Science.gov

Sample records for 1st cane ratoon

  1. GREEN CANE TRASH BLANKETS: INFLUENCE ON RATOON CROPS IN LOUISIANA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 75% of Louisiana's 2000 sugarcane crop was harvested with a chopper harvester. A significant portion of the chopper-harvested sugarcane was harvested green, especially early in the season. Information on the impact of the post-harvest, green-cane residue blankets on subsequent ratoo...

  2. Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

  3. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO RATOON STUNTING DISEASE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SELECTIN IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ratoon Stunting Disease (RSD) (caused by Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Davis et al.) Evtushenko et al.) may impart major economic yield losses in sugarcane, particularly in ratoon crops. Although control may be obtained by mechanical sanitation and the use of disease-free seed-cane, genetic resistance...

  4. USE OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY TO MONITOR TRASH DECOMPOSITON IN THE SUGAR CANE INDUSTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvested cane trash, if left unburnt, impedes the growth of emerging ratoons and reduces sugar yields in comparison to unhindered ratoons. Approximately 75% of dry cane trash is decomposable fibre--36% Cellulose, 21%Hemicellulose, 16% Lignin. One alternative for the removal of cane trash wou...

  5. Combined glyphosate-ripener and residue blanket stresses reduce ratoon yields in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Failure to remove the blanket of residue generated during green-cane harvesting and certain glyphosate ripener application regimes have independently been shown to reduce yields of the subsequent ratoon crop of Louisiana’s leading variety LCP 85-384. The objectives of this experiment were to determ...

  6. Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane: isolation of the causal bacterium.

    PubMed

    Davis, M J; Gillaspie, A G; Harris, R W; Lawson, R H

    1980-12-19

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by both strains. PMID:17817853

  7. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...

  8. Early harvest affects sugarcane ratooning ability in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of sugarcane processors in Louisiana has decreased over time forcing growers to begin the harvest season earlier for fear of complete cane loss at the end of the harvest period due to freezing temperatures during this period of late winter. Experiments were conducted to investigate effec...

  9. Botryosphaeria Cane Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more serious cane canker diseases of thornless blackberry plants in the eastern U.S. is caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Cane canker disease is highly destructive, often killing canes and reducing fruit yields to uneconomic levels. Cankers generally develop around one or more buds on th...

  10. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  11. Influence of nonoptimal ripener applications and postharvest residue retention on sugarcane second ratoon yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) post-harvest residue and certain types of glyphosate ripener applications have independently been shown to reduce yields of the subsequent ratoon crop. The objective of this experiment was to determine the combined effects of post-har...

  12. First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

  13. Sugarcane Post-harvest Residue Retention and Certain Ripener Applications Reduce First and Second Ratoon Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) post-harvest residue and certain glyphosate ripener application regimes have independently been shown to reduce yields of the subsequent ratoon crop. The objective of this experiment was to determine the combined effects of post-harve...

  14. [Effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit under low nitrogen condition].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-bo; Peng, Dong-hai; Qin, Liu-dong; Xing, Yong-xiu; Li, Yang-rui; Yang, Li-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit, three sugarcane cultivars (B8, ROC22 and GT21) planted under sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-soybean intercropping with low nitrogen fertilization (urea application of 150 kg · hm(-2)). The field design was a split-plot with the cropping pattern being the principal factor and the sugarcane cultivar being the secondary factor. The results showed that the millable stalks, stalk diameter, cane yield and sugar production were significantly affected by sugarcane-soybean intercropping while the cane quality wasn' t changed obviously. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, the stalk diameter, millable stalks, cane yield and sugar production in the intercropping system were increased by 5.1%-8.7%, 7.9%-31.0%, 9.0%-40.5% and 5.6%-39.5%, respectively. The total incomes of cane and soybean, and sugar and soybean were increased by 58900-79300 yuan · hm(-2) and 58300-77200 yuan · hm(-2), respectively. Among the three sugarcane cultivars in the sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern, the economic benefit was the highest in ROC22, while the ratoon cane yields of GT21 and B8 were higher than that of ROC22. The results also indicated that sugarcane-soybean intercropping is an effective planting method to reduce nitrogen fertilizer application and increase economic income in sugarcane production. PMID:26571661

  15. Free-Standing Canes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)

  16. "Hard Science" for Gifted 1st Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGennaro, April

    2006-01-01

    "Hard Science" is designed to teach 1st grade gifted students accurate and high level science concepts. It is based upon their experience of the world and attempts to build a foundation for continued love and enjoyment of science. "Hard Science" provides field experiences and opportunities for hands-on discovery working beside experts in the field…

  17. "Cane" as Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Benjamin F.

    1970-01-01

    Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

  18. OLIGOSACCHARIDES IN CANE AND THEIR FORMATION ON CANE DETERIORATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane deterioration in the field, factory storage pile, or during factory milling processes has become a major technical concern in recent years, especially in those areas where mechanical harvesting of billeted sugar cane has increased. Not all deterioration products advocated as cane deterioratio...

  19. Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, internal struts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, internal struts- nose beams. - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  20. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  1. Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

    From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

  2. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  3. Effect of Post-Harvest Residue on Ratoon Crops of Sugarcane Infected with Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is a luteovirus that causes yellow leaf of sugarcane. Previous studies in Louisiana focusing on the effect of post-harvest residue found that retention of the residue often reduces yield of subsequent ratoon crops. A field experiment to determine the potential in...

  4. Late-season glyphosate ripener application coupled with post-harvest residue retention impacts subsequent ratoon yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of a low dose of glyphosate as a sugarcane ripener to sugarcane that will be harvested in the last third of Louisiana’s sugarcane harvest is sometimes conducted, even while its use may have little or no economic value and has potential to cause injury to the subsequent ratoon crop. T...

  5. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, José M; Ciampitti, Ignacio A; Mariano, Eduardo; Vieira-Megda, Michele X; Trivelin, Paulo C O

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers) and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. In-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components), internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio) and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K) were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply) and crop demand (potential yield). Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K) and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1) were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1) and N:K (0.5:1) ratios. PMID:27148297

  6. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    PubMed Central

    Leite, José M.; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; Mariano, Eduardo; Vieira-Megda, Michele X.; Trivelin, Paulo C. O.

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers) and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. In-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components), internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio) and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K) were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential–linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply) and crop demand (potential yield). Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K) and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1) were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1) and N:K (0.5:1) ratios. PMID:27148297

  7. ISS Update: 1st Annual ISS R&D Conference

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks by phone on Wednesday with Julie Robinson, ISS Program Scientist, about the 1st Annual International Space Station Research and Development Confere...

  8. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  9. Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500 Past ... last May's Indy 500 had thousands of personal Electronic Health Records on hand for those attending—and ...

  10. 1st HPV Test for Use with Preservative Fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159789.html 1st HPV Test for Use With Preservative Fluid Human papillomavirus ... Food and Drug Administration has approved Roche's cobas HPV Test -- the first diagnostic to be used with ...

  11. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  12. Sugar and energy cane date of planting effects on cane, sucrose, and fiber yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy cane is believed to have more vigor than sugar cane because energy cane contains a higher percentage of alleles from Saccharum spontaneum relative to Saccharum officinarum. This research was conducted to determine if planting date affects yields of both sugar and energy canes. Three sugar can...

  13. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or by solution in water of sugarcane concrete...

  14. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or by solution in water of sugarcane concrete...

  15. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or by solution in water of sugarcane concrete...

  16. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  17. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  18. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  19. Design and construction of the 1st proton CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Hurley, F.; Johnson, R.; Rykalin, V.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schulte, R.

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the 1st proton CT scanner for 3D imaging. Reduction of proton range uncertainties and improved dose accuracy in the patient for treatment planning are central goals. A central CT slice acquired by reconstruction of 134 million proton tracks through a 14 cm spherical polystyrene phantom with high and low density inserts is presented.

  20. Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...

  1. Maufacture of raw cane sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

  2. [Granuloma Gravidarum in a 37-year-old 1st Gravida, 1st Para--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Findeklee, S

    2015-10-01

    The granuloma gravidarum is a rare benign tumour with gingival origin. It occurs in circa 0.2% of pregnancies. Mostly we see an asymptomatic course of disease terminated by hormonal changes after delivery. If the granuloma is associated with complaints of the pregnant woman, for example masticational pain or recurrent bleedings, therapeutic options are conservative therapy, surgery or delivery. We report the case of a 37-year-old 1st gravida, 1st para who had an induced delivery in the 39+2 gestational week because of a symptomatic granuloma gravidarum. We saw a spontaneous remission of the granuloma within 3 months post partum. The case report underlines the importance of suitable information for pregnant women about oral hygiene and the necessity of regular dental controls during pregnancy for prophylaxis of granuloma gravidarum. PMID:26402852

  3. The Preschool Blind Child Can Be a Cane User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrund, R. L.; Rosen, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    This article proposes the teaching of long cane mobility skills to blind preschool-age children. Traditional arguments against early cane use are refuted and possible advantages of early use identified. Strategies and techniques for cane introduction are specified. (DB)

  4. Handbook of cane sugar engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hugot, E.

    1986-01-01

    The handbook has included the description of cane sugar manufacture, mills, diffusers, boilers and other factory machinery, calculation methods of capacity for every piece of equipment, and process and manufacturing techniques. This new edition has been revised and information that is either obsolete or of little interest has been deleted or shortened. Additions have been made in chapters dealing with recently developed equipment and a completely new chapter covers automation and data processing. Numerous figures, graphs, drawings, photographs, tables and formulae are provided.

  5. Thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard was measured in two planes; parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the surface of the manufactured sheet. The information was necessary to better understand the thermal response of a loaded shipping container. The tests demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard in the plane parallel to the surface of the sheet was nearly twice as great as the conductivity of the same material in a plane perpendicular to the sheet. There was no significant difference in the conductivity in different directions within the plane parallel to the surface, and the presence of glue between layers of fiberboard did not significantly change the conductivity of the assembly. The tests revealed that the thermal conductivity measured in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the surface of a stack of cane fiberboard sheets not bonded together, decreases with an increase in the mean temperature. This was determined to be the result of air gaps between the sheets of fiberboard, and not related to the properties of the material itself

  6. ["1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital" during the civil war].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B; Abashin, V G

    2014-04-01

    The article presents the documentary information about the founding, the establishment and early years of the 1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital - in the future - Mandryka Central Military Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Presented the work of the Hospital during the dificult period of the Civil War, typhus epidemic, famine and devastation. Specified its staffing structure, command, medical and administrative staff, travel and accommodation till the moment of the deployment in the Silver Lane in Moscow. PMID:25051792

  7. The 1st All-Russian Workshop on Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Nikolai G.

    2007-08-01

    The 1st All-Russia Workshop on Archaeoastronomy “Astronomical and World-Outlook Meaning of the Archaeological Monuments of South Ural” was held on June 19-25, 2006, at the ground of the archaeological center “Arkaim” (Chelyabinsk Region). Besides about 30 talks, astronomical measurements were performed at two archaeological objects under intensive study: Arkaim Site (Bronze Epoch, XVIII-XVI c. B.C.) and tumuli “with whiskers” complex Kondurovsky (V-VIII c. A.D.). The promising character of the megalithic complex on the Vera Island (Lake Turgoyak) was stated.

  8. Putative lipoproteins identified by bioinformatic genome analysis of Leifsonia xyli ssp. xyli, the causative agent of sugarcane ratoon stunting disease.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Iain C; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Leifsonia xyli ssp. xyli is the causative agent of ratoon stunting disease, a major cause of economic loss in sugarcane crops. Understanding of the biology of this pathogen has been hampered by its fastidious growth characteristics in vitro. However, the recent release of a genome sequence for this organism has allowed significant novel insights. Further to this, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of the lipoproteins encoded in the L. xyli genome. These analyses suggest that lipoproteins represent c. 2.0% of the L. xyli predicted proteome. Functional analyses suggest that lipoproteins make an important contribution to the physiology of the pathogen and may influence its ability to cause disease in planta. PMID:20507484

  9. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  14. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  15. Development of energy cane cultivars in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy cane is a relatively new generation of energy crops being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and ethanol production. Current energy cane breeding strategies have focused on selecting high biomass hybrids from wide crosses between commercial sugarcane cultivars and S. spontaneum, which is ...

  16. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  17. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State...

  18. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  19. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

  20. Development of a Preschool "Kiddy Cane."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrund, R. L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a "kiddy cane" for use with young children with blindness, aged 2-6, is described including development of the prototype, field testing, modifications resulting from feedback from specialists, and ongoing evaluation. (Author/DB)

  1. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  2. THEOS: The1st Thailand EO System and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peanvijarnpong, Chanchai

    Thailand has engaged in remote sensing satellite technological and scientific development many years since early 1980s. Thailand Landsat Station was established as a regional center of data processing and dissemination for Thai scientists for data applications. Over the years, GISTDA and Thai user community have been gaining technical experience and expertise in satellite data applications around the country such natural resources and environmental management, forest inventory, forest change detections, soil mapping, land-use and land cover mapping, crop type mapping, coastal shrimp farming, flood zone mapping, base mapping, water and drought management. The Government of Thailand realizes that remote sensing satellite technology is an important mechanism for social and economic development of the country. So the 1st Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS) development program was approved by the Government since 2003. THEOS system is sub-synchronous satellite orbiting around the earth at 822 km. altitude same as SPOT satellites. It carries two imaging instruments; 2-m Panchromatic telescope with 22 km. swath width and 15-m resolution camera with four-multi-spectral band and 90-km swath wide. THEOS is scheduled to launch around March 2008. A number of technological and scientific activities has been implementing for Thailand and international scientific user community. Therefore THEOS is strong endorsement from the Government of Thailand on the value of remote sensing technology. This paper presents Thailand EO activities including THEOS System and its plans.

  3. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar....

  4. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use. PMID:23341318

  5. VIEW WEST, 1ST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, HYDRAULIC COTTON PRESS, DETAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST, 1ST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, HYDRAULIC COTTON PRESS, DETAIL, CONTINENTAL GIN COMPANY HYDRAULIC TANK - Magnolia Plantation, Cotton Gins & Presses, LA Route 119, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  6. 94. DETAIL, SAME BEAN AS ABOVE, MARKED 'PATENTED DEC. 1ST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. DETAIL, SAME BEAN AS ABOVE, MARKED 'PATENTED DEC. 1ST 1857' - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

  8. Kindergarten to 1st Grade: Classroom Characteristics and the Stability and Change of Children's Classroom Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paro, Karen M.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the classroom experiences of 192 children followed longitudinally from kindergarten to 1st grade. Time-sampled observations of children were conducted to compare learning formats, teaching activities, and children's engagement in activities between kindergarten and 1st grade. Classroom observations also were conducted to…

  9. Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  10. Proceedings of the 1st Puerto Rico Biobanking Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Edna; Robb, James A.; Stefanoff, Gustavo; Mellado, Robert Hunter; Coppola, Domenico; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Flores, Idhaliz

    2015-01-01

    The 1st Puerto Rico Biobanking Workshop took place on August 20th, 2014 in the Auditorium of the Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus in San Juan Puerto Rico. The program for this 1-day, live workshop included lectures by three biobanking experts, followed by presentations from existing biobanks in Puerto Rico and audience discussion. The need for increasing biobanking expertise in Puerto Rico stems from the fact that Hispanics in general are underrepresented in the biobanks in existence in the US, which limits the research conducted specifically to understand the molecular differences in cancer cells compared to other better studied populations. In turn, this lack of information impairs the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for our population. Dr. James Robb, M.D., F.C.A.P., consulting pathologist to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research (OBBR), opened the workshop with a discussion on the basic aspects of the science of biobanking (e.g., what is a biobank; its goals and objectives; protocols and procedures) in his talk addressing the importance of banking tissues for advancing biomedical research. Next, Dr. Gustavo Stefanoff, from the Cancer Institutes Network of Latin America (RINC by its name in Spanish), explained the mission, objectives, and structure of the Network of Latin-American and Caribbean Biobanks (REBLAC by its name in Spanish), which despite limited resources and many challenges, currently accrue high quality human tissue specimens and data to support cancer research in the region. Dr. Robert Hunter-Mellado, Professor of Internal Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, followed with an examination of the ethical and regulatory aspects of biobanking tissues for future research, including informed consent of subjects; protection of human subjects rights; and balancing risks and benefit ratios. In the afternoon, the

  11. Proceedings of the 1st Puerto Rico Biobanking Workshop.

    PubMed

    Mora, Edna; Robb, James A; Stefanoff, Gustavo; Mellado, Robert Hunter; Coppola, Domenico; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Flores, Idhaliz

    2014-01-01

    The 1st Puerto Rico Biobanking Workshop took place on August 20st, 2014 in the Auditorium of the Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus in San Juan Puerto Rico. The program for this 1-day, live workshop included lectures by three biobanking experts, followed by presentations from existing biobanks in Puerto Rico and audience discussion. The need for increasing biobanking expertise in Puerto Rico stems from the fact that Hispanics in general are underrepresented in the biobanks in existence in the US, which limits the research conducted specifically to understand the molecular differences in cancer cells compared to other better studied populations. In turn, this lack of information impairs the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for our population. Dr. James Robb, M.D., F.C.A.P., consulting pathologist to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research (OBBR), opened the workshop with a discussion on the basic aspects of the science of biobanking (e.g., what is a biobank; its goals and objectives; protocols and procedures) in his talk addressing the importance of banking tissues for advancing biomedical research. Next, Dr. Gustavo Stefanoff, from the Cancer Institutes Network of Latin America (RINC by its name in Spanish), explained the mission, objectives, and structure of the Network of Latin-American and Caribbean Biobanks (REBLAC by its name in Spanish), which despite limited resources and many challenges, currently accrue high quality human tissue specimens and data to support cancer research in the region. Dr. Robert Hunter-Mellado, Professor of Internal Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, followed with an examination of the ethical and regulatory aspects of biobanking tissues for future research, including informed consent of subjects; protection of human subjects rights; and balancing risks and benefit ratios. In the afternoon, the

  12. Analgesic Effects of 1st Generation Anti-histamines in Mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mebae; Shima, Kazuhiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sugawara, Shunji; Fujita, Takuo; Tadano, Takeshi; Watanabe, Makoto; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Endo, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is sensed, transmitted, and modified by a variety of mediators and receptors. Histamine is a well-known mediator of pain. In addition to their anti-histaminic effects, the classical, or 1st generation, anti-histamines (1st AHs) possess, to various degrees, anti-muscarinic, anti-serotonergic, anti-adrenergic, and other pharmacologic effects. Although there have been attempts to use 1st AHs as analgesics and/or analgesic adjuvants, the advent of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) discouraged such trials. We previously reported that in patients with temporomandibular disorders, osteoporosis, and/or osteoarthritis, the analgesic effects of certain 1st AHs (chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine) are superior to those of the NSAIDs flurbiprofen and indomethacin. Here, we compared analgesic effects among 1st AHs and NSAIDs against responses shown by mice to intraperitoneally injected 0.7% acetic acid. Since 1st AHs are water soluble, we selected water-soluble NSAIDs. For direct comparison, drugs were intravenously injected 30 min before the above tests. Histamine-H1-receptor-deficient (H1R-KO) mice were used for evaluating H1-receptor-independent effects. The tested 1st AHs (especially cyproheptadine) displayed or tended to display analgesic effects comparable to those of NSAIDs in normal and H1R-KO mice. Our data suggest that the anti-serotonergic and/or anti-adrenergic effects of 1st AHs make important contributions to their analgesic effects. Moreover, combination of a 1st AH with an NSAID (cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor) produced remarkably potent analgesic effects. We propose that a 1st AH, by itself or in combination with a cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor, should undergo testing to evaluate its usefulness in analgesia. PMID:27040636

  13. The Effect of Foot Structure on 1st Metatarsophalangeal Joint Flexibility and Hallucal Loading

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Smita; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew; Backus, Sherry; Ellis, Scott J.; Deland, Jonathan T.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint motion and flexibility and plantar loads in individuals with high, normal and low arch foot structure. Asymptomatic individuals (n=61), with high, normal and low arches participated in this study. Foot structure was quantified using malleolar valgus index (MVI) and arch height index (AHI). First MTP joint flexibility was measured using a specially constructed jig. Peak pressure under the hallux, 1st and 2nd metatarsals during walking was assessed using a pedobarograph. A one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc comparisons was used to assess between-group differences in MVI, AHI, Early and Late 1st MTP joint flexibility in sitting and standing, peak dorsiflexion (DF), and peak pressure under the hallux, 1st and 2nd metatarsals. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify predictors of hallucal loading. Significant between-group differences were found in MVI (F2,56=15.4, p<0.01), 1st MTP late flexibility in sitting (F2,57=3.7, p=0.03), and standing (F2,57=3.7, p=0.03). Post-hoc comparisons demonstrated that 1st MTP late flexibility in sitting was significantly higher in individuals with low arch compared to high arch structure, and that 1st MTP late flexibility in standing was significantly higher in individuals with low arch compared to normal arch structure. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that MVI and 1st MTP joint early flexibility in sitting explain about 20% of the variance in hallucal peak pressure. Our results provide objective evidence indicating that individuals with low arches show increased 1st MTP joint late flexibility compared to individuals with normal arch structure, and that hindfoot alignment and 1st MTP joint flexibility affect hallucal loading. PMID:21536440

  14. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  15. Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

  16. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  17. Transformation and transposon mutagenesis of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, causal organism of ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Brumbley, Stevens M; Petrasovits, Lars A; Birch, Robert G; Taylor, Paul W J

    2002-03-01

    Conditions have been developed for genetic transformation and insertional mutagenesis in Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), the causal organism of ratoon stunting disease (RSD), one of the most damaging and intractable diseases of sugarcane internationally. Transformation frequencies ranged from 1 to 10 colony forming units (CFU)/microg of plasmid DNA using Clavibacter/Escherichia coli shuttle vectors pCG188, pDM302, and pDM306 and ranged from 50 to 500 CFU/microg using cosmid cloning vectors pLAFR3 and pLAFR5-km. The transformation/transposition frequency was 0 to 70 CFU/microg of DNA, using suicide vectors pUCD623 and pSUP2021 containing transposable elements Tn4431 and Tn5, respectively. It was necessary to grow Lxx in media containing 0.1% glycine for electroporation and to amplify large plasmids in a dam-/dcm- E. coli strain and purify the DNA by anion exchange. To keep selection pressure at an optimum, the transformants were grown on nitrocellulose filters (0.2-microm pore size) on media containing the appropriate antibiotics. Transposon Tn4431 containing a promoterless lux operon from Vibrio fischeri and a tetracycline-resistance gene was introduced on the suicide vector pUCD623. All but 1% of the putative transposon mutants produce light, indicating transposition into functional Lxx genes. Southern blot analysis of these transformants indicates predominantly single transposon insertions at unique sites. The cosmid cloning vector pLAFR5-km was stably maintained in Lxx. The development of a transformation and transposon mutagenesis system opens the way for molecular analysis of pathogenicity determinants in Lxx. PMID:11952129

  18. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  19. Macroscopic lithotype characterisation of the 1st Middle-Polish (1st Lusatian) Lignite Seam in the Miocene of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widera, Marek

    2012-03-01

    The 1st Middle-Polish (1st Lusatian) Lignite Seam is exploited in open-cast mines in central Poland. A large number of lignite lithotypes, grouped in four lithotype associations, are distinguished: xylitic, detritic, xylo-detritic and detro-xylitic lithotype associations, which show various structures. Each lithotype association was produced under specific peat-forming environmental conditions. In the case of the lignite seams under study they represent all the main environments that are known from Neogene mires, i.e.: fen or open water, bush moor, wet forest swamp and dry forest swamp. For a simple and practical description in the field of both the lignite sections and borehole cores, a new codification for lignite lithotypes is proposed. It is based on the codification of clastic deposits (lithofacies). The practical value of the new lignite lithotype codification is examined in three vertical sections of the 1st Middle-Polish Lignite Seam.

  20. Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

  1. A Cognitive Basis for Teaching Cane Travel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, R.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for emphasizing discovery instruction over guided instruction in teaching cane travel skills to people with severe visual impairments. Discovery instruction is seen to facilitate the use of intrinsic feedback in developing perceptual-cognitive skills as well as promoting problem solving, retention, and transfer of…

  2. ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

  3. Development of New Energy Cane Culitvars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  4. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. MAGAZINE E30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE E-30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL LOOKING TO THE REAR OF THE MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 14. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, 1st floor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, 1st floor, crib area of building, showing electrical and plumbing cribs, wall and ceiling detail, looking S. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  8. 62. Neg. No. F75A, Jun 18, 1930, INTERIORWAREHOUSE, 1ST FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Neg. No. F-75A, Jun 18, 1930, INTERIOR-WAREHOUSE, 1ST FLOOR, STORAGE OF AUTOMOBILE COMPONENTS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 1st International consensus guidelines for advanced breast cancer (ABC 1).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, F; Costa, A; Norton, L; Cameron, D; Cufer, T; Fallowfield, L; Francis, P; Gligorov, J; Kyriakides, S; Lin, N; Pagani, O; Senkus, E; Thomssen, C; Aapro, M; Bergh, J; Di Leo, A; El Saghir, N; Ganz, P A; Gelmon, K; Goldhirsch, A; Harbeck, N; Houssami, N; Hudis, C; Kaufman, B; Leadbeater, M; Mayer, M; Rodger, A; Rugo, H; Sacchini, V; Sledge, G; van't Veer, L; Viale, G; Krop, I; Winer, E

    2012-06-01

    The 1st international Consensus Conference for Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC 1) took place on November 2011, in Lisbon. Consensus guidelines for the management of this disease were developed. This manuscript summarizes these international consensus guidelines. PMID:22425534

  10. 19. Detail of brick courses 116, back side, between 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of brick courses 1-16, back side, between 1st and 2nd windows from the right - Oklahoma State University, Boys Dormitory, Northwest corner of Hester Street & Athletic Avenue, Stillwater, Payne County, OK

  11. 20. Detail of brick courses 4675, back side, between 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail of brick courses 46-75, back side, between 1st and 2nd windows from the right - Oklahoma State University, Boys Dormitory, Northwest corner of Hester Street & Athletic Avenue, Stillwater, Payne County, OK

  12. 45. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Turn span from SE. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  13. 46. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Overall view, from S. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  14. 28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF GERMAN TEXT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cave Hill National Cemetery, 701 Baxter Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  16. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  17. Production of ethanol from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, F.W.

