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Sample records for 1st order autocorrelation

  1. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  2. Distributions of Autocorrelated First-Order Kinetic Outcomes: Illness Severity

    PubMed Central

    Englehardt, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Many complex systems produce outcomes having recurring, power law-like distributions over wide ranges. However, the form necessarily breaks down at extremes, whereas the Weibull distribution has been demonstrated over the full observed range. Here the Weibull distribution is derived as the asymptotic distribution of generalized first-order kinetic processes, with convergence driven by autocorrelation, and entropy maximization subject to finite positive mean, of the incremental compounding rates. Process increments represent multiplicative causes. In particular, illness severities are modeled as such, occurring in proportion to products of, e.g., chronic toxicant fractions passed by organs along a pathway, or rates of interacting oncogenic mutations. The Weibull form is also argued theoretically and by simulation to be robust to the onset of saturation kinetics. The Weibull exponential parameter is shown to indicate the number and widths of the first-order compounding increments, the extent of rate autocorrelation, and the degree to which process increments are distributed exponential. In contrast with the Gaussian result in linear independent systems, the form is driven not by independence and multiplicity of process increments, but by increment autocorrelation and entropy. In some physical systems the form may be attracting, due to multiplicative evolution of outcome magnitudes towards extreme values potentially much larger and smaller than control mechanisms can contain. The Weibull distribution is demonstrated in preference to the lognormal and Pareto I for illness severities versus (a) toxicokinetic models, (b) biologically-based network models, (c) scholastic and psychological test score data for children with prenatal mercury exposure, and (d) time-to-tumor data of the ED01 study. PMID:26061263

  3. Highly efficient -1st-order reflection in Littrow mounted dielectric double-groove grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kota; Iizuka, Hideo

    2013-06-01

    We show that in a silicon double-groove grating with two different groove widths per period attached on top of a semi-infinite SiO2 substrate, almost 100% reflectivity is achieved for the -1st-order reflection with an incident angle of 60° in the Littrow mounting condition. The modal analysis reveals that modes propagating in the upward and downward directions have nearly the same amplitudes at resonance. They are added constructively for the -1st-order reflection and destructively for the 0th-order reflection and the -1st-order and 0th-order transmission. The asymmetric structure with a dielectric material poses a unique feature as a four port device.

  4. Molecular aggregation characterized by high order autocorrelation in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, A G; Thompson, N L

    1987-01-01

    The use of high order autocorrelation in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for investigating aggregation in a sample that contains fluorescent molecules is described. Theoretical expressions for the fluorescence fluctuation autocorrelation functions defined by gm,n(tau) = [(delta fm(t + tau)delta fm(t] - (delta Fm(t] (delta Fn(t

  5. Four-dimensional investigation of the 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, O.; Tzallas, P.; Benis, E. P.; Kruse, J.; Peralta Conde, A.; Kalpouzos, C.; Charalambidis, D.

    2009-10-01

    The 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique, widely utilized in directly measuring ultra-short light pulses durations, is examined in detail via model calculations that include three-dimensional integration over a large ionization volume, temporal delay and spatial displacement of the two beams of the autocorrelator at the focus. The effects of the inherent displacement to the 2nd order autocorrelation technique are demonstrated for short and long pulses, elucidating the appropriate implementation of the technique in tight focusing conditions. Based on the above investigations, a high accuracy 2nd order volume autocorrelation measurement of the duration of the 5th harmonic of a 50 fs long laser pulse, including the measurement of the carrier wavelength oscillation, is presented.

  6. Dimensionality dependence of aging in kinetics of diffusive phase separation: Behavior of order-parameter autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Midya, Jiarul; Majumder, Suman; Das, Subir K

    2015-08-01

    Behavior of two-time autocorrelation during the phase separation in solid binary mixtures is studied via numerical solutions of the Cahn-Hilliard equation as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the Ising model. Results are analyzed via state-of-the-art methods, including the finite-size scaling technique. Full forms of the autocorrelation in space dimensions 2 and 3 are obtained empirically. The long-time behavior is found to be power law, with exponents unexpectedly higher than the ones for the ferromagnetic ordering. Both Cahn-Hilliard and Ising models provide consistent results.

  7. Dimensionality dependence of aging in kinetics of diffusive phase separation: Behavior of order-parameter autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Midya, Jiarul; Majumder, Suman; Das, Subir K

    2015-08-01

    Behavior of two-time autocorrelation during the phase separation in solid binary mixtures is studied via numerical solutions of the Cahn-Hilliard equation as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the Ising model. Results are analyzed via state-of-the-art methods, including the finite-size scaling technique. Full forms of the autocorrelation in space dimensions 2 and 3 are obtained empirically. The long-time behavior is found to be power law, with exponents unexpectedly higher than the ones for the ferromagnetic ordering. Both Cahn-Hilliard and Ising models provide consistent results. PMID:26382361

  8. Dimensionality dependence of aging in kinetics of diffusive phase separation: Behavior of order-parameter autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midya, Jiarul; Majumder, Suman; Das, Subir K.

    2015-08-01

    Behavior of two-time autocorrelation during the phase separation in solid binary mixtures is studied via numerical solutions of the Cahn-Hilliard equation as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the Ising model. Results are analyzed via state-of-the-art methods, including the finite-size scaling technique. Full forms of the autocorrelation in space dimensions 2 and 3 are obtained empirically. The long-time behavior is found to be power law, with exponents unexpectedly higher than the ones for the ferromagnetic ordering. Both Cahn-Hilliard and Ising models provide consistent results.

