosis rather than myogenic differentiation. Another interesting finding is that CTGF/CCN2 silencing prevented the TGFβ-dependent up-regulation of SK1/S1P3 signaling axis and strongly reduced the profibrotic effect exerted by TGFβ, pointing at a crucial role of endogenous CTGF/CCN2 generated following TGFβ challenge in the transmission of at least part of its profibrotic effect. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism by which CTGF/CCN2 drives its biological action and strengthen the concept that SK1/S1P3 axis plays a critical role in the onset of fibrotic cell phenotype.

  2. Discovery of potent 3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 (S1P1) receptor agonists with exceptional selectivity against S1P2 and S1P3.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Chen, Weirong; Hale, Jeffrey J; Lynch, Christopher L; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Parent, Stephen A; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Forrest, Michael; Quackenbush, Elizabeth J; Wickham, L Alexandra; Vargas, Hugo; Evans, Rose M; Rosen, Hugh; Mandala, Suzanne

    2005-10-01

    A class of 3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole based compounds have been identified as potent sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 (S1P1) receptor agonists with minimal affinity for the S1P2 and S1P3 receptor subtypes. Analogue 26 (S1P1 IC50 = 0.6 nM) has an excellent pharmacokinetics profile in the rat and dog and is efficacious in a rat skin transplant model, indicating that S1P3 receptor agonism is not a component of immunosuppressive efficacy.

  3. An ambipolar organic field-effect transistor based on an AIE-active single crystal with a high mobility level of 2.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Xu, Yuanxiang; Liu, Liqun; Feng, Cunfang; Tang, Jia; Gao, Yu; Wang, Yan; Yang, Bing; Lu, Ping; Yang, Wensheng; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-02-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) material were fabricated using a calcium-gold asymmetric electrode system. The devices showed very high and balanced mobility, reaching 2.50 and 2.10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, for electron and hole. Strong green electroluminescence from the single-crystal side edge was observed from all the devices. This work demonstrates that AIE active materials could not only achieve high luminescence, but also be used in light emitting transistors and achieve very high mobility. PMID:26730680

  4. Growth of ˜5 cm2V-1s-1 mobility, p-type Copper(I) oxide (Cu2O) films by fast atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD) at 225°C and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, D.; Jordan, M.; Yeoh, C.; Marin, A. T.; Kursumovic, A.; Dunlop, L. A.; Iza, D. C.; Chen, A.; Wang, H.; MacManus Driscoll, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phase pure, dense Cu2O thin films were grown on glass and polymer substrates at 225°C by rapid atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD). Carrier mobilities of 5 cm2V-1s-1 and carrier concentrations of ˜1016 cm-3 were achieved in films of thickness 50 - 120 nm, over a >10 cm2 area. Growth rates were ˜1 nm.min-1 which is two orders of magnitude faster than conventional ALD.. The high mobilities achieved using the atmospheric, low temperature method represent a significant advance for flextronics and flexible solar cells which require growth on plastic substrates.

  5. 75 FR 2067 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca S.A. Model Arriel 1B, 1D, and 1D1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on June 12, 2009 (74 FR... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... service. The ruptures have been determined to be originated at the pinion teeth root due to...

  6. 75 FR 16664 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca ARRIEL 1B, 1D, 1D1, 2B, and 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Register on December 23, 2009 (74 FR 68194). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation...

  7. 75 FR 59065 - Airworthiness Directives; Turboméca S.A. Arriel 2B and 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ..., whichever occurs first, if the rearward displacement of the turbine blades was less than 0.2 mm. Replace HP... previous inspection if the rearward displacement of the turbine blades was between 0.2 mm and 0.5 mm... AD as of June 1, 2009 (74 FR 18981, April 27, 2009). ADDRESSES: The Docket Operations office...

  8. Factor Xa inhibitors: S1 binding interactions of a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chuen; Borthwick, Alan D; Brown, David; Burns-Kurtis, Cynthia L; Campbell, Matthew; Chaudry, Laiq; Chung, Chun-wa; Convery, Máire A; Hamblin, J Nicole; Johnstone, Lisa; Kelly, Henry A; Kleanthous, Savvas; Patikis, Angela; Patel, Champa; Pateman, Anthony J; Senger, Stefan; Shah, Gita P; Toomey, John R; Watson, Nigel S; Weston, Helen E; Whitworth, Caroline; Young, Robert J; Zhou, Ping

    2007-04-01

    Factor Xa inhibitory activities for a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides with different P1 groups are described. These data provide insight into binding interactions within the S1 primary specificity pocket; rationales are presented for the derived SAR on the basis of electronic interactions through crystal structures of fXa-ligand complexes and molecular modeling studies. A good correlation between in vitro anticoagulant activities with lipophilicity and the extent of human serum albumin binding is observed within this series of potent fXa inhibitors. Pharmacokinetic profiles in rat and dog, together with selectivity over other trypsin-like serine proteases, identified 1f as a candidate for further evaluation.

  9. Polydatin attenuates AGEs-induced upregulation of fibronectin and ICAM-1 in rat glomerular mesangial cells and db/db diabetic mice kidneys by inhibiting the activation of the SphK1-S1P signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Huang, Kaipeng; Hao, Jie; Huang, Junying; Yang, Zhiying; Xiong, Fengxiao; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2016-05-15

    We previously demonstrated that activation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)- sphingosine 1- phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway by high glucose (HG) plays a pivotal role in increasing the expression of fibronectin (FN), an important fibrotic component, by promoting the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) under diabetic conditions. As a multi-target anti-oxidative drug, polydatin (PD) has been shown to have renoprotective effects on experimental diabetes. However, whether PD could resist diabetic nephropathy (DN) by regulating SphK1-S1P signaling pathway needs further investigation. Here, we found that PD significantly reversed the upregulated FN and ICAM-1 expression in GMCs exposed to AGEs. Simultaneously, PD dose-dependently inhibited SphK1 levels at the protein expression and kinase activity and attenuated S1P production under AGEs treatment conditions. In addition, PD reduced SphK activity in GMCs transfected with wild-type SphK(WT) plasmid and significantly suppressed SphK1-mediated increase of FN and ICAM-1 levels under normal conditions. Furthermore, we found that the AGEs-induced upregulation of phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser63 and Ser73 and c-Fos at Ser32, DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activity of AP-1 were blocked by PD. In comparison with db/db model group, PD treatment suppressed SphK1 levels (mRNA, protein expression, and activity) and S1P production, reversed the upregulation of FN, ICAM-1, c-Jun, and c-Fos in the kidney tissues of diabetic mice, and finally ameliorated renal injury in db/db mice. These findings suggested that the downregulation of SphK1-S1P signaling pathway is probably a novel mechanism by which PD suppressed AGEs-induced FN and ICAM-1 expression and improved renal dysfunction of diabetic models. PMID:26948947

  10. Compressor Study to Meet Large Civil Tilt Rotor Engine Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    A vehicle concept study has been made to meet the requirements of the Large Civil Tilt Rotorcraft vehicle mission. A vehicle concept was determined, and a notional turboshaft engine system study was conducted. The engine study defined requirements for the major engine components, including the compressor. The compressor design-point goal was to deliver a pressure ratio of 31:1 at an inlet weight flow of 28.4 lbm/sec. To perform a conceptual design of two potential compressor configurations to meet the design requirement, a mean-line compressor flow analysis and design code were used. The first configuration is an eight-stage axial compressor. Some challenges of the all-axial compressor are the small blade spans of the rear-block stages being 0.28 in., resulting in the last-stage blade tip clearance-to-span ratio of 2.4 percent. The second configuration is a seven-stage axial compressor, with a centrifugal stage having a 0.28-in. impeller-exit blade span. The compressors conceptual designs helped estimate the flow path dimensions, rotor leading and trailing edge blade angles, flow conditions, and velocity triangles for each stage.

  11. Compressor Study to Meet Large Civil Tilt Rotor Engine Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    A vehicle concept study has been made to meet the requirements of the Large Civil Tilt Rotorcraft vehicle mission. A vehicle concept was determined, and a notional turboshaft engine system study was conducted. The engine study defined requirements for the major engine components, including the compressor. The compressor design-point goal was to deliver a pressure ratio of 31:1 at an inlet weight flow of 28.4 lbm/sec. To perform a conceptual design of two potential compressor configurations to meet the design requirement, a mean-line compressor flow analysis and design code were used. The first configuration is an eight-stage axial compressor. Some challenges of the all-axial compressor are the small blade spans of the rear-block stages being 0.28 in., resulting in the last-stage blade tip clearance-to-span ratio of 2.4%. The second configuration is a seven-stage axial compressor, with a centrifugal stage having a 0.28-in. impeller-exit blade span. The compressors conceptual designs helped estimate the flow path dimensions, rotor leading and trailing edge blade angles, flow conditions, and velocity triangles for each stage.

  12. Structure-activity relationships of (1'S)-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, a major constituent of a southeast Asian condiment plant Languas galanga, on the inhibition of tumor-promoter-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Toyota, K; Ohura, S; Koshimizu, K; Ohigashi, H

    2000-05-01

    The structure-activity relationships of (1'S)-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a cancer chemopreventive agent of food origin, were investigated in an inhibitory test of tumor promoter teleocidin B-4-induced Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation in Raji cells. Through a test of 16 derivatives, the structural factors regulating activity were found to be as follows: (1) the absolute configuration at the 1'-position does not affect activity; (2) hydrogenation of the terminal methylene group abolishes activity; (3) both the phenolic and alcoholic hydroxyl groups are compulsorily acetylated, and it is necessary that the former is oriented only at the position para to the side chain; (4) an additional acetoxyl group is allowed to locate at the ortho or meta position; and (5) substitution of the hydrogen atom at the 1'-position by a methyl group reduces activity. Upon esterase blockade in Raji cells, (1'R,S)-ACA suppressed EBV activation, the extent of which was the same as tested in the control, suggesting that ACA bearing two acetoxyl groups is an intracellular structure prerequisite for activity exhibition. The present study suggests that nucleophilic attack to the 3'-position is important and involved in the interaction of ACA with an unidentified target molecule(s) participating in the process of EBV activation.

  13. Both the nature of KIR3DL1 alleles and the KIR3DL1/S1 allele combination affect the KIR3DL1 NK-cell repertoire in the French population.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Katia; Willem, Catherine; Legrand, Nolwenn; Djaoud, Zakia; David, Gaëlle; Rettman, Pauline; Bressollette-Bodin, Céline; Senitzer, David; Esbelin, Julie; Cesbron-Gautier, Anne; Schneider, Thierry; Retière, Christelle

    2013-04-01

    NK-cell functions are regulated by many activating and inhibitory receptors including KIR3DL1. Extensive allelic polymorphism and variability in expression can directly alter NK-cell phenotype and functions. Here we investigated the KIR3DL1(+) NK-cell repertoire, taking into account the allelic KIR3DL1/S1 polymorphism, KIR3DL1 phenotype, and function. All 109 studied individuals possessed at least one KIR3DL1 allele, with weak KIR3DL1*054, or null alleles being frequently present. In KIR3DL1(high/null) individuals, we observed a bimodal distribution of KIR3DL1(+) NK cells identified by a different KIR3DL1 expression level and cell frequency regardless of a similar amount of both KIR3DL1 transcripts, HLA background, or KIR2D expression. However, this bimodal distribution can be explained by a functional selection following a hierarchy of KIR3DL1 receptors. The higher expression of KIR3DL1 observed on cord blood NK cells suggests the expression of the functional KIR3DL1*004 receptors. Thus, the low amplification of KIR3DL1(high) , KIR3DL1*004 NK-cell subsets during development may be due to extensive signaling via these two receptors. Albeit in a nonexclusive manner, individual immunological experience may contribute to shaping the KIR3DL1 NK-cell repertoire. Together, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms regulating the KIR3DL1 NK-cell repertoire.

  14. Rearrangements of mycoreovirus 1 S1, S2 and S3 induced by the multifunctional protein p29 encoded by the prototypic hypovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 strain EP713.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toru; Sun, Liying; Tsutani, Kouhei; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2011-08-01

    Mycoreovirus 1 (MyRV1), a member of the family Reoviridae possessing a genome consisting of 11 dsRNA segments (S1-S11), infects the chestnut blight fungus and reduces its virulence (hypovirulence). Studies have previously demonstrated reproducible induction of intragenic rearrangements of MyRV1 S6 (S6L: almost full-length duplication) and S10 (S10ss: internal deletion of three-quarters of the ORF), mediated by the multifunctional protein p29 encoded by the prototype hypovirus, Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) strain EP713, of the family Hypoviridae with ssRNA genomes. The current study showed that CHV1 p29 also induced rearrangements of the three largest MyRV1 segments, S1, S2 and S3, which encode structural proteins. These rearranged segments involved in-frame extensions of almost two-thirds of the ORFs (S1L, S2L and S3L, respectively), which is rare for a reovirus rearrangement. MyRV1 variants carrying S1L, S2L or S3L always contained S10ss (MyRV1/S1L+S10ss2, MyRV1/S2L+S10ss2 or MyRV1/S3L+S10ss2). Levels of mRNAs for the rearranged and co-existing unaltered genome segments in fungal colonies infected with each of the MyRV1 variants appeared to be comparable to those for the corresponding normal segments in wild-type MyRV1-infected colonies, suggesting that the rearranged segments were fully competent for packaging and transcription. Protein products of the rearranged segments were detectable in fungal colonies infected with S2L MyRV1/S2L+S10ss2 and S3L MyRV1/S3L+S10ss2, whilst S1L-encoded protein remained undetectable. S1L, S2L and S3L were associated with enhancement of the aerial hyphae growth rate. This study has provided additional examples of MyRV1 intragenic rearrangements induced by p29, and suggests that normal S1, S2 and S3 are required for the symptoms caused by MyRV1.

  15. Sensor Fault Detection and Diagnosis Simulation of a Helicopter Engine in an Intelligent Control Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan; Kurtkaya, Mehmet; Duyar, Ahmet

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a fault detection and diagnosis scheme for the sensor faults of a helicopter engine. The scheme utilizes a model-based approach with real time identification and hypothesis testing which can provide early detection, isolation, and diagnosis of failures. It is an integral part of a proposed intelligent control system with health monitoring capabilities. The intelligent control system will allow for accommodation of faults, reduce maintenance cost, and increase system availability. The scheme compares the measured outputs of the engine with the expected outputs of an engine whose sensor suite is functioning normally. If the differences between the real and expected outputs exceed threshold values, a fault is detected. The isolation of sensor failures is accomplished through a fault parameter isolation technique where parameters which model the faulty process are calculated on-line with a real-time multivariable parameter estimation algorithm. The fault parameters and their patterns can then be analyzed for diagnostic and accommodation purposes. The scheme is applied to the detection and diagnosis of sensor faults of a T700 turboshaft engine. Sensor failures are induced in a T700 nonlinear performance simulation and data obtained are used with the scheme to detect, isolate, and estimate the magnitude of the faults.

