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Sample records for 1st lactation milk

  1. Effect of milk feed source, frequency of feeding and age at turnout on calf performance, live-weight at mating and 1st lactation milk production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Female calves (n = 108) were assigned to 6 cold milk feeding treatments in two experiments for a 70-day period. Live-weight (LW) was measured weekly, with an additional LW taken at day 410 and post-calving for animals in experiment 1. In Experiment 1, the effect of feeding frequency and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance and 1st lactation milk yields were evaluated. The whole milk (WM) feeding treatments applied were (i) once daily feeding (OD), (ii) twice daily feeding (TD), (iii) OD feeding, outdoors at 38 days (ODO). In Experiment 2, the effects of feeding milk replacer (MR) as opposed to WM and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance were evaluated. The treatments applied were (i) OD feeding with WM (OD), (ii) OD feeding with milk replacer (MR) (ODMR), (iii) OD feeding with MR, outdoors at 38 days (ODMRO). Experiment 1: There were no differences (P > 0.05) in LW or average daily gain between TD and OD calves at day 80 or 410. ODO calves had lower LW at day 80 as compared to OD or TD (P < 0.001). Calf LW at day 80 was 86, 89 and 85 kg and at day 410 was 304, 309 and 316 kg for OD, TD and ODO, respectively. Milk feeding frequency or time of calf turnout had no effect on LW post calving, milk composition or 1st lactation milk yields. Experiment 2: Total LW at day 80 was higher (P < 0.05) for ODMR compared to OD or ODMRO calves. Calf LW was 87, 95, and 88 kg for OD, ODMR and ODMRO, respectively. However, LW at day 410 did not differ between treatments. This study showed that while some differences were observed in calf LW at day 80, these differences had no effect on LW at day 410 or 1st lactation milk yield. It can be concluded that calves can be successfully reared when fed OD with WM or MR, indoors and when turned out to pasture at 38 days of age. PMID:23078871

  2. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks of gestation, n 15), very preterm (28-<32 weeks of gestation, n 15), moderately preterm (32-<37 weeks of gestation, n 15) and term infants (37-41 weeks of gestation, n 15). Total protein, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, soluble CD14 receptor (sCD14), transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), α defensin 5 (HD5), β defensins 1 (HBD1) and 2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-γ, TNF-α and lysozyme (LZ) were quantified in milk. We examined the effects of lactation stage, gestational age, volume of milk expressed, mode of delivery, parity and maternal infection on milk immune factor concentrations using repeated-measures regression analysis. The concentrations of all factors except LZ and HD5 decreased over the 1st month postpartum. Extremely preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk. PMID:26891901

  3. [Lysozyme activity in the milk of sucking mares during lactation].

    PubMed

    Hatzipanagiotou, A; Rieland, E; Enbergs, H

    1998-04-01

    It was the aim of this project to investigate the changes of the lysozyme activity in the milk of mares during the lactation period. Further on the influence of race, date of conception and foaling, age and number of lactations on the lysozyme activities in milk was analysed. Milk samples were collected from 44 mares (trotters, warmblood, quarter horses) from eight farms between the 1st and 90th day p. p. The activity of the lysozyme was measured by a turbidometric method. Summarizing the following results are obtained: Lysozyme activities in mare milk of the 1st and 3rd day p. p. were higher than in mature milk. On average the highest lysozyme activity (Xa = 113.600 +/- 25.171 U/ml) was measured on the 3rd day p. p. Until the 9th day p. p. the activity decreased about 25%, afterwards there was only a slight decrease. The lowest activity (Xa = 57.509 +/- 14.606 U/ml) was measured at the 83rd day p. p. The influence of race and conception time proved to be statistically significant resp. highly significant. PMID:9618986

  4. Extended lactation in dairy cows: effects of milking frequency, calving season and nutrition on lactation persistency and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D Donald; Knight, Christopher H

    2008-02-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). Lactation persistency (and hence total milk yield) was significantly increased by frequent milking. Winter calving cows and supplemented cows also exhibited better persistency, but this was only evident up until the point of re-breeding, at around lactation week 33. Milk composition was measured in the spring-calving cows in both their first and second extended lactations. Composition altered during the course of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course of lactation but was not affected by supplementation; none of the cows became excessively fat. All cows remained healthy throughout the extended lactations and the majority (33/36) re-bred successfully. By demonstrating that lactation persistency is plastic and can be improved by simple management interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed. PMID

  5. Short communication: Projecting milk yield using best prediction and the MilkBot lactation model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accuracy and precision of three lactation models was estimated by summarizing means and variability in projection error for next-test milk and actual 305-d milk yield (M305) for 50-day intervals in a large DHIA data set. Lactations were grouped by breed (Holstein, Jersey and crossbred) and parit...

  6. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers.

    PubMed

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol without aseptic cleansing (n = 60), and the microbiota of the milk collected aseptically (n = 30). We have also investigated the impact of the delivery mode and the stage of lactation on the microbiota composition. The microbiota of breast milk was dominated by streptococci and staphylococci for both collection protocols and, in the case of standard collection protocol, Acinetobacter sp. While the predominance of streptococci and staphylococci was consistently reported previously for other populations, the abundance of Acinetobacter sp. was reported only once before in a study where milk collection was done without aseptic cleansing of the breast and rejection of foremilk. Higher bacterial counts were found in the milk collected using standard protocol. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were present in few samples with low abundance. We observed no effect of the stage of lactation or the delivery mode on microbiota composition. Methodological and geographical differences likely explain the variability in microbiota composition reported to date. PMID:27529821

  7. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol without aseptic cleansing (n = 60), and the microbiota of the milk collected aseptically (n = 30). We have also investigated the impact of the delivery mode and the stage of lactation on the microbiota composition. The microbiota of breast milk was dominated by streptococci and staphylococci for both collection protocols and, in the case of standard collection protocol, Acinetobacter sp. While the predominance of streptococci and staphylococci was consistently reported previously for other populations, the abundance of Acinetobacter sp. was reported only once before in a study where milk collection was done without aseptic cleansing of the breast and rejection of foremilk. Higher bacterial counts were found in the milk collected using standard protocol. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were present in few samples with low abundance. We observed no effect of the stage of lactation or the delivery mode on microbiota composition. Methodological and geographical differences likely explain the variability in microbiota composition reported to date. PMID:27529821

  8. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Swedish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher H

    2011-08-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows and heifers in early lactation, but thereafter decreased significantly more in cows than in heifers. The effect of milking frequency on yield characteristics was analysed by comparing the highest and lowest quartiles for milking frequency. High milking frequency in early lactation was consistently associated with increased peak yield. High milking frequency averaged across the whole lactation was associated with increased peak yield in both cows and heifers, and with improved lactation persistency in cows only. This resulted in total lactation yield that was 21% greater in the high quartile cows compared with the low. PMID:21774865

  9. Effect of lactation number, year, and season of initiation of lactation on milk yield of cows hormonally induced into lactation and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Mellado, M; Antonio-Chirino, E; Meza-Herrera, C; Veliz, F G; Arevalo, J R; Mellado, J; de Santiago, A

    2011-09-01

    Records representing data from 1,500 barren Holstein cows over an 8-yr period from a large commercial dairy farm in northern Mexico were analyzed to determine the effects of lactation number and season and year of initiation of lactation on milk production of cows induced hormonally into lactation and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) throughout lactation. Peak and 305-d milk yields were also assessed as predictors of total milk yield in cows induced into lactation. A significant quadratic relationship was found between 305-d milk yield and number of lactation [7,607±145 and 9,548±181 kg for first- and ≥6-lactation cows, respectively; mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)] with the highest production occurring in the fifth lactation. Total milk yields of cows with ≤2 lactations were approximately 4,500 kg less than milk yields of adult cows (the overall average ± standard milk yield was 13,544±5,491 kg per lactation and the average lactation length was 454±154 d). Moreover, 305-d milk production was depressed in cows induced into lactation in spring (8,804±153 kg; mean ± SEM) and summer (8,724±163 kg) than in fall (9,079±151 kg) and winter (9,085±143 kg). Partial regression coefficients for 305-d milk yield and peak milk yield indicated an increment of 157 kg of milk per lactation per 1-kg increase in peak milk yield (r(2)=0.69). Neither peak milk yield (r(2)=0.18) nor 305-d milk yield (r(2)=0.29) was accurate for predicting total milk yield per lactation. Year, parity, and season effects had significant influence on milk yield of cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout lactation, and peak milk yield can assist in the prediction of 305-d milk yield but not total milk yield. This study also showed that hormonal induction of lactation in barren high-yielding cows is a reliable, practical, and affordable technique in countries where rbST treatment and prolonged steroid administration of dairy cows are legally

  10. Milk Oligosaccharides over Time of Lactation from Different Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Macias Rostami, Shirin; Bénet, Thierry; Spears, Julie; Reynolds, Arleigh; Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Sprenger, Norbert; Austin, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The partnership of humans and dogs goes back to over 10'000 years, yet relatively little is known about a dog's first extra-uterine nutrition particularly when it comes to milk oligosaccharides. We set out to identify and quantify milk oligosaccharides over the course of lactation from different dog breeds (Labrador retriever, Schnauzer and 3 Alaskan husky crossbreeds). To this end, 2 different chromatographic methods with fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection were developed and one was validated for quantification. Besides lactose and lactose-sulphate, we identified 2 different trisaccharides composed of 3 hexose units, 3′sialyllactose (3′SL), 6′sialyllactose (6′SL), 2′fucosyllactose (2′FL), and a tetrasaccharide composed of 2 hexoses, an N-acetylhexosamine and a deoxyhexose. 3′SL was present at the highest levels in milk of all dog breeds starting at around 7.5 g/L and dropping to about 1.5 g/L in the first 10 days of lactation. 6′SL was about 10 times less abundant and 2′FL and the tetrasaccharide had rather varying levels in the milk of the different breeds with the tetrasaccharide only detectable in the Alaskan husky crossbreeds. The longitudinal and quantitative data of milk oligosaccharides from different dog breeds are an important basis to further our understanding on their specific biological roles and also on the specific nutritional requirements of lactating puppies. PMID:24924915

  11. Peptidomic profile of milk of Holstein cows at peak lactation

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan A.; Garay, Luis A.; Bhandari, Aashish; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Barile, Daniela; German, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk is known to contain naturally occurring peptides, but relatively few of their sequences have been determined. Human milk contains hundreds of endogenous peptides and the ensemble has been documented for antimicrobial actions. Naturally occurring peptides from bovine milk were sequenced and compared with human milk peptides. Bovine milk samples from six cows in second stage peak lactation at 78–121 days post- partum revealed 159 peptides. Most peptides (73%) were found in all six cows sampled, demonstrating the similarity of the intra-mammary peptide degradation across these cows. One peptide sequence, ALPIIQKLEPQIA from bovine perilipin 2 was identical to another found in human milk. Most peptides derived from β-casein, αs1-casein and αs2- casein. No peptides derived from abundant bovine milk proteins like lactoferrin, β- lactoglobulin and secretory immunoglobulin A. The enzymatic cleavage analysis revealed that milk proteins were degraded by plasmin, cathepsins B and D and elastase in all samples. PMID:24344900

  12. Pharmacokinetics in lactating women: prediction of alprazolam transfer into milk.

    PubMed Central

    Oo, C Y; Kuhn, R J; Desai, N; Wright, C E; McNamara, P J

    1995-01-01

    1. Alprazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine, is extensively prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders, which predominantly affect women of child-bearing age. The purpose of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam and its two hydroxylated metabolites: 4-hydroxy-alprazolam and alpha-hydroxy-alprazolam in lactating human volunteers and to test the predictability of four recently reported models for drug transfer into milk based on physicochemical properties. 2. Multiple milk and serum samples in eight lactating subjects were collected up to 36 h following single oral doses of 0.5 mg alprazolam; suckling of the infant was discontinued after drug administration. 4-Hydroxy-alprazolam was the predominant metabolite in serum samples while alpha-hydroxy-alprazolam was not detected. 3. The mean oral clearance of alprazolam was 1.15 +/- 0.32 ml min-1 kg-1. The time course of alprazolam in milk roughly paralleled the perspective plasma time profile (mean serum residence time = 16.42 +/- 4.69 h; mean milk residence time = 18.93 +/- 7.03 h). The mean terminal half-life in serum was 12.52 +/- 3.53 h. 4. Observed milk/serum concentration ratios were determined in vivo as AUCmilk/AUCserum (mean M/S(obs) = 0.36 +/- 0.11).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8527284

  13. The effects of milk yield and stage of lactation on the partitioning of nutrients in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, R M; Gordon, F J

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to examine, using indirect calorimetry, the effects of milk yield and stage of lactation on the response in milk and body tissue energy, and heat production, to a reduction (decrement) in nutrient intake (assessed as metabolizable energy intake). Eight lactating dairy cows, four representing each of two stages of lactation [either mean initial days in milk (DIM) 158 (SD 6.1) or 414 (SD 51.1)] were used. Each cow underwent four 17-d periods incorporating two physiological states [number of mammary glands milked: either four (periods 1 and 2), or two (periods 3 and 4)], and two levels of metabolizable energy intake within each physiological state [either sufficient to meet requirements for zero tissue balance plus 10 MJ/d (periods 1 and 3)] or these allowances reduced by 20 MJ/d in the subsequent period (periods 2 and 4, respectively). Partitioning was calculated from the changes in metabolizable energy intake, milk energy, tissue energy, and heat production between DIM groups and between four and two gland milking (milk yield) components of the study. Partitioning of the changes in metabolizable energy intake was not influenced by DIM, but milk yield response was greater in the early lactation cows compared with the late group. Cows milked in four glands (higher milk yield) partitioned a significantly greater proportion of decremental changes in metabolizable energy intake to milk energy and less to tissue energy, than when milked in only two glands (lower milk yield). PMID:11210038

  14. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Chatterton, Robert T; Zinaman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to compare psychological distress as measured via self-reported perceived stress, sleep, and fatigue levels in lactating mothers of a term infant and mothers of a preterm infant and(b) to determine whether the addition of psychological distress to a previous model predicts milk volume at Postpartum Week 6 by gestation group. The convenience sample of 95 mothers of a preterm infant (31 weeks) and 98 mothers of a term infant completed the Perceived Stress Visual Analogue Scale, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale. Stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue levels decreased during the 6-week study period for mothers of a term but not for mothers of a preterm infant. Perceived stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue during the first 6 weeks postpartum were not related to milk volume; thus, the mother's perceived psychological distress had no apparent effect on lactation. PMID:16157942

  15. Analysis of raw goat milk microbiota: impact of stage of lactation and lysozyme on microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Elizabeth A; Kalanetra, Karen M; Mills, David A; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2015-04-01

    To protect infants from infection, human milk contains high levels of the enzyme lysozyme, unlike the milk of dairy animals. We have genetically engineered goats to express human lysozyme (hLZ milk) in their milk at 68% the amount found in human milk to help extend this protection. This study looked at the effect of hLZ on bacteria in raw milk over time. As the microbial diversity of goats' milk has yet to be investigated in depth using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, we applied NGS and clone library sequencing (CLS) to determine the microbiota of raw goat milk (WT milk) and hLZ milk at early, mid and late lactation. Overall, in WT milk, the bacterial populations in milk at early and mid lactation were similar to each other with a shift occurring at late lactation. Both methods found Proteobacteria as the dominant bacteria at early and mid lactation, while Actinobacteria surged at late lactation. These changes were related to decreases in Pseudomonas and increases in Micrococcus. The bacterial populations in hLZ milk were similar to WT milk at early and mid lactation with the only significant differences occurring at late lactation with the elevation of Bacillaceae, Alicyclobacillaceae, Clostridiaceae and Halomonadaceae. PMID:25475275

  16. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to study the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in milk during lactation and its relationship with metabolic status of dairy cows, milk yield, milk composition, and cheesemaking properties. The study was performed in a tied stall barn and involved 20 lactations from 12 healthy multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows. During lactation starting at d 10, milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for composition, somatic cells count, titratable acidity, and milk coagulation properties. The GGT activity was measured in defatted samples. Blood samples were collected weekly to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The lactations of each cow were retrospectively categorized into 2 groups according to their milk GGT activity value through lactation. A median value of GGT activity in the milk of all lactations was calculated (3,045 U/L), and 10 lactations with lower GGT activity were classified as low while 10 lactations with greater GGT activity were classified as high. The average value of milk GGT activity during lactation was 3,863 and 3,024 U/L for high and low, respectively. The GGT activity decreased in early lactation and reached minimum values in the second month (3,289 and 2,355 U/L for high and low, respectively). Thereafter GGT activity increased progressively, reaching values in late lactation of 4,511 and 3,540 U/L in high and low, respectively. On average, milk yield was 40.81 and 42.76 kg/d in high and low, respectively, and a negative partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. A greater milk protein concentration was observed in high (3.39%) compared with low (3.18%), and a positive partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. Greater titratable acidity in high than that in low (3.75 vs. 3.45 degrees Soxhlet-Henkel/50 mL, respectively) was also observed. Plasma glucose was greater in

  17. Variation in milk cortisol during lactation in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Alejandro, M; Romero, G; Moya, F; Peris, C

    2013-02-01

    Fifty-seven goats were included in an experiment designed to study the effect of lactation stage, parity number, and mammary gland health status on milk cortisol concentration as a method to assess the welfare of Murciano-Granadina goats. The relationships of milk cortisol concentration with different production parameters (milk yield, milk composition, and mechanical milking ability: milk fractioning during milking and milking time) were also studied. The experiment lasted 8 mo and monthly samplings were carried out to determine total milk yield (MY), fractioning during milking (machine milk, MM; machine stripping milk, MSM), and milking time (MT), and a sample was taken from the total milk yield to determine milk cortisol concentration, somatic cell count, and milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose). To determine the infection status of the gland, an aseptic sample was taken for bacteriological analysis before each monthly sampling. Third-parity goats presented higher concentrations of milk cortisol than those of 1, 2, or ≥ 4 parities. Intramammary infection had no effect on milk cortisol concentration, and somatic cell count did not correlate with cortisol concentration. Cortisol presented a significant correlation with MY and MM, but showed no significant correlation with MSM, MT, or milk composition parameters. Variations in milk cortisol concentration in goats may be associated with different physiological factors in the animal (e.g., milk production level, lactation stage, and parity number) and therefore need not always indicate stress for the animal. PMID:23245963

  18. Saturated Fats: A Perspective from Lactation and Milk Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Cora J.

    2010-01-01

    For recommendations of specific targets for the absolute amount of saturated fat intake, we need to know what dietary intake is most appropriate? Changing agricultural production and processing to lower the relative quantities of macronutrients requires years to accomplish. Changes can have unintended consequences on diets and the health of subsets of the population. Hence, what are the appropriate absolute amounts of saturated fat in our diets? Is the scientific evidence consistent with an optimal intake of zero? If not, is it also possible that a finite intake of saturated fats is beneficial to overall health, at least to a subset of the population? Conclusive evidence from prospective human trials is not available, hence other sources of information must be considered. One approach is to examine the evolution of lactation, and the composition of milks that developed through millennia of natural selective pressure and natural selection processes. Mammalian milks, including human milk, contain 50% of their total fatty acids as saturated fatty acids. The biochemical formation of a single double bond converting a saturated to a monounsaturated fatty acid is a pathway that exists in all eukaryotic organisms and is active within the mammary gland. In the face of selective pressure, mammary lipid synthesis in all mammals continues to release a significant content of saturated fatty acids into milk. Is it possible that evolution of the mammary gland reveals benefits to saturated fatty acids that current recommendations do not consider? PMID:20652757

  19. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods. PMID:25200774

  20. Multiplatform characterization of dynamic changes in breast milk during lactation

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J.; Hyde, Matthew J.; Gomez‐Romero, Maria; Lopez‐Gonzalvez, Maria Angeles; Villaseñor, Alma; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Barbas, Coral; Modi, Neena; Holmes, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The multicomponent analysis of human breast milk (BM) by metabolic profiling is a new area of study applied to determining milk composition, and is capable of associating BM composition with maternal characteristics, and subsequent infant health outcomes. A multiplatform approach combining HPLC‐MS and ultra‐performance LC‐MS, GC‐MS, CE‐MS, and 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to comprehensively characterize metabolic profiles from seventy BM samples. A total of 710 metabolites spanning multiple molecular classes were defined. The utility of the individual and combined analytical platforms was explored in relation to numbers of metabolites identified, as well as the reproducibility of the methods. The greatest number of metabolites was identified by the single phase HPLC‐MS method, while CE‐MS uniquely profiled amino acids in detail and NMR was the most reproducible, whereas GC‐MS targeted volatile compounds and short chain fatty acids. Dynamic changes in BM composition were characterized over the first 3 months of lactation. Metabolites identified as altering in abundance over lactation included fucose, di‐ and triacylglycerols, and short chain fatty acids, known to be important for infant immunological, neurological, and gastrointestinal development, as well as being an important source of energy. This extensive metabolic coverage of the dynamic BM metabolome provides a baseline for investigating the impact of maternal characteristics, as well as establishing the impact of environmental and dietary factors on the composition of BM, with a focus on the downstream health consequences this may have for infants. PMID:25959062

  1. Lactation in the horse: milk composition and intake by foals.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, O T; Hintz, H F; Schryver, H F

    1983-10-01

    Milk samples averaging 500 ml were collected weekly from 10 to 54 days postpartum from five lactating mares. Samples were obtained by hand milking after oxytocin administration and while the foal nursed. Dry matter, protein and gross energy were higher in samples obtained at 10 and 17 days postpartum than those obtained during the midlactation period of 24-54 days. Midlactation samples averaged 10.5% dry matter, 1.29% fat, 1.93% protein, 6.91% sugar and 50.6 kcal/100 g. Protein comprised 22% of milk energy. Milk intake was estimated in five foals from deuterium oxide (D2O) turnover to be 16, 15 and 18 kg/day at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum. Milk intake differed significantly among foals and at the various postpartum ages, whether intake was expressed as a daily amount, as a percent of foal body weight, per kilogram0.75 or per gram of foal body weight gain. Milk production was equivalent to 3.1% of the mare's body weight at 11 days postpartum, 2.9% at 25 days and 3.4% at 39 days. On the basis of metabolic body size milk output by the mare was 149 g/kg0.75, 139 g/kg0.75 and 163 g/kg0.75 at 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively. Nutrient intakes by foals were calculated from milk composition and intake data. At 11, 25 and 39 days postpartum, respectively, dry matter intake equaled 3.1, 2.1 and 2.0% of foal body weight, and daily gross energy intake was 9380, 7590 and 8910 kcal. For each gram of body weight gain, foals ingested 0.37 g protein and 8.3 kcal at 11 days, 0.26 g protein and 6.7 kcal at 25 days, and 0.30 g protein and 7.8 kcal at 39 days of age. PMID:6619986

  2. Lactation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum

  3. The bovine lactation genome: Insights into the evolution of mammalian milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly assembled Bos Taurus genome sequence enables the linkage of bovine milk and lactation data with other mammalian genomes. Using publicly available milk proteome data and mammary expressed sequence tags, 197 milk protein genes and over 6,000 mammary genes were identified in the bovine genome...

  4. Jennet milk production during the lactation in a Sicilian farming system.

    PubMed

    Giosuè, C; Alabiso, M; Russo, G; Alicata, M L; Torrisi, C

    2008-10-01

    In Italy, the interest for jennet milk production has recently developed. An 18-month-long experiment was carried out on a jennet farm near Milo (CT), where 24 jennets, which derived from the Ragusana breed, were tested for milk yield and composition over an entire lactation period. The jennets were fed with hay and concentrate in a large paddock. From the 28th post-foaling day to the end of the lactation, the jennets were machine-milked twice a day with an in-between milking interval of 5 h. The milk amount from each jennet was recorded every 3 weeks and individual samples were collected and analyzed for fat, protein, casein, non-proteic nitrogen, lactose and somatic cell count. This study showed that jennets at Sicilian latitudes are not seasonal polyestrous. The daily milk yield, the length of lactation and the milk characteristics varied depending on the foaling season. The total average milk production was 490 ± 36 kg in 295 ± 12 post-foaling days, considering two milking records per day. During the lactation, milk yield decreased constantly from 1.98 to 1.28 kg/jennet per day. When looking at the jennet milk quality during lactation, the percentage of fat and protein decreased, while the lactose percentage increased, according to a tendency apparently unique for equines when compared to the ruminants. When looking at the productive season, spring generally gave the best qualitative and quantitative results. Based on these results, jennet milk yield and quality could be improved; furthermore, jennet milk production may turn out to be a profitable business. PMID:22443907

  5. Selected parameters in urine as indicators of milk production in lactating sows: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, G A; Maes, D G D; Van Weyenberg, S; Verheyen, A; Janssens, G P J

    2008-07-01

    Although insufficient milk production in lactating sows may cause tremendous economic losses, reliable methods for estimating milk production in sows under field conditions are not available. This study aimed to investigate whether urine parameters could be used to predict milk production in sows. The milk production of 18 sows was determined during early and mid-lactation. Morning (a.m.) and afternoon (p.m.) urinary levels of potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), lactose and creatinine were analysed. The absolute concentrations, the ratios relative to creatinine, and the fractional excretions of all elements in urine were not significantly associated with milk production. The p.m./a.m. ratios of K, Na and Ca concentrations in urine (K(R), Na(R), and Ca(R)) were significant predictors for milk production, but only during mid-lactation. The total variation in milk production (r(2) value) explained by K(R), Na(R), Ca(R) amounted to 72%, 55%, 42%, respectively. Analysis of minerals and especially K in the a.m. and p.m. urine of sows during mid-lactation provided an acceptable indication of milk production. Further research is necessary to investigate whether the present results can be used to estimate milk production in hypogalactic sows under field conditions. PMID:17512765

  6. O-Glycosylation of α-1-Acid Glycoprotein of Human Milk Is Lactation Stage Related

    PubMed Central

    Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Hirnle, Lidia; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Human milk provides a multitude of glycoproteins, including highly glycosylated α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), which elicits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The milk AGP glycoforms may provide the breastfed infant with a wide range of biological benefits. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of O-linked sugar-specific lectins with human milk AGP over the process of lactation and compared the results with those of the lactating mother's plasma. Materials and Methods: Relative amounts of human skim milk AGP O-glycans were analyzed in early colostrum, colostrum, and transitional and mature milk samples of 127 healthy mothers by lectin–AGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using sialyl T (sialyl-α2,3/α2,6 Galβ1,3GalNAc-), asialyl T (Galβ1,3GalNAc-), and Tn (GalNAc-) antigen-specific biotinylated Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Vicia villosa (VVA) lectins, respectively. Results: Milk AGP elicited high expression of Jacalin- and PNA-reactive glycotopes and low expression of VVA-reactive glycotopes, which were absent on plasma AGP of lactating mothers and healthy individuals. The expression of sialyl, asialyl T, and Tn glycotopes of human milk AGP was lactation stage related. The relative amount of Jacalin-reactive AGP glycotope was highest in the colostrum samples and then decreased starting from Day 8 of lactation. In contrast, an increase of the relative amount of PNA-reactive glycotope with milk maturation was observed. The relative amount of VVA-reactive glycotope remained almost constant over the development of lactation. Conclusions: Milk AGP differs from mother's plasma AGP by the presence of O-linked sialylated and asialylated T as well as Tn antigens. The variation of the expression of sialylated and asialylated T and Tn antigens on AGP is associated with milk maturation. PMID:26057552

  7. Effect of lactation stage and concurrent pregnancy on milk composition in the bottlenose dolphin

    PubMed Central

    West, K L; Oftedal, O T; Carpenter, J R; Krames, B J; Campbell, M; Sweeney, J C

    2007-01-01

    Although many toothed whales (Cetacea: Odontoceti) lactate for 2–3 years or more, it is not known whether milk composition is affected by lactation stage in any odontocete species. We collected 64 pooled milk samples spanning 1–30 months postpartum from three captive bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. Milks were assayed for water, fat, crude protein (TN × 6.38) and sugar; gross energy was calculated. Ovulation and pregnancy were determined via monitoring of milk progesterone. Based on analysis of changes in milk composition for each individual dolphin, there were significant increases (P<0.05) in fat (in all three dolphins) and crude protein (in two of three), and a decrease (P<0.05) in water (in two of three) over the course of lactation, but the sugar content did not change. In all three animals, the energy content was positively correlated with month of lactation, but the percentage of energy provided by crude protein declined slightly but significantly (P<0.05). At mid-lactation (7–12 months postpartum, n=17), milk averaged 73.0±1.0% water, 12.8±1.0% fat, 8.9±0.5% crude protein, 1.0±0.1% sugar, 1.76±0.09 kcal g−1 (=7.25 kJ g−1) and 30.3±1.3% protein:energy per cent. This protein:energy per cent was surprisingly high compared with other cetaceans and in relation to the growth rates of calves. Milk progesterone indicated that dolphins ovulated and conceived between 413 and 673 days postpartum, following an increase in milk energy density. The significance of these observed compositional changes to calf nutrition will depend on the amounts of milk produced at different stages of lactation, and how milk composition and yield are influenced by sampling procedure, maternal diet and maternal condition, none of which are known. PMID:22140298

  8. Influences of stage of lactation, teat position and sequential milk sampling on the composition of domestic cat milk (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, K L; DePeters, E J; Rogers, Q R; Taylor, S J

    2004-02-01

    Milk from 11 domestic shorthair cats (Felis catus; n=7 fed dry low-fat diet, n=4 fed dry high-fat diet) was collected weekly for 6 weeks following parturition, and analysed for total solids (TS), crude protein (CP), fat, lactose and ash. Samples were collected in 1-ml sequential fractions to determine whether within-sampling changes in composition existed Samples of extracted milk fat were also analysed for fatty acid content. Two commercia kitten milk replacers were analysed according to the same procedures utilized for mil samples. In statistical analyses individual cat, diet, stage of lactation, litter size, and teat position influenced concentrations of milk components; parity and sequential sampling had no effect. Averaged cat milk was 27.9% TS, and 8.7% CP, 12.7% fat, 4.2% lactose and 1.3% ash (on a wet basis). Milk protein percentage increased over lactation for both diet groups, but fat percentage increased only for queens fed the high-fat diet. Milk replacers were lower in fat and protein content than milk from queens, and had considerably lower levels of arachidonic acid. Data from this study contribute to the limited information available regarding the composition of domestic cat milk, and give possible reasons for poor growth occasionally observed in kittens fed unsupplemented commercial milk replacers. PMID:19774762

  9. Maternal protein reserves and their influence on lactational performance in rats. 3. The effects of dietary protein restriction and stage of lactation on milk composition.

    PubMed

    Pine, A P; Jessop, N S; Oldham, J D

    1994-12-01

    The effects of severe protein restriction following parturition on the changes in rat milk composition during lactation were investigated using multiparous female Sprague-Dawley rats caged individually following mating and offered a high-protein diet (H; 215 g crude protein (N x 6.25; CP)/kg dry matter (DM)) ad lib. until parturition. Following parturition, half the females continued to receive diet H, whilst the remainder were offered a diet low in protein (L; 90 g CP/kg DM) ad lib. On days 2, 4, 8 and 12 of lactation groups of females from both dietary treatments were used to provide a milk sample. Milk samples were analysed for their lactose (enzymically), protein (binding to Coomassie blue), lipid (gravimetrically) and mineral (spectrophotometrically) contents. The milk lactose concentration of group H increased with stage of lactation (r2 0.85, P < 0.001). Such an increase was prevented by diet L, and from day 8 of lactation the milk lactose of group L was lower (P < 0.05) than in group H. Group H milk protein concentration did not change during lactation and averaged 90.7 mg/g. Dietary protein restriction reduced the milk protein concentration of group L so that on days 2, 4 and 12 of lactation it was lower (P < 0.05) than that of group H. On day 8 of lactation the milk protein concentration of group L had increased (P < 0.05) and was comparable with that of group H. For group H, milk lipid averaged 166.8 mg/g and was generally unchanged during lactation. Diet L increased (P < 0.01) the milk lipid concentration (205.5 mg/g) compared with diet H and this was also significant on days 4 and 8 of lactation (P < 0.05). Group L milk lipid concentration also increased between days 4 and 8 of lactation (P < 0.05). Milk Na concentration declined during lactation in both dietary groups (P < 0.01) but was unaffected by dietary treatment. Both milk Ca and P concentrations increased (P < 0.01) during lactation in both dietary groups, whilst protein restriction also

  10. Retinol and α-tocopherol in human milk and their relationship with dietary intake during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiajing; Xiao, Hailong; Wu, Kejian; Yu, Zuxun; Ren, Yiping; Zhao, Yiming; Li, Kelei; Li, Jiaomei; Li, Duo

    2016-04-01

    Human milk is considered as an optimal nutrition source for neonates, and vitamins A and E improve oxidative stress in offspring through breast milk. We aim to determine α-tocopherol and retinol contents in breast milk obtained over the course of lactation stages from mothers in three regions in China, and to investigate their correlation with maternal dietary intake during lactation. Human milk samples and 24 hour food records were obtained from mothers in Hangzhou (n = 34), Lanzhou (n = 34) and Beijing (n = 34) on day 1 (colostrum), day 14 (transitional milk) and day 42 (mature milk) postpartum. Concentrations of α-tocopherol and retinol in breast milk samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The breast milk concentrations of α-tocopherol and retinol decreased over progress of lactation stages (P < 0.001). The retinol content of transitional milk from Hangzhou was higher than that in Lanzhou (P = 0.019) and Beijing (P < 0.001), and the α-tocopherol content in colostrum from Hangzhou showed a lower concentration than that from Lanzhou (P = 0.001). There was a significantly positive correlation between retinol and α-tocopherol contents in colostrum (r = 0.37, P = 0.002), transitional (r = 0.41, P < 0.001) and mature milk (r = 0.53, P < 0.001). No significant correlation was found between any dietary constituents (grain, fruit, vegetable, dairy, egg and meat, oil and bean products) and either retinol or α-tocopherol. PMID:26987293

  11. Lectin-based analysis of fucosylated glycoproteins of human skim milk during 47 days of lactation.

    PubMed

    Lis-Kuberka, Jolanta; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona; Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Glycoproteins of human milk are multifunctional molecules, and their fucosylated variants are potentially active molecules in immunological events ensuring breastfed infants optimal development and protection against infection diseases. The expression of fucosylated glycotopes may correspond to milk maturation stages. The relative amounts of fucosylated glycotopes of human skim milk glycoproteins over the course of lactation from the 2(nd) day to the 47(th) day were analyzed in colostrums, transitional and mature milk samples of 43 healthy mothers by lectin-blotting using α1-2-, α1-6-, and α1-3-fucose specific biotinylated Ulex europaeus (UEA), Lens culinaris (LCA), and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA) lectins, respectively. The reactivities of UEA and LCA with the milk glycoproteins showed the highest expression of α1-2- and α1-6-fucosylated glycotopes on colostrum glycoproteins. The level of UEA-reactive glycoproteins from the beginning of lactation to the 14(th) day was high and relatively stable in contrast to LCA-reactive glycoproteins, the level of which significantly decreased from 2-3 to 7-8 days then remained almost unchanged until the 12(th)-14(th) days. Next, during the progression of lactation the reactivities with both lectins declined significantly. Eighty percent of α1-2- and/or α1-6-fucosylated glycoproteins showed a high negative correlation with milk maturation. In contrast, most of the analyzed milk glycoproteins were not recognized or weakly recognized by LTA and remained at a low unchanged level over lactation. Only a 30-kDa milk glycoprotein was evidently LTA-reactive, showing a negative correlation with milk maturation. The gradual decline of high expression of α1-2- and α1-6-, but not α1-3-, fucoses on human milk glycoproteins of healthy mothers over lactation was associated with milk maturation. PMID:26318738

  12. Induced lactation in heifers: Effects of dexamethasone and age at induction on milk yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Macrina, A L; Kauf, A C W; Pape-Zambito, D A; Kensinger, R S

    2014-03-01

    Milk production in heifers induced into lactation is lower than that of postpartum primiparous cows. A method to improve milk production in induced lactations may provide opportunities for increased profitability as well as increase our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate mammary gland development and colostrum composition. The present study was conducted to determine if dexamethasone administration at the onset of milking or age at lactation induction would affect milk production in heifers induced into lactation. Holstein heifers at 14 [n=20; 354 ± 38 kg of body weight (BW)] and 18 mo of age (n=20; 456 ± 30 kg of BW) were assigned randomly to dexamethasone (DEX) or control (CON) treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with age and dexamethasone treatment as the 2 factors. Heifers were induced into lactation with daily subcutaneous injections of estradiol-17β and progesterone (0.075 and 0.25 mg/kg of BW per d, respectively) on experimental d 1 to 7. They also received bovine somatotropin (bST) every 14 d beginning on experimental d 1. Milking began on experiment d 18 (lactation d 1). Dexamethasone (10mg) was administered on lactation d 1 and 2 following the morning milking; CON heifers did not receive dexamethasone. Milk yield from d2 to 15 of lactation of heifers receiving DEX (7.8 kg/d) was greater than that of CON heifers (6.0 kg/d) but was similar thereafter through 305 d of lactation (18.2 kg/d). Milk production to d 11 was similar for 14- and 18-mo-old heifers but was greater for 18- (18.9 kg/d) than for 14-mo-old animals (17.4 kg/d) through 305 d in milk. Milk fat percentage increased initially and was greater in DEX (4.51%) compared with CON (3.53%) heifers until 21 d in milk. Milk protein and lactose concentrations were not affected by DEX treatment. Age at induction did not affect milk fat, protein, or lactose percentages. Mean milk IgG concentration declined from 107.4 mg/mL on d 1 to 5.0mg/mL on d 7 of lactation, tended to be

  13. Milk yield responses to changes in milking frequency during early lactation are associated with coordinated and persistent changes in mammary gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lactating mammary gland responds to changes in milking frequency by modulating milk production. This response is locally regulated and, in dairy cows, the udder is particularly sensitive during early lactation. Relative to cows milked twice-daily throughout lactation, those milked four-times-daily for just the first 3 weeks of lactation produce more milk throughout that lactation. We hypothesized that the milk yield response would be associated with increased mammary cell turnover and changes in gene expression during frequent milking and persisting thereafter. Cows were assigned to unilateral frequent milking (UFM; left udder halves milked twice-daily; right udder halves milked four-times daily) on days 1 to 21 of lactation, followed by twice-daily milking for the remainder of lactation. Relative to udder halves milked twice-daily, those milked four-times produced more milk during UFM; the difference in milk yield declined acutely upon cessation of UFM after day 21, but remained significantly elevated thereafter. We obtained mammary biopsies from both udder halves on days 21, 23, and 40 of lactation. Results Mammary cell proliferation and apoptosis were not affected by milking frequency. We identified 75 genes that were differentially expressed between paired udder halves on day 21 but exhibited a reversal of differential expression on day 23. Among those genes, we identified four clusters characterized by similar temporal patterns of differential expression. Two clusters (11 genes) were positively correlated with changes in milk yield and were differentially expressed on day 21 of lactation only, indicating involvement in the initial milk yield response. Two other clusters (64 genes) were negatively correlated with changes in milk yield. Twenty-nine of the 75 genes were also differentially expressed on day 40 of lactation. Conclusions Changes in milking frequency during early lactation did not alter mammary cell population dynamics, but were

  14. Variation in the composition of milk of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Abbondanza, Frances N; Power, Michael L; Dickson, Melissa A; Brown, Janine; Oftedal, Olav T

    2013-01-01

    We investigated milk nutrient composition from three Asian elephant cows over the first 3 years of lactation, including two consecutive lactations in one cow. Body mass gain is presented for three calves during the first year. Milk samples (n = 74) were analyzed for dry matter (DM), fat, crude protein (CP), sugar, ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K); gross energy (GE) was calculated. Concentrations of most nutrients changed over lactation: DM, fat, CP, Ca, P, and GE were positively correlated to calf age; sugar was negatively correlated to calf age. GE doubled between birth (1 kcal/g) and 2 years of age (2 kcal/g). After accounting for calf age, GE, fat, Ca, and P concentrations differed among the cows. Milk composition also differed between two lactations from the same cow. When milk nutrients were expressed on a mg per kcal basis, the pattern changes: CP, Ca, and P remained relatively constant over lactation on a per energy basis. Calf mass quadrupled over the first year of life; mass gain was linear at 0.9 kg/day. Asian elephant milk composition is variable, both across lactations and between cows, complicating efforts to determine representative values for comparative studies and for the formulation of elephant milk formulas. The fact that CP, Ca, and P were all relatively constant when expressed on a per energy basis may be of biological significance. The increase in nutrient density over lactation undoubtedly limits maternal water loss, reducing the volume of milk necessary to support the calf. PMID:22588804

  15. Fatty acid synthase is required for mammary gland development and milk production during lactation

    PubMed Central

    Suburu, Janel; Shi, Lihong; Wu, Jiansheng; Wang, Shihua; Samuel, Michael; Thomas, Michael J.; Kock, Nancy D.; Yang, Guangyu; Kridel, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The mammary gland is one of the few adult tissues that strongly induce de novo fatty acid synthesis upon physiological stimulation, suggesting that fatty acid is important for milk production during lactation. The committed enzyme to perform this function is fatty acid synthase (FASN). To determine whether de novo fatty acid synthesis is obligatory or dietary fat is sufficient for mammary gland development and function during lactation, Fasn was specifically knocked out in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We found that deletion of Fasn hindered the development and induced the premature involution of the lactating mammary gland and significantly decreased medium- and long-chain fatty acids and total fatty acid contents in the milk. Consequently, pups nursing from Fasn knockout mothers experienced growth retardation and preweanling death, which was rescued by cross-fostering pups to a lactating wild-type mother. These results demonstrate that FASN is essential for the development, functional competence, and maintenance of the lactating mammary gland. PMID:24668799

  16. [Lactational incidences of common diseases in dairy herds in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany): effect of first test-day milk yield, herd milk yield and number of lactation].