  9. Dynamics of the 1st order phase transition between the nuclear ordered phases of solid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takayoshi; Ito, Hideaki; Sasaki, Yutaka; Mizusaki, Takao

    2005-08-01

    Dynamics of the 1st order phase transition between the U2D2 and the high field phases (HFP) was studied by field-cycling method between these phases by using ultra low temperature magnetic resonance imaging (ULT-MRI). Single Crystal of U2D2 3He was produced at the bottom of compressional cell in superfluid 3He-B at about 0.5 mK. Domain distribution in the U2D2 crystal was examined by ULT-MRI. We have measured the NMR signal intensity to extract the time-evolution of the HFP, after the static magnetic field was swept quickly through the critical field BC1 and was stayed at B=BC1+ΔB. The volume concentration of the U2D2 decreased exponentially in time during the early stage of the phase transition. The rate constant depended positively on ΔB. After the phase transition to the HFP was completed, the static field decreased through BC1 and was fixed at B=BC1-ΔB. The observed rate constant was similar to the value in the opposite direction with identical ΔB. This exponential evolution and ΔB dependence of its rate suggest that the early stage of the phase transition is controlled by the nucleation process.

  10. Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Li, Jin; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li; Wu, Han; Zhu, Ye-Yu; Peng, Fei

    2013-10-21

    A configuration of hybrid distributed Raman amplification (H-DRA), that is formed by incorporating a random fiber laser (RFL) based 2nd-order pump and a low-noise laser-diode (LD) based 1st-order pump, is proposed in this paper. In comparison to conventional bi-directional 1st-order DRA, the effective noise figure (ENF) is found to be lower by amount of 0 to 4 dB due to the RFL-based 2nd-order pump, depending on the on-off gain, while the low-noise 1st-order Raman pump is used for compensating the worsened signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the vicinity towards the far end of the fiber and avoiding the potential nonlinear impact induced by excess injection of pump power and suppressing the pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. As a result, the gain distribution can be optimized along ultra-long fiber link, due to combination of the 2nd-order RFL and low-noise 1st-order pumping, making the transmission distance be extended significantly. We utilized such a configuration to achieve ultra-long-distance distributed sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). A repeater-less sensing distance record of up to 154.4 km with 5 m spatial resolution and ~ ± 1.4 °C temperature uncertainty is successfully demonstrated.

  11. 1st Order Modeling of a SAW Delay Line using MathCAD(Registered)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    To aid in the development of SAW sensors for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring applications, a first order model of a SAW Delay line has been created using MathCadA. The model implements the Impulse Response method to calculate the frequency response, impedance, and insertion loss. This paper presents the model and the results from the model for a SAW delay line design. Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles requires rugged sensors having reduced volume, mass, and power that can be used to measure a variety of phenomena. Wireless systems are preferred when retro-fitting sensors onto existing vehicles [1]. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are capable of sensing: temperature, pressure, strain, chemical species, mass loading, acceleration, and shear stress. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. Passive wireless sensors have been developed using SAW technology. For these reasons new SAW sensors are being investigated for aerospace applications.

  12. Study of dispersion compensation effect of femtosecond laser amplifier using home-made third-order autocorrelator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wenxia; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, Xiaonong

    2013-12-01

    Detailed experimental and theoretical analyses of the dispersion compensation effect in a femtosecond laser amplifier are presented. It is confirmed that the temporal structures in the vicinity of the central peak of the amplified laser pulse are primarily caused by the uncompensated third- and/or fourth-order dispersion. The specific detrimental roles played by the third- and fourth-order dispersions such as resulting in the formation of asymmetrical pulse shapes and satellite pulses are revealed and experimentally verified with third-order autocorrelation measurements. With the help of a third-order autocorrelator, it is more efficient and accurate to optimize the third- and fourth-order dispersion compensation when the roundtrip times of a laser pulse inside the regenerative amplifier changes. For practical applications, in order to achieve laser pulses with highest quality, namely with minimum pulse energy in their wings, it is imperative to optimize the dispersion-control parameters while monitoring the laser pulses with a third-order autocorrelator.

  13. All-optical 1st- and 2nd-order differential equation solvers with large tuning ranges using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaisheng; Hou, Jie; Huang, Zhuyang; Cao, Tong; Zhang, Jihua; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal computation scheme for solving 1st- and 2nd-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with tunable constant coefficients by using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FP-SOAs). By changing the injection currents of FP-SOAs, the constant coefficients of the differential equations are practically tuned. A quite large constant coefficient tunable range from 0.0026/ps to 0.085/ps is achieved for the 1st-order differential equation. Moreover, the constant coefficient p of the 2nd-order ODE solver can be continuously tuned from 0.0216/ps to 0.158/ps, correspondingly with the constant coefficient q varying from 0.0000494/ps(2) to 0.006205/ps(2). Additionally, a theoretical model that combining the carrier density rate equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the transfer function of the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is exploited to analyze the solving processes. For both 1st- and 2nd-order solvers, excellent agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results are obtained. The FP-SOAs based all-optical differential-equation solvers can be easily integrated with other optical components based on InP/InGaAsP materials, such as laser, modulator, photodetector and waveguide, which can motivate the realization of the complicated optical computing on a single integrated chip.