  16. Engine Power Turbine and Propulsion Pod Arrangement Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robuck, Mark; Zhang, Yiyi

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted for NASA Glenn Research Center under contract NNC10BA05B, Task NNC11TA80T to identify beneficial arrangements of the turboshaft engine, transmissions and related systems within the propulsion pod nacelle of NASA's Large Civil Tilt-Rotor 2nd iteration (LCTR2) vehicle. Propulsion pod layouts were used to investigate potential advantages, disadvantages, as well as constraints of various arrangements assuming front or aft shafted engines. Results from previous NASA LCTR2 propulsion system studies and tasks performed by Boeing under NASA contracts are used as the basis for this study. This configuration consists of two Fixed Geometry Variable Speed Power Turbine Engines and related drive and rotor systems (per nacelle) arranged in tilting nacelles near the wing tip. Entry-into-service (EIS) 2035 technology is assumed for both the engine and drive systems. The variable speed rotor system changes from 100 percent speed for hover to 54 percent speed for cruise by the means of a two speed gearbox concept developed under previous NASA contracts. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified in previous work and used here. Results reported in this study illustrate that a forward shafted engine has a slight weight benefit over an aft shafted engine for the LCTR2 vehicle. Although the aft shafted engines provide a more controlled and centered CG (between hover and cruise), the length of the long rotor shaft and complicated engine exhaust arrangement outweighed the potential benefits. A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) approach for transmission sizing was also explored for this study. This tool offers quick analysis of gear loads, bearing lives, efficiencies, etc., through use of commercially available RomaxDESIGNER software. The goal was to create quick methods to explore various concept models. The output results from RomaxDESIGNER have been successfully linked to Boeing

  17. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  18. A real-time, portable, microcomputer-based jet engine simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, R. A.; Soeder, J. F.; Mihaloew, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Modern piloted flight simulators require detailed models of many aircraft components, such as the airframe, propulsion system, flight deck controls and instrumentation, as well as motion drive and visual display systems. The amount of computing power necessary to implement these systems can exceed that offered by dedicated mainframe computers. One approach to this problem is through the use of distributed computing, where parts of the simulation are assigned to computing subsystems, such as microcomputers. One such subsystem, such as microcomputers. One such subsystem, a real-time, portable, microcomputer-based jet engine simulator, is described in this paper. The simulator will be used at the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator facility to perform calculations previously done on the facility's mainframe computer. The mainframe will continue to do all other system calculations and will interface to the engine simulator through analog I/0. The engine simulator hardware includes a 16-bit microcomputer and floating-point coprocessor. There is an 8 channel analog input board and an 8 channel analog output board. A model of a small turboshaft engine/control is coded in floating-point FORTRAN. The FORTRAN code and a data monitoring program run under the control of an assembly language real-time executive. The monitoring program allows the user to isplay and/or modify simulator variables on-line through a data terminal. A dual disk drive system is used for mass storage of programs and data. The CP/M-86 operating system provides file management and overall system control. The frame time for the simulator is 30 milliseconds, which includes all analog I/0 operations.

  19. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  20. Engineering and Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  1. Engineering Practice and Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, William T.; Kline, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Offers ways of applying science and technology studies to the teaching of engineering ethics. Suggests modifications of both detailed case studies on engineering disasters and hypothetical, ethical dilemmas employed in engineering ethics classes. (Author/CCM)

  2. No evidence from FTIR difference spectroscopy that aspartate-170 of the D1 polypeptide ligates a manganese ion that undergoes oxidation during the S0 to S1, S1 to S2, or S2 to S3 transitions in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Debus, Richard J; Strickler, Melodie A; Walker, Lee M; Hillier, Warwick

    2005-02-01

    On the basis of mutagenesis and X-ray crystallographic studies, Asp170 of the D1 polypeptide is widely believed to ligate the (Mn)4 cluster that is located at the catalytic site of water oxidation in photosystem II. Recent proposals for the mechanism of water oxidation postulate that D1-Asp170 ligates a Mn ion that undergoes oxidation during one or more of the S0 --> S1, S1 --> S2, and S2 --> S3 transitions. To test these hypotheses, we have compared the FTIR difference spectra of the individual S state transitions in wild-type* PSII particles from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with those in D1-D170H mutant PSII particles. Remarkably, our data show that the D1-D170H mutation does not significantly alter the mid-frequency regions (1800-1000 cm(-1)) of any of the FTIR difference spectra. Therefore, we conclude that the oxidation of the (Mn)4 cluster does not alter the frequencies of the carboxylate stretching modes of D1-Asp170 during the S0 --> S1, S1 --> S2, or S2 --> S3 transitions. The simplest explanation for these data is that the Mn ion that is ligated by D1-Asp170 does not increase its charge or oxidation state during any of these S state transitions. These data have profound implications for the mechanism of water oxidation. Either (1) the oxidation of the Mn ion that is ligated by D1-Asp170 occurs only during the transitory S3 --> S4 transition and serves as the critical step in the ultimate formation of the O-O bond or (2) the oxidation increments and O2 formation chemistry that occur during the catalytic cycle involve only the remaining Mn3Ca portion of the Mn4Ca cluster. Our data also show that, if the increased positive charge on the (Mn)4 cluster that is produced during the S1 --> S2 transition is delocalized over the (Mn)4 cluster, it is not delocalized onto the Mn ion that is ligated by D1-Asp170.

  3. No evidence from FTIR difference spectroscopy that aspartate-342 of the D1 polypeptide ligates a Mn ion that undergoes oxidation during the S0 to S1, S1 to S2, or S2 to S3 transitions in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Strickler, Melodie A; Walker, Lee M; Hillier, Warwick; Britt, R David; Debus, Richard J

    2007-03-20

    In the recent X-ray crystallographic structural models of photosystem II, Asp342 of the D1 polypeptide is assigned as a ligand of the oxygen-evolving Mn4 cluster. To determine if D1-Asp342 ligates a Mn ion that undergoes oxidation during one or more of the S0 --> S1, S1 --> S2, and S2 --> S3 transitions, the FTIR difference spectra of the individual S state transitions in D1-D342N mutant PSII particles from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were compared with those in wild-type PSII particles. Remarkably, the data show that the mid-frequency (1800-1200 cm-1) FTIR difference spectra of wild-type and D1-D342N PSII particles are essentially identical. Importantly, the mutation alters none of the carboxylate vibrational modes that are present in the wild-type spectra. The absence of significant mutation-induced spectral alterations in D1-D342N PSII particles shows that the oxidation of the Mn4 cluster does not alter the frequencies of the carboxylate stretching modes of D1-Asp342 during the S0 --> S1, S1 --> S2, or S2 --> S3 transitions. One explanation of these data is that D1-Asp342 ligates a Mn ion that does not increase its charge or oxidation state during any of these S state transitions. However, because the same conclusion was reached previously for D1-Asp170, and because the recent X-ray crystallographic structural models assign D1-Asp170 and D1-Asp342 as ligating different Mn ions, this explanation requires that (1) the extra positive charge that develops on the Mn4 cluster during the S1 --> S2 transition be localized on the Mn ion that is ligated by the alpha-COO- group of D1-Ala344 and (2) any increase in positive charge that develops on the Mn4 cluster during the S0 --> S1 and S2 --> S3 transitions be localized on the one Mn ion that is not ligated by D1-Asp170, D1-Asp342, or D1-Ala344. In separate experiments that were conducted with l-[1-13C]alanine, we found no evidence that D1-Asp342 ligates the same Mn ion that is ligated by the alpha

  4. Discovery of a novel glucagon receptor antagonist N-[(4-{(1S)-1-[3-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]ethyl}phenyl)carbonyl]-β-alanine (MK-0893) for the treatment of type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yusheng; Guo, Jian; Candelore, Mari R; Liang, Rui; Miller, Corey; Dallas-Yang, Qing; Jiang, Guoqiang; McCann, Peggy E; Qureshi, Sajjad A; Tong, Xinchun; Xu, Shiyao Sherrie; Shang, Jackie; Vincent, Stella H; Tota, Laurie M; Wright, Michael J; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bei B; Tata, James R; Parmee, Emma R

    2012-07-12

    A potent, selective glucagon receptor antagonist 9m, N-[(4-{(1S)-1-[3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]ethyl}phenyl)carbonyl]-β-alanine, was discovered by optimization of a previously identified lead. Compound 9m is a reversible and competitive antagonist with high binding affinity (IC(50) of 6.6 nM) and functional cAMP activity (IC(50) of 15.7 nM). It is selective for glucagon receptor relative to other family B GPCRs, showing IC(50) values of 1020 nM for GIPR, 9200 nM for PAC1, and >10000 nM for GLP-1R, VPAC1, and VPAC2. Compound 9m blunted glucagon-induced glucose elevation in hGCGR mice and rhesus monkeys. It also lowered ambient glucose levels in both acute and chronic mouse models: in hGCGR ob/ob mice it reduced glucose (AUC 0-6 h) by 32% and 39% at 3 and 10 mpk single doses, respectively. In hGCGR mice on a high fat diet, compound 9m at 3, and 10 mpk po in feed lowered blood glucose levels by 89% and 94% at day 10, respectively, relative to the difference between the vehicle control and lean hGCGR mice. On the basis of its favorable biological and DMPK properties, compound 9m (MK-0893) was selected for further preclinical and clinical evaluations.

  5. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Hooper

    1983-01-01

    The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

  6. Neural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  7. 40 CFR 87.3 - General applicability and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required to be certificated by FAA under 14 CFR part 33 except as specified in this paragraph (a). These... in ultralight aircraft). (2) Turboshaft engines such as those used in helicopters. (3) Engines...

  8. Engineering Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  9. Engine Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

  10. Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-14

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engine’s pistons to pump and powers the car. MSU’s engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engine’s rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSU’s redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving parts—reducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

  11. Invisible Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  12. Information engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  13. Holistic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Domenico; Martinelli, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how to prepare high-quality engineers who are better equipped to serve in the changing global marketplace, and suggest educators in pursuing the holistic concept of the "unity of knowledge" that will yield a definition of engineering more fitting for the times ahead. The unity of knowledge is fundamentally…

  14. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  15. Electrochemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses engineering ramifications of electrochemistry, focusing on current/potential distribution, evaluation of trade-offs between influences of different phenomena, use of dimensionless numbers to assist in scale-over to new operating conditions, and economics. Also provides examples of electrochemical engineering education content related to…

  16. Corrosion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  17. Genetic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  18. Women Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neustadtl, Sara Jane

    This booklet is designed to provide information to girls about the nature of and possible career opportunities in engineering. Following a brief introduction in which the characteristics of engineers are outlined (such as ability to solve problems, interest in science/mathematics, and urge to make creative use of their intelligence), answers to…

  19. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  20. Electrochemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard

    1976-01-01

    Discusses an electrochemical engineering course that combines transport phenomena and basic physical chemistry. Lecture notes and homework problems are used instead of a textbook; an outline of lecture topics is presented. (MLH)

  1. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  2. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  3. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  4. Photoreceptor engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Thea; Möglich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory photoreceptors not only control diverse adaptive responses in Nature, but as light-regulated actuators they also provide the foundation for optogenetics, the non-invasive and spatiotemporally precise manipulation of cellular events by light. Novel photoreceptors have been engineered that establish control by light over manifold biological processes previously inaccessible to optogenetic intervention. Recently, photoreceptor engineering has witnessed a rapid development, and light-regulated actuators for the perturbation of a plethora of cellular events are now available. Here, we review fundamental principles of photoreceptors and light-regulated allostery. Photoreceptors dichotomize into associating receptors that alter their oligomeric state as part of light-regulated allostery and non-associating receptors that do not. A survey of engineered photoreceptors pinpoints light-regulated association reactions and order-disorder transitions as particularly powerful and versatile design principles. Photochromic photoreceptors that are bidirectionally toggled by two light colors augur enhanced spatiotemporal resolution and use as photoactivatable fluorophores. By identifying desirable traits in engineered photoreceptors, we provide pointers for the design of future, light-regulated actuators. PMID:26137467

  5. Engineering seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    N.N, Ambraseys

    1991-01-01

    Twenty years have elasped since the first issue of Earthquakes & Volcanoes. Apart from the remarkable increases in the number of scientists actively enagaged in earth sciences, what are the outstanding achievements during the past 20 years in the field of engineering seismology, which is my own speciality?

  6. Harmonic engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  7. Concurrent engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Leger, L.; Hunter, D.; Jones, C.; Sprague, R.; Berke, L.; Newell, J.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: issues (liquid rocket propulsion - current development approach, current certification process, and costs of engineering changes); state of the art (DICE information management system, key government participants, project development strategy, quality management, and numerical propulsion system simulation); needs identified; and proposed program.

  8. Biocommodity Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  9. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  10. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, Edward V.

    1988-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in the context of software engineering: early use of the term; the 1968 NATO conference; Barry Boehm's definition; four requirements fo software engineering; and additional criteria for software engineering. Additionally, the four major requirements for software engineering--computer science, mathematics, engineering disciplines, and excellent communication skills--are discussed. The presentation is given in vugraph form.

  11. Engineering Review Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  12. Re-engineering Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard M.; Silevitch, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, leaders gathered by the National Association of Manufacturers declared yet another "STEM" emergency. In the face of global competition, they argued, the number of bachelor's degrees awarded annually to U.S. students in science, math and engineering must double by 2015. In fact, the need for STEM talent is even more critical today as the…

  13. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    possibilities. The Boeing N2 hybrid-wing-body (HWB) is used as a baseline aircraft for this study. The two pylon mounted conventional turbofans are replaced by two wing-tip mounted turboshaft engines, each driving a superconducting generator. Both generators feed a common electrical bus which distributes power to an array of superconducting motor-driven fans in a continuous nacelle centered along the trailing edge of the upper surface of the wing-body. A key finding was that traditional inlet performance methodology has to be modified when most of the air entering the inlet is boundary layer air. A very thorough and detailed propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) analysis is required at the very beginning of the design process since embedded engine inlet performance must be based on conditions at the inlet lip rather than freestream conditions. Examination of a range of fan pressure ratios yielded a minimum Thrust-specific-fuel-consumption (TSFC) at the aerodynamic design point of the vehicle (31,000 ft /Mach 0.8) between 1.3 and 1.35 FPR. We deduced that this was due to the higher pressure losses prior to the fan inlet as well as higher losses in the 2-D inlets and nozzles. This FPR is likely to be higher than the FPR that yields a minimum TSFC in a pylon mounted engine. 1

  14. Exoskeletal Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C. (Inventor); Blankson, Isaiah M. (Inventor); Richter, William A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A turbojet engine is made from a drum-like portion having a circular blade section extending inwardly therefrom, a support member, and a bearing arranged around a circle having a diameter substantially equal to or greater than the diameter of the blade section. The drum-like portion is rotatably mounted within the support member on the bearing. Instead of a turbine spinning on a shaft, a turbine spinning within a drum is employed.