    1982-04-20

    An integrated process is provided for producing ethanol from sugar cane. Harvested cane is chopped and shredded to provide a mass of fiber and juice which is digested in a first digester with a hemicellulase enzyme. Fibrous residue is separated by centrifuge and passed to a second digester for digestion with a mixed culture of a cellulase enzyme and an ethanol-producing culture. Fibrous residue from is pressed to provide a recycle juice extract and then burned to provide at least part of the heat energy requirement of the process. Juice extracts from digesters separated by centrifuges are combined, sterilized, flashed and passed to a fermentor for fermentation with an ethanol-producing microorganism. Ethanol is recovered from the process by separation utilizing a membrane.

  18. Sugar cane. Positive energy source for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, J.A.; Birkett, H.S.; West, M.D.

    1981-06-01

    Sugar cane stands out as a renewable resource for fuel alcohol production, thanks to its unique, highly positive energy balance. It supplies its own processing fuel, bagasse. Net liquid fuel usage is only that consumed on the farm, amounting to a maximum of 0.3 volume per volume of ethanol produced. In some locations, the net liquid fuel consumption of the farm is as low as 0.12 volume/volume produced. This small debit may be offset by generating electric power and by foreseeable processing improvements. In view of the very favorable fuel balance for sugar cane, a decision to employ it as a renewable source of ethanol depends wholly on economic and political factors, which in turn are highly location-dependent.

  19. Minimally Invasive Arthrodesis of 1st Metatarsophalangeal Joint for Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Sott, A H

    2016-09-01

    First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis plays a significant role in the management of symptomatic hallux rigidus/osteoarthritis of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint. Several open and few percutaneous techniques have been described in the literature. This article describes and discusses a percutaneous technique that has been successfully used to achieve a pain-free stable and functional 1st metatarsophalangeal joint. All aspects of surgical indication and operative technique and details of patient-reported outcomes are presented with a referenced discussion. PMID:27524706

  20. Monitoring North Korea Explosions: Status and Result of 1st and 2nd Tests (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Lee, H.; Shin, J.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.; Kim, G.; Che, I.; Lim, I.; Kim, T.

    2009-12-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthal full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries, and only stations with the distance of 200 to 550 Km from the test site were considered. Irrespective of azimuthal directions of stations from the test site, the conventional discrimination, Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly showed that both tests were explosion. But mb-Ms discrimination did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of 1st test, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of 1st and 2nd test data showed that 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of 1st and 2nd tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of 2nd test were much larger than that of 1st one. The ratio of 1st and 2nd P-wave amplitudes showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the estimated energy or yield were ranged from 4 to roughly 10 times. KIGAM evaluated the yield of 2nd test were 8 times in the average larger than that of 1st one.

  1. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    PubMed

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (≤ 300 mg/kg as P₂O₅), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (≤ 80%), increased the Mg (≤ 101%) and Si (≤ 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing. PMID:22364593

  2. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  3. The Connecticut Pre-Cane: Case Study and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, C. J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the history and characteristics of the Connecticut Pre-cane, designed to protect young blind children and teach them early mobility techniques. A case study illustrates typical uses, and 12 step-by-step lessons in cane travel are provided for use with young children by the mobility instructor. (DB)

  4. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Caning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on chair caning is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of caning; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  5. Can high quality cane be delivered to the mill economically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane quality is becoming increasingly important to the Louisiana sugarcane industry, with some processors offering premiums for high quality cane. Using a Cameco® 3500, we tested ground speeds of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mph and fan speeds of 650, 850, and 1050 rpm. Ground speed had no effect on can...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  14. Evaluation of new energy cane varieties for Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in U.S bioenergy markets may offer an alternative source of income for Louisiana sugarcane growers. High-fiber sugarcane or energy cane varieties are currently being developed. As with traditional sugarcane varieties, energy-cane varieties need to be evaluated across the sugarca...

  15. Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

  16. How Many Attempts Until Success in Some Core 1st. Year Disciplines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Graça Leão; Andrade e Silva, João; Lopes, Margarida Chagas

    2012-01-01

    Due to a general development in education brought about by democracy, Portugal has witnessed tremendous development in Higher Education (HE) since the beginning of the 1980s. Nevertheless, the percentage of graduates among the Portuguese population still ranks far below most European countries. This is why academic performance in HE 1st cycle…

  17. 130. Post1911. Photograph labeled, 'SEASON 1913. CAPTAIN, 1st MATE, SUPT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Post-1911. Photograph labeled, 'SEASON 1913. CAPTAIN, 1st MATE, SUPT AND STOREKEEPER, A.P. ASS'N CANNERY, SHIP STAR OF ALASKA.' View forward from mizzenmast, post side. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. First-Generation College Students' 1st-Year College Experiences: Challenges Attending a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    First-generation college students (FGCS) face challenges when switching from high school to college and during their 1st-year in college. Additionally, FGCS may have difficulty understanding the steps required to prepare for and enroll in postsecondary education. The social capital theory examines support of social, academic, and cultural networks…

  19. 25. PRIMARY POWER TRANSMISSION BELT HOLES IN 1st FLOOR MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. PRIMARY POWER TRANSMISSION BELT HOLES IN 1st FLOOR MILL NO. 1 CEILING. WATER-POWERED MACHINERY LOCATED IN BASEMENT RAN LEATHER BELTS THROUGH THESE HOLES. POWER WAS THEN TRANSMITTED TO SHAFTS AND PULLEYS TO RUN MACHINERY ON MILL FLOORS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  20. 77 FR 22574 - Filing Dates for the Washington Special Election In the 1st Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Washington Special Election In the 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Washington has...

  1. 76 FR 51366 - Filing Dates for the Oregon Special Election in the 1st Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... information on these requirements, see Federal Register Notice 2009-03, 74 FR 7285 (February 17, 2009... November 8, 2011, and January 31, 2012, to fill the U.S. House seat in the 1st Congressional District... forms: One form to cover 2011 activity, labeled as the Year-End Report; and the other form to cover...

  2. Perceptual Narrowing of Linguistic Sign Occurs in the 1st Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephanie Baker; Fais, Laurel; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Werker, Janet F.

    2012-01-01

    Over their 1st year of life, infants' "universal" perception of the sounds of language narrows to encompass only those contrasts made in their native language (J. F. Werker & R. C. Tees, 1984). This research tested 40 infants in an eyetracking paradigm and showed that this pattern also holds for infants exposed to seen language--American Sign…

  3. 26. Photograph of original Fresnel lens a 1st order fixed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photograph of original Fresnel lens a 1st order fixed white light. (Installed 1874 and first illuminated Feb. 1, 1875. This is the only known photograph of this lens - - removed in 1929.)ca. 1918. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  4. Highlights of the 1st Student Symposium of the ISCB RSG UK

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Farzana; Farmer, Rohit; Das, Sayoni; Vayani, Fatima; Hassan, Mehedi

    2015-01-01

    This short report summarises the scientific content and activities of a student-led event, the 1st student symposium by the UK Regional Student Group of the International Society for Computational Biology. The event took place on the 8th of October 2014. PMID:26998223

  5. 48. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms Latching mechanism, E end of turn span, view from N. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, MS. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  6. 42. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Copy of postcard ca. 1900. Copy owned and made by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Shows two-span steel truss, built by Phoenix Bridge Co. in 1878. Negative copied by: Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  7. 49. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Top of pier and underside of w end of turn span. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  8. 47. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Latching mechanism, E end of turn span, viewed from W. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  9. The Course of Psychological Disorders in the 1st Year After Cancer Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders over the first 12-month period following a cancer diagnosis. Individuals recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy were assessed for ASD within…

  10. An experimental study on target recognition using white canes.

    PubMed

    Nunokawa, Kiyohiko; Ino, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    To understand basic tactile perception using white canes, we compared tapping (two times) and pushing (two times) methods using the index finger and using a white cane, with and without accompanying auditory information. Participants were six visually impaired individuals who used a white cane to walk independently in their daily lives. For each of the tapping and pushing and sound or no sound conditions, participants gave magnitude estimates for the hardness of rubber panels. Results indicated that using a white cane produces sensitivity levels equal to using a finger when accompanied by auditory information, and suggested that when using a white cane to estimate the hardness of a target, it is most effective to have two different modalities of tactile and auditory information derived from tapping. PMID:21096512

  11. Older Homebound Women: Negotiating Reliance on a Cane or Walker

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Eileen J.; Benson, Jacquelyn J.; Matsuda, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Canes and walkers are commonly characterized as assistive devices and as devices that serve the same purpose, as walking aides. These general views were reappraised and tempered in this descriptive phenomenological study with 40 older women (aged 85-98) who were unable to leave their homes without help. The purpose was to describe the phenomena of negotiating reliance on canes and walkers as walking devices and the lifeworld context underlying each phenomenon. Relative to lifeworld, there were differences between coming to terms with using a cane and coming to terms with using a walker. Data revealed similarities and distinctions between the basic intentions of relying on canes and on walkers and the associated purposes served by canes and walkers. Participants did not view either device as consistently assistive. Findings evoke opportunities for dialogue among older persons, scholars, practitioners, and designers of these devices about coming to terms with such devices and relying on them. PMID:21041520

  12. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    PubMed

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals. PMID:18003475

  13. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar....

  14. Regional Observations of North Korea Explosions: 1st and 2nd Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Shin, Jin Soo; Lee, Hee-Il; Park, Jung Ho; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung; Kim, Tea Sung; Che, Il-Young; Lim, In-Seub

    2010-05-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthally full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of the 1st and the 2nd test data showed that the 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly discriminate these events from two nearby natural earthquakes above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion also indicate the 2nd test had a very large isotropic component. But mb-Ms discrimination, which has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of the 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of both 1st and 2nd tests, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. These variations are mainly due to lateral variation of crustal structures surrounding the test site. Remarkably mb(Lg) showed very linear relationship with mb(Pn). By considering attenuation characteristics according to the propagation path, the variations could be effectively reduced. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of both tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of the 2nd test were much larger than that of the 1st one. The ratio of P-wave amplitudes of two tests showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the

  15. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 1st Quarter FY2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 73 reportable events (27 from the 1St Qtr FY-15 and 46 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 38 other issue reports (including nine not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions reported during the1st Qtr FY-15) identified at INL during the past 12 months.

  17. 46. NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, 1st FLOOR, BELOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, 1st FLOOR, BELOW PICKER AND CLOTH ROOM AREA. FUNCTION OF THIS SPACE UNKNOWN AT PRESENT. NOTE THAT EYE BEAM REPLACES ORIGINAL WALL OF 1892 PICKER HOUSE. CENTER (OR LEFT) DOOR IS ENTRY TO MILL NO. 2. RIGHT DOOR IS ENTRY TO 1892 NAPPER ROOM. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  18. 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference and 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference.

    PubMed

    Kovarova, Hana; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Archakov, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    The 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference was organized together with the 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference in the TOP Hotel, Prague in the Czech Republic from the 29th to the 31st October, 2007. The aim was to strengthen links with scientists from Central and Eastern Europe including Russia, which until now have been weak or nonexistent, and to highlight the emergence of excellent proteomic studies from various countries, which until now were not visible. PMID:18282121

  19. 7. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, ELECTRICAL 1ST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, ELECTRICAL 1ST AND 2ND FLOOR PLANS, SHEET 10 of 11, DRAWING NO. 35-03-05 SF 5/1677, U.S. Army Engineer District, Detroit, Corps of Engineers, 9 June, 1959, on file Selfridge Base Museum. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1041, West of E Street, north of D Street, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  20. Ruthenium indenylidene “1st generation” olefin metathesis catalysts containing triisopropyl phosphite

    PubMed Central

    Guidone, Stefano; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2015-01-01

    Summary The reaction of triisopropyl phosphite with phosphine-based indenylidene pre-catalysts affords “1st generation” cis-complexes. These have been used in olefin metathesis reactions. The cis-Ru species exhibit noticeable differences with the trans-Ru parent complexes in terms of structure, thermal stability and reactivity. Experimental data underline the importance of synergistic effects between phosphites and L-type ligands. PMID:26425210

  1. 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Banfield, Bruce W.; Mouland, Andrew J.; McCormick, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field. PMID:25256393

  2. 43. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Copy of photo 1900. Shows 1878 M&O RR bridge. The steamboat, 'Gopher,' in foreground, was an archeological survey vessel from the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. Published in Art in Mississippi (1901). Credit: Copied from print in Lowndes Co. Public Library by Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  3. 44. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Detail from Camille Drie's map: A Bird's Eye View of Columbus, Mississippi ca. 1875-76. Shows M&O RR bridge before the Phoenix Bridge Co. erected iron truss spans in 1878. Credit: Photostat of map in Lowndes Co. Public Library Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  4. Magnetic field induced 1st order transitions: Recent studies, and some new concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddah, P.

    2015-05-01

    Phase transitions are caused by varying temperature, or pressure, or magnetic field. The observation of 1st order magneto-structural transitions has created application possibilities based on magnetoresistance, magnetocaloric effect, magnetic shape memory effect, and magneto-dielectric effect. Magnetic field induced transitions, and phase coexistence of competing magnetic phases down to the lowest temperature, gained prominence over a decade ago with theoretical models suggesting that the ground state is not homogeneous. Researchers at Indore pushed an alternative view that this phase coexistence could be due to glasslike "kinetic arrest" of a disorder-broadened first-order magnetic transition between two states with long-range magnetic order, resulting in phase coexistence down to the lowest temperatures. The CHUF (cooling and heating in unequal field) protocol created at Indore allows the observation of `devitrification', followed by `melting'. I show examples of measurements establishing kinetic arrest in various materials, emphasizing that glasslike arrest of 1st order magnetic transitions may be as ubiquitous as glass formation following the arrest of 1st order structural transitions.

  5. Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

  6. Method for producing tip-layered, long-cane blackberry plants using the rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rotating cross-arm trellis and a unique cane training technique was used to produce 5- to 6-ft-long tall-cane plants of semi-erect (cv. Triple Crown) and trailing (cv. Siskiyou) blackberries. The primocanes were bent to grow horizontally at 18 in height and the lateral canes that developed on th...

  7. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

  8. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes. PMID:22580848

  9. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  10. 10. View of cane mill with reduction gears and steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of cane mill with reduction gears and steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Concepcion, Sugar Mill Ruins, .3 Mi. W. of Junction of Rts. 418 & 111, Victoria, Agaudilla Municipio, PR

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  12. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  13. VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, BUMPER ROLLERS IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  14. 17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor developed and patented by Mr. Arsenaud of Laurel Valley Plantation; Claiborne Toups, overseer, is standing on the left. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  15. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  16. Inhibition of osteoporosis in rats fed with sugar cane wax.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hajime; Man, Sun Li; Ohta, Yutaka; Katsuyama, Naofumi; Chinen, Isao

    2003-02-01

    Rats fed on a restricted, semi-purified diet containing a 50%-reduced level of carbohydrate and oil, but normal levels of protein, minerals and vitamins, exhibited osteoporosis. However, rats fed on this restricted diet, but containing sugar cane wax, did not exhibit this bone disease. Sugar cane wax, containing a long-chain carbohydrate with an OH radical, prevented the development of osteoporosis via a non-estrogenic mechanism. PMID:12729013

  17. By-products of the cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paturav, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

  18. Plant for getting more sugar out of a cane crop

    SciTech Connect

    Perdomo, R.E.; Despradel, J.O.; Arceneaux, G.

    1982-04-01

    A crop of sugar cane consists of several important varieties, each with different qualities affecting vegetative growth and maturity. A study recently conducted at Central Romana in the Dominican Republic has revealed differences between yield curves of sugar cane varieties in local culture and a method has been developed for a practical application of results. This paper briefly summarizes the essential findings and outlines its practical applications.

  19. Effects of Glyphosate Ripener Timing and Rate on Cane and Sugar Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugarcane industry is dependent on the use of glyphosate ripener applications to increase sucrose levels. Initially these applications began in late-August and were limited to the second-ratoon crop harvested at the start of the growing season. Currently, applications have been exten...

  20. Dipolar interactions and hydrogen bonding in supramolecular aggregates: understanding cooperative phenomena for 1st hyperpolarizability.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ayan; Pati, Swapan K

    2006-12-01

    Weak intermolecular forces like dipolar interactions and hydrogen-bonding lead to a variety of different packing arrangements of molecules in crystals and self-assemblies. Such differences in the arrangements change the extent of excitonic splitting and excitation spectra in the multichromophore aggregates. In this tutorial review, the role of such interactions in fine tuning the linear and 1st non-linear optical (NLO) responses in molecular aggregates are discussed. The non-additivity of these optical properties arise specifically due to such cooperative interactions. Calculations performed on dimers, trimers and higher aggregates for model systems provide insights into the interaction mechanisms and strategies to enhance the 1st hyperpolarizabilities of pi-conjugated molecular assemblies. Flexible dipole orientations in the alkane bridged chromophores show odd-even variations in their second-harmonic responses that are explained through their dipolar interactions in different conformations. Parameters for the optical applications of molecules arranged in constrained geometry, like in Calix[n]arene, have been elucidated. We also highlight the recent developments in this field of research together with their future prospects. PMID:17225890

  1. Autopsy as a tool for learning gross anatomy during 1st year MBBS

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Parmod Kumar; Gupta, Monika; Kaur, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Embalmed cadavers are the primary tool for teaching anatomy. However, difficulties are encountered due to changed color/texture of organs, hardening of tissues, and smell of formaldehyde. To overcome these difficulties, dissections on a fresh human body were shown to the 1st year MBBS students, and their perception was noted. Materials and Methods: After taking universal precautionary measures, postmortem dissections were shown to students on voluntary donated bodies in the dissection hall, in addition to the traditional teaching on embalmed cadavers. Feedback was taken from students and faculty regarding the utility of these sessions. Results: Better appreciation of texture, orientation, location, and relations of organs in fresh body, integration of teaching, awareness of the process and laws related to body donations were the outcomes of the study. However, the smell and sight of blood was felt to be nauseating by some students, and some students were worried about the spread of infectious diseases. Conclusions: Visualizing single fresh body dissection during 1st year professional MBBS is recommended either on medicolegal autopsy or on voluntarily-donated bodies. PMID:27563594

  2. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, James; Comstock, Jack C.

    2015-11-25

    Phenotyping Methods: The accessions (which includes 21 taxa and 1,177 accessions) in the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) was evaluated for the following traits: arenchyma, internode length and diameter, pubescence, pith, Brix, stalk number and fiber. A core of 300 accessions that included each species in the World Collection was selected by using the Maximization Strategy in MStrat software. Results: The core had a higher diversity rating than random selections of 300 accessions. The Shannon–Weaver Diversity Index scores of the core and whole collection were similar indicating that the majority of the diversity was captured by the core collection. The ranges and medians between the core and WCSRG were similar; only two of the trait medians were not significant at P = 0.05 using the non-parametric Wilcoxon method and the coincidence rate (CR % = 96.2) was high (>80) indicating that extreme values were retained. Thus, the phenotypic diversity of these traits in the WCSRG was well represented by the core collection. Associations Methods: Genotypic and phenotypic data were collected for 1002 accessions of the WCSRG including 209 SSR markers. Association analysis was performed using both General Linear (GLM) and Maximum Likelihood (MLM) models. Different core collections with 300 accessions each were selected based on genotypic, phenotypic and combined data based on the Maximization Strategy in MStrat software. Results: A major portion of the genotyping involving SNPs is being conducted by Dr. Jianping Wang of the University of Florida under the DOE award DE-FG 02-11ER 65214 and the genotypic and phenotypic associations will be reported separately next year. In the current, study forty one and seventeen markers were found to be associated with traits using the GLM and MLM methods respectively including associations with arenchyma, internode length and diameter, pubescence, pith, and Sugar Cane Yellow Leaf Virus. The data indicates that each

  3. Use of the C-5 Laser Cane by School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldie, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    The use of the Laser Cane with four blind students attending public school is discussed with emphasis on modifications in technique needed to integrate the cane's use into each student's travel system. (Author)

  4. Advanced Augmented White Cane with obstacle height and distance feedback.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Rosali; Kim, Yeongmi; Wespe, Pascal; Gassert, Roger; Schneller, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The white cane is a widely used mobility aid that helps visually impaired people navigate the surroundings. While it reliably and intuitively extends the detection range of ground-level obstacles and drop-offs to about 1.2 m, it lacks the ability to detect trunk and head-level obstacles. Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been proposed to overcome these limitations, but have found minimal adoption due to limitations such as low information content and low reliability thereof. Although existing ETAs extend the sensing range beyond that of the conventional white cane, most of them do not detect head-level obstacles and drop-offs, nor can they identify the vertical extent of obstacles. Furthermore, some ETAs work independent of the white cane, and thus reliable detection of surface textures and drop-offs is not provided. This paper introduces a novel ETA, the Advanced Augmented White Cane, which detects obstacles at four vertical levels and provides multi-sensory feedback. We evaluated the device in five blindfolded subjects through reaction time measurements following the detection of an obstacle, as well as through the reliability of dropoff detection. The results showed that our aid could help the user successfully detect an obstacle and identify its height, with an average reaction time of 410 msec. Drop-offs were reliably detected with an intraclass correlation > 0.95. This work is a first step towards a low-cost ETA to complement the functionality of the conventional white cane. PMID:24187177

  5. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids. PMID:24228787

  6. Sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek in Lauderdale County, Tennessee, was conducted from 1985-88 to evaluate the potential for channel erosion induced by modifications (realignment and enlargement) and the potential ability of different flows to move bed and bank stabilizing material. Frequently occurring flows in Cane Creek are capable of moving sand-size material (0.0625 - 4.0 millimeters). During floods that equal or exceed the 2-year flood, Cane Creek is capable of moving very coarse gravel (32 - 64 millimeters). Boundary-shear values at bridges, where flow contractions occur, correspond to critical diameters in excess of 100 millimeters. Thus, the areas near bridges, where channel stability is most critical, are the areas where erosive power is greatest. Deepening and widening of Cane Creek has exposed large areas of channel boundary that are a significant source of raindrop-detached sediment during the early stages of a storm before stream flow increases signifi- cantly. This causes suspended-sediment concentration to peak while the flow hydrograph is just beginning to rise. For basins like Cane Creek, where runoff events commonly last less than a day and where variation in discharge and sediment concentrations are large, an estimate of sediment yield based on periodic observations of instantaneous values is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  7. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

  8. Assessment of canes used by older adults in senior living communities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao Howe; Eaves, Joshua; Wang, Wen; Womack, Jill; Bullock, Paige

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to provide basic but essential information about how older cane users obtain their canes and how they use these canes for their daily mobility, since there is still lack of information on these areas. Ninety-three older (≥65 years old) subjects who use canes for daily activities were recruited from four assisted living facilities and five retirement centers for this cross-sectional study. The assessment involved interviewing cane users with a questionnaire, examining their canes, and investigating how these canes were used by their owners during ambulation. The commonly used canes are (from most to least): adjustable single-tip, un-adjustable (wooden), small quad, and large quad. Five major problems from data analysis were identified: lack of medical consultation for device selection/use, incorrect cane height/maintenance, placement of cane in improper hand, inability to maintain the proper reciprocal gait pattern, and improper posture during ambulation. Only forward-leaning posture during ambulation might be associated with increased falls among the older cane users. Knowledge of these problems could assist health professionals to implement appropriate interventions in clinical settings and to provide community service to address all problems related to cane use. PMID:20416960

  9. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  10. Screening for tolerance to saturated soil conditions for cane grown for sugar and biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana cane (Saccharum spp.) is often produced on heavy-textured soils which often remain saturated for extended periods during the growing and harvest season. The objective of this research was to identify commercial sugar cane and energy cane varieties that exhibit tolerance to periodic satura...