  14. Discretized and aggregated: modeling dive depth of harbor seals from ordered categorical data with temporal autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Megan D; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2012-09-01

    Ordered categorical data are pervasive in environmental and ecological data, and often arise from constraints that require discretizing a continuous variable into ordered categories. A great deal of data have been collected toward the study of marine mammal dive behavior using satellite depth recorders (SDRs), which often discretize a continuous variable such as depth. Additionally, data storage or transmission constraints may also necessitate the aggregation of data over time intervals of a specified length. The categorization and aggregation create a time series of ordered multicategory counts for each animal, which present challenges in terms of statistical modeling and practical interpretation. We describe an intuitive strategy for modeling such aggregated, ordered categorical data allowing for inference regarding the category probabilities and a measure of central tendency on the original scale of the data (e.g., meters), along with incorporation of temporal correlation and overdispersion. The strategy extends covariate-specific cutpoint models for ordinal data. We demonstrate the method in an analysis of SDR dive-depth data collected on harbor seals in Alaska. The primary goal of the analysis is to assess the relationship of covariates, such as time of day, with number of dives and maximum depth of dives. We also predict missing values and introduce novel graphical summaries of the data and results. PMID:22118495

  15. Signal processing of MEMS gyroscope arrays to improve accuracy using a 1st order Markov for rate signal modeling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengyu; Xue, Liang; Chang, Honglong; Yuan, Guangmin; Yuan, Weizheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a signal processing technique to improve angular rate accuracy of the gyroscope by combining the outputs of an array of MEMS gyroscope. A mathematical model for the accuracy improvement was described and a Kalman filter (KF) was designed to obtain optimal rate estimates. Especially, the rate signal was modeled by a first-order Markov process instead of a random walk to improve overall performance. The accuracy of the combined rate signal and affecting factors were analyzed using a steady-state covariance. A system comprising a six-gyroscope array was developed to test the presented KF. Experimental tests proved that the presented model was effective at improving the gyroscope accuracy. The experimental results indicated that six identical gyroscopes with an ARW noise of 6.2 °/√h and a bias drift of 54.14 °/h could be combined into a rate signal with an ARW noise of 1.8 °/√h and a bias drift of 16.3 °/h, while the estimated rate signal by the random walk model has an ARW noise of 2.4 °/√h and a bias drift of 20.6 °/h. It revealed that both models could improve the angular rate accuracy and have a similar performance in static condition. In dynamic condition, the test results showed that the first-order Markov process model could reduce the dynamic errors 20% more than the random walk model.

  16. Signal Processing of MEMS Gyroscope Arrays to Improve Accuracy Using a 1st Order Markov for Rate Signal Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chengyu; Xue, Liang; Chang, Honglong; Yuan, Guangmin; Yuan, Weizheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a signal processing technique to improve angular rate accuracy of the gyroscope by combining the outputs of an array of MEMS gyroscope. A mathematical model for the accuracy improvement was described and a Kalman filter (KF) was designed to obtain optimal rate estimates. Especially, the rate signal was modeled by a first-order Markov process instead of a random walk to improve overall performance. The accuracy of the combined rate signal and affecting factors were analyzed using a steady-state covariance. A system comprising a six-gyroscope array was developed to test the presented KF. Experimental tests proved that the presented model was effective at improving the gyroscope accuracy. The experimental results indicated that six identical gyroscopes with an ARW noise of 6.2 °/√h and a bias drift of 54.14 °/h could be combined into a rate signal with an ARW noise of 1.8 °/√h and a bias drift of 16.3 °/h, while the estimated rate signal by the random walk model has an ARW noise of 2.4 °/√h and a bias drift of 20.6 °/h. It revealed that both models could improve the angular rate accuracy and have a similar performance in static condition. In dynamic condition, the test results showed that the first-order Markov process model could reduce the dynamic errors 20% more than the random walk model. PMID:22438734

  17. Development of an automated detection system for microcalcifications on mammograms by using the higher-order autocorrelation features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohe, Yoshitaka; Shinohara, Norimitsu; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Endo, Tokiko; Iwase, Takuji

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a new pattern recognition method using the higher-order autocorrelation features (HOAFs), and to apply this to our microcalcification detection system on mammographic images. Microcalcification is a typical sign of breast cancer and tends to show up as very subtle shadows. We developed a triple-ring filter for detecting microcalcifications, and the prototype detection system is nearly complete. However, our prototype system does not allow for the detection of three types of microcalcifications, two of which are amorphous and linear microcalcifications and the third is obscured microcalcifications which is often confused with the background or circumference that have almost the same density. We targeted the amorphous type of microcalcification, which has a low contrast and easily goes undetected. The various features of microcalcifications and false-positive (FP) shadows were extracted and trained using the multi-regression analysis, and unknown images were recognized as a result of this training. As a result, amorphous microcalcifications were successfully detected with no increase in the number of FPs compared with our existing detection method.