  15. Engineering Tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John

    An ideal textbook for a first tribology course, this book provides an interdisciplinary understanding of the field. It includes materials constraints, real design problems and solutions (such as those for journal and rolling element bearing), cams and followers and heavily loaded gear teeth. Including physics, materials science, and surface and lubricant chemistry, the volume integrates quantitative material from a wide variety of disciplines with traditional engineering approaches.

  16. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  17. Planetary engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  18. Web Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  19. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  20. Biocommodity Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  1. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. As part of the NASA Technical Standards Program activities, engineering lessons learned datasets have been identified from a number of sources. These are being searched and screened for those having a relation to Technical Standards. This paper will address some of these Systems Engineering Lessons Learned and how they are being related to Technical Standards within the NASA Technical Standards Program, including linking to the Agency's Interactive Engineering Discipline Training Courses and the life cycle for a flight vehicle development program.

  2. Engineering rheology

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a guide, with some illustrations, to the behavior or non-Newtonian fluids in engineering. The book is centered around kinematics: that there is a great interplay of the microscopic variables relevant to a non-Newtonian fluid and the stresses developed in a given large-scale kinematic field. The text starts with surveys of some typical non-Newtonian behavior and of classical continuum mechanics and this is followed by a description of the two main kinematic fields - shearing and extensional flows. Recommendations are made for the choice of constitutive relation for various problems - kinematics is the main factor in the choice of equation.

  3. Co-crystal engineering: a novel method to obtain one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanocrystals of corannulene-fullerene by a solution process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Yang; Zhu, Weigang; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Xiaotao; Li, Rongjin; Zhen, Yonggang; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2016-08-11

    In this study, 1D nanocrystals composed of C60 and corannulene were synthesized efficiently through cocrystallization by a solution process. These 1D nanocrystals display high electron transport characteristics of up to 0.11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and good photoresponse of 0.09 A W(-1), indicating their potential applications in optoelectronics. The results suggest that co-crystal engineering provides a novel strategy for the rational design of new carbon-based crystalline nanomaterials. PMID:27480136

  4. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Norman

    1988-01-01

    The goals of the Software Engineering Institute's Education Program are as follows: to increase the number of highly qualified software engineers--new software engineers and existing practitioners; and to be the leading center of expertise for software engineering education and training. A discussion of these goals is presented in vugraph form.

  5. Turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, D.

    1988-02-16

    In a turbine propulsion engine, an elongated motor is described including a power means and having a drive shaft projecting therefrom. A first compressor includes an elongated rotatable first casing coaxially mounted upon the motor having a fuel inlet for pressure feeding of fuel lengthwise of the first compressor. A second compressor includes a casing coaxially mounted upon and along the first compressor casing secured to the motor having an air inlet at its forward end for feeding high velocity compressed air lengthwise of the second compressor casing. An intermediate diverging casing at one end is peripherally connected to the second compressor casing having inner and outer diffusor chambers communicating respectively with the compressor for receiving high velocity vaporized fuel and compressed air. A turbine casing at one end is peripherally connected to the intermediate casing and at its other end having a converging exhaust outlet. An elongated combustion chamber of circular cross-section rotatably mounted and spaced within and journaled upon the turbine casing; an engine shaft extending axially through the combustion chamber, journaled upon the turbine casing and axially connected to the drive shaft.

  6. Radial engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kmicikiewicz, M.A.

    1988-03-01

    A radial engine is described comprising: a housing; equally spaced openings disposed in ring-like arrangement on the periphery of the housing; a piston and cylinder arrangement in each of the opening, a piston rod for each arrangement fixed to and extending radially inwardly from its respective piston and through its respective opening; shoe means pivotally attached at the other end of each of the piston rod; radial guide means extending in the housing in line with each of the piston rods, and the shoe means provided with guide means followers to ensure radial reciprocal movement of the piston rods and shoe means; and a connecting ring journaled on a crankshaft for circular translation motion in the housing, the ring including a circular rim. Each shoe means includes an arcuate follower member being slidably connected to the rim of the connecting ring.

  7. How Engineers Engineer: Lessons from My First Big Engineering Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2008-01-01

    Little did the author realize how much his first engineering project would change his career path, but when it came, he was hooked forever on doing R&D-type engineering. In this article, the author takes the reader back to his first really important electrical engineering project. While the technology he worked on back then is antiquated by…

  8. The responsibilities of engineers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  9. Potassium [(1S)-1-azido-2-phenyl­eth­yl]trifluorido­borate

    PubMed Central

    Lejon, Tore; Gorovoy, Alexey S.; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, K+·C8H8BF3N3 −, is a salt containing the chiral organic trifluorido­borate anion. The organic anions and potassium cations are tightly bound to each other by the coordination K—F [2.654 (3)–3.102 (3) Å] and K—N [2.951 (4)–3.338 (4) Å] inter­actions. Thus, the potassium cation adopts a nine-vertex coordination polyhedron, which can be described as a distorted monocapped tetra­gonal anti­prism. In the crystal, the organic anions and potassium cations form layers parallel to (001). Weak C—H⋯π inter­actions between neighbouring phenyl rings further stabilize the crystal. PMID:22904724

  10. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, Evan

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  11. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  12. Engineering Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Srivatsan; Taylor, Noah; Genuth, Naomi; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric proteins have great potential in synthetic biology, but our limited understanding of the molecular underpinnings of allostery has hindered the development of designer molecules, including transcription factors with new DNA-binding or ligand-binding specificities that respond appropriately to inducers. Such allosteric proteins could function as novel switches in complex circuits, metabolite sensors, or orthogonal regulators for independent, inducible control of multiple genes. Advances in DNA synthesis and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the assessment of millions of mutants in a single experiment, providing new opportunities to study allostery. Using the classic LacI protein as an example, we describe a genetic selection system using a bidirectional reporter to capture mutants in both allosteric states, allowing the positions most critical for allostery to be identified. This approach is not limited to bacterial transcription factors, and could reveal new mechanistic insights and facilitate engineering of other major classes of allosteric proteins such as nuclear receptors, two-component systems, G-protein coupled receptors and protein kinases. PMID:25306102

  13. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Z.

    1990-08-28

    This paper discusses an engine. It comprises a cylinder block; cylinders contained in the cylinder block; matching pistons, each piston reciprocatingly received in one of the cylinders; matching piston rods, each rod connected to one of the pistons and extending outwardly from the block; sheave gears, each sheave gear having a sheave gear axis and a circumference disposed about the sheave gear axis bearing a set of gear teeth thereon; means connecting a respective one of the sheave gears to a respective one of the pistons rods such that reciprocation of the pistons in the cylinders causes rotation of the sheave gears about the sheave gears axes; a combination flywheel/ring gear having a ring gear axis and an outer circumference disposed about the axis bearing a set of ring gear teeth thereon; and means positioning the flywheel/ring gear such that the gear teeth on the flywheel/ring gear engaged the gear teeth on the sheave gears. The flywheel/ring gear is rotated about by its axis by rotation of the sheave gears upon reciprocation of the pistons in the cylinders.

  14. Ingenieur Better than Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aracil, Jose-L. Juan

    1988-01-01

    Describes reforms of university engineering education in Spain and suggests these reforms as guidelines for the training of European Engineers. Discusses the cyclic approach whereby an engineer acquires generalized "formation" via specialization. States that cultural differences should be respected. (CW)

  15. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  16. Re-Engineering the Engineering Degree Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Rodney

    Students enrolled to degree programs in 1997 will become the first graduates of the 21st century. Engineering courses in the School of Engineering at Leeds Metropolitan University have changed immensely in the last two years, so as to support new markets. Disciplines such as industrial engineering, electronics and computing have enjoyed their…

  17. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to explore the emerging field of software engineering from a variety of perspectives: university programs; industry training and definition; government development; and technology transfer. In doing this, the panel will address the issues of distinctions among software engineering, computer science, and computer hardware engineering as they relate to the challenges of large, complex systems.

  18. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  19. Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Tani Performs EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Tani (top center), Expedition 16 flight engineer, participates in the second of five scheduled sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continues on the International Space Station (ISS). During the 6-hour and 33-minute space walk, Tani and STS-120 mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), worked in tandem to disconnect cables from the P6 truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Tani also visually inspected the station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and gathered samples of 'shavings' he found under the joint's multilayer insulation covers. The space walkers also outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. The moon is visible at lower center. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007.

  20. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  1. Genome scale engineering techniques for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongming; Bassalo, Marcelo C; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has expanded from a focus on designs requiring a small number of genetic modifications to increasingly complex designs driven by advances in genome-scale engineering technologies. Metabolic engineering has been generally defined by the use of iterative cycles of rational genome modifications, strain analysis and characterization, and a synthesis step that fuels additional hypothesis generation. This cycle mirrors the Design-Build-Test-Learn cycle followed throughout various engineering fields that has recently become a defining aspect of synthetic biology. This review will attempt to summarize recent genome-scale design, build, test, and learn technologies and relate their use to a range of metabolic engineering applications.

  2. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  3. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned and technical standards. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. Systems Engineering has been defined (EINIS-632) as "an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and life-cycle balanced set of system people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs". Designing reliable space-based systems has always been a goal for NASA, and many painful lessons have been learned along the way. One of the continuing functions of a system engineer is to compile development and operations "lessons learned" documents and ensure their integration into future systems development activities. They can produce insights and information for risk identification identification and characterization. on a new project. Lessons learned files from previous projects are especially valuable in risk

  4. Exo-Skeletal Engine: Novel Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2004-01-01

    The exo-skeletal engine concept represents a new radical engine technology with the potential to substantially revolutionize engine design. It is an all-composite drum-rotor engine in which conventionally heavy shafts and discs are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Thus the rotating blades are in compression rather than tension. The resulting open channel at the engine centerline has immense potential for jet noise reduction and can also accommodate an inner combined-cycle thruster such as a ramjet. The exo-skeletal engine is described in some detail with respect to geometry, components, and potential benefits. Initial evaluations and results for drum rotors, bearings, and weights are summarized. Component configuration, assembly plan, and potential fabrication processes are also identified. A finite element model of the assembled engine and its major components is described. Preliminary results obtained thus far show at least a 30-percent reduction of engine weight and about a 10-dB noise reduction, compared with a baseline conventional high-bypass-ratio engine. Potential benefits in all aspects of this engine technology are identified and tabulated. Quantitative assessments of potential benefits are in progress.

  5. Use of a Genetically Engineered Protein for the Design of a Multivalent MRI Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Karfeld, Lindsay S.; Bull, Steve R.; Davis, Nicolynn E.; Meade, Thomas J.; Barron, Annelise E.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of clinically used contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging have low relaxivities and thus require high concentrations for signal enhancement. Research has turned to multivalent, macromolecular CAs to increase CA efficiency. However, previously developed macromolecular CAs do not provide high relaxivities, have limited biocompatibility, and/or do not have a structure that is readily modifiable to tailor to particular applications. We report a new family of multivalent, biomacromolecular, genetically engineered protein polymer-based CAs; the protein backbone contains evenly spaced lysines that are derivatized with gadolinium (Gd(III)) chelators. The protein's length and repeating amino acid sequence are genetically specified. We reproducibly obtained conjugates with an average of 8 – 9 Gd(III) chelators per protein. These multivalent CAs reproducibly provide a high relaxivity of 7.3 mM-1s-1 per Gd(III) and 62.6 mM-1s-1 per molecule. Furthermore, they can be incorporated into biomaterial hydrogels via chemical crosslinking of remaining free lysines, and provide a dramatic contrast enhancement. Thus, these protein polymer CAs could be a useful tool for following the evolution of tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:17927227

  6. Space Transportation Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

  7. Software Engineering Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  8. Biomedical engineering education through global engineering teams.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, C; Blanckenberg, M; Garth-Davis, B; Eisenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    Most industrial projects require a team of engineers from a variety of disciplines. The team members are often culturally diverse and geographically dispersed. Many students do not acquire sufficient skills from typical university courses to function efficiently in such an environment. The Global Engineering Teams (GET) programme was designed to prepare students such a scenario in industry. This paper discusses five biomedical engineering themed projects completed by GET students. The benefits and success of the programme in educating students in the field of biomedical engineering are discussed.

  9. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  10. Teaching Engineering Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-03-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be disregarded safely if the practices of engineering are better articulated and modeled through student engagement in engineering projects. A clearer distinction between science and engineering practices is outlined, and prior research is described that suggests that precollege engineering design can strengthen children's understandings about scientific concepts. However, a piecemeal approach to teaching engineering practices is unlikely to result in students understanding engineering as a discipline. The implications for science teacher education are supplemented with lessons learned from a number of engineering education professional development projects.

  11. Interface Engineering of Organic Thin Film Transistors with Self-assembled Organophosphonic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Danqing

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) are interface devices with their performance highly dependent on the interface between organic semiconductors and gate dielectrics no matter whether the organic semiconductors are processed by vacuum deposition or solution-based methods. Detailed in this thesis are studies of interface engineering for OTFTs with self-assembled organophosphonic acids, which play important roles in tuning the properties of the dielectric surface for high-performance OTFTs. The poor crystallinity of rubrene in conventional vacuum deposited films is a well-known obstacle limiting practical applications of rubrene in thin film transistors. As described in Chapter 2, a template layer of diazapentacene (DAP) is introduced to induce crystallization of rubrene in thin film transistors. This study demonstrates that DAP is a suitable template molecule with negligible contribution to the conduction channel leading to polycrystalline thin films of rubrene with field effect mobility as high as 0.68 cm2 V --1 s--1. This induced-crystallization strategy highly depends on a unique octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) bilayer-step surface, which plays important roles in controlling the growth of both DAP and rubrene. In solution-processed OTFTs, one key factor that affects the nucleation and growth of semiconductor molecules during solution-based processing is the wetting behavior of the semiconductor solution on the dielectric surface. Reported in Chapter 3 is a new strategy for preparing solution-processed OTFTs based on enhancing the surface energy of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by inserting polar oxygen atoms into the long alkyl chain of phosphonic acids. SAMs of these phosphonic acids on a high-k metal oxide layer of AlOy /TiOx lead to solution-processed n-channel OTFTs with high field effect mobility of up to 2.5 cm2 V--1 s--1 and low operational voltage. Chapter 4 puts forth a new design of SAMs for interface engineering of high-performance OTFTs. This

  12. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  13. The Phillips Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Stirling engine and its development from the heavy cast-iron machine of the 19th century to that of today. It is a history of a research effort spanning nearly 50 years, together with an outline of principles, and some technical details and descriptions of the more important engines. Contents include: the hot-air engine; the 20th-century revival; the Stirling cycle; rhombic-drive engines; heating and cooling; pistons and seals; electric generators and heat pumps; exotic heat sources; the engine and the environment; swashplate engines; and the past and the future.