  11. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  12. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  13. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  14. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  15. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  16. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  17. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  18. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  19. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  20. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  1. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  2. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  3. EDITORIAL: The 1st International Conference on Nanomanufacturing (NanoMan2008) The 1st International Conference on Nanomanufacturing (NanoMan2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jack Jiqui; Fang, Fengzhou

    2009-05-01

    Nanomanufacturing is an emerging technology in the field of synthesis of nanomaterials, manufacture of nanodevices, nanosystems and the relevant characterization technologies, and will greatly impact our society and environment: speeding up scientific discovery, technological development, improving healthcare and living standards and slowing down the exhaustion of energy resources, to name but few. The 1st International Conference on Nanomanufacturing (NanoMan2008) was held on the 13-16 July 2008 in Singapore in conjunction with ThinFilm2008 (The 4th International Conference on Technological Advances of Thin Films & Surface Coatings). Approximately 140 delegates from all over the world have participated in the conference and presented their latest discoveries and technological developments. The main focuses of the conference were modern nanomanufacturing by laser machining, focused ion beam fabrication, nano/micro-molding/imprinting, nanomaterial synthesis and characterization, nanometrology and nano/microsystems fabrication and characterization. There was also great interest in applications of nanomanufacturing technologies in traditional areas such as free form machining, polishing and grinding with nano-scale precision and the smoothness of surfaces of objects, and applications in space exploration, military and medicine. This special issue is devoted to NanoMan2008 with a collection of 9 invited talks presented at the conference, covering all the topics of nanomanufacturing technology and development. These papers have been upgraded by the authors with new results and discoveries since the preparation of the conference manuscripts, hence presenting the latest developments. We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the delegates who attended the conference and made the conference successful, and to the authors who contributed papers to this special issue. Thanks also go to the conference committee for their efforts and devotion to the conference. We

  4. Correlates and Phenomenology of 1st and 3rd Person Memories

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Robins, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The present research addressed fundamental questions about the visual perspective of autobiographical memories: Are stable personality characteristics associated with visual perspective? Does visual perspective influence the memory's phenomenological qualities? Participants in Study 1 (N = 1,684) completed individual-difference measures and indicated the perspective from which they generally retrieve memories. Participants in Study 2 (N = 706) retrieved a memory from their natural or manipulated perspective, rated its phenomenology, and completed the same individual-difference measures. Dissociation and anxiety were associated with 3rd person retrieval style; the Big Five personality traits were primarily unrelated to perspective. Compared to 3rd person memories, naturally-occurring 1st person memories were higher on Vividness, Coherence, Accessibility, Sensory Detail, Emotional Intensity, and Time Perspective and lower on Distancing; manipulating perspective eliminated these differences. Visual perspective is associated with clinically-relevant constructs and, although associated with the memory's phenomenology, perspective does not shape it. PMID:20665336

  5. Meeting report for the 1st skin microbiota workshop, boulder, CO October 15-16 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This report details the outcome of the 1st Skin Microbiota Workshop, Boulder, CO, held on October 15th-16th 2012. The workshop was arranged to bring Department of Defense personnel together with experts in microbial ecology, human skin physiology and anatomy, and computational techniques for interrogating the microbiome to define research frontiers at the intersection of these important areas. The workshop outlined a series of questions and created several working groups to address those questions, specifically to promote interdisciplinary activity and potential future collaboration. The US Army provided generous grant support and the meeting was organized and hosted by the University of Colorado at Boulder. A primary forward vision of the meeting was the importance of understanding skin microbial communities to improve the health and stealth of US Army warfighters.

  6. Statistical Ring Opening Metathesis Copolymerization of Norbornene and Cyclopentene by Grubbs' 1st-Generation Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Nikovia, Christiana; Maroudas, Andreas-Philippos; Goulis, Panagiotis; Tzimis, Dionysios; Paraskevopoulou, Patrina; Pitsikalis, Marinos

    2015-01-01

    Statistical copolymers of norbornene (NBE) with cyclopentene (CP) were prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization, employing the 1st-generation Grubbs' catalyst, in the presence or absence of triphenylphosphine, PPh₃. The reactivity ratios were estimated using the Finemann-Ross, inverted Finemann-Ross, and Kelen-Tüdos graphical methods, along with the computer program COPOINT, which evaluates the parameters of binary copolymerizations from comonomer/copolymer composition data by integrating a given copolymerization equation in its differential form. Structural parameters of the copolymers were obtained by calculating the dyad sequence fractions and the mean sequence length, which were derived using the monomer reactivity ratios. The kinetics of thermal decomposition of the copolymers along with the respective homopolymers was studied by thermogravimetric analysis within the framework of the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger methodologies. Finally, the effect of triphenylphosphine on the kinetics of copolymerization, the reactivity ratios, and the kinetics of thermal decomposition were examined. PMID:26343620

  7. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane... used in the control of microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph...) Combination for cane-sugar mills: Parts per million Disodium cyanodithioimidocarbonate 2.5 Ethylenediamine...

  8. Quantification of long cane usage characteristics with the constant contact technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongmi; Moncada-Torres, Arturo; Furrer, Jonas; Riesch, Markus; Gassert, Roger

    2016-07-01

    While a number of Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been developed over the past decades, the conventional long cane remains the most widely utilized navigation tool for people with visual impairments. Understanding the characteristics of long cane usage is crucial for the development and acceptance of ETAs. Using optical tracking, cameras and inertial measurement units, we investigated grasp type, cane orientation and sweeping characteristics of the long cane with the constant contact technique. The mean cane tilt angle, sweeping angle, and grip rotation deviation were measured. Grasp type varied among subjects, but was maintained throughout the experiments, with thumb and index finger in contact with the cane handle over 90% of the time. We found large inter-subject differences in sweeping range and frequency, while the sweeping frequency showed low intra-subject variability. These findings give insights into long cane usage characteristics and provide critical information for the development of effective ETAs. PMID:26965194

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of a Computer Simulation of Long Cane Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubon, Robert A.; Keith, Ashley D.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and evaluated long cane mobility computer simulation as visual rehabilitation training device and research tool in graduate students assigned to instruction (BI) (N=10) or enhanced instruction (EI) (N=9). Found higher percentage of EI students completed simulation task. Concluded that students registered positive understanding changes,…

  10. Attitudes of Visually Impaired Persons toward Cane Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainapel, S. F.

    1989-01-01

    Semistructured telephone interviews with 10 visually impaired adult cane users found that early negative attitudes of stigma were usually replaced by more positive attitudes and that there was a mean of 1 3/4 years between the onset of severe visual impairment and commencement of orientation and mobility training. (Author/DB)

  11. Mechanical planter update: 2007 Bayou Teche test plant cane results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanization of cane planting has been somewhat limited, due to the fact that the entire 4-5 ft stalk must be planted horizontally in the seedbed. Several modifications were made to mechanical planters by a grower cooperator. To test the modifications, a replicated field trial was planted on Augus...

  12. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  13. Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1981-11-01

    The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

  14. Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories

    SciTech Connect

    Torisson, T.

    1984-04-01

    Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

  15. PREFACE: 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows (GasMems 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frijns, Arjan; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Colin, Stéphane; Baldas, Lucien

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is to advance research in Europe and worldwide in the field of gas micro flows as well as to improve global fundamental knowledge and to enable technological applications. Gas flows in microsystems are of great importance and touch almost every industrial field (e.g. fluidic microactuators for active control of aerodynamic flows, vacuum generators for extracting biological samples, mass flow and temperature micro-sensors, pressure gauges, micro heat-exchangers for the cooling of electronic components or for chemical applications, and micro gas analyzers or separators). The main characteristic of gas microflows is their rarefaction, which for device design often requires modelling and simulation both by continuous and molecular approaches. In such flows various non-equilibrium transport phenomena appear, while the role played by the interaction between the gas and the solid device surfaces becomes essential. The proposed models of boundary conditions often need an empirical adjustment strongly dependent on the micro manufacturing technique. The 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is organized under the umbrella of the recently established GASMEMS network (www.gasmems.eu/) consisting of 13 participants and six associate members. The main objectives of the network are to structure research and train researchers in the fields of micro gas dynamics, measurement techniques for gaseous flows in micro experimental setups, microstructure design and micro manufacturing with applications in lab and industry. The conference takes place on June 6-8 2012, at the Skiathos Palace Hotel, on the beautiful island of Skiathos, Greece. The conference has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement ITN GASMEMS no. 215504. It owes its success to many people. We would like to acknowledge the support of all members of the Scientific Committee and of all

  16. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gömze, László A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive knowledge, materials, equipment and technology processes. The idea to organize in Hungary the 1st International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials we have received from prospective scientists, physicists, chemists, mathematicians and engineers from Asia, Europe, North and South America including India, Korea, Russia, Turkey, Estonia, France, Italy, United Kingdom, Chile, Mexico and USA. The goals of ic-rmm1 the 1st International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials are the following: • Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications. • Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. • Promote the communication between the scientists of different disciplines, nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm1 provides a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among the major fields of interest are the influences of material structures, mechanical stresses temperature and deformation speeds on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of

  17. Lateral cane lengths affect yield components in 'Triple Crown' blackberry on rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three primocanes of mature ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry plants were trained on the rotating cross-arm trellis (RCA) trellis. By the end of the summer, as many as 30 lateral canes with lengths greater than 3.5 m had developed on three primocanes that had been bent at a 0.50-m height and allowed to exte...

  18. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop: April 5-7, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: (1) Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; (2) Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; (3) Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; (4) Identify synergies across different industries; (5) Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; (6) Understand who are the leading experts; (7) Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  19. PROPAGATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE JUNE 1st 2008 CME IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lamb, D. A.; Davila, J. M.; Vinas, A. F.; Moestl, C.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Malandraki, O.; Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.

    2009-12-01

    In this work we present a study of the coronal mass ejection (CME) of June 1st of 2008 in the interplanetary medium. This event has been extensively studied by others because of its favorable geometry and the possible consequences of its peculiar initiation for space weather forecasting. We show an analysis of the evolution of the CME in the interplanetary medium in order to shed some light on the propagation mechanism of the ICME. We have determined the typical shock associated characteristics of the ICME in order to understand the propagation properties. Using two different non force-free models of the magnetic cloud allows us to incorporate expansion of the cloud. We use in-situ measurements from STEREO B/IMPACT to characterize the ICME. In addition, we use images from STEREO A/SECCHI-HI to analyze the propagation and visual evolution of the associated flux rope in the interplanetary medium. We compare and contrast these observations with the results of the analytical models.

  20. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Dennis; Dippold, Vance, III; Georgiadis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a series of convergent convergent nozzles for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. These configurations included a included a reference axisymmetric nozzle as well as 15deg , 25deg , and 40deg conical nozzles. Participants were also asked also asked to examine the plume shock structure for two cases where the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a bifurcated by a solid plate. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  1. 1st paleomagnetic investigation of Nubia Sandstone at Kalabsha, south Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, R.; Khashaba, A.; El-Hemaly, I. A.; Takla, E. M.; Abdel Aal, E.; Odah, H.

    2016-06-01

    Two profiles have been sampled from the Nubia Sandstone at Aswan, south Western Desert: the 1st profile has been taken from Abu Aggag Formation and the 2nd one was from Sabaya Formation (23.25 °N, 32.75 °E). 136 oriented cores (from 9 sites) have been sampled. Abu Aggag Formation is of Late Cretaceous (Turonian) and Sabaya Formation is of early Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian). The studied rocks are subjected to rock magnetic measurements as well as demagnetization treatment. It has been found that hematite is the main magnetic mineral in both formations. Four profile sections from Abu Aggag Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 352.7°, I = 36.6° with α95 = 5.2° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 82.8 °N and Long. = 283.1 °E. Five profile sections from Sabaya Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 348.6°, I = 33.3° with α95 = 5.8° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 78.3 °N and Long. = 280.4 °E. The obtained paleopole for the two formations lies at Lat. = 80.5 °N and Long. = 281.7 °E. The obtaind magnetic components are considered primary and the corresponding paleopole reflects the age of Nubia Sandstone when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for Egypt.

  2. [Struggle against typhus in the Caucasian front during the 1st World War].

    PubMed

    Karatepe, Mustafa

    2002-01-01

    As an infectious disease, typhus has triggered many epidemics during the course of wars and caused thousands of death all through the ages. The French physician Charles Nicolle (1886-1936) defined its agent as a louse transferring the disease from man to man in 1909 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1928. Many cases were reported during the 1st World War both in the European and the Ottoman armies; and one of the most severe epidemics broke in the Caucasian front; a great number of civilians and soldiers died at winter in 1914 and 1915. Lice had to be destroyed in order to prevent the epidemic, but etuves in the Caucasian front was too few to achieve it. Clothes were cleansed in ovens by means of a method proposed by Dr. Abdülkadir Noyan (1886-1977). On March 28, 1915 the first typhus vaccination, obtained from the infected blood of the patients, was applied by Dr. Tevfik Salim (Saklam) (1882-1963). In 1916 Dr. Ahmet Fikri Tüzer discovered a disinfection apparatus called "buğu sandiği" (vapour box) which was widely used in the Caucasian front after 1917. This apparatus was highly useful in controlling the typhus epidemics. 164 health officers lost their lifes in the Caucasian front between 1914-1918, in addition, 7310 military casualties were recorded from 1915 to the end of the war. PMID:17152154

  3. Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2014-07-01

    Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features. PMID:24815992

  4. [POPIN Advisory Committee, 1st session. Geneva, March 22-25, 1982: report].

    PubMed

    1982-09-01

    A report of the POPIN, (International Population Information Network), Advisory Committee on its 1st session. The chairman presented a progress report on the activities of the Network in general and the POPIN coordinating unit in particular. More active participation by the developing countries was stressed to share information. The working group reported the efforts made by various groups for the translation of the population multilingual thesaurus into other languages. It also reviewed the draft manuscript on inventory and evaluation of training materials to identify gaps and make suggestions for improvement. The advisory committee suggested the development of a series of shorter guides which would deal with specific subjects. The development of a common classification scheme was considered of utmost importance since it would facilitate the processing, retrieval and exchange of information. A proposed work plan for 1983 and 1984 was discussed. This included publication of the POPIN Bulletin and newsletter, preparation of documentations for the sessions of the Advisory Committee, publication of the specific guides and a directory of POPIN members. Recommendations of the committee included measures for expansion of membership, publication of Popline multilingual thesaurus and guides for specific subjects. The committee considered and adopted the recommendations. Annexes include, 1) list of participants, documents and agenda, 2) recommendations of the POPIN working group on the management of the population multilingual thesaurus, and 3) recommendations on the inventory and evaluation of teaching materials for population information services. PMID:12279381

  5. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence. PMID:26334946

  6. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p < 4.3 × 10(-5), standard t-test) in distance estimation. Each sensor unit can detect an object with a surface area as small as 1 cm(2) (1 cm × 1 cm) located 70 cm away. Our results showed that the walking speed for an obstacle course was increased by 23% on average when subjects used the Wearable Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test). PMID:26334037

  7. Jordanian Kindergarten and 1st-Grade Teachers' Beliefs about Child-Based Dimensions of School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayez, Merfat; Ahmad, Jamal Fathi; Oliemat, Enass

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs of Jordanian kindergarten and 1st-grade teachers regarding six child-based dimensions of school readiness: academic knowledge, basic thinking skills, socioemotional maturity, physical well-being and motor development, self-discipline, and communication skills. Questionnaires were used to collect…

  8. Laying a Foundation for Lifelong Learning: Case Studies of E-Assessment in Large 1st-Year Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about noncompletion and the quality of the 1st-year student experience have been linked to recent changes in higher education such as modularisation, increased class sizes, greater diversity in the student intake and reduced resources. Improving formative assessment and feedback processes is seen as one way of addressing academic failure,…

  9. 78 FR 7781 - Filing Dates for the South Carolina Special Elections in the 1st Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the South Carolina Special Elections in the 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special elections. SUMMARY: South Carolina...

  10. Addressing the Effects of Reciprocal Teaching on the Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary of 1st-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Eliana; Osana, Helena P.; Venkatesh, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Adapted Reciprocal Teaching (ART) on the receptive and expressive flight-word vocabulary of 1st-grade students. During ART, classroom interactions produced narrative contexts within which students assumed responsibility for applying new flight words in personally meaningful ways. Students in the control group…

  11. Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.…

  12. Foreword to Selected presentations from the 1st European Hip Sport Meeting.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Dante; Ribas, Manuel

    2016-05-14

    Recent years have witnessed a growing number of people practising sports both at professional and amateur level. This trend led to a progressive rise in the incidence and prevalence of acute and chronic hip damage. The treatment of hip disease in subjects practising sports is a major challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon. The evaluation of patients, in particular those of young age with high functional demands, is inevitably complex and should be performed with a multidisciplinary approach; from a surgical point of view, it is essential to carefully assess whether the indication is towards conservative surgery or hip replacement surgery. The advent of arthroscopic surgery in recent years has allowed us to improve our knowledge of hip joint diseases, such as femoroacetabular impingement that is typical of sports and overuse activity. A correct and early diagnosis of the disease can direct the patient promptly to a conservative surgical treatment that could reduce the progression of degenerative pathology. However, when the joint is permanently damaged, the only reliable solution remains prosthetic surgery, leading to a series of issues that the orthopaedic surgeon should be able to master, leading to a thoughtful decision on, for example, which implant to use, which biomaterials, which surgical approach or which sport to practise after surgery. This supplement contains selected contributions stemming from the work performed by internationally recognised experts in the field and presented during the 1st European Hip Sport Meeting held in Bologna on May 19th, 20th, 2016 that we had the honour to co-chair. We hope that these contributions will help the orthopaedic surgeon, the sports physician and physiotherapist in their day-to-day practice, and will help in fulfilling our ultimate aim to improve the knowledge of the hip pathology related to sports and overuse activities. PMID:27174057

  13. PREFACE: 1st Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science 2013 (LPBMS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi

    2014-04-01

    From 29-31 August 2013, the 1st International Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science, LPBMS 2013, took place in the Tsukuba International Congress Center in the city of Tsukuba, Japan. The conference was a continuation of the international series Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS), which started in 1994. The last one, SRMS-7, was held in Oxford UK 11-14 July 2010, where the International Advisory Committee (IAC) recommended the conference be enlarged to incorporate Materials Research from Neutron, Muon, and Slow Positron Sources, as well as the science emerging from Synchrotron Light Sources. The conference brought together contributions from academics and industrial researchers with a diverse background and experience from the physics, chemistry and engineering communities. The topics covered in the LPBMS2013 include strongly correlated electron systems, magnetism and magnetic materials, soft matter, interface and surface defects, catalysts, biomaterials, and ceramics. In the 3-day scientific program, the conference consisted of 9 plenary talks, 33 invited talks, 20 oral presentations, and 126 poster presentations. We are pleased to publish the proceedings of the LPBMS2013 in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This volume contains 58 papers representing the work that was presented and discussed at the conference. We hope that this volume will promote further development of this interdisciplinary materials research emerging from synchrotron light, neutron, muon, and slow positron sciences. Finally, we would like to thank the International Advisory Committee (Chair: Professor G N Greaves), sponsors, all the participants and contributors for making possible this international meeting of researchers. Reiji Kumai & Youichi Murakami Conference photograph Details of the program and organizing committees are available in the pdf

  14. Computational Simulations of Convergent Nozzles for the AIAA 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance F., III

    2014-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were completed for a series of convergent nozzles in participation of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The simulations were performed using the Wind-US flow solver. Discharge and thrust coefficients were computed for four axisymmetric nozzles with nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 1.4 to 7.0. The computed discharge coefficients showed excellent agreement with available experimental data; the computed thrust coefficients captured trends observed in the experimental data, but over-predicted the thrust coefficient by 0.25 to 1.0 percent. Sonic lines were computed for cases with NPR >= 2.0 and agreed well with experimental data for NPR >= 2.5. Simulations were also performed for a 25 deg. conic nozzle bifurcated by a flat plate at NPR = 4.0. The jet plume shock structure was compared with and without the splitter plate to the experimental data. The Wind-US simulations predicted the shock structure well, though lack of grid resolution in the plume reduced the sharpness of the shock waves. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations and Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) were performed at NPR = 1.6 for the 25 deg conic nozzle with splitter plate. The simulations predicted vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the splitter plate. However, the vortices of URANS and DES solutions appeared to dissipate earlier than observed experimentally. It is believed that a lack of grid resolution in the region of the vortex shedding may have caused the vortices to break down too soon

  15. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  16. Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

    2004-03-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

  17. Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of β-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of β-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse. PMID:25496945

  18. [New technologies and workers' health: mechanization of sugar cane harvesting].

    PubMed

    Scopinho, R A; Eid, F; Vian, C E; Silva, P R

    1999-01-01

    In the context of reorganization of production in the sugar and alcohol industry, mechanization of sugar cane harvesting has been justified as a protective measure for the environment and workers. This article focuses on the consequences of organization of work in mechanization of sugar cane harvesting with regard to the harvester operators' health. Based on data gathered through interviews and direct observation at the workplace, changes implemented in the technological base and division of labor and organization were analyzed, identifying the work load inherent to the process and how it affects workers' health. While harvesters help decrease the physical, chemical, and mechanical work load, they increase the physiological and psychological work load. There is evidence of significant change in the pattern of work-related accidents, entailing a decrease in their frequency and increase in severity. The pattern of illness among harvester operators is similar to that of manual sugar cane cutters, with a highlight on psychosomatic illness related to the organization of work in shifts and increased tempo due to use of machinery. PMID:10203455

  19. Surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, in Lauderdale County, West Tennessee, was studied from 1985-88. Peoria Loess is the parent material from which soils in the Cane Creek drainage basin were derived. In general, a brown silt grades into a gray silt from 5 to I7 feet below ground surface. This color change probably represents depth to water table prior to the channelization of Cane Creek. Only at river mile 11.9 does rock outcrop near the main channel. Lower reaches of major tributaries have surficial geology similar to the main channel. In upper reaches of Hyde Creek and Fain Spring Creek, the sequence from the St&ace is sand and gravels, red-brown sandstone, sand and clay layers, and then, an orange sand layer. Coarse-grained deposits are found most often along the northern boundary of the basin and only occasionally in areas to the west and south of the main channel. Depth to sand or gravel ranges from about 0 to 158 feet in the uplands, and generally deeper than 40 feet near the main channel.

  20. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used. PMID:26530907

  1. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, H. B.; Sculaccio, S. A.; Thiemann, O. H.; Oliva, G.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthases (PRS; EC 2.7.6.1) are enzymes that are of central importance in several metabolic pathways in all cells. The sugar cane PRS enzyme contains 328 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.6 kDa and represents the first plant PRS to be crystallized, as well as the first phosphate-independent PRS to be studied in molecular detail. Sugar cane PRS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Using X-ray diffraction experiments it was determined that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and unit-cell parameters a = 213.2, b = 152.6, c = 149.3 Å. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.3 Å and a complete data set to 3.5 Å resolution was collected and analysed.

  2. Ethanol from Sugar Cane: Flask Experiments Using the EX-FERM Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rolz, Carlos; de Cabrera, Sheryl

    1980-01-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. Two types of cane treatments were used: chips and shredded pith, either fresh or dried. A mother culture of the yeast was prepared in enriched cane juice and then added to the cane-water mixture. After static fermentation for 40 h at 30°C, the cane was removed, and fresh cane was added to the yeast-alcohol broth. After an additional 24 h, the cane was again removed and the liquor was analyzed. After the first 40-h cycle, sugar consumption was above 99% with 10 of the 37 yeast strains tested, and ethanol reached levels of 1.29 to 4.00 g per 100 ml, depending on the yeast strain. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37 g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level. PMID:16345626

  3. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin M.; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan N.

    2008-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across 3 years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, S.D. = 0.39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from 1 year prior) and for influences of child's age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and…

  4. Effects of the April 1st, 2014 GLONASS Outage on GNSS Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Romero, I.; D'Anastasio, E.