    PubMed

    Gundling, Natascha; Ruddat, Inga; Prien, Kristin; Hellerich, Birte; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to record common diseases in dairy cows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and to describe associations between lactation number (LN: 1, 2, > 2), first test-day milk yield (TD1: < 30 kg, ≥ 30 kg) and herd milk yield (HM: ≤ 7500 kg, > 7500 kg), the latter parameter serving as a proxy for herd management (extensive vs. intensive). Data of 98 dairy herds (6439 lactations) were processed on cow level using mixed logistic regression models with LN< TD1, HM and calving season as fixed effects and herd as random effect. Lactational incidences were as follows: hypocalcaemia (5.0%), dystocia (13.2%), retained placental membranes (7.2%), clinical metritis/endometritis (4.9%), clinical mastitis (15.3%), subclinical mastitis (61.9%), ketosis (1.6%), displaced abomasum (0.4%), lameness (15.4%). Number of lactation (2, > 2 vs. 1) was a risk factor for hypocalcaemia (OR 3.715, 23.047), retained placental membranes (OR 1.764, 2.479), clinical mastitis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 2.118), subclinical mastitis (OR 1.668,4.397), ketosis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 3.936) and lameness (OR 1.275, 2.070). Older cows had a lower risk for dystocia (OR 0.373, 0.357). TD1 (≥ 30 kg) was not a risk factor of disease except for subclinical mastitis in first parity animals (OR 1.319). Herd milk yield (> 7500 kg) was a risk factor for clinical metritis/endometritis (OR 1.971), displaced abomasum (OR 7.764), lameness (OR 1.618) and hypocalcaemia (cows with high TD1 [OR 2.273]). In conclusion, not individual milk yield, but herd milk yield as an indicator of differences in intensity of herd management as well as number of lactation seemed to influence the frequency of common diseases in dairy cows. PMID:26054229

  17. Relationships between lactational incidence of displaced abomasum and milk production traits in German Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hamann, H; Wolf, V; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the heritabilitiy of the lactational incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) and the relationships of DA with milk production traits in German Holstein cows. Data were recorded between February 1999 and January 2000 in cooperation with five veterinary practitioners. Their veterinary practices were located in the northern part of Lower Saxony. The investigation included 160 dairy farms under the official milk-recording scheme with 9,315 cows. The lactational incidence of the left abomasal displacement amounted to 1.21%, and of the right abomasal displacement to 0.41%, respectively. The linear heritability estimates for the lactational incidences of left and right DA were h(2) = 0.05 +/- 0.012 and h(2) = 0.004 +/- 0.005, respectively. Using the Dempster-Lerner-transformation the corresponding heritabilities were h(2) = 0.53 and 0.09, respectively. Milk losses for the lactation when DA was diagnosed were significant and reached 1016 kg milk, 41 kg fat, 36 kg protein and 0.07% protein. Fat content significantly increased by 0.18%. The analysis could not show significant differences between cows diagnosed with DA and cows not diagnosed with DA in the 305-day milk production traits of the lactation preceding the diagnosis of DA. There was also no indication for an unequal distribution of breeding values for milk performance traits between cows with and without DA. The additive genetic correlations between 305-day milk performance and left DA were low. The results indicated that cows with a high milk production and superior breeding values for milk performance were not exposed to an increased risk for DA. PMID:15265178

  18. Prebiotic consumption in pregnant and lactating women increases IL-27 expression in human milk.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Takayuki; Shimojo, Naoki; Nonaka, Ken; Yamashita, Masakatsu; Ohara, Osamu; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Arima, Takayasu; Chiba, Kohki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Ikegami, Shuji; Masuda, Kentaro; Suzuki, Shuichi; Kohno, Yoichi

    2014-02-01

    The consumption of probiotics by pregnant and lactating women may prevent the onset of allergic disorders in their children by increasing the concentrations of immunoactive agents such as cytokines in breast milk. Prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) increase the number of beneficial organisms such as bifidobacteria. Thus, prebiotics may have an effect similar to that of probiotics. The objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive analysis of mRNA expression in human milk cells to identify changes in the concentrations of cytokines in breast milk after the consumption of FOS (4 g × 2 times/d) by pregnant and lactating women. The microarray analysis of human milk cells demonstrated that the expression levels of five genes in colostrum samples and fourteen genes in 1-month breast milk samples differed more than 3-fold between the FOS and control groups (sucrose group). The mRNA expression level of IL-27, a cytokine associated with immunoregulatory function, was significantly higher in 1-month breast milk samples obtained from the FOS group than in those obtained from the control group. In addition, the protein concentrations of IL-27 in colostrum and 1-month breast milk samples were significantly higher in the FOS group than in the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of FOS by pregnant and lactating women increases the production of IL-27 in breast milk. Future studies will address the association of this phenomenon with the onset of allergic disorders in children. PMID:24073873

  19. The Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on the Human Milk Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K.; Downey, Eimear; O’Mahony, James A.; O’Shea, Carol-Anne; Ryan, C. Anthony; Kelly, Alan L.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would benefit our understanding of the nutritional requirements of premature infants. Individual milk samples from mothers delivering prematurely and at term were collected. The human milk metabolome, established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was influenced by gestational and lactation age. Metabolite profiling identified that levels of valine, leucine, betaine, and creatinine were increased in colostrum from term mothers compared with mature milk, while those of glutamate, caprylate, and caprate were increased in mature term milk compared with colostrum. Levels of oligosaccharides, citrate, and creatinine were increased in pre-term colostrum, while those of caprylate, caprate, valine, leucine, glutamate, and pantothenate increased with time postpartum. There were differences between pre-term and full-term milk in the levels of carnitine, caprylate, caprate, pantothenate, urea, lactose, oligosaccharides, citrate, phosphocholine, choline, and formate. These findings suggest that the metabolome of pre-term milk changes within 5–7 weeks postpartum to resemble that of term milk, independent of time of gestation at pre-mature delivery. PMID:27213440

  20. The Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on the Human Milk Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Downey, Eimear; O'Mahony, James A; O'Shea, Carol-Anne; Ryan, C Anthony; Kelly, Alan L; Bertram, Hanne C

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would benefit our understanding of the nutritional requirements of premature infants. Individual milk samples from mothers delivering prematurely and at term were collected. The human milk metabolome, established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was influenced by gestational and lactation age. Metabolite profiling identified that levels of valine, leucine, betaine, and creatinine were increased in colostrum from term mothers compared with mature milk, while those of glutamate, caprylate, and caprate were increased in mature term milk compared with colostrum. Levels of oligosaccharides, citrate, and creatinine were increased in pre-term colostrum, while those of caprylate, caprate, valine, leucine, glutamate, and pantothenate increased with time postpartum. There were differences between pre-term and full-term milk in the levels of carnitine, caprylate, caprate, pantothenate, urea, lactose, oligosaccharides, citrate, phosphocholine, choline, and formate. These findings suggest that the metabolome of pre-term milk changes within 5-7 weeks postpartum to resemble that of term milk, independent of time of gestation at pre-mature delivery. PMID:27213440

  1. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores. PMID:11208938

  2. Analysis of human breast milk cells: gene expression profiles during pregnancy, lactation, involution, and mastitic infection.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Lefèvre, Christophe; Watt, Ashalyn; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2016-05-01

    The molecular processes underlying human milk production and the effects of mastitic infection are largely unknown because of limitations in obtaining tissue samples. Determination of gene expression in normal lactating women would be a significant step toward understanding why some women display poor lactation outcomes. Here, we demonstrate the utility of RNA obtained directly from human milk cells to detect mammary epithelial cell (MEC)-specific gene expression. Milk cell RNA was collected from five time points (24 h prepartum during the colostrum period, midlactation, two involutions, and during a bout of mastitis) in addition to an involution series comprising three time points. Gene expression profiles were determined by use of human Affymetrix arrays. Milk cells collected during milk production showed that the most highly expressed genes were involved in milk synthesis (e.g., CEL, OLAH, FOLR1, BTN1A1, and ARG2), while milk cells collected during involution showed a significant downregulation of milk synthesis genes and activation of involution associated genes (e.g., STAT3, NF-kB, IRF5, and IRF7). Milk cells collected during mastitic infection revealed regulation of a unique set of genes specific to this disease state, while maintaining regulation of milk synthesis genes. Use of conventional epithelial cell markers was used to determine the population of MECs within each sample. This paper is the first to describe the milk cell transcriptome across the human lactation cycle and during mastitic infection, providing valuable insight into gene expression of the human mammary gland. PMID:26909879

  3. Milk traits of lactating cows submitted to feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Alexandre Mossate; McManus, Concepta Margareth; Zanela, Maira Balbinotti; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Barbosa, Rosângela Silveira; Fruscalso, Vilmar; Thaler Neto, André; Schmidt, Fernando André; Fischer, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Data from five experiments with dairy cows where feed was restricted to 0, 40, and 50% of the ad libitum amount, with 259 observations, were subjected to multivariate analyses to determine the effects of severity and duration of feed restriction on production, physical-chemical characteristics, ethanol stability, and somatic cell score of milk. A negative relationship was seen between the severity and duration of feed restriction with milk production, lactose content, titratable acidity, and milk stability to the ethanol test. The milk stability to the ethanol test, protein content, milk yield, and somatic cells score were the most important attributes retained by the discriminant analysis. Milk stability to the ethanol test, live weight, days in restriction, and pH were the most important characteristics explaining the variance within the different levels of feed restriction. Milk production and ethanol stability were significantly lower in both levels of feed restriction compared with the group fed ad libitum. When feed restriction was followed by refeeding, the difference observed in ethanol stability was the first discriminant variable, followed by the difference in unstable milk frequency and titratable acidity. Increments in the severity and duration of feed restriction negatively affect milk production and milk ethanol stability. PMID:26385460

  4. Influence of stage of lactation on the triacylglycerol composition of buffalo milk fat.

    PubMed

    Arumughan, C; Narayanan, K M

    1981-03-01

    Milk fats obtained from colostrum and early, middle and late lactation samples of buffalo milk were analyzed for their triacylglycerol (TG) compositions. Each milk fat was first separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) into high, medium and low molecular weight TG. The TG fractions thus obtained were further segregated by argentation TLC, according to their degree of unsaturation into saturated, trans-monoene, cis-monoene, diene and polyene species. With progressive lactation, the major changes from colostral fat were an increase in lower fatty acids and decline in oleic acid. This caused, in turn, marked variations in saturated TG and diene TG and, to a smaller extent, in polyene TG. Monoene TG, both cis and trans, remained practically constant throughout. These trends were largely reversed toward the end of lactation. PMID:7219086

  5. Pharmacokinetics of verapamil in lactating rabbits. Prediction of verapamil distribution into rabbit milk.

    PubMed

    Solans, C; Aramayona, J J; Bregante, M A; Fraile, L J; Rueda, S; Garcia, M A

    2000-04-01

    In this work, we have studied the pharmacokinetics and milk penetration of verapamil following intravenous administration in lactating rabbits. Milk-to-serum drug concentration ratios (M/B(obs)) have been determined using area under the milk and serum concentration-time profiles, and the resulting values have then been compared with those obtained by theoretical classical diffusion milk transfer models that were described by Fleishaker et al. [J. Pharm. Sci. 76 (1987) 189.], Atkinson and Begg [Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 25 (1990) 495.], and Stebler and Guentert [Pharm. Res. 9 (1992) 1299.]. The pharmacokinetic profile of verapamil in lactating rabbits following endovenous administration is described in the form of a two-compartment model. Moreover, we detected an important milk transfer after endovenous administration of verapamil in lactating rabbits. M/B(obs) was near 15. The classical diffusional models mentioned were not able to predict this extensive transfer of verapamil into rabbit milk. However, when the classical Fleishaker equation was modified and a stepwise regression was carried out, we found that the M/B(obs) value could be predicted using the plasma and milk protein binding. PMID:11282217

  6. Effect of superovulation prior to mating on milk production performance during lactation in ewes.

    PubMed

    Manalu, W; Sumaryadi, M Y; Sudjatmogo; Satyaningtijas, A S

    2000-03-01

    Thirty lactating ewes were used to evaluate the effect of superovulation on milk production. Twelve ewes had been injected, prior to mating, with 700 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin; 18 ewes were injected with saline as a control. Thirteen ewes (nine control and four superovulated ewes) were fed at low plane of nutrition; the other ewes (nine control and eight superovulated ewes) were fed at high plane of nutrition. Superovulated ewes, fed at both low and high planes of nutrition, had dramatically higher milk yields (59%), and their milk composition was not changed. Plane of nutrition increased milk lactose and P contents without significant effect on milk production. The increased milk yields in the superovulated ewes were accompanied by increases in dry matter, gross energy intakes, and gross efficiency of milk synthesis. At the end of lactation, superovulated ewes had higher mammary dry fat-free tissue, total DNA, and total RNA. The results demonstrated that superovulation prior to mating dramatically increased milk production and efficiency regardless of plane of nutrition. Increased milk production and efficiency in the superovulated ewes were due to the increased mammary secretory cell numbers and their synthetic activities presumably through the increased endogenous hormonal stimulation of mammary growth and development during pregnancy. PMID:10750105

  7. Short communication: Effects of feeding sweet sorghum silage on milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Amer, S; Seguin, P; Mustafa, A F

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of sweet sorghum silage (SS) for dairy cows compared with alfalfa silage (AS). Two diets were formulated with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Sweet sorghum silage and AS constituted 70% of the forage in each diet (dry matter basis). Twelve lactating Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a crossover experiment. Relative to AS, SS contained 58% more neutral detergent fiber and 36.6 and 72.7% less acid detergent lignin and crude protein, respectively. Milk yield (33.0 vs. 36.7 kg/d) was lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and feed efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Replacing AS with SS increased concentrations of milk fat (4.44 vs. 3.80%) and total solids (13.31 vs. 12.88%) and reduced concentrations of milk lactose (4.55 vs. 4.61%), milk solids-not-fat (8.88 vs. 9.08%), and milk urea nitrogen (10.0 vs. 14.0 mg/dL). We concluded that replacing AS with SS had negative effects on milk yield, whereas dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and milk efficiency were similar. PMID:22281350

  8. Measures of de novo synthesis of milk components from propionate in lactating goats

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    Possible direct contributions of propionate to de novo synthesis of milk components by the mammary gland of lactating goats fed a concentrate-roughage diet have been studied in vivo by primed constant infusion of (1-carbon-14)propionate into the right mammary artery. Specific radioactivities of milk galactose, fatty acids, and protein were higher in the infused than in the uninfused half of the mammary gland, suggesting de novo synthesis of these compounds in the udder. Specific radioactivities of milk glucose in both udder halves were identical, ruling out any possibility of mammary gland-derived glucose from propionate of blood plasma under the experimental conditions. Of milk galactose, .8% was derived from propionate of blood plasma, and of milk glucose, 98% was derived from glucose of blood plasma. After intraruminal infusion of unlabeled propionic acid at 11 g/h, concentration of propionate in blood plasma was doubled, its contribution to milk galactose was increased to 1.5%, and proportions of milk odd-numbered fatty acids were increased. Propionate was incorporated largely into milk odd-numbered fatty acids. The authors conclude that small amounts of propionate can be incorporated into principal components of milk in the mammary gland of lactating goats.

  9. Blood-derived proteins in milk at start of lactation: Indicators of active or passive transfer.

    PubMed

    Wall, Samantha K; Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Villez, Kris; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-11-01

    Colostrum has a different composition compared with milk in established lactation. This difference is in part due to the partially open blood-milk barrier, which, when closed, is designed to prevent the interdiffusion of blood and milk components. In the first days of lactation, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), a milk protein, is typically present in blood and several blood-derived proteins are also present in milk, such as IgG1, IgG2, serum albumin (SA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). With the exception of IgG1, which is known to be transferred by active transcellular transport, the other proteins are thought to pass paracellularly through the temporarily open barrier. Along with an exchange of blood and milk components, somatic cell count (SCC) is typically high in colostrum. The decline of these proteins and SCC can be used as indicators to determine transcellular or paracellular transport. Two hypotheses were tested. The first hypothesis was that the decline curve for a protein or SCC would be the same as IgG1, indicating transcellular transport, or the decline curve would be different than IgG1, indicating paracellular transport. The second hypothesis was that the decline curves of SCC and all proteins that are thought to have paracellular transport would be the same. Ten Holstein cows were milked at 4 h after parturition, the next 5 consecutive milkings, and the afternoon milking on d 5, 8, 10, and 14 of lactation for a total of 10 milking time points, and sequential jugular blood samples were also taken. Blood and milk samples were analyzed for the concentrations of LDH, SA, IgG1, IgG2, and α-LA and milk samples were measured for SCC. Protein concentration and SCC curves were generated from all 10 time points and were evaluated using the tau time constant model to determine the rate of decline of the slope of each protein. When examining the first hypothesis, the concentration of IgG1 declined significantly faster in the milk than the proteins IgG2 and LDH, but

  10. Integrated Metabolomics Study of the Milk of Heat-stressed Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway. A total of 53 discriminating metabolites were significantly up- or down-regulated in the HS group compared with the HS-free group (P < 0.05). These biomarkers were involved in pathways of carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and gut microbiome-derived metabolism. Comparing these potential biomarkers with previously identified HS candidate biomarkers in plasma, significant correlations between the levels of lactate, pyruvate, creatine, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine, oleic acid, linoleic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, and phosphatidylcholine 42:2 in milk and plasma were found, indicating that the blood-milk barrier became leaky and the levels of these 10 biomarkers in milk can reflect HS-induced metabolomic alterations in blood. These novel findings can support more in-depth research to elucidate the milk-based changes in metabolic pathways in HS lactating dairy cows. PMID:27048914

  11. Integrated Metabolomics Study of the Milk of Heat-stressed Lactating Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway. A total of 53 discriminating metabolites were significantly up- or down-regulated in the HS group compared with the HS-free group (P < 0.05). These biomarkers were involved in pathways of carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and gut microbiome-derived metabolism. Comparing these potential biomarkers with previously identified HS candidate biomarkers in plasma, significant correlations between the levels of lactate, pyruvate, creatine, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine, oleic acid, linoleic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, and phosphatidylcholine 42:2 in milk and plasma were found, indicating that the blood-milk barrier became leaky and the levels of these 10 biomarkers in milk can reflect HS-induced metabolomic alterations in blood. These novel findings can support more in-depth research to elucidate the milk-based changes in metabolic pathways in HS lactating dairy cows. PMID:27048914

  12. Lactation curve and milk quality of goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Francisco Canindé; de Paiva, Kaliane Alessandra Rodrigues; Coelho, Wesley Adson Costa; Nunes, Francisco Vítor Aires; da Silva, Jardel Bezerra; de Gouveia Mendes da Escóssia Pinheiro, Carolina; de Macêdo Praça, Layanne; Silva, Jean Berg Alves; Alves Freitas, Carlos Iberê; Batista, Jael Soares

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trypanosoma vivax infection on the shape of the lactation curve and the milk quality of dairy goats experimentally infected with T. vivax. In total, twenty Saanen goats, aged 26-30 months and the same number of calving (two calvings), were divided into two experimental groups: an infected group, consisting of ten goats intravenously infected with 0.5 ml of blood containing approximately 1.25 × 10(5) trypomastigotes of T. vivax and ten uninfected animals as the control group. Clinical tests and hematocrit, parasitemia, and serum biochemistry evaluations were performed on all of the goats. Milk production was measured daily for 152 days by hand milking the goats and weighing the milk. Every seven days, physiochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the milk. Wood's nonlinear model was used to analyze the lactation curve parameters. The infected goats had high levels of parasitemia and hyperthermia, significantly reduced hematocrit, serum total protein, albumin, and glucose levels and increased cholesterol and urea concentrations. Wood's model indicated that the milk production of goats in the infected group declined sharply over a short period of time and produced a flattened yield curve and significant difference (P < 0.05) in the rate of increase of peak milk production, rate of decrease of milk production after the peak, day of peak milk production, and maximum peak milk production compared with that of the control group. Trypanosomiasis also affected the persistency of lactation, which was significantly reduced in goats in the infected group. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the milk, including the fat content, defatted dry extracts (DDE) and protein content, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the goats in the infected group compared with those in the control group. The T. vivax-infected goats showed reduction in milk production, persistence of lactation, and fat levels, the

  13. Relationships between conception rate in Holstein heifers and cows and milk yield at various stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, K; Terawaki, Y; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Itoh, F; Yamaguchi, S; Abe, H; Gotoh, Y; Kawahara, T; Masuda, Y; Suzuki, M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, -0.121 to -0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period. PMID:23597286

  14. The ability of exogenous growth hormone to maintain milk production during prolonged lactation in the mouse is more evident with reduced nursing frequency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although growth hormone (GH) increases milk production in dairy animals, the milk production response of lactating rodents to this treatment has been variable. Milk removal frequency in the lactating mouse is about 10-fold higher than that of lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis tested in this study...

  15. Quantification of milk yield and composition changes as affected by subclinical mastitis during the current lactation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Martí De Olives, Ana; Díaz, J R; Molina, M P; Peris, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify, on a half-udder basis, the changes in ewe milk yield and composition caused by unilateral subclinical mastitis within the current lactation. Fluctuations due to production level, infection severity, time from the onset of infection, and lactation curves were also studied. Yield and composition of milk from half-udders of unilateral infected ewes were compared between them and with a set of healthy halves using a mixed model. The experiment was completed with a whole-udder approach on the same animals. To test the effect of intramammary infection (IMI) in the 7 wk following the onset of infection, 20 ewes that acquired unilateral subclinical mastitis during lactation and 40 healthy ewes were used. Another group of 20 unilaterally infected ewes from wk 1 of lactation and other 40 healthy ewes were studied to test the effect of IMI on lactational milk yield and composition. The individual milk loss in ewes infected during lactation was 15% for the 7 wk following the onset of infection, and 6.6% more milk was produced by the uninfected half to compensate milk lost by the infected half. Lactational milk yield loss in ewes infected from wk 1 postpartum was 17%. The changes in milk yield were noticed from the week of infection diagnosis. The production level of animals influenced the milk yield changes caused by IMI in such a way that the more productive ewes lost more milk, although these losses were proportional to their production level. On the other hand, infection severity affected milk loss between glands, being more pronounced as somatic cell count increased. A clear decrease of lactose content and casein:protein ratio due to subclinical IMI was observed and it remained throughout the postinfection period. Improving udder health status is necessary to maintain milk production and quality in dairy ewes during lactation. PMID:24119805

  16. Relationship between Milk Microbiota, Bacterial Load, Macronutrients, and Human Cells during Lactation.

    PubMed

    Boix-Amorós, Alba; Collado, Maria C; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was dominated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Acinetobacter. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any of these samples from healthy mothers. There was high variability in composition and number of bacteria per milliliter among mothers and in some cases even within mothers at different time points. The median bacterial load was 10(6) bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and culture methods. Furthermore, milk bacteria were present in a free-living, "planktonic" state, but also in equal proportion associated to human immune cells. There was no correlation between bacterial load and the amount of immune cells in milk, strengthening the idea that milk bacteria are not sensed as an infection by the immune system. PMID:27148183

  17. Relationship between Milk Microbiota, Bacterial Load, Macronutrients, and Human Cells during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Boix-Amorós, Alba; Collado, Maria C.; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was dominated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Acinetobacter. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any of these samples from healthy mothers. There was high variability in composition and number of bacteria per milliliter among mothers and in some cases even within mothers at different time points. The median bacterial load was 106 bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and culture methods. Furthermore, milk bacteria were present in a free-living, “planktonic” state, but also in equal proportion associated to human immune cells. There was no correlation between bacterial load and the amount of immune cells in milk, strengthening the idea that milk bacteria are not sensed as an infection by the immune system. PMID:27148183

  18. Monotreme Lactation Protein Is Highly Expressed in Monotreme Milk and Provides Antimicrobial Protection

    PubMed Central

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R.; Nicol, Stewart C.; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Sharp, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female’s abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. PMID:25245409

  19. Monotreme lactation protein is highly expressed in monotreme milk and provides antimicrobial protection.

    PubMed

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R; Nicol, Stewart C; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female's abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. PMID:25245409

  20. Real-time evaluation of milk quality as reflected by clotting parameters of individual cow's milk during the milking session, between day-to-day and during lactation.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Jacoby, Shamay; Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil

    2013-09-01

    Real-time analysis of milk coagulation properties as performed by the AfiLab™ milk spectrometer introduces new opportunities for the dairy industry. The study evaluated the performance of the AfiLab™ in a milking parlor of a commercial farm to provide real-time analysis of milk-clotting parameters -Afi-CF for cheese manufacture and determine its repeatability in time for individual cows. The AfiLab™ in a parlor, equipped with two parallel milk lines, enables to divert the milk on-line into two bulk milk tanks (A and B). Three commercial dairy herds of 220 to 320 Israeli Holstein cows producing ∼11 500 l during 305 days were selected for the study. The Afi-CF repeatability during time was found significant (P < 0.001) for cows. The statistic model succeeded in explaining 83.5% of the variance between Afi-CF and cows, and no significant variance was found between the mean weekly repeated recordings. Days in milk and log somatic cell count (SCC) had no significant effect. Fat, protein and lactose significantly affected Afi-CF and the empirical van Slyke equation. Real-time simulations were performed for different cutoff levels of coagulation properties where the milk of high Afi-CF cutoff value was channeled to tank A and the lower into tank B. The simulations showed that milk coagulation properties of an individual cow are not uniform, as most cows contributed milk to both tanks. Proportions of the individual cow's milk in each tank depended on the selected Afi-CF cutoff. The assessment of the major causative factors of a cow producing low-quality milk for cheese production was evaluated for the group that produced the low 10% quality milk. The largest number of cows in those groups at the three farms was found to be cows with post-intramammary infection with Escherichia coli and subclinical infections with streptococci or coagulase-negative staphylococci (∼30%), although the SCC of these cows was not significantly different. Early time in lactation

  1. Gene expression in the human mammary epithelium during lactation: the milk fat globule transcriptome.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular physiology underlying human milk production is largely unknown because of limitations in obtaining tissue samples. Determining gene expression in normal lactating women would be a potential step toward understanding why some women struggle with or fail at breastfeeding their infants. R...

  2. Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Milk Production and Nutrient Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous and 8 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 6 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to test the effects of feeding supplemental protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on milk production, nutrient utili...

  3. Lactation-Related MicroRNA Expression Profiles of Porcine Breast Milk Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Zhong, Zhijun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Qi; Chen, Lei; Lang, Qiulei; He, Zhiping; Chen, Xiaohui; Gong, Jianjun; Gao, Xiaolian; Li, Xuewei; Lv, Xuebin

    2012-01-01

    Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns, and is rich in immunological components. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in various body fluids and are selectively packaged inside the exosomes, a type of membrane vesicles, secreted by most cell types. These exosomal miRNAs could be actively delivered into recipient cells, and could regulate target gene expression and recipient cell function. Here, we analyzed the lactation-related miRNA expression profiles in porcine milk exosomes across the entire lactation period (newborn to 28 days after birth) by a deep sequencing. We found that immune-related miRNAs are present and enriched in breast milk exosomes (p<10−16, χ2 test) and are generally resistant to relatively harsh conditions. Notably, these exosomal miRNAs are present in higher numbers in the colostrums than in mature milk. It was higher in the serum of colostrum-only fed piglets compared with the mature milk-only fed piglets. These immune-related miRNA-loaded exosomes in breast milk may be transferred into the infant body via the digestive tract. These observations are a prelude to in-depth investigations of the essential roles of breast milk in the development of the infant’s immune system. PMID:22937080

  4. Composition, coagulation properties, and cheesemaking potential of milk from cows undergoing extended lactations in a pasture-based dairying system.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Grainger, C; Houlihan, A V; Mayes, J J; Williams, R P W

    2010-04-01

    Extending the lactation length of dairy cows beyond the traditional 10 mo toward lactations of up to 22 mo has attracted interest in the pasture-based seasonal dairying systems of Australia and New Zealand as a way of alleviating the need for cows to conceive during peak lactation, such as is required to maintain seasonally concentrated calving systems. Lactation lengths longer than 10 mo instead provide cows with more time to cycle and conceive after parturition and may therefore be more suitable systems for high-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Before recommending such systems there is a need to evaluate the effects of long lactations on the suitability of milk for manufacture of high-quality dairy products. In the current experiment, the composition of milk from cows entering the second half of a 22-mo lactation was examined in detail and compared with that from cows undergoing a traditional 10-mo lactation. On 2 occasions, coagulation properties were measured using low amplitude strain oscillation rheometry, and Cheddar cheese was made in 250-L pilot-scale vats. Results showed that milk from extended lactations had higher concentrations of fat and protein than cows undergoing 10-mo lactations under similar management conditions and at the same time of year. The ratio of casein to true protein was not affected by lactation length and neither were the proportions of individual caseins. The increase in milk solids during extended lactations translated into a more rapid rate of coagulation and ultimately a firmer curd on one of the two occasions. Milk from extended lactations yielded more cheese per 100 kg of milk, and there were few differences in the composition or organoleptic properties of the cheese. These data are the first to show that pasture-based dairy industries could embrace the use of extended lactations without compromising the core business of producing high-quality dairy products. PMID:20338417

  5. Marginal Maternal Zinc Deficiency in Lactating Mice Reduces Secretory Capacity and Alters Milk Composition12

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Colleen; McCormick, Nicholas H.; Croxford, Thomas P.; Seo, Young Ah; Grider, Arthur; Kelleher, Shannon L.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary analysis predicts that marginal Zn deficiency is common in women of reproductive age. The lack of reliable biomarkers limits the capacity to assess Zn status and consequently understand effects of maternal Zn deficiency. We determined effects of marginal maternal Zn deficiency on mammary gland function, milk secretion, and milk composition in mice. Mice (n = 12/diet) were fed marginal (ZD; 15 mg Zn/kg diet) or adequate (ZA; 30 mg Zn/kg diet) Zn diets for 30 d prior to conception through mid-lactation. Mice fed the ZD had a higher plasma Zn concentration (~20%; P < 0.05) but lower milk Zn concentration (~15%; P < 0.05) compared with mice fed the ZA. ZnT2 abundance was higher (P < 0.05) in mice fed the ZD compared with mice fed the ZA; no effect on ZnT4 abundance was detected. The Zn concentration of mammary gland mitochondria tended to be ~40% greater in mice fed ZD (P = 0.07); this was associated with apoptosis and lower milk secretion (~80%; P < 0.01). Total milk protein was ~25% higher (P < 0.05), although the abundance of the major milk proteins (caseins and whey acidic protein) was lower (P < 0.05) in mice fed the ZD. Proteomic analysis of milk proteins revealed an increase (P < 0.05) in four proteins in mice fed the ZD. These findings illustrate that marginal maternal Zn deficiency compromises mammary gland function and milk secretion and alters milk composition. This suggests that lactating women who consume inadequate Zn may not produce and/or secrete an adequate amount of high quality milk to provide optimal nutrition to their developing infant. PMID:22357740

  6. Long-acting insulins alter milk composition and metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different types of long-acting insulin on milk production, milk composition, and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n=30) averaging 88 d in milk were assigned to one of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of control (C), Humulin-N (H; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), and insulin glargine (L). The H and L treatments were administered twice daily at 12-h intervals via subcutaneous injection for 10d. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk composition was determined every other day. Mammary biopsies were conducted on d 11, and mammary proteins extracted from the biopsies were analyzed by Western blot for components of insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake or milk yield. Treatment with both forms of long-acting insulin increased milk protein content and tended to increase milk protein yield over the 10-d treatment period. Analysis of milk N fractions from samples collected on d 10 of treatment suggested that cows administered L tended to have higher yields of milk protein fractions than cows administered H. Milk fat content and yield tended to be increased for cows administered long-acting insulins. Lactose content and yields were decreased by treatment with long-acting insulins. Administration of long-acting insulins, particularly L, tended to shift milk fatty acid composition toward increased short- and medium-chain fatty acids and decreased long-chain fatty acids. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urea N were lower for cows administered long-acting insulins; interactions of treatment and sampling time were indicative of more pronounced effects of L than H on these metabolites. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and insulin were increased in cows administered long-acting insulins. Decreased concentrations of urea N in both plasma and milk suggested more efficient use of N in cows

  7. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. PMID:24814291

  8. Maternal Blood, Plasma, and Breast Milk Lead: Lactational Transfer and Contribution to Infant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. Objectives: We explored the dose–response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. Methods: We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose–response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Results: Maternal lead levels (mean ± SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7 ± 4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8 ± 0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6–39.8) with 97% of the ratios being > 1. The dose–response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function = 6.5, p = 0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4 ± 2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.3). Conclusions: The M/P ratio for lead in humans is substantially higher than previously reported, and transfer of lead from plasma to milk may be higher at lower levels of plasma lead. Breast milk is an important determinant of lead burden among breastfeeding infants. Citation: Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith DR, Lupoli N, Mercado-García A, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hu H, Hernández-Avila M. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:87–92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  9. Differential expression of genes in milk of dairy cattle during lactation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Jiang, Jicai; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Haifei; Guo, Gang; Zhang, Qin; Jiang, Li

    2016-04-01

    The milk fat globule (MFG) is one of the most representative of mammary gland tissues and can be utilized to study gene expression of lactating cows during lactation. In this study, RNA-seq technology was employed to detect differential expression of genes in MFGs at day 10 and day 70 after calving between two groups of cows with extremely high (H group) and low (L group) 305-day milk yield, milk fat yield and milk protein yield. In total, 1232, 81, 429 and 178 significantly differentially expressed genes (false discovery rate q < 0.05) were detected between H10 and L10, H70 and L70, H10 and H70, and L10 and L70 respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were enriched in biological processes involved in mammary gland development, protein and lipid metabolism process, signal transduction, cellular process, differentiation and immune function. Among these differentially expressed genes, 178 (H10 vs. L10), 4 (H70 vs. L70), 68 (H10 vs. H70) and 22 (L10 vs. L70) were found to be located within previously reported QTL regions for milk production traits. Based on these results, some promising candidate genes for milk production traits in dairy cattle were suggested. PMID:26692495

  10. A model of milk production in lactating dairy cows in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, I R; France, J; Cullen, B R

    2016-02-01

    A generic daily time-step model of a dairy cow, designed to be included in whole-system pasture simulation models, is described that includes growth, milk production, and lactation in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics. It is a development of a previously described animal growth and metabolism model that describes animal body composition in terms of protein, water, and fat, and energy dynamics in relation to growth requirements, resynthesis of degraded protein, and animal activity. This is further developed to include lactation and fetal growth. Intake is calculated in relation to stage of lactation, pasture availability, supplementary feed, and feed quality. Energy costs associated with urine N excretion and methane fermentation are accounted for. Milk production and fetal growth are then calculated in relation to the overall energy and nitrogen dynamics. The general behavior of the model is consistent with expected characteristics. Simulations using the model as part of a whole-system pasture simulation model (DairyMod) are compared with experimental data where good agreement between pasture, concentrate and forage intake, as well as milk production over 3 consecutive lactation cycles, is observed. The model is shown to be well suited for inclusion in large-scale system simulation models. PMID:26686718

  11. Plasma and milk kinetic of eprinomectin and moxidectin in lactating water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Jacques; Sutra, Jean-François; Alvinerie, Michel; Rinaldi, Laura; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mezzino, Laura; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2008-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics and mammary excretion of moxidectin and eprinomectin were determined in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) following topical administration of 0.5mgkg(-1). Following administration of moxidectin, plasma and milk concentrations of moxidectin increased to reach maximal concentrations (C(max)) of 5.46+/-3.50 and 23.76+/-16.63ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.20+/-0.33 and 1.87+/-0.77 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT) were similar for plasma and milk (5.27+/-0.45 and 5.87+/-0.80 days, respectively). The AUC value was 5-fold higher in milk (109.68+/-65.01ngdayml(-1)) than in plasma (23.66+/-12.26ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for moxidectin was 5.04+/-2.13. The moxidectin systemic availability (expressed as plasma AUC values) obtained in buffaloes was in the same range than those reported in cattle. The faster absorption and elimination processes of moxidectin were probably due to a lower storage in fat associated with the fact that animals were in lactation. Nevertheless, due to its high excretion in milk and its high detected maximum concentration in milk which is equivalent or higher to the Maximal Residue Level value (MRL) (40ngml(-1)), its use should be prohibited in lactating buffaloes. Concerning eprinomectin, the C(max) were of 2.74+/-0.89 and 3.40+/-1.68ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.44+/-0.20 and 1.33+/-0.0.41 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The MRT and the AUC were similar for plasma (3.17+/-0.41 days and 11.43+/-4.01ngdayml(-1)) and milk (2.70+/-0.44 days and 8.49+/-3.33ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for eprinomectin was 0.76+/-0.16. The AUC value is 20 times lower than that reported in dairy cattle. The very low extent of mammary excretion and the milk levels reported lower than the MRL (20ngml(-1)) supports the permitted use of eprinomectin in lactating water buffaloes. PMID:18774650

  12. The effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation during lactation on maternal Zn status and milk Zn concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, N.F.; Reidinger, C.; Westcott, J.L.; Hartley, S.; Hambidge, K.M. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the effect of a dietary Zn supplement on maternal Zn states and milk Zn concentrations under a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study design. Sixty women, 30 {plus minus} 3.8 yrs, received either 15 mg Zn/day or placebo through {ge} 7 mos. of lactation. Dietary intake data, biochemical indices of Zn status and milk Zn concentrations were obtained at monthly intervals. Three day test-weighing was done at 2 wks and 3, 5, and 7 mos. Overall mean daily dietary intake for the non-Zn-supplemented group (n = 28) was 12.9 {plus minus} 2.2 mg, and for the Zn-supplemented group (n = 32), 25.7 {plus minus} 2.9 mg, including an average of 14 mg/d from a supplement. Plasma Zn concentrations did not differ between groups across lactation. Milk Zn concentrations were similar to those published previously and did not differ in monthly means or rate of decline according to group. Maternal Zn outputs to the infants at 2 wks and 3, 5 and 7 mos. were 2.17 {plus minus} 0.7, 0.92 {plus minus} 0.4, 0.72 {plus minus} 0.3, and 0.48 {plus minus} 0.26, respectively. The data suggest that average maternal Zn intake of {ge}10 mg/day during lactation is sufficient to maintain adequate maternal Zn status and milk Zn concentrations.

  13. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  14. Pattern of eprinomectin milk excretion in dairy sheep unaffected by lactation stage: comparative residual profiles in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Imperiale, Fernanda; Pis, Alejandra; Sallovitz, Juan; Lisfchitz, Adrián; Busetti, Margarita; Suárez, Victor; Lanusse, Carlos

    2006-10-01

    Eprinomectin (EPM) is a broad-spectrum endectocide compound approved for use in dairy cattle with a zero milk-withdrawal period, but has not been registered for use in lactating dairy sheep. The pattern of EPM excretion in milk was comparatively characterized following its pour-on administration (500 microg/kg) to lactating dairy sheep at two different stages of lactation. The relationship between milk excretion and plasma disposition kinetics of EPM was characterized. Residual EPM concentrations were assessed during cheese making (whey and curd) and ripening (cheese) by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. EPM was poorly distributed from the bloodstream to the mammary gland and low concentrations were excreted in milk. The level of milk production (early-mid and mid-late lactation) did not affect either the plasma-milk distribution or the pattern of residual concentrations in milk. During cheese making, the highest residual concentrations of EPM were measured in the curd, which increased during cheese ripening, reaching a maximum after 40 days. However, these residual concentrations were below the maximum residue limit of 20 ng/ml established for EPM in bovine's milk. Therefore, these dairy products could be considered safe for consumers after the EPM antiparasitic pour-on treatment (500 microg/kg) in lactating dairy sheep. PMID:17066922

  15. Variation of the cholesterol content in breast milk during 10 days collection at early stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Kamelska, Anna M; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Bryl, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    More and more research is done concerning nutritional programming. Human milk nutrients which are consumed by infants can influence their health in later life. High level of cholesterol in human milk paradoxically lowers the cholesterol concentration in blood in adults. During the course of human lactation the cholesterol concentration decreases from 31 mg/100cm(3) (colostrum) to 16 mg/100 cm(3) (mature milk). According to Scopesi et al., 2002, Clin Nutr 21: 379-384, cholesterol concentration in mature milk ranged from 6.5 to 18.4 mg/100 cm(3). The aim of the study was to assess the variations in breast milk cholesterol content during 10 day collection at early lactation. 48 samples of human milk were analyzed. Mean age of women was 31 years. Women were collecting samples during 10 days of an early lactation stage (1-3 months after delivery). An Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR-ATR) method for easy and rapid determination of cholesterol in human milk was elaborated. Cholesterol content assessed by the FTIR method ranged from 3.36 to 12.98 mg/100 cm(3). Results indicate that milk cholesterol concentration during 10 consecutive days of early lactation is highly variable. Cholesterol content depends on an individual. Therefore it is suggested that not only the period of lactation but also mother's diet, age, season and place of residence are important factors determining cholesterol content. PMID:22540113

  16. OPG Treatment Prevents Bone Loss During Lactation But Does Not Affect Milk Production or Maternal Calcium Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Laleh; Dumitru, Cristina; Dann, Pamela; Sterpka, John; VanHouten, Joshua; Kim, Wonnam; Kostenuik, Paul; Wysolmerski, John

    2015-08-01

    Lactation is associated with increased bone turnover and rapid bone loss, which liberates skeletal calcium used for milk production. Previous studies suggested that an increase in the skeletal expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ligand (RANKL) coupled with a decrease in osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels likely triggered bone loss during lactation. In this study, we treated lactating mice with recombinant OPG to determine whether bone loss during lactation was dependent on RANKL signaling and whether resorption of the maternal skeleton was required to support milk production. OPG treatment lowered bone resorption rates and completely prevented bone loss during lactation but, surprisingly, did not decrease osteoclast numbers. In contrast, OPG was quite effective at lowering osteoblast numbers and inhibiting bone formation in lactating mice. Furthermore, treatment with OPG during lactation prevented the usual anabolic response associated with reversal of lactational bone loss after weaning. Preventing bone loss had no appreciable effect on milk production, milk calcium levels, or maternal calcium homeostasis when mice were on a standard diet. However, when dietary calcium was restricted, treatment with OPG caused maternal hypocalcemia, maternal death, and decreased milk production. These studies demonstrate that RANKL signaling is a requirement for bone loss during lactation, and suggest that osteoclast activity may be required to increase osteoblast numbers during lactation in preparation for the recovery of bone mass after weaning. These data also demonstrate that maternal bone loss is not absolutely required to supply calcium for milk production unless dietary calcium intake is inadequate. PMID:25961842

  17. OPG Treatment Prevents Bone Loss During Lactation But Does Not Affect Milk Production or Maternal Calcium Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshirpour, Laleh; Dumitru, Cristina; Dann, Pamela; Sterpka, John; VanHouten, Joshua; Kim, Wonnam; Kostenuik, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lactation is associated with increased bone turnover and rapid bone loss, which liberates skeletal calcium used for milk production. Previous studies suggested that an increase in the skeletal expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ligand (RANKL) coupled with a decrease in osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels likely triggered bone loss during lactation. In this study, we treated lactating mice with recombinant OPG to determine whether bone loss during lactation was dependent on RANKL signaling and whether resorption of the maternal skeleton was required to support milk production. OPG treatment lowered bone resorption rates and completely prevented bone loss during lactation but, surprisingly, did not decrease osteoclast numbers. In contrast, OPG was quite effective at lowering osteoblast numbers and inhibiting bone formation in lactating mice. Furthermore, treatment with OPG during lactation prevented the usual anabolic response associated with reversal of lactational bone loss after weaning. Preventing bone loss had no appreciable effect on milk production, milk calcium levels, or maternal calcium homeostasis when mice were on a standard diet. However, when dietary calcium was restricted, treatment with OPG caused maternal hypocalcemia, maternal death, and decreased milk production. These studies demonstrate that RANKL signaling is a requirement for bone loss during lactation, and suggest that osteoclast activity may be required to increase osteoblast numbers during lactation in preparation for the recovery of bone mass after weaning. These data also demonstrate that maternal bone loss is not absolutely required to supply calcium for milk production unless dietary calcium intake is inadequate. PMID:25961842

  18. Lactation traits associated with short- and long-term once-daily milking performance in New Zealand crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Davis, S R; Turner, S-A; Obolonkin, V; Tiplady, K; Spelman, R J; Phyn, C V C

    2015-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to establish the relative value of milk yields under twice-daily milking (TDM) as a predictor of yield and yield loss under once-daily milking (ODM), and to understand the role of residual milk and udder storage capacity-related traits in regulating yield and yield loss during ODM. A Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbred herd was established over 2 seasons (years), as 2 individual cohorts on the same farm, managed on a pasture-based system over 4 lactations. Short-term (1-wk) ODM studies, with a starting total of 690 cows, were undertaken in mid- and late-lactation in lactation 2 and in mid-lactation in lactation 3 for each cohort. A 10-wk study of ODM performance began in mid-lactation in lactation 3, whereas lactation 4 was a full-lactation assessment of ODM. In the short-term studies, milk yield under ODM was well predicted (R(2)=0.7 to 0.8 in 5 of 6 studies) by the daily yield under TDM in the week before ODM. Yield loss (kg/d) increased with increasing milk yield and with increasing somatic cell count (SCC), although predictions were relatively poor (R(2)=0.09 to 0.30). Yield loss (%) decreased with increasing TDM yield in 3 of the 6 studies and was positively correlated with SCC during ODM. Nevertheless, ODM yield loss, in absolute or percentage terms, was a poorly repeatable trait in grazing cows. Part of the variation in yield loss percentage (30%) was positively associated with residual milk (%), measured pretrial, during measurement of functional udder capacity in lactation 3. Total production (kg of milk) over the full-lactation ODM study in lactation 4 was correlated with total production in the 10-wk trial in lactation 3 (r=0.72 and 0.63 for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively). Identifying the highest- and lowest-producing 10% of animals during the full lactation of ODM indicated that poor production was associated with high yields of residual milk (measured in lactation 3) and, conversely, high production was

  19. Milk Composition during Lactation Suggests a Mechanism for Male Biased Allocation of Maternal Resources in the Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii)

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Kylie A.; Braun, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has found empirical evidence in support of the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis that offspring sex allocation is correlated with maternal investment. Tammar wallabies birthing sons have higher investment ability; however a mechanism for sex specific differential allocation of maternal resources in wallabies remains elusive. In metatherians the majority of maternal investment is during lactation. To examine if differential allocation occurs during lactation, we measured total milk protein, lipid and carbohydrates, from mothers with male and female pouch young, during phase 2B (100–215 days post partum) and phase 3 (215–360 days post partum) of lactation. Mothers of sons allocated significantly higher levels of protein than mothers of daughters during phase 2B of lactation, however no sex specific difference in maternal allocation was found for lipids, carbohydrates, or any milk component during phase 3 of lactation. We were unable to measure milk production to establish any differences in the amount of milk allocated. However, with the production of more milk comes a dilution effect on milk components. Given that we find no apparent dilution of milk components may suggest equality in milk production. Offspring body weight at 14 months of age was related to protein allocation during phase 2B of lactation, providing a maternal mechanism for differential allocation with fitness consequences. We believe collection of earlier phase 2A (0–100 days post partum) milk may yield important results given that differential investment in metatherians may be most apparent early in lactation, prior to any significant maternal investment, when a decision on termination of investment can be made with very little energetic loss to the mother. Interestingly, small mothers did not birth sons and better maternal condition was associated with raising sons. These data are in support of TWH and demonstrate a potential mechanism through which condition dependent and sex

  20. Effect of dietary phosphorus on performance of lactating dairy cows: milk production and cow health.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H; Kanitz, F D; Moreira, V R; Wiltbank, M C; Satter, L D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure cow response to feeding of two dietary concentrations of P, one of which was close to recent National Research Council requirements, and the other of which was well in excess of the requirement. Diets containing 0.37 or 0.57% P (dry basis) were fed to Holstein cows for the first 165 d of lactation, and occasionally longer until cows were confirmed pregnant approximately 60 d after insemination. At calving, cows were randomly assigned to experimental diets. The number of cows completing a minimum of 165 d of lactation was 123 for the 0.37 and 124 for the 0.57% P groups. Cows were housed in a stanchion barn and fed one of two transition diets, each formulated to contain one of the P treatments for the first 3 wk of lactation, and then cows were moved to a free-stall barn where the experimental diets were group fed. Milk production, milk fat, and milk protein averaged 35.1 kg/d, 3.92%, and 2.90% for the 0.37% P diet, and 34.9 kg/d, 3.98%, and 2.91% for the 0.57% P diet. None of these measures were different between treatments. Blood serum P concentrations on d 50 and 100 of lactation averaged 6.1 and 6.2 mg/dL for the 0.37% P diet, and 6.8 and 6.9 mg/dL for the 0.57% P diet. No treatment differences were detected in milk production, cow health, or body condition score. PMID:14765820

  1. Blood lead levels in lactating cows reared around polluted localities; transfer of lead into milk.

    PubMed

    Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Puneet; Shekhar, Pallav

    2005-10-15

    Lead is pervasive environmental pollutant with potential public health hazard as a contaminant of food from animal origin. The present study examines the blood and milk lead level in animals reared in areas around different industrial activities and to find out correlation between blood and milk lead levels in lactating cows. Blood and milk samples (n = 149) were collected from animals reared around steel processing unit (n = 22), lead-zinc smelter (n = 21), aluminum processing plant (n = 25), rock phosphate mining area cum phosphate fertilizer plant (n = 21), coal mining areas (n = 46) and closed lead but functional zinc smelter (n = 14). Samples were also collected from randomly chosen 52 lactating cows reared in non-polluted areas to serve as controls. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher blood lead level was recorded in animals reared around lead-zinc smelting factories followed by closed lead but functional zinc smelter, aluminum processing unit and steel manufacturing plant, as compared to values recorded for control animals. The highest milk lead level (0.84 +/- 0.11 microg/ ml) was detected in animals reared in the vicinity of lead-zinc smelting unit followed by aluminum processing plant and steel processing unit. Analysis of correlation between blood lead levels and lead excretion in milk through sorting the blood lead values into 9 different ranges irrespective of site of collection of samples (n = 201) revealed significant correlation (r = 0.469 at P < 0.01) between blood and milk lead concentrations. The lactating cows with blood lead levels above 0.20 microg/ml (groups 5-9) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher milk lead excretion than those with blood lead levels from non detectable to 0.20 microg/ml (groups 1-4). Pearson correlation analysis between blood and milk lead concentrations in 122 animals with blood lead <0.20 microg/ml showed non-significant correlation (r = 0.030 at P < 0.05) but a significant correlation was observed between these two

  2. Blood lead levels in lactating cows reared around polluted localities; transfer of lead into milk.

    PubMed

    Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Puneet; Shekhar, Pallav

    2005-07-15

    Lead is pervasive environmental pollutant with potential public health hazard as a contaminant of food from animal origin. The present study examines the blood and milk lead level in animals reared in areas around different industrial activities and to find out correlation between blood and milk lead levels in lactating cows. Blood and milk samples (n=149) were collected from animals reared around steel processing unit (n=22), lead-zinc smelter (n=21), aluminum processing plant (n=25), rock phosphate mining area cum phosphate fertilizer plant (n=21), coal mining areas (n=46) and closed lead but functional zinc smelter (n=14). Samples were also collected from randomly chosen 52 lactating cows reared in non-polluted areas to serve as controls. Significantly (P<0.05) higher blood lead level was recorded in animals reared around lead-zinc smelting factories followed by closed lead but functional zinc smelter, aluminum processing unit and steel manufacturing plant, as compared to values recorded for control animals. The highest milk lead level (0.84+/-0.11 microg/ml) was detected in animals reared in the vicinity of lead-zinc smelting unit followed by aluminum processing plant and steel processing unit. Analysis of correlation between blood lead levels and lead excretion in milk through sorting the blood lead values into nine different ranges irrespective of site of collection of samples (n=201) revealed significant correlation (r=0.469 at P<0.01) between blood and milk lead concentrations. The lactating cows with blood lead levels above 0.20 microg/ml (Groups 5 to 9) had significantly (P<0.05) higher milk lead excretion than those with blood lead levels from non-detectable to 0.20 microg/ml (Groups 1 to 4). Pearson correlation analysis between blood and milk lead concentrations in 122 animals with blood lead

  3. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-an; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0–330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15–180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates. PMID:26186707

  4. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of milk production after pharmaceutical induction of lactation in the mare.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, P; Arnaud, G; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Brosse, L; Bougel, S; Daels, P; Guillaume, D; Clément, F; Palmer, E

    2002-01-01

    The induction of lactation is performed in ruminants by steroidogenic impregnation, followed by drugs intended to increase prolactin secretion. The aim of this study was to induce lactation in barren mares and to evaluate milk production. Five treated and 5 control mares were used in June and September in year 1, and 12 mares were used in year 2. Mares were administered a vaginal pessary (500 mg altrenogest and 50 mg estradiol benzoate) for 1 week. The 2nd week, another sponge with 100 mg estradiol benzoate was administered, together with 50 mg/100 kg body weight (BW) sulpiride in oil (IM q12h). All mares were milked by hand. Drug treatment was stopped after I L was obtained. Milk production and composition and plasma prolactin concentration were measured. In year 2, the same steroid treatment was applied, but mares received sulpiride (n = 6) or domperidone (1.1 mg/kg PO q12h) (n = 6). A milking machine and oxytocin injections 1 minute before the start of milking were used. In year 1, all treated mares started milking within 1-5 days after sulpiride treatment. Mean daily milk production was 0.88 +/- 0.52 L/500 kg BW. Milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) contents increased in all mares (IgG concentration range, 14-92 g/L). Plasma prolactin increased during sulpiride treatment (range. 27.7 +/- 2.9 to 43.7 +/- 6.7 ng/mL [before] to 289.0 +/- 7.8 ng/mL during treatment, P < .001). In year 2, results were similar to those in year 1, with peak IgG concentrations ranging from 4.2 to 106.7 g/L and a larger daily milk production (3.13 +/- 0.75 with sulpiride and 3.45 +/- 0.51 L/500 kg BW with domperidone). In conclusion, lactation can be induced in mares within 2 weeks, and some mares produce good-quality colostrum. PMID:12141311

  5. Effective lactation yield: A measure to compare milk yield between cows with different dry period lengths.

    PubMed

    Kok, A; van Middelaar, C E; Engel, B; van Knegsel, A T M; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2016-04-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving interval in the case of a shortened dry period. We aimed to develop a measure that would enable the comparison of milk yield between cows with different dry period (DP) lengths. We assessed the importance of accounting for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. The 305-d yield was compared with a 365-d yield, which included additional milk yield in the 60 d before calving. Next, an effective lactation yield was computed, defined as the daily yield from 60d before calving to 60 d before the next calving, to account for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. Test-day records and drying-off dates of 15 commercial farms were used to compute the 305-d, 365-d, and effective lactation yields for individual cows. We analyzed 817 second-parity lactations preceded by no DP, a short DP (20 to 40 d), or a conventional DP (49 to 90 d). Compared with cows with a conventional DP, the 305-d yield of cows with no DP was 7.0 kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) per day lower, and the 305-d yield of cows with a short DP was 2.3 kg of FPCM per day lower. Including additional milk yield before calving in the 365-d yield reduced this difference to 3.4 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with no DP and to 0.9 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with a short DP. Compared with cows with a conventional DP, median days open were reduced by 25d for cows with no DP and by 18d for cows with a short DP. Accounting for these differences in calving interval in the effective lactation yield further decreased yield reductions for cows with no DP or a short DP by 0.3 kg of FPCM per cow per day. At the herd level, estimated

  6. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  7. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yang; Yang, Zhanshan; Guo, Yongqing; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i) ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control); ii) ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen); iii) ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08) and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11) of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows. PMID:26194224

  8. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation. PMID:24635025

  9. High levels of DDT in breast milk: intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Sereda, Barbara; Bornman, Riana

    2012-11-01

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk - requiring further investigation. PMID:22766005

  10. Levels of coplanar PCBs in human breast milk at different times of lactation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Ramos, L.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    PCBs are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners which exhibit wide differences in their toxic and biological effects. The coplanar PCB (non-, mono- and di-ortho Chlorine substituted) congeners, the most toxic ones, induce similar toxic effects as 2,3,7,8 TCDD. Thus for risk assessment of exposure to PCBs, the analysis of these coplanar congeners is required. The PCB levels in human breast milk are of specific concern because of the potential health damage which may be caused to the nursing baby. The PCB levels in this sample come from previously accumulated quantities in body fat whose principal source is food, and pass directly to the nursing baby who accumulates the PCBs in adipose tissue. The amount of total PCBs and other organochlorine compounds (OCC) in human milk at different time intervals after birth was reported earlier, but data concerning individual and coplanar PCBs are sparse in the literature. The results from some studies showed a gradual decrease of residual levels in milk and milk fat. However, other research has shown differences in this respect. We present our first result concerning the concentration of 14 individual PCBs (13 coplanars) in breast milk from the same mother, during weeks 8 to 12 of lactation. We related the different concentration variations observed among the individual PCBs to their molecular structure and % fat in human breast milk. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  12. Concentrations of Environmental Phenols and Parabens in Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Mendola, Pauline; vonEhrenstein, Ondine S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  13. Comparative 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis of bovine mammary epithelial cells during lactation reveals protein signatures for lactation persistency and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B S; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling. PMID:25111801

  14. Comparative 2D-DIGE Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Lactation Reveals Protein Signatures for Lactation Persistency and Milk Yield

    PubMed Central

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K.; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K.; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K.; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B. S.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling. PMID:25111801

  15. Phenotypic Relationships of Common Health Disorders in Dairy Cows to Lactation Persistency Estimated from Daily Milk Weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic relationship between common health disorders in dairy cows and lactation persistency, uncorrelated with 305 d yield. The relationships with peak yield and days in milk (DIM) at peak were also studied. Daily milk weights and treatment inc...