  14. Service Cart For Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  15. Engineering and Engineering Technology Degrees, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The number of B.S., M.S./P.E., and Ph.D. degrees in engineering and engineering technology awarded by U.S. colleges and universities is tabulated according to the following criteria: by state, by school, curriculum, type of recipient, and by school and degree level. (KR)

  16. Engineering Ethics in the Subject of Engineering History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isohata, Hiroshi

    Engineering ethics has been focused in the field of engineering education since the introduction of accreditation system of engineering education. In this paper, contents of the subject of engineering history are examined and discussed from the viewpoints of education of engineering ethics through a practical case of civil engineering history in a college. For the first step, codes of engineering ethics regulated in various engineering organizations are analyzed and the common contents are extracted to set the requirements for the education of engineering ethics. Then contents of the subject of engineering history are examined according to the requirements. Finally, conditions of engineering history for engineering ethics are discussed.

  17. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  18. Carburetion in aviation engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    POINCARE

    1923-01-01

    This report tries to solve the problem of supplying the engine cylinders with a mixture of fuel and air in the right ratio to obtain the greatest power from the engine with the least consumption of fuel.

  19. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  20. Twin engine synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kobus, J.R.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes an apparatus for synchronizing the speeds of two engines, each having its own throttle level connected by an associated cable to a respective hand throttle lever, comprising moving means carried by the throttle lever of one of the engines for moving the throttle lever of the one engine independently of its associated cable and its respective hand throttle lever to increase or decrease the speed of the one engine until the speed of the one engine matches the speed of the other engine. The moving means moves the throttle lever of the one engine without moving its associated cable or its respective hand throttle lever, and actuating means mounted remote from the throttle lever of the one engine for actuating the moving means.

  1. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  2. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, J. E.; Ollis, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a biochemical engineering course that is offered as part of a chemical engineering curriculum and includes topics that influence the behavior of man-made or natural microbial or enzyme reactors. (MLH)

  3. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  4. Structural Engineering: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation presents the work of the Structural Engineering Division of the Engineering Directorate. The work includes: providing technical expertise and leadership for the development, evaluation, and operation of structural, mechanical, and thermal spaceflight systems.

  5. Siege engine dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2005-07-01

    The medieval siege engine is a historically important machine that has latterly been adopted for the purpose of physics instruction. Here we analyse the historical developments and show why these engines ultimately evolved into the highly efficient trebuchet.

  6. Rotorcraft convertible engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Mar, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Rotorcraft Convertible Engine Study was to define future research and technology effort required for commercial development by 1988 of convertible fan/shaft gas turbine engines for unconventional rotorcraft transports. Two rotorcraft and their respective missions were defined: a Fold Tilt Rotor aircraft and an Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) rotorcraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted with these rotorcraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size, mission fuel requirements, and direct operating costs (DOC). The two rotorcraft were flown with conventional propulsion systems (separate lift/cruise engines) and with convertible propulsion systems to determine the benefits to be derived from convertible engines. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine the optimum engine cycle and staging arrangement for a convertible engine. Advanced technology options applicable to convertible engines were studied. Research and technology programs were identified which would ensure technology readiness for commercial development of convertible engines by 1988.

  7. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  8. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  9. Data management in engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    An introduction to computer based data management is presented with an orientation toward the needs of engineering application. The characteristics and structure of data management systems are discussed. A link to familiar engineering applications of computing is established through a discussion of data structure and data access procedures. An example data management system for a hypothetical engineering application is presented.

  10. Engineering for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela S.; Lovelidge, Sarah; Bowling, Erin

    2010-01-01

    As calls for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education at the elementary level become more vociferous, elementary teachers may be wondering whether engineering is meant for "all" students. However, the authors assert that engineering can be taught in inclusive environments. It may be especially empowering for those who…

  11. Personality Characteristics of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Henk T.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Kruisman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the personality characteristics of a group of engineers with a variety of years of experience. It was executed to remedy shortcomings of the literature concerning this issue and to produce suggestions for a postgraduate training programme for engineers. A total of 103 engineers were tested with…

  12. Graduate Engineering Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Joseph M.; Gere, James M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes rapid growth of graduate education in engineering between 1900 and 1969. Points out need for graduate curricula in engineering that are both practical and research-oriented. Adapted from paper presented at International Conference on the Trends in the Teaching and Training of Engineers, Paris, France, December 9-13, 1968, and at Second…

  13. Principles of Naval Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of shipboard machinery, equipment, and engineering plants are presented in this text prepared for engineering officers. A general description is included of the development of naval ships, ship design and construction, stability and buoyancy, and damage and casualty control. Engineering theories are explained on the background of ship…

  14. Humanities in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruprecht, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that engineers contribute tremendously to the changing face of the earth, and the ever more urgent call for languages, management, and law competencies for engineers is an expression of the need for a grounding in humanities. Discusses the role of humanities in engineering education in the context of world economics and the role of…

  15. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  16. 21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for Tod tandem compound engine' showing compressor. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  17. 20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for the Tod tandem compound engine' showing crank end. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  18. Solar powered Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-11-24

    In a solar dish module which comprises a dish which receives incident solar rays and reflects them to a focus at which is located the combination of a receiver and a heat engine organized and arranged so that the heat energy of the reflected solar rays collected at the receiver powers the engine, and wherein the receiver and heat engine are supported from the dish by a framework, the improvement is described which comprises journal means for journaling at least the engine on the framework to maintain certain predetermined spatial orientation for the engine in relation to the direction of gravity irrespective of spatial orientation of the dish.

  19. CF 6 engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricklin, R.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the activities which led to defining deterioration rates of the CF6 family of engines, a description of what was learned, and an identification of means of conserving fuel based upon the program findings are presented. The program to define the deterioration levels and modes for the CF6 family of engines involved four distinct phases: analysis of inbound engine test results, analysis of airline cruise data, analysis of airline test cell data resulting from testing of refurbished engines, and inspection of engine hardware.

  20. Diesel engine combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Diesel Engine Combustion Processes guides the engineer and research technician toward engine designs which will give the ``best payoff`` in terms of emissions and fuel economy. Contents include: Three-dimensional modeling of soot and NO in a direct-injection diesel engine; Prechamber for lean burn for low NOx; Modeling and identification of a diesel combustion process with the downhill gradient search method; The droplet group micro-explosions in W/O diesel fuel emulsion sprays; Combustion process of diesel spray in high temperature air; Combustion process of diesel engines at regions with different altitude; and more.

  1. Diagnosing diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that problems with diesel engines that have reciprocating parts have long defied a systematic approach to analysis. Engine phenomena such as combustion pressures, valve seating impacts, and piston vibrations reflect directly on how an engine is performing and would be useful to measure. However, these occur inside an engine block and for the most part are not possible to measure directly with sensors. Diesel engine manufacturers are finding new ways to troubleshoot machinery by using sophisticated signal-processing techniques that detect combustion anomalies and high-speed data-acquisition units that sample multiple measurement parameters.

  2. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  3. Engineering salaries up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnings of engineers in the United States kept pace with inflation, according to a recent salary survey by the Engineering Manpower Commission of the American Association of Engineering Societies (AAES). Salaries and the consumer price index each rose 7.7% for the 12-month period ending February 1 of this year. The national average salary for engineers is now $34,400, the survey results show. The highest percentage increases in salaries were in the mechanical and chemical engineering industries, with jumps of 10.0 and 9.5%, respectively.

  4. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  5. Engineered phages for electronics.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  6. Stirling engine application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  7. Perceptions regarding biomedical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James E.

    1995-10-01

    Perceptions of biomedical engineering are important because they can influence private and public decisions on R&D funding and public policy. A survey was conducted of a group of persons active in biomedical engineering research in an attempt to determine the perceptions of the general public and of the biomedical community regarding biomedical engineering. The public is believed to have 'a little' knowledge of biomedical engineering, and to have a wide range of opinions on what biomedical engineers do. The survey respondents believe they are in general agreement with the public on several questions regarding biomedical engineering. However, the public is believed to be more inclined than workers in the field to think that biomedical engineering increases the cost of health care, and to be less supportive of increased R&D funding for health care technology.

  8. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  9. Institute for Mechanical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Institute of Mechanical Engineering has the objectives of supporting in Canada the following activities: improvement of vehicles, propulsion systems, and transportation-related facilities and services; improvements in the design and operation of maritime engineering works; protection of the environment; enhancement of energy flexibility; advancement of firms engaged in manufacturing and resource extraction; and related programs of other government departments and agencies. In 1990-91 the Institute, which had changed its name that year from the Division of Mechanical Engineering, consolidated its research activities from nine laboratories to six programs. Activities in these six programs are described: Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Coastal Zone Engineering, Cold Regions Engineering, Combustion and Fluids Engineering, Ground Transportation Technology, and Machinery and Engine Technology.

  10. Senior Engineer - Head of Paranal Engineering Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose and scope of the position: The role of the Paranal Engineering Department is to carry out the assembly, integration and troubleshooting of the VLT (Very Large Telescope), the instrumentation of the VLT and of the VLTI (VLT Interferometry), of the VST (VLT Survey Telescope), VISTA (Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope), of all the facilities required on the Observatory (Power Station, Air Compressors, Chillers, etc), and to provide general engineering support of maintenance, troubleshooting and fault repair to nightly operations.

  11. Mechanical Engineering Department technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.B.; Abrahamson, L.; Denney, R.M.; Dubois, B.E

    1982-01-01

    Technical achievements and publication abstracts related to research in the following Divisions of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reported in this biannual review: Nuclear Fuel Engineering; Nuclear Explosives Engineering; Weapons Engineering; Energy Systems Engineering; Engineering Sciences; Magnetic Fusion Engineering; and Material Fabrication. (LCL)

  12. A Powerful New Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from NASA's Glenn Research Center, Moller International created a new coating for rotary engines, which significantly improves the fuel consumption of a vehicle while reducing emissions. The new coatings are offered in the new Rotapower(R) engine, which is produced and distributed by Moller subsidiary, Freedom Motors, Inc. The coating allows the Rotapower engine to function smoother than other models, reducing wear and protecting the engine. The Rotapower engine has the ability to operate on a variety of fuels, including gasoline, natural gas, diesel, alcohol, and kerosene. A small and lightweight engine, it is projected to replace many of today's bulkier versions. The 10 horsepower model fits in the palm of one's hand, while the 160 horsepower model fits into a 5-gallon bucket. The clean running Rotapower engine is environmentally appealing, because it eliminates over 98 percent of the total emissions given off by traditional piston engines. Fewer pollutants are spewed into the air, making it especially attractive in areas where air pollution is a major problem. Due to the clean-burning nature of the engine, it meets the stringent standards set by the California Air Resources Board. The engine also has numerous commercial benefits in several types of recreational, industrial, and transportation applications, including personal watercraft, snowmobiles, portable generators. and pumps.

  13. Microfluidics and microbial engineering.

    PubMed

    Kou, Songzi; Cheng, Danhui; Sun, Fei; Hsing, I-Ming

    2016-02-01

    The combination of microbial engineering and microfluidics is synergistic in nature. For example, microfluidics is benefiting from the outcome of microbial engineering and many reported point-of-care microfluidic devices employ engineered microbes as functional parts for the microsystems. In addition, microbial engineering is facilitated by various microfluidic techniques, due to their inherent strength in high-throughput screening and miniaturization. In this review article, we firstly examine the applications of engineered microbes for toxicity detection, biosensing, and motion generation in microfluidic platforms. Secondly, we look into how microfluidic technologies facilitate the upstream and downstream processes of microbial engineering, including DNA recombination, transformation, target microbe selection, mutant characterization, and microbial function analysis. Thirdly, we highlight an emerging concept in microbial engineering, namely, microbial consortium engineering, where the behavior of a multicultural microbial community rather than that of a single cell/species is delineated. Integrating the disciplines of microfluidics and microbial engineering opens up many new opportunities, for example in diagnostics, engineering of microbial motors, development of portable devices for genetics, high throughput characterization of genetic mutants, isolation and identification of rare/unculturable microbial species, single-cell analysis with high spatio-temporal resolution, and exploration of natural microbial communities.

  14. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  15. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2006-05-09

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  16. Advanced rotary engine studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1980-01-01

    A review of rotary engine developments relevant to a stratified charge rotary aircraft engine is presented. Advantages in module size and weight, fuel efficiency, reliability, and multi-fuel capability are discussed along with developments in turbocharging, increased mean effective pressure, improved apex seal/trochoid wear surfacing materials, and high strength and temperature aluminum casting alloys. A carbureted prototype aircraft engine is also described.

  17. Piston engine configuration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a technological assessment of alternate engine component configuration and material alternatives. It includes a comparative analysis of key characteristics of Gasoline, Diesel and Gas Turbine engines built by Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suburu, Suzuki and Toyota. The piston engines range from two to ten cylinders with inline, vee and opposed configurations. Furthermore, additional special features and alternative choices include variable compression ratio, ceramic structural components, supercharger, turbocharger, twin turbocharger, supercharger-turbocharger combined and the regenerative gas turbine.

  18. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  19. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  20. Rotary engine cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  1. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  2. SOFIA Engineer Thomas Keilig

    NASA Video Gallery

    Thomas Keilig, the German Aerospace Agency's (DLR) chief telescope engineer for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), comments on technical details of the high-tech primary ...

  3. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  4. Engineering of Secondary Metabolism.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Secondary (specialized) metabolites, produced by bacteria, fungi, plants, and other organisms, exhibit enormous structural variation, and consequently display a wide range of biological activities. Secondary metabolism improves and modulates the phenotype of the host producer. Furthermore, these biological activities have resulted in the use of secondary metabolites in a variety of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Metabolic engineering presents a powerful strategy to improve access to these valuable molecules. A critical overview of engineering approaches in secondary metabolism is presented, both in heterologous and native hosts. The recognition of the increasing role of compartmentalization in metabolic engineering is highlighted. Engineering approaches to modify the structure of key secondary metabolite classes are also critically evaluated.

  5. Product engineering guide

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, C.E.

    1989-12-01

    The semiconductor product engineers job requires knowledge and expertise related to many different subjects. This report provides guidance for newcomers to product engineering and is a consise reference for all others involved in product engineering. Subjects addressed are Customer/Supplier interactions, component development sequence, production schedule support, component characterization, product specifications, test equipment requirements, product qualification, characterization and development reports, preferred parts list, standard packaging, and finally, classification and security considerations. This guide is intended to help standardize and simplify the component development sequence presently used in the semiconductor product engineering department. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Engine and method for operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh; Gong, Weidong

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  7. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  8. Students' Changing Images of Engineering and Engineers. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocuns, Andrew; Stevens, Reed; Garrison, Lari; Amos, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the images of engineers and engineering that students construct over the course of their undergraduate engineering educations. Students in their first year of study to become engineers knew very little about the work they would be doing as an engineer and their expectations were more specific, hopeful, and high status than…

  9. NASA Engineering Network (NEN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria; Trevarthen, Ellie; Yew, Manson

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA Engineering Network (NEN). NEN is designed to search documents over multiple repositories, submit and browse NASA Lessons Learned, collaborate and share ideas with other engineers via communities of practice, access resources from one portal, and find subject matter experts via the People, Organizations, Projects, Skills (POPS) locator.