  18. Seasonal variation in nutrient uptake in a 1st-order tributary of Lake Superior and implications for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, A. A.; Marcarelli, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In-stream biogeochemical cycling can control the timing and form of nutrients exported from watersheds to downstream ecosystems, and seasonal changes in light availability, discharge, temperature, or nutrient inputs may affect nutrient transformation and retention. Without an understanding of how in-stream biogeochemical cycling varies seasonally in snow-dominated regions it is uncertain how climate change will affect nutrient export to downstream ecosystems. Further compounding this uncertainty, few studies have examined in-stream nutrient processing during winter. Long-term monitoring (30 years) of climate and snowpack at Calumet watershed, a first order tributary of Lake Superior, has documented trends of increasing winter temperatures and greater snowmelt contributions to early season runoff. Identifying environmental variables that drive nutrient uptake is important because these observed trends may shift the timing of nutrient pulses relative to water temperatures and light availability. We hypothesized that ammonium (NH4) uptake velocity, a measure of nutrient uptake efficiency, would be greater in spring and fall due to increased light availability and nutrient pulses contributed by snowmelt in spring and leaf litter in fall. To test this hypothesis, we measured nutrient uptake velocity of ammonium (NH4) at 2-4 week intervals for one year in Calumet watershed by releasing inorganic nutrients (NH4Cl, KH2PO4) and a conservative tracer (rhodamine WT) into the stream and quantifying changes in nutrient and tracer concentrations along the stream reach. Canopy cover, ambient NH4 concentrations, stream water temperature, periphyton biomass, and discharge were also measured to identify which environmental covariates affected NH4 uptake velocities. The lowest NH4 uptake velocities were observed in winter (2.33 mm min-1) and summer months (2.03-2.08 mm min-1). Spring NH4 uptake velocities were variable: the greatest uptake velocities were observed following snowmelt

  19. Nonlinear random motion analysis of coupled heave-pitch motions of a spar platform considering 1st-order and 2nd-order wave loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuxiao; Tang, Yougang; Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we consider first- and second-order random wave loads and the effects of time-varying displacement volume and transient wave elevation to establish motion equations of the Spar platform's coupled heave-pitch. We generated random wave loads based on frequency-domain wave load transfer functions and the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) wave spectrum, designed program codes to solve the motion equations, and then simulated the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform in the time domain. We then calculated and compared the motion responses in different sea conditions and separately investigated the effects of second-order random wave loads and transient wave elevation. The results show that the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform are primarily dominated by wave height and the characteristic wave period, the latter of which has a greater impact. Second-order mean wave loads mainly affect the average heave value. The platform's pitch increases after the second-order low frequency wave loads are taken into account. The platform's heave is underestimated if the transient wave elevation term in the motion equations is neglected.

  20. The truncated Newton using 1st and 2nd order adjoint-state method: a new approach for traveltime tomography without rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretaudeau, F.; Metivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.

    2013-12-01

    named as the truncated Newton (TCN) (Métivier et al. 2012) with a more accurate estimation of the impact of the Hessian. We propose an efficient implementation for first-arrival traveltime tomography. In TCN, the model update Δm is obtained through the iterative resolution of the Newton linear system H Δm = - g. Based on a matrix-free conjugate gradient resolution, the iterative solver requires only the computation of the gradient and of Hessian-vector products. We propose a generalization of the computation of the gradient using the adjoint-state method that allows to consider receivers located anywhere. Then the Hessian-vector products are computed using an original formulation based on a 2nd-order adjoint-state method, at the cost of an additional forward modeling. The TCN algorithm is composed of two nested loops: an internal loop to compute Δm, and an external loop where a line search is performed to update the subsurface parameters. TCN thus considers locally the inversion of the traveltime data using an estimation of the full Hessian (both 1st and 2nd order terms) at an acceptable cost. Tomography with TCN is an improvement over the simple gradient-based adjoint-state tomography due to its good convergence property, to the better consideration of illumination, and is a promising tool for multi-parameter inversion as rescaling is given by the Hessian.

  1. Parallel auto-correlative statistics with VTK.

    SciTech Connect

    Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Bennett, Janine Camille

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK and presents both the serial and parallel auto-correlative statistics engines. It is a sequel to [PT08, BPRT09b, PT09, BPT09, PT10] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, principal component analysis, contingency, k-means, and order statistics engines. The ease of use of the new parallel auto-correlative statistics engine is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets and algorithm verification is provided. This report justifies the design of the statistics engines with parallel scalability in mind, and provides scalability and speed-up analysis results for the autocorrelative statistics engine.

  2. Semiclassical description of autocorrelations in nuclear masses

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garcia, Antonio M.; Hirsch, Jorge G.; Frank, Alejandro

    2006-08-15

    Nuclear mass autocorrelations are investigated as a function of the number of nucleons. The fluctuating part of these autocorrelations is modeled by a parameter free model in which the nucleons are confined in a rigid sphere. Explicit results are obtained by using periodic orbit theory. Despite the simplicity of the model we have found a remarkable quantitative agreement of the mass autocorrelations for all nuclei in the nuclear data chart. In order to achieve a similar degree of agreement for the nuclear masses themselves it is necessary to consider additional variables such as multipolar corrections to the spherical shape and an effective number of nucleons. Our findings suggest that higher order effects like nuclear deformations or residual interactions have little relevance in the description of the fluctuations of the nuclear autocorrelations.

  3. Impact of autocorrelation on functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Damaraju, Eswar; Phlypo, Ronald; Plis, Sergey; Allen, Elena; Ma, Sai; Mathalon, Daniel; Preda, Adrian; Vaidya, Jatin G; Adali, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-15

    Although the impact of serial correlation (autocorrelation) in residuals of general linear models for fMRI time-series has been studied extensively, the effect of autocorrelation on functional connectivity studies has been largely neglected until recently. Some recent studies based on results from economics have questioned the conventional estimation of functional connectivity and argue that not correcting for autocorrelation in fMRI time-series results in "spurious" correlation coefficients. In this paper, first we assess the effect of autocorrelation on Pearson correlation coefficient through theoretical approximation and simulation. Then we present this effect on real fMRI data. To our knowledge this is the first work comprehensively investigating the effect of autocorrelation on functional connectivity estimates. Our results show that although FC values are altered, even following correction for autocorrelation, results of hypothesis testing on FC values remain very similar to those before correction. In real data we show this is true for main effects and also for group difference testing between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. We further discuss model order selection in the context of autoregressive processes, effects of frequency filtering and propose a preprocessing pipeline for connectivity studies.