  16. Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

    2010-11-24

    Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. PMID:20851527

  17. Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Silva, Manori J.; Mendola, Pauline; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment, but concentrations in multiple media from breast-feeding U.S. women have not been evaluated. Objectives The objective of this study was to accurately measure and compare the concentrations of oxidative monoester phthalate metabolites in milk and surrogate fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) of 33 lactating North Carolina women. Methods We analyzed serum, saliva, urine, and milk for the oxidative phthalate metabolites mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Because only urine lacks esterases, we analyzed it for the hydrolytic phthalate monoesters. Results We detected phthalate metabolites in few milk (< 10%) and saliva samples. MECPP was detected in > 80% of serum samples, but other metabolites were less common (3–22%). Seven of the 10 urinary metabolites were detectable in ≥ 85% of samples. Monoethyl phthalate had the highest mean concentration in urine. Metabolite concentrations differed by body fluid (urine > serum > milk and saliva). Questionnaire data suggest that frequent nail polish use, immunoglobulin A, and fasting serum glucose and triglyceride levels were increased among women with higher concentrations of urinary and/or serum phthalate metabolites; motor vehicle age was inversely correlated with certain urinary phthalate concentrations. Conclusions Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites are most frequently detected in urine of lactating women and are less often detected in serum, milk, or saliva. Urinary phthalate concentrations reflect maternal exposure and do not represent the concentrations of oxidative metabolites in other body fluids, especially milk. PMID:19165392

  18. Short communication: circulating and milk adiponectin change differently during energy deficiency at different stages of lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Häussler, S; Gross, J J; Schwarz, F J; Bruckmaier, R M; Sauerwein, H

    2014-03-01

    Adiponectin, one of the most abundant adipokines in circulation, is known for its role in regulation of body metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a negative energy balance (NEB) at 2 stages of lactation (lactational NEB at the onset of lactation and an induced NEB by feed restriction near 100 d of lactation) on circulating adiponectin concentrations. We also investigated the effect of feed restriction on adiponectin concentrations in milk and the relationships of blood and milk adiponectin with selected plasma or milk variables and with measures of body condition. Plasma adiponectin was measured in 50 multiparous Holstein dairy cows throughout 3 experimental periods [i.e., period 1=3 wk antepartum up to 12 wk postpartum, period 2=3 wk of feed restriction starting at around 100 d in milk with a control (n=25) and feed-restricted group (50% of energy requirements; n=25), and period 3=subsequent realimentation period for 8 wk]. Milk adiponectin was investigated among 21 multiparous cows at wk 2 and wk 12 of period 1 and wk 2 of period 2. Adiponectin concentrations in plasma and skim milk were measured using an in-house ELISA specific for bovine adiponectin. Major changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations were observed during the periparturient period, whereas energy deficiency during established lactation at around 100 d in milk and subsequent refeeding did not affect plasma adiponectin. Together with lower adiponectin concentrations in milk (µg/mL), the reduction in milk yield led to decreased adiponectin secretion via milk (mg/d) at the second week of feed restriction. Irrespective of time and treatment, milk adiponectin represented about 0.002% of total milk protein. Mean adiponectin concentrations in milk (0.61 ± 0.03 µg/mL) were about 92% lower than the mean plasma adiponectin concentrations (32.1 ± 1.0 µg/mL). The proportion of the steady-state plasma adiponectin pool secreted daily via milk was 2.7%. In view of the

  19. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  20. Effect of enhanced whole-milk feeding in calves on subsequent first-lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Kiezebrink, D J; Edwards, A M; Wright, T C; Cant, J P; Osborne, V R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of enhanced whole-milk (WM) feeding systems in calves from birth to 8wk of age on subsequent first-lactation performance. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatment groups. At birth, 152 Holstein heifer calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (i) 4L of WM/d or (ii) 8L of WM/d. The calves were bucket fed 2 or 4L of WM twice daily at 0700 and 1600h. Each calf was housed individually in temperature-controlled nurseries and had ad libitum access to water and textured calf starter daily. Calves consumed greater volumes of textured calf starter when fed 4 versus 8L of WM/d. Water intakes mirrored starter intakes, leading to greater water consumption at weaning. Calves reared on 8L of WM/d were heavier at d 56 than calves reared on 4L of WM/d. The average daily gain of the calves offered 8L of WM/d from d 0 to 56 was greater than that of calves offered 4L of WM/d. Structural measurements were significantly greater for calves that consumed 8L of WM/d. The differences observed in withers height and live BW due to WM feeding level were not apparent by 3 and 12mo of age, respectively. Rumen pH was higher in calves that consumed 8L of WM/d than in calves that consumed 4L of WM/d. Whole-milk feeding level did not affect age at first calving or milk-production parameters. These results suggest that enhanced WM feeding improved growth performance until 3mo of age. However, first-lactation results indicated no lactation-performance benefits of increased nutrition and growth performance during the milk-fed period in dairy calves. PMID:25468697

  1. Human milk nonprotein nitrogen components: changing patterns of free amino acids and urea in the course of early lactation.

    PubMed

    Harzer, G; Franzke, V; Bindels, J G

    1984-08-01

    Free amino acids and urea were analyzed in 78 human milk samples obtained during the first 5 wk of lactation from 10 mothers delivering at term. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) in the concentrations between colostral and mature milk were found for glutamic acid, glutamine, alanine, glycine, cystine, and phosphoethanolamine which increased, and with serine, phosphoserine, aspartic acid + asparagine, arginine, lysine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, proline, methionine, tryptophan, and beta-alanine which decreased. Some of these changes occurred within the first 5 days of lactation, so that differences between transitional and mature milk became negligible (glutamic acid, alanine, and serine, aspartic acid + asparagine, lysine, isoleucine, methionine, tryptophan, respectively). No significant differences between any of the three stages of lactation were found regarding the concentrations of total free amino acids, urea, taurine, threonine, valine, leucine, histidine, and tyrosine. Possible relevances for free amino acids, including nonprotein ones, in human milk are discussed. PMID:6147084

  2. Random regression analysis of test-day milk yields in the first and second lactations of Brazilian Gyr cows.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Herrera, L G; El Faro, L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Machado, C H C; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for test-day milk yields (TDMY) in the first and second lactations using random regression models (RRM) in order to contribute to the application of these models in genetic evaluation of milk yield in Gyr cattle. A total of 53,328 TDMY records from 7118 lactations of 5853 Gyr cows were analyzed. The model included the direct additive, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of the age of cows at calving were included as fixed effects. A random regression model fitting fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, with five classes of residual variance, was applied. In the first lactation, the heritabilities increased from early lactation (0.26) until TDMY3 (0.38), followed by a decrease until the end of lactation. In the second lactation, the estimates increased from the first (0.29) to the fifth test day (0.36), with a slight decrease thereafter, and again increased on the last two test days (0.34 and 0.41). There were positive and high genetic correlations estimated between first-lactation TDMY and the remaining TDMY of the two lactations. The moderate heritability estimates, as well as the high genetic correlations between half the first-lactation TDMY and all TDMY of the two lactations, suggest that the selection based only on first lactation TDMY is the best selection strategy to increase milk production across first and second lactations of Gyr cows. PMID:26662449

  3. Persistence of gentamicin residues in milk after the intramammary treatment of lactating cows for mastitis*

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xun; Jiang, Ye-wen; Huang, Yi-jun; Hu, Song-hua

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate persistence of gentamicin residues in milk after the intramammary treatment of lactating cows for mastitis. Milk samples were collected at a 1-d interval after the last administration from 34 individual cows that had received intramammary infusions of gentamicin. The doses and treatment times evaluated in this study represented those that have been applied by veterinarians in practice. The tetrazolium chloride assay was used to determine whether there were significant residues of the antibiotic in the samples. Persistence of detectable drug residues in milk from 33 cows (28 cows, ≤6 infusions at ≤0.7 g gentamicin; and 5 cows, 2 infusions at 0.8 g gentamicin) did not exceed 5 d; but 1 cow (5 infusions at 0.8 g gentamicin) had detectable residues in its milk for 9 d. Our results suggest that a 5-d milk withdrawal period might be insufficient to secure the clearance of the contamination of gentamicin, because treatment times and dosages contribute to the antibiotic clearance. A larger scale of samples are needed for further investigations. PMID:19353746

  4. Genetic Parameters for Milk Yield and Lactation Persistency Using Random Regression Models in Girolando Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Canaza-Cayo, Ali William; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; de Almeida Torres, Robledo; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Arbex, Wagner Antonio; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo

    2015-01-01

    A total of 32,817 test-day milk yield (TDMY) records of the first lactation of 4,056 Girolando cows daughters of 276 sires, collected from 118 herds between 2000 and 2011 were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters for TDMY via random regression models (RRM) using Legendre’s polynomial functions whose orders varied from 3 to 5. In addition, nine measures of persistency in milk yield (PSi) and the genetic trend of 305-day milk yield (305MY) were evaluated. The fit quality criteria used indicated RRM employing the Legendre’s polynomial of orders 3 and 5 for fitting the genetic additive and permanent environment effects, respectively, as the best model. The heritability and genetic correlation for TDMY throughout the lactation, obtained with the best model, varied from 0.18 to 0.23 and from −0.03 to 1.00, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlation for persistency and 305MY varied from 0.10 to 0.33 and from −0.98 to 1.00, respectively. The use of PS7 would be the most suitable option for the evaluation of Girolando cattle. The estimated breeding values for 305MY of sires and cows showed significant and positive genetic trends. Thus, the use of selection indices would be indicated in the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle for both traits. PMID:26323397

  5. Genetic and nongenetic variation in plasma and milk β-hydroxybutyrate and milk acetone concentrations of early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, S G A; van Hulzen, K J E; Teweldemedhn, T G; Jorritsma, R; Nielen, M; Heuven, H C M

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed genetic variation, heritability estimates, and genetic correlations for concentrations of plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), milk BHBA, and milk acetone in early lactation to investigate differences between cows in susceptibility to hyperketonemia and possibilities to use test-day milk ketone bodies for genetic improvement. Blood and test-day milk samples were collected on randomly selected dairy farms in the Netherlands from cows of various parities between 5 and 60 d in milk. Plasma samples were analyzed for BHBA (reference test for hyperketonemia) and test-day milk samples were analyzed for BHBA and acetone using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The final data set consisted of plasma BHBA concentrations of 1,615 cows from 122 herds. Milk BHBA and milk acetone concentrations were determined for 1,565 cows. Genetic variation, heritability, and proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to the herd were estimated using an animal model with fixed effects for parity and season, a covariate for days in milk, and random effects for herd, animal, and error. Genetic correlations for plasma BHBA, milk BHBA, and milk acetone were estimated using bivariate analyses. The heritability estimate for plasma BHBA concentrations in early lactation was 0.17, whereas heritability estimates for milk BHBA and milk acetone were 0.16 and 0.10, respectively. This indicates that selective breeding may contribute to a lower incidence of hyperketonemia in early lactation. For the 3 traits, the proportion of variance attributable to herd was larger than the additive genetic variance, underlining the importance of on-farm feeding and management in the etiology of hyperketonemia in fresh cows. Prevention strategies for hyperketonemia can, therefore, include both feeding and management strategies at dairy farms (short-term) and genetic improvement through breeding programs (long-term). Genetic correlations between concentrations of plasma BHBA and milk BHBA (0

  6. Nighttime Cooling Is an Effective Method for Improving Milk Production in Lactating Goats Exposed to Hot and Humid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kamata, Yasuhiro; Niino, Noriko; Taniyama, Yoshihiko; Kinjo, Kazuhide; Matayoshi, Ayano

    2015-01-01

    Heat production in ruminants follows a diurnal pattern over the course of a day peaking 3 hours following afternoon feeding and then gradually declining to its lowest point prior to morning feeding. In order to clarify the cooling period most effective in reducing decreases in feed intake and milk production, experiments were carried out based on the diurnal rhythm of heat production and heat dissipation. In experiment 1, the effects of hot environment on milk production were investigated. The animals were kept first in a thermoneutral environment (20.0°C, 80.0%) for 12 days, they were then transitioned to a hot environment (32°C, 80.0%) for 13 days before being returned to second thermoneutral environment for a further 12 days. In experiment 2, the effectiveness of daytime cooling or nighttime cooling for improving milk production in hot environment was compared. While ten lactating Japanese Saanen goats (aged 2 years, weighing 41.0 kg) during early lactation were used in experiment 1, ten lactating goats (aged 2 years, weighing 47.5 kg) during mid-lactation were used in experiment 2. The animals were fed 300 g of concentrated feed and excessive amounts of crushed alfalfa hay cubes twice daily. Water was given ad libitum. The animals were milked twice daily. When exposed to a hot environment, milk yield and composition decreased significantly (p<0.05). Milk yield in the hot environment did not change with daytime cooling, but tended to increase with nighttime cooling. Compared to the daytime cooling, milk components percentages in the nighttime cooling were not significantly different but the milk components yields in the nighttime cooling were significantly higher (p<0.05). The results indicate that nighttime cooling is more effective than daytime cooling in the reduction of milk production declines in lactating goats exposed to a hot environment. PMID:26104401

  7. Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Colmenero, J J Olmos; Broderick, G A

    2006-05-01

    Forty lactating Holstein cows, including 10 with ruminal cannulas, were blocked by days in milk into 8 groups and then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 incomplete 5 x 5 Latin squares to assess the effects of 5 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on milk production and N use. Diets contained 25% alfalfa silage, 25% corn silage, and 50% concentrate, on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rolled high-moisture shelled corn was replaced with solvent-extracted soybean meal to increase CP from 13.5 to 15.0, 16.5, 17.9, and 19.4% of DM. Each of the 4 experimental periods lasted 28 d, with 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection. Spot sampling of ruminal digesta, blood, urine, and feces was conducted on d 21 of each period. Intake of DM was not affected by diet but milk fat content as well as ruminal acetate, NH3, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, urinary allantoin, and blood and milk urea all increased linearly with increasing CP. Milk and protein yield showed trends for quadratic responses to dietary CP and were, respectively, 38.3 and 1.18 kg/d at 16.5% CP. As a proportion of N intake, urinary N excretion increased from 23.8 to 36.2%, whereas N secreted in milk decreased from 36.5 to 25.4%, as dietary protein increased from 13.5 to 19.4%. Under the conditions of this study, yield of milk and protein were not increased by feeding more than 16.5% CP. The linear increase in urinary N excretion resulted from a sharp decline in N efficiency as dietary CP content increased. PMID:16606741

  8. Persistence of α-cypermethrin residues in milk of lactating donkeys (Equus asinus) using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chirollo, Claudia; Radovnikovic, Anita; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Marrone, Raffaele; Pepe, Tiziana; Danaher, Martin; Anastasio, Aniello

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the persistence of residues of the pyrethroid insecticide α-cypermethrin (ACYP) in the milk of lactating donkeys following pour-on treatment. Milk was collected from animals (n = 7) before the treatment and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 h post-treatment. The last sampling was taken 7 days post-treatment (168 h). Milk samples were analysed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The analytical method was validated following requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. All samples showed levels of ACYP below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 20 μg kg(-1) established for bovine milk (Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010). The results demonstrate that there is minimal partitioning of ACYP into milk in lactating donkeys from pour-on treatment. PMID:24806743

  9. Lactation Stage-Related Expression of Sialylated and Fucosylated Glycotopes of Human Milk α-1-Acid Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Hirnle, Lidia; Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Because terminal sugars of α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) are reported to be involved in anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory processes, their expressions might have an influence on the proper function of immune system of newborns. Here, relative amounts of sialylated and fucosylated glycotopes on human milk AGP over normal lactation were investigated. Materials and Methods: AGP concentration and relative amounts of its sialylated and fucosylated glycovariants were analyzed in early colostrum, colostrum, and transitional and mature milk samples of 127 healthy mothers by lectin–AGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using α2,3- and α2,6-sialic acid and α1,2-, α1,3-, and α1,6-fucose specific biotinylated Maackia amurensis, Sambucus nigra, Ulex europaeus, Tetragonolobus purpureus, and Lens culinaris lectins, respectively. Results: AGP concentration in human milk was about 30 times lower than in plasma of lactating mothers and decreased gradually over lactation. Milk AGP showed significantly higher expression of sialylated and fucosylated glycotopes in comparison with those of plasma AGP. Milk AGP glycovariants containing α2,6-sialylated and α1,6- and α1,2-fucosylated glycotopes showed the highest relative amounts in early colostrums. With progression of lactation, the expressions of glycotopes α1,2-fucosylated decreased starting from Day 4 and those of α2,6-sialylated and α1,6-fucosylated from Day 8 of lactation, whereas the level of α2,3-sialyl-glycotope was almost constant over 45 days of lactation. In contrast, the expression of α1,3-linked fucose on AGP was low in colostrums and significantly higher in transitional and mature milk. Conclusions: The relative amounts of sialylated and fucosylated glycovariants of human hindmilk AGP significantly varied between Days 2 and 45 of normal lactation. PMID:24892765

  10. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. Z.; Park, B. K.; Yan, C. G.; Choi, J. G.; Ahn, J. S.; Shin, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  11. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (<60 d in milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions. PMID:24997658

  12. Assessment of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in cow's milk as an indicator of subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Babaei, H; Mansouri-Najand, L; Molaei, M M; Kheradmand, A; Sharifan, M

    2007-05-01

    This study examined the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the milk of lactating Holstein cows in association with subclinical mastitis (SCM). A total of 94 milk samples were collected from 58 lactating dairy cows representing stages of lactation from the second to the tenth week after calving. Those which were classified as positive by California mastitis test (CMT) were deemed to have subclinical mastitis. All the milk samples were skimmed by centrifugation at 10 000g at 0 degrees C and were used for enzyme activities estimations. The mean activities of LDH and ALP were higher in the milk from udders with SCM than in the milk from healthy udders (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in AST values. The maximum agreement rates between the CMT results and LDH and ALP values were seen at thresholds of > 180 IU/L and > 40 IU/L respectively (kappa values 0.65 and 0.79, respectively). However, the sensitivity of the tests for identifying SCM at these thresholds was higher for ALP (96.4%) than for LDH (68.5%). In this study, LDH and ALP tests were standardized for cow's milk and results showed that only the ALP test was reliable in the early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. PMID:17268916

  13. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P < 0.0001) in actual DMI between the efficient and inefficient groups (±0.5 SD from the mean RFI of 0), with no evidence of differences (P > 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and

  14. The effect of milking reinitiation following extended nonmilking periods on lactation in primiparous dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, K; Swanson, K M; Henderson, H V; Erdman, R A; Stelwagen, K

    2015-11-01

    In dairy cows, extended periods of nonmilking results in reduced milk secretion, modifications in milk composition, and eventually involution of the mammary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of extended nonmilking periods on the recovery of milk yield and composition, and levels of prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I in pasture-fed cows after resuming milking. Pasture-fed, primiparous, nonpregnant, Friesian dairy cows at mid lactation (mean ± standard deviation, 97 ± 2d in milk, 14.0 ± 2.5 L/d) were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group). The cows were subjected to nonmilking periods of 7, 14, or 28d. Twice-daily milking was resumed for 7d following the nonmilking periods. Milk yield recoveries at the end of the 7-d remilking period were 91, 51, and 29% for the 7, 14, and 28-d nonmilked groups, respectively. The somatic cell count declined to less than 400,000 cells/mL by d 3 and 6 of remilking for the 7- and 14-d-nonmilked groups, respectively, but remained greater than 800,000 cells/mL in the 28-d-nonmilked group through the 7-d remilking period. By d 7 of remilking, the somatic cell count for the 7-d-nonmilked group was not different from pretrial values. Upon remilking, the milk fat content returned to pretrial values for the 7- and 14-d-nonmilked groups, although it remained lower than pretrial for the 28-d-nonmilked group. All 3 nonmilked groups had a higher milk protein content following 7d of remilking, compared with pretrial values. The lactose content returned to pretrial values for the 7-d-nonmilked group but remained lower for the 14- and 28-d-nonmilked groups. Circulating prolactin concentrations increased once remilking was resumed, compared with the pretrial and nonmilking periods. Prolactin concentrations did not majorly differ between the groups, with the levels upon 7d of remilking remaining higher than the pretrial concentrations and the nonmilked periods. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor

  15. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  16. NMR-based metabolite profiling of human milk: A pilot study of methods for investigating compositional changes during lactation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Domellöf, Magnus; Zivkovic, Angela M; Larsson, Göran; Öhman, Anders; Nording, Malin L

    2016-01-15

    Low-molecular-weight metabolites in human milk are gaining increasing interest in studies of infant nutrition. In the present study, the milk metabolome from a single mother was explored at different stages of lactation. Metabolites were extracted from sample aliquots using either methanol/water (MeOH/H2O) extraction or ultrafiltration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used for metabolite identification and quantification, and multi- and univariate statistical data analyses were used to detect changes over time of lactation. Compared to MeOH/H2O extraction, ultrafiltration more efficiently reduced the interference from lipid and protein resonances, thereby enabling the identification and quantification of 36 metabolites. The human milk metabolomes at the early (9-24 days after delivery) and late (31-87 days after delivery) stages of lactation were distinctly different according to multi- and univariate statistics. The late lactation stage was characterized by significantly elevated concentrations of lactose, choline, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine, as well as by reduced levels of citrate, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and N-acetylglucosamine. Our results indicate that there are significant compositional changes of the human milk metabolome also in different phases of the matured lactation stage. These findings complement temporal studies on the colostrum and transitional metabolome in providing a better understanding of the nutritional variations received by an infant. PMID:26655810

  17. Hot topic: Innovative lactation-stage-dependent prediction of methane emissions from milk mid-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Vanlierde, A; Vanrobays, M-L; Dehareng, F; Froidmont, E; Soyeurt, H; McParland, S; Lewis, E; Deighton, M H; Grandl, F; Kreuzer, M; Gredler, B; Dardenne, P; Gengler, N

    2015-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop, apply, and validate a new method to predict an indicator for CH4 eructed by dairy cows using milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra. A novel feature of this model was the consideration of lactation stage to reflect changes in the metabolic status of the cow. A total of 446 daily CH4 measurements were obtained using the SF6 method on 142 Jersey, Holstein, and Holstein-Jersey cows. The corresponding milk samples were collected during these CH4 measurements and were analyzed using MIR spectroscopy. A first derivative was applied to the milk MIR spectra. To validate the novel calibration equation incorporating days in milk (DIM), 2 calibration processes were developed: the first was based only on CH4 measurements and milk MIR spectra (independent of lactation stage; ILS); the second included milk MIR spectra and DIM information (dependent on lactation stage; DLS) by using linear and quadratic modified Legendre polynomials. The coefficients of determination of ILS and DLS equations were 0.77 and 0.75, respectively, with standard error of calibration of 63g/d of CH4 for both calibration equations. These equations were applied to 1,674,763 milk MIR spectra from Holstein cows in the first 3 parities and between 5 and 365 DIM. The average CH4 indicators were 428, 444, and 448g/d by ILS and 444, 467, and 471g/d by DLS for cows in first, second, and third lactation, respectively. Behavior of the DLS indicator throughout the lactations was in agreement with the literature with values increasing between 0 and 100 DIM and decreasing thereafter. Conversely, the ILS indicator of CH4 emission decreased at the beginning of the lactation and increased until the end of the lactation, which differs from the literature. Therefore, the DLS indicator seems to better reflect biological processes that drive CH4 emissions than the ILS indicator. The ILS and DLS equations were applied to an independent data set, which included 59 respiration chamber

  18. Overexpression of des(1-3)hIGF-I in the mammary gland during prolonged lactation enhances milk yield and elevates prolactin secretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During prolonged lactation, the mammary gland loses the capacity to synthesize and secrete the large amounts of milk that are produced during early lactation. This loss occurs despite the continued presence of a suckling stimulus and complete removal of mammary secretions. The decline in milk synthe...

  19. An Herbal Galactagogue Mixture Increases Milk Production and Aquaporin Protein Expression in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haibin; Hua, Ying; Luo, Hui; Shen, Zhaojun; Tao, Xuejiao

    2015-01-01

    Background. Herbal galactagogues have been increasingly used to treat postpartum hypogalactia. The mechanism of action of herbal galactagogues remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an herbal galactagogue mixture on milk production and aquaporin (AQP) expression in lactating rats. Methods. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into virgin, lactating + H2O, and lactating + galactagogue groups (n = 10 per group). Lactating rats were administered the decoction of an herbal galactagogue mixture by oral gavage or the same amount of distilled water. Results. The herbal decoction significantly increased milk production in lactating rats (P < 0.05). Both immunohistochemical staining and western blot showed that protein levels of AQP-3 and AQP-5 were significantly increased during lactation compared with virgin stage and the herbal decoction further elevated their expression (P < 0.05). AQP-1 was predominantly expressed in the capillaries whereas AQP-3 and AQP-5 were mainly detected in the epithelial cells and ducts of the mammary glands. Conclusion. The expression of AQPs in the mammary glands of rats was developmentally regulated. Herbal galactagogues might have increased milk secretion by regulating the expression and function of AQPs in the mammary glands. PMID:26075000

  20. First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W; van Werven, T; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2013-02-01

    Farmers attempting to reduce first-calving age (FCA) need to understand which rearing management factors influence FCA and first-lactation milk production (FLP). Reduced FCA might be associated with lower FLP. This study describes the association between herd FCA, FLP, and several herd-level health and rearing management variables and describes the association between FCA and FLP at the cow level. It uses data from a 2010 survey of 100 Dutch dairy farms about general management, colostrum and milk feeding, housing, cleanliness, healthcare, disease, and breeding. It also used available data on FCA and 305-d FLP at both cow and herd level. The associations between median FCA and median FLP of the herd and herd-level health and rearing management variables were determined using multivariate regression analysis. The median FCA was associated with minimum age of first insemination, feeding of waste milk, and the amount of milk given preweaning. The median FLP was associated with median FCA and vaccination status for bovine respiratory syncytial virus. The association between FCA and FLP (based on 8,454 heifers) was analyzed with a single-effect linear mixed model, where the dependent variable was either FCA or relative FCA (defined as the difference between FCA of the heifer and median FCA of the herd to which they belonged). Heifers having an FCA of 24 mo produced, on average, 7,164 kg of milk per 305 d, and calving 1 mo earlier gave 143 kg less milk per 305 d. When FCA did not deviate from the median herd FCA, heifers produced, on average, 7,272 kg of milk per 305 d. From the median FCA of the herd, heifers calving 1 mo earlier produced 90 kg of milk per 305 d less, and heifers calving 1 mo later produced 86 kg per 305 d more. This is the first study that explained FLP using relative FCA. It assumes that heifers raised within the same farm have similar development because they are similarly managed. Similar management is reflected by the median FCA of the herd, with a

  1. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation. PMID:26254518

  2. Effects of niacin on milk production and blood parameters in early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Behnam; Vahdani, Narges; Zerehdaran, Saeed

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the effects of niacin supplementation in the diet of high producing cows at early lactation, 21 holstein dairy cows were used in this experiment. Animal were assigned in to three groups based on their milk yield and calving date soon after parturition. They were received a basal diet and 0 (group 1), 6 (group 2), 12 (group 3) g of supplementation niacin per day over a 10 weeks experimental period. Milk volume was recorded and milk samples were collected for each cow at two weeks interval for analysis of fat, protein, lactose and SNF (Solid-None Fat). Blood samples were also taken for the measurement of glucose, triglyceride, Beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein at two weeks intervals. No significant difference were observed between milk yield, milk fat, protein, lactose and SNF content in cows received niacin compared to the control group (p > 0.05). Plasma glucose in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control were higher and this difference were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides were not significantly affected by niacin supplementation. BHBA were lower in cows received niacin and this difference were significant (p < 0.05). The trend of changes in the amount of blood total protein were identical in all three groups whole the level of this factor was always higher in control group compared to the others groups. Niacin has showed an increase in the level of plasma glucose and a notable decrease in the amount of blood triglyceride, beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein, which may be due to the effect of this vitamin on the energy metabolism in cows. PMID:18819645

  3. Changes throughout lactation in phenotypic and genetic correlations between methane emissions and milk fatty acid contents predicted from milk mid-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Vanrobays, M-L; Bastin, C; Vandenplas, J; Hammami, H; Soyeurt, H; Vanlierde, A; Dehareng, F; Froidmont, E; Gengler, N

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations between methane production (Mp) and milk fatty acid contents of first-parity Walloon Holstein cows throughout lactation. Calibration equations predicting daily Mp (g/d) and milk fatty acid contents (g/100 dL of milk) were applied on milk mid-infrared spectra related to Walloon milk recording. A total of 241,236 predictions of Mp and milk fatty acids were used. These data were collected between 5 and 305 d in milk in 33,555 first-parity Holstein cows from 626 herds. Pedigree data included 109,975 animals. Bivariate (i.e., Mp and a fatty acid trait) random regression test-day models were developed to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters of Mp and milk fatty acids. Individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and groups of saturated fatty acids, SCFA, and medium-chain fatty acids showed positive phenotypic and genetic correlations with Mp (from 0.10 to 0.16 and from 0.23 to 0.30 for phenotypic and genetic correlations, respectively), whereas individual long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), and groups of LCFA, monounsaturated fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acids showed null to positive phenotypic and genetic correlations with Mp (from -0.03 to 0.13 and from -0.02 to 0.32 for phenotypic and genetic correlations, respectively). However, these correlations changed throughout lactation. First, de novo individual and group fatty acids (i.e., C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, SCFA group) showed low phenotypic or genetic correlations (or both) in early lactation and higher at the end of lactation. In contrast, phenotypic and genetic correlations between Mp and C16:0, which could be de novo synthetized or derived from blood lipids, were more stable during lactation. This fatty acid is the most abundant fatty acid of the saturated fatty acid and medium-chain fatty acid groups of which correlations with Mp showed the same pattern across lactation. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between Mp and C17

  4. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fogsgaard, K K; Løvendahl, P; Bennedsgaard, T W; Østergaard, S

    2015-11-01

    Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk appearance, indicating that animals may not have fully recovered. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase activity, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio (defined as the coefficient of variation between the active quarters) after cases of naturally occurring mastitis with special focus on the recovery period after antibiotic treatment. A second aim was to examine whether these changes were affected by the pathogens present at the time of mastitis diagnosis. This retrospective study was based on a cohort data set including 1,032 lactations from 795 dairy cows kept on 2 Danish farms and milked by an automatic milking system. A total of 174 treated mastitis cases were compared with nontreated control cows from 5 wk before treatment and until 8 wk after. Treated mastitis resulted in reduced milk yield, elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity, lower milking frequency, and elevated interquarter yield ratio. Within these measures, deviations from baseline levels and from the control cows were found as early as 1 to 3 wk before the antibiotic treatment and peaked around the days of treatment. In some cases, the mastitic cows returned to premastitis levels, whereas in others they remained affected throughout the rest of the observation period. To correctly estimate the effects of treated mastitis and the recovery status of cows, it is important to take the individual cow into account and not only compare with herd levels, as this might mask the true degree of the changes. The effects on each outcome variable depended on the involved pathogen and differences were found between primiparous cows and older animals. However

  5. Changes in milk proteome and metabolome associated with dry period length, energy balance, and lactation stage in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Antunes Fernandes, Elsa; Páez Cano, Ana Elizabeth; Vinitwatanakhun, Jantipa; Boeren, Sjef; van Hooijdonk, Toon; van Knegsel, Ariette; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper Arthur

    2013-07-01

    The early lactation period of dairy cows, which produce high quantities of milk, is normally characterized by an insufficient energy intake to cover milk production and maintenance requirements. Mobilization of body reserves occurs to compensate this negative energy balance (NEB), and probably as a consequence there is a higher susceptibility to diseases and metabolic disorders. There are several diagnostic methods to detect NEB, usually involving ketosis related parameters. Due to the easy availability of milk this is a preferred matrix, but simple and robust predictors of NEB level are missing. To better understand the physiological mechanism of NEB, milk of cows subjected to different dry period lengths, in different energy balance status and lactation stage, were analyzed by untargeted metabolomics and proteomics techniques. Milk of cows in severe NEB showed higher concentrations of acute phase response proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, and galactose-1-phosphate. Improved energy balance (EB) resulted in higher concentration of cholesterol, cholesterol synthesis related proteins, and stomatin. The presence of stomatin and galactose-1-phosphate in milk was strongly dependent on the EB of the cows. These novel and interesting findings warrant more in-depth research to assess their applicability as robust indicators of NEB in milk and to clarify the role of stomatin and galactose-1-phophate in milk of dairy cows in NEB. PMID:23738862

  6. Vaccination of Lactating Dairy Cows for the Prevention of Aflatoxin B1 Carry Over in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Polonelli, Luciano; Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Sforza, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Casoli, Claudio; Ronzi, Paola; Grilli, Ester; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Piva, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The potential of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a vaccine (AnAFB1-KLH) in controlling the carry over of the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in cow milk is reported. AFB1 is the most carcinogenic compound in food and foodstuffs amongst aflatoxins (AFs). AnAFB1 is AFB1 chemically modified as AFB1-1(O-carboxymethyl) oxime. In comparison to AFB1, AnAFB1 has proven to be non-toxic in vitro to human hepatocarcinoma cells and non mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains. AnAFB1-KLH was used for immunization of cows proving to induce a long lasting titer of anti-AFB1 IgG antibodies (Abs) which were cross reactive with AFB1, AFG1, and AFG2. The elicited anti-AFB1 Abs were able to hinder the secretion of AFM1 into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. Vaccination of lactating animals with conjugated AnAFB1 may represent a solution to the public hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with AFs. PMID:22053212

  7. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Capuco, Anthony V; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Grossi, Paolo; Choudhary, Ratan K; Vanzant, Eric S; Elsasser, Theodore H; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio; Aiken, Glen E; McLeod, Kyle R

    2016-09-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming these grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation, and milk production. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups. Starting at 90±4 d prepartum, cows were fed endophyte-free fescue seed (control; CON), endophyte-free fescue seed plus 3×/wk subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine (0.1mg/kg of body weight, positive control; BROMO), or endophyte-infected fescue seed (INF) as 10% of the diet on an as fed basis. Although milk yield of groups did not differ before treatment, at dry off (-60 d prepartum) INF and BROMO cows produced less milk than CON. Throughout the treatment period, basal concentrations of PRL and the prepartum increase in plasma PRL were reduced in INF and BROMO cows compared with CON cows. Three weeks after the end of treatment, circulating concentrations of PRL were equivalent across groups. In the subsequent lactation milk yield was not decreased; in fact, BROMO cows exhibited a 9% increase in milk yield relative to CON. Evaluation of mammary tissue during the dry period and the subsequent lactation, by quantitative histology and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation markers and putative mammary stem or progenitor cell markers, indicated that feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed did not significantly affect mammary growth and development. Feeding endophyte-infected grasses during the dry period may permit effective utilization of feed resources without compromising milk production in the next lactation. PMID:27320660

  8. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1) values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA), eicosapentanoic (EPA), and arachidonic (AA) acids were present in very small amounts (<1%). In addition, the AA/EPA ratio was low (0.18). The fat and energetic values decreased (P < 0.01) during lactation. The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in saturated fatty acids content and an increase (P < 0.01) in the unsaturated fatty acids content. The n-6 to n-3 ratio and the LA/ALA ratio were approximately 2:1, with values <1 during the last period of lactation, suggesting the more optimal use of milk during this period. Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio

  9. Contextualizing online human milk sharing: structural factors and lactation disparity among middle income women in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    Women in the U.S. face significant structural constraints in attempting to breastfeed as recommended in the first six months of their child's life. Internet-facilitated human milk sharing is an emergent response to breastfeeding challenges. Little is known about the demographic characteristics of milk sharing donors and recipients and the ways structural factors circumscribe the biocultural context of lactation in milk sharing practices. Data regarding demographic characteristics, reproductive history, lactation history, and levels of social support and health care provider support for breastfeeding were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Statistical tests were executed to ascertain whether significant differences exist between donors and recipients. A total of 867 respondents (661 donors, 206 recipients) met the eligibility criteria for the study. Respondents were U.S. residents and primarily White, middle-class, well educated, and employed women. Both donors and recipients reported higher than the national average for household income, maternal educational attainment, breastfeeding exclusivity 0-6 months, and breastfeeding duration. Differences in lactation sufficiency and breastfeeding outcomes between donors and recipients were associated with both structural and biocultural factors. Donors reported significantly higher income, education, and support for breastfeeding from spouse/partner, other family, employers, and pediatricians. Donors also reported significantly higher rates of full term birth for child of most recent lactation. This study provides a foundation for understanding how milk sharing reflects a broader political economy of breastfeeding in the U.S. PMID:25441326

  10. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  11. Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

  12. FATE OF DIETARY PERCHLORATE IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS: RELEVANCE TO ANIMAL HEALTH AND LEVELS IN THE MILK SUPPLY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for fiv...

  13. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Na, Y. J.; Lee, I. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

  14. Choline intakes exceeding recommendations during human lactation improve breast milk choline content by increasing PEMT pathway metabolites.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Crystal; Yan, Jian; Taesuwan, Siraphat; Shields, Kelsey; West, Allyson A; Jiang, Xinyin; Perry, Cydne A; Malysheva, Olga V; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Caudill, Marie A

    2015-09-01

    Demand for the vital nutrient choline is high during lactation; however, few studies have examined choline metabolism and requirements in this reproductive state. The present study sought to discern the effects of lactation and varied choline intake on maternal biomarkers of choline metabolism and breast milk choline content. Lactating (n=28) and control (n=21) women were randomized to 480 or 930 mg choline/day for 10-12 weeks as part of a controlled feeding study. During the last 4-6 weeks, 20% of the total choline intake was provided as an isotopically labeled choline tracer (methyl-d9-choline). Blood, urine and breast milk samples were collected for choline metabolite quantification, enrichment measurements, and gene expression analysis of choline metabolic genes. Lactating (vs. control) women exhibited higher (P < .001) plasma choline concentrations but lower (P ≤ .002) urinary excretion of choline metabolites, decreased use of choline as a methyl donor (e.g., lower enrichment of d6-dimethylglycine, P ≤ .08) and lower (P ≤ .02) leukocyte expression of most choline-metabolizing genes. A higher choline intake during lactation differentially influenced breast milk d9- vs. d3-choline metabolite enrichment. Increases (P ≤ .03) were detected among the d3-metabolites, which are generated endogenously via the hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), but not among the d9-metabolites generated from intact exogenous choline. These data suggest that lactation induces metabolic adaptations that increase the supply of intact choline to the mammary epithelium, and that extra maternal choline enhances breast milk choline content by increasing supply of PEMT-derived choline metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127022. PMID:26025328

  15. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  16. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, T. A.; Kholif, S. M.; Kholif, A. E.; Matloup, O. H.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Elella, A. Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  17. Human lactation: oxidation and maternal transfer of dietary (13)C-labelled α-linolenic acid into human milk.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, Hans; Kuhn, Angelika; Dokoupil, Katharina; Hegele, Verena; Sauerwald, Thorsten; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-06-01

    The origin of fatty acids in milk has not been elucidated in detail. We investigated the contribution of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) to human milk fat, its oxidation and endogenous conversion to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ten lactating women were given (13)C-ALA orally, and breath and milk samples were collected for a five-day period, while dietary intakes were assessed. 37.5 ± 2.7 % (M ± SE) of the tracer was recovered in breath-CO2, and 7.3 ± 1.1 % was directly transferred into milk. About 0.25 % of the tracer was found in milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Combining intake and milk data, we estimate that about 65 % of milk ALA is directly derived from maternal diet. Thus, the major portion of milk ALA is directly derived from the diet, but dietary ALA does not seem to contribute much as a precursor to milk n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids within the studied time period. PMID:26444910

  18. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  19. Genetic Analysis of Milk Yield in First-Lactation Holstein Friesian in Ethiopia: A Lactation Average vs Random Regression Test-Day Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meseret, S; Tamir, B; Gebreyohannes, G; Lidauer, M; Negussie, E

    2015-09-01

    The development of effective genetic evaluations and selection of sires requires accurate estimates of genetic parameters for all economically important traits in the breeding goal. The main objective of this study was to assess the relative performance of the traditional lactation average model (LAM) against the random regression test-day model (RRM) in the estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values for Holstein Friesian herds in Ethiopia. The data used consisted of 6,500 test-day (TD) records from 800 first-lactation Holstein Friesian cows that calved between 1997 and 2013. Co-variance components were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood method under single trait animal model. The estimate of heritability for first-lactation milk yield was 0.30 from LAM whilst estimates from the RRM model ranged from 0.17 to 0.29 for the different stages of lactation. Genetic correlations between different TDs in first-lactation Holstein Friesian ranged from 0.37 to 0.99. The observed genetic correlation was less than unity between milk yields at different TDs, which indicated that the assumption of LAM may not be optimal for accurate evaluation of the genetic merit of animals. A close look at estimated breeding values from both models showed that RRM had higher standard deviation compared to LAM indicating that the TD model makes efficient utilization of TD information. Correlations of breeding values between models ranged from 0.90 to 0.96 for different group of sires and cows and marked re-rankings were observed in top sires and cows in moving from the traditional LAM to RRM evaluations. PMID:26194217

  20. Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: Maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin M; Hinde, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Among mammals, numerous bioactive factors in milk vary across mothers and influence offspring outcomes. This emerging area of research has primarily investigated such dynamics within rodent biomedical models, domesticated dairy breeds, and among humans in clinical contexts. Less understood are signaling factors in the milk of non-human primates. Here, we report on multiple bioactive components in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) milk and their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Milk samples were collected from 59 macaques at multiple time points across lactation in conjunction with maternal and infant morphometrics and life-history animal records. Milk was assayed for adiponectin (APN), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2 ). Regression models were constructed to assess the contributions of maternal factors on variation in milk bioactives, and on the relationship of this variation to infant body mass and growth. Maternal body mass, parity, social rank, and infant sex were all predictive of concentrations of milk bioactives. Primiparous mothers produced milk with higher adiponectin, but lower EGF, than multiparous mothers. Heavier mothers produced milk with lower EGF and EGF-R, but higher TGF-β2 . Mothers of daughters produced milk with higher TGF-β2 . Mid-ranking mothers produced milk with higher mean EGF and adiponectin concentrations than low-ranking mothers. Milk EGF and EGF-R were positively associated with infant body mass and growth rate. Importantly, these signaling bioactives (APN, EGF, EGF-R, and TGF-β2 ) were significantly correlated with nutritional values of milk. The effects of milk signals remained after controlling for the available energy in milk revealing the added physiological role of non-nutritive milk bioactives in the developing infant. Integrating analyses of energetic and other bioactive components of milk yields an important perspective for interpreting

  1. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk. PMID:26086219

  2. Once-daily milking during late lactation in pasture-fed dairy cows has minor effects on feed intake, body condition score gain, and hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grala, T M; Handley, R R; Roche, J R; Walker, C G; Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K

    2016-04-01

    Milking cows once daily (1×) is a management practice occasionally used during mid/late lactation in pasture-based systems. It has been postulated that 1× milking will reduce dry matter intake (DMI) and increase body condition score (BCS) gain; however, this has not been quantified. Lactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=52) were allocated to either 1× or twice-daily (2×) milking in mid-January (summer, 175d in milk). To obtain accurate DMI measurements, cows underwent 4 periods in a Calan gate indoor feeding facility, interspersed with grazing outdoors. Milk production, body weight (BW), and BCS were recorded 2 wk before treatment start (-2 wk) and weekly thereafter. Blood variables were recorded at -2 wk and weekly when indoors. Liver was biopsied at -2, 2, and 10 wk, and hepatic gene expression measured using quantitative PCR. Milking cows 1× tended to lower DMI (17.8 vs. 18.2 kg of dry matter), but increased BCS gain (0.36 vs. 0.13 BCS units) and BW (546 vs. 533 kg) at wk 12 relative to 2×. The greater BCS and BW of cows milked 1× compared with 2× were reflected in lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and lower transcription of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, indicating reduced release and processing of fatty acids. Cows milked 1× produced 20% less milk, and although milk fat and protein concentrations were increased relative to cows milked 2×, yields of fat and protein were 14 and 17% less, respectively. The reduction in milk production with 1× milking (14.1 vs. 16.8 kg/cow per d energy-corrected milk) was accompanied by increases in blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, with a concurrent decrease in the transcription of the insulin receptor and gluconeogenic genes. These results indicate a coordinated response to reduce glucose production due to decreased mammary demand. Expression of 2 genes linked to inflammation and adipokine signaling was reduced in cows milked 1× and may indicate a lower

  3. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes. PMID:27600968

  4. Induction of Size-Dependent Breakdown of Blood-Milk Barrier in Lactating Mice by TiO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ling; Bai, Yuhong; Jia, Jianbo; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the potential nanotoxic effects of TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) to dams and pups during lactation period. TiO2 nanoparticles are accumulated in mammary glands of lactating mice after i.v. administration. This accumulation of TiO2 NP likely causes a ROS-induced disruption of tight junction of the blood-milk barrier as indicated by the loss of tight junction proteins and the shedding of alveolar epithelial cells. Compared to larger TNPs (50 nm), smaller ones (8 nm) exhibit a higher accumulation in mammary glands and are more potent in causing perturbations to blood-milk barrier. An alarming finding is that the smaller TNPs (8 nm) are transferred from dams to pups through breastfeeding, likely through the disrupted blood-milk barrier. However, during the lactation period, the nutrient quality of milk from dams and the early developmental landmarks of the pups are not affected by above perturbations. PMID:25849145

  5. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants in Serum and Adipokine Levels in Breast Milk among Lactating Women of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Duk Hee; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to alteration of lipid metabolism. Adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin, are hormones that play roles in lipid metabolism, and have been suggested as markers of health effects that may lead to obesity. To date, only serum adipokines have been associated with POPs exposure. In the present study, for the first time, the associations between leptin and adiponectin in breast milk, and several POPs in serum were investigated among 82 lactating Korean women between 25 and 46 years of age. Breast milk adipokines are important because adipokine intake of infant through breastfeeding may influence the growth of infants. The median concentrations of leptin and adiponectin in skimmed milk of the Korean lactating women were 17.9 ng/L and 16.5 μg/L, respectively. Leptin concentrations in breast milk were negatively associated with ∑hexachlorohexane (HCH), oxychlordane, ∑chlordane, or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB 153) levels in maternal serum. Linear relationships between adiponectin and POPs concentrations were not observed, however, nonmonotonic relationship which showed generally positive associations was suggested for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and ∑chlordane in quartile analysis. Our observations show that POPs at the current level of exposure may be associated with the alteration of lipid metabolism among lactating women. Implication of adipokine transfer to breastfed infants is of concern and deserves further investigation. PMID:26054256

  6. PCR-DGGE assessment of the bacterial diversity of breast milk in women with lactational infectious mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Susana; Arroyo, Rebeca; Martín, Rocío; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious mastitis is a common condition during lactation and in fact, represents one of the main causes leading to a precocious weaning. The number of studies dealing with lactational mastitis is low and, up to now, the etiological diagnosis is frequently made on the basis of unspecific clinical signs. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity of breast milk in 20 women with lactational mastitis employing culture-dependent and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) approaches. Methods Breast milk samples were cultured in different media to investigate the presence of bacteria and/or yeasts, and a total of 149 representative isolates were identified to the species level by 16S rRNA gene PCR sequencing. The microorganisms recovered were compared with those found by PCR-DGGE analysis. To identify the DGGE profiles two reference markers of different microbial species were constructed. Sequence analysis of unknown bands was also performed. Results Staphylococci were the dominant bacterial group and Staphylococcus epidermidis was the dominant species. In a lower number of samples, other bacteria (mainly streptococci and a few gram-negative species) were also identified. Globally, PCR-DGGE results showed a good correlation with those obtained by culture-based methods. However, although DNA bands corresponding to different lactic acid bacteria were detected, such bacteria could not be isolated from the milk samples. Conclusion Staphylococci seem to be the main etiological agents of human lactational mastitis. The combined use of culture and molecular techniques allowed a better characterization of the bacterial diversity in milk from women suffering from infectious mastitis. Our results suggest that this condition could be the result of a disbiotic process where some of the bacterial species usually present in human milk outgrow (staphylococci) while others disappear (lactobacilli or lactococci). PMID:18423017

  7. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply

    PubMed Central

    Capuco, A. V.; Rice, C. P.; Baldwin, R. L.; Bannerman, D. D.; Paape, M. J.; Hare, W. R.; Kauf, A. C. W.; McCarty, G. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Starr, J. L.; McConnell, L. L.; Van Tassell, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health. PMID:16260728

  8. Heifers infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci in early lactation have fewer cases of clinical mastitis and higher milk production in their first lactation than noninfected heifers.