  10. The Engineering Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    Occupational and educational information concerning 12 categories of engineering technicians and engineering technology is presented. This information covers the role of the technicians, student qualifications, typical job titles, and typical educational programs. The categories presented are (1) air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, (2)…

  11. Science & Engineering Indicators--1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    This volume was written to reflect an increased awareness of the complementary roles played by science and engineering research and engineering in creating both new knowledge and new technological products and processes. It was designed to provide a broad base of quantitative information about the structure and function of science and technology…

  12. Engineering Design Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2004-01-01

    In the author's opinion, the separation of content between science, math, engineering, and technology education should not exist. Working with the relationship between these content areas enhances students' efforts to learn about the physical world. In teaching students about design, technology, and engineering, attention should be given to the…

  13. Make Room for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesdorfer, Sarah; Greenhalgh, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) urge science teachers to include engineering practices and ideas in their already full science curriculum, but many teachers do not know where to start. Only 7% of high school science teachers report feeling "very well prepared" to teach engineering. The…

  14. Knowledge Engineering and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Donlon, James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses knowledge engineering, computer software, and possible applications in the field of education. Highlights include the distinctions between data, information, and knowledge; knowledge engineering as a subfield of artificial intelligence; knowledge acquisition; data mining; ontology development for subject terms; cognitive apprentices; and…

  15. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  16. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Steven L.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use gas inertia and compressibility to eliminate many of the mechanical contrivances required by traditional engines and refrigerators while providing potentially attractive options that might reduce environmental impacts. The operation of both standing-wave and traveling-wave devices will be described and illustrated with thermoacoustic devices that have been used outside the laboratory.

  17. Concurrent Software Engineering Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankovic, Nenad; Tillo, Tammam

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent engineering or overlapping activities is a business strategy for schedule compression on large development projects. Design parameters and tasks from every aspect of a product's development process and their interdependencies are overlapped and worked on in parallel. Concurrent engineering suffers from negative effects such as excessive…

  18. Engine monitoring display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Mary E.

    1992-01-01

    The current study is part of a larger NASA effort to develop displays for an engine-monitoring system to enable the crew to monitor engine parameter trends more effectively. The objective was to evaluate the operational utility of adding three types of information to the basic Boeing Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) display formats: alphanumeric alerting messages for engine parameters whose values exceed caution or warning limits; alphanumeric messages to monitor engine parameters that deviate from expected values; and a graphic depiction of the range of expected values for current conditions. Ten training and line pilots each flew 15 simulated flight scenarios with five variants of the basic EICAS format; these variants included different combinations of the added information. The pilots detected engine problems more quickly when engine alerting messages were included in the display; adding a graphic depiction of the range of expected values did not affect detection speed. The pilots rated both types of alphanumeric messages (alert and monitor parameter) as more useful and easier to interpret than the graphic depiction. Integrating engine parameter messages into the EICAS alerting system appears to be both useful and preferred.

  19. Think Engineer, Think Male?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, Sally A.; Bush, Mark B.; Murray, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Engineering education needs to develop the competencies required for engineering work, and attract and retain students from diverse backgrounds. This study investigated the possibility that the perceived importance of competencies is subconsciously influenced by gendered assumptions, and as a consequence, this lowers the status given to…

  20. Free piston stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a basic introduction to free piston Stirling engine technology through a review of specialized background material. It also includes information based on actual construction and operation experience with these machines, as well as theoretical and analytical insights into free piston Stirling engine technology.

  1. Stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  2. First-Grade Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Peters, Kari Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Can students build a house that is cost effective and strong enough to survive strong winds, heavy rains, and earthquakes? First graders in Ms. Peter's classroom worked like engineers to answer this question. They participated in a design challenge that required them to plan like engineers and build strong and cost-effective houses that would fit…

  3. Family Style Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Lara K.; Schumaker, Joan Chadde; Goldfien, Wendy Severin; Nelson, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Cunningham and Lachapelle (2011) found that most students have a naive understanding of the field of engineering, mistaking it for the work of technicians or artisans and neglecting to see the contributions engineers make to people's daily lives. In general, public (and teacher) understanding is not much more refined. These misconceptions about…

  4. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  5. Stirling engine design manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve both as an introduction to Stirling engine analysis methods and as a key to the open literature on Stirling engines. Over 800 references are listed and these are cross referenced by date of publication, author and subject. Engine analysis is treated starting from elementary principles and working through cycles analysis. Analysis methodologies are classified as first, second or third order depending upon degree of complexity and probable application; first order for preliminary engine studies, second order for performance prediction and engine optimization, and third order for detailed hardware evaluation and engine research. A few comparisons between theory and experiment are made. A second order design procedure is documented step by step with calculation sheets and a worked out example to follow. Current high power engines are briefly described and a directory of companies and individuals who are active in Stirling engine development is included. Much remains to be done. Some of the more complicated and potentially very useful design procedures are now only referred to. Future support will enable a more thorough job of comparing all available design procedures against experimental data which should soon be available.

  6. Engineering Technology Curriculum Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes curriculum guidelines for the following engineering technologies: chemical, industrial, mining, petroleum, nuclear, civil, mechanical, electrical, automotive, and manufacturing. In a few years, these Engineering Council for Professional Development committee guidelines are intended to become the criteria by which programs will be judged…

  7. Teaching Engineering Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be…

  8. Courseware Engineering Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uden, Lorna

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of the Courseware Engineering Methodology (CEM), created to guide novices in designing effective courseware. Discusses CEM's four models: pedagogical (concerned with the courseware's pedagogical aspects), conceptual (dealing with software engineering), interface (relating to human-computer interaction), and hypermedia…

  9. SCSE organic Rankine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Boda, F.P.

    1981-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) engine is described which has been developed by FACC for the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE). This engine is part of a Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS) located at the focal plant of a sun-tracking parabolic dish concentrator.

  10. Ann Wagner, Mechanical Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Betsy K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a profile of Ann Wagner, a mechanical engineer at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, and her job responsibilities there. Also includes a brief history of mechanical engineering as well as a sample graph and data activity sheet with answers. (AIM)

  11. Biological handbook for engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Microbiological background information is compiled in handbook for engineers and scientists working on bio-related projects. It is intended as aid in - /1/ evaluating effects of engineering procedures on microbial life, /2/ determining effects of decontamination and sterilization on performance of overall systems, and /3/ understanding language of microbiologists.

  12. Mechanical Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train mechanical engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of mechanical engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard mechanical engineering…

  13. Development of bioreaction engineering.

    PubMed

    Schügerl, K

    2000-01-01

    In addition to summarizing the early investigations in bioreaction engineering, the present short review covers the development of the field in the last 50 years. A brief overview of the progress of the fundamentals is presented in the first part of this article and the key issues of bioreaction engineering are advanced in its second part.

  14. Searches Conducted for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Patricia

    This paper reports an industrial information specialist's experience in performing online searches for engineers and surveys the databases used. Engineers seeking assistance fall into three categories: (1) those who recognize the value of online retrieval; (2) referrals by colleagues; and (3) those who do not seek help. As more successful searches…

  15. Small Gas Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    Instructional materials are provided for a small gas engine course. A list of objectives appears first, followed by a list of internal parts and skills/competencies related to those parts for engine work, ignition and electrical systems, fuel system, crankcase lubrication system, arc welding skills, and gas welding skills. Outlines are provided…

  16. International Cooperation in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenbrock, F. Karl

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) into various relationships in engineering that the United States has with countries that have comparable or superior levels of technology. Discusses competition, cooperation, information flow, symmetry, language and cultural barriers, research opportunities, and professional…

  17. Computers in Engineering Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushby, N. J.

    This bibliography cites 26 books, papers, and reports dealing with various uses of computers in engineering education; and describes several computer programs available for use in teaching aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical and electronic, mechanical, and nuclear engineering. Each computer program entry is presented by name, author,…

  18. Engineering for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Higgins, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The new Next Generation Science Standards make it a priority for schools to focus more on the E in STEM, to help students learn the skills and practices of engineering. Schools that are doing so face a challenge, however: How to design educational experiences in engineering that engage all students--including girls and minorities, who are…

  19. Engineering Sustainable Engineers through the Undergraduate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherton, Yvette Pearson; Sattler, Melanie; Mattingly, Stephen; Chen, Victoria; Rogers, Jamie; Dennis, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the challenges of sustainable development, our approach to education must be modified to equip students to evaluate alternatives and devise solutions that meet multi-faceted requirements. In 2009, faculty in the Departments of Civil, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington began implementation…

  20. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  1. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  2. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  3. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  4. Adaptive Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, A E; Babajanyan, S G; Martirosyan, N H; Melkikh, A V

    2016-07-15

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where-due to feedback from the functional part-the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.

  5. Adaptive Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, A E; Babajanyan, S G; Martirosyan, N H; Melkikh, A V

    2016-07-15

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where-due to feedback from the functional part-the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment. PMID:27472104

  6. Holographic heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2014-10-01

    It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

  7. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  8. Adaptive Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Babajanyan, S. G.; Martirosyan, N. H.; Melkikh, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where—due to feedback from the functional part—the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.

  9. Engineering hydro's future

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    In this challenging hydropower market, hydropower engineering services are in high demand. The number of new hydropower projects entering the pipeline may have slowed in recent years but that does not mean work is not being done. Independent developers, utilities and municipalities are carrying out a considerable amount of hydropower activity. Whatever the work involves - preliminary planning, licensing and relicensing, environmental mitigation, plant rehabilitation or new-plant startup - engineering firms are finding a brisk market for their services. The complexity of the regulatory framework makes hydropower facility and other water resource work more important then ever. Executives of three engineering firms - Acres International, Harza Engineering and Black and Veatch - active in these areas discuss their views on the future of the hydropower engineering market.

  10. Engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2012-11-14

    Tissue engineering has emerged at the intersection of numerous disciplines to meet a global clinical need for technologies to promote the regeneration of functional living tissues and organs. The complexity of many tissues and organs, coupled with confounding factors that may be associated with the injury or disease underlying the need for repair, is a challenge to traditional engineering approaches. Biomaterials, cells, and other factors are needed to design these constructs, but not all tissues are created equal. Flat tissues (skin); tubular structures (urethra); hollow, nontubular, viscus organs (vagina); and complex solid organs (liver) all present unique challenges in tissue engineering. This review highlights advances in tissue engineering technologies to enable regeneration of complex tissues and organs and to discuss how such innovative, engineered tissues can affect the clinic.

  11. Elements of Engineering Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer

    2012-01-01

    The inspiration for this Contract Report (CR) originated in discussions with the director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering who asked that we investigate the question: "How do you achieve excellence in aerospace engineering?" Engineering a space system is a complex activity. Avoiding its inherent potential pitfalls and achieving a successful product is a challenge. This CR presents one approach to answering the question of how to achieve Engineering Excellence. We first investigated the root causes of NASA major failures as a basis for developing a proposed answer to the question of Excellence. The following discussions integrate a triad of Technical Understanding and Execution, Partnership with the Project, and Individual and Organizational Culture. The thesis is that you must focus on the whole process and its underlying culture, not just on the technical aspects. In addition to the engineering process, emphasis is given to the need and characteristics of a Learning Organization as a mechanism for changing the culture.

  12. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  13. Systems engineering management plans.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Tamara S.

    2009-10-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is a comprehensive and effective tool used to assist in the management of systems engineering efforts. It is intended to guide the work of all those involved in the project. The SEMP is comprised of three main sections: technical project planning and control, systems engineering process, and engineering specialty integration. The contents of each section must be tailored to the specific effort. A model outline and example SEMP are provided. The target audience is those who are familiar with the systems engineering approach and who have an interest in employing the SEMP as a tool for systems management. The goal of this document is to provide the reader with an appreciation for the use and importance of the SEMP, as well as provide a framework that can be used to create the management plan.

  14. Engineering Complex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  15. 19. Engine identified as a single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Engine identified as a single cylinder vacuum assist engine for the Filer and Stowell 15-inch continuous mill. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  16. 5. Engine room, general view looking east, engine #2 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Engine room, general view looking east, engine #2 in foreground (1895, now cannibalized for parts), engine #3 is in the background - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 1. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  18. 2. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTACORLISS CROSSCOMPOUND ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  19. Technician Career Opportunities in Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers' Council for Professional Development, New York, NY.

    Career opportunities for engineering technicians are available in the technologies relating to air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, aviation and aerospace, building construction, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial engineering, instrumentation, internal combustion engines, mechanical…

  20. E85 Optimized Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Stanley

    2011-12-31

    A 5.0L V8 twin-turbocharged direct injection engine was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of assessing the fuel economy and performance in the F-Series pickup of the Dual Fuel engine concept and of an E85 optimized FFV engine. Additionally, production 3.5L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) EcoBoost engines were converted to Dual Fuel capability and used to evaluate the cold start emissions and fuel system robustness of the Dual Fuel engine concept. Project objectives were: to develop a roadmap to demonstrate a minimized fuel economy penalty for an F-Series FFV truck with a highly boosted, high compression ratio spark ignition engine optimized to run with ethanol fuel blends up to E85; to reduce FTP 75 energy consumption by 15% - 20% compared to an equally powered vehicle with a current production gasoline engine; and to meet ULEV emissions, with a stretch target of ULEV II / Tier II Bin 4. All project objectives were met or exceeded.

  1. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  2. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient engine

  3. Dictionary of lighting engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, R.

    1989-01-01

    Distributors in the socialist countries, FRG, Switzerland and Austria: VEB Verlag Technik, Berlin, FRG Lighting engineering has developed progressively in all industrialized countries during the past few years. This development has been accompanied by a growing number of publications offering a flood of information and documentation in various languages, mainly in English, German, Russian, French and Japanese, and involving a more and more extensive and specific vocabulary. In this book, following fields are covered: fundamentals of lighting engineering; generation of light; measurement of light, radiation and color; lighting engineering and radiation detectors.

  4. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  5. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  6. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  7. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-06-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  8. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  9. Turbo compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Sekiyama, S.

    1988-06-07

    A turbo compound engine is described comprising: an engine having an exhaust gas passage and a crankshaft; a power turbine disposed in the exhaust gas passage so as to recover the exhaust gas energy; driving power transmission means for drivingly connecting the power turbine and the crankshaft so as to transmit the driving power; a fluid passage connected to a portion of the exhaust passage which lies between the power turbine and the engine; and fluid passage switching means for closing the exhaust passage upstream of the fluid passage while opening the fluid passage during exhaust braking.

  10. Test pilot and engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Goggles at the ready, this Langley test pilot and engineer conducted research business high above the ground. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 24). This photograph is also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 163). In the early years the flight research team was usually made up of a test pilot (Thomas Carroll, front cockpit) and an engineer (John W. Gus Crowley,Jr.).

  11. Improving Search Engine Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruthi, Jyoti; Kumar, Ela

    2010-11-01

    Search engines on the Internet are used daily to access and find information. While these services are providing an easy way to find information globally, they are also suffering from artificially created false results. This paper describes two techniques that are being used to manipulate the search engines: spam pages (used to achieve higher rankings on the result page) and cloaking (used to feed falsified data into search engines). This paper also describes two proposed methods to fight this kind of misuse, algorithms for both of the formerly mentioned cases of spamdexing.