  4. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  5. "Hard Science" for Gifted 1st Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGennaro, April

    2006-01-01

    "Hard Science" is designed to teach 1st grade gifted students accurate and high level science concepts. It is based upon their experience of the world and attempts to build a foundation for continued love and enjoyment of science. "Hard Science" provides field experiences and opportunities for hands-on discovery working beside experts in the field…

  6. Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, internal struts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, internal struts- nose beams. - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  7. A rapid-scanning autocorrelation scheme for continuous monitoring of picosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yasa, Zafer A.; Amer, Nabil M.

    1981-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a scheme for rapidly introducing a periodic linear time delay to a train of picosecond laser pulses. Finally, by incorporating this scheme in one arm of the Michelson interferometer of a conventional autocorrelator, the second order intensity autocorrelation function of a cw train of picosecond pulses is continuously displayed on an oscilloscope.

  8. The Effects of Autocorrelation on the Curve-of-Factors Growth Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Pituch, Keenan A.

    2011-01-01

    This simulation study examined the performance of the curve-of-factors model (COFM) when autocorrelation and growth processes were present in the first-level factor structure. In addition to the standard curve-of factors growth model, 2 new models were examined: one COFM that included a first-order autoregressive autocorrelation parameter, and a…

  9. Sources of variation in Landsat autocorrelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. G.; Labovitz, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of sixty-four scan lines representing diverse conditions across satellites, channels, scanners, locations and cloud cover confirms that Landsat data are autocorrelated and consistently follow an Arima (1,0,1) pattern. The AR parameter varies significantly with location and the MA coefficient with cloud cover. Maximum likelihood classification functions are considerably in error unless this autocorrelation is compensated for in sampling.

  10. A simple method to estimate interwell autocorrelation

    SciTech Connect

    Pizarro, J.O.S.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    The estimation of autocorrelation in the lateral or interwell direction is important when performing reservoir characterization studies using stochastic modeling. This paper presents a new method to estimate the interwell autocorrelation based on parameters, such as the vertical range and the variance, that can be estimated with commonly available data. We used synthetic fields that were generated from stochastic simulations to provide data to construct the estimation charts. These charts relate the ratio of areal to vertical variance and the autocorrelation range (expressed variously) in two directions. Three different semivariogram models were considered: spherical, exponential and truncated fractal. The overall procedure is demonstrated using field data. We find that the approach gives the most self-consistent results when it is applied to previously identified facies. Moreover, the autocorrelation trends follow the depositional pattern of the reservoir, which gives confidence in the validity of the approach.

  11. SU(3) lattice gauge autocorrelations with anisotropic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Terrence; Nenkov, Constantine; Peardon, Mike

    1997-02-01

    We report results of autocorrelation measurements in pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory. The computations are performed on the CONVEX SPP1200 parallel platform within the CANOPY programming environment. The focus of our analysis is on typical autocorrelation times and optimization of the mixing ratio between overrelaxation and pseudo-heatbath sweeps for generating gauge field configurations. We study second order tadpole-improved approximation of the Wilson action in the gluon sector, which offers the advantage on smaller lattices (8 3 × 16 and 6 3 × 12 - 30). We also make use of anisotropic lattices, with temporal lattice spacing smaller than the spatial spacing, which prove useful for calculating noisy correlation functions with large spatial lattice discretization (of the order of 0.4 fm).

  12. Momentum autocorrelation function of a classic diatomic chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ming B.

    2016-10-01

    A classical harmonic diatomic chain is studied using the recurrence relations method. The momentum autocorrelation function results from contributions of acoustic and optical branches. By use of convolution theorem, analytical expressions for the acoustic and optical contributions are derived as even-order Bessel function expansions with coefficients given in terms of integrals of elliptic functions in real axis and a contour parallel to the imaginary axis, respectively.

  13. Bayesian Estimates of Autocorrelations in Single-Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R.; Rindskopf, David M.; Hedges, Larry V.; Sullivan, Kristynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the single-case design tradition have debated the size and importance of the observed autocorrelations in those designs. All of the past estimates of the autocorrelation in that literature have taken the observed autocorrelation estimates as the data to be used in the debate. However, estimates of the autocorrelation are subject to…

  14. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  15. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  16. ISS Update: 1st Annual ISS R&D Conference

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks by phone on Wednesday with Julie Robinson, ISS Program Scientist, about the 1st Annual International Space Station Research and Development Confere...

  17. 1st Baby Born with DNA from 3 Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_161176.html 1st Baby Born With DNA From 3 Parents Technique designed to help couples ... be born using a controversial technique that combines DNA from three people -- two women and a man. ...

  18. FDA OKs 1st Drug to Treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... html FDA OKs 1st Drug to Treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Exondys 51 seems to fill unmet need for ... the first drug for a rare form of muscular dystrophy. Exondys 51 (eteplirsen) was granted accelerated approval to ...