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; de Kruif, A; De Vliegher, S

    2010-05-01

    Intramammary infections (IMI) in recently calved dairy heifers are more common than was formerly believed but their relevance for future performance has been studied only rarely. In the present study, the association between the IMI status of fresh heifers and their subsequent udder health, milk production, and culling in first lactation was explored. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM) and between 5 and 8 DIM from 191 dairy heifers in 20 dairy herds for bacteriological culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) analysis. Monthly milk recording data including composite milk SCC and test-day milk yield (MY) were obtained for the first 285 DIM or until culling. Farmer-recorded clinical mastitis cases were available. Data were analyzed using mixed models and survival analysis. Approximately 80% of the fresh heifers (79.8%) had at least one culture-positive quarter. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated pathogens (72%), followed by esculin-positive streptococci (4.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3.5%). Overall geometric mean SCC at quarter level decreased between the first and second samplings from 348,000 to 116,000 cells/mL. Heifers infected with CNS had an intermediate average test-day SCC (84,000 cells/mL) during the first 285 DIM compared with noninfected heifers (53,000 cells/mL) and heifers infected with major pathogens (195,000 cells/mL). Heifers infected with major pathogens had a much lower average daily MY (18.3kg) during first lactation compared with noninfected animals (21.3kg). That CNS-infected heifers out-produced their noninfected counterparts could be at least partially explained by their significantly lower incidence of clinical mastitis (incidence risk 3.6 vs. 21.0%) during first lactation compared with noninfected heifers. We conclude that although CNS cause the majority of IMI in heifers around calving, they should not be a reason for serious concern. PMID:20412915

  9. Effect of ruminally unprotected Echium oil on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Lussiana, Carola; Cornale, Paolo; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Fortina, Riccardo; Mimosi, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO). Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Camosciata goats were divided into two balanced groups and fed for 44 d a diet based on hay and concentrate, supplemented (EPO group, Echium) or not (CON group, control) with 40 ml of ruminally unprotected EPO. Individual milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were collected at 11, 22, 33, and 44 d after supplementation. Milk samples were analysed for milk components and fatty acids (FA). Data were statistically analysed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Milk yield, protein and lactose contents were significantly higher in EPO than CON group. The inclusion of EPO significantly decreased total saturated FA and total branched-chain FA, and contemporarily sharply increased trans biohydrogenation intermediates (P ⩽ 0.001). Milk concentration of α-linolenic, stearidonic and γ-linolenic acids increased by 23, 1000 and 67%, respectively (P ⩽ 0.001). Due to extensive ruminal biohydrogenation, their apparent transfer rate was less than 3%. As a consequence, the milk concentrations of very long-chain (VLC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3 n-6) acids, significantly increased with EPO treatment, but values remained very low. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was undetectable in all analysed milk samples. Results show that ruminally unprotected EPO can enhance milk yield and protein and improve the overall goat milk FA profile. However, this kind of supplementation cannot be considered a valuable strategy to develop goat functional dairy products enriched with VLC n-3 PUFA for human consumption. PMID:26869109

  10. Effect of oral calcium bolus supplementation on early-lactation health and milk yield in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, G R; Miller, B E

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with oral Ca boluses after calving on early-lactation health and milk yield. Cows in their second lactation or greater (n=927) from 2 large dairies in Wisconsin were enrolled during the summer of 2010. Both herds were fed supplemental anions during the prefresh period and less than 1% of fresh cows were treated for clinical milk fever. Cows were scored before calving for lameness and body condition, and then randomly assigned to either a control group or an oral Ca bolus-supplemented group. Control cows received no oral Ca boluses around calving. Cows in the oral Ca bolus group received 2 oral Ca boluses (Bovikalc, Boehringer Ingelheim, St. Joseph, MO), one bolus 0 to 2h after calving and the second 8 to 35 h after calving. The oral Ca bolus administration schedule allowed fresh cows to be restrained in headlocks only once daily. Whole-blood samples were collected immediately before the second oral Ca bolus was given and were analyzed for ionized Ca (Ca(2+)) concentration. Early-lactation health events were recorded and summed for each cow. Only 6 cases (0.6% of calvings) of clinical milk fever occurred during the trial, and only 14% of cows tested were hypocalcemic (Ca(2+) less than 1.0 mmol/L) at 8 to 35 h after calving. Mean Ca(2+) concentrations were not different between the control and oral Ca bolus-supplemented groups. Blood samples from the cows given oral Ca boluses were collected an average of 20.6 h after administration of the first bolus. Subpopulations of cows with significant responses to oral Ca bolus supplementation were identified based on significant interactions between oral Ca bolus supplementation and covariates in mixed multiple regression models. Lame cows supplemented with oral Ca boluses averaged 0.34 fewer health events in the first 30 d in milk compared with lame cows that were not supplemented with oral Ca boluses. Cows with a higher previous lactation mature

  11. The effect of diets on milk production and composition, and on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Hart, S P; Sahlu, T; Satter, L D

    2005-07-01

    A 2-yr study investigated effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production, composition, and lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. For both years, 44 Alpine goats (Capra hircus; 55 +/- 11 kg body weight) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. Animals were supplemented with 0.66 (treatments A and B), 0.33 (treatment C), or 0 kg of concentrate (treatment D) per kg of milk over 1.5 kg/d. Mixed vegetative forages were rotationally grazed by the goats (treatments B, C, and D), except that treatment A was confined and fed alfalfa hay. Individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once every 2 wk for the 7-mo period (March to September) and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, urea-N, nonesterified fatty acids, and allantoin (second year only). Milk yield and composition varied among dietary treatments, with some measures affected by year. Average daily milk yield was lowest for treatment D. The increased level of concentrate supplementation in treatment A led to 22% greater milk yield compared with treatment D. Milk production increased by 1.7 and 0.9 kg for each additional kilogram of concentrate fed per day during the first and second years, respectively. Average peak yield, time of peak yield, and persistency were lower for treatment D than for other treatments. The percentage of milk fat was lower for treatment D than for other treatments. Concentration of milk protein was greater for treatments A and B during the first year, and was higher for treatment C than for other treatments during the second year. Average milk lactose concentration was higher for treatments B and C than for other treatments. However, milk urea-N concentration in treatment A was higher than other treatments. Milk allantoin, used to estimate microbial proteins synthesis, was 20 to 25% greater for treatment A than for other treatments. Averaged across year, plasma urea-N and nonesterified fatty acids concentration were lowest for

  12. Caloric stress alters fat characteristics and Hsp70 expression in milk somatic cells of lactating beef cows

    PubMed Central

    Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Izhaki, Ido

    2008-01-01

    Selection for higher production rate in cattle inhabiting challenging habitats may be considered disadvantageous because of possible deleterious effects on immunity and reproduction and, consequently, on calf crop percentage. In Israel, free-grazing high productive beef cows experience reduction in nutritional quality of forage during up to 8 months of the year. As milk production by dams dictates calf performance, dam’s nutritional needs and rebreeding rates, the aim of the present study was to test how lactating beef cows deal with combined caloric and protein stress both at the productive and self protective levels. For this purpose, we studied the effect of long-term caloric stress on milk characteristics and gene expression of stress and milk components producing proteins. Lactating dams responded to caloric stress by decreased body weight, milk, and milk protein production. To compensate for total energy loses in milk, they produced milk of higher fat concentration and shifted the proportions of its fatty acids towards long and unsaturated ones. This was reflected by increased mRNA transcription of the fatty acid binding protein. Prolonged low-energy diet promoted cell-specific heat shock protein (Hsp) response; whereas significant increase of Hsp90 but unchanged levels of Hsp70 proteins were observed in white blood cells, the expression of Hsp70 in milk somatic cells was markedly attenuated, in parallel with a marked increase of αs1-casein expression. At the mammary gland level, these results may indicate a decrease in turnover of proteins and a shift to an exclusive expression of milk components producing factors. Similar responses to caloric stress were revealed also in ketotic dairy cows. Ketosis promoted a shift towards long and unsaturated fatty acids and an increased expression of αs1-casein in milk somatic cells. These findings may reflect an evolutionary-preserved mechanism in lactating cows for coping with caloric restriction. Overall, our

  13. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and

  14. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  15. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  16. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  17. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  18. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats

    PubMed Central

    AL-Suwaiegh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  19. Diet choice by goats as effect of milk production level during late lactation.

    PubMed

    Avondo, M; Pagano, R I; De Angelis, A; Pennisi, P

    2013-07-01

    The diet self-regulation ability of goats during late lactation has been studied with regard to their production level. Two groups of seven Girgentana goats producing 1100 ± 157 g/day (H group) and 613 ± 138 g/day (L group) were housed in individual pens and were given alfalfa pelleted hay (1.5 kg), whole grains of maize (0.5 kg), barley (0.5 kg), faba bean (0.5 kg) and pelleted sunflower cake (0.5 kg) on a daily basis. During a 7-day pre-experimental period, goats received a mixed ration based on the same feeds used during the experimental period (1.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of each concentrate). Individual choice of feeds was continuously recorded for 7 days using a 24-h IR video surveillance system equipped with four video cameras. The nutrient intake in both groups was much higher than needed. Goats in the H group ate more (2016.3 v. 1744.3 g dry matter (DM)/day) and selected less hay (26.9% v. 34.6% DM), more high-protein feeds (faba bean and sunflower cake: 14.0% and 15.9% v. 8.8% and 7.9% DM, respectively) and less maize (21.5% v. 25.0% DM), reaching a higher CP concentration in the diet (17.3% v. 15.0% DM) compared with the goats in the L group. During the 24-h trial period, hay was more constantly selected (on average never reaching <20% of the total hourly basis feeding time, apart from the first hour after feed administration) compared with concentrate feeds. This feeding behaviour has probably exercised a 'curative' effect that enabled the goats to continue to take in very high levels of starch and protein, without manifesting any symptom of metabolic disease. Shifting goats from the pre-experimental diet, based on a mixture of the same feeds used during the experimental period, to the free-choice feeding caused more than 20% increase in milk production in both groups. From the results of the intake, we are unable to conclude that the goats can select their diet to meet their requirements, as goats consumed much more than needed. However, when free to

  20. Technical note: Milk composition in mice--methodological aspects and effects of mouse strain and lactation day.

    PubMed

    Görs, S; Kucia, M; Langhammer, M; Junghans, P; Metges, C C

    2009-02-01

    Analysis in individual mouse milk samples is restricted by small sample volumes and hindered by high fat contents. Miniaturized methods were developed for the analysis of dry matter (DM), crude fat, crude protein (CP), and lactose in individual samples of milk and used to compare milk from the mouse strain DU6, the largest growth-selected mouse line worldwide, with unselected mice (CON) on lactation d 3, 14, and 18. Individual milk samples were collected by means of a self-constructed milking machine. Aliquots of 10 microL of milk were used to measure DM [coefficient of variation (CV) <2.1%], which was subsequently used to analyze nitrogen for calculation of CP (CV 2.7%). Crude fat was determined in 100 microL via a miniaturized Röse-Gottlieb method (CV 2.8%). An HPLC protocol was used to analyze lactose in 20 microL of diluted whey (CV 5.3%). The miniaturized methods gave similar results compared with conventional approaches. Homogenization was the most important factor affecting milk composition and its reproducibility. Milk storage at -20 degrees C had no effect on composition. Irrespective of the mouse strain, maximum values of 45.5% DM, 29.8% fat, and 12.7% CP were observed at d 14. The greatest lactose contents were found on d 18 (2.41%). Milk lactose concentration at d 3 was lower in DU6 (1.13 +/- 0.10%) than CON (1.67 +/- 0.18%). The method provides an accurate assessment of mouse milk composition. PMID:19164675

  1. Matriptase Complexes and Prostasin Complexes with HAI-1 and HAI-2 in Human Milk: Significant Proteolysis in Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Hsin; Lai, Ying-Jung J.; Chou, Feng-Pai; Chang, Hsiang-Hua D.; Tseng, Chun-Che; Johnson, Michael D.; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Significant proteolysis may occur during milk synthesis and secretion, as evidenced by the presence of protease-protease inhibitor complex containing the activated form of the type 2 transmembrane serine protease matriptase and the transmembrane Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor HAI-1. In order to identify other proteolysis events that may occur during lactation, human milk was analyzed for species containing HAI-1 and HAI-2 which is closely related to HAI-1. In addition to the previously demonstrated matriptase-HAI-1 complex, HAI-1 was also detected in complex with prostasin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease. HAI-2 was also detected in complexes, the majority of which appear to be part of higher-order complexes, which do not bind to ionic exchange columns or immunoaffinity columns, suggesting that HAI-2 and its target proteases may be incorporated into special protein structures during lactation. The small proportion HAI-2 species that could be purified contain matriptase or prostasin. Human mammary epithelial cells are the likely cellular sources for these HAI-1 and HAI-2 complexes with matriptase and prostasin given that these protease-inhibitor complexes with the exception of prostasin-HAI-2 complex were detected in milk-derived mammary epithelial cells. The presence of these protease-inhibitor complexes in human milk provides in vivo evidence that the proteolytic activity of matriptase and prostasin are significantly elevated at least during lactation, and possibly contribute to the process of lactation, and that they are under tight control by HAI-1 and HAI-2. PMID:27043831

  2. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Oh, J. J.; Lim, J. N.; Hong, J. E.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, H. S.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%), middle (0.37±0.010%), and late stages (0.44±0.020%) showed significant differences (p<0.05); and the individual contents of the major fatty acids, especially cis-9, trans-11 CLA in cows of the same lactation were also variable. In the second experiment design as a validation test, our results once again showed that the individual contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA were various, and a difference of about 2-fold (0.55% vs 0.95%) was observed, although the animals were offered same diet. These data demonstrated that lactation stage and individual performance have considerable effects on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents. PMID:25049775

  3. Effects of postpartum dietary fat and body condition score at parturition on plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted with lactating Angus X Gelbvieh beef cows to determine the effects of postpartum lipid supplementation, BCS at parturition, and day of lactation on fatty acid profiles in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk. In Exp. 1, 36 primiparous cows (488 +/- 10 kg of initial BW; 5.5...

  4. Evaluation of different lactation curve models fitted for milk viscosity recorded by an automated on-line California Mastitis Test.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Anne-Christin; Stamer, Eckhard; Junge, Wolfgang; Thaller, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory somatic cell count (LSCC) records are usually recorded monthly and provide an important information source for breeding and herd management. Daily milk viscosity detection in composite milking (expressed as drain time) with an automated on-line California Mastitis Test (CMT) could serve immediately as an early predictor of udder diseases and might be used as a selection criterion to improve udder health. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the well-established LSCS and the new trait,'drain time', and to estimate their correlations to important production traits. Data were recorded on the dairy research farm Karkendamm in Germany. Viscosity sensors were installed on every fourth milking stall in the rotary parlour to measure daily drain time records. Weekly LSCC and milk composition data were available. Two data sets were created containing records of 187,692 milkings from 320 cows (D1) and 25,887 drain time records from 311 cows (D2). Different fixed effect models, describing the log-transformed drain time (logDT), were fitted to achieve applicable models for further analysis. Lactation curves were modelled with standard parametric functions (Ali and Schaeffer, Legendre polynomials of second and third degree) of days in milk (DIM). Random regression models were further applied to estimate the correlations between cow effects between logDT and LSCS with further important production traits. LogDT and LSCS were strongest correlated in mid-lactation (r = 0.78). Correlations between logDT and production traits were low to medium. Highest correlations were reached in late lactation between logDT and milk yield (r = -0.31), between logDT and protein content (r = 0.30) and in early as well as in late lactation between logDT and lactose content (r = -0.28). The results of the present study show that the drain time could be used as a new trait for daily mastitis control. PMID:25731191

  5. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on performance of lactating dairy cows and stability of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Netto, A S; Oliveira, C A F; Santos, M V

    2015-04-01

    Casein micelle stability is negatively correlated with milk concentrations of ionic calcium, which may change according to the metabolic and nutritional status of dairy cows. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on concentrations of casein subunits, whey proteins, ionic calcium, and milk heat and ethanol stability. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in 4 contemporary 4 × 4 Latin square designs, which consisted of 4 periods of 21 d and 4 treatments according to DCAD: 290, 192, 98, and -71 mEq/kg of dry matter (DM). The milk concentrations of ionic calcium and κ-casein were reduced as DCAD increased, whereas the milk urea nitrogen and β-lactoglobulin concentrations were increased. As a result of these alterations, the milk ethanol stability and milk stability during heating at 140 °C were increased linearly with increasing DCAD [Y = 74.87 (standard error = 0.87) + 0.01174 (standard error = 0.0025) × DCAD (mEq/kg of DM) and Y = 3.95 (standard error = 1.02) + 0.01234 (standard error = 0.0032) × DCAD (mEq/kg of DM), respectively]. In addition, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and fat, lactose, and total milk solids contents were linearly increased by 13.52, 8.78, 2.5, and 2.6%, respectively, according to DCAD increases from -71 to 290 mEq/kg of DM, whereas crude protein and casein content were linearly reduced by 4.83 and 4.49%, respectively. In conclusion, control of metabolic changes in lactating dairy cows to maintain blood acid-base equilibrium plays an important role in keeping milk stable to ethanol and during heat treatments. PMID:25622868

  6. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC–MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016) [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD003465. PMID:26977438

  7. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-06-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC-MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016) [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD003465. PMID:26977438

  8. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  9. Albendazole and its metabolites in the breast milk of lactating women following a single oral dose of albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-tawab, Ahmed M; Bradley, Mark; Ghazaly, Essam A; Horton, John; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Albendazole (ABZ) is used in several anthelminthic drug programmws. ABZ side-effects are generally mild, but ABZ-induced pancytopenia may be serious. In filariasis programmes, it may be necessary to administer ABZ to breastfeeding women. Few data are available on safety of ABZ for breastfed infants. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of ABZ and its metabolites in human milk is insufficiently investigated. The aim was to study pharmacokinetics of ABZ and its metabolites [ABZ sulphoxide (ABSX) and ABZ sulphone] in the breast milk lactating women after one single oral dose of ABZ. METHODS Thirty-three lactating women (age 18–40 years) participated in the study. They received a single oral 400-mg dose of ABZ. Five milk samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. One serum sample was taken after 6 h. Samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. RESULTS ABZ was detectable in milk samples 6 h after the oral dose. The mean concentration of serum ABZ was 63.7 ± 11.9 ng ml−1. The pharmacokinetic parameters for ABSX were calculated as follows: 351.9 ± 32.4 ng ml−1, 6.9 ± 0.5 h, 12.4 ± 2.2 h and 5190.3 ± 482.8 ng*h ml−1 for Cmax, Tmax, t½ and AUC0–36, respectively. The milk-to-serum ratios (range) for ABZ and ABSX were 0.9 (0.2–6.5) and 0.6 (0.1–1.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS After an oral dose of 400 mg, ABZ and ABSX attain low concentrations in breast milk that are unlikely to be considered harmful for the breastfed infant. PMID:19916998

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Sulfate during Late Gestation and Lactation Affects the Milk Composition and Immunoglobulin Levels in Sows

    PubMed Central

    Hou, W. X.; Cheng, S. Y.; Liu, S. T.; Shi, B. M.; Shan, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) during late gestation and lactation on sow and litter performance, fecal moisture, blood biochemistry parameters, immunoglobulin levels and milk composition in sows. Forty-eight sows (Yorkshire×Landrace, 4th to 5th parity) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments supplemented with 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg MgSO4 (n = 12). The experiment started on day 90 of gestation and continued through day 21 of lactation. Blood samples were collected on day 107 of gestation, day 0 (farrowing) and 21 (weaning) of lactation for the analyses of the blood biochemistry parameters and immunoglobulin levels. The colostrum and milk samples were obtained on day 0 and 14 of lactation, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from the sows on day 107 of gestation as well as day 7 and 20 of lactation to determine fecal moisture content. The results showed that the survival percentage of piglets and the litter weight at weaning were decreased linearly (p<0.05) and other parameters of the sow or litter performance were not influenced (p>0.05) by MgSO4 supplementation. The fecal moisture content of the sows were increased (p<0.05) linearly as dietary MgSO4 increased on day 7 and 20 of lactation. Supplementation with MgSO4 increased the plasma magnesium (Mg) level linearly (p<0.05) and had a trend to increase total protein level (p>0.05 and p<0.10). However, an increase in the dietary MgSO4 level resulted in a linear decrease in the colostrum fat content (p<0.05). Dietary MgSO4 supplementation enhanced the immunoglobulin G (IgG) level (linear, p<0.05) in plasma on day of farrowing and immunoglobulin A (IgA) level in colostrum (quadratic, p<0.05) and milk (linear, p<0.05) of the sows. These results indicated that supplementation with MgSO4 during late gestation and lactation may have the potential to prevent sow constipation, but may also result in some negative

  11. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination (Radj(2)), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes. PMID:26354679

  12. Transfer of methyl chloroform, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to milk, tissues and expired air following intraruminal or oral administration in lactating goats and milk-fed kids.

    PubMed

    Hamada, T; Tanaka, H

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of methyl chloroform was determined (MCF), trichloroethylene (TRI) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in milk, tissues and expired air by intraruminally administering 0.625 ml kg(-0.75) of an equal-volume mixture of the three compounds to lactating goats. The milk secreted during 24 h after the intraruminal administration contained 1.42 mg of MCF, 1.87 mg of TRI, 6.43 mg of PCE and 0.33 mg of trichloroethanol (TCE). MCF, TRI and PCE appeared in the blood less than 30 min after administration. Oral administration of these chemicals to milk-fed kids showed that at 3.5 h post-administration, the liver contained these chemicals in greatest abundance. The adaptation of milk-fed kids to 3 weeks administration of small amounts of propylene glycol stimulated the metabolic conversion of TRI to TCE. There were linear relationships between the blood concentrations of these chemicals and the expiration rates after oral administration of 0.4 ml kg(-1) of each chemical to milk-fed kids. The expiration rates of MCF, TRI and PCE were 605, 122 and 46 microg min(-1) kg(-1) at 2 microg ml(-1) blood concentrations of MCF, TRI and PCE, respectively. These results suggested that MCF is little metabolized, being most readily exhaled in expired air, while PCE demonstrates the greatest tissue-partitioning, being largely secreted into the milk or retained in the liver. TRI can be extensively metabolized to other compounds such as TCE in milk-fed kids. PMID:15091581

  13. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  14. The influence of impact delivery mode, lactation time, infant gender, maternal age and rural or urban life on total number of Lactobacillus in breast milk Isfahan - Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Mansoureh; Mirlohi, Maryam; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Madani, Golnoush; Khoshhali, Mehri; Bahreini, Nimah; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is known as the most crucial postpartum issue in metabolic and immunologic programming of neonatal health. Human milk microbial changes over Lactation. The factors influencing the milk microbiome as well as potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been discovered. The objective was to identify pre- and post-natal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. Materials and Methods: Breast milk samples (n = 40) with all full-term breastfed infants were collected from lactating randomized. Information on personal characteristics, dietary habits, information about infants were collected after birth. The samples were plated with serial dilutions on three selective culture media man rogosa sharp and then colonies were counted. Colonies tested for catalase reaction, Gram-staining and microscopic examination. Results: The result of this study showed that the overall incidence of positive Lactobacillus in mother's milk was 87.5%. The results based on (infant gender, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time) rural or urban and lactation time were significant (P < 0.05). The results showed that all of the variables were significant in this regression model (P < 0.001). The median of log10 Lactobacillus counts in rural mothers, vaginal delivery, infant male gender and Lactation time for first 3-month were meaningfully high. Conclusions: The findings of this study about the breast milk Lactobacillus potential probiotic bacteria of healthy Iranian mothers, suggested that the breast milk microbiome is significantly influenced by several factors, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time. PMID:26322289

  15. Pharmacokinetics and milk penetration of difloxacin after a long-acting formulation for subcutaneous administration to lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Marín, P; Escudero, E; Fernández-Varón, E; Ramírez, M J; Cárceles, C M

    2010-07-01

    The single-dose disposition kinetics of difloxacin were determined in clinically normal lactating goats (n=6) after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administration and subcutaneous administration of a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation (P407). Difloxacin concentrations were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of difloxacin against 14 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic goats' milk in Spain were determined to compute pharmacodynamic surrogate markers. The concentration-time data were analyzed by compartmental and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic methods. Following SC and P407 administration, difloxacin achieved maximum milk concentrations of 1.34+/-0.12 and 2.97+/-1.18 mg/L, respectively, at 4.00+/-0.00 h (SC) and 3.60+/-0.89 h (P407) after administration. The absolute bioavailabilities after SC and P407 administration were 81.74+/-15.60% and 72.58+/-20.45%, respectively. Difloxacin penetration from the blood into the milk was good and high concentrations were found in milk secretions. From these data, a 15 mg/kg dose of difloxacin P407 would appear to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic goats' milk with minimum inhibitory concentrations

  16. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher on day 15 than between 50 and 150 days of lactation in case of Sahiwal cows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (P<0.05), respectively. Murrah buffaloes showed low levels of IGFBP-5 protein in milk as compared with

  17. Relation of Lake Ontario fish consumption, lifetime lactation, and parity to breast milk polychlorobiphenyl and pesticide concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyniak, P.J.; Stinson, C.; Hreizerstein, H.B.; Vena, J.; Buck, G.; Mendola, P.

    1999-02-01

    Lactating female members and spouses of male members of the New York State Angler Cohort who agreed to provide breast milk samples were the subjects of this study. Milk samples were analyzed for 77 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1a,2,2,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-dodecachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-methano-1H-cyclobuta[cd]pentalene (Mirex). The percentage of samples with quantifiable levels, above the limit of detection (LOD), varied among the individual congeners from 10 to 100%. Nine PCB congeners and DDE were found in all of the 100 samples analyzed. Fish eaters had a significantly higher level of several major PCB congeners with congeners 153 and 138 being 1.36 and 1.34 times higher, respectively. PCB and DDE concentrations, expressed on a lipid basis, varied inversely with parity. The total number of months of lifetime lactation varied inversely with the total PCB concentration in breast milk.

  18. Genetic parameters for lactation traits of milking ewes: protein content and composition, fat, somatic cells and individual laboratory cheese yield

    PubMed Central

    Othmane, Med Houcine; Carriedo, Juan Antonio; San Primitivo, Fermin; De la Fuente, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    The effects of some environmental variation factors and the genetic parameters for total milk traits (fat content, protein content, casein content, serum protein content, lactation mean of individual laboratory cheese yield (LILCY), lactation mean of somatic cell count (LSCC), and milk yield) were estimated from the records of 1 111 Churra ewes. Genetic parameters were estimated by multivariate REML. Heritability for fat content was low (0.10) as is usually found in the Churra breed. Heritabilities for protein content, casein content, serum protein content, LILCY, milk yield and somatic cell count were 0.31, 0.30, 0.22, 0.09, 0.26 and 0.11, respectively. The highest heritability estimates were for protein and casein contents. Casein content is not advisable as an alternative to protein content as a selection criterion for cheese yield improvement; it does not have any compelling advantages and its measurement is costly. Our results for LSCC indicated that efforts should focus on improving the level of management rather than selecting for somatic cells, in the actual conditions of the Churra breed. PMID:12427387

  19. Fatty acid profiles of milk and Minas frescal cheese from lactating grazed cows supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Weiler Giacomazza; Viegas, Julio; Barbosa, Analívia Martins; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Dias, Carina Anunciação; Costa, Emellinne Souza; Nornberg, José Laerte; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Silveira, Alisson Minozzo

    2016-02-01

    Milk and Minas frescal cheese were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Gir cows that were fed diets enriched with 0, 33, 66 and 100% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in a concentrated supplement in replace of soybean meal. Eight crossbred lactating cows were distributed (four animals × four treatments × four periods) in the experimental design of double 4 × 4 Latin squares. The capric (C : 10, P = 0.0270), undecylic (C : 11, P = 0.0134), and lauric (C : 12, P = 0.0342) saturated fatty acid concentrations and CLA (C18 : 2c9t11, P = 0.0164) of the milk fat decreased linearly with an increasing percentage of peanut cake in the diet. The increased peanut cake content (100%) in the diet was associated with a linear decrease in C : 10 (P = 0.0447), C : 12 (P = 0.0002), mirystic (C : 14, P 0.05) ratios were not influenced by the different peanut cake levels. The inclusion of up to 100% peanut cake as a substitution for soybean meal in the concentrate of grazing lactating cows resulted in changes in the nutritional quality of their milk products, as indicated by the increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the decrease of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic). PMID:26610695

  20. Reducing milking frequency during nutrient restriction has no effect on the hepatic transcriptome of lactating dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kay, J. K.; Phyn, C. V. C.; Bionaz, M.; Walker, C. G.; Rius, A. G.; Snell, R. G.; Roche, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if a reduced milking frequency altered the effect of dietary energy restriction on the hepatic transcriptome of grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n = 120) were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 days in milk (mean ± SD). Cows were then allocated to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of two milking frequencies [2× or once daily (1×)] and two feeding levels for 3 wk: adequately fed (AF) or underfed (UF, 60% of AF). Liver tissue was biopsied from 12 cows per treatment after 3 wk of treatment, and the hepatic transcriptome was profiled with an Agilent 4 × 44k bovine microarray. Over 2,900 genes were differentially expressed in response to the energy restriction; however, no effects resulted from changes to milking frequency. This may indicate that after 3 wk of 1× milking, any changes to the liver transcriptome that may have occurred earlier have returned to normal. After 3 wk of energy restriction, gene expression patterns indicate that glucose-sparing pathways were activated, and gluconeogenesis was increased in UF cows. Genes involved in hepatic stress were upregulated in response to the energy restriction indicative of the pressure energy restriction places on liver function. Other pathways upregulated included “cytoskeletal remodeling,” indicating that a 3 wk energy restriction resulted in molecular changes to assist tissue remodeling. Overall, 1× milking does not modify the hepatic transcriptome changes that occur in response to an energy restriction. PMID:24104205

  1. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Manvendra; Prakash, Ved; Ambhore, G S; Sahoo, S K; Dash, Soumya

    2016-06-01

    A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields. PMID:26954137

  2. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Manvendra; Prakash, Ved; Ambhore, G. S.; Sahoo, S. K.; Dash, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields. PMID:26954137

  3. Perinatal protein restriction affects milk free amino acid and fatty acid profile in lactating rats: potential role on pup growth and metabolic status.

    PubMed

    Martin Agnoux, Aurore; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Boquien, Clair-Yves; David, Agnes; Desnots, Emmanuelle; Ferchaud-Roucher, Veronique; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile

    2015-07-01

    Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. Although maternal milk is the only channel through which nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring during the postnatal period, the impact of maternal undernutrition on milk composition is poorly understood. The present study investigates, in a rat model of nutritional programming, the effects of feeding an isocaloric, low-protein diet throughout gestation and lactation on milk composition and its possible consequences on offspring's growth and metabolic status. We used an integrated methodological approach that combined targeted analyses of macronutrients, free amino acid and fatty acid content throughout lactation, with an untargeted mass-spectrometric-based metabolomic phenotyping. Whereas perinatal dietary protein restriction failed to alter milk protein content, it dramatically decreased the concentration of most free amino acids at the end of lactation. Interestingly, a decrease of several amino acids involved in insulin secretion or gluconeogenesis was observed, suggesting that maternal protein restriction during the perinatal period may impact the insulinotrophic effect of milk, which may, in turn, account for the slower growth of the suckled male offspring. Besides, the decrease in sulfur amino acids may alter redox status in the offspring. Maternal undernutrition was also associated with an increase in milk total fatty acid content, with modifications in their pattern. Altogether, our results show that milk composition is clearly influenced by maternal diet and suggest that alterations in milk composition may play a role in offspring growth and metabolic programming. PMID:25935308

  4. Protein level for alfalfa and corn silage-based diets: I. Lactational response and milk urea nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Wattiaux, M A; Karg, K L

    2004-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate lactational responses of cows fed corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) as primary forage source when the diet was balanced for recommended (RP) or excessive (HP) amounts of rumen degradable protein (RDP) and undegradable protein (RUP) according to the recommendations of the National Research Council (NRC). A second objective was to evaluate different sources of variations in milk urea N (MUN). The total mixed rations included 55% forage on a dry matter (DM) basis as either 14% CS and 41% AS or 14% AS and 41% CS. Diets were offered to 48 multiparous Holstein cows (body weight = 652 kg) that were assigned randomly to treatments arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial in 12 complete blocks based on calving date. Data collected during wk 4 to 12 of lactation were adjusted to those obtained from a pretreatment diet fed during wk 1 to 3. Crude protein (CP) averaged 16.5, 18.0, 16.2, and 17.1% of DM in the AS-RP; AS-HP; CS-RP; and CS-HP diets, respectively. Overall DM intake (DMI) was 1.5 kg/d lower than predicted by NRC (24.6 vs. 26.1 kg/d), but 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) was higher than expected (46.1 vs. 45.0 kg/d). The responses to a reduction in dietary protein were independent of primary forage source, except for milk true protein (TP) percentage. Primary forage source did not influence DMI, 3.5% FCM, TP yield, or MUN. However, compared with the AS-based diets, cows fed CS-based diets produced more milk (49.0 vs. 46.4 kg/d), less fat (3.07% vs. 3.54% and 1500 vs. 1651 g/d), and tended to gain more body weight. There were no benefits to feeding diets above NRC protein recommendations, regardless of forage source. Reducing CP from 17.5 to 16.4% of diet DM did not alter milk yield (47.7 kg/d) or milk TP yield (1293 g/d), but lowered N intake by 65 g/d (700 vs. 635 g/d) and lowered MUN by 1 unit (12.7 vs. 11.7 mg/dL). A positive correlation between MUN and production efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI) on wk 3 of lactation suggested that body

  5. Lactation Biology Symposium: maternal nutrition during early and mid-to-late pregnancy: Comparative effects on milk production of twin-born ewe progeny during their first lactation.

    PubMed

    Paten, A M; Kenyon, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Peterson, S W; Jenkinson, C M C; Pain, S J; Blair, H T

    2013-02-01

    Studies using sheep models indicate that the fetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal nutrition during gestation; however, results have been inconsistent and do not identify critical feeding periods. This study aimed to clarify previous findings by partitioning the period of maternal nutritional manipulation into 2 stages: early and mid-to-late pregnancy. Sixty-six twin-born, twin-bearing ewes, born to dams that were fed either submaintenance, maintenance, or ad libitum during early pregnancy (d 21 to 50 of pregnancy; SmP21-50, MP21-50, or AdP21-50, respectively) and then either maintenance or ad libitum during mid-to-late pregnancy (d 50 to 140 of pregnancy; MP50-140 or AdP50-140, respectively) were milked once a week, starting from d 7 ± 1 postpartum, for 7 subsequent weeks to enable estimation of daily milk yield and composition. Their lambs were weighed weekly. Ewes born to dams fed MP21-50 tended to have greater accumulated milk (P = 0.10), fat (P = 0.07), and NE (P = 0.06) yields over 50 d compared with ewes born to dams fed SmP21-50 and AdP21-50. In contrast, ewes born to dams fed AdP50-140 tended to have greater accumulated milk (P = 0.10) and lactose (P = 0.09) yields compared with ewes born to dams fed MP50-140. Grandoffspring birth weights were unaffected by granddam nutrition during pregnancy. Ewes born to dams fed AdP21-50 weaned lighter lambs (P = 0.05) than ewes born to dams fed AmP21-50 and tended to wean lighter lambs (P = 0.07) than ewes born to dams fed MP21-50 whereas there were no differences between the weaning weights of lambs (P = 0.43) from ewes born to dams fed AdP50-140 and MP50-140. Maintenance nutrition of dams during early pregnancy appears to be associated with an improved lactation performance of ewe offspring. Higher levels of nutrition during mid-to-late pregnancy also appears to improve the first-lactation performance of ewe offspring. Interestingly, although grandoffspring birth weights were unaffected, weaning weight

  6. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    PubMed Central

    Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, but studies have been handicapped by not simultaneously evaluating milk energy density and yield. This is problematic as milk glucocorticoids and nutrients likely have simultaneous effects on offspring phenotype. We investigated mother’s milk and infant temperament and growth in a cohort of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mother–infant dyads at the California National Primate Research Center (N = 108). Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk, independent of available milk energy, predicted a more Nervous, less Confident temperament in both sons and daughters. We additionally found sex differences in the windows of sensitivity and the magnitude of sensitivity to maternal-origin glucocorticoids. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Lastly, higher cortisol concentrations in milk were associated with greater infant weight gain across time. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be “programming” through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. Glucocorticoids ingested through milk may importantly contribute to the assimilation of available milk energy, development of temperament, and orchestrate, in part, the allocation of maternal milk energy between growth and behavioral phenotype. PMID:25713475

  7. Fat content and fatty acids profile of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses ( Equus caballus gmelini Ant.) during six months of lactation.

    PubMed

    Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Kuczyńska, Beata; Lojek, Jacek

    2008-08-01

    The effect of the stage of lactation, the number of foals and age of the mare on changes in the fat content and fatty acid composition of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses was investigated. Colostrum and milk samples from 12 lactating mares were collected at the beginning of lactation, on the days 1 and 2 after foaling and then, starting from the first month of lactation, at 4-week intervals up to the sixth month of lactation. Significant differences were observed in fat content as well as the composition of some analysed fatty acids between colostrum and milk of mares of the Konik breed. The number of foalings and the age of mares did not have a statistically significant effect on the fat content in milk and had only a slight effect on the fatty acid composition. Milk produced by mares of the Konik breed is characterized by a considerable content of polyene fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms, a low ratio of n-6 fatty acids to n-3 fatty acids as well as low, highly advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. PMID:18680614

  8. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  9. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  10. ZnT4 (SLC30A4)-null ("lethal milk") mice have defects in mammary gland secretion and hallmarks of precocious involution during lactation.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Nicholas H; Lee, Sooyeon; Hennigar, Stephen R; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2016-01-01

    During lactation, highly specialized secretory mammary epithelial cells (MECs) produce and secrete huge quantities of nutrients and nonnutritive factors into breast milk. The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT4 (SLC30A4) transports Zn into the trans-Golgi apparatus for lactose synthesis, and across the apical cell membrane for efflux from MECs into milk. This is consistent with observations in "lethal milk" (lm/lm) mice, which have a truncation mutation in SLC30A4, and present with not only low milk Zn concentration, but also smaller mammary glands, decreased milk volume, and lactation failure by lactation day 2. However, the molecular underpinnings of these defects are not understood. Here, we used lactating C57BL/6J(lm/lm) (ZnT4-null) mice to explore the consequences of a ZnT4-null phenotype on mammary gland function during early lactation. Lactating C57BL/6J(lm/lm) mice had significantly fewer, smaller, and collapsed alveoli comprising swollen, lipid-filled MECs during early lactation. These defects were associated with decreased Akt expression and STAT5 activation, indicative of defects in MEC secretion. In addition, increased expression of ZnT2, TNF-α, and cleaved e-cadherin concomitant with increased activation of STAT3 implicated the loss of ZnT4 in precocious activation of involution. Collectively, our study indicates that the loss of ZnT4 has profound consequences on MEC secretion and may promote tissue remodeling in the mammary gland during early lactation. PMID:26538236

  11. Clinical disease and stage of lactation influence shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stabel, J R; Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows was affected by severity of infection as well as the number of days in milk (DIM). Milk was collected over the 305-d lactation period from naturally infected cows in the asymptomatic subclinical (n=39) and symptomatic clinical (n=29) stages of disease, as well as 8 noninfected control cows. All milk samples were assayed for MAP by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium and either BACTEC 12B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) or para-JEM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) liquid medium, and by direct PCR for the IS900 target gene. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected in 3.8, 4.1, and 12.6% of milk samples collected from cows with subclinical JD after culture in Herrold's egg yolk medium, liquid medium, and direct PCR, respectively. The frequency of MAP positivity increased to 12.9, 18.4, and 49.2% of milk samples collected from cows with clinical JD by these same methods, respectively. None of the milk samples collected from control cows was positive for MAP by any detection method. Viable MAP was primarily isolated from milk and colostrum of subclinically and clinically infected cows collected in early lactation (DIM 0-60), with negligible positive samples observed in mid (DIM 60-240) and late (DIM 240-305) lactation. This study demonstrates that shedding of MAP into milk is affected by infection status of the cow as well as stage of lactation, providing useful information to producers to help break the cycle of infection within a herd. PMID:25064655

  12. Within-day variation and effect of acute stress on plasma and milk cortisol in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Romero, G; Restrepo, I; Muelas, R; Bueso-Ródenas, J; Roca, A; Díaz, J R

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of acute stress on cortisol concentration in goat milk (milk cortisol; MC) and its suitability for stress assessment. Additional variables studied were plasma cortisol (PC), blood glucose (BG), and somatic cell count (SCC). Ten goats free of mastitis at 2 mo of lactation were divided into 2 groups. One group of animals was exposed to acute stress (visual and auditory, but not physical, contact with a barking dog for 3 min) immediately before the 1000 h sampling (STR), and the other group was considered as the control group, not exposed to acute stress (CON). The animals were gradually accustomed to the sampling schedule for 1 wk before the stress treatment (pre-experimental period). The variables PC, MC, BG, SCC, and milk composition (fat, lactose, whey protein, true protein, and casein) were recorded at 0600, 1000, 1130, 1400, 1800, 2200, and 0200 h. Milk variables were recorded in both glands separately. The right gland (n=10) was completely milked and the left gland (n=10) was milked to 30 mL at every sampling except at 1000 h, when complete milking was carried out on both glands. Variables were analyzed by using a linear mixed model. Both PC and MC concentrations varied throughout the day, with values being highest in the morning. Higher PC levels were recorded in the STR group immediately after treatment compared with CON (36.9 vs 16.3 ng/mL). For MC, differences between treatments were noted 1.5h after STR treatment (1.27 vs 0.25 ng/mL). Blood glucose increased immediately after treatment in STR animals, being different from CON until 1.5h after treatment sampling (101 vs. 58 mg/dL). The SCC was not increased by STR treatment, showing higher values in the morning and afternoon compared with evening and night (5.6±0.13 to 5.87±0.13 log10 SCC). The STR treatment had no significant effect on milk composition, and overall milk yield of a complete day after stress stimulus of both groups was similar (STR: 2,067

  13. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  14. Improved milk production efficiency in early lactation dairy cattle with dietary addition of a developmental fibrolytic enzyme additive.

    PubMed

    Holtshausen, L; Chung, Y-H; Gerardo-Cuervo, H; Oba, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2011-02-01

    A 3-part study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a developmental fibrolytic enzyme additive on the digestibility of selected forages and the production performance of early-lactation dairy cows. In part 1, 4 replicate 24-h batch culture in vitro incubations were conducted with alfalfa hay, alfalfa silage, and barley silage as substrates and ruminal fluid as the inoculum. A developmental fibrolytic enzyme additive (AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) was added at 5 doses: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μL/g of forage dry matter (DM). After the 24-h incubation, DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) disappearance were determined. For alfalfa hay, DM, NDF, and ADF disappearance was greater at the highest dosage compared with no enzyme addition. Barley silage NDF and ADF and alfalfa silage NDF disappearance tended to be greater for the highest enzyme dosage compared with no enzyme addition. In part 2, 6 ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein dairy cows were used to determine in situ degradation of alfalfa and barley silage, with (1.0 mL/kg of silage DM) and without added enzyme. Three cows received a control diet (no enzyme added) and the other 3 received an enzyme-supplemented (1.0 mL/kg of diet DM) diet. Enzyme addition after the 24h in situ incubation did not affect the disappearance of barley silage or alfalfa silage. In part 3, 60 early-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed 1 of 3 diets for a 10-wk period: (1) control (CTL; no enzyme), (2) low enzyme (CTL treated with 0.5 mL of enzyme/kg of diet DM), and (3) high enzyme (CTL treated with 1.0 mL of enzyme/kg of diet DM). Adding enzyme to the diet had no effect on milk yield, but dry matter intake was lower for the high enzyme treatment and tended to be lower for the low enzyme treatment compared with CTL. Consequently, milk production efficiency (kg of 3.5% fat-corrected milk/kg of DM intake) linearly increased with increasing enzyme addition. Cows fed the low and high enzyme diets were 5

  15. Use of early lactation milk recording data to predict the calving to conception interval in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Cook, J G; Green, M J

    2016-06-01

    Economic success in dairy herds is heavily reliant on obtaining pregnancies at an early stage of lactation. Our objective in this study was to attempt to predict the likelihood of conception occurring by d 100 and 150 of lactation (days in milk, DIM) by Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis using test day milk recording data and reproductive records gathered retrospectively from 8,750 cows from 33 dairy herds located in the United Kingdom. Overall, 65% of cows recalved with 30, 46, and 65% of cows conceiving by 100 DIM, 150 DIM, and beyond 150 DIM, respectively. Overall conception rate (total cows pregnant/total number of inseminations) was 27.47%. Median and mean calving to conception intervals were 123 and 105 d, respectively. The probability of conception by both 100 DIM and 150 DIM was positively associated with the average daily milk weight produced during the fourth week of lactation (W4MK) and protein percentage for test day samples collected between 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM. Butterfat percentage at 0 to 30 DIM was negatively associated with the probability of conception by 100 DIM but not at 150 DIM. High somatic cell count (SCC) at both 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM was negatively associated with the probability of conception by 100 DIM, whereas high SCC at 31 to 60 DIM was associated with a reduced probability of conception by 150 DIM. Increasing parity was associated with a reduced odds of pregnancy. Posterior predictions of the likelihood of conception for cows categorized as having "good" (W4MK >30kg and protein percentage at 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM >3.2%) or "poor" (W4MK <25kg and protein percentage at 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM <3.0%) early lactation attributes with actual observed values indicated model fit was good. The predicted likelihood of a "good" cow conceiving by 100 and 150 DIM was 0.39 and 0.57, respectively (actual observed values 0.40 and 0.59). The corresponding values for a "poor" cow were 0.28 and 0.42 (actual observed values 0.26 and 0

  16. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  17. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  18. [Zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of maternal milk during the first 3 weeks of lactation].

    PubMed

    Itriago, A; Carrión, N; Fernández, A; Puig, M; Dini, E

    1997-03-01

    Zinc, Copper, Iron. Calcium Phosphorous and Magnesium contents were determined in early milk samples in 72 mothers from Caracas city. The samples were collected during three different lactation stages: calostro (3 days), transitional (7 days) and mature milk (21 days). The more significant changes in the concentration of the studied elements were observed during the first two weeks, them they stabilize during the third week. The Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and Mg average concentration found in calostro samples were 7.1 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml; 0.52 +/- 0.15 microgram/ml; 0.49 +/- 0.14 microgram/ml; 214 +/- 62 micrograms/ml, 107 +/- 27 micrograms/ml and 33.3 +/- 7.5 micrograms/ml. respectively. For the transitional milk samples the average concentration found for the studied elements were: 4.0 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml; 0.50 +/- 0.10 microgram/ml; 0.38 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml, 292 +/- 62 micrograms/ml; 213 +/- 36 micrograms/ml and 30.4 +/- 5.2 micrograms/ml. For the mature milk samples the results were: 2.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/ml; 0.47 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml; 0.36 +/- 0.09 microgram/ml; 244 +/- 49 micrograms/ml; 175 +/-35 micrograms/ml and 25.2 +/- 3.3 micrograms/ml. The concentration range for all trace elements studied (Cu, Fe and Zn) can be considered normal. For the major elements (Ca, P and Mg) the results obtained in our work are similar to those reported for other countries. These facts allows to conclude that the nutritional state of this mother population is adequate to satisfy the lactate's requirements during their first live stage. PMID:9429635

  19. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Geha, Makram J.; Keown, Jeffrey F.; Van Vleck, L. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield) of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e), quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e) cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 +e) and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc). The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as “traditional”, AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used. PMID:21931517

  20. Strontium biokinetic model for the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk: application to Techa River studies.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Fell, T P; Smith, T J; Harrison, J D; Degteva, M O

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a biokinetic model for strontium metabolism in the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk for members of Techa River communities exposed as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. This model was based on that developed for the International Commission for Radiological Protection with modifications to account for population specific features of breastfeeding and maternal bone mineral metabolism. The model is based on a biokinetic model for the adult female with allowances made for changes in mineral metabolism during periods of exclusive and partial breast-feeding. The model for females of all ages was developed earlier from extensive data on (90)Sr-body measurements for Techa Riverside residents. Measurements of (90)Sr concentrations in the maternal skeleton and breast milk obtained in the1960s during monitoring of global fallout in the Southern Urals region were used for evaluation of strontium transfer to breast and breast milk. The model was validated with independent data from studies of global fallout in Canada and measurements of (90)Sr body-burden in women living in the Techa River villages who were breastfeeding during maximum (90)Sr-dietary intakes. The model will be used in evaluations of the intake of strontium radioisotopes in breast milk by children born in Techa River villages during the radioactive releases and quantification of (90)Sr retention in the maternal skeleton. PMID:26295519

  1. Variance components and genetic parameters for milk production and lactation pattern in an ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population.