  12. Tomorrow's engines and fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Douaud, A. )

    1995-02-01

    The paper discusses global views and trends in vehicles and fuels. This includes important progress in Europe in vehicle fuel consumption; lower consumption being stimulated by CO[sub 2] emission limits; reduced vehicle emission; and new air quality strategy on ozone and toxic gas controls. The paper then discusses new engine and fuel technologies for low consumption and emissions. These include three-way catalyst engines; advanced after-treatments; clean and efficient fuels; reformulated gasoline in the US and Europe; diesel fuel reformulation; new fuels and dedicated engines for specialized markets; and gaseous fuels (LPG, CNG, biofuels, and hydrogen).

  13. Principles of models based engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes a Models Based Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that models based engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, models based engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.

  14. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  15. Ethyl alcohol use in engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    This article evaluates the use of ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines. The basic properties of ethanol are examined together with how it performs in an engine. Both spark ignition engines and diesel engines were tested with ethanol. The physical and chemical characteristics of ethanol provided a better match with the gasoline engines, although ethanol could be used to supplement diesel fuel in diesel engines.

  16. Efficiency analysis of diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, E.G. ); Milanez, L.F. )

    1990-01-01

    Internal combustion engines are equipment that play an important role in the world's energy consumption. The choice of an appropriate engine for a given application depends on the adequate identification of the working conditions and the characteristics of the engines available. In this work correlation for the efficiency of an internal combustion engine as a function of the engine speed and torque is proposed. The correlation is used for comparing engine performance results obtained in dynamometer tests.

  17. Stennis certifies final shuttle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Steam blasts out of the A-2 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Oct. 22 as engineers begin a certification test on engine 2061, the last space shuttle main flight engine scheduled to be built. Since 1975, Stennis has tested every space shuttle main engine used in the program - about 50 engines in all. Those engines have powered more than 120 shuttle missions - and no mission has failed as a result of engine malfunction. For the remainder of 2008 and throughout 2009, Stennis will continue testing of various space shuttle main engine components.

  18. Wave rotor demonstrator engine assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the program was to determine a wave rotor demonstrator engine concept using the Allison 250 series engine. The results of the NASA LERC wave rotor effort were used as a basis for the wave rotor design. A wave rotor topped gas turbine engine was identified which incorporates five basic requirements of a successful demonstrator engine. Predicted performance maps of the wave rotor cycle were used along with maps of existing gas turbine hardware in a design point study. The effects of wave rotor topping on the engine cycle and the subsequent need to rematch compressor and turbine sections in the topped engine were addressed. Comparison of performance of the resulting engine is made on the basis of wave rotor topped engine versus an appropriate baseline engine using common shaft compressor hardware. The topped engine design clearly demonstrates an impressive improvement in shaft horsepower (+11.4%) and SFC (-22%). Off design part power engine performance for the wave rotor topped engine was similarly improved including that at engine idle conditions. Operation of the engine at off design was closely examined with wave rotor operation at less than design burner outlet temperatures and rotor speeds. Challenges identified in the development of a demonstrator engine are discussed. A preliminary design was made of the demonstrator engine including wave rotor to engine transition ducts. Program cost and schedule for a wave rotor demonstrator engine fabrication and test program were developed.

  19. PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT ENGINEERS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    The American Society of Civil Engineers views professional registration as an appropriate requirement for engineers, including those in government. The National Society of Professional Engineers makes registration a requirement for the grade of member and full privileges in the society. Some Federal agencies require engineering registration for certain positions in their agencies. Engineers in government service should consider the value of engineering registration to themselves and to their agencies and take pride in their professions and in their own capabilities by becoming registered engineers. They should also take steps to encourage their agencies to give more attention to engineering registration.

  20. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  1. J-2 Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Smokeless flame juts from the diffuser of a unique vacuum chamber in which the upper stage rocket engine, the hydrogen fueled J-2, was tested at a simulated space altitude in excess of 60,000 feet. The smoke you see is actually steam. In operation, vacuum is established by injecting steam into the chamber and is maintained by the thrust of the engine firing through the diffuser. The engine was tested in this environment for start, stop, coast, restart, and full-duration operations. The chamber was located at Rocketdyne's Propulsion Field Laboratory, in the Santa Susana Mountains, near Canoga Park, California. The J-2 engine was developed by Rocketdyne for the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  3. A sublimation heat engine.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary G; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-03-03

    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid-vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation.

  4. A sublimation heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Gary G.; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-03-01

    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid-vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation.

  5. To Teach Chemists Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbaum, Baruch; Semiat, Raphael

    1998-01-01

    Cites the shortcomings of the traditional educational experiences of chemists. Focuses on their training in engineering and concludes that training is lacking in the areas of mass balances in flow processes, heat balances, reactors, separation processes, and scaleup. (DDR)

  6. Functional cardiac tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Brian; Zhang, Donghui; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Heart attack remains the leading cause of death in both men and women worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies, including the use of engineered cardiac tissues, have the potential to treat the massive cell loss and pathological remodeling resulting from heart attack. Specifically, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are a promising source for generation of therapeutically relevant numbers of functional cardiomyocytes and engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro. This review will describe methodologies for successful differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards the cardiovascular cell lineages as they pertain to the field of cardiac tissue engineering. The emphasis will be placed on comparing the functional maturation in engineered cardiac tissues and developing heart and on methods to quantify cardiac electrical and mechanical function at different spatial scales. PMID:22397609

  7. Engineering Education on Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiura, Azusa

    The number of universities in Japan has increased to 709 schools by 2004, and it is expected that whoever wants to enter a university will be able to do so more easily from the 2007 academic year. A drawback of this situation, however, is the deterioration of the overall quality of incoming students. This development has been observed in engineering schools as well, unfortunately. In the 2004 academic year, undergraduate student enrollment surpassed 110,000. Meanwhile, Japanese corporations continue with their in-house career development training for new and current employees in order to strengthen corporate competitiveness and as a buffer or counter to the degradation of the quality of graduates. A notable feature of engineering schools is the diversification of departments. As almost half of graduate school courses were newly established, traditional engineering disciplines are in danger of collapsing. How engineering education should be revamped to meet with this crisis will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Tissue engineering: orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Laurencin, C T; Ambrosio, A M; Borden, M D; Cooper, J A

    1999-01-01

    Because of an aging population and increased occurrence of sports-related injuries, musculoskeletal disorders have become one of the major health concerns in the United States. Current treatments, although fairly successful, do not provide the optimum therapy. These treatments typically rely on donor tissues obtained either from the patient or from another source. The former raises the issue of supply, whereas the latter poses the risk of rejection and disease transfer. This has prompted orthopedic surgeons and scientists to look for viable alternatives. In recent years, tissue engineering has gained increasing support as a method to treat orthopedic disorders. Because it uses principles of engineering, biology, and chemistry, tissue engineering may provide a more effective approach to the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders than traditional methods. This chapter presents a review of current methods and new tissue-engineering techniques for the treatment of disorders affecting bone, ligament, and cartilage.

  9. Protein disulfide engineering.

    PubMed

    Dombkowski, Alan A; Sultana, Kazi Zakia; Craig, Douglas B

    2014-01-21

    Improving the stability of proteins is an important goal in many biomedical and industrial applications. A logical approach is to emulate stabilizing molecular interactions found in nature. Disulfide bonds are covalent interactions that provide substantial stability to many proteins and conform to well-defined geometric conformations, thus making them appealing candidates in protein engineering efforts. Disulfide engineering is the directed design of novel disulfide bonds into target proteins. This important biotechnological tool has achieved considerable success in a wide range of applications, yet the rules that govern the stabilizing effects of disulfide bonds are not fully characterized. Contrary to expectations, many designed disulfide bonds have resulted in decreased stability of the modified protein. We review progress in disulfide engineering, with an emphasis on the issue of stability and computational methods that facilitate engineering efforts.

  10. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  11. NASA Now: Engineering Spacesuits

    NASA Video Gallery

    Mallory Jennings, a Technology Development Engineer who develops components for the next-generation spacesuit, explains how the design for the spacesuit is dependent upon the mission that the astro...

  12. Hydrogen-fueled engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laumann, E. A.; Reynolds, R. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen fueled internal combustion engine is described, which utilizes an inert gas, such as argon, as a working fluid to increase the efficiency of the engine, eliminate pollution, and facilitate operation of a closed cycle energy system. In a system where sunlight or other intermittent energy source is available to separate hydrogen and oxygen from water, the oxygen and inert gas are taken into a diesel engine into which hydrogen is injected and ignited. The exhaust is cooled so that it contains only water and the inert gas. The inert gas in the exhaust is returned to the engine for use with fresh oxygen, while the water in the exhaust is returned to the intermittent energy source for reconversion to hydrogen and oxygen.

  13. Engineering Capabilities and Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulos, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the engineering capabilities at Johnson Space Center, The presentation also reviews the partnerships that have resulted in successfully designed and developed projects that involved commercial and educational institutions.

  14. LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidelines for the implementation of LCE concepts, information, and techniques in engineering products, systems, processes, and facilities. To make this document as practical and useable as possible, a unifying LCE framework is presented. Subsequent topics ...

  15. Rocket engine numerical simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS) definition; objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusion.

  16. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  17. Web document engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1996-05-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

  18. Continuous detonation reaction engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, O. H.; Stein, R. J.; Tubbs, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Reaction engine operates on the principles of a controlled condensed detonation rather than on the principles of gas expansion. The detonation results in reaction products that are expelled at a much higher velocity.

  19. Tissue engineering in urology.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, C J; Kratz, G

    2001-05-01

    Techniques that are aimed at regeneration of human tissues and organs (tissue engineering) have recently entered into clinical practice. Tissue engineering is currently among the fastest growing areas in medicine, and involves the application of the principles of biology and engineering to the development of functional substitutes for damaged tissues. One of the main limitations of reconstructive surgery in the genitourinary tract is the lack of autologous tissue. This could be changed by the ability to cultivate the patient's own tissues in vitro, or by stimulating the cells in vivo into regeneration of new tissues. The present review discusses how tissue engineering can be used to regenerate some of the tissues of the genitourinary tract. Even though these methods have only recently been introduced clinically into genitourinary medicine, numerous scientific studies have been reported that indicate that these techniques may be of great importance in the near future.

  20. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prem V.

    1997-12-01

    Geophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, self-potential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, ground-probing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and geophysical borehole logging. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable textbook for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied geophysics, a supplementary course book for students of geology, engineering geophysics, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.

  1. Windmills for ramjet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, H.L.

    1983-01-18

    A solid fueled ramjet engine comprising solid fuel within a combustion chamber in the form of a hollow cylinder, and a windmill at the entrance to the hollow cylinder for promoting better distribution of the air, better mixing of the air and combustion gases, and more complete combustion of the solid fuel. The windmill is turned by the incoming airflow and can rotate a generator to provide a source of electrical power for the aircraft on which the engine is used.

  2. Stirling engine power control

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, James P.

    1983-01-01

    A power control method and apparatus for a Stirling engine including a valved duct connected to the junction of the regenerator and the cooler and running to a bypass chamber connected between the heater and the cylinder. An oscillating zone of demarcation between the hot and cold portions of the working gas is established in the bypass chamber, and the engine pistons and cylinders can run cold.

  3. Computer aided photographic engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixson, Jeffrey A.; Rieckhoff, Tom

    1988-01-01

    High speed photography is an excellent source of engineering data but only provides a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional event. Multiple cameras can be used to provide data for the third dimension but camera locations are not always available. A solution to this problem is to overlay three-dimensional CAD/CAM models of the hardware being tested onto a film or photographic image, allowing the engineer to measure surface distances, relative motions between components, and surface variations.

  4. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Gasoline engine choking arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Armes, P.W.

    1987-10-13

    In combination with a gasoline engine including a fuel tank having a fuel inlet and outlet, an automatic choke is described having a pivotal choke butterfly plate, an air filter, and a rod mounting the air filter. A choking arrangement comprises means immobilizing the pivotal choke butterfly plate at an open position and means communicating with the fuel inlet selectively urging fuel passage from the fuel tank outlet during gasoline engine starting.

  6. NGNP Engineering Status

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of Phase 1 Engineering and Design scope are to: 1) complete the initial design activities for a prototype nuclear reactor and plant that is capable of co-generating electricity, hydrogen, and process heat; 2) identify technological aspects of the NGNP that need further advancement by research and development activities; and 3) provide engineering support to the early licensing process, including technical input to white papers and developing the basis for future safety analyses.

  7. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  8. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  9. Engine Removal Projection Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Matzke, Brett D.; Wilson, John E.; Sharp, Julia L.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2005-06-02

    The US Navy has over 3500 gas turbine engines used throughout the surface fleet for propulsion and the generation of electrical power. Past data is used to forecast the number of engine removals for the next ten years and determine engine down times between removals. Currently this is done via a FORTRAN program created in the early 1970s. This paper presents results of R&D associated with creating a new algorithm and software program. We tested over 60 techniques on data spanning 20 years from over 3100 engines and 120 ships. Investigated techniques for the forecast basis including moving averages, empirical negative binomial, generalized linear models, Cox regression, and Kaplan Meier survival curves, most of which are documented in engineering, medical and scientific research literature. We applied those techniques to the data, and chose the best algorithm based on its performance on real-world data. The software uses the best algorithm in combination with user-friendly interfaces and intuitively understandable displays. The user can select a specific engine type, forecast time period, and op-tempo. Graphical displays and numerical tables present forecasts and uncertainty intervals. The technology developed for the project is applicable to other logistic forecasting challenges.

  10. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  11. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  12. Engineers and Active Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Udo

    2015-08-01

    Knowing that technologies are inherently value-laden and systemically interwoven with society, the question is how individual engineers can take up the challenge of accepting the responsibility for their work? This paper will argue that engineers have no institutional structure at the level of society that allows them to recognize, reflect upon, and actively integrate the value-laden character of their designs. Instead, engineers have to tap on the different institutional realms of market, science, and state, making their work a 'hybrid' activity combining elements from the different institutional realms. To deal with this institutional hybridity, engineers develop routines and heuristics in their professional network, which do not allow societal values to be expressed in a satisfactory manner. To allow forms of 'active' responsibility, there have to be so-called 'accountability forums' that guide moral reflections of individual actors. The paper will subsequently look at the methodologies of value-sensitive design (VSD) and constructive technology assessment (CTA) and explore whether and how these methodologies allow engineers to integrate societal values into the design technological artifacts and systems. As VSD and CTA are methodologies that look at the process of technological design, whereas the focus of this paper is on the designer, they can only be used indirectly, namely as frameworks which help to identify the contours of a framework for active responsibility of engineers.

  13. Compression relief engine brake

    SciTech Connect

    Meneely, V.A.