    2014-12-01

    The use of multi-constellation GNSS receivers has been assumed as a way to increase system integrity both by increased coverage during normal operations and failover redundancy in the event of a constellation failure. At approximately 21:00 UTC on April 1st the entire GLONASS constellation was disrupted as illegal ephemeris uploaded to each satellite took effect simultaneously. The outage continued for more than 10 hours. While ephemeris were incorrect, pseudoranges were correctly broadcast on both L1 and L2 and carrier phases were not affected; in the best case, GNSS receivers could be expected to continue to track all signals including GLONASS and at the worst to continue to track GPS and other constellations. It became clear to operators of the GeoNet network in New Zealand that the majority of their 79 GLONASS-enabled receivers experienced total tracking failures. Further detailed analysis of data from these and 315 additional GLONASS-enabled stations worldwide showed that receiver tracking behavior was affected for most receiver brands and models, both for GLONASS and GPS. Findings regarding the impacts of the GLONASS outage on receiver behavior will be highlighted. We use data recorded by GLONASS enabled global sites for the days during, preceding and following the outage to evaluate the impact of the outage on tracking and positioning performance. We observe that for some receiver types the onboard receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) failed to ignore the incorrect messages, resulting in degraded GLONASS and GPS tracking and in some cases complete tracking failures and significant data loss. In addition, many of the receivers with clock steering enabled showed outliers in their receiver clock bias estimates that also coincided with the outage. Our results show in detail how different brands, configurations, and distributions of receivers were affected to varying extents, but no common factors are apparent. This event shows that many manufacturers

  5. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research 2011 (ICMER2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Rosli

    2012-09-01

    The year 2010 represented a significant milestone in the history of the Mechanical Engineering community with the organization of the first and second national level conferences (National Conference in Mechanical Engineering for Research, 1st and 2nd NCMER) at Universiti Malaysia Pahang on 26-27 May and 3-4 December 2010. The conferences attracted a large number of delegates from different premier academic and research institutions in the country to participate and share their research experiences at the conference. The International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2011) followed on from the first and second conferences due to good support from researchers. The ICMER 2011 is a good platform for researchers and postgraduate students to present their latest finding in research. The conference covers a wide range of topics including the internal combustion engine, machining processes, heat and mass transfer, fuel, biomechanical analysis, aerodynamic analysis, thermal comfort, computational techniques, design and simulation, automotive transmission, optimization techniques, hybrid electric vehicles, engine vibration, heat exchangers, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, green energy, vehicle dynamics renewable energy, combustion, design, product development, advanced experimentation techniques, to name but a few. The international conference has helped to bridge the gap between researchers working at different institutions and in different countries to share their knowledge and has helped to motivate young scientists with their research. This has also given some clear direction for further research from the deliberations of the conference. Several people have contributed in different ways to the success of the conference. We thank the keynote speakers and all authors of the contributed papers, for the cooperation rendered to us in the publication of the CD conference proceedings. In particular, we would like to place on record our

  6. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuja Syed, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    The 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies (ICSICCST-2013), took place in Karachi, Pakistan, from 24-26 June 2013. It was organized by Indus University, Karachi, in collaboration with HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi. More than 80 abstracts were submitted to the conference and were double blind-reviewed by an international scientific committee. The topics of the Conference were: Video, Image & Voice Sensing Sensing for Industry, Environment, and Health Automation and Controls Laser Sensors and Systems Displays for Innovative Applications Emerging Technologies Unmanned, Robotic, and Layered Systems Sensing for Defense, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement The title of the conference, 'Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies' is very apt in capturing the main issues facing the industry of Pakistan and the world. We believe the sensing industry, particularly in Pakistan, is currently at a critical juncture of its development. The future of the industry will depend on how the industry players choose to respond to the challenge of global competition and opportunities arising from strong growth in the Asian region for which we are pleased to note that the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues with an international perspective. This will certainly assist industry players to make informed decisions in shaping the future of the industry. The conference gathered qualified researchers from developed countries like USA, UK, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, China, South Korea and Malaysia etc whose expertise resulting from the research can be drawn upon to build an exploitable area of new technology that has potential Defense, Homeland Security, and Military applicability. More than 250 researchers/students attended the event and made the event great success as the turnout was 100%. An exceptional line-up of speakers spoke at the occasion. We want

  7. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  8. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  9. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects on the Development of Immune Responses in the 1st Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Nicolae, Dan; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Roberg, Kathy; Evans, Michael; Mirel, Daniel B.; Steiner, Lori; Walker, Karen; Shult, Peter; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Gern, James E.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Ober, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease that results from both genetic and environmental risk factors. Children attending day care in the 1st year of life have lower risks for developing asthma, although the mechanism for this “day care” effect is largely unknown. We investigated the interactions between day care exposure in the 1st 6 mo of life and genotypes for 72 polymorphisms at 45 candidate loci and their effects on cytokine response profiles and on the development of atopic phenotypes in the 1st year of life in the Childhood Onset of Asthma (COAST) cohort of children. Six interactions (at four polymorphisms in three loci) with “day care” that had an effect on early-life immune phenotypes were significant at P<.001. The estimated false-discovery rate was 33%, indicating that an estimated four P values correspond to true associations. Moreover, the “day care” effect at some loci was accounted for by the increased number of viral infections among COAST children attending day care, whereas interactions at other loci were independent of the number of viral infections, indicating the presence of additional risk factors associated with day care environment. This study identified significant gene-environment interactions influencing the early patterning of the immune system and the subsequent development of asthma and highlights the importance of considering environmental risk factors in genetic analyses. PMID:15726497

  10. The theoretical simulation on electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liandong; Bai, Xiaofeng; Song, De; Fu, Shencheng; Li, Ye; Duanmu, Qingduo

    2015-03-01

    Low-light-level night vision technology is magnifying low light level signal large enough to be seen by naked eye, which uses the photons - photoelectron as information carrier. Until the micro-channel plate was invented, it has been possibility for the realization of high performance and miniaturization of low-light-level night vision device. The device is double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier which places a micro-channel plate close to photocathode and phosphor screen. The advantages of proximity focusing low-light-level night vision are small size, light weight, small power consumption, no distortion, fast response speed, wide dynamic range and so on. It is placed parallel to each other for Micro-channel plate (both sides of it with metal electrode), the photocathode and the phosphor screen are placed parallel to each other. The voltage is applied between photocathode and the input of micro-channel plate when image intensifier works. The emission electron excited by photo on the photocathode move towards to micro-channel plate under the electric field in 1st proximity focusing region, and then it is multiplied through the micro-channel. The movement locus of emission electrons can be calculated and simulated when the distributions of electrostatic field equipotential lines are determined in the 1st proximity focusing region. Furthermore the resolution of image tube can be determined. However the distributions of electrostatic fields and equipotential lines are complex due to a lot of micro-channel existing in the micro channel plate. This paper simulates electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier with the finite element simulation analysis software Ansoft maxwell 3D. The electrostatic field distributions of 1st proximity region are compared when the micro-channel plates' pore size, spacing and inclination angle ranged. We believe that the electron beam movement

  11. PREFACE: PAGES 1st Young Scientists Meeting (YSM) - 'Retrospective views on our planet's future'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2010-03-01

    more recent pollution. The concept and format of the 1st PAGES YSM worked very well, and

  12. The 1st October 2009 Messina debris flows: first analysis for a susceptibility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnesi, Valerio; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Pino, Paolo; Puglisi, Claudio; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    In the evening of the 1st of October 2009, a sector of the Messina district (Sicily, Italy) was struck by a number of debris flows, triggered by extraordinary intense rainfall that, from 2 pm to 10 pm, discharged an amount of more than 160 mm and that followed the ones of September 23-24 (more than 200 mm in 10 hours). A number of villages (Altolia, Briga, Giampilieri, Guidomandri, Itala, Molino, Pezzolo, Scaletta), suffered for severe damages, including the destruction of houses and small buildings and more of 30 deaths. The area is located South from the city of Messina and mainly includes five short fluvial basins, that from the Peloritanian chain drain south-eastward for some kilometres to the Ionian sea. The area is characterized by the outcropping of metamorphic rocks and, due to the closeness of the chain (ranging up to 1200 meters a.s.l.) to the sea, the steepness of the slopes is typically very high. The debris flows involved the shallow layer made up of colluvial/eluvial and landslide deposits, having a thickness of some decimetres; both pure debris flow and debris slide movements have been inferred at the initiation zones, in light of the morphologic features of the source area (scarps). Also, according to the specific patterns recognized for the flow track zone, four typologies have been distinguished: ribbon-shaped, triangular, arch-shaped and multi-lobed debris flow. The landslides moved fast, as single or multiple/successive confluent style, so that already at the medium sector of the slopes, where the villages are, huge volumes of the debris flowed. Due to the shallowness of the failure zone, the high water content and velocity, the tracks of the debris flows have been highly controlled by hydrography, reaching, where no obstacles were present, the valley floor, with kilometric run-out distances. To each of the 379 recognized debris flows, which produced a total landslide area of about 7 km2, a landslide identification point (LIP) has been assigned

  13. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  16. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  19. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... States (HTS), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar...

  20. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  1. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional...

  2. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  3. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  4. How to manage cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season. ...

  5. Opinions of Orientation and Mobility Instructors about Using the Long Cane with Preschool-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykes, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Responses of 25 mobility instructors to a survey concerning long cane instruction with preschool children with severe visual impairments found that 80 percent favored introduction of cane skills during the preschool years, that 90 percent or more agreed with almost all listed advantages, and that no particular training technique was favored. (DB)

  6. Travel Performance of Preschoolers: The Effects of Mobility Training with a Long Cane versus a Precane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, K. L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a long cane and a precane device as initial protective devices for preschool children with blindness. The precane device was found to be easier for the children to use, and it protected the children from body contact with travel obstacles better than did the long cane. (Author/DB)

  7. Variables of the Touch Technique that Influence the Safety of Cane Walkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bongers, Raoul M.; Schellingerhout, Roelef; van Grinswen, Roland; Smitsman, Ad W.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated variables that determined the safety of 15 cane users who were using the touch technique. The results showed that none of the walkers used a touch technique as described and recommended in the literature, that the detection of obstacles was related mainly to the height of the cane tip during the sweep, and that the early…

  8. Knowledge of and Preferences for Long Cane Components: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose-Zaken, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the various components of long canes and reports on a study of the knowledge and preferences of 100 adults with visual impairments regarding the various components and types of canes. Results indicated that the terrain of a route, weather conditions, mobility demand, and purpose of an outing are important…

  9. Modifications of the Long Cane for Use by a Multiply Impaired Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kathleen Ann

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a case study of a 14-year-old deaf/blind girl who was taught to use a modified cane. With the use of the cane, the S learned to walk more swiftly and with more confidence and was able to travel without the frustration she had previously felt. (PHR)

  10. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  11. Computer simulation of combine harvesting and handling of sugar cane in Barbados

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to improve the efficiency of combine harvesting of sugar cane in Barbados. The harvesting process was broken down into two subsystems: a field subsystem and a factory yard subsystem. Two computer simulation models structured in GASP IV simulation language, were developed to model the operations involved in these systems. Model FIELDOP simulated the activities involved in the harvesting and loading of cane in the field, and in its transportation to the factory for processing. Model FACYARD simulated the weighing and unloading activities performed on cane transport units at the factory. Output from the models included utilization factors for the various component machines, daily cane delivery from the field system, and daily amounts of cane handled by the factory yard system. This output was fed into a cost program which calculated unit harvesting costs and total annual cane delivery for the equipment combinations simulated. Results indicated that a second scale at the factory can reduce the factory residence time of transport units by 88%, increase combine harvester utilization efficiency by 50-60%, increase daily cane receipts at the factory by more than 30%, and eliminate milling lost time due to lack of cane. The economic analysis demonstrated that harvesting cost per tonne can be significantly reduced.

  12. Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water. PMID:24428107

  13. Materials Testing in Long Cane Design: Sensitivity, Flexibility, and Transmission of Vibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    Different materials that are used in manufacturing long cane shafts were assessed for their ability to transmit vibration and their sensitivity to tactile information, flexibility, and durability. It was found that the less flexible a cane shaft is, the better it transmits vibrations that are useful for discriminating surface textures and that…

  14. Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

    1988-05-01

    This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

  15. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  16. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  17. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  18. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  19. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  20. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  1. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  2. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  3. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  4. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  5. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  6. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  7. Adrenocortical function in cane toads from different environments.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

    2016-05-01

    The adrenocortical function of cane toads (Rhinella marina) exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as captured from different environments, was assessed by challenging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It was found that restriction stress as well as cannulation increased plasma corticosterone (B) levels for up to 12h. A single dose of dexamethasone (DEX 2mg/kg) significantly reduced B levels demonstrating its potential for use in the evaluation of the HPA axis in amphibia. We also demonstrate that 0.05 IU/g BW (im) of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) significantly increased plasma B levels in cane toads. Changes in size area of the cortical cells were positively associated with total levels of B after ACTH administration. We also found differences in adrenal activity between populations. This was assessed by a DEX-ACTH test. The animals captured from the field and maintained in captivity for one year at the animal house (AH) present the highest levels of total and free B after ACTH administration. We also found that animals from the front line of dispersion in Western Australia (WA) present the weakest adrenal response to a DEX-ACTH test. The animals categorized as long established in Queensland Australia (QL), and native in Mexico (MX), do not shown a marked difference in the HPA activity. Finally we found that in response to ACTH administration, females reach significantly higher levels of plasma B than males. For the first time the adrenocortical response in cane toads exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as from different populations was assessed systematically. PMID:26877241

  8. A ring galaxy in Canes Venatici and related ring galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi; Nishida, M.T. Kobe Women's University )

    1991-04-01

    A spectroscopic observation was made of a ring-shaped object in Canes Venatici. A bright knot at the edge of the ring has a recession velocity of 10,960 + or - 30 km/s and so is confirmed as an extragalactic object. It shows no sign of nuclear activity but appears to be an H II region of intermediate excitation class. The linear diameter of the ring is 14.2 + or - 0.8 kpc, a typical size for ring galaxies. Recession velocities of several other ring galaxies are also given. 24 refs.

  9. Mark A. Cane Receives 2013 Maurice Ewing Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, S. George

    2014-01-01

    Mark Cane started his career when theories for the ocean circulation were "dreamlike" (in the words of Henry Stommel). He made major contributions to a complete change in those perceptions by producing theoretical results that explain and by developing computer models that simulate realistically the variability of the complex system of tropical currents, undercurrents, and countercurrents. His results served as the basis for the design of several international field programs in the three tropical oceans whose different dimensions and different surface winds provide stringent tests for the results concerning the interactions between the waves and currents that determine how the oceans adjust to changing winds.

  10. Cane production for sugar and electric power in Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The principal conclusion of the report is that the Jamaican sugar industry can be made profitable. Although sugar has been grown in Jamaica for centuries, a combination of circumstances, including declining world sugar prices and a severe shortage of foreign exchange, have undermined the economic viability of the government-owned sugar estates. As a result, they have become a burden to the economy. With proper management, cane can become a highly attractive source of fuel for the generation of electricity while at the same time producing sugar and molasses.

  11. Sugar cane as an energy resource for the Caribbean area

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1982-09-01

    Sugar cane presents tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil-producing, developing countries of the Caribbean basin. The analysis presented here, finds the overall energy balance to be extremely favorable. The economics are also favorable, even though capital investment requirements are high. Potential for improvement, in both the energy balance and the economic aspects, is very great. Such improvement is attainable by the development of new technology, which could be available in the short term and at moderate cost. (Refs. 8).

  12. Plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, André Luiz Barros de O.; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Yukitaka Pessinati Ohashi, Augusto; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Aparecida Creste Dias de Souza, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supply should be taken into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to attain high yield and to increase longevity of plants. In this context it is necessary to investigate responses of different varieties to water supply. The aim of this work was to evaluate the plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil in the 1st cane ratoon cycle. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars in the 1st cane ratoon cycle, from January (after the harvest of cane plant cycle) to October (harvest the 1st cane ratoon cycle). The plant spacing was 1.5 m between rows. Each cultivar was planted in an area of 0.4 hectares. The irrigation was done by a subsuperficial drip system with one drip line in each plant row installed at 0.25 m deep. During the 1st cane ratoon cycle the parameters were analysed on the 33rd, 123rd, 185th and 277th day. The analysed parameters were: plant yield (m), leaf area index (LAI) and yield (tons per hectare). According to the results from the second sampling (123rd day) the varieties IACSP95-5000 and IACSP94-2101 showed higher plant height when compared to the other varieties. However, from the third sampling (185th day) on the IACSP95-5000 variety grew considerably taller than the other varieties. The varieties SP79-1011and IACSP94-2101 presented lower values of LAI throughout the crop cycle when compared to other varieties. But on the

  13. PREFACE: PAGES 1st Young Scientists Meeting (YSM) - 'Retrospective views on our planet's future'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cléroux, Caroline; Fehrenbacher, Jennifer; Phipps, Steven; Rupper, Summer; Williams, Branwen; Kiefer, Thorsten

    2010-03-01

    more recent pollution. The concept and format of the 1st PAGES YSM worked very well, and created a high degree of enthusiasm and stimulation among the participants (as is demonstrated by this special issue). The 2nd YSM is therefore firmly planned to take place in 2013, back-to-back with the 4th PAGES OSM. Crucial and gratefully acknowledged contributions to the success of the YSM were made by the numerous co-sponsors (see logos below), who provided the financial basis for the YSM and supported the attendance of many early-career researchers from various parts of the world. Furthermore, we cordially thank all reviewers for shaping this proceeding issue with their insightful and helpful reviews. Conference photograph

  14. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing... the processing of sugar cane into a raw sugar product for those cane sugar factories located on...

  15. When should orthostatic blood pressure changes be evaluated in elderly: 1st, 3rd or 5th minute?

    PubMed

    Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Koc Okudur, Saadet; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2016-01-01

    Detection of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is very important in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality, ischemic stroke, falls, cognitive failure and depression. It was aimed to determine the most appropriate time for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in elderly. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including Head up Tilt Table (HUT) test was performed in 407 geriatric patients. Orthostatic changes were assessed separately for the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes (HUT1, HUT3 and HUT5, respectively) taking the data in supine position as the basis. The mean age, recurrent falls, presence of dementia and Parkinson's disease, number of drugs, alpha-blocker and anti-dementia drug use, and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the patients with versus without OH; whereas, albumin and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). However, different from HUT3 and HUT5, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were higher, the use of antidiabetics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, opioid and levodopa were more common (p<0.05). Statistical significance of the number of drugs and fasting blood glucose level was prominent in HUT1 as compared to HUT3 (p<0.01, p<0.05). Comparison of the patients that had OH only in HUT1, HUT3or HUT5 revealed no difference in terms of CGA parameters. These results suggests that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined at the 1st minute might be more important for geriatric practice. Moreover, 1st minute measurement might be more convenient in the elderly as it requires shorter time in practice. PMID:27077324

  16. Educational impact of a clinical anatomy workshop on 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M A; Villaseñor-Ovies, P; Harfush, L A; Navarro-Zarza, J E; Canoso, J J; Cruz-Domínguez, P; Vargas, A; Hernández-Díaz, C; Chiapas-Gasca, K; Camacho-Galindo, J; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Kalish, R A

    2016-05-01

    We aim to study the educational impact of a clinical anatomy workshop in 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows. First-year rheumatology fellows (N = 17) and a convenience sample of 1st-year orthopedic fellows (N = 14) from Mexico City in the 9th month of training participated in the study. The pre- and the post- workshop tests included the same 20 questions that had to be answered by identification or demonstration of relevant anatomical items. The questions, arranged by anatomical regions, were asked in five dynamic stations. Overall, the 31 participants showed an increase of correct answers, from a median of 6 (range 1 to 12) in the pre-workshop test, to a median of 14 (range 7 to 19) in the post-workshop test. In the pre-workshop test, the correct median answers were 7 (range 2 to 12) in the orthopedic fellows and 5 (range 1 to 10) in the rheumatology fellows (p = 0.297). Corresponding scores in the post-workshop were 15 (range 10 to 19) and 12 (range 7 to 18) (p = 0.026) showing a significant difference favoring the orthopedic group. Our clinical anatomy workshop was efficacious, in the short term, as a teaching instrument for 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows. The post-workshop scores, although significantly improved in both groups, particularly in the orthopedic fellows, were still suboptimal. Further refinements of our workshop might yield better results. PMID:26400643

  17. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes. PMID:17532626

  18. Efficiency and daily work effort in sugar cane cutters.

    PubMed

    Spurr, G B; Barac-Nieto, M; Maksud, M G

    1977-05-01

    Productivity (metric tons (tonnes)/day), efficiency (kg cane cut/litre Vo2), and effort (percent Vo2 max sustained during an 8-hour workday) have been measured in 54 Colombian sugar cane cutters. In workers who sustained less than 40% Vo2 max during the workday, the effort expended was related to productivity (4 = 0-71) but efficiency and productivity were not significantly correlated. In 16 workers sustaining a greater than 40% Vo2 max during the workday, productivity and effort were not related and efficiency was significantly reduced. Subjects using less than 40% Vo2 max were divided into good, average and poor producers and compared with the men with low efficiencies. In general, these inefficient men had the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low productivity workers (smaller stature, weight and Vo2 max). However, the frequency of good, average, and poor cutters in the inefficient group did not differ from that of the men expending less than 40% of their maximum effort nor was their average productivity different. No obvious reasons for the differences in efficiency and effort of these men were found. PMID:871445

  19. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P.; Deschamps, F.C.

    1995-12-31

    Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

  1. Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

  2. Sugar Cane Water Foot Print for Brazilian Major Varietes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, R. D.; Maschio, R.; Leal, D. P.; Barbosa, F. D.; Mauri, R.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water productivity (PA) into biomass, sugar and energy for 24 brazilian sugarcane varieties under drip irrigation, subjected to full and deficit irrigation treatments during growing stage. Two experiments were established under greenhouse conditions at the Biosystems Engineering Department, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Experiment 1: ten varieties on a clay soil (RB835054, RB855453, RB855536, RB925211, RB867515, SP89-1115, SP81-3250, CTC14, CTC8 e CTC6) and Experiment 2: fourteen varieties on a sandy-loam soil (RB925345, RB855156, RB966928, RB72454, RB92579, IACSP95-5000, Caiana, SP83-2847, SP90-3414, SP79-1011, CTC17, CTC15, CTC9 e CTC2). In both experiments it was adopted two irrigation treatments: T100 - full irrigation with 100% crop evapotranspiration replacement, maintaining soil moisture near field capacity, and T70 - irrigation with 70% of water depth applied to T100 treatment. Irrigation treatments were initiated at 101 days of crop cycle, corresponding to the end of tillering and the beginning of intense stalk growth phase (first ratoon). It was observed variation in the water productivity into fresh stalk biomass (PABFC) from 16.22 to 29.21 kg m-3, according of the varieties and irrigation treatments applied. The highest values were observed for varieties CTC6, CTC14, RB867515, SP81-3250 and RB92579, under full irrigation treatment (T100), and CTC6, CTC14 and SP90-3414, under deficit irrigation treatment (T70). Water productivity into sugar (PABATR) ranged from 1.95 to 3.84 kg m-3, highest values were observed for varieties CTC6 and RB92579 (T100), as well as RB835054 e RB966928 (T70). Water productivity into total energy (PAETOT) varied from 101.17 to 174.65 MJ m-3, with highest values for varieties:SP81-3250, CTC6, CTC17 and RB92579 (T100 treatment), as well as SP90-3414, SP81-3250 and CTC6 (T70 treatment).

  3. Identification and Characterization of Zebrafish SULT1 ST9, SULT3 ST4, and SULT3 ST5

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Yasir I.; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Shaban, Amani Al; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Ming-Yih; Williams, Frederick E.; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Bhuiyan, Shakhawat; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2012-01-01

    By searching the GenBank database, we identified sequences encoding three new zebrafish cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). These three new zebrafish SULTs, designated SULT1 ST9, SULT3 ST4, and SULT3 ST5, were cloned, expressed, purified, and characterized. SULT1 ST9 appeared to be mostly involved in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics such as β-naphthol, β-naphthylamine, caffeic acid and gallic acid. SULT3 ST4 showed strong activity toward endogenous compound such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), pregnenolone, and 17β-estradiol. SULT3 ST5 showed weaker, but significant, activities toward endogenous compounds such as DHEA and corticosterone, as well as xenobiotics including mestranol, β-naphthylamine, β-naphthol, and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). pH-dependency and kinetic constants of these three enzymes were determined with DHEA, β-naphthol, and 17β-estradiol as substrates. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to examine the expression of these three new zebrafish SULTs at different developmental stages during embryogenesis, through larval development, and on to maturity. PMID:22360938

  4. Attitudes towards General Practice: a comparative cross-sectional survey of 1st and 5th year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kruschinski, Carsten; Wiese, Birgitt; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive attitudes towards General Practice can be understood as a prerequisite for becoming a General Practitioner (GP) and for collaboration with GPs later on. This study aimed to assess attitudes of medical students at the beginning and the end of medical school. Methods: A total of 160 1st year students at Hannover Medical School were surveyed. Their attitudes were compared to those of 287 5th year students. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate influences of year of study and gender. Results: Year of study and gender both were associated with the attitudes towards General Practice. The interest in General Practice and patient-orientation (communication, care of older patients with chronic diseases) was higher in 1st year students compared to more advanced students. Female students valued such requirements more than male students, the differences in attitudes between the years of study being more pronounced in male students. Conclusion: Despite some limitations caused by the cross-sectional design, the attitudes towards General Practice competencies changed to their disadvantage during medical school. This suggests a formative influence of the strategies used in medical education. Educational strategies, however, could be used to bring about a change of attitudes in the other direction. PMID:23255966

  5. BMI differences in 1st and 2nd generation immigrants of Asian and European origin to Australia.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Morgan, Lawrie

    2011-01-01

    We estimate assimilation of immigrants' body mass index (BMI) to the host population of Australia over one generation, conducting separate analyses for immigrants from 7 regions of Europe and Asia. We use quantile regressions to allow for differing impact of generational status across 19 quantiles of BMI from under-weight to morbidly obese individuals. We find that 1st generation South European immigrants have higher, and South and East Asian immigrants have lower BMI than Australians, but have assimilated to the BMI of their hosts in the 2nd generation. There are no or only small BMI differences between Australians and 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from East Europe, North-West Europe, Middle East and Pacific regions. We conclude that both upward and downward assimilation in some immigrant groups is most likely caused by factors which can change over one generation (such as acculturation), and not factors which would take longer to change (such as genetics). Our results suggest that public health policies targeting the lifestyles of well educated Asian immigrants may be effective in preventing BMI increase in this subgroup. PMID:20869292

  6. Judging hardness of an object from the sounds of tapping created by a white cane.

    PubMed

    Nunokawa, K; Seki, Y; Ino, S; Doi, K

    2014-01-01

    The white cane plays a vital role in the independent mobility support of the visually impaired. Allowing the recognition of target attributes through the contact of a white cane is an important function. We have conducted research to obtain fundamental knowledge concerning the exploration methods used to perceive the hardness of an object through contact with a white cane. This research has allowed us to examine methods that enhance accuracy in the perception of objects as well as the materials and structures of a white cane. Previous research suggest considering the roles of both auditory and tactile information from the white cane in determining objects' hardness is necessary. This experimental study examined the ability of people to perceive the hardness of an object solely through the tapping sounds of a white cane (i.e., auditory information) using a method of magnitude estimation. Two types of sounds were used to estimate hardness: 1) the playback of recorded tapping sounds and 2) the sounds produced on-site by tapping. Three types of handgrips were used to create different sounds of tapping on an object with a cane. The participants of this experiment were five sighted university students wearing eye masks and two totally blind students who walk independently with a white cane. The results showed that both sighted university students and totally blind participants were able to accurately judge the hardness of an object solely by using auditory information from a white cane. For the blind participants, different handgrips significantly influenced the accuracy of their estimation of an object's hardness. PMID:25571333

  7. Industrial-hygiene survey report, worker exposures during sugar cane harvesting, Florida Sugar Cane League, Clewiston, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Boeniger, M.

    1986-12-01

    Literature dealing with commercially important plant species that contain amorphous silica was reviewed. Specifically, results were presented of a field survey of sugar cane field workers in Florida. Determinations were made of the airborne concentration of amorphous silica fibers to which these workers were exposed. The airborne fibers ranged in size from 3.5 to 65 micrometers long with an average diameter of 0.6 micrometers. The concentration of these fibers in the air was as high as 300,000 fibers per cubic meter during cane-cutting activities. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in the burnt leaf, but the concentrations in air were well below the limit of detection. The author recommends that comprehensive monitoring be considered for exposure to biogenic fibers among field workers, as well as refinery workers. The author also suggests that exposure to biogenic silicates in other industries which involve processing of agricultural commodities should be investigated. Solubility and persistence of these particular fibers in biological fluids should be considered.