    PubMed

    Gebreyohannes, Gebregziabher; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Elzo, Mauricio A; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY), lactation length (LL), average milk yield per day (YD), initial milk yield (IY), peak milk yield (PY), days to peak (DP) and parameters (ln(a) and c) of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG) in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta) in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus) Boran (B) and Horro (H) and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F), Jersey (J) and Simmental (S). There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S) in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (p<0.001) by the considered fixed effects. High grade B×F cows (3/16B 13/16F) had the highest least squares means (LSM) for LY (2,490±178.9 kg), IY (10.5±0.8 kg), PY (12.7±0.9 kg), YD (7.6±0.55 kg) and LL (361.4±31.2 d), while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: effects of maternal factors and previous lactation

    SciTech Connect

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; McKinney, J.D.; Carreras, N.; Hardy, P.; Thullen, J.; Tingelstad, J.; Tully, M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors measured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in maternal serum, cord blood, placenta, and serial samples of breast milk from 868 women. Almost all samples of breast milk showed detectable levels of both chemicals. Overall, values for DDE in this study are within the range of those found previously, whereas those for PCBs are somewhat higher. Possible causes of variation in levels were investigated. For DDE, older women, Black women, cigarette smokers, and women who consumed sport fish during pregnancy had higher levels; only age and race showed large effects. For PCBs, older women, women who regularly drink alcohol, and primiparae had higher levels. In addition, both chemicals showed modest variation across occupational groupings. Casual exposure to a PCB spill did not result in chemical levels different from background. In general, women have higher levels in their first lactation and in the earlier samples of a given lactation, and levels decline both with time spend breast-feeding and with number of children nursed. These striking declines are presumably a measured of exposure to the child.

  3. Effect of anthocyanin-rich corn silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Kenji; Eruden, Bayaru; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Shioya, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Anthocyanin in purple corn (Zea mays L.) has been reported to show several functional and biological attributes, displaying antioxidant, antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in monogastric animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays L., Choko C922) silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows. The cows were fed diets based on the control corn or the anthocyanin-rich corn silage (AR treatment) in a crossover design. The anthocyanin-rich corn silage-based diet had a lower starch content, nutrient digestibility and total digestible nutrients content when compared to the control diet. The milk yield, lactose and solids-not-fat contents in the AR-treatment cows were lower than in the control cows. The feeding of the anthocyanin-rich corn silage led to a reduction in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the plasma. These data suggest that the anthocyanin-rich corn has a lowering effect on AST activity with concomitant enhancement of SOD activity in lactating dairy cows. However, a new variety of anthocyanin-rich corn with good nutritional value is needed for practical use as a ruminant feed. PMID:22694328

  4. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  5. Investigation of the persistence of closantel residues in bovine milk following lactating-cow and dry-cow treatments and its migration into dairy products.

    PubMed

    Power, Clare; Sayers, Riona; O'Brien, Bernadette; Clancy, Clare; Furey, Ambrose; Jordan, Kieran; Danaher, Martin

    2013-09-11

    Closantel is a veterinary drug used to treat liver fluke in cattle and sheep. A provisional maximum residue limit (MRL) of 45 μg/kg in milk has been set by the European Union. The purpose of this study was to investigate the persistence of closantel residues in milk and the migration of residues into milk products. Following dry-cow treatment, residues ranged from undetectable to 8.7 μg/kg at the first milking. Following lactating-cow treatment, residues detected ranged from 278 to 482 μg/kg at day 1 post-treatment and were detectable above the MRL for 52 days and detectable for 198 days. At day 2 and day 23 post-treatment, the milk was collected and dairy products manufactured. Closantel residues concentrated in the cheese, butter, and skim milk powder. The results indicate that closantel is best used as a dry-cow treatment. PMID:23992251

  6. Almond hulls in diets for lactating goats: effects on yield and composition of milk, feed intake, and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Reed, B A; Brown, D L

    1988-02-01

    Four cubed rations of similar chemical composition were fed ad libitum to 16 lactating yearling Alpine goats. The rations contained 0, 15, 25, and 35% almond hulls; 0, .5, 1, and 1% urea; and 58.4, 42.5, 32.0, and 22.0% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Chromic oxide was added as a digestibility marker. Average nutrient composition of diets was 91% DM, 20% CP, 32% NDF, 9% ash, and 4.39 Mcal gross energy/kg. Goats were randomly assigned to one of four diet orders in four replications of a 4 X 4 Latin square, blocked by goat and period. Data were collected in the 3rd wk of each period. Diets containing 25 and 35% almond hulls increased DM intake and reduced milk protein percent and digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ash, and NDF. Dry matter intake and weight gain were highest for the diet containing 35% almond hulls and 1% urea. Results indicate that almond hulls and urea can be fed to lactating goats up to these amounts without adversely affecting lactation. PMID:3379180

  7. Impact of dietary lipids on sow milk composition and balance of essential fatty acids during lactation in prolific sows.

    PubMed

    Rosero, D S; Odle, J; Mendoza, S M; Boyd, R D; Fellner, V; van Heugten, E

    2015-06-01

    Two studies were designed to determine the effects of supplementing diets with lipid sources of EFA (linoleic and α-linolenic acid) on sow milk composition to estimate the balance of EFA for sows nursing large litters. In Exp. 1, 30 sows, equally balanced by parity (1 and 3 to 5) and nursing 12 pigs, were fed diets supplemented with 6% animal-vegetable blend (A-V), 6% choice white grease (CWG), or a control diet without added lipid. Diets were corn-soybean meal based with 8% corn distiller dried grains with solubles and 6% wheat middlings and contained 3.25 g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal ME. Sows fed lipid-supplemented diets secreted greater amounts of fat (P = 0.082; 499 and 559 g/d for control and lipid-added diets, respectively) than sows fed the control diet. The balance of EFA was computed as apparent ileal digestible intake of EFA minus the outflow of EFA in milk. For sows fed the control diet, the amount of linoleic acid secreted in milk was greater than the amount consumed, throughout lactation. This resulted in a pronounced negative balance of linoleic acid (-22.4, -38.0, and -14.1 g/d for d 3, 10, and 17 of lactation, respectively). In Exp. 2, 50 sows, equally balanced by parity and nursing 12 pigs, were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets plus a control diet without added lipids. Factors included linoleic acid (2.1% and 3.3%) and α-linolenic acid (0.15% and 0.45%). The different concentrations of EFA were obtained by adding 4% of different mixtures of canola, corn, and flaxseed oils to diets. The n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios in the diets ranged from 5 to 22. Increasing supplemental EFA increased (P < 0.001) milk concentrations of linoleic (16.7% and 20.8%, for 2.1% and 3.3% linoleic acid, respectively) and α-linolenic acid (P < 0.001; 1.1 and 1.9% for 0.15 and 0.45% α-linolenic acid, respectively). Increasing supplemental EFA increased the estimated balance of α-linolenic acid (P < 0.001; -0.2 and 5.3 g/d for 0

  8. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  9. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  10. Short-term administration of rhGH increases markers of cellular proliferation but not milk protein gene expression in normal lactating women

    PubMed Central

    Maningat, Patricia D.; Sen, Partha; Rijnkels, Monique; Hadsell, Darryl L.; Bray, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone is one of few pharmacologic agents known to augment milk production in humans. We hypothesized that recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases the expression of cell proliferation and milk protein synthesis genes. Sequential milk and blood samples collected over four days were obtained from five normal lactating women. Following 24 h of baseline milk and blood sampling, rhGH (0.1 mg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously once daily for 3 days. Gene expression changes were determined by microarray studies utilizing milk fat globule RNA isolated from each milk sample. Following rhGH administration, DNA synthesis and cell cycle genes were induced, while no significant changes were observed in the expression of milk synthesis genes. Expression of glycolysis and citric acid cycle genes were increased by day 4 compared with day 1, while lipid synthesis genes displayed a circadian-like pattern. Cell cycle gene upregulation occurred after a lag of ∼2 days, likely explaining the failure to increase milk production after only 3 days of rhGH treatment. We conclude that rhGH induces expression of cellular proliferation and metabolism genes but does not induce milk protein gene expression, as potential mechanisms for increasing milk production and could account for the known effect of rhGH to increase milk production following 7–10 days. PMID:21205870

  11. Short-term administration of rhGH increases markers of cellular proliferation but not milk protein gene expression in normal lactating women.

    PubMed

    Maningat, Patricia D; Sen, Partha; Rijnkels, Monique; Hadsell, Darryl L; Bray, Molly S; Haymond, Morey W

    2011-04-27

    Growth hormone is one of few pharmacologic agents known to augment milk production in humans. We hypothesized that recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases the expression of cell proliferation and milk protein synthesis genes. Sequential milk and blood samples collected over four days were obtained from five normal lactating women. Following 24 h of baseline milk and blood sampling, rhGH (0.1 mg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously once daily for 3 days. Gene expression changes were determined by microarray studies utilizing milk fat globule RNA isolated from each milk sample. Following rhGH administration, DNA synthesis and cell cycle genes were induced, while no significant changes were observed in the expression of milk synthesis genes. Expression of glycolysis and citric acid cycle genes were increased by day 4 compared with day 1, while lipid synthesis genes displayed a circadian-like pattern. Cell cycle gene upregulation occurred after a lag of ∼2 days, likely explaining the failure to increase milk production after only 3 days of rhGH treatment. We conclude that rhGH induces expression of cellular proliferation and metabolism genes but does not induce milk protein gene expression, as potential mechanisms for increasing milk production and could account for the known effect of rhGH to increase milk production following 7-10 days. PMID:21205870

  12. Effect of milk yield genotype on response to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to lactating Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows (n = 12/genotype) from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) and contemporary (CH) Holsteins that differed by more than 4,500 kg milk/305 d were fed the same diet ad lib and housed together for more than 4 months before being blocked (2/genotype) by DIM and randomly assigned within geno...

  13. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth – Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I. Kati; Watson, David G.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1–6 (Phase 1), days 7–20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth. PMID:26630345

  14. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I Kati; Watson, David G; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1), days 7-20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth. PMID:26630345

  15. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source. PMID:26254527

  16. Leptin in maternal serum and breast milk: association with infants' body weight gain in a longitudinal study over 6 months of lactation.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Susanne; Hechler, Charlotte; Gebauer, Corinna; Kiess, Wieland; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2011-12-01

    The adipokine leptin has been detected in human breast milk, but its effect on postnatal growth and development remains largely unclear. We hypothesized that leptin could affect infant's body weight gain during early lactation in the first 6 mo of life. Therefore, we evaluated leptin levels in maternal serum and breast milk of 23 healthy, lactating mothers and their neonates in a prospective, longitudinal study. Leptin concentration was quantified by a commercially available human leptin RIA. Our results showed that leptin levels in breast milk were 22-fold lower than in maternal serum, but both parameters were positively correlated to each other (r = 0.431, p = 0.001) and to maternal BMI (serum: r = 0.512, p < 0.001; milk: r = 0.298, p < 0.001) over 6 mo of lactation. A negative association was found between breast milk leptin levels during the first week after delivery and the infant weight gain from the end of the first to the sixth month (r = -0.681, p = 0.007). This suggests that milk-borne leptin provides a link between maternal body composition and infant growth and development and plays a critical role in regulating appetite and food intake during early infancy. PMID:21857386

  17. Reduced nursing frequency during prolonged lactation in the mouse decreases milk production and increases mammary expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), but does not accelerate mammary gland remodeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed that lactating mouse dams nursed 4 times per day (4X) maintained lactation, but had lower milk yields by the weigh-suckle-weigh method, than dams nursed ad libitum (AL). Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased nursing frequency would also decrease lactation persistence, increase m...

  18. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  19. Pharmacokinetic and milk penetration of a difloxacin long-acting poloxamer gel formulation with carboxy-methylcellulose in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Elisa; Marín, Pedro; Cárceles, Carlos M; Ramírez, María J; Fernández-Varón, Emilio

    2011-04-01

    The single-dose disposition kinetics of difloxacin were determined in clinically normal lactating goats (n=6) after subcutaneous administration of a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation with carboxy-methylcellulose (P407-CMC). Difloxacin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The concentration-time data were analysed by non-compartmental kinetic methods. Plasma and milk elimination half-lives after P407-CMC dosing were 35.19 h and 33.93 h, respectively. With this formulation, difloxacin achieved maximum plasma concentrations of 2.67±0.34 mg/L at 2.92±1.20 h and maximum milk concentrations of 2.31±0.35 mg/L at 4.00±0.00 h. The area under the curve (AUC) ratio AUC(milk)/AUC(plasma) was 0.89 after P407-CMC administration. It was concluded that a 15 mg/kg dose of difloxacin within P407-CMC would be effective against mastitis pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)≤0.12 mg/L. PMID:20359917

  20. Influences of season, parity, lactation, udder area, milk yield, and clinical symptoms on intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Li, X P; Yang, F; Luo, J Y; Wang, X R; Liu, L H; Li, H S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of season, parity, lactation, udder area, milk yield, and clinical symptoms on bacterial intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy cows. A total of 2,106 mastitis pathogens in 12 species were isolated from 125 dairy farms distributed in 30 different cities in China, and the information about these factors was recorded at the same time. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 63.43% of the milk samples, whereas Streptococcus agalactiae accounted for 38.61% of all pathogens, followed by Str. dysgalactiae (28.16%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.10%), Escherichia coli (6.90%), and other pathogens (7.23%). According to our investigation, IMI was more common in spring with the isolation rate of pathogens at 81.04%, and lowest in winter (52.34%). Cows were more likely to be infected by environmental pathogens (E. coli or Str. uberis) in summer, in rear quarters and in cows with higher daily milk yield or lower somatic cell count. In addition, Str. dysgalactiae exhibited a higher prevalence with increased parity. Different clinical symptoms of quarters with bacterial IMI were seen in this study, and mastitis pathogens were isolated from healthy quarters. PMID:27265170

  1. Climatic effects on milk production traits and somatic cell score in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Sanker, C; Gauly, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on milk production traits and somatic cell score (SCS) of dairy cows raised in 4 different housing systems: (1) warm loose housing with access to grazing (WG), (2) warm loose housing without access to grazing (WI), (3) cold loose housing with access to grazing (CG), and (4) cold loose housing without access to grazing (CI). For each of the 4 housing systems, 5 farms with a herd size of 70 to 200 lactating cows in Lower Saxony, Germany, were studied. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly in each barn to calculate THI. Milk production data included 21,546 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yield, and SCS. These data were associated with the average THI of the 3 d preceding the respective measurement, which was divided into 6 classes (<45, ≥45 to <50, ≥50 to <55, ≥55 to <60, ≥60 to <65, and ≥65). Furthermore, bulk milk samples including the fat and protein percentage, and SCS taken 4 to 6 times per month were associated with the average and maximum THI of the 3 d before sampling. Data were recorded from April 2010 to March 2011. In each of the housing systems, monthly THI values above 60, indicating heat stress, were recorded between June and September, with higher values in WI and WG. In all systems, fat-corrected milk, fat, and protein yields of the test-day records decreased in tendency from 60 ≤ THI<65 to THI >65. In WI and CI, values for SCS were greater in the class THI > 65 than in 60 ≤ THI<65, whereas no difference between any of the THI classes was found in WG and CG. The fat and protein percentage of the bulk milk samples decreased with increasing 3-d maximum THI in all 4 systems, whereas the SCS increased with increasing 3-d average THI. In conclusion, negative effects of heat stress conditions under a temperate climate on milk production traits and SCS were found, although a housing system being superior to the other

  2. Genetic relationships of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness with milk yield and somatic cell score in first-lactation Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Koeck, A; Loker, S; Miglior, F; Kelton, D F; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships of the 3 most frequently reported dairy cattle diseases (clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness) with test-day milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) in first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows using random regression models. Health data recorded by producers were available from the National Dairy Cattle Health System in Canada. Disease traits were defined as binary traits (0=healthy, 1=affected) based on whether or not the cow had at least one disease case recorded within 305 d after calving. Mean frequencies of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 12.7, 8.2, and 9.1%, respectively. For genetic analyses, a Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was applied. Bivariate linear sire random regression model analyses were carried out between each of the 3 disease traits and test-day milk yield or SCS. Random regressions on second-degree Legendre polynomials were used to model the daily sire additive genetic and cow effects on test-day milk yield and SCS, whereas only the intercept term was fitted for disease traits. Estimated heritabilities were 0.03, 0.03, and 0.02 for clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness, respectively. Average heritabilities for milk yield were between 0.41 and 0.49. Average heritabilities for SCS ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The average genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 0.40, 0.26, and 0.23, respectively; however, the last estimate was not statistically different from zero. Cows with a high genetic merit for milk yield during the lactation were more susceptible to clinical mastitis and cystic ovaries. Estimates of genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis were moderate throughout the lactation. The genetic correlations between daily milk yield and cystic ovaries were near zero at the beginning of lactation and were highest at mid and end lactation. The

  3. OVEREXPRESSION OF DES(1-3) INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 1 IN THE MAMMARY GLANDS OF TRANSGENIC MICE DELAYS THE LOSS OF MILK PRODUCTION WITH PROLONGED LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During prolonged lactation, the mammary gland gradually loses the capacity to produce milk. In agricultural species, this decline can be slowed by administration of exogenous growth hormone (GH), which is believed to act through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Our previous work demonstrated del...

  4. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in late lactation dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if late lactation cows were susceptible to 1-, 2-, and 3-day changes in forage DM. Forty-four Holstein cows (22 primiparous and 22 multiparous), averaging 155 DIM, 42.5 kg/d of milk, and 597 kg body weight, were used in a study conducted from Jan to Mar 2010. Within ea...

  5. Influence of milk yeild stage of lactation, and body conditions on dairy cattle lying behavior measured using an automated activity monitoring sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lying times of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows of varying body condition scores (BCS) and milk yield were measured using IceTag™ animal activity monitors in the Barony College dairy herd. A three-week average BCS was calculated for each cow; and in total 84 cows were selected equally between 3...

  6. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring. PMID:27127509

  7. Kinetics of abamectin disposition in blood plasma and milk of lactating dairy sheep and suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Cerkvenik-Flajs, Vesna; Grabnar, Iztok; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka; Marc, Irena; Antonić, Jan; Vergles-Rataj, Aleksandra; Kuzner, Jernej; Pogacnik, Milan

    2007-11-14

    Abamectin (ABM) has been used worldwide as an anthelmintic drug in veterinary medicine and as an agricultural pesticide. Its pharmacokinetics and permeation into milk was evaluated in dairy sheep after subcutaneous administration. ABM elimination half-lives and mean residence times were 1.7 and 3.7 days for blood plasma and 1.9 and 3.8 days for milk, respectively. The ABM milk to plasma concentration ratio (0.89) primarily depends on milk fat content. Transfer of ABM residues to suckling lambs was evaluated by determination of ABM concentration time courses in lambs' plasma. Mean maximal concentration in lambs was 1.6 microg L(-1) at 3.3 days, and elimination half-life was 2.7 days. In ewes' plasma and milk, ABM was detected up to 23 days. Because of different pharmacokinetics, ABM exposure in lambs was almost 10% of the exposure in ewes, although the amount excreted in milk was only 1.0% of the dose. PMID:17937481

  8. Hot topic: Early postpartum treatment of commercial dairy cows with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs increases whole-lactation milk yield.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A J; Ylioja, C M; Vargas, C F; Mamedova, L K; Mendonça, L G; Coetzee, J F; Hollis, L C; Gehring, R; Bradford, B J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postpartum administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) sodium salicylate can increase 305-d milk yield in older dairy cattle (parity 3 and greater). However, in this prior work, sodium salicylate was delivered to cows via the drinking water, a method that does not align well with current grouping strategies on commercial dairy farms. The objective of the current study was to replicate these results on a commercial dairy farm with a simplified treatment protocol and to compare sodium salicylate with another NSAID, meloxicam. Dairy cattle in their second lactation and greater (n=51/treatment) were alternately assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition, with treatments lasting for 3d. Experimental treatments began 12 to 36 h after parturition and were (1) 1 placebo bolus on the first day and 3 consecutive daily drenches of sodium salicylate (125 g/cow per day; SAL); (2) 1 bolus of meloxicam (675 mg/cow) and 3 drenches of an equal volume of water (MEL); or (3) 1 placebo bolus and 3 drenches of water (CON). Blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment, immediately following the last day of treatment, and 7d after the last day of treatment; plasma was analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids, haptoglobin, and paraoxonase. Milk production, body condition score, reproductive status, and retention in the herd were monitored for 365 d posttreatment, and effects of treatment, parity, days in milk, and interactions were evaluated in mixed effects models. Significance was declared at P<0.05. Whole-lactation milk and protein yields were greater in NSAID-treated cows, although 305-d fat production was not affected. There was a significant interaction of treatment and parity for plasma glucose concentration; MEL increased plasma glucose concentrations compared with CON and SAL in older cows. Sodium salicylate decreased plasma BHB concentration compared with MEL at 7d posttreatment

  9. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: effects on growth, morbidity, and duration of lactation

    SciTech Connect

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; McKinney, J.D.; Carreras, N.; Hardy, P.; Thullen, J.; Tingelstad, J.; Tully, M.

    1987-10-01

    The authors followed 858 children from birth to one year of age to determine whether the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in breast milk affected their growth or health. Neither chemical showed an adverse effect on weight or frequency of physician visits for various illnesses, although differences were seen between breast-fed and bottle-fed children, with bottle-fed children being heavier and having more frequent gastroenteritis and otitis media. Children of mothers with higher levels of DDE were breast-fed for markedly shorter times, but adjustments for possible confounders and biases did not change the findings. In absence of any apparent effect on the health of the children, they speculate that DDE may be interfering with the mother's ability to lactate, possibly because of its estrogenic properties.

  11. A meta-analysis of the effects of feeding yeast culture produced by anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Poppy, G D; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J; Sanchez, W K; Dorton, K L; Morley, P S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use meta-analytic methods to estimate the effect of a commercially available yeast culture product on milk production and other production measures in lactating dairy cows using a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sixty-one research publications (published journal articles, published abstracts, and technical reports) were identified through a review of literature provided by the manufacturer and a search of published literature using 6 search engines. Thirty-six separate studies with 69 comparisons met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The fixed-effect meta-analysis showed substantial heterogeneity for milk yield, energy-corrected milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield. Sub-group analysis of the data showed much less heterogeneity in peer-reviewed studies versus non-peer-reviewed abstracts and technical reports, and tended to show higher, but not significantly different, treatment effects. A random-effects meta-analysis showed estimated raw mean differences between treated and untreated cattle reported in peer-reviewed publications of 1.18 kg/d [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55 to 1.81], 1.61 kg/d (95% CI: 0.92 to 2.29), and 1.65 kg/d (95% CI: 0.97 to 2.34) for milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk, respectively. Milk fat yield and milk protein yield for peer-reviewed studies showed an increase in the raw mean difference of 0.06 kg/d (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) and 0.03 kg/d (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.05), respectively. Estimated raw mean dry matter intake of the peer-reviewed studies during early lactation (<70 d in milk) and not-early lactation were 0.62 kg/d (95% CI: 0.21 to 1.02) and a decrease of 0.78 kg/d (95% CI: -1.36 to -0.21), respectively. These findings provide strong evidence that this commercially available yeast culture product provides significant improvement in several important milk production outcomes as evaluated in production settings

  12. LACTATION INDUCTION AS A PREDICTOR OF POST-PARTURITION TRANSGENE EXPRESSION IN BOVINE MILK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bovine's long generation interval results in a delay of several years when evaluating mammary specific transgenes in genetically engineered animals. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of reducing that waiting period. Lactation was induced in prepubertal bull and heifer c...

  13. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane in different species reveals variations in lactation and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Weiqing; Liu, Lu; Pang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shuwen; Lv, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    In present study, 312, 554, 175 and 143 proteins were identified and quantified by label-free quantitative proteomics in human, cow, goat and yak milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), respectively. Fifty proteins involved in vesicle mediate transport and milk fat globule secretion were conserved among species. Moreover, proteins involved in lipid synthesis and secretion (xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase, stomatin and CD36), showed different expression pattern and the host defense proteins exhibited various profiles within species. Notably, the content and activity of lipid catabolic enzymes were significantly higher in human MFGM, which could be indicative of the superior fat utilization in breast fed infants. Our findings unraveled the significant differences in protein composition of human milk and conventionally used substitutes of it. The in-depth study of lipid metabolic enzymes in human MFGM will probably contribute to the improvement of the fat utilization through modulation of lipid catabolic enzymes in infant formula. PMID:26593540

  14. Limits to sustained energy intake XXV: milk energy output and thermogenesis in Swiss mice lactating at thermoneutrality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Li, Li; Yang, Deng-Bao; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies at 21 °C and 5 °C suggest that in Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI) and reproductive performance are constrained by the mammary capacity to produce milk. We aimed to establish if this constraint also applied at higher ambient temperature (30 °C). Female Swiss mice lactating at 30 °C had lower asymptotic food intake and weaned lighter litters than those at 21 °C. Resting metabolic rate, daily energy expenditure, milk energy output and suckling time were all lower at 30 °C. In a second experiment we gave mice at 30 °C either 6 or 9 pups to raise. Female performance was independent of litter size, indicating that it is probably not controlled by pup demands. In a third experiment we exposed only the mother, or only the offspring to the elevated temperature. In this case the performance of the mother was only reduced when she was exposed, and not when her pups were exposed, showing that the high temperature directly constrains female performance. These data suggest that at 30 °C SusEI and reproductive performance are likely constrained by the capacity of females to dissipate body heat, and not indirectly via pup demands. Constraints seem to change with ambient temperature in this strain of mouse. PMID:27554919

  15. Limits to sustained energy intake XXV: milk energy output and thermogenesis in Swiss mice lactating at thermoneutrality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Li, Li; Yang, Deng-Bao; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies at 21 °C and 5 °C suggest that in Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI) and reproductive performance are constrained by the mammary capacity to produce milk. We aimed to establish if this constraint also applied at higher ambient temperature (30 °C). Female Swiss mice lactating at 30 °C had lower asymptotic food intake and weaned lighter litters than those at 21 °C. Resting metabolic rate, daily energy expenditure, milk energy output and suckling time were all lower at 30 °C. In a second experiment we gave mice at 30 °C either 6 or 9 pups to raise. Female performance was independent of litter size, indicating that it is probably not controlled by pup demands. In a third experiment we exposed only the mother, or only the offspring to the elevated temperature. In this case the performance of the mother was only reduced when she was exposed, and not when her pups were exposed, showing that the high temperature directly constrains female performance. These data suggest that at 30 °C SusEI and reproductive performance are likely constrained by the capacity of females to dissipate body heat, and not indirectly via pup demands. Constraints seem to change with ambient temperature in this strain of mouse. PMID:27554919

  16. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  17. Effects of different storage conditions, the farm and the stage of lactation on renneting parameters of goat milk investigated using the Formagraph method.

    PubMed

    Pazzola, Michele; Balia, Filippo; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Mura, Maria Consuelo; Carcangiu, Vincenzo; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of storage on renneting properties of goat milk investigated using the Formagraph method. Milk samples from 169 goats in three farms (F1, F2 and F3) were analysed during an entire lactation (45, 75, 105, 135 and 165 days in milking DIM), to obtain renneting parameters, both from fresh milk and after storage with Bronopol and freezing at -20°C and -80°C. As regards fresh milk, mean values of clotting time were between 12·51 (45 DIM) and 13·29 min (105 DIM and F2), the curd firming time between 1·77 (45 DIM) and 2·15 min (F1) and curd firmness between 42·09 (165 DIM) and 49·55 mm (45 DIM). No statistical difference was recorded after storage. After regression analysis, all prediction models showed significance value at P<0·001 with the highest R2 value for clotting time, 0·710 (fresh vs. frozen milk at -20°C), and the lowest for clot firmness, 0·281 (fresh vs. frozen milk at -80°C). Results demonstrated that assessment of goat milk coagulation properties using the Formagraph method is also achievable after freezing or Bronopol addition. PMID:21774860

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season. PMID:27600962

  19. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM. PMID:26930646

  20. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa L.; Cersosimo, Laura M.; Wright, André-Denis G.; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM. PMID:26930646

  1. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049573

  2. Stocking density, milking duration, and lying times of lactating cows on Canadian freestall dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Charlton, G L; Haley, D B; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2014-05-01

    Lying time is an important measure of cow comfort, and the lying behavior of dairy cattle can now be recorded automatically with the use of accelerometers. To assess the effect that stall stocking density and the time that cows spend away from the home pen being milked has on the lying behavior of Holstein cattle, a total of 111 commercial freestall dairy farms were visited in Canada. Accelerometers were used to automatically record the lying behavior of 40 focal cows per farm. Total duration of lying, lying bout frequency, and the mean duration of lying bouts were calculated. Pen population was the total number of cows in the pen. To calculate stall stocking density (%) the number of cows in the pen and the number of useable stalls were counted and multiplied by 100, and the length × width of the pen was divided by the number of cows in the pen to calculate area/cow (m(2)). Time away from the pen per day was recorded from when the first cow in each pen was taken out of the home pen for milking until the last cow returned to the home pen after milking, and this time was multiplied by daily milking frequency. The median value for lying duration at the farm level was 10.6h/d, with 10.5 lying bouts/d, and a median lying bout duration of 1.2h. Stall stocking density ranged from 52.2 to 160.0%, with very few farms (7%) stocking at greater than 120%. Although stall stocking density was not significantly correlated with lying behavior, the results showed that no farm with stocking density greater that 100% achieved an average herd lying duration of 12h/d or higher, whereas 21.6% of farms with a stocking density of 100% or less did achieve the target lying time of ≥ 12 h/d, as recommended by the Canadian Code of Practice (χ(2)=4.86, degrees of freedom = 1). Area/cow (m(2)) was not correlated with any aspect of lying behavior, but regardless of space per cow, pen population was correlated with daily frequency and duration of lying bouts. As the number of cows in the pen

  3. Mucosal Immunization of Lactating Female Rhesus Monkeys with a Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Envelope Induces Strong Env-Specific IgA Antibody Responses in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Genevieve G. A.; Amos, Joshua D.; Wilks, Andrew B.; Pollara, Justin; Ray, Caroline A.; Chand, Anjali; Kunz, Erika L.; Liebl, Brooke E.; Whitaker, Kaylan; Carville, Angela; Smith, Shannon; Colvin, Lisa; Pickup, David J.; Staats, Herman F.; Overman, Glenn; Eutsey-Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Chen, Haiyan; LaBranche, Celia; Barnett, Susan; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Letvin, Norman L.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that vaccination of lactating rhesus monkeys with a DNA prime/vector boost strategy induces strong T-cell responses but limited envelope (Env)-specific humoral responses in breast milk. To improve vaccine-elicited antibody responses in milk, hormone-induced lactating rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV Env immunogen in a prime-boost strategy modeled after the moderately protective RV144 HIV vaccine. Lactating rhesus monkeys were intramuscularly primed with either recombinant DNA (n = 4) or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus vector (n = 4) expressing the T/F HIV Env C.1086 and then boosted twice intramuscularly with C.1086 gp120 and the adjuvant MF59. The vaccines induced Env-binding IgG and IgA as well as neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses in plasma and milk of most vaccinated animals. Importantly, plasma neutralization titers against clade C HIV variants MW965 (P = 0.03) and CAP45 (P = 0.04) were significantly higher in MVA-primed than in DNA-primed animals. The superior systemic prime-boost regimen was then compared to a mucosal-boost regimen, in which animals were boosted twice intranasally with C.1086 gp120 and the TLR 7/8 agonist R848 following the same systemic prime. While the systemic and mucosal vaccine regimens elicited comparable levels of Env-binding IgG antibodies, mucosal immunization induced significantly stronger Env-binding IgA responses in milk (P = 0.03). However, the mucosal regimen was not as potent at inducing functional IgG responses. This study shows that systemic MVA prime followed by either intranasal or systemic protein boosts can elicit strong humoral responses in breast milk and may be a useful strategy to interrupt postnatal HIV-1 transmission. PMID:23596289

  4. Prediction of methane emission from lactating dairy cows using milk fatty acids and mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    van Gastelen, Sanne; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Enteric methane (CH4 ) production is among the main targets of greenhouse gas mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A simple, robust and inexpensive measurement technique applicable on a large scale to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cattle would therefore be valuable. Milk fatty acids (MFA) are related to CH4 production because of the common biochemical pathway between CH4 and fatty acids in the rumen. A summary of studies that investigated the predictive power of MFA composition for CH4 emission indicated good potential, with predictive power ranging between 47% and 95%. Until recently, gas chromatography (GC) was the principal method used to determine the MFA profile, but GC is unsuitable for routine analysis. This has led to the application of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. The major advantages of using MIR spectroscopy to predict CH4 emission include its simplicity and potential practical application at large scale. Disadvantages include the inability to predict important MFA for CH4 prediction, and the moderate predictive power for CH4 emission. It may not be sufficient to predict CH4 emission based on MIR alone. Integration with other factors, like feed intake, nutrient composition of the feed, parity, and lactation stage may improve the prediction of CH4 emission using MIR spectra. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26996655

  5. Milk yield and estrous behavior during eight consecutive estruses in Holstein cows fed standardized or high energy diets and grouped according to live weight changes in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Barbu, H; Sørensen, M T; Sehested, J; Callesen, H; Vestergaard, M

    2016-04-01

    Cows managed for extended lactation go through several estruses before rebreeding. The aims of this study were (1) to quantify the effect of the first 8 estruses after calving on milk yield, milking frequency, and estrous behavioral activity, and (2) to determine the effects of early lactation live weight gain (LWG) as an indication of energy balance on milk yield, plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentration, estrous behavioral activity, interval from calving to first estrus, between-estrus intervals, and pregnancy risk. Milk yield, live weight, and estrous behavioral activity were measured daily in 62 Holstein cows, 17 primiparous and 45 multiparous, managed for an 18-mo calving interval. Blood plasma obtained at wk 3, 5, 12, and 24 after calving was analyzed for IGF-1. Estrus was detected by use of milk progesterone profiles combined with visual observations (i.e., mounting behavior and other). The cows were divided into 2 groups: the cows having a negative LWG in each of the first 5wk postpartum and the cows having a positive LWG in at least 1 of the first 5wk after calving. The results indicate a similar decrease of 0.56kg of milk per day of estrus during each of the 8 consecutive estruses. The activity level was 17±1 movements per hour higher during the 8 estruses compared with the basic activity level. More cows expressed mounting behavior at estrus 8 than at estrus 2 (63.3 and 45.9%, respectively). The negative LWG cows had lower IGF-1 and higher milk production than the positive LWG cows. Both LWG groups had similar interval from calving to first estrus, on average 55 d. To conclude, the decrease in milk yield during estrus is marginal and similar in consecutive estruses. Moreover, estrous behavior is more highly expressed in the later estruses compared with the earlier estruses. Reproductive parameters (frequency of mounting, pregnancy risk, interval to first estrus, and between-estrus intervals) were not influenced by the live weight change

  6. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation

  7. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  8. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Flummer, C; Theil, P K

    2012-12-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate whether β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation during late gestation and throughout lactation would influence colostrum and milk production of sows and neonatal piglet survival (0 to 24 h). Control sows (CON; n = 8) were fed a standard lactation diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)(2) equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days -3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows. Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 ± 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 ± 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during the colostrum period (0.0 vs. 4.8%, P < 0.05). The HMB supplementation did not affect colostrum composition (P > 0.10). Supplementation with HMB increased milk content of fat (7.40 vs. 6.47 ± 0.30%; P < 0.05), dry matter (19.0 vs. 18.2 ± 0.26; P < 0.05), and energy (4.81 vs. 4.47 ± 0.12 kJ/g; P < 0.05) and reduced the sow backfat at weaning (11.4 vs. 14.5 ± 1.0 mm; P < 0.05). The HMB piglets weighed less at weaning than the control piglets (7.48 vs. 8.30 ± 0.20 kg; P < 0.01), although the milk yield was not reduced. Plasma acetate was higher in HMB sows [202 (175; 233) vs. 158 (141; 179) μM; P < 0.05] whereas plasma 3-hydroxy butyrate was reduced in HMB sows during lactation. In conclusion, HMB supplemented to sows improved the colostrum production but inhibited piglet

  9. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  10. Genetic parameters of linear conformation type traits and their relationship with milk yield throughout lactation in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    PubMed

    McLaren, A; Mucha, S; Mrode, R; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2016-07-01

    Conformation traits are of interest to many dairy goat breeders not only as descriptive traits in their own right, but also because of their influence on production, longevity, and profitability. If these traits are to be considered for inclusion in future dairy goat breeding programs, relationships between them and production traits such as milk yield must be considered. With the increased use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters, an opportunity now exists to investigate correlations between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation in more detail. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) estimate genetic parameters for conformation traits in a population of crossbred dairy goats, (2) estimate correlations between all conformation traits, and (3) assess the relationship between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation. No information on milk composition was available. Data were collected from goats based on 2 commercial goat farms during August and September in 2013 and 2014. Ten conformation traits, relating to udder, teat, leg, and feet characteristics, were scored on a linear scale (1-9). The overall data set comprised data available for 4,229 goats, all in their first lactation. The population of goats used in the study was created using random crossings between 3 breeds: British Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation, the best performing animals were selected for breeding, leading to the formation of a synthetic breed. The pedigree file used in the analyses contained sire and dam information for a total of 30,139 individuals. The models fitted relevant fixed and random effects. Heritability estimates for the conformation traits were low to moderate, ranging from 0.02 to 0.38. A range of positive and negative phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits were observed, with the highest correlations found between udder depth and udder attachment (0.78), teat angle and teat placement (0

  11. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  12. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  13. Maternal dietary folate, folic acid and vitamin D intakes during pregnancy and lactation and the risk of cows' milk allergy in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Tuokkola, Jetta; Luukkainen, Päivi; Kaila, Minna; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Niinistö, Sari; Veijola, Riitta; Virta, Lauri J; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2016-08-01

    Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements. PMID:27350011

  14. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows.

    PubMed

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M G G

    2011-11-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which differences in milking interval were attributable to individual cows, and how this correlated to individual differences in yield and composition of milk throughout lactation. Data from 288,366 milkings from 664 cow-lactations were used, of which 229,020 milkings had milk composition results. Cows were Holsteins, Red Danes, and Jerseys in parities 1, 2, and 3. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model, with cow-lactation as a random effect and assuming heterogeneous residual variance over the lactation. Cow-lactation variance was fitted using linear spline functions with 5 knot-points. Residual variance was generally greatest in early lactation and declined thereafter. Accordingly, animal-related variance tended to increase with progression of lactation. Milking frequency (the reverse of milking interval) was found to be moderately repeatable throughout lactation. Daily milk yield expressed per milking was found to be highly repeatable in all breeds, with the highest values occurring by the end of lactation. Fat percentage had only moderate repeatability in early to mid lactation but increased toward the end of lactation. Individual level correlations showed that cows with higher milking frequency also had greater yields, but had lower fat percentage. Correlations were slightly weaker in very early lactation than in the remaining parts of lactation. We concluded that individual differences exist among cows milked automatically. Cows with higher yields are milked more often and have lower fat content in their milk. PMID:22032361

  15. Short communication: the effect of dry period duration and dietary energy density in early lactation on the rennet gelation properties of milk.

    PubMed

    Butler, S T; de Feu, M A; O'Brien, B; Guinee, T P; Murphy, J J

    2010-02-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effects of decreasing the dry period (DP) duration and altering the energy density of the diet during early lactation on the rheological characteristics of milk. Forty mature Holstein-Friesian cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry period treatments and 1 of 2 nutritional treatments. The DP treatments were continuous milking (CM) or an 8-wk standard dry period (SDP), and the nutritional treatments were a standard energy diet (SE) or a high energy diet (HE). Actual DP lengths were 6.3+/-1.7 d and 62.1+/-1.9 d for cows on the CM and SDP treatments, respectively. Milk samples were collected at 2, 6, and 10 wk postpartum. The concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose were determined in each sample. The rennet gelation properties were measured at 31 degrees C using dynamic low-amplitude strain oscillatory rheometry. The following parameters were obtained from the resultant elastic shear modulus (G'): gelation time, maximum curd firming rate, and gel strength. Reducing the DP duration from 62 to 6 d resulted in increases in milk protein concentration (31.8 vs. 34.7 g/kg), maximum curd firming rate (2.58 vs. 3.60 Pa/min), and gel strength (69.4 vs. 90.5Pa). Increasing the dietary energy density decreased percentage milk fat (43.1 vs. 37.7 g/kg) but otherwise had no effect. Gel strength was correlated with maximum curd firming rate (r=0.99), and both variables were correlated with milk protein concentration (r=0.71 and r=0.73, respectively). The results indicate that decreasing the duration of the DP increased milk protein concentration and improved the rennet gelation properties of milk, but that dietary energy density had little effect. PMID:20105524

  16. Effects of fumaric acid on rumen fermentation, milk composition and metabolic parameters in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Remling, N; Riede, S; Lebzien, P; Meyer, U; Höltershinken, M; Kersten, S; Breves, G; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of fumaric acid (FA) on ruminal fermentation and its effects on the acid-base balance of seven ruminally and duodenally fistulated multiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment was conducted in a change-over design with three periods in which the animals were randomly arranged in one of three treatments: Control (C; without FA), 300 or 600 g FA per day. The diets consisted of 7.4 kg DM grass silage, 4.2 kg concentrate mixture and 0, 300 or 600 g FA or wheat starch as isocaloric compensation per day and cow. FA supplementation decreased the rumen pH, acetic acid and butyric acid and increased propionic acid in rumen fluid. The results of the single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) did not show an influence of FA on the microbial population in the rumen. The beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and the pH of the urine decreased, while the blood gases were unaffected by supplementation of the acid. The microbial protein per MJ ME decreased in the duodenum with FA supplementation. The milk fat concentration decreased after addition of FA. We conclude that in this study feeding of up to 600 g FA per day did not result in an acidosis. It seems that up to 600 g FA per day did not have a significant influence on the acid-base balance of dairy cows. PMID:24313964

  17. Effect of dietary sugar concentration and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Carpenter, A J; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat concentration and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar concentrations with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the concentration of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter

  18. Use of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace in the Feeding of Lactating Buffaloes: Effect on the Quantity and Quality of the Milk Produced

    PubMed Central

    Terramoccia, S.; Bartocci, S.; Taticchi, A.; Di Giovanni, S.; Pauselli, M.; Mourvaki, E.; Urbani, S.; Servili, M.

    2013-01-01

    Dried stoned olive pomace (DSOP) was administered to dairy water buffaloes, and their productive performance and milk composition were analysed. Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided into two uniform groups (control and experimental), taking into consideration the following parameters: milk production (2,192 and 2,102 kg) and duration of lactation (254 and 252 d) of the previous year, distance from calving (51 and 43 d), milk production (9.71 and 10.18 kg/d), body condition score (BCS) (6.44 and 6.31) and weight (617 and 653 kg) at the beginning of the trial. Both diets had the same formulation: second cut alfalfa hay 20%, corn silage 42%, concentrate 38% but the two concentrates differed in their formulation, the experimental one contained 15.50% of DSOP as fed. The employed DSOP showed high amounts of secoiridoids, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (3,4-DHPEA) (1.2 g/kg DM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) (12.6 g/kg DM), p-hydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid di-aldehyde (p-HPEA-EDA) (5.6 g/kg DM) and lignans, which are known to be powerful bioactive compounds. The control diet had an energy-protein content of 0.86 Milk FU/kg DM and 143.3 g/kg DM of crude protein, whereas the experimental diet of 0.87 Milk FU/kg DM and 146.6 g/kg DM of crude protein. Each animal of the two groups received 17 kg DM/d and each buffalo of the experimental group, by way of the concentrate, ingested 1.05 kg DM/d of DSOP. The trial lasted 40 days. No significant difference was found between the BCS (6.41 and 6.53), live weight (625.93 and 662.50 kg) and milk production (9.69 and 10.08 kg/d) of the two groups, as was the case for fat, protein, lactose, pH and coagulating parameters of the two milks. The milk fat of the experimental group had a significantly higher content of total tocopherols (10.45 vs 8.60 μg/g, p<0.01) and retinol (3.17 vs 2.54 μg/g, p<0.01). The content of the reactive substances with tiobarbituric acid (TBARs

  19. Association between isolation of Staphylococcus aureus one week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count, clinical mastitis, and culling through the remaining lactation.

    PubMed

    Whist, Anne Cathrine; Osterås, Olav; Sølverød, Liv

    2009-02-01

    Cows with isolation of Staphylococcus aureus approximately 1 week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis (CM), and culling risk through the remaining lactation were assessed in 178 Norwegian dairy herds. Mixed models with repeated measures were used to compare milk yield and SCC, and survival analyses were used to estimate the hazard ratio for CM and culling. On average, cows with an isolate of Staph. aureus had a significantly higher SCC than culture-negative cows. If no post-milking teat disinfection (PMTD) was used, the mean values of SCC were 42,000, 61,000, 68,000 and 77,000 cells/ml for cows with no Staph. aureus isolate, with Staph. aureus isolated in 1 quarter, in 2 quarters and more than 2 quarters respectively. If iodine PMTD was used, SCC means were 36,000; 63,000; 70,000 and 122,000, respectively. Primiparous cows testing positive for Staph. aureus had the same milk yield curve as culture-negative cows, except for those with Staph. aureus isolated in more than 2 quarters. They produced 229 kg less during a 305-d lactation. Multiparous cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter produced 94-161 kg less milk in 2nd and >3rd parity, respectively, and those with isolation in more than 2 quarters produced 303-390 kg less than multiparous culture-negative animals during a 305-d lactation. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratio for CM and culling in cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter was 2.0 (1.6-2.4) and 1.7 (1.5-1.9), respectively. There was a decrease in the SCC and in the CM risk in culture-negative cows where iodine PMTD had been used, indicating that iodine PMTD has a preventive effect on already healthy cows. For cows testing positive for Staph. aureus in more than 2 quarters at calving, iodine PMTD had a negative effect on the CM risk and on the SCC through the remaining lactation. PMID:18922193

  20. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins (B₁ and M₁) in feed, plasma and raw milk of lactating dairy cows in Beja, Tunisia, using ELISA.

    PubMed

    Abbès, Samir; Salah-Abbès, Jalila Ben; Bouraoui, Yousra; Oueslati, Sarra; Oueslati, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Beja is an agricultural area in northwest Tunisia. It contributes to national needs by offering cereals and milk to the market for human and animal consumption. A small number of studies on mycotoxin occurrence in feedstuffs and raw milk from lactating dairy cows in this region are available. Therefore, 226 samples were collected from farms and local markets during November 2008 until April 2010. Samples consisted of 112 raw cow milk, 56 blood from lactating cows and 58 feed destined for dairy cows. Plasma and feed were analysed for aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁). Milk samples were analysed for aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁). All samples were treated using a simultaneous methanolic-aqueous extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-ups and were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Recoveries were 80%-95% and 81%-92% for AFB₁ and AFM₁, respectively, while the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 µg/kg or µg/l for both mycotoxins. Results revealed the presence of AFB₁ in 84.4% of the feed samples (mean 18.7 ± 1.4 µg/kg), and 39.2% of the plasma-examined samples (median 7.1 ± 1.0 µg/l) were found to be contaminated at levels higher than the Tunisian and the European Union (EU) limit for dairy animals, which are 20 and 5 µg/kg in animal feed, respectively. AFM₁ was detected in 60.7% of the cow raw milk samples examined (median 13.6 ± 1.4 µg/l). Contaminated levels were higher than the EU limit of 0.05 µg/l. It was concluded that more precaution should be taken on hygiene controls in order to prevent fungal contamination. PMID:24779689

  1. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was <1 and similar among all treatments. Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the

  2. Thiamin and Riboflavin in Human Milk: Effects of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplementation and Stage of Lactation on Vitamer Secretion and Contributions to Total Vitamin Content.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E; Flax, Valerie L; Jamieson, Denise J; Ellington, Sascha R; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main contributors to total riboflavin. We analyzed milk collected at 2 (n = 258) or 6 (n = 104), and 24 weeks (n = 362) from HIV-infected Malawian mothers within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study, randomly assigned at delivery to lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a control group, to investigate each vitamer's contribution to total milk vitamin content and the effects of supplementation on the different thiamin and riboflavin vitamers at early and later stages of lactation, and obtain insight into the transport and distribution of these vitamers in human milk. Thiamin vitamers were derivatized into thiochrome-esters and analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography-fluorescence-detection (HPLC-FLD). Riboflavin and FAD were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry (ULPC-MS/MS). Thiamin-pyrophosphate (TPP), identified here for the first time in breast milk, contributed 1.9-4.5% to total thiamin. Free thiamin increased significantly from 2/6 to 24 weeks regardless of treatment indicating an active transport of this vitamer in milk. LNS significantly increased TMP and free thiamin only at 2 weeks compared to the control: median 170 versus 151 μg/L (TMP), 13.3 versus 10.5 μg/L (free thiamin, p<0.05 for both, suggesting an up-regulated active mechanism for TMP and free thiamin accumulation at early stages of lactation. Free riboflavin was consistently and significantly increased with LNS (range: 14.8-19.6 μg/L (LNS) versus 5.0-7.4 μg/L (control), p<0.001), shifting FAD:riboflavin relative amounts from 92-94:6-8% to 85:15%, indicating a preferred secretion of the free form into breast milk. The

  3. Thiamin and Riboflavin in Human Milk: Effects of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplementation and Stage of Lactation on Vitamer Secretion and Contributions to Total Vitamin Content

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Flax, Valerie L.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S.; Kamwendo, Debbie; Allen, Lindsay H.