    1987-10-06

    A compression relief brake is described for four cycle internal-combustion engines, comprising: a pressurized oil supply; means for selectively pressurizing a hydraulic circuit with oil from the oil supply; a master piston and cylinder communicating with a slave piston and cylinder via the hydraulic circuit; an engine exhaust valve mechanically coupled to the engine and timed to open during the exhaust cycle of the engine the exhaust valve coupled to the slave piston. The exhaust valve is spring-based in a closed state to contact a valve seat; a sleeve frictionally and slidably disposed within a cavity defined by the slave piston which cavity communicates with the hydraulic circuit. When the hydraulic circuit is selectively pressurized and the engine is operating the sleeve entraps an incompressible volume of oil within the cavity to generate a displacement of the slave piston within the slave cylinder, whereby a first gap is maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat; and means for reciprocally activating the master piston for increasing the pressure within the previously pressurized hydraulic circuit during at least a portion of the expansion cycle of the engine whereby a second gap is reciprocally maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat.

  14. Environmental education for all engineers.

    PubMed

    Jahan, K; Everett, J W; Hesketh, R P; Jansson, P M; Hollar, K

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education at universities is a rapidly changing field globally. Traditionally it has resided in the civil engineering program addressing water and wastewater quality, treatment, design and regulatory issues. In recent years environmental engineering has become a much broader field encompassing water, wastewater, soil pollution, air pollution, risk assessment, ecosystems, human health, toxicology, sustainable development, regulatory aspects and much more. The need to introduce environmental engineering/green engineering/pollution prevention/design for the environment concepts to undergraduate engineering students has become recognized to be increasingly important. This need is being driven in part through the US Engineering Accreditation Commission Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology criteria 2000. Thus there has been a major shift in environmental engineering education and it no longer resides only within the civil engineering discipline. This paper focuses on the development of innovative curricula for a brand new engineering program at Rowan University that integrates environmental education for all engineers. A common course known as "engineering clinic" was developed for all engineering students throughout their eight semesters of engineering education. One of the clinic goals is to integrate engineering design and the environment. The program, in its seventh year, indicates successful implementation of environmental education in all four engineering disciplines in their course work and clinics.

  15. A Study of Engineering and Engineering Technology Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terman, F. E.; Higdon, Archie

    This study reviews engineering education in Florida and investigates programs and plans for engineering technology. A questionnaire was prepared to obtain statistical data on the engineering activities at individual institutions. Deans of engineering schools responded to the questionnaires and site visits were made by consultants to each school.…

  16. 4. Engine room, east end looking east toward engine #4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Engine room, east end looking east toward engine #4 (Enterprise Diesel; reduction gear in foreground; in left rear, two D.C. generators with Ames Ironworks horizontal engine and sturtevant vertical engine - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. High School Teachers' Conceptions of Engineers and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoh, Yin Kiong

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop activity the author has carried out with 80 high school science teachers to enable them to overcome their stereotypical perceptions of engineers and engineering. The activity introduced them to the biographies of prominent women in engineering, and raised their awareness of these female engineers' contributions to…

  18. 16. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTACORLISS CROSSCOMPOUND ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL. THIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE HIGH-PRESSURE SIDE OF THE ENGINE SHOWING THE SERVICE PLATFORM - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  19. Engineering the Way to Becoming a Federal Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgans, Carl J.

    1991-01-01

    Federal engineer tells engineering students how to become federal engineers and discusses the potential rewards and disadvantages of a civil service career. Notes that federal jobs are available for engineering graduates who are knowledgeable in the search process and who are persistent in seeking out such jobs. (NB)

  20. Chemical Engineering Students: A Distinct Group among Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores differences between chemical engineering students and students of other engineering disciplines, as identified by their intended college major. The data used in this analysis was taken from the nationally representative Sustainability and Gender in Engineering (SaGE) survey. Chemical engineering students differ significantly…

  1. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  2. Engineering Employment and Unemployment, 1971. Engineering Manpower Bulletin Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, John D.

    Statistics concerning employment of scientists were obtained from 59,300 scientists responding to an Engineers Joint Council questionnaire. Findings reported are: (1) the overall unemployment rate was 3 percent for engineers compared to a rate of 5.8 percent for all other workers; (2) considering engineers not having engineering jobs, the…

  3. Electronic engine controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that pioneered in the mid-80s to manage and optimize engine performance under continually changing conditions, electronic controls have made a significant impact on truck maintenance. But they also served another important purpose: they curbed emissions enough to meet EPA's new heavy-truck standards set in 1985 (see sidebar). In that same year, Detroit Diesel introduced its Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) system, and a trend was born. Suddenly horsepower rating, torque curve, and maximum engine and road speed could be governed by electronics. Engine-mounted sensors could provide drivers with precise information about fluid and pressure levels, inside and outside temperatures, and a host of other information. The advent of electronic engine controls signaled the dawn of a revolution in trucking. For company owners who wanted greater control of their operations, electronics were wonderful news. But new controls meant new engine designs and radical changes in engine maintenance and repair. So for many members of the waste-hauling industry, electronics were far from wonderful. It's not that haulers didn't want cleaner air or trucks that were increasingly fuel efficient. It's more that they winced at the thought of retraining their mechanics - already hard to find and retain - to work on a new breed of engine. Then there were other considerations. drivers, for example, might not cotton to the fancy electronic dashboard displays. They might also rebel at having their maximum road speed present at a rate they couldn't change. Then there was the cost factor: Electronics and other provisions used to meet Clean Air Act reductions of oxides of nitrogen between 1991, 94 and 98 model years could add as much as $10,000 to $15,000 to the cost of each truck.

  4. Knowledge Integration and Wise Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Jennifer L.; Linn, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts in engineering education focus on introducing engineering into secondary math and science courses to improve science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education (NAS, 2010). Infusing engineering into secondary classrooms can increase awareness of and interest in STEM careers, help students see the relevance of science and…

  5. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Piller, S.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, progress in manufacturing, assembling and testing of a Mod I engine in the United States, P40 Stirling engine dynamometer and multifuels testing, analog/digital controls system testing, Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and computer code development are summarized.

  6. Civil Engineering in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Martin; Strong, Alan

    2010-01-01

    For many children of primary school age, an engineer is the man who comes to service the central heating system or who fixes the family car when it breaks down. Most have never met a "real" professional engineer, and have no idea of what is involved in the exciting world of engineering. Most assume that engineers are men. To try to remove these…

  7. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results; the manufacture, assembly, and test of a Mod I engine in the United States; design initiation of the Mod I-A engine system; transient performance testing; Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies; components and subsystems; and the study and test of low cost alloys are summarized.

  8. Custom Search Engines: Tools & Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    2008-01-01

    Few have the resources to build a Google or Yahoo! from scratch. Yet anyone can build a search engine based on a subset of the large search engines' databases. Use Google Custom Search Engine or Yahoo! Search Builder or any of the other similar programs to create a vertical search engine targeting sites of interest to users. The basic steps to…

  9. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  10. Magnetic Lens For Plasma Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, Joel C.

    1992-01-01

    Low-field electromagnet coils placed downstream of plasma engine, polarized oppositely to higher-field but smaller radius coil in nozzle of engine, reduces divergence of plasma jet, thereby increasing efficiency of engine. Concept tested by computer simulation based on simplified mathematical model of plasma, engine, and coils.

  11. Overview of rocket engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    The issues of Chemical Rocket Engine Control are broadly covered. The basic feedback information and control variables used in expendable and reusable rocket engines, such as Space Shuttle Main Engine, are discussed. The deficiencies of current approaches are considered and a brief introduction to Intelligent Control Systems for rocket engines (and vehicles) is presented.

  12. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Program status and plans are discussed for component and technology development; reference engine system design, the upgraded Mod 1 engine; industry test and evaluation; and product assurance. Four current Mod 1 engines reached a total of 2523 operational hours, while two upgraded engines accumulated 166 hours.

  13. Problem Decomposition and Recomposition in Engineering Design: A Comparison of Design Behavior between Professional Engineers, Engineering Seniors, and Engineering Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt; Gero, John; DeBerard, Scott; DeBerard, Oenardi; Reeve, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in using problem decomposition and problem recomposition between dyads of engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within 1 hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design…

  14. Engineering and Technology Degrees, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers Joint Council, New York, NY. Engineering Manpower Commission.

    This report gives the number of engineering and technology degrees for the school year ending in June 1974. Tables appear in the following order: engineering degrees (bachelor's, master's, engineer's, doctor's) and technology degrees (associate, bachelor's, certificate, master's). The engineering tables include all 284 schools known to offer…

  15. Development of detonation reaction engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, O. H.; Stein, R. J.; Tubbs, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Reaction engine operates on the principle of a controlled condensed detonation. In this engine the gas products that are expelled from the engine to produce thrust are generated by the condensed detonation reaction. The engine is constructed of two basic sections consisting of a detonation wave generator section and a condensed detonation reaction section.

  16. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  17. Fermilab's Satellite Refrigerator Expansion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Each of Fermilab's 24 satellite refrigerators includes two reciprocating expanders, a "wet" engine and a "dry" engine. The wet engines and all but eleven of the dry engines were manufactured by Koch Process Systems (Westboro, Massachusetts). These are basically Koch Model 1400 expaaders installed in cryostats designed by Fermilab. The other eleven dry engines are an in-hou~e design referred to as "Gardner-Fermi" engines since they evolved from the GX3-2500 engines purchas~d from Gardner Cryogenics. Table I surmnarizes the features of our three types of expanders....

  18. 78 FR 44052 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) (77 FR 55166, September 7, 2012) for Sikorsky Model S-70, S... (77 FR 55166, September 7, 2012), we became aware that GE has issued T700 Turboshaft Engine Service... ``T700-GE-401C Stage 2 Disk PN 6064T12P01/P03 LCF Limit Diagram'' in Figure 6. Other than this...

  19. Engineering Orthopedic Tissue Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    While a wide variety of approaches to engineering orthopedic tissues have been proposed, less attention has been paid to the interfaces, the specialized areas that connect two tissues of different biochemical and mechanical properties. The interface tissue plays an important role in transitioning mechanical load between disparate tissues. Thus, the relatively new field of interfacial tissue engineering presents new challenges—to not only consider the regeneration of individual orthopedic tissues, but also to design the biochemical and cellular composition of the linking tissue. Approaches to interfacial tissue engineering may be distinguished based on if the goal is to recreate the interface itself, or generate an entire integrated tissue unit (such as an osteochondral plug). As background for future efforts in engineering orthopedic interfaces, a brief review of the biology and mechanics of each interface (cartilage–bone, ligament–bone, meniscus–bone, and muscle–tendon) is presented, followed by an overview of the state-of-the-art in engineering each tissue, including advances and challenges specific to regenerating the interfaces. PMID:19231983

  20. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. PMID:27131325

  1. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  2. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenfeld, P.W.; Broughton, G.L.; Forquer, D.W.

    1990-02-19

    This patent describes a two-stroke internal combustion engine. It comprises: an engine block including an exterior planar surface portion having therein a pair of spaced bearing surfaces and a crankcase-defining cavity which includes a pair of spaced semi-cylindrical surfaces, a crankshaft including a pair of spaced bearing portions and a central part which is located between the bearing portions and which includes a pair of spaced and enlarged cylindrical surfaces, a pair of bearing blocks respectively including bearing surfaces, means fixing the bearing blocks to the exterior planar surface portion with each of the crankshaft bearing portions retained between a respective one of the bearing surfaces of the engine block and a respective one of the bearing surfaces of the bearing blocks and with each of the crankshaft cylindrical surfaces in coplanar relation to a respective one of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the engine block, a crankcase cover including a mounting surface having therein a crankcase-defining cavity including a pair of spaced semi-cylindrical surfaces, and means fixedly connecting the mounting surface of the crankcase cover to the exterior planar surface portion of block with each of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the crankcase cover in generally coplanar relation to a respective one of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the engine block.

  3. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests.

  4. Engineering the earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The post-war growth of the earth sciences has been fueled, in part, by a drive to quantify environmental insults in order to support arguments for their reduction, yet paradoxically the knowledge gained is grants us ever greater capability to deliberately engineer environmental processes on a planetary scale. Increased capability can arises though seemingly unconnected scientific advances. Improvements in numerical weather prediction such as the use of adjoint models in analysis/forecast systems, for example, means that weather modification can be accomplished with smaller control inputs. Purely technological constraints on our ability to engineer earth systems arise from our limited ability to measure and predict system responses and from limits on our ability to manage large engineering projects. Trends in all three constraints suggest a rapid growth in our ability to engineer the planet. What are the implications of our growing ability to geoengineer? Will we see a reemergence of proposals to engineer our way out of the climate problem? How can we avoid the moral hazard posed by the knowledge that geoengineering might provide a backstop to climate damages? I will speculate about these issues, and suggest some institutional factors that may provide a stronger constraint on the use of geoengineering than is provided by any purely technological limit.

  5. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  6. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  7. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Vatsky, A.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, testing of the Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analyses, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, upgraded Mod I performance and testing, Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studied, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low cost casting alloys are summarized. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  8. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R.; Hindes, C.; Battista, R.; Connelly, M.; Cronin, M.; Howarth, R.; Donahue, A.; Slate, E.; Stotts, R.; Lacy, R.

    1988-01-01

    The study of high power kinematic Stirling engines for transportation use, testing of Mod I and Mod II Stirling engines, and component development activities are summarized. Mod II development testing was performed to complete the development of the basic engine and begin characterization of performance. Mod I engines were used for Mod II component development and to obtain independent party (U.S. Air Force) evaluation of Stirling engine vehicle performance.

  9. SNF Project Engineering Process Improvement Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DESAI, S.P.

    2000-02-09

    This plan documents the SNF Project activities and plans to support its engineering process. It describes five SNF Project Engineering initiatives: new engineering procedures, qualification cards process; configuration management, engineering self assessments, and integrated schedule for engineering activities.

  10. Externally heated valve engine -- An alternative to the Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimierski, Z.; Brzeski, L.

    1996-12-31

    A new concept of the Externally Heated Valve (EHV) engine is presented. The principle of the engine operation is described in the introduction to the paper. Heat delivered to the working medium (air) in the heater, or several heaters working commutatively, can come from a combustion chamber or other heat generator such as nuclear reactors or solar collectors. The engine construction is original entirely different from the well-known Stirling engine. New results of the EHV engine computer modeling are presented. This is connected with a new kind of the annular heater applied to the EHV engine. A whirl motion inside the heater is caused to ensure the proper condition of the heat exchanger during the whole engine cycle. Three heaters working commutatively have been considered in this model. Comparisons between the power and efficiency of the Stirling engine and EHV engine have been performed for the same engine capacity, rotational frequency, maximum and minimum temperatures of the working gas and for the same mean pressures of both the engine cycles. The power of the EHV engine is in this case over three times higher than the Stirling engine power, while the efficiency of both the engines is almost the same.