  8. Ethanol from sugar cane: flask experiments using the EX-FERM technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rolz, C.; Cabrera, S.

    1980-09-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

  9. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  10. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash.

    PubMed

    Keown, Daniel M; Favas, George; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2005-09-01

    Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (approximately 10 K min(-1)) led to minimal (often <20%) volatilisation of AAEM species from these biomass samples. Fast heating rates (>1000 K s(-1)), encouraging volatile-char interactions with the current reactor configuration, resulted in the volatilisation of around 80% of Na, K, Mg and Ca from bagasse during pyrolysis at 900 degrees C. Similar behaviour was observed for monovalent Na and K with cane trash, but the volatilisation of Mg and Ca from cane trash was always restricted. The difference in Cl content between bagasse and cane trash was not sufficient to fully explain the difference in the volatilisation of Mg and Ca. PMID:15978989

  11. Impact of volcanic eruptions on the climate of the 1st millennium AD in a comprehensive climate simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The climate of the 1st millennium AD shows some remarkable differences compared to the last millennium concerning variation in external forcings. Together with an orbitally induced increased solar insolation during the northern hemisphere summer season and a general lack of strong solar minima, the frequency and intensity of large tropical and extratropical eruptions is decreased. Here we present results of a new climate simulation carried out with the comprehensive Earth System Model MPI-ESM-P forced with variations in orbital, solar, volcanic and greenhouse gas variations and land use changes for the last 2,100 years. The atmospheric model has a horizontal resolution of T63 (approx. 125x125 km) and therefore also allows investigations of regional-to-continental scale climatic phenomena. The volcanic forcing was reconstructed based on a publication by Sigl et al. (2013) using the sulfate records of the NEEM and WAIS ice cores. To obtain information on the aerosol optical depth (AOD) these sulfate records were scaled to an established reconstruction from Crowley and Unterman (2010), which is also a standard forcing in the framework of CMIP5/PMIP3. A comparison between the newly created data set with the Crowley and Unterman dataset reveals that the new reconstruction shows in general weaker intensities, especially of the large tropical outbreaks and fewer northern hemispheric small-to-medium scale eruptions. However, the general pattern in the overlapping period is similar. A hypothesis that can be tested with the simulation is whether the reduced volcanic intensity of the 1st millennium AD contributed to the elevated temperature levels over Europe, evident within a new proxy-based reconstruction. On the other hand, the few but large volcanic eruptions, e.g. the 528 AD event, also induced negative decadal-scale temperature anomalies. Another interesting result of the simulation relates to the 79 AD eruption of the Vesuvius, which caused the collapse of the city of

  12. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  13. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad. PMID:27233954

  14. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  15. Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  16. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  17. Proteomic analysis of Herbaspirillum seropedicae cultivated in the presence of sugar cane extract.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Fabio Aparecido; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Zibetti; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Monteiro, Rose Adele; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial endophytes of the genus Herbaspirillum colonize sugar cane and can promote plant growth. The molecular mechanisms that mediate plant- H. seropedicae interaction are poorly understood. In this work, we used 2D-PAGE electrophoresis to identify H. seropedicae proteins differentially expressed at the log growth phase in the presence of sugar cane extract. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by RT qPCR. A total of 16 differential spots (1 exclusively expressed, 7 absent, 5 up- and 3 down-regulated) in the presence of 5% sugar cane extract were identified; thus the host extract is able to induce and repress specific genes of H. seropedicae. The differentially expressed proteins suggest that exposure to sugar cane extract induced metabolic changes and adaptations in H. seropedicae presumably in preparation to establish interaction with the plant. PMID:23331092

  18. Plasma properties from the multi-wavelength analysis of the November 1st 2003 CME/shock event

    PubMed Central

    Benna, Carlo; Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio; Gioannini, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the spectral properties and dynamic evolution of a CME/shock event observed on November 1st 2003 in white-light by the LASCO coronagraph and in the ultraviolet by the UVCS instrument operating aboard SOHO, has been performed to compute the properties of some important plasma parameters in the middle corona below about 2R⊙. Simultaneous observations obtained with the MLSO/Mk4 white-light coronagraph, providing both the early evolution of the CME expansion in the corona and the pre-shock electron density profile along the CME front, were also used to study this event. By combining the above information with the analysis of the metric type II radio emission detected by ground-based radio spectrographs, we finally derive estimates of the values of the local Alfvén speed and magnetic field strength in the solar corona. PMID:25685432

  19. Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P < 0.05) between beet and cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor. Significant differences between the sugar sources were also identified when incorporated into the pavlova and simple syrup. No difference was observed in the sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea. Possible explanations for the lack of difference in these products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable. PMID:25308166

  20. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  1. Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

    2000-05-01

    Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

  2. Nitrogen-containing corrosion inhibitors for metals based on sugar cane wax

    SciTech Connect

    Ledovskykh, V.M.; Gonzales Rigotty, H.D.; Shapovalova, Yu.P.

    1988-05-01

    Requirements have been developed, reactions have been studied, and synthesis has been carried out for inhibitors of the carbonic acid amide and 2-alkylimidazoline classes from sugar cane wax. The efficiency of their inhibition on corrosion of metals in two phase media has been demonstrated in laboratory and pilot tests. The research was conducted to assess the feasibility of generating corrosion inhibitors from the waste products of sugar cane treatment for use in the Cuban oil production and refining industry.

  3. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  4. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks of gestation, n 15), very preterm (28-<32 weeks of gestation, n 15), moderately preterm (32-<37 weeks of gestation, n 15) and term infants (37-41 weeks of gestation, n 15). Total protein, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, soluble CD14 receptor (sCD14), transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), α defensin 5 (HD5), β defensins 1 (HBD1) and 2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-γ, TNF-α and lysozyme (LZ) were quantified in milk. We examined the effects of lactation stage, gestational age, volume of milk expressed, mode of delivery, parity and maternal infection on milk immune factor concentrations using repeated-measures regression analysis. The concentrations of all factors except LZ and HD5 decreased over the 1st month postpartum. Extremely preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk. PMID:26891901

  5. A detachable electronic device for use with a long white cane to assist with mobility.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Emily E; Mohtar, Aaron A; Diment, Laura E; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    Vision-impaired individuals often use a long white cane to assist them with gathering information about their surroundings. However, these aids are generally not used to detect obstacles above knee height. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a low-cost, custom-built electronic device clipped onto a traditional cane can provide adequate vibratory warning to the user of obstacles above knee height. Sixteen normally sighted blindfolded individuals participated in two mobility courses which they navigated using a normal white cane and a white cane with the electronic device attached. Of the 16 participants, 10 hit fewer obstacles, and 12 covered less ground with the cane when the electronic device was attached. Ten participants found navigating with the electronic device easier than just the white cane alone. However, the time taken on the mobility courses, the number of collisions with obstacles, and the area covered by participants using the electronic device were not significantly different (p > 0.05). A larger sample size is required to determine if the trends found have real significance. It is anticipated that additional information provided by this electronic device about the surroundings would allow users to move more confidently within their environment. PMID:25771607

  6. Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula. PMID:22111788

  7. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  8. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  9. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Boddey, R.M.

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Sánchez-Raya, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna

    2008-08-01

    A bacterial strain designated GR21T was isolated from apoplastic fluid of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate forms a separate branch within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', with Paenibacillus as the closest related genus. Within this genus, the closest related species is Paenibacillus xylanilyticus, with 93.4 % similarity to the sequence of the type strain. The isolate has Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped cells, motile by polar and subpolar flagella. Round, non-ornamented, central or subterminal spores are formed in unswollen sporangia. The strain is catalase-positive and oxidase-negative on nutrient agar medium. Cellulose and aesculin were hydrolysed, whereas xylan, starch and gelatin were not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates as carbon sources. Strain GR21T displayed a lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phosphoglycolipid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15: 0 was the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, including assimilation of carbon sources and exoenzyme production commonly used for classification within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', showed that strain GR21T belongs to a new genus within this family, for which the name Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Saccharibacillus sacchari is GR21T (=LMG 24085T =DSM 19268T). PMID:18676467

  11. Role of sugar cane in Brazil's history and economy

    SciTech Connect

    Nastari, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    The history and evolution of the sugar-cane culture in Brazil is reviewed. An econometric model is constructed to explain the economic relationships of supply and demand of sugar, hydrous ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and anhydrous ethanol in Brazil overtime. Estimates of the parameters in the model are obtained using the methods of ordinary least squares and three stages least squares. Because the number of exogenous variables is larger than the number of observations, principal components of the exogenous variables is used. The model estimated using three stages least squares with seven principal components has the best performance among the alternatives considered. Using the estimated model, the level of a number of policy variables is determined in consistency with the objectives of ethanol production established by the Brazilian government for 1985. It is estimated that in 1985 the proportion of anhydrous ethanol added to gasoline must be 16.5%. Analysis of the net income accrued by producers and the government since the creation of the National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) in 1975 reveals that producers of sugar have been able to triple their net annual income. Independent producers of ethanol have also been able to accrue positive net results during this period. It is concluded that the Proalcool has been beneficial to the Brazilian economy, largely because of the savings in oil imports and the internal creation of jobs, while at the same time it has contributed to a superavit in the government's budget.

  12. Case Study of Severe Lightning Activity Prior to and During the Outbreak of the June 1st Greenbelt Tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, B. H.; Badesha, S.; Shishineh, A.; Adams, N. H.

    2012-12-01

    Surges in lightning activity have been known to be associated with the outbreak of tornado activity. We present a case study of a tornado that touched down near Greenbelt Maryland during the evening of June 1st 2012. Preceding the tornado touchdown, two single point lightning detection systems, a Boltek LD-250 and Vaisala SA20, recorded very high lightning activity rates. An electric field mill (EFM) was also making measurements and recorded large, rapid amplitude oscillations in the vertical electric fields. These electric field oscillations quickly subsided after the initial tornado touchdown. The lightning activity also generated significant RF interference in the S-band dish antenna operated at the Applied Physics Laboratory. It was somewhat surprising that the lightning activity produced enough radiation at these frequencies to cause measured levels of interference which could potentially impair satellite communications. Our interpretation of the EFM data is that intensive vertical forcing and rotation in the thunderstorm during the tornado formation caused the observed rapid electric field oscillations. At the same time, the vertical mixing in the storm caused a surge in lightning activity rates recorded by the Boltek and Vaisala sensors. Following the tornado touchdown, there was a rapid decrease in the lightning rates from the sensors. The EFM oscillations also abruptly ceased and went to a more normal slow-varying pattern typically observed during other thunderstorms without associated tornado activity. It is suggested that a network of field mills could provide realtime warning of imminent tornado activity.

  13. A learning skills course for the 1st year medical students: an experience at a Saudi medical school

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imran A; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Alsultan, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Background Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national aptitude exams. However, many students experience frustration, failure, and psychological morbidities like stress, depression, and anxiety because they are not aware of their learning styles or do not have effective learning skills and strategies. The College of Medicine of Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University has adopted the outcome based, community oriented, Spiral Curriculum. Although the curriculum is innovative, on the other hand, it is very demanding. Objective The purpose of this paper is to share educational structure and evaluation results of the course on effective learning and study skills for the 1st year medical students. Methods To prepare our students in order to cope with this demanding but promising curriculum, we conducted an effective and comprehensive learning skills course for 16 weeks in the first semester of year 1 in the medical program. Performance of each student was assessed and the course evaluation was done by students at the end of the course. Results The attendance of the students throughout the course was over 90%. The average performance of students in the summative assessment was 78% and the course was generally liked by the students. Discussion Students overall had a positive attitude toward the learning skills course. Majority of the students showed interest in attending the sessions regularly and realized the significance of this course to improve their learning skills. PMID:25848332

  14. Synthesis of nanomagnetic fluids and their UV spectrophotometric response with aliphatic organic acids and 1st tier dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Shivani R.; Singh, Man

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of Magnetic nanoparticles were made using coprecipitation method on mixing Fe+3 and Fe+2 in 2:1 ratio with aqueous 8M NaOH which on heating at 90°C for 2 h has yielded 85% magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs), characterized by XRD, VSM, SEM, and HR-TEM. The formic acid (FA), oxalic acid (OA) and citric acid (CA), the series of aliphatic organic acids along with Trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridimethyl malonate (TTDMM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridiethyl malonate (TTDEM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridipropyl malonate (TTDPM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridibutyl malonate (TTDBM) and trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridihexyl malonate (TTDHM) 1st tier dendrimers were used separately for preparing nanomagnetic fluid. From 25 to 150 µM MNPs at an interval of 25 µM were dispersed in 150 µM of acids and dendrimers separately with DMSO. UV-VIS spectrophotometry showed a maximum MNPs dispersion with TTDMM against others and found to be most stable nanomagnetic fluid on account of capping type mechanism of acids.

  15. Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Fanconi Anemia: Report from the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, Jakub; Adair, Jennifer E; Antoniou, Michael; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Becker, Pamela S; Blazar, Bruce R; Bueren, Juan; Carroll, Thomas; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Clapp, D Wade; Dalgleish, Robert; Galy, Anne; Gaspar, H Bobby; Hanenberg, Helmut; Von Kalle, Christof; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Lindeman, Dirk; Naldini, Luigi; Navarro, Susana; Renella, Raffaele; Rio, Paula; Sevilla, Julián; Schmidt, Manfred; Verhoeyen, Els; Wagner, John E; Williams, David A; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) have increased dramatically since 2000. However, the use of autologous stem cell gene therapy, whereby the patient's own blood stem cells are modified to express the wild-type gene product, could potentially avoid the early and late complications of allogeneic HCT. Over the last decades, gene therapy has experienced a high degree of optimism interrupted by periods of diminished expectation. Optimism stems from recent examples of successful gene correction in several congenital immunodeficiencies, whereas diminished expectations come from the realization that gene therapy will not be free of side effects. The goal of the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting was to determine the optimal strategy for moving stem cell gene therapy into clinical trials for individuals with FA. To this end, key investigators examined vector design, transduction method, criteria for large-scale clinical-grade vector manufacture, hematopoietic cell preparation, and eligibility criteria for FA patients most likely to benefit. The report summarizes the roadmap for the development of gene therapy for FA. PMID:21540837

  16. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  17. Frontline nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results from the European ENEST1st study.

    PubMed

    Hochhaus, A; Rosti, G; Cross, N C P; Steegmann, J L; le Coutre, P; Ossenkoppele, G; Petrov, L; Masszi, T; Hellmann, A; Griskevicius, L; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Rea, D; Coriu, D; Brümmendorf, T H; Porkka, K; Saglio, G; Gastl, G; Müller, M C; Schuld, P; Di Matteo, P; Pellegrino, A; Dezzani, L; Mahon, F-X; Baccarani, M; Giles, F J

    2016-01-01

    The Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials as First-Line Treatment (ENEST1st) study included 1089 patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The rate of deep molecular response (MR(4) (BCR-ABL1⩽0.01% on the International Scale or undetectable BCR-ABL1 with ⩾10,000 ABL1 transcripts)) at 18 months was evaluated as the primary end point, with molecular responses monitored by the European Treatment and Outcome Study network of standardized laboratories. This analysis was conducted after all patients had completed 24 months of study treatment (80.9% of patients) or discontinued early. In patients with typical BCR-ABL1 transcripts and ⩽3 months of prior imatinib therapy, 38.4% (404/1052) achieved MR(4) at 18 months. Six patients (0.6%) developed accelerated or blastic phase, and 13 (1.2%) died. The safety profile of nilotinib was consistent with that of previous studies, although the frequencies of some nilotinib-associated adverse events were lower (for example, rash, 21.4%). Ischemic cardiovascular events occurred in 6.0% of patients. Routine monitoring of lipid and glucose levels was not mandated in the protocol. These results support the use of frontline nilotinib, particularly when achievement of a deep molecular response (a prerequisite for attempting treatment-free remission in clinical trials) is a treatment goal. PMID:26437782

  18. Frontline nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results from the European ENEST1st study

    PubMed Central

    Hochhaus, A; Rosti, G; Cross, N C P; Steegmann, J L; le Coutre, P; Ossenkoppele, G; Petrov, L; Masszi, T; Hellmann, A; Griskevicius, L; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Rea, D; Coriu, D; Brümmendorf, T H; Porkka, K; Saglio, G; Gastl, G; Müller, M C; Schuld, P; Di Matteo, P; Pellegrino, A; Dezzani, L; Mahon, F-X; Baccarani, M; Giles, F J

    2016-01-01

    The Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials as First-Line Treatment (ENEST1st) study included 1089 patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The rate of deep molecular response (MR4 (BCR-ABL1⩽0.01% on the International Scale or undetectable BCR-ABL1 with ⩾10 000 ABL1 transcripts)) at 18 months was evaluated as the primary end point, with molecular responses monitored by the European Treatment and Outcome Study network of standardized laboratories. This analysis was conducted after all patients had completed 24 months of study treatment (80.9% of patients) or discontinued early. In patients with typical BCR-ABL1 transcripts and ⩽3 months of prior imatinib therapy, 38.4% (404/1052) achieved MR4 at 18 months. Six patients (0.6%) developed accelerated or blastic phase, and 13 (1.2%) died. The safety profile of nilotinib was consistent with that of previous studies, although the frequencies of some nilotinib-associated adverse events were lower (for example, rash, 21.4%). Ischemic cardiovascular events occurred in 6.0% of patients. Routine monitoring of lipid and glucose levels was not mandated in the protocol. These results support the use of frontline nilotinib, particularly when achievement of a deep molecular response (a prerequisite for attempting treatment-free remission in clinical trials) is a treatment goal. PMID:26437782

  19. 1st Quarter Transportation Report FY 2015: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2015-02-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 1st quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report include minor volumes of non-radioactive classified waste/material that were approved for disposal (non-radioactive classified or nonradioactive classified hazardous). Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to rounding conventions for volumetric conversions from cubic meters to cubic feet.

  20. Embryonic development of chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) from 1st to 19th day-ectodermal structures.

    PubMed

    Toledo Fonseca, Erika; De Oliveira Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Alcântara, Dayane; Carvalho Cardoso, Rafael; Luís Franciolli, André; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Fratini, Paula; José Piantino Ferreira, Antônio; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-12-01

    Birds occupy a prominent place in the Brazilian economy not only in the poultry industry but also as an animal model in many areas of scientific research. Thus the aim of this study was to provide a description of macro and microscopic aspects of the ectoderm-derived structures in chicken embryos / fetuses poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 1st to 19th day of incubation. 40 fertilized eggs, from a strain of domestic chickens, with an incubation period of 2-19 days were subjected to macroscopic description, biometrics, light, and scanning microscopy. All changes observed during the development were described. The nervous system, skin and appendages and organs related to vision and hearing began to be identified, both macro and microscopically, from the second day of incubation. The vesicles from the primitive central nervous system-forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain-were identified on the third day of incubation. On the sixth day of incubation, there was a clear vascularization of the skin. The optic vesicle was first observed fourth day of development and on the fifth day there was the beginning of the lens formation. Although embryonic development is influenced by animal line as well as external factors such as incubation temperature, this paper provides a chronological description for chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) during its embryonic development. PMID:24019213

  1. The impact of invasive cane toads on native wildlife in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Christopher J; Shine, Richard; Greenlees, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Commonly, invaders have different impacts in different places. The spread of cane toads (Rhinella marina: Bufonidae) has been devastating for native fauna in tropical Australia, but the toads' impact remains unstudied in temperate-zone Australia. We surveyed habitat characteristics and fauna in campgrounds along the central eastern coast of Australia, in eight sites that have been colonized by cane toads and another eight that have not. The presence of cane toads was associated with lower faunal abundance and species richness, and a difference in species composition. Populations of three species of large lizards (land mullets Bellatorias major, eastern water dragons Intellagama lesueurii, and lace monitors Varanus varius) and a snake (red-bellied blacksnake Pseudechis porphyriacus) were lower (by 84 to 100%) in areas with toads. The scarcity of scavenging lace monitors in toad-invaded areas translated into a 52% decrease in rates of carrion removal (based on camera traps at bait stations) and an increase (by 61%) in numbers of brush turkeys (Alectura lathami). The invasion of cane toads through temperate-zone Australia appears to have reduced populations of at least four anurophagous predators, facilitated other taxa, and decreased rates of scavenging. Our data identify a paradox: The impacts of cane toads are at least as devastating in southern Australia as in the tropics, yet we know far more about toad invasion in the sparsely populated wilderness areas of tropical Australia than in the densely populated southeastern seaboard. PMID:26445649

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  3. Substitution of sugar cane bagasse in the chicken diet and immune response.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, R A; el-Faramawy, A A

    2001-10-01

    Total proteins and protein electrophoresis were made in the sera of broiler chicken (Arber Acres) to evaluate the effect of substitution of basal diet for 4 weeks by either 8% sugar cane bagasse +2% wheat germ or 16% sugar cane bagasse +4% wheat germ whether untreated or incubated with rumen liquor for 72 h and then sterilized with 2 Mrad gamma-irradiation (treated). Both levels of untreated sugar can bagasse (8 and 16%) showed significant decrease in gamma globulins but this decrease had no effect on broiler chicken (45 days) while there was significant increase in total proteins in treated sugar cane bagasse 8% with concomitant increase in alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma globulins. These results denoted that addition of rumen liquor to 8% sugar cane bagasse diet have resulted in an improvement in the transportation of micro nutrients and immune response most probably due to its high content of microorganisms constituting high quality animal protein; also more vaccines were recommended in feeding of chicken with sugar cane bagasse for a longer period e.g. laying hens to overcome its suppressive effect on the gamma globulins. PMID:11715352

  4. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  5. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry. PMID:25251191

  6. PROCEEDINGS: JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON DRY SO2 AND SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (1ST). VOLUME 1. FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty six papers describing recent advances in dry sorbent injection technologies for SO2 control were presented at the 1st Joint Symposium on Dry SO2 and Simultaneous SO2/NOx Control Technologies. These papers covered the following topics: fundamental research; pilot-scale devel...

  7. The Impact of Gender-Fair versus Gender-Stereotyped Basal Readers on 1st-Grade Children's Gender Stereotypes: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel; Gal-Disegni, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Israeli 1st-grade children in two different schools in the same neighborhood who were using either a gender-stereotyped or a gender-fair basal reader were asked to judge for a series of female-stereotyped, male-stereotyped, and gender-neutral activities whether they were characteristic of females, of males, or of both. Children using the…

  8. Moving beyond the Lone Scientist: Helping 1st-Grade Students Appreciate the Social Context of Scientific Work Using Stories about Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented young children's (K-2) stereotypic views of scientists and scientific work, few have examined students' views of the social nature of scientific work and the strategies effective in broadening these views. The purpose of this study is to examine how stories about scientists influence 1st-grade students' views…

  9. Diagnostic Online Assessment of Basic IT Skills in 1st-Year Undergraduates in the Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieber, Vivien

    2009-01-01

    Attitude, experience and competence (broadly covered by the European Computer Driving Licence syllabus) in information technology (IT) were assessed in 846 1st-year Medical Sciences Division undergraduates (2003-06) at the start of their first term. Online assessments delivered during induction workshops were presented as an opportunity for…

  10. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... United States Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 13, 2013...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to...

  11. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3... Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On July 6, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture announced a second additional...

  12. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  13. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  14. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  15. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  16. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  17. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  19. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  20. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives. PMID:27498012

  1. An introduced pentastomid parasite (Raillietiella frenata) infects native cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Saltonstall, Kristin; Torchin, Mark E

    2015-04-01

    The pentastomid parasite, Raillietiella frenata, is native to Asia where it infects the Asian House gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. This gecko has been widely introduced and recently R. frenata was found in introduced populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia, indicating a host-switch from introduced geckos to toads. Here we report non-native adult R. frenata infecting the lungs of native cane toads in Panama. Eight of 64 toads were infected (median = 2.5, range = 1-80 pentastomids/toad) and pentastomid prevalence was positively associated with the number of buildings at a site, though further sampling is needed to confirm this pattern. We postulate that this pattern is likely due to a host shift of this parasite from an urban-associated introduced gecko. This is the first record of this parasite infecting cane toads in their native range, and the first instance of this parasite occurring in Central America. PMID:25394910

  2. Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Michael R.; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A.; Capon, Robert J.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

  3. Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Azzam, A.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

  4. Intentional synthesis of corrosion inhibitors based on secondary products of sugar cane processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ledovskykh, V.M.

    1988-07-01

    Secondary products of sugar cane processing (mosto, wax, furfurol) were studied as starting raw materials for creating inhibitors for different purposes and temporary means of protecting metals from corrosion. In order to protect metals in different corrosive media the following inhibitors have been developed: an inhibitor for acid solutions (pickling metals, acid washing of the equipment) based on high-tonnage water-soluble waste mosto and combined synergistic inhibitors based on mixtures of it with cation- and anion-active surfactants, including nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances obtained by intentional synthesis of another secondary product, furfurol; inhibitors for two-phase media (oil recovery and refining) of the carbonic acid amide and 2-alkylimidazoline classes from sugar cane wax; and inhibitors comprised of Li-, Na-, Ca-, and Al-plastic greases from sugar cane wax for atmospheric conditions.