    2016-01-01

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main contributors to total riboflavin. We analyzed milk collected at 2 (n = 258) or 6 (n = 104), and 24 weeks (n = 362) from HIV-infected Malawian mothers within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study, randomly assigned at delivery to lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a control group, to investigate each vitamer’s contribution to total milk vitamin content and the effects of supplementation on the different thiamin and riboflavin vitamers at early and later stages of lactation, and obtain insight into the transport and distribution of these vitamers in human milk. Thiamin vitamers were derivatized into thiochrome-esters and analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography-fluorescence-detection (HPLC-FLD). Riboflavin and FAD were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry (ULPC-MS/MS). Thiamin-pyrophosphate (TPP), identified here for the first time in breast milk, contributed 1.9–4.5% to total thiamin. Free thiamin increased significantly from 2/6 to 24 weeks regardless of treatment indicating an active transport of this vitamer in milk. LNS significantly increased TMP and free thiamin only at 2 weeks compared to the control: median 170 versus 151μg/L (TMP), 13.3 versus 10.5μg/L (free thiamin, p<0.05 for both, suggesting an up-regulated active mechanism for TMP and free thiamin accumulation at early stages of lactation. Free riboflavin was consistently and significantly increased with LNS (range: 14.8–19.6μg/L (LNS) versus 5.0–7.4μg/L (control), p<0.001), shifting FAD:riboflavin relative amounts from 92–94:6–8% to 85:15%, indicating a preferred secretion of the free form into breast milk. The

  4. The effects of increased milking frequency during early lactation on metabolism and mammary cell proliferation in Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Primiparous (n=30) and multiparous (n=30) cows were assigned randomly at calving to one of 2 treatments to evaluate metabolic and mammary cell responses to increased milking frequency (IMF). Controls were milked twice daily (2X) for 119 d and the IMF group was milked four times daily (4X) from d 2 u...

  5. Effects of antibiotic dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant on milk somatic cell counts and clinical and subclinical mastitis in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Hodge, A; Lean, I J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an internal teat sealant (TS; Teatseal; Zoetis Australia, Silverwater, NSW, Australia), when used in combination with antibiotic dry-cow therapy (ADCT) administered at dry-off, on milk individual somatic cell count (ISCC), milk production and components, and the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows up to 60 d after calving, when compared with ADCT only. Multiparous Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein cross cows (n=2,200) from 8 farms in southern and eastern Australia were randomly assigned to treatment of all 4 quarters with ADCT alone or with ADCT plus TS (ADCT + TS) at dry-off in this randomized, multisite clinical trial. Individual milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and ISCC were measured at intervals of 14±3 d after calving for the first 60 d of lactation. The first measurement occurred between 10 and 24 d after calving. Clinical mastitis and health events were recorded from dry-off to 60 d of lactation. Milk samples were collected from first cases of clinical mastitis and subjected to bacteriology. Treatment and the interaction of treatment by time did not affect milk yield, ISCC weighted by milk yield, or fat and protein percentages. Treatment with ADCT + TS decreased geometric mean ISCC compared with treatment with ADCT alone over the first 60 d of lactation. Geometric mean ISCC (×10(3) cells/mL) was 32.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8 to 38.3] and 43.5 (95% CI: 36.2 to 52.1) for ADCT + TS and ADCT alone, respectively. The odds of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis (ISCC ≥250,000 cells/mL) were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.6) with ADCT alone in the first 60 d of lactation compared with ADCT + TS. Use of ADCT + TS reduced the estimated incidence of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis on all 8 farms, compared with use of ADCT alone. Only 4 cows that calved 40 to 100 d after dry-off had a first case of clinical mastitis in the dry period. Five percent of

  6. Rapeseed or linseed in grass-based diets: effects on conjugated linoleic and conjugated linolenic acid isomers in milk fat from Holstein cows over 2 consecutive lactations.

    PubMed

    Lerch, S; Shingfield, K J; Ferlay, A; Vanhatalo, A; Chilliard, Y

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the distribution of conjugated linoleic (CLA) and conjugated linolenic (CLnA) acid isomers in milk from Holstein cows in response to 4 different oilseed supplements rich in either cis-9 18:1 or 18:3n-3 were determined over 2 consecutive lactations in 58 and 35 cows during the first and second years, respectively. For the first 5 wk of the first lactation, all cows were fed the same diet. Thereafter, cows received 1 of 5 treatments for 2 consecutive lactations, including the prepartum period. Treatments comprised the basal diet with no additional lipid, or supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), extruded rapeseeds (ER), cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal, or whole unprocessed rapeseeds to provide 2.5 to 3.0% of additional oil in diet dry matter. During indoor periods, cows were housed and received a mixture (3:1, wt/wt) of grass silage and hay, whereas cows were at pasture during outdoor periods. Over the entire study, EL resulted in the enrichment of ∆11,13 CLA, ∆12,14 CLA, trans-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-13,trans-15 CLA, ∆9,11,15 CLnA, and cis-9,trans-11,trans-13 CLnA (identified for the first time in bovine milk fat) in milk fat, whereas ER and cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal in particular, increased milk fat trans-7,cis-9 CLA concentration. With the exception of the first indoor period, whole unprocessed rapeseeds decreased cis-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and trans-10,trans-12 CLA abundance. During the second indoor period, EL increased milk trans-9,cis-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentrations, but the increases in cis-9,trans-11 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA, trans-11,cis-13 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 CLnA concentrations to EL and ER were lower for the second than first indoor period. In contrast to the indoor periods, EL and ER decreased milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentrations at pasture. The extent of changes in the relative distribution and abundance of CLA and CLnA isomers in milk fat

  7. A Metalloproteomics Study on the Association of Mercury With Breast Milk in Samples From Lactating Women in the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Felipe André; Cavecci, Bruna; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Franzini, Vanessa Pezza; Santos, Ademir; de Lima Leite, Aline; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Zara, Luiz Fabrício; de Magalhães Padilha, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify metalloproteins that lose their metal ions in the presence of mercury (Hg) and bind to Hg in breast milk samples collected from the riverine population of the Madeira River, a tributary of the Amazon River. Initially, total Hg was determined from the hair of lactating women to identify individuals who were contaminated followed by a proteomic analysis of breast milk samples through two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after acetone precipitation. The presence of Hg in the obtained protein spots was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. These determinations indicated the presence of Hg in one protein spot, which was then characterized through electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Based on searches in the UniProt database, this protein spot was identified as lysozyme C. PMID:25981408

  8. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  9. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    PubMed

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  10. Effect of cereal grain and fibre supplements on the fatty acid composition of milk fat of grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Wijesundera, Chakra; Shen, Zhiping; Wales, William J; Dalley, Dawn E

    2003-08-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to determine the effects of cereal grain and fibre (hay or straw) supplements on the fatty acid composition of milk fat of grazing dairy cows in early lactation. In both experiments, grain supplements significantly increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of the endogenously synthesized 10:0-16:0 fatty acids. Of the C18 acids, the proportion of 18:0 and 18:3 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by grain supplementation, while that of 18:2 was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Irrespective of diet, 18:1 trans-11 was the most dominant trans 18:1 isomer in milk fat. In the first experiment, the proportions of the 18:1 trans-11 isomer and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 18:2 cis-9, trans-11) were highest for the pasture-only diets, and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with grain supplementation. The opposite result was observed in the second experiment, conducted in a different dairy region, suggesting that factors such as the quality of pasture on offer and the physiological state of the cow could affect the content of CLA and trans fatty acids in milk fat. In both experiments, there was a significant positive linear relationship between CLA and 18:1 trans-11. Fibre supplements had little effect on the fatty acid composition of the milk. PMID:12916819

  11. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effects of one-, two-, and three-day changes in forage dry matter (DM) on lactating cow performance and yield regardless of stage of lactation or parity. Data was compiled from two independent studies to predict overall cow performance. Study A (fall 2009) early la...

  12. Feeding of pellets rich in digestible neutral detergent fiber to lactating cows in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, I; Shoshani, E; Solomon, R; Maltz, E; Miron, J

    2006-08-01

    If the milking frequency in an automatic milking system (AMS) is increased, the intake of concentrated pellets in the robot may be raised accordingly. Consumption of a large quantity of starchy grains within a short time can impair the appetite, decrease voluntary visits to the milking stall, and lower intakes of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Therefore, the hypothesis to be tested in this study was whether conventional starchy pellets fed in the AMS could be replaced with pellets rich in digestible NDF without impairing the cows' motivation to visit a milking stall voluntarily. Fifty-four cows were paired according to age, milk yield, and days in milk, and were fed a basic mixture along the feeding lane (19.9 kg of DM/cow per d), plus a pelleted additive (approximately 5.4 kg of DM/cow per d) that they obtained in the milking stall and in the concentrate self-feeder that they could enter only after passing through the milking stall. The 2 feeding regimens differed only in the composition of the pelleted additive, which, for the control group, contained 49% starchy grain, and for the experimental group contained 25% starchy grain plus soy hulls and gluten feed as replacement for part of the grain and other low-digestible, NDF-rich feeds. Both diets resulted in similar rates of voluntary milkings (3.31 vs. 3.39 visits/cow per d). Average yields of milk and percentages of milk protein were also similar in the 2 groups. The results suggest that an alternative pellet composition can be allocated in the AMS in conjunction with basic mixture in the feeding lane, without any negative effect on appetite, milk yield, milk composition, or milking frequency of the cows. It also opens the opportunity to increase yields of milk and milk solids by increasing the amount of pelleted concentrates that can be allocated to selected high-yielding cows via the AMS, because this can be done while maintaining a high frequency of voluntary milkings. PMID:16840642

  13. Maternal obesity reduces milk lipid production in lactating mice by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase and impairing fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Saben, Jessica L; Bales, Elise S; Jackman, Matthew R; Orlicky, David; MacLean, Paul S; McManaman, James L

    2014-01-01

    Maternal metabolic and nutrient trafficking adaptations to lactation differ among lean and obese mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. Obesity is thought to impair milk lipid production, in part, by decreasing trafficking of dietary and de novo synthesized lipids to the mammary gland. Here, we report that de novo lipogenesis regulatory mechanisms are disrupted in mammary glands of lactating HF-fed obese (HF-Ob) mice. HF feeding decreased the total levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC), and this effect was exacerbated in obese mice. The relative levels of phosphorylated (inactive) ACC, were elevated in the epithelium, and decreased in the adipose stroma, of mammary tissue from HF-Ob mice compared to those of HF-fed lean (HF-Ln) mice. Mammary gland levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which catalyzes formation of inactive ACC, were also selectively elevated in mammary glands of HF-Ob relative to HF-Ln dams or to low fat fed dams. These responses correlated with evidence of increased lipid retention in mammary adipose, and decreased lipid levels in mammary epithelial cells, of HF-Ob dams. Collectively, our data suggests that maternal obesity impairs milk lipid production, in part, by disrupting the balance of de novo lipid synthesis in the epithelial and adipose stromal compartments of mammary tissue through processes that appear to be related to increased mammary gland AMPK activity, ACC inhibition, and decreased fatty acid synthesis. PMID:24849657

  14. Maternal Obesity Reduces Milk Lipid Production in Lactating Mice by Inhibiting Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase and Impairing Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Saben, Jessica L.; Bales, Elise S.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Orlicky, David; MacLean, Paul S.; McManaman, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal metabolic and nutrient trafficking adaptations to lactation differ among lean and obese mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. Obesity is thought to impair milk lipid production, in part, by decreasing trafficking of dietary and de novo synthesized lipids to the mammary gland. Here, we report that de novo lipogenesis regulatory mechanisms are disrupted in mammary glands of lactating HF-fed obese (HF-Ob) mice. HF feeding decreased the total levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC), and this effect was exacerbated in obese mice. The relative levels of phosphorylated (inactive) ACC, were elevated in the epithelium, and decreased in the adipose stroma, of mammary tissue from HF-Ob mice compared to those of HF-fed lean (HF-Ln) mice. Mammary gland levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which catalyzes formation of inactive ACC, were also selectively elevated in mammary glands of HF-Ob relative to HF-Ln dams or to low fat fed dams. These responses correlated with evidence of increased lipid retention in mammary adipose, and decreased lipid levels in mammary epithelial cells, of HF-Ob dams. Collectively, our data suggests that maternal obesity impairs milk lipid production, in part, by disrupting the balance of de novo lipid synthesis in the epithelial and adipose stromal compartments of mammary tissue through processes that appear to be related to increased mammary gland AMPK activity, ACC inhibition, and decreased fatty acid synthesis. PMID:24849657

  15. Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows consuming perennial ryegrass-and chicory-based diets.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2014-02-01

    Dry matter intakes (DMI), nutrient selection, and milk production responses of dairy cows grazing 3 herbage-based diets offered at 2 allowances were measured. The 2 allowances were 20 (low) and 30 (high) kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day and these were applied to 3 herbage types: perennial ryegrass (PRG) and chicory (CHIC+) monocultures and a mixed sward of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). The CHIC+ diet was supplemented with alfalfa hay (approximately 2 kg of DM/cow per day) to maintain dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and all diets were supplemented with energy-based pellets (6 kg of DM/cow per day). Holstein-Friesian dairy cows averaging 136 ± 30 d in milk were allocated to 4 replicates of the 6 treatments using stratified randomization procedures. Cows were adapted to their experimental diets over a 14-d period, with measurements of DMI, milk yield, and composition conducted over the following 10 d. Herbage DMI was lowest (12.8 vs. 14.0 kg of DM/d) for CHIC+ compared with the MIX and PRG, although total forage intake (grazed herbage plus hay) was similar (14.0 to 15.0 kg of DM/d) across the 3 treatments. Milk production, milk protein, and milk fat concentrations were not different between herbage types. Grazed herbage DMI increased with increasing herbage allowance and this was associated with increased milk protein concentration (3.23 to 3.34%) and total casein production (41.7 to 43.6 mg/g). Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, particularly linoleic acid, were increased in milk from cows offered the CHIC+ or the MIX diets, indicating potential benefits of chicory herbage on milk fatty acid concentrations. Although feeding CHIC+ or MIX did not increase milk yield, these herbage types could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass pasture in spring. PMID:24290818

  16. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (��4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased

  17. Effect of duration and level of supplementation of diets of lactating dairy cows with selenized yeast on selenium concentrations in milk and blood after the withdrawal of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, C R; Gill, H S

    2011-05-01

    Cows' milk containing elevated concentrations of Se provides a rich nutritional source of this essential element for meeting daily nutritional requirements or providing health benefits in humans with low immune function or at risk of cancer. An experiment involving either 2 or 6 wk of dietary supplementation with Se yeast (with the yeast supplying about 30, 40, and 60 mg of Se/d for cows supplemented for 2 wk, and about 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg of Se/d for cows supplemented for 6 wk), and 21 wk of monitoring of Se status after the withdrawal of supplementation, was undertaken between September 2008 and April 2009 using 35 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Using milk and blood Se concentrations as surrogates, the research examined the time taken for Se build-up in tissue due to supplementation of lactating dairy cows with Se yeast to dissipate back to normal levels. At the end of Se supplementation, a significant relationship was found between milk Se concentration and Se intake, whereby milk Se concentration had increased by 4.5 μg of Se/kg of milk for each mg of Se eaten per day, but no effect of duration of supplementation on this relationship was observed. At the same time, both Se intake and duration of supplementation affected blood Se concentration; it increased by 3.6 μg of Se/kg of blood for each mg of Se eaten per day, and was 86 μg of Se/kg higher after 6 wk compared with 2 wk of supplementation. After the withdrawal of Se supplementation, milk Se concentrations responded quickly to the change in the quantity of Se consumed, and again, duration of supplementation had no effect on the response, but any effect that Se intake had on milk Se had completely dissipated by 4 wk. In contrast to milk, blood Se concentrations continued to be affected by both amount and duration of Se supplementation for at least 4 mo after the withdrawal of supplementation, although by 5 mo the effects of the previous supplementation treatments had virtually disappeared. The slow

  18. Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Hexabromocyclododecanes and Tetrabromobisphenol-A in Breast Milk from United Kingdom Women Do Not Decrease over Twelve Months of Lactation.

    PubMed

    Harrad, Stuart; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa

    2015-12-01

    Conflicting evidence exists about whether concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in human milk decrease over the course of lactation. This has implications for the timing of sampling human milk for exposure assessment purposes. We examined this issue by measuring concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), the HBCD degradation products tetrabromocyclododecenes (TBCDs), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) in human milk collected in 2010-2011 from 10 first-time mothers from Birmingham, UK. To evaluate whether concentrations varied significantly over the first 12 months postpartum, 12 samples were taken-one per month-from each mother, amounting to 120 samples overall. While concentrations of most of our target contaminants displayed no significant variation (p > 0.1) over the duration of our study, significant increases were detected in concentrations of ∑TBCDs (p = 0.029, average increase 1.4%/month) and BDE-153 (p = 0.058, average increase 4.2%/month). When compared to data obtained from a different set of UK mothers from a related but geographically wider catchment area sampled contemporaneously to this study, the ratio of median concentrations of BDE-153 to BDE-99 was markedly lower in the current study (0.46 compared to 1.32). This may reflect unidentified differences in exposure of the participants in the two studies. PMID:25924207

  19. Effects of diets containing grape seed, linseed, or both on milk production traits, liver and kidney activities, and immunity of lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Nudda, A; Correddu, F; Marzano, A; Battacone, G; Nicolussi, P; Bonelli, P; Pulina, G

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of grape seed, alone or in combination with linseed, on milk production traits, immune response, and liver and kidney metabolic activity of lactating ewes. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet containing 300 g/d per head of grape seed (GS), a diet containing 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet containing a mix of 300 g/d per head of grape seed and 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with 2 wk of adaptation period and 8 wk of experimental period. Milk yield was measured and samples were collected weekly and analyzed for fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, milk urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk by jugular vein puncture and analyzed for hematological parameters, for albumin, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, protein, blood urea nitrogen, and for anti-albumin IgG, IL-6, and lymphocyte T-helper (CD4(+)) and lymphocyte T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) cells. On d 0, 45, and 60 of the trial, lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was determined in vivo on each animal by measuring skin-fold thickness (SFT) at the site of phytohemagglutinin injection. Humoral response to chicken egg albumin was stimulated by a subcutaneous injection with albumin. Dietary treatments did not affect milk yield and composition. Milk urea nitrogen and lactose were affected by diet × period. Diets did not influence hematological, kidney, and liver parameters, except for blood urea nitrogen, which decreased in LIN and increased in MIX compared with CON and GS. Dietary treatments did not alter CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD4(+)-to-CD8(+) ratio. The SFT was reduced in GS and MIX and increased in LIN compared with CON. The IgG and IL-6 were affected by diet × period. The reduction in Ig

  20. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

    2012-01-01

    Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p<0.05) between protein levels (p<0.05). The populations of rumen bacteria and fungal zoospores did not differ among treatments (p>0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p<0.05) when cows received Mago-pel supplementation. The composition of the population of bacteria, identified by real-time PCR technique, including total bacteria, methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus was similar (p>0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis, in terms of both quantity and efficiency, was enriched by Mago-pel supplementation. Milk yield was greatest in cows fed UTRS based diets with concentrate containing protein at 16% CP with Mago-pel, but were lowest without Mago-pel (p<0.05). In addition, protein level and supplementation of Mago-pel did not affect (p>0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

  1. Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Weber, D; Block, E; Smith, J F; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2013-08-01

    Primiparous (n=33) and multiparous (n=63) lactating Holstein cows (186±51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6±0.35 kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1±0.46 kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1g/d for lysine; -1g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8 g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9 g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30 g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4 g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy

  2. Kelp meal (Ascophyllum nodosum) did not improve milk yield or mitigate heat stress but increased milk iodine in mid lactation organic Jersey cows during the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kelp meal (KM) made from dry and ground Ascophyllum nodosum, a brown algae, is often used as a mineral supplement on northeastern organic dairy farms. Twenty (12 primiparous and 8 multiparous) organic Jersey cows with an initial BW of 410 kg (SD ± 39) and DIM of 135 (SD ± 52) were blocked by milk yi...

  3. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  4. Dietary carbohydrate composition modifies the milk N efficiency in late lactation cows fed low crude protein diets.

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Peyraud, J L; Lemosquet, S; Molina-Alcaide, E; Boudra, H; Nozière, P; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2014-02-01

    Nitrogen emissions from dairy cows can be readily decreased by lowering the dietary CP concentration. The main objective of this work was to test whether the milk protein yield reduction associated with low N intakes could be partially compensated for by modifying the dietary carbohydrate composition (CHO). The effects of CHO on digestion, milk N efficiency (milk N/N intake; MNE) and animal performance were studied in four Jersey cows fed 100% or 80% of the recommended protein requirements using a 4×4 Latin square design. Four iso-energetic diets were formulated to two different CHO sources (starch diets with starch content of 34.3% and NDF at 32.5%, and fiber diets with starch content of 5.5% and NDF at 49.1%) and two CP levels (Low=12.0% and Normal=16.5%). The apparent digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) and the protein supply (protein digestible in the small intestine; PDIE) were similar between starch and fiber diets. As planned, microbial N flow (MNF) to the duodenum, estimated from the urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, was similar between Low and Normal CP diets. However, the MNF and the efficiency of microbial synthesis (g of microbial N/kg apparently DOMI) were higher for starch v. fiber diets. Milk and milk N fractions (CP, true protein, non-protein N (NPN)) yield were higher for starch compared with fiber diets and for Normal v. Low CP diets. Fecal N excretion was similar across dietary treatments. Despite a higher milk N ouput with starch v. fiber diets, the CHO modified neither the urinary N excretion nor the milk urea-N (MUN) concentration. The milk protein yield relative to both N and PDIE intakes was improved with starch compared with fiber diets. Concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, urea and Glu increased and those of glucose and Ala decreased in plasma of cows fed starch v. fiber diets. On the other hand, plasma concentration of albumin, urea, insulin and His increased in cows fed Normal compared with Low CP diets. This study showed

  5. Limited Contribution of Mucosal IgA to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Response and Virus Envelope Evolution in Breast Milk of SIV-Infected, Lactating Rhesus Monkeys▿

    PubMed Central

    Permar, Sallie R.; Wilks, Andrew B.; Ehlinger, Elizabeth P.; Kang, Helen H.; Mahlokozera, Tatenda; Coffey, Rory T.; Carville, Angela; Letvin, Norman L.; Seaman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Breast milk transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an important mode of infant HIV acquisition. Interestingly, the majority of infants remain uninfected during prolonged virus exposure via breastfeeding, raising the possibility that immune components in milk prevent mucosal virus transmission. HIV-specific antibody responses are detectable in the milk of HIV-infected women and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected monkeys; however, the role of these humoral responses in virus neutralization and local virus quasispecies evolution has not been characterized. In this study, four lactating rhesus monkeys were inoculated with SIVmac251 and monitored for SIV envelope-specific humoral responses and virus evolution in milk and plasma throughout infection. While the kinetics and breadth of the SIV-specific IgG and IgA responses in milk were similar to those in plasma, the magnitude of the milk responses was considerably lower than that of the plasma responses. Furthermore, a neutralizing antibody response against the inoculation virus was not detected in milk samples at 1 year after infection, despite a measurable autologous neutralizing antibody response in plasma samples obtained from three of four monkeys. Interestingly, while IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin in milk, the milk SIV envelope-specific IgA response was lower in magnitude and demonstrated more limited neutralizing capacity against a T-cell line-adapted SIV compared to those of the milk IgG response. Finally, amino acid mutations in the envelope gene product of SIV variants in milk and plasma samples occurred in similar numbers and at similar positions, indicating that the humoral immune pressure in milk does not drive distinct virus evolution in the breast milk compartment. PMID:21041730

  6. Mother milk and the Indonesian economy: a major national resource.

    PubMed

    Rohde, J E

    1981-01-01

    Lactating Indonesian mothers contribute a value of US $520 million annually to the economy. Rather than protect and increase the production of this valuable resource, diverse influences are acting to undermine and reduce maternal maternal lactation threatening great social and economic losses to the country. Strong affirmative action on the part of the government is needed to avoid further loss of the great natural resource of mother's milk. A lactating mother produces 180 liters of milk for her baby in the 1st year and 110 liters in the 2nd year. Numerous studies of milk protein, fat, and carbohydrates show that Indonesian mothers produce milk of the highest nutritional value and that this high quality is preserved even in mothers who are undernourished. Total milk production in Indonesia calculated from average daily milk volume and duration of lactation, if all Indonesian mothers followed the rural feeding pattern, is 1315 million liters. If all mothers "modernized" to the urban pattern, production would drop to 582 million liters, or less than half. The net value of mother's milk calculated as its retail value less production costs is roughly $400 million. The true value of mother's milk far exceeds its commercial value. It contains a myriad of immunologically active factors protecting the infant from infections, allergies, asthma, and even death. The relative risk of diarrhea among bottle feeders is about 5-8 times those infants who are breastfed. A reduction in number of mothers breastfeeding by only 25% could lead to a doubling of the total cases of diarrhea. About 5% of women will conceive before resuming menstruation, but 90% remain infertile until return of menses. In general a women is protected for roughly 75% as long as she lactates, particularly if lactation is frequent and bottle substitutes are not used. The current breastfeeding pattern accounts for roughly 4.5 million couple years of contraception annually. The World Health Organization and the

  7. Investigation of the persistence of nitroxynil residues in milk from lactating dairy cows by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Michelle; Bloemhoff, Yris; Furey, Ambrose; Sayers, Riona; Danaher, Martin

    2011-07-27

    Nitroxynil is an anthelmintic used in the treatment of liver fluke. In this study, six dairy cows were treated during lactation with Trodax, a 34% solution containing nitroxynil as its N-ethylglucamine salt, indicated for the treatment of fascioliasis in cattle and sheep. Samples were collected twice daily for 16 days and later at weekly intervals up to 58 days post-treatment. Nitroxynil residues were extracted from milk samples using acetonitrile; magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride were added to induce liquid-liquid partitioning and purified by dispersive solid phase extraction for clean-up. Nitroxynil was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in negative ionization mode. The limit of detection (CCα) of the method is 0.24 μg/kg. Maximum concentration of nitroxynil in the samples was in the range of 688-1358 μg/kg, with levels persisting for 58 days in four of the six lactating cows. Incurred nitroxynil samples were treated with sulfatase and β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia ; the results indicated the presence of glucuronide conjugates in samples at early withdrawal times. At later withdrawal times the concentration of free nitroxynil was lower than the concentration in the control samples, indicating potential degradation during enzymatic treatment. PMID:21657788

  8. Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Dubreuil, P; Daigneault, J; Couture, Y; Guay, P; Landry, D

    2001-01-01

    Eight healthy, non-pregnant, crossbred Holstein dairy cows (557-682 kg) within their first 3 months of lactation (13-21.5 kg of milk/day) were used. Cows were kept in tie stalls for the whole experiment. The 8 cows were randomly assigned to 2 (IM and SC) 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design experiments. Doses of procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300000 IU/mL) in each square were 7000, 14000, 21000 and 28000 IU/kg and were injected IM or SC once daily for 5 consecutive days. Volumes of PPG per site of injection never exceeded 20 mL. Blood was collected to determine the Cmax, Tmax, and AUC; urine and milk were also taken to measure the persistence of PPG in these fluids. Results show that serum Cmax and Tmax were only slightly affected by increasing the doses or the route of administration, whereas the AUC was linearly increased in relation to the dose injected in both modes of injection. In the urine, Cmax varied from 160 to 388 IU/mL and Tmax from 72-120 h during 5 consecutive days of PPG injection. A dose effect in Cmax was observed only for the IM route of administration and no variation (P > 0.05) was found between the IM and SC routes. Milk Cmax concentrations were only increased by the dose regimen in the IM group. At doses of 21000 and 28000 IU/kg, the IM group had a higher (P > 0.05) Cmax when compared with the SC groups. Milk PPG residues were not detectable over 96 h following the last IM injection, independently of the dose injected. However milk PPG residues were detected for up to 132 h following the last SC injection. These results show that when PPG is injected IM once daily in volumes not exceeding 20 mL/site at doses as high as 28000 IU/kg, the withdrawal period should be at least 96 h. Therefore, in the present model, there was no advantage to inject PPG by SC route to improve PPG kinetic parameters as the AUC, Cmax, or Tmax. PMID:11480523

  9. EVALUATION OF MILK SOMATIC CELLS AS A SOURCE OF MRNA FOR STUDY OF MAMMARY GLAND LIPOGENSIS IN LACTATING BEEF COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare mRNA levels for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) extracted from mammary gland and from somatic cell pellets of the milk from each mammary gland. Eighteen primiparous beef cows (BW = 411 ± ...

  10. Shifts in Bacterial Community Composition in the Rumen of Lactating Dairy Cows Under Conditions of Milk Fat Depression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen ruminally cannulated dairy cattle were fed a series of diets (in 28-d periods) designed to elicit different degrees of milk fat depression (MFD) for the purpose of relating MFD to ruminal bacterial populations. Cows were fed a TMR containing 25% starch (DM basis), supplied as corn silage, ...

  11. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical agent to suppress ruminal protozoa (RP), and to assess the effects of RP suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In experiment 1, six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in ...

  12. Milk yield and lactation stage are associated with positive results to ELISA for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows from Northern Antioquia, Colombia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Correa-Valencia, Nathalia María; Ramírez, Nicolás Fernando; Olivera, Martha; Fernández-Silva, Jorge Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Paratuberculosis is a slow-developing infectious disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enterocolitis. This disease has a variable incubation period from 6 months to over 15 years and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Some studies have been conducted in cattle during the last decades in Colombia. However, those studies were designed using relatively small populations and were not aimed to establish prevalence. This study aimed to determine the MAP seroprevalence in selected dairy herds and to explore risk factors associated with the serology results. Serum samples and related data were collected from 696 randomly selected bovines in 28 dairy herds located in 12 different districts in one of the main dairy municipalities in Colombia (San Pedro de los Milagros). The samples were analyzed using a commercial ELISA kit. The information on risk factors was analyzed using a logistic regression. The apparent seroprevalence was 3.6 % (1/28) at the herd level and 2 % (14/696) at the animal level. The number of days in milk production between 100 and 200 days, and over 200 days as well as the daily milk production between 20 and 40 L/cow, and over 40 L/cow were associated with MAP seropositivity with odds ratios of 4.42, 3.45, 2.53, and 20.38, respectively. This study demonstrates the MAP seroprevalence in dairy herds from Antioquia, Colombia and the possible relationship between MAP seropositivity, milk yield, and lactation stage. PMID:27165342

  13. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

  14. Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feeding interventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairy farms of Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John A; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Wichtel, Jeff; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    There is limited field-based research and recommendations on the effect of cattle feeding management practices on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) for the growing dairy industry in Kenya. This controlled trial aimed to determine the effect of feeding locally produced dairy meal (DM) on early lactation daily milk production (DMP) on Kenyan SDF, controlling for other factors associated with DMP. Privately owned, recently calved cows (n=111) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of feeding recommendations for DM (meeting predicted DM requirements by: (1) 100%; (2) 50%; or (3) feeding by the farmer's discretion). DM was provided for free to groups 1 and 2 to ensure they had sufficient DM to feed to the recommendations. Data collection on cow and farm characteristics occurred biweekly for a 60-day period post-calving starting in June 2013. A repeated measures multivariable linear regression model was used on the DMP outcome variable. With variability in DM consumption within feeding groups due to variability in DMP, actual DM fed was assessed as an independent variable rather than assigned feeding groups. DMP was positively associated with each kg/day of DM fed (0.53kg/day), cow weight (0.13kg/day), feeding DM in the month prior to calving (1.42kg/day), and feeding high protein forage (0.41kg/day), and was negatively associated with having mastitis (-0.30kg/day). In interaction terms, taller cows had higher DMP than shorter cows, whereas heifers (first parity cows) had similar DMP regardless of height. Also, thin cows (2+ parity with body condition score<2.5 out of 5) produced less milk (1.0kg/day less) than cows with a better body condition score at calving,whereas thin heifers produced more milk (2.0kg/day more) than heifers in better body condition-this association is possibly due to a small unrepresentative sample size of heifers. In conclusion, feeding DM in the month prior to calving, improving body condition in cows prior to calving, and enhancing dietary DM

  15. Human Milk Cells and Lipids Conserve Numerous Known and Novel miRNAs, Some of Which Are Differentially Expressed during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-01-01

    Human milk (HM) is rich in miRNAs, which are thought to contribute to infant protection and development. We used deep sequencing to profile miRNAs in the cell and lipid fractions of HM obtained post-feeding from 10 lactating women in months 2, 4, and 6 postpartum. In both HM fractions, 1,195 mature known miRNAs were identified, which were positively associated with the cell (p = 0.048) and lipid (p = 0.010) content of HM. An additional 5,167 novel miRNA species were predicted, of which 235 were high-confidence miRNAs. HM cells contained more known miRNAs than HM lipids (1,136 and 835 respectively, p<0.001). Although the profile of the novel miRNAs was very different between cells and lipids, with the majority conserved in the cell fraction and being mother-specific, 2/3 of the known miRNAs common between cells and lipids were similarly expressed (p>0.05). Great similarities between the two HM fractions were also found in the profile of the top 20 known miRNAs. These were largely similar also between the three lactation stages examined, as were the total miRNA concentration, and the number and expression of the known miRNAs common between cells and lipids (p>0.05). Yet, approximately a third of all known miRNAs were differentially expressed during the first 6 months of lactation (p<0.05), with more pronounced miRNA upregulation seen in month 4. These findings indicate that although the total miRNA concentration of HM cells and lipids provided to the infant does not change in first 6 months of lactation, the miRNA composition is altered, particularly in month 4 compared to months 2 and 6. This may reflect the remodeling of the gland in response to infant feeding patterns, which usually change after exclusive breastfeeding, suggesting adaptation to the infant’s needs. PMID:27074017

  16. Evaluation of between-cow variation in milk urea and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentrations and the association with nitrogen utilization and diet digestibility in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, P; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Krizsan, S J; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of milk urea N (MUN) are influenced by dietary crude protein concentration and intake and could therefore be used as a biomarker of the efficiency of N utilization for milk production (milk N/N intake; MNE) in lactating cows. In the present investigation, data from milk-production trials (production data set; n=1,804 cow/period observations from 21 change-over studies) and metabolic studies involving measurements of nutrient flow at the omasum in lactating cows (flow data set; n=450 cow/period observations from 29 studies) were used to evaluate the influence of between-cow variation on the relationship of MUN with MNE, urinary N (UN) output, and diet digestibility. All measurements were made on cows fed diets based on grass silage supplemented with a range of protein supplements. Data were analyzed by mixed-model regression analysis with diet within experiment and period within experiment as random effects, allowing the effect of diet and period to be excluded. Between-cow coefficient of variation in MUN concentration and MNE was 0.13 and 0.07 in the production data set and 0.11 and 0.08 in the flow data set, respectively. Based on residual variance, the best model for predicting MNE developed from the production data set was MNE (g/kg)=238 + 7.0 × milk yield (MY; kg/d) - 0.064 × MY(2) - 2.7 × MUN (mg/dL) - 0.10 body weight (kg). For the flow data set, including both MUN and rumen ammonia N concentration with MY in the model accounted for more variation in MNE than when either term was used with MY alone. The best model for predicting UN excretion developed from the production data set (n=443) was UN (g/d)=-29 + 4.3 × dry matter intake (kg/d) + 4.3 × MUN + 0.14 × body weight. Between-cow variation had a smaller influence on the association of MUN with MNE and UN output than published estimates of these relationships based on treatment means, in which differences in MUN generally arise from variation in dietary crude protein concentration. For

  17. Vaccination of Heifers with Anaflatoxin Improves the Reduction of Aflatoxin B1 Carry Over in Milk of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Giovati, Laura; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Cerioli, Carla; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    It was previously reported that injection of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), together with Freund's adjuvant, was effective in inducing in cows a long lasting titer of anti-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) antibodies (Abs), cross-reacting with other aflatoxins, which were able to hinder, proportionally to their titer, the secretion of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. According to anti-AFB1 Ab titer, 50% of the vaccinated cows were recognized as high responder animals. In an attempt to prepare a more effective formulation for vaccination of cows, it was compared the immunogenicity, in Holstein Friesian heifers, of AnAFB1 covalently conjugated to KLH or to recombinant diphtheria toxin (CRM197) molecules, and injected together with various adjuvants. This study demonstrated that injection of AnAFB1 conjugated to KLH and mixed with complete (priming) and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (boosters), as in the previous schedule of immunization, was the most effective regimen for inducing Ab responses against AFB1, although pre-calving administration could increase the effectiveness of vaccination, resulting in 100% high responder animals. After one booster dose at the beginning of the milk production cycle, anti-AFB1 Ab titers were comparable to those recorded at the end of the immunization schedule, and proved to be effective in reducing significantly AFB1 carry over, as AFM1, from feed to milk. Pre-calving vaccination of dairy heifers with conjugated AnAFB1, adjuvated with complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant, may represent the most effective tool for preventing the public health hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:24714096

  18. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lukas; Mueller, André; Barthel, Christiane; Snijders, Bianca; Jansen, Margje; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Huber, Machteld; Kummeling, Ischa; von Mandach, Ursula; Steinhart, Hans; Thijs, Carel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study have been analysed. The participants had documented varying lifestyles in relation to the use of conventional or organic products. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum and analysed for fatty acid composition. The content of rumenic acid (the main CLA) increased in a statistically significant way while going from a conventional diet (no organic dairy/meat products, 0.25 weight % (wt%), n 186) to a moderately organic diet (50-90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.29 wt%, n 33, P = 0.02) and to a strict organic diet (>90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.34 wt%, n 37, P milk can be modulated if breastfeeding mothers replace conventional dairy and/or meat products by organic ones. A potential contribution of CLA and TVA to health improvement is briefly discussed. PMID:17349086

  19. Vaccination of heifers with anaflatoxin improves the reduction of aflatoxin b1 carry over in milk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giovati, Laura; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Cerioli, Carla; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    It was previously reported that injection of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), together with Freund's adjuvant, was effective in inducing in cows a long lasting titer of anti-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) antibodies (Abs), cross-reacting with other aflatoxins, which were able to hinder, proportionally to their titer, the secretion of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. According to anti-AFB1 Ab titer, 50% of the vaccinated cows were recognized as high responder animals. In an attempt to prepare a more effective formulation for vaccination of cows, it was compared the immunogenicity, in Holstein Friesian heifers, of AnAFB1 covalently conjugated to KLH or to recombinant diphtheria toxin (CRM197) molecules, and injected together with various adjuvants. This study demonstrated that injection of AnAFB1 conjugated to KLH and mixed with complete (priming) and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (boosters), as in the previous schedule of immunization, was the most effective regimen for inducing Ab responses against AFB1, although pre-calving administration could increase the effectiveness of vaccination, resulting in 100% high responder animals. After one booster dose at the beginning of the milk production cycle, anti-AFB1 Ab titers were comparable to those recorded at the end of the immunization schedule, and proved to be effective in reducing significantly AFB1 carry over, as AFM1, from feed to milk. Pre-calving vaccination of dairy heifers with conjugated AnAFB1, adjuvated with complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant, may represent the most effective tool for preventing the public health hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:24714096

  20. Determination and quantitation of sildenafil and its major metabolite in the breast milk of a lactating woman.

    PubMed

    Wollein, Uwe; Schech, Bernd; Hardt, Jochen; Schramek, Nicholas

    2016-02-20

    A heavily pregnant woman was treated with Revatio(®) (Sildenafil) against idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, prior to and after her accouchement. To investigate the transfer of sildenafil into breast milk and its metabolism shortly before breastfeeding to the neonatal, a new analytical method was developed and validated, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, while using linear ion trap scan mode experiments, further metabolites could be identified. Sample preparation was carried out, using solid-phase extraction. For quantification of sildenafil and its major metabolite N-desmethylsildenafil, sildenafil-d8 was used as an internal standard. Within a time frame of 17h covering two Revatio(®) intakes and three breast milk samplings, a concentration range from 1.64 to 4.49ng/ml (sildenafil) and from 1.18 to 1.82ng/ml (N-desmethylsildenafil) could be observed. The current method proved to be accurate and precise in a very low concentration range and establishes the first reported determination of sildenafil and N-desmethylsildenafil in human breast milk. PMID:26717019

  1. Assessment of infant dose through milk in a lactating woman taking amisulpride and desvenlafaxine for treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Ilett, Kenneth F; Watt, Felice; Hackett, L Peter; Kohan, Rolland; Teoh, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    This study presents the case of a 35-year-old breastfeeding mother who delivered her fourth child 5 months previously and was prescribed 100 mg amisulpride twice daily and 250 mg desvenlafaxine in the morning for treatment-resistant depression. Arriving at this regimen took approximately 2 months postbirth. Because she was keen to continue breastfeeding her infant, and published data on the use of amisulpride and desvenlafaxine were very limited, the clinical team sought assistance from the therapeutic drug monitoring laboratory to quantify infant dose-exposure to guide consideration of continuing breastfeeding. A sampling schedule for milk and plasma from mother and plasma from her infant was agreed and drug concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Absolute (theoretic) infant dose (μg/kg/d) was calculated as the product of the average concentration in milk and an assumed milk intake of 0.15 L/kg/day (294 mg/kg/day for desvenlafaxine and 183 mg/kg/day for amisulpride), and relative infant dose was estimated as absolute infant dose expressed as a percentage of the maternal dose in μg/kg/day (7.8% for desvenlafaxine and 6.1% for amisulpride). Consistent with the infant being partially breastfed, the ratio of drug in the infant's plasma to that in mother's plasma was lower at 1.7% for desvenlafaxine and 3.9% for amisulpride. A pediatric assessment of the infant found achievement of expected developmental progress for age and no detectable drug-related adverse effects. Assessing the safety of breastfeeding was difficult because it involved simultaneous use of two drugs for which there was limited previous experience. However, after discussion of the infant dose-exposure data and lack of adverse effects, the mother elected to continue partial breastfeeding for the next few months. The clinical team plans a reassessment of the infant's progress in 3 months. PMID:20926994

  2. Bayesian evaluation of budgets for endemic disease control: An example using management changes to reduce milk somatic cell count early in the first lactation of Irish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Mc Coy, F; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine budgets for specific management interventions to control heifer mastitis in Irish dairy herds as an example of evidence synthesis and 1-step Bayesian micro-simulation in a veterinary context. Budgets were determined for different decision makers based on their willingness to pay. Reducing the prevalence of heifers with a high milk somatic cell count (SCC) early in the first lactation could be achieved through herd level management interventions for pre- and peri-partum heifers, however the cost effectiveness of these interventions is unknown. A synthesis of multiple sources of evidence, accounting for variability and uncertainty in the available data is invaluable to inform decision makers around likely economic outcomes of investing in disease control measures. One analytical approach to this is Bayesian micro-simulation, where the trajectory of different individuals undergoing specific interventions is simulated. The classic micro-simulation framework was extended to encompass synthesis of evidence from 2 separate statistical models and previous research, with the outcome for an individual cow or herd assessed in terms of changes in lifetime milk yield, disposal risk, and likely financial returns conditional on the interventions being simultaneously applied. The 3 interventions tested were storage of bedding inside, decreasing transition yard stocking density, and spreading of bedding evenly in the calving area. Budgets for the interventions were determined based on the minimum expected return on investment, and the probability of the desired outcome. Budgets for interventions to control heifer mastitis were highly dependent on the decision maker's willingness to pay, and hence minimum expected return on investment. Understanding the requirements of decision makers and their rational spending limits would be useful for the development of specific interventions for particular farms to control heifer mastitis, and other

  3. Effects of misty-fan cooling and supplemental rbST on rumen function and milk production of crossbred Holstein cattle during early, mid and late lactation in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Chanchai, Wilaiporn; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2010-04-01

    Two groups of five crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle were housed in normal shade only (NS) as non-cooled cows and in shaded housing with misty-fan cooling (MF) as cooled cows. The cows were treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in early, mid and late lactation with three consecutive injections of rbST in every 14 days. Ambient temperatures and the temperature humidity index in the NS barn were significantly higher than those of the MF barn, whereas relative humidity in MF was higher than that of NS barn. The DMI of cooled cows were higher than those of non-cooled cows, and cooled cows exhibited more response to rbST treatment. Exogenous rbST significantly increased milk yield throughout lactation. The rbST-treated cows had higher total ruminal fermentation products as volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen than the non-rbST treated cows and associated changes were greater in cooled animals in all stages of lactation. Exogenous rbST increased the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen in both groups. These results suggest that the changes in ruminal fermentation with greater production of total VFA and NH(3)N in response to rbST in crossbred cows whether under misty-fan cooling or not, is in part through an increase in feed intake, thereby making more substrate available to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. PMID:20438505

  4. Cocaine and crack cocaine abuse by pregnant or lactating mothers and analysis of its biomarkers in meconium and breast milk by LC-MS-A review.

    PubMed

    D'Avila, Felipe Bianchini; Limberger, Renata Pereira; Fröehlich, Pedro Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Abusive use of drugs is a public health problem worldwide. The use of these substances by pregnant or lactating women can have many serious side effects in newborns. Among the commonest causes of addiction in drug users is cocaine in powdered form, inhaled, intravenously injected or smoked form (crack). Fast screening and a confirmation test using high specificity and sensitivity instruments such as LC-MS or GC/MS, can provide data to qualify and quantify chemical substances present in biological samples such as breast milk or meconium. Cocaine and/or crack can be detected through biomarkers or the unchanged molecule, enabling the form of cocaine use to be distinguished through the analytes. These methods must be carefully developed and validated according to internationally recognized guidelines. Thus, the study of biological matrices in which it can be detected through the development of simple and quick analytical methods can help prevent intoxication and diagnose the symptoms of dependency such as seizures, especially in babies, providing appropriate medical care. PMID:26827634

  5. An examination of two concentrate allocation strategies which are based on the early lactation milk yield of autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of two concentrate feeding strategies offered with a grass silage and maize silage diet on the dry matter (DM) intake, milk production (MP) and estimated energy balance of autumn calved dairy cows. Over a 2-year period, 180 autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows were examined. Within year, cows were blocked into three MP sub-groups (n=9) (high (HMP), medium (MMP) and low (LMP)) based on the average MP data from weeks 3 and 4 of lactation. Within a block cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=54), flat rate (FR) concentrate feeding or feed to yield (FY) based on MP sub-group. Cows on the FR treatment were offered a fixed rate of concentrate (5.5 kg DM/cow per day) irrespective of MP sub-group. In the FY treatment HMP, MMP and LMP cows were allocated 7.3, 5.5 and 3.7 kg DM of concentrate, respectively. The mean concentrate offered to the FR and FY treatments was the same. On the FR treatment there was no significant difference in total dry matter intake (TDMI, 17.3 kg) between MP sub-groups. In the FY treatment, however, the TDMI of HMP-FY was 2.2 kg greater than MMP-FY, and 4.5 kg greater than LMP-FY (15.2 kg DM). The milk yield of LMP-FR was 3.5 kg less than the mean of the HMP-FR and MMP-FR treatments (24.5 kg). The milk yield of the HMP-FY treatment was 3.6 and 7.9 kg greater than the MMP-FY and LMP-FY treatments, respectively. The difference in MP between the HMP sub-groups was 2.6 kg, which translates to a response of 1.4 kg of milk per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered. There was no significant difference in MP between the two LMP sub-groups; however, MP increased 0.8 kg per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered between cows on the LMP-FR and LMP-FY treatments. The estimated energy balance was positive for cows on the LMP-FR treatment, but negative for cows on the other treatments. The experiment highlights the variation within a herd in MP response to concentrate, as cows with a

  6. Human breast milk excretion of iodine-131 following diagnostic and therapeutic administration to a lactating patient with Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dydek, G.J.; Blue, P.W.