  19. Photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry of carbon particles flow using an autocorrelation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In order to measure the axial flowing velocity of carbon particle suspension with particle diameter of tens of micrometers, the photoacoustic Doppler (PAD) frequency shift is calculated based on a series of individual A scans using an autocorrelation method. A 532 nm pulsed laser with repetition rate of 20 Hz is used as a pumping source to generate photoacoustic signal. The photoacoustic signals are detected using a focused piezoelectric (PZT) ultrasound transducer with central frequency of 5 MHz. The suspension of carbon particles is driven by a syringe pump. The complex photoacoustic signal is calculated by the Hilbert transformation from time-domain photoacoustic signal, and then it is autocorrelated to calculate the Doppler frequency shift. The photoacoustic Doppler frequency shift is calculated by averaging the autocorrelation results of some individual A scans. The advantage of the autocorrelation method is that the time delay in autocorrelation can be defined by user, and the requirement of high pulse repetition rate is avoided. The feasibility of the proposed autocorrelation method is preliminarily demonstrated by quantifying the motion of a carbon particle suspension with flow velocity from 5 mm/s to 60 mm/s. The experimental results show that there is an approximately linear relation between the autocorrelation result and the setting velocity.

  20. An Overdetermined System for Improved Autocorrelation Based Spectral Moment Estimator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.

    1996-01-01

    Autocorrelation based spectral moment estimators are typically derived using the Fourier transform relationship between the power spectrum and the autocorrelation function along with using either an assumed form of the autocorrelation function, e.g., Gaussian, or a generic complex form and applying properties of the characteristic function. Passarelli has used a series expansion of the general complex autocorrelation function and has expressed the coefficients in terms of central moments of the power spectrum. A truncation of this series will produce a closed system of equations which can be solved for the central moments of interest. The autocorrelation function at various lags is estimated from samples of the random process under observation. These estimates themselves are random variables and exhibit a bias and variance that is a function of the number of samples used in the estimates and the operational signal-to-noise ratio. This contributes to a degradation in performance of the moment estimators. This dissertation investigates the use autocorrelation function estimates at higher order lags to reduce the bias and standard deviation in spectral moment estimates. In particular, Passarelli's series expansion is cast in terms of an overdetermined system to form a framework under which the application of additional autocorrelation function estimates at higher order lags can be defined and assessed. The solution of the overdetermined system is the least squares solution. Furthermore, an overdetermined system can be solved for any moment or moments of interest and is not tied to a particular form of the power spectrum or corresponding autocorrelation function. As an application of this approach, autocorrelation based variance estimators are defined by a truncation of Passarelli's series expansion and applied to simulated Doppler weather radar returns which are characterized by a Gaussian shaped power spectrum. The performance of the variance estimators determined

  1. Constant-Envelope Waveform Design for Optimal Target-Detection and Autocorrelation Performances

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to directly synthesize in time-domain a constant-envelope transmit waveform that achieves the optimal performance in detecting an extended target in the presence of signal-dependent interference. This approach is in contrast to the traditional indirect methods that synthesize the transmit signal following the computation of the optimal energy spectral density. Additionally, we aim to maintain a good autocorrelation property of the designed signal. Therefore, our waveform design technique solves a bi-objective optimization problem in order to simultaneously improve the detection and autocorrelation performances, which are in general conflicting in nature. We demonstrate this compromising characteristics of the detection and autocorrelation performances with numerical examples. Furthermore, in the absence of the autocorrelation criterion, our designed signal is shown to achieve a near-optimum detection performance.

  2. 1st HPV Test for Use with Preservative Fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159789.html 1st HPV Test for Use With Preservative Fluid Human papillomavirus responsible for 70 percent of ... Roberts Friday, July 8, 2016 FRIDAY, July 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Roche's cobas HPV ...

  3. Removing autocorrelation in spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-02-01

    We have developed a new algorithm and configuration for removing the autocorrelation of the object wave in spectral optical coherence tomography. The self-interferogram of the object wave is acquired synchronously with the standard interferogram of the recombined object and reference waves. The former is then subtracted from the latter after Fourier transformation. The algorithm is validated by numerical simulation and by experimental measurement of a USAF target and a feline eye.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 1st Quarter FY2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 73 reportable events (27 from the 1St Qtr FY-15 and 46 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 38 other issue reports (including nine not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions reported during the1st Qtr FY-15) identified at INL during the past 12 months.

  5. Lag-One Autocorrelation in Short Series: Estimation and Hypotheses Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanas, Antonio; Manolov, Rumen; Sierra, Vicenta

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of the study, nine estimators of the first-order autoregressive parameter are reviewed and a new estimator is proposed. The relationships and discrepancies between the estimators are discussed in order to achieve a clear differentiation. In the second part of the study, the precision in the estimation of autocorrelation is…

  6. Detecting sedimentary cycles using autocorrelation of grain size.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shangbin; Li, Rui; Chen, Muhong

    2013-01-01

    Detection of sedimentary cycles is difficult in fine-grained or homogenous sediments but is a prerequisite for the interpretation of depositional environments. Here we use a new autocorrelation analysis to detect cycles in a homogenous sediment core, E602, from the northern shelf of the South China Sea. Autocorrelation coefficients were calculated for different mean grain sizes at various depths. The results show that sediments derived from rapid depositional events have a better autocorrelation. Analysis of two other cores confirms this result. Cores composed of sediments deposited quickly under stable and/or gradually changing hydrodynamic conditions, have higher autocorrelation coefficients, whereas, those composed of sediments deposited during calm periods have relatively low autocorrelation coefficients. It shows that abrupt changes in autocorrelation coefficients usually indicate the existence of a boundary between adjacent sedimentary cycles, with each cycle beginning with a high positive autocorrelation coefficient of grain size and ending with a low negative one.