  5. Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Crossland, Michael R; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A; Capon, Robert J; Shine, Richard

    2012-09-01

    If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

  6. Cognitive-based approach in teaching 1st year Physics for Life Sciences, including Atmospheric Physics and Climate Change components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    Most 1st year students who take the service course in Physics - Physics for Life Sciences - in Australia encounter numerous problems caused by such factors as no previous experience with this subject; general perception that Physics is hard and only very gifted people are able to understand it; lack of knowledge of elementary mathematics; difficulties encountered by lecturers in teaching university level Physics to a class of nearly 200 students with no prior experience, diverse and sometime disadvantageous backgrounds, different majoring areas, and different learning abilities. As a result, many students either drop, or fail the subject. In addition, many of those who pass develop a huge dislike towards Physics, consider the whole experience as time wasted, and spread this opinion among their peers and friends. The above issues were addressed by introducing numerous changes to the curriculum and modifying strategies and approaches in teaching Physics for Life Sciences. Instead of a conventional approach - teaching Physics from simple to complicated, topic after topic, the students were placed in the world of Physics in the same way as a newborn child is introduced to this world - everything is seen all the time and everywhere. That created a unique environment where a bigger picture and all details were always present and interrelated. Numerous concepts of classical and modern physics were discussed, compared, and interconnected all the time with “Light” being a key component. Our primary field of research is Atmospheric Physics, in particular studying the atmospheric composition and structure using various satellite and ground-based data. With this expertise and also inspired by an increasing importance of training a scientifically educated generation who understands the challenges of the modern society and responsibilities that come with wealth, a new section on environmental physics has been developed. It included atmospheric processes and the greenhouse

  7. Small airway dysfunction by impulse oscillometry in asthmatic patients with normal forced expiratory volume in the 1st second values.

    PubMed

    Pisi, Roberta; Tzani, Panagiota; Aiello, Marina; Martinelli, Enrico; Marangio, Emilio; Nicolini, Gabriele; Olivieri, Dario; Chetta, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Small airways are relevant to the pathophysiology of asthma. We investigated whether in asthmatic patients with normal forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV(1)) values, impulse oscillometry system (IOS), as a measure of small airway function, contributed additional information to spirometry either at baseline or after bronchodilator, and whether it was related to the disease control. The fall in resistance from 5 to 20 Hz (R5-R20) and reactance at 5 Hz (X5) by IOS and spirometry measures of small airway function (forced expiratory flow at 25-75% [FEF(25-75)] and forced vital capacity/slow inspiratory vital capacity [FVC/SVC]) at baseline and after 400 micrograms of salbutamol were prospectively measured in 33 asthmatic patients (18 women; age range, 18-66 years). Disease control was assessed by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). R5-R20 but not X5 values were significantly related to FEF(25-75) and FVC/SVC values (p < 0.05 for both correlations). When the bronchodilator response was assessed, no correlation was found among IOS and spirometry changes. ACT scores were related to R5-R20, FEF(25-75), and FVC/SVC values (p < 0.01 for all correlations). In asthmatic patients with normal FEV(1) values, R5-R20 values were related to spirometry measures of small airway function. However, when the bronchodilator response was assessed, IOS and spirometry provided quite different results. Moreover, small airway dysfunction, as assessed by IOS and spirometry, was associated with poor disease control and history of asthma exacerbations. The results of this study confirm the value of IOS, as an investigative tool, and suggest that in asthmatic patients with normal FEV(1) values and poor disease control, small airway function should be investigated. PMID:23406931

  8. New approaches for improving the production of the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by yeast.

    PubMed

    Kurylenko, Olena; Semkiv, Marta; Ruchala, Justyna; Hryniv, Orest; Kshanovska, Barbara; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45°C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene. PMID:26619255

  9. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions in giant cane in the Cache River watershed, southern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. M.; Williard, K. W.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large stands of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl, called canebrakes, were vital to wildlife and lowland ecosystem functions and historically covered millions of acres in the southeastern United States. Since European settlement, human disturbances (e.g., clearing for agriculture and fire suppression) have caused giant cane to decline to approximately 2% of its historic range. Cane's ecological importance has led to an increased interest in canebrake restoration in riparian zones. Giant cane is a good candidate to include in multispecies riparian buffers designs, as it promotes infiltration of surface runoff and deposition of sediment and associated nutrients through its high density culms and extensive shallow rooting network. In addition, nitrous oxide is produced naturally in the soil during the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. To examine the role that cane plays in nutrient cycling, we have designed a research strategy to determine physical and chemical properties of existing riparian stands of native giant cane and their associated soils. We collected data on soil carbon/nitrogen ratios and monthly nitrous oxide release in both canebrakes and nearby forested riparian areas. Soil in the canebrakes had significantly higher C:N ratios (10.9) than that in cropfields (9.8), but showed no significant difference than that in the forest (10.8). Nitrous oxide emissions had a strong correlation with soil water content (r2 = 24%), but no relation with soil temperature (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in N2O releases between forest and cane, nor among the monthly samples.

  11. CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

    2013-06-19

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  12. AGING MODEL FOR CANE FIBERBOARD OVERPACK IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Harris, S.

    2010-03-05

    Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

  13. Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

    1982-10-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

  14. PREFACE: 1st International School and Conference "Saint Petersburg OPEN 2014" on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-09-01

    Dear Colleagues, 1st International School and Conference "Saint Petersburg OPEN 2014" on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on March 25 - 27, 2014 at St. Petersburg Academic University - Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology. The keynote speakers were: Mikhail Glazov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Vladimir Dubrovskii (Saint Petersburg Academic University RAS, Russia) Alexey Kavokin (University of Southampton, United Kingdom and St. Petersburg State University, Russia) Vladimir Korenev (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Sergey Kukushkin (Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering RAS, Russia) Nikita Pikhtin (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia and "Elfolum" Ltd., Russia) Dmitry Firsov (Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Russia) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. Sufficiently large number of participants with more than 160 student attendees from all over the world allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for the fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for the valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers basing on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year's School and Conference is supported by SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics), OSA (The Optical Society), St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University and by Skolkovo Foundation. It is a continuation of the annual schools and

  15. Creating Research-Rich Learning Experiences and Quantitative Skills in a 1st Year Earth Systems Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. L.; Eggins, S.; Jones, S.

    2014-12-01

    We are creating a 1st year Earth Systems course at the Australian National University that is built around research-rich learning experiences and quantitative skills. The course has top students including ≤20% indigenous/foreign students; nonetheless, students' backgrounds in math and science vary considerably posing challenges for learning. We are addressing this issue and aiming to improve knowledge retention and deep learning by changing our teaching approach. In 2013-2014, we modified the weekly course structure to a 1hr lecture; a 2hr workshop with hands-on activities; a 2hr lab; an assessment piece covering all face-to-face activities; and a 1hr tutorial. Our new approach was aimed at: 1) building student confidence with data analysis and quantitative skills through increasingly difficult tasks in science, math, physics, chemistry, climate science and biology; 2) creating effective learning groups using name tags and a classroom with 8-person tiered tables; 3) requiring students to apply new knowledge to new situations in group activities, two 1-day field trips and assessment items; 4) using pre-lab and pre-workshop exercises to promote prior engagement with key concepts; 5) adding open-ended experiments to foster structured 'scientific play' or enquiry and creativity; and 6) aligning the assessment with the learning outcomes and ensuring that it contains authentic and challenging southern hemisphere problems. Students were asked to design their own ocean current experiment in the lab and we were astounded by their ingenuity: they simulated the ocean currents off Antarctica; varied water density to verify an equation; and examined the effect of wind and seafloor topography on currents. To evaluate changes in student learning, we conducted surveys in 2013 and 2014. In 2014, we found higher levels of student engagement with the course: >~80% attendance rates and >~70% satisfaction (20% neutral). The 2014 cohort felt that they were more competent in writing

  16. Analysis and study of the in situ observation of the June 1st 2008 CME by STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Viñas, A. F.; Malandraki, O.; Dresing, N.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Opitz, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Lavraud, B.; Davila, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    In this work we present a combined study of the counterpart of the coronal mass ejection (CME) of June 1st of 2008 in the interplanetary medium. This event has been largely studied because of its peculiar initiation and its possible forecasting consequences for space weather. We show an in situ analysis (on days June 6th-7th of 2008) of the CME in the interplanetary medium in order to shed some light on the propagation and evolution mechanisms of the interplanetary CME (ICME). The goals of this work are twofold: gathering the whole in situ data from PLASTIC and IMPACT onboard STEREO B in order to provide a complete characterization of the ICME, and to present a model where the thermal plasma pressure is included. The isolated ICME features show a clear forward shock which we identify as an oblique forward fast shock accelerating ions to a few-hundred keV during its passage. Following the shock, a flux rope is easily defined as a magnetic cloud (MC) by the magnetic field components and magnitude, and the low proton plasma-β. During the spacecraft passage through the MC, the energetic ion intensity shows a pronounced decrease, suggesting a closed magnetic topology, and the suprathermal electron population shows a density and temperature increase, demonstrating the importance of the electrons in the MC description. The in situ evidence suggests that there is no direct magnetic connection between the forward shock and the MC, and the characteristics of the reverse shock determined suggest that the shock pair is a consequence of the propagation of the ICME in the interplanetary medium. The energetic ions measured by the SEPT instrument suggest that their enhancement is not related to any solar event, but is solely due to the interplanetary shock consistent with the fact that no flares are observed on the Sun. The changes in the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field in the vicinity of the ICME observed by electron PADs from SWEA are in accordance with the idea

  17. Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

  18. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads. PMID:27253973

  19. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  3. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on fresh weight and sugar yield of sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed-piece shoots of four cultivars of sugar cane were transplanted on March 21, 1977 to containers 1.2 m long X 0.6 m wide X 0.6 m deep) in four temperature zones of two temperature-gradient greenhouses at Gainesville, Florida. Each temperature zone had 8 containers. Four containers of each zone ...

  4. Breeding Energy Cane Cultivars as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal Replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  6. Green-cane harvest of sugarcane effects on biomass and energy yields and nutrient removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yields in Louisiana can approach 40 dry Mg ha-1, making sugarcane an attractive biofuel feedstock as well as a profitable sugar crop. Existing technology used in green-cane harvesting can be used to allow chopper harvester extractor fans to remove variable amounts of extraneous leaf materi...

  7. Modification of the Two-Point Touch Cane Technique: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.; Ehresman, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Four blind adults were observed to determine the extent of the natural movement of their centers of gravity in relation to arc height during the two-point touch technique for long cane travel. The Ss learned and practiced a modified technique using their center of gravity as much as possible. (Author)

  8. Current Practices and Considerations Regarding Long Cane Instruction with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skellenger, A. C.; Hill, E. W.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey of 37 orientation and mobility specialists who serve preschool-age visually impaired children. It presents demographics of the children and the specialists involved in long cane instruction and identifies the factors related to the decision to begin this instruction. (Author/DB)

  9. Biomedical Substrates of the Two-Point Cane Technique: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews research on the biomechanical elements related to the most commonly used long cane technique, the two-point touch, by individuals with blindness or low vision. The use of several natural biomechanical tendencies supports the contention that the technique is inherently efficient. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  10. Use of the Sonicguide and Laser Cane in Obtaining or Keeping Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Owners of laser canes and Sonicguides were surveyed to determine whether these devices were used in employment settings. Of the 94 respondents, 74 were still using their electronic travel aids: 36 percent used the devices to travel to and from work, and 49 percent used them on the job. (SEW)

  11. Biomechanical Movements in Experienced Cane Users with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Robert S.; Ashmead, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Travelers with visual impairments and orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors were assessed in their performance of the two-point touch cane technique. Both groups deviated similarly from classical stipulations of the technique, having wider arc widths and hand positions off of midline. Measures of body coverage and rhythm were less than ideal.…

  12. TESTING FOR A TRAIL FOLLOWING PHEROMONE ON THE SILKY CANE WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silky cane weevil (SCW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of sugarcane, and palms, and was introduced into Florida in the mid-1980s. In laboratory tests it was observed that weevils followed tracks already walked by other co-specifics and experiments...

  13. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Varble, J

    2007-11-20

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

  14. Cane Toads on Cowpats: Commercial Livestock Production Facilitates Toad Invasion in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    González-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad’s use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad’s successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

  15. Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2 = 0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species. PMID:20422048

  16. Immunotherapeutic effects of some sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extracts against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, M Irfan

    2011-06-01

    Present paper reports the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice and bagasse, respectively on protective immune responses in industrial broiler chickens against coccidiosis. Immunotherapeutic efficacies of the extracts were measured by evaluating their effect on body weight gain, oocyst shedding, lesion score, anti-coccidial indices, per cent protection and elicited serum antibody responses against coccidiosis. Results revealed a significantly lower (P<0.05) oocyst shedding and mortality in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to control. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight gains and antibody responses were detected in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to chickens of control group. Moreover, ethanolic extract showed higher anti-coccidia index (227.61) as compared to aqueous extract (192.32). The organ body weight ratio of the lymphoid organs of experimental and control groups were statistically non-significant (P>0.01). These results demonstrated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of sugar cane possess immune enhancing properties and their administration in chickens augments the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:21354144

  17. Production of energy cane and elephantgrass on marginal soils using winter covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher) and energy cane (Saccharum sp.) are tall tropical bunch grasses that produce very high biomass yields and are considered an excellent bio-energy feedstock for the lower South. However, previous studies have shown that production is not sustainable wit...

  18. A review of the 2006 International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists' Pathology Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists’ (ISSCT) Pathology Workshop was held on January 23-27, 2006, at the INRA Research Center in Petit Bourg, Guadeloupe, French West Indies and was hosted by CIRAD and organized by Jean Heinrich Daugrois and the CIRAD staff. There were 30 delegates ...

  19. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads.

    PubMed

    Haramura, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hirohiko; Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads. PMID:27253973

  20. Advanced Breeding, Development, and Release of High Biomass Energy Cane Cultivars in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  1. Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

  2. 3 CFR 8439 - Proclamation 8439 of October 15, 2009. White Cane Safety Day, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and equal opportunities for those among us who are blind or have low vision. As Americans, we must.... Individuals who are blind or have low vision are less constrained and better integrated in our country than... low vision, a white cane is just one of a wide range of tools that sustain independence...

  3. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  4. Impacts of energy cane expansion on ecosystem services: A Florida case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, J. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Jaiswal, D.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Long, S.

    2012-12-01

    There is a rising demand for sustainable and secure sources of energy. This demand is driving the development of second-generation biofuel crops across the United States. However, in a changing climate the capability of these crops to meet energy demands are uncertain. Additionally, the impacts of energy crop adoption on biophysical and biochemical ecosystem services need to be refined. Central Florida has been identified as a test bed for energy cane in anticipation of increased investment for energy crop production in the southeastern United States. Currently, the land cover in this region is characterized by pasturelands with relatively low rates of productivity and evapotranspiration. By replacing these lands with highly productive and irrigated energy cane significant perturbations to the local and regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon are anticipated. In this study, we extend the Agro-IBIS LSM with a mechanistic multilayer canopy model of biofuel crops to simulate inter-canopy fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon. We validate the model using published leaf area, surface flux, and yield observations taken from studies that encompassed variable soil types, climatic conditions, and management decisions. This extended Agro-IBIS model is used to simulate the growth of energy cane in central Florida. Using this model we assess the potential impacts of large-scale changes in land cover on future ecosystem services for the region. In particular, we focus on how changes in atmospheric CO2 and temperature influence energy cane's regulation of surface fluxes and storage. Using a series of simulations that represent a range of climatic regimes we test how increased atmospheric carbon concentrations may enhance or diminish stresses associated with changes in regional climate, and how the physiological plant responses feedback on fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. This allows us to quantitatively evaluate how large-scale energy cane production

  5. Early harvest affects ratooning ability in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Similar to sugarcane industries around the world, economies of scale often lead to decreases in total number of manufacturing centers such as sugar mills. One of the consequences of mill closures has been an increase in the duration of the crushing season in Louisiana, which has historically bee...

  6. PREFACE: 1st Nano-IBCT Conference 2011 - Radiation Damage of Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Bernd A.; Malot, Christiane; Domaracka, Alicja; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    The 1st Nano-IBCT Conference entitled 'Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy' was held in Caen, France, in October 2011. The Meeting was organised in the framework of the COST Action MP1002 (Nano-IBCT) which was launched in December 2010 (http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/nano-ibct). This action aims to promote the understanding of mechanisms and processes underlying the radiation damage of biomolecular systems at the molecular and nanoscopic level and to use the findings to improve the strategy of Ion Beam Cancer Therapy. In the hope of achieving this, participants from different disciplines were invited to represent the fields of physics, biology, medicine and chemistry, and also included those from industry and the operators of hadron therapy centres. Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal healthy tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. Several ion beam cancer therapy clinical centres are now operating in Europe and elsewhere. However, the full potential of such therapy can only be exploited by better understanding the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that lead to cell death under ion irradiation. Considering a range of spatio-temporal scales, the proposed action therefore aims to combine the unique experimental and theoretical expertise available within Europe to acquire greater insight at the nanoscopic and molecular level into radiation damage induced by ion impact. Success in this endeavour will be both an important scientific breakthrough and give great impetus to the practical improvement of this innovative therapeutic technique. Ion therapy potentially provides an important advance in cancer therapy and the COST action MP1002 will be very significant in ensuring Europe's leadership in this field, providing the scientific background, required data and mechanistic insight which

  7. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is providing notice of country-by-country allocations of additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane...

  8. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. PMID:26245813

  9. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  10. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  11. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1) and 245±26 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1) and 4549 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50 € N m(-3) CH4(-1) and 0.81 € N m(-3) CH4(-1), and 0.10 € kW hEE(-1) and 0.19 € kW hEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively. PMID:25997008

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of the distal movement of maxillary 1st molars in patients fitted with mini-implant-aided trans-palatal arches

    PubMed Central

    Miresmaeili, Amirfarhang; Sajedi, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate three-dimensional molar displacement after distalization via miniscrews and a horizontal modification of the trans-palatal-arch (TPA). Methods The subjects in this clinical trial were 26 Class II patients. After the preparation of a complete set of diagnostic records, miniscrews were inserted between the maxillary 2nd premolar and 1st molar on the palatal side. Elastic modules connected to the TPA exerting an average force of 150-200 g/side parallel to the occlusal plane were applied. Cone-beam computed tomography was utilized to evaluate the position of the miniscrews relative to the adjacent teeth and maxillary sinus, and the direction of force relative to molar furcation. The distances from the central point of the incisive papilla to the mesiopalatal cusps of the 1st maxillary molars and the distances between the mesiopalatal cusps of the left and right molars were measured to evaluate displacement of the maxillary molars on the horizontal plane. Interocclusal space was used to evaluate vertical changes. Results Mean maxillary 1st molar distalization was 2.3 ± 1.1 mm, at a rate of 0.4 ± 0.2 mm/month, and rotation was not significant. Intermolar width increased by 2.9 ± 1.8 mm. Molars were intruded relative to the neighboring teeth, from 0.1 to 0.8 mm. Conclusions Distalization of molars was possible without extrusion, using the appliance investigated. The intrusive component of force reduced the rate of distal movement. PMID:26445718

  13. [Influence of hypocaloric diet with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex on status of patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Sokol'nikov, A A; Kaganov, B S

    2011-01-01

    Addition of a vitamin-mineral complex (VMC) to a standard hypocaloric diet leads to a positive dynamics of antropometric characteristics in patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees which is comparable to effectiveness of standard dietotherapy (dietary treatment) traditionally used in complex treatment of obesity. Addition of 1,8 mg of vitamin B2 as part of VMC to a hypocaloric diet is shown to be inadequate in eradication of marginal provision of riboflavin when using diets reduced in calories. PMID:22232885

  14. The Earth Microbiome Project: The Meeting Report for the 1st International Earth Microbiome Project Conference, Shenzhen, China, June 13th-15th 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jack A.; Bailey, Mark; Field, Dawn; Fierer, Noah; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Hu, Bin; Jansson, Janet; Knight, Rob; Kowalchuk, George A.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Meyer, Folker; Stevens, Rick

    2011-01-01

    This report details the outcome of the 1st International Earth Microbiome Project Conference. The 2-day conference was held at the Kingkey Palace Hotel, Shenzhen, China, on the 14th-15th June 2011, and was hosted by BGI (formally the Beijing Genomics Institute). The conference was arranged as a formal launch for the Earth Microbiome Project, to highlight some of the exciting research projects, results of the preliminary pilot studies, and to provide a discussion forum for the types of technology and experimental approaches that will come to define the standard operating procedures of this project.

  15. A Comparison of In-Channel Dead Zone and Hyporheic Zone Transient Storage Parameter Estimates Between a 1st and 5th Order Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M.; Gooseff, M.; Morkeski, K.; Wollheim, W.; Hopkinson, C.; Peterson, B.; Vorosmarty, C.

    2007-12-01

    A major enhancement to our understanding of how watersheds function would be the ability to discriminate between in-channel dead zone ( DZ) and hyporheic zone ( HZ) transient storage, and an evaluation of how these properties scale across stream orders. The nature of DZ storage is to display faster exchange rates with the main channel and less overall sediment contact time than HZ storage. These differences have great significance to many in-stream processes such as nutrient cycling. The combination of high slope, coarse bed material and fluvial structure endemic to many 1st order streams can provide greater forcing of hyporheic flow paths than occurs within the lower gradient 5th order streams. Conversely many 5th order reaches exhibit large side pool and back eddy DZ areas not common along 1st order streams. This study builds on existing methods to delineate the DZ and HZ from the integrated signal of a conservative solute's breakthrough curve ( BTC). Data for this comparison were collected over the summer of 2007 within the Ipswich River watershed, a basin which drains into Plum Island Sound on the north shore of Massachusetts, USA. The conservative solute NaCl was injected into both a 1st order medium gradient stream and a 5th order low gradient stream. The BTCs collected in thalwegs from the NaCl injections were simulated using a version of the solute transport model OTIS containing two zones of transient storage. Hydrometric measurements of stream velocity were used to estimate average main channel cross sectional area ( A) and DZ cross sectional area ( ASDZ) for each reach to constrain parameter estimates and avoid model equifinality between the storage zones. Initial values for the exchange rate between main channel flow and DZ storage ( αDZ) were estimated from DZ BTCs. Our results indicate that although the overall storage zone is much larger in proportion to the main channel for the 1st order reach than for the 5th order reach, the percentage of median

  16. From Wheelchair to Cane: Elective Transtibial Amputations in a Patient with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-11-01

    Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  17. Characterisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in the Australian Cane Toad, Rhinella marina

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Mette; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I is a highly variable gene family that encodes cell-surface receptors vital for recognition of intracellular pathogens and initiation of immune responses. The MHC class I has yet to be characterised in bufonid toads (Order: Anura; Suborder: Neobatrachia; Family: Bufonidae), a large and diverse family of anurans. Here we describe the characterisation of a classical MHC class I gene in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina. From 25 individuals sampled from the Australian population, we found only 3 alleles at this classical class I locus. We also found large number of class I alpha 1 alleles, implying an expansion of class I loci in this species. The low classical class I genetic diversity is likely the result of repeated bottleneck events, which arose as a result of the cane toad's complex history of introductions as a biocontrol agent and its subsequent invasion across Australia. PMID:25093458

  18. Nonlinear dynamics approach to the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, L.; Kirtman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model is investigated using nonlinear dynamics analysis. Newer theoretical concepts are applied to the coupled model in order to help quantify maximal prediction horizons for finite amplitude perturbations on different scales. Predictability analysis based on the maximum Lyapunov exponent considers infinitesimal perturbations, which are associated with errors in the smallest fastest-evolving scales of motion. However, these errors become irrelevant for the predictability of larger scale motions. In this study we employed finite-size Lyapunov exponent analysis to assess the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model as a function of scale. We demonstrate the existence of fast and slow timescales, as noted in earlier studies, and the expected enhanced predictability of the anomalies on large scales. The final results and conclusions clarify the applicability of these new methods to seasonal forecasting problems.

  19. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  20. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, Moises

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed.

  1. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Vitolo, M.

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  2. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time. PMID:23184239

  3. [Natural presence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin in the sugar cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Estrada, María Elena; Romero, Maritza; Rivero, María Julia; Barroso, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    The natural presence of Beauveria bassiana was determined (Balsamo) Vuillemin from insects with mycotic symptoms collected in leaves and in the stalks of sugar cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) in Pinar del Río, Ciudad de la Habana, Habana, Matanzas, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos and Camagüey. The results obtained demonstrate the natural presence of the entomopathogen fungus in larvae and chrysalises of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) and they suggest the basis for the strategy of biological control against this borer. PMID:15458363

  4. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  5. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  6. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  7. Differentially delayed root proteome responses to salt stress in sugar cane varieties.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Cinthya Mirella; Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Mansur Custodio Nogueira, Rejane Jurema; Menossi, Marcelo; Calsa, Tercilio

    2013-12-01

    Soil salinity is a limiting factor to sugar cane crop development, although in general plants present variable mechanisms of tolerance to salinity stress. The molecular basis underlying these mechanisms can be inferred by using proteomic analysis. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify differentially expressed proteins in sugar cane plants submitted to salinity stress. For that, a greenhouse experiment was established with four sugar cane varieties and two salt conditions, 0 mM (control) and 200 mM NaCl. Physiological and proteomics analyses were performed after 2 and 72 h of stress induction by salt. Distinct physiological responses to salinity stress were observed in the varieties and linked to tolerance mechanisms. In proteomic analysis, the roots soluble protein fraction was extracted, quantified, and analyzed through bidimensional electrophoresis. Gel images analyses were done computationally, where in each contrast only one variable was considered (salinity condition or variety). Differential spots were excised, digested by trypsin, and identified via mass spectrometry. The tolerant variety RB867515 showed the highest accumulation of proteins involved in growth, development, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species metabolization, protein protection, and membrane stabilization after 2 h of stress. On the other hand, the presence of these proteins in the sensitive variety was verified only in stress treatment after 72 h. These data indicate that these stress responses pathways play a role in the tolerance to salinity in sugar cane, and their effectiveness for phenotypical tolerance depends on early stress detection and activation of the coding genes expression. PMID:24251627

  8. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2009-04-15

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  9. Augmenting white cane reliability using smart glove for visually impaired people.