    1988-03-01

    Previous reports on the excretion of /sup 131/I into human breast milk have recommended discontinuance of breast feeding from 1 to 12 days following diagnostic tracer doses of /sup 131/I. Recent excretion models have calculated that breast feeding could safely resume 56 days following a 5 microCi (0.185 MBq) /sup 131/I maternal tracer dose. We studied a postpartum patient with Graves' disease following first an uptake dose of 8.6 microCi (0.317 MBq) and then for 38 days following a 9.6 mCi (355 MBq) therapy dose of Na/sup 131/I. We calculated from our data that although nursing could not be safely resumed for 46 days following the 8.6-microCi uptake dose, nursing could resume in this patient 8 days after a 100-nCi (3.7 KBq) dose. Extrapolating this data to impure /sup 123/I (p, 2n or p, 5n) we feel that standard 100-microCi (3.7 MBq) doses of either /sup 123/I preparation is not suitable if nursing is to be resumed.

  7. The origin and evolution of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of mammary glands are the defining morphological feature of mammals, and a successful lactation is crucial to mammalian reproductive strategies. Among mammalian species, the nature of lactation and the composition of milk vary greatly. The evolution of lactation and its diversity amon...

  8. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  9. "Hard Science" for Gifted 1st Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGennaro, April

    2006-01-01

    "Hard Science" is designed to teach 1st grade gifted students accurate and high level science concepts. It is based upon their experience of the world and attempts to build a foundation for continued love and enjoyment of science. "Hard Science" provides field experiences and opportunities for hands-on discovery working beside experts in the field…

  10. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  11. Short-term administration of rhGH increases markers of cellular proliferation, but not milk protein gene expression in normal lactating women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth hormone is one of few pharmacologic agents known to augment milk production in humans. We hypothesized that recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases the expression of cell proliferation and milk protein synthesis genes. Sequential milk and blood samples collected over four days were obtained fro...

  12. Release of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in response to machine milking of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, E.; Medica, P.; Cravana, C.; Ferlazzo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objective to obtain insight into the dynamics of the release of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in response to machine milking in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 healthy multiparous lactating Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in the study. Animals were at the 4th-5th month of pregnancy and were submitted to machine milking 2 times daily. Blood samples were collected in the morning: In baseline conditions, immediately before milking and after milking; and in the early afternoon: In baseline conditions, before milking and after milking, for 2 consecutive days. Endocrine variables were measured in duplicate, using a commercial radioimmunoassay for circulating β-endorphin and ACTH concentrations and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay for cortisol concentration. Results: Data obtained showed a similar biphasic cortisol secretion of lactating dairy cows, with a significant increase of cortisol concentration after morning machine milking, at both the 1st and the 2nd day (p<0.05), and a decrease after afternoon machine milking at the 2nd day (p<0.01). One-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of the machine milking on the cortisol changes, at both morning (f=22.96; p<0.001) and afternoon (f=15.10; p<0.01) milking, respectively. Two-way RM ANOVA showed a significant interaction between cortisol changes at the 1st and the 2nd day (f=7.94; p<0.0002), and between the sampling times (f=6.09; p<0.001). Conversely, no significant effects of the machine milking were observed on β-endorphin and ACTH changes, but only a moderate positive correlation (r=0.94; p<0.06) after milking stimuli. Conclusions: A wide range of cortisol concentrations reported in this study showed the complex dynamic patterns of the homeostatic mechanisms involved during machine milking in dairy cows, suggesting that β-endorphin and ACTH were not the main factors that caused the adrenocortical response

  13. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past ... milk, infant levels in blood, potential effects in breast-feeding infants and on lactation itself. The American Academy ...

  14. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  15. Ergovaline in tall fescue and its effect on health, milk quality, biochemical parameters, oxidative status, and drug metabolizing enzymes of lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zbib, N; Repussard, C; Tardieu, D; Priymenko, N; Domange, C; Guerre, P

    2014-11-01

    Ergovaline (EV) produced by symbiotic association of Epichloë coenophiala with tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) causes toxicoses in livestock. In this study, 16 lactating ewes (BW 76.0 ± 0.6 kg) were used to determine the effects of feeding endophyte-infected (FE+) or endophyte free (FE-) tall fescue hay on animal health and performances and to investigate the putative mechanisms of action of EV. The mean EV concentrations in FE+ and FE- diets were 497 ± 52 and <5 µg/kg DM, respectively. Decreased hay consumption and BW were observed in the FE+ group. Prolactin (PRL) concentrations decreased (P < 0.02) in the FE+ group from d 3 to 28 of the study compared to the FE- group, but no consequences were observed on milk quantity or quality. Skin temperature and the thermocirculation index were lower (P < 0.05) in the FE+ than in the FE- group from d 3 to 7, but this effect disappeared from d 14 to 28. Hematocrit, mineral and biochemical, and enzymatic analyses of plasma revealed no differences between the 2 groups. Measurement of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities revealed a decrease in the activities of plasma catalase (P < 0.05), kidney glutathione reductase and peroxidase and in kidney total glutathione and malondialdehyde contents (P < 0.02) in ewes fed FE+. Hepatic flavin monooxygenase enzyme activities decreased (P < 0.01) in ewes fed FE+, except for a marked increase in the demethylation of erythromycin. This activity is linked to cytochrome P4503A content and is known to be involved in ergot alkaloid metabolism. Glutathione S-transferase activity in the kidneys decreased (P < 0.02) in the FE+ group, whereas no difference was observed in uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase activity in the liver or kidneys. The reversibility of the effect of FE+ hay on skin temperature and the increase in erythromycin N-demethylase activity may contribute to the relative resistance of ewes to EV toxicity. PMID:25253811

  16. Effects on milk yield of milking interval regularity and teat cup attachment failures with robotic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Busto, Isabel

    2005-02-01

    A database consisting of 35291 milking records from 83 cows was built over a period of 10 months with the objectives of studying the effect of teat cup attachment failures and milking interval regularity on milk production with an automated milking system (AMS). The database collected records of lactation number, days in milk (DIM), milk production, interval between milkings (for both the entire udder and individual quarters in case of a teat cup attachment failure) and average and peak milk flows for each milking. The weekly coefficient of variation (CV) of milking intervals was used as a measure of milking regularity. DIM, milking intervals, and CV of milking intervals were divided into four categories coinciding with the four quartiles of their respective distributions. The data were analysed by analysis of variance with cow as a random effect and lactation number, DIM, the occurrence of a milking failure, and the intervals between milkings or the weekly CV of milking intervals as fixed effects. The incidence of attachment failures was 7.6% of total milkings. Milk production by quarters affected by a milking failure following the failure was numerically greater owing to the longer interval between milkings. When accounting for the effect of milking intervals, milk production by affected quarters following a milking failure was 26% lower than with regular milkings. However, the decrease in milk production by quarters affected by milking failures was more severe as DIM increased. Average and peak milk flows by quarters affected by a milking failure were lower than when milkings occurred normally. However, milk production recovered its former level within seven milkings following a milking failure. Uneven frequency (weekly CV of milking intervals >27%) decreased daily milk yield, and affected multiparous more negatively than primiparous cows. PMID:15747737

  17. Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, internal struts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, internal struts- nose beams. - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  18. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  19. Chain-length dependency of interactions of medium-chain fatty acids with glucose metabolism in acini isolated from lactating rat mammary glands. A putative feed-back to control milk lipid synthesis from glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Heesom, K J; Souza, P F; Ilic, V; Williamson, D H

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a series of medium-chain fatty acids (C6-C12) on glucose metabolism in isolated acini from lactating rat mammary glands have been studied. Hexanoate (C6) octanoate (C8) and decanoate (C10), but not laurate (C12), decreased [1-14C]glucose conversion into [14C]lipid and the production of 14CO2 (an index of the pentose phosphate pathway). With hexanoate and octanoate, glucose utilization was decreased, whereas decanoate had a slight stimulatory effect on glucose utilization, but there was a large accumulation of lactate. Addition of dichloroacetate (an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) decreased this accumulation of lactate and stimulated the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid and 14CO2. Insulin had no effect on the rate of glucose utilization in the presence of hexanoate. It stimulated the rate in the presence of octanoate and laurate and increased the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid in the presence of octanoate, decanoate or laurate. The major fate of 1-14C-labelled medium-chain fatty acids (C6, C8 and C12) was conversion into [14C]lipid. The proportion converted into 14CO2 decreased with increasing chain length, whereas the rate of [14C]lipid formation increased. It is concluded that the interactions between medium-chain fatty acids and glucose metabolism represent a feed-back mechanism to control milk lipid synthesis, and this may be important when milk accumulates in the gland. PMID:1731763

  20. Effects of grain source and marginal change in lucerne hay particle size on feed sorting, eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Yang, W Z

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of grain source and lucerne hay (LH) particle length on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein dairy cows (175 ± 21 days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-days periods. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with barley grain alone or equal blend of barley and maize grains combined with short (15 mm) and long (30 mm) LH. Diets were fed ad libitum as total mixed ration with a concentrate to forage ratio of 60:40. Interactions between grain source and LH particle length on feed particle distributions, sorting index, chewing activity, and milk production were minimal. Partially replacing barley grain with maize in the diet overall did not change diurnal distributions of particles retained on the sieves of Penn State Particle Separator but reduced the proportion of particles on 1.18-sieve and increased that of particles on pan (p < 0.05). Grain source did not affect sorting index and chewing activity. However, feeding long LH increased (p < 0.01) intakes of long particles retained on 19- and 8-mm of sieve, prolonged (p < 0.05) eating time, and lowered eating rate (p < 0.05). Interestingly, cows fed with long LH ate more coarse particle during critical-early time post feeding (i. e. 1.5 h), where eating time increased and eating rate decreased (p < 0.05). Increasing particle length of dietary LH tended to increase milk fat-to-protein ratio (p = 0.08). The results suggested that the increased eating time and decreased eating rate as a result of marginally increasing LH particle length would be beneficial to alleviate reduction of ruminal pH and milk fat percentage following the ingestion of highly fermentable diets. PMID:24661569

  1. Effect of stage of lactation on the immune competence of goat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ciliberti, M G; Marino, R; Sevi, A

    2016-05-01

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate the effect of stage of lactation on immune competence of the goat mammary gland. The prevalence and etiology of intramammary infections and cytokine pattern were studied in individual caprine milk during lactation. A total of 1,200 caprine milk samples were collected during early, mid, and late lactation (less than 40 d, from 110 to 130 d, and more than 200 d in lactation, respectively) and analyzed for milk quality, bacterial cell load, and cytokine pattern. Contagious and environmental pathogens associated with intramammary infection were isolated from caprine milk. Nutritional components of caprine milk were affected by stage of lactation; fat, protein, casein, and whey protein increased along with lactation due to the lowest milk yield. Lactose content showed an opposite trend, with a reduced percentage passing from early to late lactation. The impaired rheological properties detected in early and late lactation milk were associated with a modification of milk quality. An impairment of microbial quality was detected at the end of lactation as a consequence of a major susceptibility of mammary gland to infections. The percentage of bacteriologically positive caprine milk samples was 44% throughout lactation. The incidence of bacteria associated with intramammary infection was different according to the stage of lactation with a major prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Streptococcus uberis in early lactation milk, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Streptococcus bovis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in mid lactation, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus caprae in late lactation milk. The higher values of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-6 were ascribed to the major prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus at the beginning of lactation, whereas a higher level of IL-10 was detected in mid-lactation caprine milk and correlated with Staphylococcus chromogenes

  2. Clinical disease and stage of lactation influences shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and co...

  3. Hormonal contraception and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J J

    1996-12-01

    Hormonal contraceptive measures can be used immediately postpartum if the patient so desires. Progestin-only contraceptives are preferable to estrogen-containing methods if initiated during the first six months after delivery. Progestin only contraceptives do not appear to affect milk volume, composition, or to cause deleterious effects in the infant. Ideally for women who desire a form of contraception in addition to lactation-induced amenorrhea, progestin-only methods should be started at six weeks postpartum if the woman is fully breastfeeding. Since contraception protection is provided by lactation amenorrhea, the six week delay will decrease infant exposure to exogenous hormones and decrease the incidence of irregular postpartum bleeding. Milk volume may decrease with the use of estrogen; however, no detrimental effects have been shown on infant growth or development. For women who are planning to gradually wean their infant, use of COCs may provide an easier transition to bottle-feeding. COCs should be used with caution by women who are not able to obtain supplemental milk. A decrease in milk volume can lead to earlier discontinuation of the hormonal contraceptive in an attempt to increase milk quantity. Supplementation is often needed, and then the woman ovulates again, possibly resulting in an unintended pregnancy. Many women are motivated immediately postpartum to accept contraception. For other women, lack of access to health care may provide barriers in obtaining adequate contraception later. In either case, there are adequate data to show no detriments of starting progestin-only contraceptives within days of delivery. Therefore, the best method for the patient should be employed to ensure adequate contraception while preserving optimal lactation. PMID:9025449

  4. Predicting milk yield in sheep used for dairying in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, A D; Cameron, A W N; Caddy, D J; Tilbrook, A J

    2007-11-01

    It is necessary to identify traits that are simple to measure and correlated with milk yield to select ewes for dairying from existing populations of sheep in Australia. We studied 217 primiparous and 113 multiparous (second parity, n = 51; third parity, n = 40; and fourth parity, n = 22) East Friesian crossbred ewes, for 2 consecutive lactations, that were milked by machine following a period of suckling (24 to 28 d). We measured lamb growth, milk production, milk yield, and residual milk during early lactation (lactation) to test whether milk production during the suckling period or the growth rate of the lamb predicts milk yield. Milk production at weaning, or the amount of residual milk, or both, predict milk yield within lactations. These measures also predict milk yield between lactations. Lambs were weighed at birth and weaning and milk production in ewes was measured using a 4-h milk production test at d 5 of lactation and at weaning. Following weaning, ewes were milked twice daily and milk yield was recorded weekly for 8 wk and once a month thereafter. Milk production (using a 16-h milk production test) and residual milk were measured at weaning, and again 1 wk and 4 wk later. Milk yield to 120 d was correlated (r2 = 0.39) between lactations, and 120-d milk yield (primiparous 82.7 +/- 2.0 L; multiparous 107.1 +/- 4.2 L; second lactation 146 +/- 3.7 L) can be predicted after 4 wk of machine milking using a single measurement of either daily milk yield (primiparous 770 +/- 25 mL/d; multiparous 940 +/- 44 mL/d; second lactation 1,372 +/- 46 mL/d, r2 = 0.60 to 0.65) or daily milk production (primiparous 1,197 +/- 27 mL/d; multiparous 1,396 +/- 62 mL/d; second lactation 1,707 +/- 45 mL/d, r2 = 0.50 to 0.53). Residual milk in primiparous ewes (38%) and multiparous ewes (34%) was high (292 +/- 11 and 321 +/- 20 mL, respectively) in the first lactation, but lower (17%) in the second lactation (238 +/- 17 mL). Residual milk and 120-d milk yield were not

  5. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows. Materials and Methods Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow. Results There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum) on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and

  6. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of neosporosis and leukosis in lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Robert B.; Kelton, David F.; Hietala, Sharon K.; Duffield, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Serum and milk samples from 1229 cows on 22 Ontario dairy farms were individually tested for antibodies specific for bovine leukosis virus (BLV) and Neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies against BLV were present in 361 serum samples (29.4%) and 369 milk samples (30.0%). Comparing the 2 tests, agreement was almost perfect (k = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.83 to 0.90) and the proportions of samples positive were not significantly different (P = 0.56). Both tests identified the same 3 herds free of bovine leukosis virus. Antibodies against N. caninum were detected in 138 serum samples (11.2%), and 111 milk samples (9.0%). Agreement between the 2 tests was moderate (k = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.59). Four herds were free of neosporosis by the serum test, while 10 herds were negative by the milk test. The ELISA on milk samples facilitates sample collection to classify herds free of BLV; the milk N. caninum ELISA was less reliable in predicting herd-level infection. PMID:24082160

  7. Role of endogenous enzymes in proteolysis of sheep milk.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; d'Angelo, F; Marino, R; Sevi, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of milk endogenous proteolytic enzymes in sheep milk cheesemaking ability during lactation. Plasmin, plasminogen, and plasminogen activator in ewe bulk milk were not significantly affected by stage of lactation, probably because of the good health of the ewe udders throughout lactation as indicated by somatic cell count, which never exceeded 600,000 cells/mL. Elastase content increased significantly during lactation, whereas cathepsin showed the greatest content in mid lactation. Early and mid lactation milk showed impaired renneting parameter compared with late lactation milk, probably because of greater alpha-casein degradation, brought about by cathepsin, and lesser fat and casein (CN) milk contents. Changes in macrophage and neutrophil levels in ewe bulk milk during lactation were also investigated. Macrophages minimally contributed to leukocyte cell count in milk and had the greatest levels at the beginning of lactation. An opposite trend was recorded for polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes (PMNL) that increased throughout lactation, showing the greatest value in late lactation. Urea-PAGE of sodium caseinate (NaCN) incubated with isolated and concentrated PMNL at 37 degrees C after 48 h at pH 8 showed massive casein degradation that could be ascribed to proteases yielded by PMNL. The increase of PMNL percentage and elastase content in milk, despite the relatively low SCC, suggests that PMNL and elastase underwent a physiological increase associated to the remodeling of mammary gland in late lactation. PMID:19109265

  8. EFFECT OF DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN, RUMEN-UNDEGRADED PROTEIN AND RUMEN-PROTECTED METHIONINE ON MILK PRODUCTION OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When crude protein (CP) is fed above that needed to meet requirements for metabolizable AA, excess urinary N contributes to environmental pollution. Rumen-undegraded protein (RUP) or rumen-protected Met (RPMet) may permit reduction of dietary CP without loss of production. A lactation trial was con...

  9. Hot Topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative impact on the dairy industry. We sought to determine the risk of including BMSB contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow ratio...

  10. Effect of feeding different sources of rumen-protected methionine on milk production and N-utilization in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to quantify production responses of lactating dairy cows to supplying absorbable Met as isopropyl-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMBi), or rumen-protected Met (RPM, Smartamine® M) fed with or without 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB), and to determin...

  11. Decreased lactation capacity and altered milk composition in IRS-1 knockout mice is associated with decreased insulin-dependent phosphorylation of Akt.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) 1 and 2 within the mammary gland is both developmentally and hormonally regulated. These proteins were found to be high in mouse mammary tissue at mid-lactation and dramatically decreased with mammary involution. This observation supports the hypothe...

  12. The effect of dietary cation-anion difference concentration and cation source on milk production and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, M E; Weidman, A E; Erdman, R A

    2015-03-01

    Feed costs currently account for 55% or more of the total cost of milk production in US dairy herds, and dairy producers are looking for strategies to improve feed efficiency [FE; 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) per dry matter (DM) intake]. Increasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; Na+K-Cl (mEq/kg of DM)] has been shown to increase milk production, FCM, and FE. However, the optimal DCAD concentration for maximal FE has yet to be determined. The objectives of this research were to test the effects of DCAD concentration and cation source on dairy FE. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (20 cows per experiment) were used in three 4×4 Latin square design experiments with 3-wk experimental periods. In experiments 1 and 2, we tested the effect of DCAD concentration: cows were fed a basal diet containing ~250 mEq/kg of DM DCAD that was supplemented with potassium carbonate at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mEq/kg of DM or 0, 125, 250, and 375 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In experiment 3, we tested the effect of cation source: sodium sesquicarbonate replaced 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the supplemental potassium carbonate (150 mEq/kg of DM DCAD). The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk production, milk protein concentration, or milk protein yield in experiments 1 and 2. Dry matter intake was not affected by DCAD concentration in experiment 1 or by cation source in experiment 3. However, DMI increased linearly with increasing DCAD in experiment 2. We detected a linear increase in milk fat concentration and yield with increasing DCAD in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting sodium sesquicarbonate for potassium carbonate in experiment 3. Increased milk fat concentration with increasing DCAD led to increases in 3.5% FCM in experiments 1 and 2. Maximal dairy FE was achieved at a DCAD concentration of 426 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting Na for K in experiment 3. The results of these experiments suggest that both DCAD concentration and the cation

  13. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    PubMed

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  14. Nutritional aspects of human lactation*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479

  15. Biomonitoring Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lactating Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships betw...

  16. Random regression models to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Sesana, R C; Bignardi, A B; Borquis, R R A; El Faro, L; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate covariance functions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects and, subsequently, to obtain genetic parameters for buffalo's test-day milk production using random regression models on Legendre polynomials (LPs). A total of 17 935 test-day milk yield (TDMY) from 1433 first lactations of Murrah buffaloes, calving from 1985 to 2005 and belonging to 12 herds located in São Paulo state, Brazil, were analysed. Contemporary groups (CGs) were defined by herd, year and month of milk test. Residual variances were modelled through variance functions, from second to fourth order and also by a step function with 1, 4, 6, 22 and 42 classes. The model of analyses included the fixed effect of CGs, number of milking, age of cow at calving as a covariable (linear and quadratic) and the mean trend of the population. As random effects were included the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. The additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects were modelled by LP of days in milk from quadratic to seventh degree polynomial functions. The model with additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects adjusted by quintic and sixth order LP, respectively, and residual variance modelled through a step function with six classes was the most adequate model to describe the covariance structure of the data. Heritability estimates decreased from 0.44 (first week) to 0.18 (fourth week). Unexpected negative genetic correlation estimates were obtained between TDMY records at first weeks with records from middle to the end of lactation, being the values varied from -0.07 (second with eighth week) to -0.34 (1st with 42nd week). TDMY heritability estimates were moderate in the course of the lactation, suggesting that this trait could be applied as selection criteria in milking buffaloes. PMID:20831561

  17. The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Webb, Judith A W; Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

    2005-06-01

    The use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast media in pregnant or lactating women often causes concerns in the radiology department because of the principle of not exposing a fetus or neonate to any drugs. Because of the uncertainty about the use of contrast media during pregnancy and lactation, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and draw up guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the limited information available, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Mutagenic and teratogenic effects have not been described after administration of gadolinium or iodinated contrast media. Free iodide in radiographic contrast medium given to the mother has the potential to depress fetal/neonatal thyroid function. Neonatal thyroid function should be checked during the 1st week if iodinated contrast media have been given during pregnancy. No effect on the fetus has been seen after gadolinium contrast media. Only tiny amounts of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast medium given to a lactating mother reach the milk, and only a minute proportion entering the baby's gut is absorbed. The very small potential risk associated with absorption of contrast medium may be considered insufficient to warrant stopping breast-feeding for 24 h following either iodinated or gadolinium contrast agents. PMID:15609057

  18. Thiamin and riboflavin vitamers in human milk: effects of lipid-based nutrient supplementation and stage of lactation on vitamer secretion and contributions to total vitamin content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main...

  19. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  20. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  1. Invited review: reduced milking frequency: milk production and management implications.

    PubMed

    Stelwagen, K; Phyn, C V C; Davis, S R; Guinard-Flament, J; Pomiès, D; Roche, J R; Kay, J K

    2013-06-01

    Most dairy cows throughout the world are milked twice daily. In intensive dairying systems, however, it is not uncommon to increase milking frequency to between 3 and 6 times daily to increase milk production. Reducing milking frequency is much less common; however, once-daily milking of dairy cows, practiced either strategically during certain parts of the lactation or for the entire lactation, is not uncommon in key dairying countries where less emphasis is placed on milk production per cow. The practice fits well with more extensive dairy production systems, particularly those based on grazed pasture. A feature of once-daily milking is that it reduces milk yield by approximately 22%, depending on stage of lactation, breed, and parity, and it may adversely affect lactation length and persistency. However, it can offer several positive farm management options, especially related to labor requirements and farm working expenses. In addition, it may provide a tool to better manage the metabolism and energy balance of cows during early lactation or during periods of pasture deficit, and it may help to improve reproductive performance and animal health and welfare. Once-daily milking, representing one extreme of the mammary function spectrum, has attracted considerable research interest over the years. Consequently, substantial scientific information is available on its effects on mammary function, at both the physiological and molecular levels. This review focuses instead on the management of the cow milked once daily, covering the production response in relation to breed, stage of lactation, and parity, and its effect on energy status, reproduction, health and welfare, as well as on milk composition and processability. PMID:23548302

  2. Developmental changes in the milk fat globule membrane proteome during the transition from colostrum to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics is a tool that will help identify proteins important to milk production, secretion, as well as specific components in milk. Identification of proteins associated with various aspects of milk production and secretion will provide a foundation for new research in lactation biology. Milk f...

  3. Supplemental silicon increases plasma and milk silicon concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Lang, K J; Nielsen, B D; Waite, K L; Hill, G M; Orth, M W

    2001-10-01

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary silicon (Si) on plasma and milk Si concentrations of lactating mares and the subsequent effect on plasma Si concentrations in nursing foals. Additionally, the role of Si on altering biochemical markers of bone turnover was investigated, because supplemental Si may be advantageous in enhancing bone health. Twelve Arabian mare/foal units were pair-matched by foaling date and randomly assigned to two groups, Si-supplemented (Supplemented) or control (Control). Blood and milk samples were taken on d 0, 15, 30, and 45, d 0 being the 1st d after parturition. Plasma and milk (or colostrum) Si concentrations were determined and serum was analyzed for osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide region of type I collagen, and pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline crosslinks. All Supplemented mares had higher (P < 0.01) plasma Si concentrations than Control by d 30, and Supplemented mares' milk had higher (P < 0.01) Si concentrations on d 45 than Control mares' milk. By d 45, foals of Supplemented mares had higher (P < 0.01) plasma Si concentrations than foals of Control mares. Supplemental Si did not influence (P > 0.36) bone metabolism in foals; however, trends (P < 0.10) for altered bone metabolism were observed in postpartum mares. Results indicate that supplemental Si increases plasma and milk Si concentrations. Further research is required to determine whether Si has a role in altering serum biochemical markers of bone and collagen activity. PMID:11721842

  4. Effect of dietary protein level and rumen-protected amino acid supplementation on amino acid utilization for milk protein in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Giallongo, F; Hristov, A N; Lapierre, H; Cassidy, T W; Heyler, K S; Varga, G A; Parys, C

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) supply and rumen-protected (RP) Lys and Met supplementation on productivity, nutrient digestibility, urinary N losses, apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary AA, and the efficiency of AA utilization for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. The experiment was conducted with 8 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design trial with 21-d periods. Treatments were (1) MP-adequate diet (AMP; MP balance of -24 g/d); (2) MP-deficient diet (DMP; MP balance of -281 g/d); (3) DMP supplemented with 100 g of RPLys/cow per day (estimated digestible Lys supply=24 g/d; DMPL; MP balance of -305g/d); and (4) DMPL supplemented with 24 g of RPMet/cow per day (estimated digestible Met supply=15 g/d; DMPLM; MP balance of -256g/d). Diet had no effect on total-tract nutrient digestibility, milk production, and milk composition, but the DMP diets decreased urinary N excretion and the ammonia emitting potential of manure. Plasma Met concentration was increased by DMPLM compared with AMP. Supplementation with RPLys had no effect on plasma Lys. Concentration of most AA in milk protein was increased or tended to be increased by DMPLM compared with DMPL. Except for the AA supplemented as RPAA (i.e., Met and Lys), apparent total-tract digestibility of all dietary AA was generally greater for the DMP diets and ranged from 33% (Arg, AMP diet) to 67% (Thr, DMPL diet). Apparent recovery of dietary AA in milk protein followed the same trends, being greater for the DMP diets than AMP and generally lower for Lys and Met with the RPAA-supplemented diets versus AMP and DMP. The RPAA were apparently not used for milk protein synthesis in the conditions of this experiment. The AA recoveries in milk protein varied from around 17% (Ala) to 70% (Pro). Milk protein recoveries of essential AA (EAA) were around 54% for the DMP diet and 49% for AMP. The estimated efficiency of utilization of digestible EAA for

  5. A study of Lusitano mare lactation curve with Wood's model.

    PubMed

    Santos, A S; Silvestre, A M

    2008-02-01

    Milk yield and composition data from 7 nursing Lusitano mares (450 to 580 kg of body weight and 2 to 9 parities) were used in this study (5 measurements per mare for milk yield and 8 measurements for composition). Wood's lactation model was used to describe milk fat, protein, and lactose lactation curves. Mean values for the concentration of major milk components across the lactation period (180 d) were 5.9 g/kg of fat, 18.4 g/kg of protein, and 60.8 g/kg of lactose. Milk fat and protein (g/kg) decreased and lactose (g/kg) increased during the 180 d of lactation. Curves for milk protein and lactose yields (g) were similar in shape to the milk yield curve; protein yield peaked at 307 g on d 10 and lactose peaked at 816 g on d 45. The fat (g) curve was different in shape compared with milk, protein, and lactose yields. Total production of the major milk constituents throughout the 180 d of lactation was estimated to be 12.0, 36.1, and 124 kg for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively. The algebraic model fitted by a nonlinear regression procedure to the data resulted in reasonable prediction curves for milk yield (R(a)(2) of 0.89) and the major constituents (R(a)(2) ranged from 0.89 to 0.95). The lactation curves of major milk constituents in Lusitano mares were similar, both in shape and values, to those found in other horse breeds. The established curves facilitate the estimation of milk yield and variation of milk constituents at different stages of lactation for both nursing and dairy mares, providing important information relative to weaning time and foal supplementation. PMID:18218764

  6. Breastfeeding and transmission of cytomegalovirus to preterm infants. Case report and kinetic of CMV-DNA in breast milk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has a major impact on CMV epidemiology. Postnatal CMV reactivation's incidence during lactation is nearby the maternal seroprevalence. Although perinatal CMV infection has practically no consequences in term newborn, it may cause, in some cases, a severe symptomatic disease in preterm newborns. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the rate and clinical expression of CMV infection breast milk transmitted in preterm infants and to check the safety of the freezing treated breast milk. Methods The study included fifty-seven preterm infants and their CMV seropositive mothers. Fresh breast milk samples have been collected from 1st to 9th postpartum week. Both fresh breast milk and 72, 96, 120 hours frozen samples have been examined, checking the presence of CMV; urine samples have been tested too. Results 70.2% of tested mothers showed reactivation of the infection, and CMV-positive breast milk during the six weeks postpartum has been found. However, only one infant was infected by CMV, developing hepatic affection concomitantly with a multi-system involvement, as shown CMV DNA detection in urine, saliva, blood, gastric aspirate, and stools. Conclusion Freezing breast milk at -20°C and pasteurization may respectively reduce or eliminate the viral load. PMID:21247481

  7. Effect of plant oils and camelina expeller on milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed diets based on red clover silage.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Kokkonen, T; Lampi, A-M; Toivonen, V; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2011-09-01

    Five multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fed red clover silage-based diets were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of various plant oils or camelina expeller on animal performance and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments consisted of 5 concentrate supplements containing no additional lipid (control), or 29 g/kg of lipid from rapeseed oil (RO), sunflower-seed oil (SFO), camelina-seed oil (CO), or camelina expeller (CE). Cows were offered red clover silage ad libitum and 12kg/d of experimental concentrates. Treatments had no effect on silage or total dry matter intake, whole-tract digestibility coefficients, milk yield, or milk composition. Plant oils in the diet decreased short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acid (6:0-16:0) concentrations, including odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and enhanced milk fat 18:0 and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acid content. Increases in the relative proportions of cis 18:1, trans 18:1, nonconjugated 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat were dependent on the fatty acid composition of oils in the diet. Rapeseed oil in the diet was associated with the enrichment of trans 18:1 (Δ4, 6, 7, 8, and 9), cis-9 18:1, and trans-7,cis-9 CLA, SFO resulted in the highest concentrations of trans-5, trans-10, and trans-11 18:1, Δ9,11 CLA, Δ10,12 CLA, and 18:2n-6, whereas CO enhanced trans-13-16 18:1, Δ11,15 18:2, Δ12,15 18:2, cis-9,trans-13 18:2, Δ11,13 CLA, Δ12,14 CLA, Δ13,15 CLA, Δ9,11,15 18:3, and 18:3n-3. Relative to CO, CE resulted in lower 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 concentrations and higher proportions of trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 CLA, cis-9,trans-13 18:2, and trans-11,cis-15 18:2. Comparison of milk fat composition responses to CO and CE suggest that the biohydrogenation of unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids to 18:0 in the rumen was less complete for camelina lipid supplied as an expeller than as free oil. In conclusion

  8. Short communication: The effects of cabergoline administration at dry-off of lactating cows on udder engorgement, milk leakages, and lying behavior.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; De-Prado, A; Aris, A

    2015-10-01

    Cabergoline is an ergot derivative with high affinity for the D2 dopamine receptors whose dopaminergic effects cause inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion; thus, it could be considered a molecule that acts as a potential dry-off facilitator. One hundred ninety-nine Holstein cows (102 primiparous; 97 multiparous) producing ≥ 18 kg/d at dry-off were split in 2 treatments to evaluate the effects of diminishing PRL secretion at dry-off (between 70 and 50 d from the expecting calving date) on udder engorgement, milk leakage, and cow well-being after dry-off. Treatments consisted of a single i.m. injection of 5 mL of a solution containing 5.6 mg of cabergoline (CAB; Velactis, Ceva Santé Animal, Libourne, France) or 5 mL of saline solution as a placebo (CTRL). Each animal was evaluated for presence or absence of milk leakages during the 4 d following dry-off and udder engorgement was determined using a digital algometer. Lying behavior was recorded during 10 d after dry-off. Twenty-five cows from each treatment were randomly chosen and blood sampled at 3 and 15 d after dry-off, and again at 5 and 3 d before the expected calving date to determine serum PRL concentrations. Cows on CAB had lower serum PRL concentrations than cows on CTRL at 3 and 15 d after dry-off. Average udder engorgement was lower for cows on CAB than for cows on CTRL following dry-off, and it decreased as days after dry-off increased. The overall incidence of milk leakage in cows on CAB (3.1 ± 0.88%) was 73.5% of that obtained in cows on CTRL (11.7 ± 1.64%); cows on CAB had 0.2 lower odds of incurring milk leakage than cows on CTRL. The day following dry-off, CAB cows lied about 1.5h/d more than cows on CTRL. We conclude that i.m. administration of 5.6 mg of cabergoline at dry-off effectively reduces PRL secretion, udder engorgement, and milk leakages, and improves lying time the day following dry-off. PMID:26277312

  9. Death Losses for Lactating Cows in Herds Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Test Plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that affect frequency of death were investigated for lactating cows in 45,032 herds for lactations from 1995 through 2005. Analyses included effects of herd, year, month, and stage of lactation in which lactation ended, parity, breed, and milk yield. A sample of 1,645 herds was employed to ...

  10. Heat stress abatement for dry cows: Does cooling improve transition into lactation?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental factors, especially temperature and photoperiod, influence health and productivity of dairy cows during lactation, possibly via similar physiological effects. For example, heat stress is a critical component of lowered milk yield during summer. Long days improve yield during lactation...

  11. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk and serum collected from lactating mothers in the northern Adriatic area of Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthacker, B. )

    1991-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent contaminants of the environment. Owing to their lipophilic properties they are primarily stored in fat-rich tissues and fluids of humans and animals. The results of a monitoring study on levels of the DDT-complex, HCH-group of isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB in human milk and serum are presented in this paper. Samples were collected in the northern Adriatic area for which no data have so far been available. Sample donors were chosen from rural and small urban locations where mediterranean eating habits are still maintained. The previous studies were conducted in an industrialized continental town of Croatia.

  12. An Odor Timer in Milk? Synchrony in the Odor of Milk Effluvium and Neonatal Chemosensation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Belin, Laurine; Patris, Bruno; Schaal, Benoist

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian newborns exhibit avid responsiveness to odor compounds emanating from conspecific milk. Milk is however developmentally heterogeneous in composition as a function of both evolved constraints and offspring demand. The present study aimed to verify whether milk odor attractivity for neonates is equally distributed along lactation in Mus musculus (Balb-c strain). Therefore, we exposed pups varying in age to milk samples collected from females in different lactational stages. The pups were assayed at postnatal days 2 (P2), 6 (P6) and 15 (P15) in a series of paired-choice tests opposing either murine milk and a blank (water), or two samples of milk collected in different stages of lactation [lactation days 2 (L2), 6 (L6), and 15 L15)]. Pups of any age were able to detect, and were attracted to, the odor of the different milk. When milk from different lactational stages were simultaneously presented, P2 pups oriented for a similar duration to the odors of L2 and of L6 milk, but significantly less to the odor of L15 milk. Next, P6 pups roamed equivalently over L2 and L6 milk odors, but still less over the odor of L15 milk. Finally, P15 pups explored as much L15 milk odor as the odors of both L2 and L6 milk. This developmental shift in milk attractivity is discussed in terms of changing chemosensory properties of milk and of shifting chemosensory abilities/experience of pups. PMID:23133511

  13. Cobalamins in human pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Craft, I. L.; Matthews, D. M.; Linnell, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Samples of maternal and foetal blood and of human milk, cow's milk, and dried cow's milk have been analysed for cobalamins by chromatography and bioautography. Plasma cobalamins in late pregnancy and after delivery differed quantitatively from those in healthy non-pregnant women. Differences in the proportions of plasma cobalamins were also observed between mothers and their newborn infants. The findings suggest that methylcobalamin may be a more labile plasma form of the vitamin than 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. Breast milk from healthy mothers contained more deoxyadenosylcobalamin and proportionately less methylcobalamin than their plasma. Cyanocobalamin given parenterally to lactating women was detected in the plasma, and high concentrations appeared unchanged in the milk. The B12 in fresh cow's milk was found to be largely 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin whereas dried milk contained only hydroxocobalamin and a little cyanocobalamin. The nutritional implications of the findings, and their bearing on problems of cobalamin transport, are discussed. Images PMID:5109777

  14. The effect of dietary energy source during mid to late lactation on liver triglyceride and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Añon, M; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    1997-10-01

    Control [1.61 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg of dry matter (DM)], high grain (1.70 Mcal of NEL)/kg of DM), or high fat [1.70 Mcal of NEL/kg of DM with 2.3% tallow (DM basis)] diets were fed to 43 cows (150 +/- 3.1 d in milk) during mid to late lactation to determine effects on performance characteristics, metabolic parameters, or both during mid to late lactation, the dry period, and the first 100 d of the next lactation. All cows received identical diets during the dry period and during early lactation. Increasing the energy density of the diets during mid to late lactation increased DM intake (DMI), plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, milk production, and milk protein yield. Compared with the high grain diets, fat supplementation decreased DMI and the percentage of milk protein but increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration without causing elevation of liver triglyceride at the end of mid to late lactation. Increased energy density of the diets did not affect body condition score during mid to late lactation. There were no residual effects for any of the treatments on DMI, lactation performance, or body weight in the subsequent lactation. However, energy supplementation during mid to late lactation increased liver triglyceride content after calving. Compared with high fat diets, high grain diets fed during mid to late lactation increased plasma beta-hydroxy-butyrate concentration in the subsequent lactation. High energy diets fed during mid to late lactation may influence lipid metabolism during the following lactation. PMID:9361222

  15. ISS Update: 1st Annual ISS R&D Conference

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks by phone on Wednesday with Julie Robinson, ISS Program Scientist, about the 1st Annual International Space Station Research and Development Confere...

  16. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  17. Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500 Past ... last May's Indy 500 had thousands of personal Electronic Health Records on hand for those attending—and ...

  18. 1st HPV Test for Use with Preservative Fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159789.html 1st HPV Test for Use With Preservative Fluid Human papillomavirus ... Food and Drug Administration has approved Roche's cobas HPV Test -- the first diagnostic to be used with ...

  19. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  20. Voluntary exercise during pregnancy and lactation and its effect on lactational performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, K; Suwa, J; Kimura, S

    1981-01-01

    The amount of voluntary exercise during pregnancy and lactation and its effect on the lactational performance in mice were investigated. Female mice were housed in exercise cages with treadwheels during periods of growth, pregnancy and lactation and the amounts of exercise were measured. It was observed that growing female mice exercised voluntarily at a level of approximately 5,000 rotations (diameter of treadwheel; 13.5 cm) per day during the 4-week growth period. After conception, the amount of exercise gradually decreased and in late pregnancy running activity decreased markedly. Throughout the lactational period dams exercised lightly. As indices of lactational performance, the body weights of pups nursed in litters of 8, milk yield and cellular development of abdominal-inguinal mammary glands were examined. There were no significant differences in the final body weights of pups, milk yield per day or development of mammary glands between exercise and non-exercise groups. PMID:7328442

  1. Considerations on the ICRP model predictions of the transfer of (137)Cs from food to the milk and urine of lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Augusto; Risica, Serena

    2014-06-01

    A recent work has shown that the current ICRP biokinetic model for the transfer of caesium radionuclides from food to human breast milk was able to describe with satisfactory accuracy (137)Cs activity concentrations in human breast samples collected a few weeks after the Chernobyl accident as well as in samples collected some years later. However, systematic discrepancies were observed for the predictions of the activity concentrations in urine samples. In the present work, modifications to the model were investigated with the aim of improving the agreement between model predictions and data. It turned out that the disagreement for the urine data was ascribable to the mathematical simplifications used by the ICRP to describe urinary excretion in the first few days after delivery. However, the predictive performances of the model remained unchanged even when differences in the bioavailability of caesium from the ingested food types were considered or metabolic interactions between caesium and potassium were introduced into the model formulation. PMID:24705367

  2. Application of Wood's model to lactation curve of Italian Heavy Draft horse mares.

    PubMed

    Centoducati, P; Maggiolino, A; De Palo, P; Tateo, A

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study, using Wood's model, the lactation curve in Italian Heavy Draft horse (IHDH) mares, both for milk yield and composition. Interest in mare's milk has grown for use in human nutrition, as a substitute for human and cow milk for premature newborns and allergic children. For this study, 7 IHDH mares were used. Milk yield was evaluated from d 15 to 180 postpartum (every 15 d). Wood's lactation model was used to describe milk yield, fat, protein, and lactose lactation curves in the first 180 d in milk (DIM), with a prediction to 210 DIM. Mean values recorded across the considered lactation period for milk yield and constituents were 16.11 kg of milk/d, 11.38 g of fat/kg, 15.54 g of protein/kg, and 69.72 g of lactose/kg. The lactation curve showed a peak at 69 DIM, with a persistence index of 6.26. Fat (g/kg) and protein (g/kg) lactation curves decreased during the lactation period; instead, the lactose (g/kg) curve increased from the first to the last DIM. The coefficient of determination values indicated a good model fit by Wood's model application to IHDH mare lactation. The research showed good aptitude of a heavy horse breed, such as IHDH, for milk production. PMID:22901483

  3. Lactation: historical patterns and potential for manipulation.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, D G

    1993-10-01

    The advent of biotechnology has made data on undomesticated mammals relevant to dairy science. Such data indicate the potential of lactation for modification, reveal genetic material available for use through bioengineering, help distinguish adaptive features from historical artifacts, and clarify limits on lactational diversity that date from early evolution. Evolutionary analysis indicates that a complex degree of lactation preceded divergence of the extant mammalian lineages during the Mesozoic Era. Although aspects of monotreme lactation appear to be ancestral for extant mammals, the marsupials and eutherians exhibit divergent specializations. Evidence is consistent with the idea that protolacteal glands evolved by combining features of skin gland populations into a new functional complex. Secretions of these ancestral glands may have had antimicrobial properties that protected the eggs or hatchlings and organic components that supplemented offspring nutrition. Following development of highly nutritious milks, evolution produced diversity in milk composition and function, milk output, length of lactation, mammary gland anatomy, and contributions of lactation to offspring nutrition. Certain marsupials are specialized in terms of functional independence and temporal plasticity of mammary tissues. Mammalian diversity indicates that artificial selection and physiological manipulation of domestic artiodactyls has only modestly exploited the potential of mammary glands as a nutritional source for humans. PMID:8227641

  4. Utility of inline milk fat and protein ratio to diagnose subclinical ketosis and to assign propylene glycol treatment in lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nicholas T.; Peña, Gustavo; Risco, Carlos; Barbosa, Carolina C.; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; Galvão, Klibs N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify a fat-to-protein ratio (FPR) cut-off to diagnose subclinical ketosis (SCK) and to evaluate the effect of propylene glycol (PPG) treatment of cows with high FPR. The optimized cut-off was > 1.42; sensitivity (Se) = 92%; specificity (Sp) = 65%. A cut-off > 1.5 was selected for the PPG trial for balanced Se-Sp. Fat-to-protein ratio cut-offs > 1.25, 1.35, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 resulted in Se-Sp of 100% to 49%, 96% to 59%, 75% to 78%, 33% to 90%, and 8% to 96%, respectively. The proportions of cows with FPR > 1.25, 1.35, 1.42, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 were 60%, 50%, 44%, 30%, 14%, and 6%, respectively. Incidences of clinical ketosis and milk yield were similar between cows that received 400 mL of PPG (n = 34) and control cows (n = 38). Prevalence of SCK at enrollment was 29.2%; therefore, FPR > 1.5 is not indicated for treatment. Lower cut-offs should be used for screening. PMID:26246632

  5. Metabolic adaptations in goat mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Wilde, C J; Henderson, A J; Knight, C H

    1986-01-01

    Metabolic adaptations of goat mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactation were monitored in serial biopsies of the tissue. Changes in the synthetic capacity of secretory cells were studied by combining measurements of enzyme activities with short-term culture of mammary explants to measure lactose, casein and total protein synthesis. By these criteria, the main phase of mammary differentiation began in late pregnancy and was essentially complete by Week 5 of lactation, coinciding with the achievement of peak milk yield. While milk yield declined after Week 5, the activities of key enzymes expressed per mg DNA and the rates of lactose and casein synthesis in mammary explants were maintained over a considerable period. The results suggest that changes in the synthetic capacity of epithelial cells may account for much of the rise in milk yield in early lactation, but are not responsible for the declining phase of milk production characteristic of lactation in ruminants. PMID:2868125

  6. Milk quality and automatic milking: fat globule size, natural creaming, and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Degano, L; Calza, F; Giangiacomo, R; Pirlo, G

    2005-10-01

    Thirty-eight Italian Friesian first-lactation cows were allocated to 2 groups to evaluate the effect of 1) an automatic milking system (AMS) vs. milking in a milking parlor (MP) on milk fat characteristics; and 2) milking interval (< or =480, 481 to 600, 601 to 720, and >720 min) on the same variables. Milk fat was analyzed for content (% vol/vol), natural creaming (% of fat), and free fatty acids (FFA, mEq/100 g of fat). Distribution of milk fat globule size was evaluated to calculate average fat globule diameter (d(1)), volume-surface average diameter (d(32)), specific globule surface area, and mean interglobular distance. Milk yield was recorded to calculate hourly milk and milk fat yield. Milking system had no effect on milk yield, milk fat content, and hourly milk fat yield. Milk from AMS had less natural creaming and more FFA content than milk from MP. Fat globule size, globular surface area, and interglobular distance were not affected by milking system per se. Afternoon MP milkings had more fat content and hourly milk fat yield than AMS milkings when milking interval was >480 min. Milk fat FFA content was greater in AMS milkings when milking interval was < or =480 min than in milkings from MP and from AMS when milking interval was >600 min. Milking interval did not affect fat globule size, expressed as d32. Results from this experiment indicate a limited effect of AMS per se on milk fat quality; a more important factor seems to be the increase in milking frequency, generally associated with AMS. PMID:16162526

  7. EFFECT OF CLINICAL STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS MASTITIS ON EARLY LACTATION DAIRY GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to characterize the effect of induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on physical parameters and milk constituents of first lactation Alpine dairy goats in early lactation (22 d in milk). The right udder half of seven goats was challenged with approximately 120 colony-forming u...

  8. Human Milk Bacterial and Glycosylation Patterns Differ by Delivery Mode.

    PubMed

    Hoashi, Marina; Meche, Lawrence; Mahal, Lara K; Bakacs, Elizabeth; Nardella, Deanna; Naftolin, Frederick; Bar-Yam, Naomi; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2016-07-01

    Mammals have evolved to nourish their offspring exclusively with maternal milk for around half of the lactation period, a crucial developmental window. In view of oral-breast contact during lactation and the differences in oral microbiota between cesarean section (C-section) and vaginally delivered infants, we expected differences in milk composition by delivery mode. We performed a cross-sectional study of banked human milk and found changes related to time since delivery in bacterial abundance and glycosylation patterns only in milk from women who delivered vaginally. The results warrant further research into the effects of delivery mode on milk microbes, milk glycosylation, and postpartum infant development. PMID:26711314

  9. Design and construction of the 1st proton CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Hurley, F.; Johnson, R.; Rykalin, V.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schulte, R.

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the 1st proton CT scanner for 3D imaging. Reduction of proton range uncertainties and improved dose accuracy in the patient for treatment planning are central goals. A central CT slice acquired by reconstruction of 134 million proton tracks through a 14 cm spherical polystyrene phantom with high and low density inserts is presented.

  10. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To estimate the energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women consistent with optimal pregnancy outcome and adequate milk production. Design: Total energy cost of pregnancy was estimated using the factorial approach from pregnancy-induced increments in basal metabolic rate measured...

  11. Lactating cow response to lucerne silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear why bacterial silage inoculants improve milk production in lactating dairy cattle. However, recent in vitro results suggest that inoculated silage effects on milk production may be tied to greater production of rumen microorganisms. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage trea...

  12. Effects of increased milking frequency on gene expression in the bovine mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that increased milking frequency of dairy cattle during the first few weeks of lactation enhances milk yield, and that the effect persists throughout the entire lactation period. The specific mechanisms controlling this increase in milk production are unknown, but ...