  7. Spatial Autocorrelation Approaches to Testing Residuals from Least Squares Regression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    In geo-statistics, the Durbin-Watson test is frequently employed to detect the presence of residual serial correlation from least squares regression analyses. However, the Durbin-Watson statistic is only suitable for ordered time or spatial series. If the variables comprise cross-sectional data coming from spatial random sampling, the test will be ineffectual because the value of Durbin-Watson’s statistic depends on the sequence of data points. This paper develops two new statistics for testing serial correlation of residuals from least squares regression based on spatial samples. By analogy with the new form of Moran’s index, an autocorrelation coefficient is defined with a standardized residual vector and a normalized spatial weight matrix. Then by analogy with the Durbin-Watson statistic, two types of new serial correlation indices are constructed. As a case study, the two newly presented statistics are applied to a spatial sample of 29 China’s regions. These results show that the new spatial autocorrelation models can be used to test the serial correlation of residuals from regression analysis. In practice, the new statistics can make up for the deficiencies of the Durbin-Watson test. PMID:26800271

  8. Spatial Autocorrelation Approaches to Testing Residuals from Least Squares Regression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    In geo-statistics, the Durbin-Watson test is frequently employed to detect the presence of residual serial correlation from least squares regression analyses. However, the Durbin-Watson statistic is only suitable for ordered time or spatial series. If the variables comprise cross-sectional data coming from spatial random sampling, the test will be ineffectual because the value of Durbin-Watson's statistic depends on the sequence of data points. This paper develops two new statistics for testing serial correlation of residuals from least squares regression based on spatial samples. By analogy with the new form of Moran's index, an autocorrelation coefficient is defined with a standardized residual vector and a normalized spatial weight matrix. Then by analogy with the Durbin-Watson statistic, two types of new serial correlation indices are constructed. As a case study, the two newly presented statistics are applied to a spatial sample of 29 China's regions. These results show that the new spatial autocorrelation models can be used to test the serial correlation of residuals from regression analysis. In practice, the new statistics can make up for the deficiencies of the Durbin-Watson test.

  9. ["1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital" during the civil war].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B; Abashin, V G

    2014-04-01

    The article presents the documentary information about the founding, the establishment and early years of the 1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital - in the future - Mandryka Central Military Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Presented the work of the Hospital during the dificult period of the Civil War, typhus epidemic, famine and devastation. Specified its staffing structure, command, medical and administrative staff, travel and accommodation till the moment of the deployment in the Silver Lane in Moscow. PMID:25051792

  10. The 1st All-Russian Workshop on Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Nikolai G.

    2007-08-01

    The 1st All-Russia Workshop on Archaeoastronomy “Astronomical and World-Outlook Meaning of the Archaeological Monuments of South Ural” was held on June 19-25, 2006, at the ground of the archaeological center “Arkaim” (Chelyabinsk Region). Besides about 30 talks, astronomical measurements were performed at two archaeological objects under intensive study: Arkaim Site (Bronze Epoch, XVIII-XVI c. B.C.) and tumuli “with whiskers” complex Kondurovsky (V-VIII c. A.D.). The promising character of the megalithic complex on the Vera Island (Lake Turgoyak) was stated.

  11. Photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry of carbon particles flow using an autocorrelation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao

    2014-09-01

    In order to measure the axial flowing velocity of a suspension carbon particles of tens of micometer-scale, the photoacoustic doppler frequency shift was calculated from a series of individual A scans using a autocorrelation method. A 532nm pulsed laser with the repetition rate of 20Hz was used as a pumping source to generate photoacoustic signal. The photoacoustic signals were detected using a focused PZT ultrasound transducer with central frequency of 5MHz. The suspension of carbon particles was driven by a syringe pump. Firstly, the complex photoacoustic signal was calculated by the Hilbert transformation from time-domain photoacoustic signal. The complex photoacoustic signal was then autocorrelated to calculate doppler frequency shift. The flow velocity was calculated by averaging the autocorrelation results of individual A scans. In comparison , the previously reported data processing methods using cross-correlation method in time domain or frequency domain require high sequential scanning rate or high laser repetition rate up to several kHz to avoid aliasing or uncorrelation between sequential waveform pairs. But it is difficult to get several kHz repetition rate for a single pulsed laser and the correlation between waveform pairs of sequential A scans were also limited by the laser repetition rate. To solve the problem, we used the autocorrelation method of individual A scans to calculated Doppler frequency shift. The time delay can be user defined to avoid aliasing. The feasibility of the proposed autocorrelation method was preliminarily demonstrated by quantifying the motion of a carbon particles suspension flow from 5 to 60 mm/s. The experimental results showed that the autocorrelation result approximately agreed with the setting velocity linearly.

  12. Low power, CMOS digital autocorrelator spectrometer for spaceborne applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Kumar; Wilson, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A 128-channel digital autocorrelator spectrometer using four 32 channel low power CMOS correlator chips was built and tested. The CMOS correlator chip uses a 2-bit multiplication algorithm and a full-custom CMOS VLSI design to achieve low DC power consumption. The digital autocorrelator spectrometer has a 20 MHz band width, and the total DC power requirement is 6 Watts.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION IN EMPIRICAL MODELS IN ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Statistically assessing ecological models is inherently difficult because data are autocorrelated and this autocorrelation varies in an unknown fashion. At a simple level, the linking of a single species to a habitat type is a straightforward analysis. With some investigation int...