    PubMed

    Bernieri, Giuseppe; Faramondi, Luca; Pascucci, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The independent mobility problem of visually impaired people has been an active research topic in biomedical engineering: although many smart tools have been proposed, traditional tools (e.g., the white cane) continue to play a prominent role. In this paper a low cost smart glove is presented: the key idea is to minimize the impact in using it by combining the traditional tools with a technological device able to improve the movement performance of the visually impaired people. PMID:26738160

  10. Design, development, and clinical evaluation of the electronic mobility cane for vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bhatlawande, Shripad; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Biswas, Mukul; Das, Debabrata; Gupta, Somedeb

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a new electronic mobility cane (EMC) for providing obstacle detection and way-finding assistance to the visually impaired people. The main feature of this cane is that it constructs the logical map of the surrounding environment to deduce the priority information. It provides a simplified representation of the surrounding environment without causing any information overload. It conveys this priority information to the subject by using intuitive vibration, audio or voice feedback. The other novel features of the EMC are staircase detection and nonformal distance scaling scheme. It also provides information about the floor status. It consists of a low power embedded system with ultrasonic sensors and safety indicators. The EMC was subjected to series of clinical evaluations in order to verify its design and to assess its ability to assist the subjects in their daily-life mobility. Clinical evaluations were performed with 16 totally blind and four low vision subjects. All subjects walked controlled and the real-world test environments with the EMC and the traditional white cane. The evaluation results and significant scores of subjective measurements have shown the usefulness of the EMC in vision rehabilitation services. PMID:24860035

  11. Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs

    PubMed Central

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

  12. Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

    1995-01-01

    The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations. PMID:16534900

  13. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1). PMID:19297150

  14. Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

    2010-05-01

    Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

  15. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  16. Fate of Tebuthiuron and Hexazinone in Green-Cane Harvesting System.

    PubMed

    Toniêto, Thiago Antônio Pinheiro; de Pierri, Letícia; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2016-05-25

    In Brazil, fire prior to sugar cane harvesting has to be phased out by 2017, but it has already been phased out in up to 85-90% of the cropped area. The new system is called green cane and has entirely changed weed management practices. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of the straw presence as well as humic acid (HA), formulation, soil type, and aging on the sorption and leaching of (14)C-tebuthiuron and hexazinone. Both herbicides presented low sorption for all treatments (Kd,app ≤ 3.25 L kg(-1)), but it was higher for tebuthiuron in the clayer soil (LVd). Straw and aging only slightly enhanced sorption. The HA effects were not clear. Sorption was mostly affected by herbicide and soil type. Straw may promote physical trapping (∼40% of applied amount), which cannot be accessed by "batch" sorption (∼15% of the applied amount is sorbed), attenuating leaching of highly mobile herbicides in green-cane systems. To properly assess leaching through straw residues under laboratory condition, rainfall distribution is very important. PMID:26731582

  17. Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Modar; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people. PMID:24445417

  18. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle. PMID:25419647

  19. A genetic perspective on rapid evolution in cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Rollins, Lee A; Richardson, Mark F; Shine, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The process of biological invasion exposes a species to novel pressures, in terms of both the environments it encounters and the evolutionary consequences of range expansion. Several invaders have been shown to exhibit rapid evolutionary changes in response to those pressures, thus providing robust opportunities to clarify the processes at work during rapid phenotypic transitions. The accelerating pace of invasion of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia during its 80-year history has been well characterized at the phenotypic level, including common-garden experiments that demonstrate heritability of several dispersal-relevant traits. Individuals from the invasion front (and their progeny) show distinctive changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour that, in combination, result in far more rapid dispersal than is true of conspecifics from long-colonized areas. The extensive body of work on cane toad ecology enables us to place into context studies of the genetic basis of these traits. Our analyses of differential gene expression from toads from both ends of this invasion-history transect reveal substantial upregulation of many genes, notably those involved in metabolism and cellular repair. Clearly, then, the dramatically rapid phenotypic evolution of cane toads in Australia has been accompanied by substantial shifts in gene expression, suggesting that this system is well suited to investigating the genetic underpinnings of invasiveness. PMID:25894012

  20. An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

    2014-03-01

    Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

  1. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  2. Improved welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from pretreated cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongxia; Liu, Min; Yu, Pingru; Zhang, Shaozhi; Suo, Yukai; Luo, Ping; Li, Shuang; Wang, Jufang

    2015-09-20

    Welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from cane molasses was studied in batch fermentation to reduce production costs and enhance gum production. The pretreatment of cane molasses, agitation speed and the addition of supplements were investigated to optimize the process. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis was found to be the optimal pretreatment, resulting in a maximum gum concentration of 33.5 g/L, which is 50.0% higher than those obtained from the molasses' mother liquor. Agitation at 600 rpm at 30°C and addition of 10% n-dodecane following fermentation for 36 h increased the maximum gum production up to 41.0 ± 1.41 g/L, which is 49.1% higher than the greatest welan gum concentration in the literature so far. The welan gum product showed an acceptable molecular weight, similar rheological properties and better thermal stability to that obtained from glucose. These results indicate that cane molasses may be a suitable and inexpensive substrate for cost-effective industrial-scale welan gum production. PMID:26050885

  3. Clinical Performance of the 1st American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Clinical Guideline on Prevention of Symptomatic Pulmonary Embolism after Total Knee Arthroplasty in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We sought to document the clinical performance of the 1st American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) guideline on the prevention of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Korean patients, in terms of the proportions of the each risk-stratified group, efficacy and safety. Consecutive 328 patients underwent TKA were preoperatively assessed for the risks of PE and bleeding and categorized into 4 groups: 1) standard risk, 2) high risk for PE, 3) high risk for bleeding, and 4) high risks both for PE and bleeding. One of three options was administered according to the groups (aspirin in group 1 or 4; enoxaparin and following aspirin in group 2; antithrombotic stocking in group 3). Incidences of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and PE, and major or minor bleeding complications were evaluated. Majority of the patients (86%) were assessed to be with standard risks both for PE and bleeding. No patient experienced symptomatic DVT or PE and major bleeding. Eleven percent of the patients discontinued chemoprophylaxis because of bleeding-related wound complication. In conclusion, the 1st AAOS guideline functions successfully in Korean patients undergoing TKA in terms of prevention of symptomatic DVT and PE while avoiding major bleeding complications. PMID:26713064

  4. Effect of milk feed source, frequency of feeding and age at turnout on calf performance, live-weight at mating and 1st lactation milk production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Female calves (n = 108) were assigned to 6 cold milk feeding treatments in two experiments for a 70-day period. Live-weight (LW) was measured weekly, with an additional LW taken at day 410 and post-calving for animals in experiment 1. In Experiment 1, the effect of feeding frequency and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance and 1st lactation milk yields were evaluated. The whole milk (WM) feeding treatments applied were (i) once daily feeding (OD), (ii) twice daily feeding (TD), (iii) OD feeding, outdoors at 38 days (ODO). In Experiment 2, the effects of feeding milk replacer (MR) as opposed to WM and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance were evaluated. The treatments applied were (i) OD feeding with WM (OD), (ii) OD feeding with milk replacer (MR) (ODMR), (iii) OD feeding with MR, outdoors at 38 days (ODMRO). Experiment 1: There were no differences (P > 0.05) in LW or average daily gain between TD and OD calves at day 80 or 410. ODO calves had lower LW at day 80 as compared to OD or TD (P < 0.001). Calf LW at day 80 was 86, 89 and 85 kg and at day 410 was 304, 309 and 316 kg for OD, TD and ODO, respectively. Milk feeding frequency or time of calf turnout had no effect on LW post calving, milk composition or 1st lactation milk yields. Experiment 2: Total LW at day 80 was higher (P < 0.05) for ODMR compared to OD or ODMRO calves. Calf LW was 87, 95, and 88 kg for OD, ODMR and ODMRO, respectively. However, LW at day 410 did not differ between treatments. This study showed that while some differences were observed in calf LW at day 80, these differences had no effect on LW at day 410 or 1st lactation milk yield. It can be concluded that calves can be successfully reared when fed OD with WM or MR, indoors and when turned out to pasture at 38 days of age. PMID:23078871

  5. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Malone, John B

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

  6. JANNAF 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S.; Becker, Dorothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Volume I, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 24 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meeting held jointly with the 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered include: a Keynote Address on Future Combat Systems, a review of the new JANNAF Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee, and technical papers on Hyper-X propulsion development and verification; GTX airbreathing launch vehicles; Hypersonic technology development, including program overviews, fuels for advanced propulsion, ramjet and scramjet research, hypersonic test medium effects; and RBCC engine design and performance, and PDE and UCAV advanced and combined cycle engine technologies.

  7. The Effect of Hand Position on Detection Distance for Object and Surface Preview When Using the Long Cane for Nonvisual Travel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrow, Steven J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of hand position when the long cane is used to assist travel for individuals with severe visual impairments. Subjects were 15 mobility instructors. The study found that the style with which one holds the cane when using the touch technique does affect detection distance for both surface and object preview. (DB)

  8. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  9. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  10. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  11. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  12. Photosynthetic and canopy characteristics of different varieties at the early elongation stage and their relationships with the cane yield in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During sugarcane growth, the early elongation stage is critical to cane yield formation. In order to investigate the effects of photosynthetic and canopy characteristics on cane yield, parameters of 17 sugarcane varieties were determined at the early elongation stage using CI-301 photosynthesis meas...

  13. Traumatic Floating 1st Metacarpal in a 14-Year-Old Boy Managed by Close Reduction and Thumb Spica Immobilization: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Himanshu Ravindra; Kamat, Nandan; Wajekar, Sagar; Mandalia, Saumil H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Double dislocation of thumb metacarpal (MC) is a rare injury which may be secondarily complicated by growth plate injury in children. The management of floating 1st MC is also controversial since the treatment ranges from simple reduction to complex reconstruction surgeries. It is also important to understand the long-term results of different management strategies (close reduction, K-wire fixation, ligament reconstruction) as any residual stiffness or instability of thumb may result in severe disability of the hand. Case Report: A 14-year-old boy with an alleged history of injury to the thumb due to a fall. The postulated mechanism of injury was forced hyperextension of thumb and axial loading of hand in the prone position. On examination, there was prominent bony swelling over the dorsal aspect of carpometacarpal (CMC) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints which was very tender with diffuse swelling over entire thumb. X-ray showed dorsal dislocation of both MCP and CMC joints, without any fracture (bony avulsion) or volar plate avulsion. Treatment was by way of closed reduction performed by axial traction followed by forced flexion at MCP joint with continuous pressure over the dorsal aspect of the joint. The reduction of CMC joint was done by direct pressure over the dorsal aspect and full abduction of thumb. Following reduction, the thumb was immobilized in a thumb spica. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude it is possible to manage a case of floating 1st MC by closed reduction and immobilization, using proper reduction technique. However, a careful clinical and radiological assessment should be done beforehand for signs of bony injury or ligamentous instability. PMID:27299001

  14. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA FAINT DWARF GALAXIES, CANES VENATICI I, BOOeTES I, CANES VENATICI II, AND LEO IV

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Sakurako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Onodera, Masato

    2012-01-10

    We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Booetes I (Booe I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Booe I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Booe I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age ({approx}12.6 Gyr) with respect to Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Booe I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs.

  15. Lead sorptive removal using magnetic and nonmagnetic fast pyrolysis energy cane biochars.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Singh, Prachi; Sarswat, Ankur; Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Charles U

    2015-06-15

    Energy cane biochar (ECBC) was prepared in a 72 s fast pyrolysis at 425 °C in an auger-fed reactor and ground into 250-600 μm diameter particles. This biochar was magnetized by fusing an iron oxide phase to the particles by mixing aqueous biochar suspensions with aqueous Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) solutions, followed by NaOH treatment (MECBC). These biochars were characterized by Raman, FT-IR, X-ray, SEM, SEM-EDX, TEM, EDXRF, pHzpc, elemental analyses, S(BET), and magnetic moment determinations. The S(BET) of energy cane biochar was negligible and increased to 37.13 m(2)/g after Fe(3+)/Fe(2+)/NaOH magnetization. The dry biochar contains 18.4% oxygen. This allows swelling in water and permits sorption inside the solid as well as on its pore surfaces, leading to high capacities at low surface areas. Maximum lead removal occurred at pH 4-5. Sorption isotherms exhibited increasing lead removal (Q(0), mg/g) as temperature increased for nonmagnetic [Q(0)(25 °C)=45.70; Q(0)(35 °C)=52.01 and Q(0)(45 °C)=69.37] and magnetic [Q(0)(25 °C)=40.56; Q(0)(35 °C)=51.17 and Q(0)(45 °C)=51.75] biochars. Second order kinetics best fit the lead removal data. Furthermore, magnetic energy cane biochar was easily manipulated by low external magnetic field, thereby, allowing its easy recovery for further recycling and replacement from water. ECBC and MECBC were also successfully applied for Pb(2+) removal from contaminated ground water. Therefore, both chars can be used as potential green low cost sorbents for lead remediation to replace commercial activated carbon. PMID:25744855

  16. Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Anthony J.; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D.; Boyle, Donna G.; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M.; Siddon, Nicole A.; Hyatt, Alex D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. Methodology/Principal Findings The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. Conclusions/Significance While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach. PMID:21283623

  17. Influence of sugar cane burning on aerosol soluble ion composition in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; da Rocha, G. O.

    2004-09-01

    Seasonal variability in the major soluble ion composition of atmospheric particulate matter in the principal sugar cane growing region of central São Paulo State indicates that pre-harvest burning of sugar cane plants is an important influence on the regional scale aerosol chemistry. Samples of particulate matter were collected between April 1999 and February 2001 in coarse (> 3.5 μm) and fine (< 3.5 μm) fractions, and analysed for HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2O42- , SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Results indicated that the principal sources of the aerosols investigated were local or regional in nature (scale of tens to a few hundreds of km), and that differences between air masses of varying origins were small. Fine particles were typically acidic, containing secondary nitrates, sulphates and organic species. Coarse fraction concentrations were mainly influenced by physical parameters (wind speed, movement of vehicles and surface condition) affecting rates of re-suspension, although secondary nitrate and sulphate were also present in the larger particles. Concentrations of all measured species except sodium and chloride were higher during the burning season. Although concentrations were lower than often found in polluted urban environments, the massive increases during much of the year, due to a single anthropogenic activity (sugar cane burning) are indicative of a very large perturbation of the lower troposphere in the region relative to the natural condition. These aerosols are suspected of promoting respiratory disease. They also represent an important mechanism for the tropospheric transport of species relevant to surface acidification (sulphates, nitrates, ammonium and organic acids) and soil nutrient status (potassium, nitrogen, ammonium, calcium), so their impact on fragile natural ecosystems (following deposition) needs to be considered.

  18. A navigation system for the visually impaired an intelligent white cane.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, A Jin; Magatani, Kazusihge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe about a developed navigation system that supports the independent walking of the visually impaired in the indoor space. Our developed instrument consists of a navigation system and a map information system. These systems are installed on a white cane. Our navigation system can follow a colored navigation line that is set on the floor. In this system, a color sensor installed on the tip of a white cane, this sensor senses a color of navigation line and the system informs the visually impaired that he/she is walking along the navigation line by vibration. This color recognition system is controlled by a one-chip microprocessor. RFID tags and a receiver for these tags are used in the map information system. RFID tags are set on the colored navigation line. An antenna for RFID tags and a tag receiver are also installed on a white cane. The receiver receives the area information as a tag-number and notifies map information to the user by mp3 formatted pre-recorded voice. And now, we developed the direction identification technique. Using this technique, we can detect a user's walking direction. A triaxiality acceleration sensor is used in this system. Three normal subjects who were blindfolded with an eye mask were tested with our developed navigation system. All of them were able to walk along the navigation line perfectly. We think that the performance of the system is good. Therefore, our system will be extremely valuable in supporting the activities of the visually impaired. PMID:23366992

  19. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  20. Exposure to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in the dark lowers the respiration quotient of Vitis cane wood.

    PubMed

    Smart, David R

    2004-01-01

    Cane cuttings of the grapevine rootstock Vitis rupestris Scheele x V. riparia Michx. cv. 3309 Couderc were brought out of endodormancy by warming at 30 degrees C. Cane pieces (12 to 13 cm long) with nodes containing a primary bud were placed in a gas exchange system and monitored for net respiratory fluxes of CO2 and O2. Grapevine respiration rates expressed on a wood volume basis were 1.4 to 3.4 mmol CO2 or O2 m-3s-1, which is higher than stem respiration rates reported for many other woody taxa but similar to rates measured for ecodormant buds of other Vitis species. Passive water loss from canes was 0.7 to 1.2 mmol H2O m-3s-1. During a 7-day period, nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in cane wood declined only slightly, whereas sucrose was nearly completely consumed. When ambient CO2 concentration ([CO2]) was raised from 300 to 750 micro molmol-1 and then 2000 micromol mol-1, net CO2 exchange rates declined by 5.9 +/- 0.6 and then 11.0 +/- 0.6%, whereas net O2 consumption rates remained about constant. The mean respiration quotient (net CO2/O2 flux) for canes with intact ecodormant buds was 0.99 +/- 0.03 when the [CO2] was 300 micromol mol-1, and decreased to 0.87 +/- 0.03 and 0.088 +/- 0.02 when the [CO2] was increased to 750 and 2000 micromol mol-1, respectively. The results support the hypothesis that, in Vitis canes, inhibition of respiratory CO2 efflux in response to high [CO2] is an indirect consequence of non-photosynthetic carboxylation reactions, and not a result of inhibition of respiratory metabolism. PMID:14652221

  1. Single-mode quantum cascade lasers employing a candy-cane shaped monolithic coupled cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peter Q.; Sladek, Kamil; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Jen-Yu; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate single-mode quantum cascade lasers emitting at ˜4.5 μm by employing a monolithic "candy-cane" shaped coupled-cavity consisting of a straight section connecting at one end to a spiral section. The fabrication process is identical to those for simple Fabry-Perot-type ridge lasers. Continuously tunable single-mode emission across ˜8 cm-1 with side mode suppression ratio up to ˜25 dB and a single-mode operating current range of more than 70% above the threshold current is achieved when the lasers are operated in pulsed-mode from 80 K to 155 K.

  2. Method for processing whole cane and sweet sorghum into fuel alcohol and electric power

    SciTech Connect

    le Grand, F.

    1983-10-01

    A process is described for fermenting whole cane in situ to ethanol, rather than extracting the sugar and fermenting it separately. An energy efficient way of obtaining dehydrated ethanol is the employment of a molecular sieve using bagasse as a desicant. The remaining bagasse is recovered and dried prior to gasification. The producer gas is used to fuel a spark ignition engine which may be geared either to a generating unit or a hydraulic pump. The economics of the process are discussed briefly. (Refs. 3).

  3. A Virtual Blind Cane Using a Line Laser-Based Vision System and an Inertial Measurement Unit

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Quoc Khanh; Chee, Youngjoon; Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A virtual blind cane system for indoor application, including a camera, a line laser and an inertial measurement unit (IMU), is proposed in this paper. Working as a blind cane, the proposed system helps a blind person find the type of obstacle and the distance to it. The distance from the user to the obstacle is estimated by extracting the laser coordinate points on the obstacle, as well as tracking the system pointing angle. The paper provides a simple method to classify the obstacle’s type by analyzing the laser intersection histogram. Real experimental results are presented to show the validity and accuracy of the proposed system. PMID:26771618

  4. A Virtual Blind Cane Using a Line Laser-Based Vision System and an Inertial Measurement Unit.

    PubMed

    Dang, Quoc Khanh; Chee, Youngjoon; Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A virtual blind cane system for indoor application, including a camera, a line laser and an inertial measurement unit (IMU), is proposed in this paper. Working as a blind cane, the proposed system helps a blind person find the type of obstacle and the distance to it. The distance from the user to the obstacle is estimated by extracting the laser coordinate points on the obstacle, as well as tracking the system pointing angle. The paper provides a simple method to classify the obstacle's type by analyzing the laser intersection histogram. Real experimental results are presented to show the validity and accuracy of the proposed system. PMID:26771618

  5. Estimation of sugarcane sucrose and biomass with remote sensing techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing techniques were used to predict sucrose levels (TRS) and gross cane yield in field-grown sugarcane. To estimate sucrose levels, leaves were collected from plant-cane and first-ratoon sugarcane plants from the variety maturity studies conducted at the USDA-ARS-SRRC, Sugarcane Research...

  6. Sugar cane vinasse in water bodies: impact assessed by liver histopathology in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Júlia Fernanda Urbano; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marcato, Ana Claudia de Castro; Pedro-Escher, Janaína; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are the main receptors of toxic substances from human activities. With the increase in sugar cane production, vinasse - the main residue of ethanol production - is a potential contaminant of water resources, due to its high organic matter content. This study was aimed at evaluating the toxicity of vinasse by examining the liver of the fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to different dilutions of sugar cane vinasse (1%, 2%, 5%, 5% and 10%) in laboratory bioassays. Portions of liver were collected and fixed for histological and histochemical techniques to detect total proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. In the histological analysis, the groups treated with vinasse exhibited significant alterations, such as loss of cytoplasmic integrity, loss of cell limit and tissue disorganization. Protein and lipid profiles were not altered. Higher accumulation of polysaccharides was detected in fish exposed to lower concentrations of vinasse, with a gradual decrease in animals treated with vinasse in higher concentrations. We concluded that vinasse has a dose-dependent toxic and cytotoxic potential in water bodies and that the liver is strongly affected when acutely exposed to this contaminant. PMID:25265025

  7. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes Following Ammonium Sulfate and Vinasse Application on Sugar Cane Soil.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Debora da S; Alves, Bruno J R; dos Santos, Marco A; Bolonhezi, Denizart; Sant'Anna, Selenobaldo A C; Urquiaga, Segundo; Lima, Magda A; Boddey, Robert M

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emission/sink response from sugar cane soil treated with fertilizer nitrogen (N) and vinasse applied separately or in sequence, the latter being investigated with regard to the time interval between applications for a possible effect on emissions. The study was carried out in a traditional area of unburned sugar cane in São Paulo state, Brazil. Two levels of N fertilization (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1)) with no added vinasse and combined with vinasse additions at different times (100 m(-3) ha(-1) at 3 and 15 days after N fertilization) were evaluated. Methane and N2O fluxes were monitored for 211 days. On average, the soil was a sink for CH4, which was not affected by the treatments. Emissions of N2O were induced by N fertilizer and vinasse applications. For ammonium sulfate, 0.6% of the added N was emitted as N2O, while for vinasse, this ranged from 1.0 to 2.2%. Changes in N2O fluxes were detected the day after application of vinasse on the N fertilized areas, but although the emission factor (EF) was 34% greater, the EF was not significantly different from fertilizer N alone. Nevertheless, we recommend to not apply vinasse after N fertilization to avoid boosting N2O emissions. PMID:26295867

  8. Treatment of cane sugar mill wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Nacheva, P Mijaylova; Chávez, G Moeller; Chacón, J Matías; Chuil, A Canul

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a mesophilic UASB reactor was studied for the treatment of sugar cane mill wastewater previously pre-treated for solid separation. The experimental work was carried out in a reactor with 80 L total volume. Four organic loads were applied and the process performance was evaluated during two months for each experimental stage. Removal efficiencies higher than 90% were obtained with organic loads up to 16 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Stable process performance and high biogas production were obtained. The COD removal rate increased substantially with the load increase to 24 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). However, the obtained removal was of only 78-82%, which can be attributed to the accumulation of volatile organic acids. The kinetic coefficients were obtained using first order model for the substrate removal rate and Monod's equation for bacteria specific growth rate. The UASB reactor is a good option for the biological treatment of pre-treated sugar cane mill wastewaters. The discharge requirements for COD concentration can be accomplished if the reactor is operated at a low organic load of 4 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). At higher loads, an additional biological treatment stage is needed. PMID:19717923

  9. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate. PMID:22362519

  10. Can we control the invasive cane toad using chemicals that have evolved under intraspecific competition?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Gregory S; Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Many invasive species experience intense intraspecific competition, because they are abundant in anthropogenically disturbed habitats where few native species persist. Species-specific competitive mechanisms that evolve in this context may offer novel, highly targeted means to control invasive taxa. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate the feasibility of this method of control, based on waterborne cues that are produced by tadpoles of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) to suppress the development of conspecific embryos. Our trials examined the nature and species-specificity of the effect, the robustness of the cue to freezing and storage, and the amounts required to suppress toad embryos. Our results were encouraging. The cue appears to be chemical rather than a biological organism, and may well be species-specific; the four species of native anurans that we tested were not influenced by toad larval cues. The cue retains its effectiveness after being frozen, but not after being dried, or after 7 d in water. It is effective at very low concentrations (the amount produced by three tadpoles within 750 L of water). Overall, the cane toad's suppressor pheromone may offer an effective new way to control invasive toads. PMID:27209788

  11. Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

  12. Reproduction and mortality in a colony of captive greater cane rats, Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck.