  13. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk composition and yield of Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Peris, S; Caja, G; Such, X; Casals, R; Ferret, A; Torre, C

    1997-12-01

    One-hundred eight lactations of Murciano-Granadina goats from different years were used to compare two kid rearing systems. Goats were separated into two groups: suckling and milking. Dams in the suckling group were milked once daily until kids were weaned (wk 0 to 7) and then were milked twice daily. Dams in the milking group were separated from their kids at 48 h after birth; then, kids were raised artificially, and goats were milked twice daily. Total milk yield was estimated according to the oxytocin method during suckling. Stage of lactation, parity, prolificacy, and year effects on milk yield and composition were also studied. As expected, during the first 7 wk of lactation, marketable milk was higher for dams that were milked than for dams that were suckled. Neither milk yield nor milk composition throughout the entire lactation was affected by group or prolificacy with the exception of the percentage of milk CP. The lactation curve peaked at wk 4 or 5 and declined slowly afterward. First parity goats had the lowest milk yield but the highest fat and protein percentages. Third parity goats had the highest milk yield. The separation of kids from their dams after birth did not affect total lactation performance because of the minimal importance of the neuroendocrine milk ejection reflex in goats compared with that of other ruminants. PMID:9436106

  14. Nursing frequency alters circadian patterns of mammary gene expression in lactating mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milking frequency impacts lactation in dairy cattle and in rodent models of lactation. The role of circadian gene expression in this process is unknown. The hypothesis tested was that changing nursing frequency alters the circadian patterns of mammary gene expression. Mid-lactation CD1 mice were stu...

  15. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane in goat colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Liu, Lu; Pang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shuwen; Jia, Zhenhu; Ma, Changlu; Zhao, Lili; Lv, Jiaping

    2016-10-15

    As an important nutrient source in large area of world, the composition and nutritional value of goat milk are not well deliberated. Detailed annotation of protein composition is essential to address the physiological and nutritional value of goat milk. In the present study, 423 colostrum and mature goat milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins were identified. The abundance of 189 proteins was significantly different between colostrums and mature milk MFGM. The acute phase proteins were higher in colostrums MFGM than those in mature milk MFGM which protected newborns at the beginning of life. Proteins related to synthesis and secretion were conserved through lactation to ensure the milk production. Of note, long term depression (LTD) proteins were observed in colostrum and mature milk MFGM. Milk LTD proteins could be potential biomarkers for diagnosis of lactation related depressive syndromes and should be taken into considerations of their effects on newborns. PMID:27173528

  16. The demands of lactation promote differential regulation of lipid stores in fasting elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Fasting animals must ration stored reserves appropriately for metabolic demands. Animals that experience fasting concomitant with other metabolically demanding activities are presented with conflicting demands of energy conservation and expenditure. Our objective was to understand how fasting northern elephant seals regulate the mobilization of lipid reserves and subsequently milk lipid content during lactation. We sampled 36 females early and 39 at the end of lactation. To determine the separate influences of lactation from fasting, we also sampled fasting but non-lactating females early and late (8 and 6 seals, respectively) in their molting fasting period. Mass and adiposity were measured, as well as circulating non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triacylglycerol (TAG), cortisol, insulin and growth hormone levels. Milk was collected from lactating females. Milk lipid content increased from 31% in early to 51% in late lactation. In lactating females plasma NEFA was positively related to cortisol and negatively related to insulin, but in molting seals, only variation in cortisol was related to NEFA. Milk lipid content varied with mass, adiposity, NEFA, TAG, cortisol and insulin. Surprisingly, growth hormone concentration was not related to lipid metabolites or milk lipid. Suppression of insulin release appears to be the differential regulator of lipolysis in lactating versus molting seals, facilitating mobilization of stored lipids and maintenance of high NEFA concentrations for milk synthesis. Milk lipid was strongly impacted by the supply of substrate to the mammary gland, indicating regulation at the level of mobilization of lipid reserves. PMID:26407500

  17. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. PMID:23158513

  18. Lactation transcriptomics in the Australian marsupial, Macropus eugenii: transcript sequencing and quantification

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Christophe M; Digby, Matthew R; Whitley, Jane C; Strahm, Yvan; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Background Lactation is an important aspect of mammalian biology and, amongst mammals, marsupials show one of the most complex lactation cycles. Marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) give birth to a relatively immature newborn and progressive changes in milk composition and milk production regulate early stage development of the young. Results In order to investigate gene expression in the marsupial mammary gland during lactation, a comprehensive set of cDNA libraries was derived from lactating tissues throughout the lactation cycle of the tammar wallaby. A total of 14,837 express sequence tags were produced by cDNA sequencing. Sequence analysis and sequence assembly were used to construct a comprehensive catalogue of mammary transcripts. Sequence data from pregnant and early or late lactating specific cDNA libraries and, data from early or late lactation massively parallel sequencing strategies were combined to analyse the variation of milk protein gene expression during the lactation cycle. Conclusion Results show a steady increase in expression of genes coding for secreted protein during the lactation cycle that is associated with high proportion of transcripts coding for milk proteins. In addition, genes involved in immune function, translation and energy or anabolic metabolism are expressed across the lactation cycle. A number of potential new milk proteins or mammary gland remodelling markers, including noncoding RNAs have been identified. PMID:17997866

  19. Effects of intra-mammary bacterial infection with coagulase negative staphylococci and stage of lactation on shedding of epithelial cells and infiltration of leukocytes into milk: comparison among cows, goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Krifucks, Oleg; Blum, Shlomo; Rivas, Ariel L; Silanikove, Nissim

    2012-06-30

    The effects of mammary gland bacterial infection and stage of lactation on leukocyte infiltration into the mammary gland were compared among cows, goats and sheep. Animals were at two stages of lactation: mid or late. In mid-lactation animals, bacterial-free glands and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS)-infected glands were compared. In late lactation only uninfected glands were studied. Of mid-lactation bacteria-free animals, goats had the highest number of leukocytes and % polymorphonuclears (PMNs), whereas sheep had the lowest and leukocytes number in cows were intermediate between sheep and goats. Based on %PMN, two cell clusters were found in sheep, which overlapped with the parallel cell clusters of cows and goats, but with a slightly higher number of leukocytes in each cell cluster. At late lactation, goats had higher values for %PMN and leukocyte numbers in comparison to cows, which had a similar cellular profile to sheep. The cellular immune response to CNS infection was similar for the three animal species, although the number of cells was different, while the basal cell level at mid-lactation and especially at the end of lactation was species specific. PMID:22584045

  20. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  1. Milk yield differences between 1x and 4x milking are associated with changes in mammary mitochondrial number and milk protein gene expression, but not mammary cell apoptosis or "SOCS" gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milking frequency is known to affect milk production and lactation persistence in dairy cows. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood. Previous work in dairy cows examining increases in milk yield due to increased milking frequency have identified changes in...

  2. [Granuloma Gravidarum in a 37-year-old 1st Gravida, 1st Para--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Findeklee, S

    2015-10-01

    The granuloma gravidarum is a rare benign tumour with gingival origin. It occurs in circa 0.2% of pregnancies. Mostly we see an asymptomatic course of disease terminated by hormonal changes after delivery. If the granuloma is associated with complaints of the pregnant woman, for example masticational pain or recurrent bleedings, therapeutic options are conservative therapy, surgery or delivery. We report the case of a 37-year-old 1st gravida, 1st para who had an induced delivery in the 39+2 gestational week because of a symptomatic granuloma gravidarum. We saw a spontaneous remission of the granuloma within 3 months post partum. The case report underlines the importance of suitable information for pregnant women about oral hygiene and the necessity of regular dental controls during pregnancy for prophylaxis of granuloma gravidarum. PMID:26402852

  3. Effect of health disorders on the hazard of culling on the first or second lactation in Iranian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hamid; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Bahonar, Alireza; Bokaie, Saied; Vodjgani, Mehdi; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Leontides, Leonidas

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal retrospective study in order to assess the effect of health disorders (HDs) on culling in the 1st or 2nd lactation cows, in Iranian dairy herds. In total, 7067 first- and second-parity Holstein cows, from 32 Iranian dairy herds, which calved from March 2007 to March 2008, were followed until the next calving or culling. Parametric survival models with time-dependent covariates were used to capture the effect of HDs with different duration and recurrence episodes on the risk of culling. Mastitis, locomotor disorders, ovarian cysts, abortion, diarrhea, rumen disorders, displaced abomasum and respiratory disorders were associated with an increased risk of culling. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 2.78 (2.31; 3.35), 3.4 (2.79; 4.13) and 1.62 (1.15; 2.78) for mastitis, locomotor disorders and ovarian cysts as common HDs, respectively. Parity and milk-yield were identified as confounder and effect modifier, respectively. The risk of culling in the presence of uterine infection or traumatic reticulo-peritonitis increased with decreasing milk yield. PMID:23026369

  4. [Occurrence and roles of estrogens in bovine milk. A review].

    PubMed

    Zdunczyk, S; Malecki-Tepicht, J; Janowski, T

    2001-04-01

    This review describes biosynthesis and excretion of oestrogens in cattle as well as their concentrations in blood and milk during various phases of lactation. Possibilities for endocrinological diagnostic by determination of oestrogens in milk are presented. Furthermore, the biological importance of milk oestrogens for progeny and consumers are discussed. PMID:11370480

  5. ["1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital" during the civil war].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B; Abashin, V G

    2014-04-01

    The article presents the documentary information about the founding, the establishment and early years of the 1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital - in the future - Mandryka Central Military Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Presented the work of the Hospital during the dificult period of the Civil War, typhus epidemic, famine and devastation. Specified its staffing structure, command, medical and administrative staff, travel and accommodation till the moment of the deployment in the Silver Lane in Moscow. PMID:25051792

  6. The 1st All-Russian Workshop on Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Nikolai G.

    2007-08-01

    The 1st All-Russia Workshop on Archaeoastronomy “Astronomical and World-Outlook Meaning of the Archaeological Monuments of South Ural” was held on June 19-25, 2006, at the ground of the archaeological center “Arkaim” (Chelyabinsk Region). Besides about 30 talks, astronomical measurements were performed at two archaeological objects under intensive study: Arkaim Site (Bronze Epoch, XVIII-XVI c. B.C.) and tumuli “with whiskers” complex Kondurovsky (V-VIII c. A.D.). The promising character of the megalithic complex on the Vera Island (Lake Turgoyak) was stated.

  7. Ruminal bacterial community composition in dairy cows is dynamic over the course of two lactations and correlates with feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A group of 14 Holstein cows of similar age were followed through the course of their first two lactation cycles. During each lactation cycle, ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples and production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during Early (76-82 days in milk, DIM), Mi...

  8. Evaluation of milk somatic cells as a source of mRNA for study of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of lactating beef cows supplemented with dietary high-linoleate safflower seeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were 2-fold: to determine the effect of dietary linoleate on milk fat composition and on transcript abundance of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA in mammary tissue, and to evaluate milk somatic ce...

  9. Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Firnhaber, Gina; Haven, Kelley

    2015-12-01

    The nutrient and caloric requirements for lactation are set by the Institute of Medicine. The dietary pattern to meet those needs is found in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Only deficiency states for selected nutrients and/or prolonged inadequate caloric intake appear to affect the volume and quality of breast milk. Other dietary concerns of lactating women include "dieting" to return to prepregnancy weight; low maternal intake of selected nutrients due to health conditions or food choices; need for supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and fatty acids; and use of non-nutritive sweeteners, caffeine, herbal supplements, and alcohol. PMID:26398295

  10. The energetics of lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, M; Russell, A F; McIlrath, G M; Speakman, J R; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2002-10-22

    Species may become obligate cooperative breeders when parents are unable to raise their offspring unassisted. We measured the daily energy expenditure of mothers, helpers and offspring during peak lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta using the doubly labelled water technique. Lactating mothers expended more energy per day than allo-lactating subordinate females, non-lactating females or suckling offspring. Metabolizable energy intakes of lactating mothers were calculated from isotope-based estimates of offspring milk energy intake, and were not significantly different from the previously suggested maximal limit for mammals. Allo-lactating females were the only category of animals that lost weight during the period of study, probably because they spent more time babysitting than non-lactating females. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of lactating mothers increased with litter size but decreased with the number of helpers. Calculations show that for every 10 helpers, even in the absence of allo-lactators, mothers are able to reduce their DEE during peak lactation by an amount equivalent to the energy cost of one pup. These results indicate that helpers have beneficial energetic consequences for lactating mothers in an obligate cooperatively breeding mammal. PMID:12396490

  11. The energetics of lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, M; Russell, A F; McIlrath, G M; Speakman, J R; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2002-01-01

    Species may become obligate cooperative breeders when parents are unable to raise their offspring unassisted. We measured the daily energy expenditure of mothers, helpers and offspring during peak lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta using the doubly labelled water technique. Lactating mothers expended more energy per day than allo-lactating subordinate females, non-lactating females or suckling offspring. Metabolizable energy intakes of lactating mothers were calculated from isotope-based estimates of offspring milk energy intake, and were not significantly different from the previously suggested maximal limit for mammals. Allo-lactating females were the only category of animals that lost weight during the period of study, probably because they spent more time babysitting than non-lactating females. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of lactating mothers increased with litter size but decreased with the number of helpers. Calculations show that for every 10 helpers, even in the absence of allo-lactators, mothers are able to reduce their DEE during peak lactation by an amount equivalent to the energy cost of one pup. These results indicate that helpers have beneficial energetic consequences for lactating mothers in an obligate cooperatively breeding mammal. PMID:12396490

  12. A semi-parametric model for lactation curves: development and application.

    PubMed

    Madouasse, A; Browne, W J; Huxley, J N; Toni, F; Green, M J

    2012-06-01

    We propose a semi-parametric model for lactation curves that, along with stage of lactation, accounts for day of the year at milk recording and stage of gestation. Lactation is described as having 3 different phases defined by 2 change points of which the second is a function of gestation stage. Season of milk recording is modelled using cosine and sine functions. As an application, the model is used to estimate the association between intramammary infections (IMI) dynamics as measured by somatic cell count (SCC) over the dry period and the shape of the lactation curve. Milk recording data collected in 2128 herds from England and Wales between 2004 and 2007 were used in the analysis. From a random sample of 1000 of these herds, smoothed milk production was used to test the behaviour of the model and estimate model parameters. The first change point was set at 60 days in milk. The second change point was set at 100 days of gestation or 200 days in milk when the latter was not available. Using data from the 1128 remaining herds, multilevel models were then used to model individual test-day milk production within lactations within herds. Average milk production at 60 days in milk for cows of parities 1, 2, 3 and greater than 3 were 26.9 kg, 31.6 kg, 34.4 kg and 34.7 kg respectively and, after this stage, decreases in milk production per 100 days milk of lactation were 3.1 kg, 5.1 kg, 6.3 kg and 6.7 kg respectively. Compared to cows that had an SCC below 200,000 cells/mL on both the last milk recording in a lactation and the first milk recording in the following lactation, cows that had an SCC greater than 200,000 cells/mL on their first milk recording after calving had an estimated loss of milk production of between 216 and 518 kg depending on parity. These estimates demonstrate the impact of the dynamics of SCC during the dry period on milk production during the following lactation. PMID:22391019

  13. The Effects of Increased Milking Frequency on Metabolism and Mammary Cell Proliferation in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of previous studies have shown that increased milking frequency (IMF) during early lactation results in increased milk yield not only during the period of IMF but also after cows have returned to a decreased milking frequency. The cellular mechanisms underpinning this increased milk yield a...

  14. Lactation Biology Symposium: circadian clocks as mediators of the homeorhetic response to lactation.

    PubMed

    Casey, T M; Plaut, K

    2012-03-01

    The transition from pregnancy to lactation is the most stressful period in the life of a cow. During this transition, homeorhetic adaptations are coordinated across almost every organ and are marked by changes in hormones and metabolism to accommodate the increased energetic demands of lactation. Recent data from our laboratory showed that changes in circadian clocks occur in multiple tissues during the transition period in rats and indicate that the circadian system coordinates changes in the physiology of the dam needed to support lactation. Circadian rhythms coordinate the timing of physiological processes and synchronize these processes with the environment of the animal. Circadian rhythms are generated by molecular circadian clocks located in the hypothalamus (the master clock) and peripherally in every organ of the body. The master clock receives environmental and physiological cues and, in turn, synchronizes internal physiology by coordinating endocrine rhythms and metabolism through peripheral clocks. The effect of the circadian clock on lactation may be inferred by the photoperiod effect on milk production, which is accompanied by coordinated changes in the endocrine system and metabolic capacity of the dam to respond to changes in day length. We have shown that bovine mammary epithelial cells possess a functional clock that can be synchronized by external stimuli, and the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like gene, a positive limb of the core clock, is responsive to prolactin in bovine mammary explants. Others showed that 7% of genes expressed in breasts of lactating women had circadian patterns of expression, and we report that the diurnal variation of composition of bovine milk is associated with changes in expression of mammary core clock genes. Together these studies indicate that the circadian system coordinates the metabolic and hormonal changes needed to initiate and sustain lactation, and we believe that the

  15. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    PubMed

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's). PMID:12342169

  16. Polyamines in human breast milk for preterm and term infants.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Zamora, J; Sabater-Molina, M; Rodríguez-Palmero, M; Rivero, M; Bosch, V; Nadal, J M; Zamora, S; Larqué, E

    2013-08-28

    Maternal milk is the first source of exogenous polyamines for the newborn. Polyamines modulate gut maturation in neonates, but no studies are available on polyamine concentration in human milk of preterm babies, even though they could be important for their immature gut. The present study aimed to determine polyamine concentration in human breast milk of mothers with preterm or term infants during the first month of lactation. Human milk samples were obtained during the first month of lactation from twenty-seven mothers with preterm babies and twelve mothers with babies born at term. The polyamine concentration in human milk was quantified by HPLC. During the first month of lactation, the total polyamine concentration was significantly higher in preterm milk than in term milk samples (7590 (SD 4990) v. 4660 (SD 4830) nmol/l, respectively (P ¼ 0·034)), as well as individual polyamine concentrations. Polyamine concentration in mature milk for preterm babies was significantly higher than that in mature milk for babies at term, and a similar trend was observed in colostrum and transition human milk. The spermidine/spermine ratio was higher in transition milk in preterm v. term samples, while in mature milk, the ratio was significantly lower in preterm than in term babies. In conclusion, the polyamine concentration was significantly higher in human milk for preterm than for term infants. This and the different spermidine/spermine ratios could influence the gut development of premature babies. PMID:23286699

  17. EFFECT OF FEEDING BROWN MIDRIB-3 CORN SILAGE OR CONVENTIONAL CORN SILAGE CUT AT EITHER 23 OR 71 CM ON MILK YIELD AND MILK COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect on milk yield when brown midrib 3 corn silage (bm3) cut at 23 cm or conventional corn silage cut at either 23 or 71 cm was fed to lactating dairy cows. Thirty lactating Holstein cows averaging 113 DIM and 37.3 kg milk daily were randomly assigned to one of si...

  18. Best prediction of yields for long lactations.

    PubMed

    Cole, J B; Null, D J; Vanraden, P M

    2009-04-01

    Lactation records of any reasonable length now can be processed with the selection index method known as best prediction (BP). Previous prediction programs were limited to the 305-d standard used since 1935. Best prediction was implemented in 1998 to calculate lactation records in USDA genetic evaluations, replacing the test interval method used since 1969 to calculate lactation records. Best prediction is more complex but also more accurate, particularly when testing is less frequent. Programs were reorganized to output better graphics, give users simpler access to options, and provide additional output, such as BP of daily yields. Test-day data for 6 breeds were extracted from the national dairy database, and lactation lengths were required to be > or =500 d (Ayrshire, Milking Shorthorn) or > or =800 d (all others). Average yield and SD at any day in milk (DIM) were estimated by fitting 3-parameter Wood's curves (milk, fat, protein) and 4-parameter exponential functions (somatic cell score) to means and SD of 15- (< or =300 DIM) and 30-d (>300 DIM) intervals. Correlations among TD yields were estimated using an autoregressive matrix to account for biological changes and an identity matrix to model daily measurement error. Autoregressive parameters (r) were estimated separately for first (r = 0.998) and later parities (r = 0.995). These r values were slightly larger than previous estimates due to the inclusion of the identity matrix. Correlations between traits were modified so that correlations between somatic cell score and other traits may be nonzero. The new lactation curves and correlation functions were validated by extracting TD data from the national database, estimating 305-d yields using the original and new programs, and correlating those results. Daily BP of yield were validated using daily milk weights from on-farm meters in university research herds. Correlations ranged from 0.900 to 0.988 for 305-d milk yield. High correlations ranged from 0.844 to

  19. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  20. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  1. Intestinal calcium absorption of women during lactation and after weaning.

    PubMed

    Kalkwarf, H J; Specker, B L; Heubi, J E; Vieira, N E; Yergey, A L

    1996-04-01

    We investigated whether intestinal calcium absorption and serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) concentrations are higher in women during lactation and after weaning to compensate for calcium lost in breast milk. Measurements were obtained at 4.6 mo postpartum in 24 lactating women and 24 nonlactating women, at 9.6 mo postpartum in 24 lactating women (2.6 mo after complete weaning) and 24 nonlactating women. One-half of the women in each group were randomly assigned to receive 1 g supplemental Ca/d as calcium carbonate. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by using stable isotopic tracers 42Ca and 44Ca. Fractional absorption was 0.32+/-0.02 (+/-SEM) in both lactating and nonlactating women, but was higher in lactating women after weaning (0.37+/-0.02) compared with nonlactating postpartum control subjects (0.31+/-0.02). These effects were independent of calcium intake. Changes in serum calcitriol paralleled changes in fractional absorption. There were no differences in calcitriol concentrations between lactating and nonlactating women, but calcitriol was greater in women after weaning compared with postpartum control subjects. Lactating women who had resumed menses had higher fractional absorption and serum calcitriol than did lactating women who had not. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were greater in lactating compared with nonlactating women; there were no differences between groups after weaning. We conclude that lactation stimulates increases in fractional calcium absorption and serum calcitriol, but the responses are only apparent after weaning or the resumption of menses. PMID:8599316

  2. Mammogenesis and induced lactation with or without reserpine in nulliparous dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Albanell, E; Carné, S; Casals, R; Such, X

    2007-08-01

    Nulliparous goats were used to evaluate the effects of a standard protocol for inducing lactation with or without using a prolactin-releasing agent (reserpine). Estrus was synchronized and goats were submitted to daily s.c. injections of estradiol-17beta and progesterone (0.5 and 1.25 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) for 7 d. The goats were divided into 2 groups and injected i.m. with 1 mg/d of reserpine (n = 7) or the vehicle (n = 7) on d 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Lactation was initiated by i.m. injections of dexamethasone (10 mg/d) from d 18 to 20. Goats were machine milked once daily from d 21 to 120, at which time they were mated with herd sires. Milk was measured and sampled daily during wk 1 of lactation and weekly thereafter. Udder traits were measured in all goats at d -2 (before the induction treatment) and on d 35 and 100 (during lactation). Goats initiated lactation on d 21 (100%) and milk yield increased thereafter. The milk yield of control and reserpine-treated goats increased as lactation advanced, peaking at wk 10 of lactation, when reserpine-treated goats yielded 1,079 +/- 89 mL/d of milk compared with 850 +/- 96 mL/d for control goats. Yet milk yield at the peak was only 55% of the peak milk yield observed in contemporary primiparous goats. The composition of initial milk (d 21) was different from that expected for colostrum. Milk composition stabilized after d 3 of lactation. There were no differences among groups for milk fat, protein, casein, or whey protein, but milk from control goats contained greater nonprotein nitrogen than that from reserpine-treated goats (0.48 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%). Teat length increased from 24.7 +/- 1.1 to 34.5 +/- 2.4 mm in control goats during mammogenesis (d -2 to 35), but stabilized in reserpine goats (25.2 +/- 2.2 mm). The distance between teats (11.5 +/- 0.4 cm), and the volume (922 +/- 63 mL) and depth (15.6 +/- 0.60 cm) of the udder increased similarly in both groups during mammogenesis and lactation

  3. Diet intake patterns of non-Bengali Muslim mothers during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, R N; Ghosh, B N; Chatterjee, B N

    1989-01-01

    An explorative study was carried out to ascertain the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diet patterns during pregnancy and lactation among Non-Bengali Muslim mothers. 100 consecutive mothers admitted for delivery in the Obstetric Ward of Islamia Hospital, Calcutta, were selected as index cases. Retrospective data from these mothers were collected about their diet patterns during pregnancy. At least 3 home visits were made for each mother after her discharge from the hospital: the 1st visit within 7 days after discharge, the 2nd visit when the infant was 4-6 months old during the weaning period, and the 3rd visit when the infant was 8-12 months old. 60% of mothers were illiterate and 34% had up to primary level education, while only 4% and 2% of mothers had up to secondary and higher than secondary level education, respectively. None of the mothers was working. Only 13% of the families' daily diet was nonvegetarian. There was a wide gap between the mothers' attitude towards various nutritious food categories and the actual practice of consuming them because of the inability to buy those food items owing to poverty. When pregnant, they avoided leafy vegetables (96%) as well as brinjal, cauliflower, and cabbage (42%) for fear of gastric upset. 75% of mothers avoided pineapple and papaya; and 50% avoided fish since it was believed to cause scaly patches on the child's face and body. 76% of mothers, irrespective of their level of education or economic status, were consuming sago, barley, garlic, and turmeric in the erroneous belief of augmenting breast milk secretion. Garlic and turmeric were also believed to improve the baby's complexion and protect the baby and mother from cough and cold. Common food items avoided by mothers during lactation were vegetables (93%), fruits (81%), pulses (59%), and roots and tubers (54%). PMID:2641755

  4. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  5. Milk production of West African Dwarf goats in the Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jaitner, J; Njie, M; Corr, N; Dempfle, L

    2006-04-01

    Goats are important in the low-input systems of West Africa and their main importance lies in their role for income and saving. In addition, it is known that milk offtake for home consumption is also important. In order to obtain information about the real importance of milk offtake, a recording scheme was operated in 27 villages in the Central River Division of The Gambia from July 1998 until January 2000. Detailed information was obtained from about 1500 kiddings. In the recording scheme, any sheep being milked as well as the goats of the International Trypanotolerance Centre nucleus flock were also recorded. In the villages, 36% of all lactations were used for milk offtake, but the fraction milked was lower for the first two lactations. The average length of lactation was 127 days and the average daily milk offtake was 0.18 L. Goats are milked once a day and the residual milk is left for the kids. Milking starts about one week after parturition and stops when the goat becomes pregnant or the kid(s) die or the goat is drying off. The repeatability of the 90-day milk offtake was 0.24 +/- 0.09. Sixty-five percent of goat owner were women and a large fraction of goat owners also owned cattle. Goat milk was used exclusively for home consumption. It is concluded that in breeding and extension work more attention should be given to aspects of milk production. PMID:16986773

  6. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    PubMed

    Shaikh Alaudeen; Nor Muslim; Kamarul Faridah; Ali Azman; Hamid Arshat

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income, and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. The authors have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers (Malay, Chinese, and Indians) of full-term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/1) of sodium is highest 48.2 +/- 1.7; mean +/- SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation. Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers was similar but the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7 +/- 3.4 mmpl/1) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited the lowest concentration (25.9 +/- 2.6 mmol/1) of sodium that is significantly (p .05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however, did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. PMID:12342168

  7. Decreased lactation capacity and altered milk composition in insulin receptor substrate null mice is associated with decreased maternal body mass and reduced insulin-dependent phosphorylation of mammary Akt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and -2 within the mammary gland was found to be high at mid-lactation and dramatically decreased with mammary involution. This observation supports the hypothesis that these proteins are induced in the mammary gland with lactogenesis and involved in ...

  8. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  9. Variation of transferrin mRNA concentration in the rabbit mammary gland during the pregnancy-lactation-weaning cycle and in cultured mammary cells. A comparison with the other major milk protein mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Puissant, C; Bayat-Sarmadi, M; Devinoy, E; Houdebine, L M

    1994-05-01

    The concentration of transferrin mRNA was evaluated during pregnancy and lactation in rabbit mammary gland and liver using northern blot and dot blot assays. Transferrin mRNA was present in the virgin rabbit mammary gland and its concentration increased as pregnancy proceeded, with a major enhancement after day 15. A high concentration was reached 3 days after parturition, with no additional increase during lactation and with a marked decline after weaning. During the same period, the concentration of transferrin mRNA showed only a very weak variation in liver. This mRNA was six times more abundant in mammary gland than in liver of lactating rabbit. The accumulation of transferrin mRNA in the mammary gland was concomitant with the accumulation of alpha s1-, beta-, kappa-casein and WAP (whey acidic protein) mRNAs. The concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA, taken as a non-inducible control mRNA, declined progressively during pregnancy to reach its lower level in lactation. These observations suggest that casein, WAP and transferrin mRNAs are subjected to a similar control mechanism in vivo, at least in the second half of pregnancy and during lactation. Experiments carried out in vitro using isolated rabbit epithelial mammary cells cultured on collagen I gel indicated that transferrin mRNA was abundant and only weakly inducible by the lactogenic hormones insulin, cortisol and prolactin, as opposed to caseins and WAP mRNAs. R5020, an analogue of progesterone, inhibited at most very slightly the accumulation of alpha s1-casein mRNA in the presence of prolactin and it did not reduce the expression of transferrin gene.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8180682

  10. Refinement of a Protocol for the Induction of Lactation in Nonpregnant Nonhuman Primates by Using Exogenous Hormone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shannon D; Amos, Joshua D; Beck, Krista N; Colvin, Lisa M; Franke, Kelly S; Liebl, Brooke E; Permar, Sallie R

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining sufficient quantities of milk from NHP is necessary for pharmacologic and immunologic studies required for the development and safety assessment of drugs and vaccines to be used in the maternal–infant setting. We previously induced lactation in nonpregnant female rhesus macaques (RM, Macaca mulatta) and African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus sabaeus) for studies of immune responses in milk, but the volume collected was variable. To improve lactation induction protocols for nonbreeding nonhuman primates, we investigated serum hormone levels and collection protocols in AGM and RM. Here, we correlated milk volume with serum levels of endogenous and administered hormones: estradiol, prolactin, progesterone, and medroxyprogesterone in RM and AGM. We also investigated whether age, parity or the timing of milk collections were associated with the volume of milk collected from the AGM and RM in which lactation was induced by using exogenous hormones. We found an inverse correlation with serum estradiol and milk volume in the RM but no significant correlation between milk volumes and the remaining serum hormone levels in the induced RM or AGM. In addition, HIL AGM had higher peak estradiol levels than did naturally lactating AGM. A revised estradiol-sparing protocol increased milk volumes in the AGM. In addition, milk volume in RM was greater in the morning than the afternoon. In conclusion, we have refined a lactation induction protocol in nonpregnant primates, which is a needed alternative to using nursing primates for the assessment of drug levels and immune responses in milk. PMID:25650978

  11. Effect of replacing grass silage with red clover silage on nutrient digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and milk fat composition in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Heikkilä, T; Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to evaluate the effect of incremental replacement of GS with RCS on milk production, nutrient digestion, whole-body N metabolism, and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised total mixed rations offered ad libitum, containing 600 g of forage/kg of diet dry matter (DM), with RCS replacing GS in ratios of 0:100, 33:67, 67:33, and 100:0 on a DM basis. Intake of DM and milk yield tended to be higher when RCS and GS were offered as a mixture than when fed alone. Forage species had no influence on the concentration or secretion of total milk fat, whereas replacing GS with RCS tended to decrease milk protein concentration and yield. Substitution of GS with RCS decreased linearly whole-tract apparent organic matter, fiber, and N digestion. Forage species had no effect on total nonammonia N at the omasum, whereas the flow of most AA at the omasum was higher for diets based on a mixture of forages. Replacing GS with RCS progressively lowered protein degradation in the rumen, increased linearly ruminal escape of dietary protein, and decreased linearly microbial protein synthesis. Incremental inclusion of RCS in the diet tended to lower whole-body N balance, increased linearly the proportion of dietary N excreted in feces and urine, and decreased linearly the utilization of dietary N for milk protein synthesis. Furthermore, replacing GS with RCS decreased linearly milk fat 4:0 to 8:0, 14:0, and 16:0 concentrations and increased linearly 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 concentrations, in the absence of changes in cis-9 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 18:2, or total trans fatty acid concentration. Inclusion of RCS in the diet

  12. In vitro and Lactation Responses in Mid-lactating Dairy Cows Fed Protected Amino Acids and Fat

    PubMed Central

    Nam, I. S.; Choi, J. H.; Seo, K. M.; Ahn, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ruminally protected amino acids (RPAAs) and ruminally protected fat (RPF) supplementation on ruminal fermentation characteristics (in vitro) and milk yield and milk composition (in vivo). Fourteen mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (mean weight 653±62.59 kg) were divided into two groups according to mean milk yield and number of days of postpartum. The cows were then fed a basal diet during adaptation (2 wk) and experimental diets during the treatment period (6 wk). Dietary treatments were i) a basal diet (control) and ii) basal diet containing 50 g of RPAAs (lysine and methionine, 3:1 ratio) and 50 g of RPF. In rumen fermentation trail (in vitro), RPAAs and RPF supplementation had no influence on the ruminal pH, dry matter digestibility, total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N concentration. In feeding trial (in vivo), milk yield (p<0.001), 4% fat corrected milk (p<0.05), milk fat (p<0.05), milk protein (p<0.001), and milk urea nitrogen (p<0.05) were greater in cows fed RPAAs and RPF than the corresponding values in the control group. With an index against as 0%, the rates of decrease in milk yield and milk protein were lower in RPAAs and RPF treated diet than those of basal diet group (p<0.05). In conclusion, diet supplemented with RPAAs and RPF can improve milk yield and milk composition without negatively affecting ruminal functions in Holstein dairy cows at mid-lactating. PMID:25358363

  13. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  14. THEOS: The1st Thailand EO System and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peanvijarnpong, Chanchai

    Thailand has engaged in remote sensing satellite technological and scientific development many years since early 1980s. Thailand Landsat Station was established as a regional center of data processing and dissemination for Thai scientists for data applications. Over the years, GISTDA and Thai user community have been gaining technical experience and expertise in satellite data applications around the country such natural resources and environmental management, forest inventory, forest change detections, soil mapping, land-use and land cover mapping, crop type mapping, coastal shrimp farming, flood zone mapping, base mapping, water and drought management. The Government of Thailand realizes that remote sensing satellite technology is an important mechanism for social and economic development of the country. So the 1st Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS) development program was approved by the Government since 2003. THEOS system is sub-synchronous satellite orbiting around the earth at 822 km. altitude same as SPOT satellites. It carries two imaging instruments; 2-m Panchromatic telescope with 22 km. swath width and 15-m resolution camera with four-multi-spectral band and 90-km swath wide. THEOS is scheduled to launch around March 2008. A number of technological and scientific activities has been implementing for Thailand and international scientific user community. Therefore THEOS is strong endorsement from the Government of Thailand on the value of remote sensing technology. This paper presents Thailand EO activities including THEOS System and its plans.

  15. Estimation of sow milk nutrient output.

    PubMed

    Noblet, J; Etienne, M

    1989-12-01

    Ten replicates of two littermate gilts were used during a 21-d lactation in order to calculate relationships between milk nutrient intake and piglet growth rate and composition of gain. Gilts were fed 14.2 or 10.4 Mcal ME/d and litter size was standardized to 9 or 10 piglets. Piglets had no access to creep feed. Milk production was measured on 10 sucklings over 12 h on d 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 by the weigh-suckle-weigh method. Heat production of the piglets was measured (RQ method) on the same days in a confinement chamber. Milk composition was determined on the days following milk production measurements. Four to ten piglets/litter were slaughtered at weaning and their body composition was determined. Milk nutrient production during part of lactation was related closely to piglet weight gain and body weight (R2 = .80 to .96). Milk DM, energy and N output over the entire lactation were predicted from piglet ADG (R2 = .87 to .90) when, for each litter, the difference between energy in piglet daily weight gain measured by the slaughter technique and energy in piglet daily weight gain estimated by the RQ method was included in the model. This variable corrects for milk production measurement errors. The relationships were slightly improved, especially for energy output, when the composition of piglet weight gain was taken into account (R2 = .93 to .97). PMID:2613581

  16. State and National Standardized Lactation Averages by Breed for Cows Calving in 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Means for dairy cow lactation data used in national genetic evaluations and other USDA research are useful for indicating trends and describing cow populations. Breed lactation means are on a 305-day, twice daily milking, mature-equivalent basis from cows contributing to genetic evaluations. Data fo...

  17. State and National Standardized Lactation Averages by Breed for Cows Calving in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Means for dairy cow lactation data used in national genetic evaluations and other USDA research are useful for indicating trends and describing cow populations. Breed lactation means are on a 305-day, twice daily milking, mature-equivalent basis from cows contributing to genetic evaluations. Data fo...

  18. STATE AND NATIONAL STANDARDIZED LACTATION AVERAGES BY BREED FOR COWS CALVING IN 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Means for dairy cow lactation data used in national genetic evaluations and other USDA research are useful for indicating trends and describing cow populations. Breed lactation means are on a 305-day, twice daily milking, mature-equivalent basis from cows contributing to genetic evaluations. Data fo...

  19. The declining phase of lactation: Peripheral or central, programmed or pathological?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most species the functional activity of the mammary gland during lactation follows a biphasic developmental pattern. This pattern starts with a rapid increase in milk output that occurs with secretory activation and continues with a more gradual increase until the point of peak lactation is reach...

  20. State and National Standardized Lactation Averages by Breed for Cows Calving in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Means for dairy cow lactation data used in national genetic evaluations and other USDA research are useful for indicating trends and describing cow populations. Breed lactation means are on a 305-day, twice daily milking, mature-equivalent basis from cows contributing to genetic evaluations. Data fo...

  1. Genetic Evaluation of Lactation Persistency for Five Breeds of Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows with high persistency tend to produce less milk than expected at the beginning of lactation and more than expected at the end. Best prediction (BP) of persistency is calculated as a function of trait-specific standard lactation curves and linear regressions of test day deviations on days in mil...

  2. State and national standardized lactation averages by breed for cows calving in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Means for dairy cow lactation data used in national genetic evaluations and other USDA research are useful for indicating trends and describing cow populations. Breed lactation means are on a 305-day, twice daily milking, mature-equivalent basis from cows contributing to genetic evaluations. Data fo...

  3. State and National Standardized Lactation Averages by Breed for Cows Calving in 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Means for dairy cow lactation data used in national genetic evaluations and other USDA research are useful for indicating trends and describing cow populations. Breed lactation means are on a 305-day, twice daily milking, mature-equivalent basis from cows contributing to genetic evaluations. Data fo...

  4. Breast milk breaks new boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sioned

    2012-01-01

    It is widely understood that breast milk is best for babies, but groundbreaking research continues to be conducted by the world's leading researchers to ensure we have the most recent knowledge to help breastfeeding mothers and give health professionals up to date guidance. This article provides a report from the recent International Breastfeeding and Lactation Symposium, hosted by Medela, touching on some of the key findings that were presented. This year's symposium revealed some exciting news for the breastfeeding world and here our reporter gives us a snap shot of the three most significant updates: further understanding of stem cells in breast milk, findings that have unlocked the power of human milk and insights into medication and breast milk. PMID:22908502

  5. Lactation and reproduction*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Hytten, F. E.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the effect of lactation on fertility in the absence of contraception and on the effects of contraceptive measures on lactation. They examine data from several countries on the intervals between births and on the return of menstruation and ovulation after childbirth, comparing lactating with nonlactating women. They conclude that lactation is an inefficient contraceptive for the individual, but that in populations sustained lactation is associated with reduced fertility. Possible physiological mechanisms causing lactation amenorrhoea are discussed. Though much of the literature on the effect of contraceptives on lactation is inadequate, there is general agreement that the estrogen component of hormonal preparations has an adverse effect on lactation, but that progestins alone do not. Many questions remain. Is this effect seen in established lactation, or only in the puerperal period? Is it a direct pharmacological effect, or are pill-users the mothers least motivated to maintain breast-feeding? Does a close relationship exist between hormones given and lactation performance? The authors comment on some of the technical deficiencies of previous studies in this field and discuss practical possibilities of, and limitations to, obtaining adequate scientific information in the future. PMID:1084804

  6. VIEW WEST, 1ST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, HYDRAULIC COTTON PRESS, DETAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST, 1ST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, HYDRAULIC COTTON PRESS, DETAIL, CONTINENTAL GIN COMPANY HYDRAULIC TANK - Magnolia Plantation, Cotton Gins & Presses, LA Route 119, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  7. 94. DETAIL, SAME BEAN AS ABOVE, MARKED 'PATENTED DEC. 1ST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. DETAIL, SAME BEAN AS ABOVE, MARKED 'PATENTED DEC. 1ST 1857' - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. The Influence of Dietary Characteristics on the Milk Quantity and Quality of Riverine Buffaloes: Estimate of the Energy/Protein Requirements, for a Medium-high Production, in the First Ninety Days of Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Terramoccia, S.; Bartocci, A.; Di Giovanni, S.; Bartocci, S.

    2012-01-01

    The data used came from two trials undertaken under the same climatic conditions (spring-summer). In both trials pluriparious buffaloes were utilized similar in weight, body condition score, and milk production from the previous year. From the first trial the data used was from the sub-period 23–88 DIM provided by seven animals fed ad libitum with diet A (6.69 MJ/kg DM; 158.30 g/kg of crude protein) with a forage/concentrate ratio of 48/52. From the second trial the data used was from the sub-period 33–90 DIM provided by seven animals fed ad libitum with diet B (6.63 MJ/kg DM; 179.50 g/kg of crude protein) and by seven animals fed ad libitum with diet C (5.99 MJ/kg DM; 155.40 g/kg of crude protein), each of the diets had the same forage/concentrate ratio (53/47). A significant difference was found in milk production between group B and C (13.08 vs. 11.56 kg/d, p<0.05), an intermediate production (12.10 kg/d) was noted in group A. A significant difference was found between fat (76.58 vs. 69.24 g/kg, p<0.05), protein (46.14 vs. 43.16 g/kg, p<0.05) and casein (39.94 vs. 34.98 g/kg, p<0.05) of the milk of group B with respect to group A. The milk of group C gave fat values (71.80 g/kg), protein (45.52 g/kg) and casein (39.06 g/kg) statistically equal to those of group B. The milk of groups B and C, in respect to the milk of group A, gave values of K20 (1.77, 1.82 vs. 3.68 min, p<0.05), statistically lower and values of A30 (48.28, 47.27 vs. 40.64 mm, p<0.05) statistically higher. Two simple linear regressions were calculated where the independent variable (x) was the daily standardized milk production, the dependent variable (y) or the daily intake of net energy or crude protein. Equation 1) NE (MJ/d) = 74.4049+2.8308×kg of normalized milk; equation 2) CP (kg/d) = 1.4507+0.1085×kg of normalized milk, both the equations were significant (p<0.05) with determination coefficients of 0.58 and 0.50 respectively. For a production of normalized milk that varies from 9 to

  9. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the

  10. Effects of supplementation and stage of lactation on performance of grazing dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Mikolayunas, C M; Thomas, D L; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K; Berger, Y M; Eckerman, S R

    2008-04-01

    The majority of dairy sheep in the world are fed pasture and supplemental grain during lactation; however, no trials have reported the effects of supplementation of dairy ewes grazing improved pastures in North America. In trial 1, 56 three-year-old grazing dairy ewes in early [21 +/- 10 d in milk (DIM)] or late (136 +/- 9 DIM) lactation were fed 0 or 0.82 kg of dry matter/d per ewe of supplement (16.5% crude protein mixture of corn and a soybean meal-based high-protein pellet) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were no significant interactions between stage of lactation and supplementation treatments. Average test-day milk production was higher in early-lactation ewes than in late-lactation ewes (1.74 vs. 1.21 kg/d, respectively). Although test-day milk protein percentage was higher in late-lactation ewes than in early-lactation ewes (5.02 vs. 4.86%, respectively), there was no difference in milk fat percentage between stages of lactation. Supplemented ewes had higher milk production (1.59 vs. 1.36 kg/d, respectively), lower milk fat percentage (5.75 vs. 6.00%, respectively), and lower milk protein percentage (4.84 vs. 5.04%, respectively) than unsupplemented ewes. Milk urea N levels were similar between the 2 stages of lactation and between the 2 supplementation treatments and were above recommended levels for dairy sheep, indicating an excess intake or inefficient utilization of protein for both supplementation treatments. In trial 2, 96 two-, three-, and four-year-old grazing dairy ewes in midlactation (112 +/- 21 DIM) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments of 0, 0.41, 0.82, or 1.24 kg of dry matter/d per ewe of whole corn. Average test-day milk production increased linearly and milk fat percentage decreased quadratically with increasing amounts of corn supplementation. Milk protein yield increased linearly, and milk urea N levels decreased quadratically with increasing amounts of corn supplementation, suggesting an improvement in the

  11. The use of 2-dimensional gas chromatography to investigate the effect of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid, breed, and lactation stage on the fatty acid profile of sheep milk.

    PubMed

    Pellattiero, E; Cecchinato, A; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 2-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to obtain a detailed fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep milk and to evaluate the effects of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA) supply, breed, days in milk (DIM), sampling period, and number of lambs suckling on the FA profile. Twenty-four ewes, from 3 autochthonous breeds of the Veneto Alps (Brogna, Foza, and Lamon), were housed in 6 pens (2 pens/breed), according to DIM (38 ± 23 d) and body weight (61 ± 13 kg). The ewes and their offspring of 3 pens (1 pen/breed) were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (control), and the other animals received the same diet supplemented with 12 g/d per ewe, plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d, of an rpCLA mixture. The study lasted 63 d. Two composite milk samples for each ewe were prepared during the first and second months of the trial. The pooled milk samples were analyzed in duplicate for FA profile by 2-dimensional gas chromatography, which allowed us to obtain a detailed FA profile of sheep milk, with 170 different FA detected, including many that were present in small concentrations. The milk relative proportions of individual FA, groups of FA, or FA indices were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), considering diet, breed, DIM, and sampling period as sources of variation. The random effect of animal was used to test diet, breed, and DIM, whereas the effects of period were tested on the residual. Breed had a small influence on milk FA profile, mainly on branched- and odd-chain FA. Within breed, animal repeatability for the relative proportions of milk FA was notable for almost all monounsaturated FA and for saturated FA with 14 to 19 carbon atoms, except C16:0, and less so for polyunsaturated FA. The inclusion of rpCLA (CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12) increased the presence of the same CLA isomers in the milk as well as that of CLA trans-9,trans-11, and decreased the proportions of de novo

  12. Lactation and neonatal nutrition: Defining and refining the critical questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper resulted from a conference entitled "Lactation and Milk: Defining and Refining the Critical Questions" held at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from January 18-20, 2012. The mission of the conference was to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into ...

  13. Data Collection Ratings and Best Prediction of Lactation Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Best prediction (BP) has been used in the US to calculate lactation yields of milk, fat, protein, and somatic cell score (SCS) from test day data since 1998, when it replaced the test interval method (TIM) used since 1969. It is more complex than TIM but also more accurate, particularly when testing...

  14. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Maede; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Ghavami, Mohsen; Tamadon, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM), duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ≥ 3) were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005). In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001). Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002). Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001). In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02) and winter (p = 0.03) in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities. PMID:25568687

  15. Effect of milking interval on milk secretion and mammary tight junction permeability in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, V; Such, X; Caja, G; Casals, R; Albanell, E; Salama, A A K

    2008-07-01

    Twenty-four lactating ewes (Manchega, n = 12; Lacaune, n = 12) in mid lactation were used to assess the short-term effects of different machine milking intervals (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h) on milk yield, milk composition, and tight junction (TJ) permeability of mammary epithelia. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), and plasmin activity. Plasma lactose, and milk Na and K concentrations were used as indicators of TJ permeability. Milk accumulated linearly for up to 24 h, showing a different rate according to the milk yield of the breed (Manchega, 38 mL/h; Lacaune, 87 mL/h). Milking interval affected milk fat content, which decreased markedly from 4 to 24 h in both breeds, but no differences were observed in milk protein content. The milk contents of casein, true protein, lactose, and total solids also varied according to milking interval. Values of SCC did not vary by breed (175 x 10(3) cells/mL, on average), showing the lowest log(10) values for the 4-and 24-h milking intervals in both breeds. Plasmin activity in milk increased with milking interval until 20 h of udder filling in both breeds, and was poorly but positively correlated with SCC content (r = 0.39). Plasma lactose increased dramatically after 20 h of milk accumulation, indicating enhanced permeability of mammary TJ. As a result, an increase in Na concentration and in the Na:K ratio, and a decrease in K concentration, were observed in the milk of Manchega ewes. On the contrary, no differences in Na and K concentrations in milk were detected in Lacaune ewes. In conclusion, our results proved that Manchega and Lacaune dairy sheep could maintain high rates of milk secretion during extended milking intervals in the short term, with no effects on udder health and few negative effects on milk yield. Increased TJ permeability, caused by the effect of udder filling, induced changes in