  11. Liquid rocket engine injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, G. S.; Nurick, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The injector in a liquid rocket engine atomizes and mixes the fuel with the oxidizer to produce efficient and stable combustion that will provide the required thrust without endangering hardware durability. Injectors usually take the form of a perforated disk at the head of the rocket engine combustion chamber, and have varied from a few inches to more than a yard in diameter. This monograph treats specifically bipropellant injectors, emphasis being placed on the liquid/liquid and liquid/gas injectors that have been developed for and used in flight-proven engines. The information provided has limited application to monopropellant injectors and gas/gas propellant systems. Critical problems that may arise during injector development and the approaches that lead to successful design are discussed.

  12. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  13. ENGINEERING CONTROL INTO MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Stone, David J.; Celi, Leo Anthony; Csete, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The human body is a tightly controlled engineering miracle. However, medical training generally does not cover ‘control’ (in the engineering sense) in physiology, pathophysiology and therapeutics. A better understanding of how evolved controls maintain normal homeostasis is critical for understanding the failure mode of controlled systems, i.e., disease. We believe that teaching and research must incorporate an understanding of the control systems in physiology, and take advantage of the quantitative tools used by engineering to understand complex systems. Control systems are ubiquitous in physiology, though often unrecognized. Here we provide selected examples of the role of control in physiology (heart rate variability, immunity), pathophysiology (inflammation in sepsis), and therapeutic devices (diabetes and the artificial pancreas). We also present a high level background to the concept of robustly controlled systems and examples of clinical insights using the controls framework. PMID:25680579

  14. Multiplexed Engineering in Biology.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jameson K; Church, George M

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology is the manufacturing technology of the future. However, engineering biology is complex, and many possible genetic designs must be evaluated to find cells that produce high levels of a desired drug or chemical. Recent advances have enabled the design and construction of billions of genetic variants per day, but evaluation capacity remains limited to thousands of variants per day. Here we evaluate biological engineering through the lens of the design–build–test cycle framework and highlight the role that multiplexing has had in transforming the design and build steps. We describe a multiplexed solution to the ‘test’ step that is enabled by new research. Achieving a multiplexed test step will permit a fully multiplexed engineering cycle and boost the throughput of biobased product development by up to a millionfold.

  15. Rotorcraft convertible engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, D. N.; Hirschkron, R.; Smith, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Convertible propulsion systems for advanced rotorcraft are evaluated in terms of their impact on aircraft operating economics and fuel consumption. A variety of propulsion system concepts, including separate thrust and power producing engines, convertible fan/shaft engines, and auxiliary propeller configurations are presented. The merits of each are evaluated in two different rotorcraft missions: an intercity, commercial transport of the ABC(TM) type, and an offshore oil ring supply ship of the X-wing type. The variable inlet guide vane fan/shaft converting engine and auxiliary propeller configurations are shown to offer significant advantages over all the other systems evaluated, in terms of both direct operating cost and fuel consumption.

  16. The Synergistic Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a system of software dedicated to aiding the understanding of space mission operations. The SEE can integrate disparate sets of data with analytical capabilities, geometric models of spacecraft, and a visualization environment, all contributing to the creation of an interactive simulation of spacecraft. Initially designed to satisfy needs pertaining to the International Space Station, the SEE has been broadened in scope to include spacecraft ranging from those in low orbit around the Earth to those on deep-space missions. The SEE includes analytical capabilities in rigid-body dynamics, kinematics, orbital mechanics, and payload operations. These capabilities enable a user to perform real-time interactive engineering analyses focusing on diverse aspects of operations, including flight attitudes and maneuvers, docking of visiting spacecraft, robotic operations, impingement of spacecraft-engine exhaust plumes, obscuration of instrumentation fields of view, communications, and alternative assembly configurations. .

  17. Free-piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A combustion system which can utilize high compression ratios, short burn durations, and homogeneous fuel/air mixtures in conjunction with low equivalence ratios. In particular, a free-piston, two-stroke autoignition internal combustion engine including an electrical generator having a linear alternator with a double-ended free piston that oscillates inside a closed cylinder is provided. Fuel and air are introduced in a two-stroke cycle fashion on each end, where the cylinder charge is compressed to the point of autoignition without spark plugs. The piston is driven in an oscillating motion as combustion occurs successively on each end. This leads to rapid combustion at almost constant volume for any fuel/air equivalence ratio mixture at very high compression ratios. The engine is characterized by high thermal efficiency and low NO.sub.x emissions. The engine is particularly suited for generating electrical current in a hybrid automobile.

  18. Harmonic uniflow engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  19. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  20. Silence Amenity Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hajime

    Engineering civilization brought convenient and comfortable life to us. However, some environmental problems such as various pollutions have also been developed with it. Acoustical noise is one of the major problems in modern life. Noise is generated from a noise source and propagates through transmitting medium such as the air and eventually reaches a receiver, usually a human being. The noise problem can be avoided, therefore, if one of those three elements in the noise problem is removed completely. In actual case, engineers are looking for most efficient way combining the controls for these three elements. In this article, basic characteristics of noise is reviewed briefly at first, then sound field analysis to predict sound transmission is discussed Aerodynamic noise is one of the major problems in silence amenity engineering today. Basic concept of the aerodynamic noise generation mechanism is discussed in detail with applications to turbo-machinery and high speed train noise control technology.

  1. General Education for Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko

    The basic program of general education of engineers is based on European culture from the times of ancient Greece to the 20th century. However, when considering its results, such as colonialism and the World Wars, this system can be said to lack the most important goal of “culture,” which is “to accept the existence of others.” In particular, the cooperation of European culture and engineering has ravaged the weaker cultures and is currently causing severe environmental problems in nature. Therefore, when considering the general education of engineers, it is indispensable to doubt European scholarship and to analyze what is lacking in current Japanese educational programs. Then, it is desirable that the relationship between the mind and the body, the characteristics of the Japanese climate, and the essence of Japanese artisanship be taken into consideration. It may also be beneficial to study the Ainu culture for its qualities as a peaceful culture.

  2. Strutjet RBCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd; Yam, Clement

    1999-01-01

    In the past two years Strutjet Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine has been tested extensively under the Advanced Reusable Technology (ART) contract from NASA MSFC. RBCC Engines combine the high thrust to weight of the rocket with the high efficiency of the ramjet engine. This propulsion system has the potential to reduce the cost of launching payloads to orbit by up to a factor of 100. In the ART program we have conducted over 100 hot fire tests. The propellants have been hydrogen and oxygen. The Modes tested have included the Air Augmented Rocket (AAR) from M = 0 to 2.4, the Ramjet at M = 2.4 & 6, Scramjet at M = 6 & 8, Scram/Rocket at Mach 8 and Ascent Rocket in Vacuum. This invited paper will present an overview of these test results and plans for future development of this propulsion cycle.

  3. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Hardal, Ali Ü C; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-01-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797

  4. Mars methane engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Hung; Coletta, Chris; Debois, Alain

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of an internal combustion engine operating on a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen has been verified by previous design groups for the Mars Methane Engine Project. Preliminary stoichiometric calculations examined the theoretical fuel-air ratios needed for the combustion of methane. Installation of a computer data acquisition system along with various ancillary components will enable the performance of the engine, running on the described methane mixture, to be optimized with respect to minimizing excess fuel. Theoretical calculations for stoichiometric combustion of methane-oxygen-carbon dioxide mixtures yielded a ratio of 1:2:4.79 for a methane-oxygen-carbon dioxide mixture. Empirical data shows the values to be closer to 1:2.33:3.69 for optimum operation.

  5. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Hardal, Ali Ü C; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-08-11

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

  6. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    PubMed Central

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797

  7. Stationary engineering handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocelly, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Years ago, the only qualifications you needed to become to become an operating engineer were the ability to shovel large chunks of coal through small furnace doors and the fortitude to sweat profusely for hours without fainting. As a consequence of technological evolution, the engineer's coal shovels have been replaced with computers and now perspiration is more the result of job stress than exposure to high temperatures. The domain of the operator has been extended far beyond the smoke-filled caverns that once encased him, out into the physical plant, and his responsibilities have been expanded accordingly. Unlike his less sophisticated predecessor, today's technician must be well versed in all aspects of the operation. The field of power plant operations has become a full-fledged profession and its principals are called Stationary Engineers. This book addresses the areas of responsibility and the education and skills needed for successful operation of building services equipment.

  8. Engineering antibody therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Mark L; Gilliland, Gary L

    2016-06-01

    The successful introduction of antibody-based protein therapeutics into the arsenal of treatments for patients has within a few decades fostered intense innovation in the production and engineering of antibodies. Reviewed here are the methods currently used to produce antibodies along with how our knowledge of the structural and functional characterization of immunoglobulins has resulted in the engineering of antibodies to produce protein therapeutics with unique properties, both biological and biophysical, that are leading to novel therapeutic approaches. Antibody engineering includes the introduction of the antibody combining site (variable regions) into a host of architectures including bi and multi-specific formats that further impact the therapeutic properties leading to further advantages and successes in patient treatment. PMID:27525816

  9. Engineering scalable biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast and mammalian systems. However, significant challenges in the construction, probing, modulation and debugging of synthetic biological systems must be addressed in order to achieve scalable higher-complexity biological circuits. Furthermore, concomitant efforts to evaluate the safety and biocontainment of engineered organisms and address public and regulatory concerns will be necessary to ensure that technological advances are translated into real-world solutions. PMID:21468204

  10. Needle Federated Search Engine

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercialmore » databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.« less

  11. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  12. 78 FR 775 - Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Alpharetta, GA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Alpharetta, GA; Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Hunt Valley, MD; Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering)...

  13. 78 FR 12359 - Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Including Workers in the Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division in... of Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division,...

  14. Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Google Earth Engine platform is a system designed to enable petabyte-scale, scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. Earth Engine provides a consolidated environment including a massive data catalog co-located with thousands of computers for analysis. The user-friendly front-end provides a workbench environment to allow interactive data and algorithm development and exploration and provides a convenient mechanism for scientists to share data, visualizations and analytic algorithms via URLs. The Earth Engine data catalog contains a wide variety of popular, curated datasets, including the world's largest online collection of Landsat scenes (> 2.0M), numerous MODIS collections, and many vector-based data sets. The platform provides a uniform access mechanism to a variety of data types, independent of their bands, projection, bit-depth, resolution, etc..., facilitating easy multi-sensor analysis. Additionally, a user is able to add and curate their own data and collections. Using a just-in-time, distributed computation model, Earth Engine can rapidly process enormous quantities of geo-spatial data. All computation is performed lazily; nothing is computed until it's required either for output or as input to another step. This model allows real-time feedback and preview during algorithm development, supporting a rapid algorithm development, test, and improvement cycle that scales seamlessly to large-scale production data processing. Through integration with a variety of other services, Earth Engine is able to bring to bear considerable analytic and technical firepower in a transparent fashion, including: AI-based classification via integration with Google's machine learning infrastructure, publishing and distribution at Google scale through integration with the Google Maps API, Maps Engine and Google Earth, and support for in-the-field activities such as validation, ground-truthing, crowd-sourcing and citizen science though the Android Open Data

  15. Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, Noel

    2013-04-01

    The Google Earth Engine platform is a system designed to enable petabyte-scale, scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. Earth Engine provides a consolidated environment including a massive data catalog co-located with thousands of computers for analysis. The user-friendly front-end provides a workbench environment to allow interactive data and algorithm development and exploration and provides a convenient mechanism for scientists to share data, visualizations and analytic algorithms via URLs. The Earth Engine data catalog contains a wide variety of popular, curated datasets, including the world's largest online collection of Landsat scenes (> 2.0M), numerous MODIS collections, and many vector-based data sets. The platform provides a uniform access mechanism to a variety of data types, independent of their bands, projection, bit-depth, resolution, etc..., facilitating easy multi-sensor analysis. Additionally, a user is able to add and curate their own data and collections. Using a just-in-time, distributed computation model, Earth Engine can rapidly process enormous quantities of geo-spatial data. All computation is performed lazily; nothing is computed until it's required either for output or as input to another step. This model allows real-time feedback and preview during algorithm development, supporting a rapid algorithm development, test, and improvement cycle that scales seamlessly to large-scale production data processing. Through integration with a variety of other services, Earth Engine is able to bring to bear considerable analytic and technical firepower in a transparent fashion, including: AI-based classification via integration with Google's machine learning infrastructure, publishing and distribution at Google scale through integration with the Google Maps API, Maps Engine and Google Earth, and support for in-the-field activities such as validation, ground-truthing, crowd-sourcing and citizen science though the Android Open Data

  16. Engine Test and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chown Chou

    1999-01-01

    Although the importance of aerosols and their precursors are now well recognized, the characterization of current subsonic engines for these emissions is far from complete. Furthermore, since the relationship of engine operating parameters to aerosol emissions is not known, extrapolation to untested and unbuilt engines necessarily remains highly uncertain. 1997 NASA LaRC engine test, as well as the parallel 1997 NASA LaRC flight measurement, attempts to address both issues by expanding measurements of aerosols and aerosol precursors with fuels containing different levels of fuel sulfur content. The specific objective of the 1997 engine test is to obtain a database of sulfur oxides emissions as well as the non-volatile particulate emission properties as a function of fuel sulfur and engine operating conditions. Four diagnostic systems, extractive and non-intrusive (optical), will be assembled for the gaseous and particulate emissions characterization measurements study. NASA is responsible for the extractive gaseous emissions measurement system which contains an array of analyzers dedicated to examining the concentrations of specific gases (NO, NO(x), CO, CO2, O2, THC, SO2) and the smoke number. University of Missouri-Rolla uses the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System to measure aerosol/particulate total concentration, size distribution, volatility and hydration property. Air Force Research Laboratory uses the Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer to measure SO2, SO3/H2SO4, and HN03 Aerodyne Research, Inc. uses Infrared Tunable Diode Laser system to measure SO2, SO3, NO, H2O, and CO2.

  17. Engine systems analysis results of the Space Shuttle Main Engine redesigned powerhead initial engine level testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, Erik J.; Gosdin, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers regularly analyze SSME ground test and flight data with respect to engine systems performance. Recently, a redesigned SSME powerhead was introduced to engine-level testing in part to increase engine operational margins through optimization of the engine internal environment. This paper presents an overview of the MSFC personnel engine systems analysis results and conclusions reached from initial engine level testing of the redesigned powerhead, and further redesigns incorporated to eliminate accelerated main injector baffle and main combustion chamber hot gas wall degradation. The conclusions are drawn from instrumented engine ground test data and hardware integrity analysis reports and address initial engine test results with respect to the apparent design change effects on engine system and component operation.

  18. Ethics in biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.

  19. Readings in Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This present collection was inspired by seven papers prepared by the NASA Alumni League, illustrating the members' systems engineering experience. These papers make up the heart of this collection. We have supplemented them with papers describing industry processes and other governmental practices to illustrate the diversity of systems engineering as it is formulated and practiced. This is one discipline that clearly benefits from cross-fertilization and infusion of new ideas. There is also a wide variety of tools and techniques described herein, some standard and some unique.

  20. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643