    PubMed

    Adu, E K; Aning, K G; Wallace, P A; Ocloo, T O

    2000-02-01

    The reproductive performance and mortalities in a colony of captive greater cane rats, Thryonomys swinderianus, were monitored from 1992 to 1998 at the Grasscutter Domestication Centre, Achimota, Ghana. The animals were kept in cages and exposed to constant lighting from a 100 W electric light bulb during the night. The diet consisted mainly of freshly cut Panicum maximum (guinea grass) fed ad libitum, with occasional supplements of cassava and cane sugar. The results indicate that the mean litter size and litter weight were 2.9 +/- 0.51 and 439.4 +/- 81.23 g, respectively. These figures are low compared to those reported elsewhere. However, the mean birth weight was 151.2 +/- 11.08 g, higher by 12% than previously reported values. It is considered that poor nutrition, excessive exposure to light and stress were responsible for the relatively poor reproductive performance reported in these animals. The main causes of death were traumatic injuries (32%) and pulmonary congestion (16%). PMID:10717939

  13. Long-term prospects for the environmental profile of advanced sugar cane ethanol.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cinthia R U; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Junqueira, Tassia Lopes; van Oers, Lauran; van der Voet, Ester; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-10-21

    This work assessed the environmental impacts of the production and use of 1 MJ of hydrous ethanol (E100) in Brazil in prospective scenarios (2020-2030), considering the deployment of technologies currently under development and better agricultural practices. The life cycle assessment technique was employed using the CML method for the life cycle impact assessment and the Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty analysis. Abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, and eutrophication were the environmental impacts categories analyzed. Results indicate that the proposed improvements (especially no-til farming-scenarios s2 and s4) would lead to environmental benefits in prospective scenarios compared to the current ethanol production (scenario s0). Combined first and second generation ethanol production (scenarios s3 and s4) would require less agricultural land but would not perform better than the projected first generation ethanol, although the uncertainties are relatively high. The best use of 1 ha of sugar cane was also assessed, considering the displacement of the conventional products by ethanol and electricity. No-til practices combined with the production of first generation ethanol and electricity (scenario s2) would lead to the largest mitigation effects for global warming and abiotic depletion. For the remaining categories, emissions would not be mitigated with the utilization of the sugar cane products. However, this conclusion is sensitive to the displaced electricity sources. PMID:25275890

  14. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  15. Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, β-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, β-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and β-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  16. Corticosterone-immune interactions during captive stress in invading Australian cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Graham, Sean P; Kelehear, Crystal; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Vertebrates cope with physiological challenges using two major mechanisms: the immune system and the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., the glucocorticoid stress response). Because the two systems are tightly integrated, we need simultaneous studies of both systems, in a range of species, to understand how vertebrates respond to novel challenges. To clarify how glucocorticoids modulate the amphibian immune system, we measured three immune parameters and plasma corticosterone (CORT), before and after inflicting a stressor (capture and captive confinement) on introduced cane toads (Rhinella marina) near their invasion front in Australia. Stress increased CORT levels, decreased complement lysis capacity, increased leukocyte oxidative burst, and did not change heterologous erythrocyte agglutination. The strength of the CORT response was positively correlated with leukocyte oxidative burst, and morphological features associated with invasiveness in cane toads (relative leg length) were correlated with stress responsiveness. No immune parameter that we measured was affected by a toad's infection by a parasitic nematode (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala), but the CORT response was muted in infected versus uninfected toads. These results illustrate the complex immune-stress interactions in wild populations of a non-traditional model vertebrate species, and describe immune adaptations of an important invasive species. PMID:22713726

  17. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    SciTech Connect

    Martirena, Fernando . E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

  18. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 9: Catalytic liquefaction in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Rezemini, A.L.; Donate, P.M.

    1999-05-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, using ethanol as solvent. A systematic study with 12 different types of commercially available catalysts was accomplished. For each catalyst, the conversion yield of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products, which are useful as liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks, was determined. The highest conversion yield was observed when a nickel catalyst on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used. The liquefied products were fractionated into oils, asphaltenes, and asphaltols. The oil samples were separated and then fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography. The highest proportion of light-oils (F1 to F5) was obtained with the potassium fluoride catalyst on silica gel. High proportions of resins (F6) were obtained with three types of catalysts: nickel on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ruthenium, or platinum on activated carbon powder. The highest proportion of asphaltenes (F7) and of asphaltols (F8) were obtained with the niobium oxide catalyst.

  19. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A.; Donate, P.M.

    1999-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

  20. Development and application of a thermophysical property model for cane fiberboard subjected to high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.J.; Gromada, R.J.

    1994-06-01

    A thermophysical property model has been developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) and associated post fire cooling. The complete model was developed from high temperature cane fiberboard 1-D test results and consists of heating and cooling sub-models. The heating property model accounts for the enhanced heat transfer of the hot gases in the fiberboard, the loss of energy via venting, and the loss of mass from venting during the heating portion of the test. The cooling property model accounts for the degraded material effects and the continued heat transfer associated with the hot gases after removal of the external heating source. Agreement between the test results of a four inch thick fiberboard sample with the analytical application of the complete property model is quite good and will be presented. A comparison of analysis results and furnace test data for the 9966 package suggests that the property model sufficiently accounts for the heat transfer in an actual package.

  1. Putting the Students 1st

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This article profiles Randy Jensen, the 2005 MetLife/NASSP National Middle Level Principal of the Year. As the principal of William Thomas Middle School in American Falls, Idaho, Jensen is a committed advocate for his students as they grapple with the challenges that come with being an adolescent and has adopted an open-door policy with his school…

  2. GALEX 1st Light Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This compilation shows the constellation Hercules, as imaged on May 21 and 22 by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The images were captured by the two channels of the spacecraft camera during the mission's 'first light' milestone.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer first light images are dedicated to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Hercules region was directly above Columbia when it made its last contact with NASA Mission Control on February 1, over the skies of Texas.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer launched on April 28 on a mission to map the celestial sky in the ultraviolet and determine the history of star formation in the universe over the last 10 billion years.

  3. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

  4. Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Simultaneous Energy Cane and Sugarcane Genetic Improvement -- Results of a Survey of International Sugarcane Breeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following Brazil's dramatic success in utilizing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for large-scale ethanol production, and with a growing interest in energy crops worldwide, sugarcane breeders have been charged with genetically improving cane as an energy crop. We conducted a survey of sugarcane breeders i...

  5. A Seamless Approach to Transitioning Cane Skills from the Diagonal to the Two-Point Touch Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of orientation and mobility (O&M) is replete with literature describing specific cane techniques, strategies for teaching O&M to specific populations and age groups, rationales, and appropriate settings. These strategies and techniques are also addressed in many university preparation programs. In this article, the author discusses…

  6. Motivation and Web-Based Instruction: A Case Study of Using CANE Model To Access Motivation Problems and Find Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Jung Maigo

    1999-01-01

    Uses a cognitive motivation approach to view students' learning on Web-based instruction (WBI). Introduces the new CANE Model as a means for diagnosing motivation problems. Presents one WBI class at a teacher education institution in Taiwan as a case study to illustrate the process of how to diagnose motivation problems and find appropriate…

  7. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... quantity of the refined and specialty sugar TRQ is established at 99,111 MTRV for certain sugars, syrups... sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the subheadings of the HTS subject to the...

  8. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013... quantity of the refined and specialty sugar TRQ is established at 117,254 MTRV for certain sugars, syrups..., syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the subheadings of the HTS subject to the lower tier...

  9. Growth, Physiological and Yield Responses to the Mid-Season Application of Moddus for Seed Cane Quality in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moddus is a plant growth regulator for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and has been used to produce high quality of seed cane in Florida by reducing internode length, mitigating plant lodging, and facilitating harvest in addition to commonly using as a ripener for improving sucrose content. But little is...

  10. Composition and Tissue-Specific Distribution of Stilbenoids in Grape Canes Are Affected by Downy Mildew Pressure in the Vineyard.

    PubMed

    Houillé, Benjamin; Besseau, Sébastien; Delanoue, Guillaume; Oudin, Audrey; Papon, Nicolas; Clastre, Marc; Simkin, Andrew John; Guérin, Laurence; Courdavault, Vincent; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lanoue, Arnaud

    2015-09-30

    Grape canes are byproducts of viticulture containing valuable bioactive stilbenoids including monomers and oligomers of E-resveratrol. Although effective contents in stilbenoids are known to be highly variable, the determining factors influencing this composition remain poorly understood. As stilbenoids are locally induced defense compounds in response to phytopathogens, this study assessed the impact of downy mildew infection during the growing season on the stilbenoid composition of winter-harvested grape canes. The spatial distribution between pith, conducting tissues, and cortex of E-piceatannol, E-resveratrol, E-ε-viniferin, ampelopsin A, E-miyabenol C, Z/E-vitisin B, hopeaphenol, and isohopeaphenol in grape canes from infected vineyards was strongly altered. In conducting tissues, representing the main site of stilbenoid accumulation, E-ε-viniferin content was higher and E-resveratrol content was lower. These findings suppose that the health status in vineyards could modify the composition of stilbenoids in winter-harvested grape canes and subsequently the potential biological properties of the valuable extracts. PMID:26373576

  11. Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

  12. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On June 21, 2011, the Secretary of Agriculture announced an... Malawi 1,776 Mozambique 2,309 Nicaragua 3,729 Panama 5,150 Peru 7,281 Philippines 2,841 South Africa 4... amount of the original TRQ for raw cane sugar, to the Philippines. This results in an overall...

  13. The Interacting Effects of Ungulate Hoofprints and Predatory Native Ants on Metamorph Cane Toads in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; González-Bernal, Edna; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna) may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina), because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist) microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus) and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia. PMID:24255703

  14. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renò, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities. PMID:19280672

  15. Report on: "The 1st Workshop on National Immunization Programs and Vaccine Coverage in ASEAN Countries, April 30, 2015, Pattaya, Thailand".

    PubMed

    Hattasingh, Weerawan; Pengsaa, Krisana; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2016-03-01

    The 1st Workshop on National Immunization Programs and Vaccine Coverage in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Countries Group (WNIPVC-ASEAN) held a meeting on April 30, 2015, Pattaya, Thailand under the auspices of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the World Health Organization (WHO). Reports on the current status and initiatives of the national immunization program (NIP) in each ASEAN countries that attended were presented. These reports along with survey data collected from ministries of health in ASEAN countries NIPs demonstrate that good progress has been made toward the goal of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). However, some ASEAN countries have fragile health care systems that still have insufficient vaccine coverage of some basic EPI antigens. Most ASEAN countries still do not have national coverage of some new and underused vaccines, and raising funds for the expansion of NIPs is challenging. Also, there is insufficient research into disease burden of vaccine preventable diseases and surveillance. Health care workers must advocate NIPs to government policy makers and other stakeholders as well as improve research and surveillance to achieve the goals of the GVAP. PMID:26805596

  16. Report from the 1st Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit of the Diabetes & Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Oliver; Standl, Eberhard; Catrinoiu, Doina; Genovese, Stefano; Lalic, Nebojsa; Skra, Jan; Valensi, Paul; Ceriello, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The 1st Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit of the Diabetes & Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group was held during the annual meeting on 30 October 2015 in Munich. This summit was organized in light of recently published and numerous ongoing CVOTs on diabetes, which have emerged in response to the FDA and the EMA Guidelines. The CVOT Summit stands as a novel conference setup, with the aim of serving as a reference meeting for all topics related to CVOTs in diabetes. Members of the steering committee of the D&CVD EASD Study Group constitute the backbone of the summit. It included presentations of key results on DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1-Analogues, SGLT-2 inhibitors, acarbose and insulins. Diabetologists' and cardiologists' perspective on the potential need of new study designs were also highlighted. Furthermore, panel discussions on the design of CVOTs on diabetes were included in the program. The D&CVD EASD Study Group will continue its activity. In-depth discussions and presentations of new CVOTs like LEADER, will be resumed at the 2nd CVOT on diabetes of the D&CVD EASD Study Group, which will be held from 20-22 October 2016 in Munich ( http://www.dcvd.org). PMID:26892706

  17. Contribution of sugar-cane harvesting season to atmospheric contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Araraquara city, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Sandro José; Cristale, Joyce; Silva, Flávio Soares; Julião Zocolo, Guilherme; Marchi, Mary R. R.

    2010-08-01

    In Brazil, sugar-cane crops are burned to facilitate harvesting, and this causes environmental pollution from the large amounts of smoke and soot that are released into the atmosphere. The smoke and soot contain numerous organic compounds such as PAHs. In this study, PM 10 and PAH concentrations in the air of Araraquara (SE Brazil, with around 200,000 inhabitants and surrounded by sugar-cane plantations) were determined during the harvest and non-harvest seasons. The sampling strategy included two campaigns in each season, with 20 samples per season. PM 10 was collected using a Hi-vol sampler with Teflon™ - coated glass fiber filters. PM 10 ranged from 41 to 181 μg m -3 during the harvest season, and from 12 to 47 μg m -3 during the non-harvest season. The mean total concentration of PAHs was 2.5 ng m -3 (non-harvest season) and 11.6 ng m -3 (harvest season). In all sampling periods, the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were phenanthrene and fluoranthrene, and the least abundant was anthracene. The cluster analysis of the total PAH concentrations for each day of sampling and the corresponding meteorological data suggested that the atmospheric concentration of PAHs was independent of the differences in the weather between the seasons. For both sampling seasons, the statistical treatment (PCA, Varimax rotation and HCA) indicated the presence of vehicle sources (diesel, gasoline, and natural-gas engines); but for the harvest season, the main source was attributed to sugar-cane burning. The data generated by this study indicated the burning of sugar-cane as the main contributor to the high levels of PAHs detected in samples during the sugar-cane harvest season.

  18. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  19. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  20. Geophysical Methods for Locating Karst Conduits in Cane Run Watershed, Central Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Paylor, R.; Currens, J. C.; Dinger, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Cane Run watershed in central Kentucky was listed by the Kentucky Division of Water as one of four focus watersheds for clean-up under the State’s nonpoint-source pollution program. This watershed is degraded by pathogens, nutrients, siltation, and organic enrichment. The sources of pollution include both municipal point sources and nonpoint agricultural and nonagricultural sources. The relative contribution of different parts of the watershed to the contamination is not well understood, however. The geology of Cane Run watershed consists of Ordovician thin-bedded limestone with sparse interbeds of shale. The landscape is dominated by karst features such as sinkholes and springs. Cane Run only flows during times of significant rainfall, usually in the spring of the year. The remainder of the year, most water is recharged to a karst conduit system that leads from Lexington, Ky to Royal Spring, as demonstrated by groundwater tracing. Royal Spring is the major water supply for Georgetown in Scott County, Ky. We attempted to locate the karst conduit so that groundwater flowing through the conduit could be monitored. These monitoring data are essential for assessing the effectiveness of remediation plans. In 2008, based on geology, karst features, and hydrogeology, an initial round of electrical-resistivity and spontaneous-potential geophysical surveys were conducted to help pinpoint the location of the conduit at three sites. Fifteen exploratory boreholes were drilled on the basis of the geophysical results. The boreholes confirmed the geophysical surveys had located minor mud-filled conduits that were interpreted as tributaries to the main conduit. Another round of 2D and 3D electrical resistivity surveys were conducted in 2009 to search for the main conduit. The analysis of this round of surveys resulted in one promising site that is suspected to be in close proximity to the conduit. A time-lapse 2D electrical resistivity survey in conjunction with calcium chlorite

  1. Canes Venatici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Hunting Dogs; abbrev. CVn, gen. Canum Venaticorum; area 465 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Boötes, and culminates at midnight in early April. It was named by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia though the celestial figure had been shown in earlier charts da...

  2. Character & Cane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  3. The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J

    2011-09-01

    Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse. PMID:21680181

  4. The effects of Saccharum officinarium (sugar cane) molasses on cytokine secretion by human blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, Farzana; Pool, Edmund John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on the immune system, using cytokines as biomarkers. Whole blood cultures, stimulated in vitro with endotoxin or PHA, were incubated with various concentrations of molasses. No cell death occurred in whole blood cultures incubated with molasses samples. The addition of molasses (800 microg/mL) to unstimulated whole blood cultures resulted in increased levels of the biomarker of inflammation, Interleukin-6 (P < 0.001) and also the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). Molasses addition (800 microg/mL) to unstimulated whole blood cultures has no effect on the cell mediated immunity biomarker, Interferon gamma secretion. Molasses has no effect on Interleukin-6, Interleukin-10 and Interferon gamma secretion in stimulated whole blood cultures. Immunostimulation by molasses requires further investigation as it may have potential health impacts. PMID:20391026

  5. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    PubMed

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  6. Wheelchairs, walkers, and canes: what does Medicare pay for, and who benefits?

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer L; Agree, Emily M; Kasper, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    Medicare's role in the distribution of mobility-related assistive technology has not been well documented, yet rapid growth and regional variation in spending, and concerns over "in-the-home" coverage criteria, highlight the need for facts. Using the 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we find that 6.2 percent percent of beneficiaries obtained mobility assistive technology under the Medicare durable medical equipment (DME) benefit. These beneficiaries were disproportionately poor, disabled, and users of both acute and postacute services. Average per item spending ranged from $52 for canes to $6,208 for power wheelchairs. Among beneficiaries who acquired such technology through the DME benefit, these devices comprised just 2 percent of overall Medicare spending. PMID:16012154

  7. Decomposition of lignin from sugar cane bagasse during ozonation process monitored by optical and mass spectrometries.

    PubMed

    Souza-Corrêa, J A; Ridenti, M A; Oliveira, C; Araújo, S R; Amorim, J

    2013-03-21

    Mass spectrometry was used to monitor neutral chemical species from sugar cane bagasse that could volatilize during the bagasse ozonation process. Lignin fragments and some radicals liberated by direct ozone reaction with the biomass structure were detected. Ozone density was monitored during the ozonation by optical absorption spectroscopy. The optical results indicated that the ozone interaction with the bagasse material was better for bagasse particle sizes less than or equal to 0.5 mm. Both techniques have shown that the best condition for the ozone diffusion in the bagasse was at 50% of its moisture content. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to analyze the lignin bond disruptions and morphology changes of the bagasse surface that occurred due to the ozonolysis reactions as well. Appropriate chemical characterization of the lignin content in bagasse before and after its ozonation was also carried out. PMID:23441875

  8. Washoff of Residual Photosystem II Herbicides from Sugar Cane Trash under a Rainfall Simulator.

    PubMed

    Dang, Aaditi; Silburn, Mark; Craig, Ian; Shaw, Melanie; Foley, Jenny

    2016-05-25

    Herbicides are often applied to crop residues, but their fate has not been well studied. We measured herbicide washoff from sugar cane trash during simulated rainfall, at 1, 8, and 40 days after spraying (DAS), to provide insight into herbicide fate and for use in modeling. Herbicides included are commonly used in the sugar industry, either in Australia or in Brazil. Concentrations of all herbicides and applied Br tracer in washoff declined exponentially over time. The rate of washoff during rainfall declined with increasing DAS. Cumulative washoff as a function of rainfall was similar for most herbicides, although the most soluble herbicides did have more rapid washoff. Some but not all herbicides became more resistant to washoff with increasing DAS. Of the total mass washed off, 80% washed off in the first 30 mm (∼40 min) of rainfall for most herbicides. Little herbicide remained on the trash after rainfall, implying nearly complete washoff. PMID:26964670

  9. Selection of sugar cane full-sib families using mixed models and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L M; Viana, A P; Gonçalves, G M; Entringer, G C

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, an experiment examining families belonging to the first selection stage of the Sugar Cane Breeding Program of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro/Rede Interuniversitária para o Desenvolvimento do Setor Sucroalcooleiro was conducted. Families and plants within families were evaluated to select superior plants for subsequent stages of the breeding program. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, in which progenies were grouped into 4 sets, each with 4 replicates and 100 seedlings per plot. The following traits were evaluated: average stem diameter, total plot weight, number of stems, Brix of the lower stem, and Brix of the upper stem. The study of families used the restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased procedure mixed models. After selection, families were genotyped via inter-simple sequence repeat to assess the genetic distance of genotypes. This approach was found to be efficient for selecting new genotypes. PMID:25501142

  10. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    PubMed

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. PMID:25846188

  11. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

    2010-01-01

    In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation. PMID:24031568

  12. Experimental variables effects on the direct liquefaction of lignin sugar cane bagasse

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, R.M.S.; Lancas, F.M.

    1998-08-01

    Sugar cane bagasse lignin was submitted to a liquefaction process with the aim of obtaining light oils. In order to increase the yields of light oils a study of the influence of experimental variables in the liquefaction process was performed. A 2{sup 4} factorial design was used, involving two levels and four variables: temperature, pressure, solute/solvent ratio, and time. It was observed that the variables time, temperature, and solute/solvent ratio influenced an increase in yield, and the variable solute/solvent ratio was independent, while the second-order effect among t {times} T, t {times} P was observed, and third-order among T {times} t {times} P occurs.

  13. Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

    1988-07-01

    A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

  14. Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, A.R.F.; Drummond, I.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste product. The role of the important pyrolysis parameters, peak temperature and heating rate, in defining the ultimate tar yield is investigated, with the value for bagasse being 54.6% at 500 C and 1,000 C/s. The pyrolysis yields, under similar conditions, of another biomass material, silver birch, are also reported and compared to those of bagasse.

  15. Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

    2010-09-01

    The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

  16. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Andréa P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Márcia M. C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-06-01

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaça) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaça were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaça of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachaças, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees.

  17. Cane Creek flood-flow characteristics at State Route 30 near Spencer, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Transportation has constructed a new bridge and approaches on State Route 30 over Cane Creek near Spencer, Tennessee. The old bridge and its approaches were fairly low, permitting considerable flow over the road during high floods. The new bridge and its approaches are considerably higher, causing different flow conditions at the site. Analysis of the effects of the new bridge, as compared to the old bridge, on floods of the magnitude of the May 27, 1973, flood is presented. The May 27, 1973, flood was greater than a 100-year flood. Analysis of the 50- and 100-year floods for the new bridge are also presented. Results of the study indicate that the new construction will increase the water-surface elevation for a flood equal to the May 27, 1973, flood by approximately 1 foot upstream from bridge. (USGS)

  18. [Determination of organic acids in cane vinasse by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanjin; Xu, Guiping; Wei, Yuanan

    2006-01-01

    Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with indirect ultraviolet (UV) detection method for the separation and determination of several organic acids in cane vinasse, including malonic, formic, tartaric, malic, succinic, glutaric, acetic, lactic and glutamic acids, were developed. Electrophoretic conditions were as follows: uncoated fused silica capillary (56 cm/ 64 cm (effective/total length), 50 microm i. d. ), 7.5 mmol/L potassium acid phthalate-1. 5 mmol/L cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) at pH = 6.50 as buffer solution, applied voltage -25 kV, temperature 25 degrees C, detection wavelength 300 nm, reference wavelength 210 nm. Good linearities were obtained for nine organic acids, and the detection limits were 0.5 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L for malonic, formic, tartaric, malic, succinic, glutaric, acetic, lactic and glutamic acid, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for migration times and peak areas of nine organic acids within a day were 0.4% - 0.6% and 2.3% - 4.8%, respectively. The corresponding data for five days were 0.5% -0.7% and 3.3% - 5.2%. The recoveries of acid standards were above 93%. The method can be applied to determine the organic acids in cane vinasse with satisfactory results. PMID:16827307

  19. Use of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate aluminum toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Zilli, Mario; de Araújo Viana Marques, Daniela; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Converti, Attilio

    2009-10-01

    Owing to its toxicity, aluminum (Al), which is one of the most abundant metals, inhibits the productivity of many cultures and affects the microbial metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Al on cell growth, viability, and budding, as the likely result of possible chelating action. For this purpose, Fleischmann's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used in growth tests performed in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL of YED medium (5.0 g/L yeast extract plus 20 g/L glucose) supplemented with the selected amounts of either vinasse or Al in the form of AlCl(3) . H(2)O. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Al up to 54 mg/L reduced the specific growth rate by 18%, whereas no significant reduction was observed in its presence. The toxic effect of Al on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating effect of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by the exponential model of Ciftci et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 25:2007-2023, 1983). The cell viability decreased from 97.7% at the start to 84.0% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 92.3% with vinasse. On the other hand, the cell budding increased from 7.62% at the start to 8.84% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 17.8% with vinasse. These results demonstrate the ability of this raw material to stimulate cell growth and mitigate the toxic effect of Al. PMID:19184166

  20. Gross, histological and ultrastructural features of the bulbourethral gland in the greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olukole, S G; Oyeyemi, M O; Taiwo, V O; Ihunwo, A O; Oke, B O

    2015-02-01

    The present study examines the structure and ultrastructure of the bulbourethral glands in 10 sexually matured male greater cane rats raised in captivity. Following anaesthesia, the rats were perfusion-fixed transcardially and the bulbourethral glands dissected out. Upon morphologic and morphometric analysis, the Cowper's glands were observed to have an average volume of 0.24±0.08 ml, a diameter of 6.3±0.6 mm and weighs 0.199±0.06 g. The paired, gourd-shaped tubuloalveolar glands were surrounded by dense connective tissues and separated into lobules by capsular septae. Each lobule consists of endpiece/secretory units and excretory ducts lined by simple glandular epithelium and pseudo-stratified epithelium, respectively. The round end pieces consisted of 8-10 pyramidal to columnar epithelial cells with flattened, basally located nuclei and granule-filled cytoplasm that bounded a narrow glandular lumen. The striking ultrastructural features of these secretory cells were the presence of some granules with uniform electron density and those with regions of lesser density as well as the absence of secretory vacuoles. Another unique characteristic of these secretory granules is the presence of electron dense strands radiating from their surfaces. The apical surfaces of the cells were also studded with abundant microvilli. From the findings, the structure of bulbourethral glands in the greater cane rat shows more resemblances to that of humans than to its rodent phylogeny. These findings serve as additional knowledge in the structural interpretation of the bulbourethral gland and its secretory products. PMID:24660943