  14. Seismic Body-Wave Interferometry Using Noise Auto-correlations for Crustal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Can; Nowack, Robert L.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we use ambient seismic noise recorded at selected broadband USArray Earthscope Transportable Array (TA) stations to obtain effective reflection seismograms using noise auto-correlations. In order to best retrieve the body-wave component of the Green's function beneath a station from ambient seismic noise, a number of processing steps are used, including temporal sign-bit normalization, spectral whitening, and band-pass filtering. Hourly auto-correlations are stacked for different time periods including one day, one month, and one year. On the final stack, different amplitude gain functions are applied, including automatic gain control (AGC), to equalize the correlation amplitudes. The robustness of the resulting ambient noise auto-correlations is first tested on a TA station in Nevada where we are able to identify arrivals similar to those found in an earlier study. We then investigated noise auto-correlations applied to several USArray TA stations in the central U.S., and the results were then compared with reflectivity synthetics for an average crustal model based on CRUST 1.0 where an AGC was used to enhance the later arrivals. Different stacking periods are also investigated in order to find stable correlation stacks.

  15. Inference for local autocorrelations in locally stationary models

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2014-01-01

    For non-stationary processes, the time-varying correlation structure provides useful insights into the underlying model dynamics. We study estimation and inferences for local autocorrelation process in locally stationary time series. Our constructed simultaneous confidence band can be used to address important hypothesis testing problems, such as whether the local autocorrelation process is indeed time-varying and whether the local autocorrelation is zero. In particular, our result provides an important generalization of the R function acf() to locally stationary Gaussian processes. Simulation studies and two empirical applications are developed. For the global temperature series, we find that the local autocorrelations are time-varying and have a “V” shape during 1910–1960. For the S&P 500 index, we conclude that the returns satisfy the efficient-market hypothesis whereas the magnitudes of returns show significant local autocorrelations. PMID:26097285

  16. 1st Stage Separation Aerodynamics Of VEGA Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genito, M.; Paglia, F.; Mogavero, A.; Barbagallo, D.

    2011-05-01

    VEGA is an European launch vehicle under development by the Prime Contractor ELV S.p.A. in the frame of an ESA contract. It is constituted by four stages, dedicated to the scientific/commercial market of small satellites (300 ÷ 2500 kg) into Low Earth Orbits, with inclinations ranging from 5.2° up to Sun Synchronous Orbits and with altitude ranging from 300 to 1500 km. Aim of this paper is to present a study of flow field due to retro-rockets impingement during the 1st stage VEGA separation phase. In particular the main goal of the present work is to present the aerodynamic activities performed for the justification of the separation phase.

  17. An autocorrelation model of bat sonar.

    PubMed

    Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2008-06-01

    Their sonar system allows echolocating bats to navigate with high skill through a complex, three- dimensional environment at high speed and low light. The auditory analysis of the echoes of their ultrasonic sounds requires a detailed comparison of the emission and echoes. Here an auditory model of bat sonar is introduced and evaluated against a set of psychophysical phantom-target, echo-acoustic experiments. The model consists of a relatively detailed simulation of auditory peripheral processing in the bat, Phyllostomus discolor, followed by a functional module consisting of a strobed, normalised, autocorrelation in each frequency channel. The model output is accumulated in a sonar image buffer. The model evaluation is based on the comparison of the image-buffer contents generated in individually simulated psychophysical trials. The model provides reasonably good predictions for both temporal and spectral behavioural sonar processing in terms of sonar delay-, roughness, and phase sensitivity and in terms of sensitivity to the temporal separations in two-front targets and the classification of spectrally divergent phantom targets.

  18. MEASUREMENTS OF STELLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS USING AUTOCORRELATION OF SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.; Deschatelets, D.

    2015-11-15

    We present a novel technique that uses the autocorrelation of the spectrum of a star to measure the line broadening caused by the modulus of its average surface magnetic field. The advantage of the autocorrelation comes from the fact that it can detect very small spectral line broadening effects because it averages over many spectral lines and therefore gives an average with a very high signal-to-noise ratio. We validate the technique with the spectra of known magnetic stars and obtain autocorrelation curves that are in full agreement with published magnetic curves obtained with Zeeman splitting. The autocorrelation also gives less noisy curves so that it can be used to obtain very accurate curves. We degrade the resolution of the spectra of these magnetic stars to lower spectral resolutions where the Zeeman splitting is undetectable. At these resolutions, the autocorrelation still gives good quality curves, thereby showing that it can be used to measure magnetic fields in spectra where the Zeeman splitting is significantly smaller than the width of the spectral line. This would therefore allow observing magnetic fields in very faint Ap stars with low-resolution spectrographs, thereby greatly increasing the number of known magnetic stars. It also demonstrates that the autocorrelation can measure magnetic fields in rapidly rotating stars as well as weak magnetic fields that give a Zeeman splitting smaller than the intrinsic width of the spectral lines. Finally, it shows that the autocorrelation can be used to find unknown magnetic stars in low-resolution spectroscopic surveys.

  19. Crustal thickness in central Europe from single-station seismic noise autocorrelation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Gesa; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    The InSight mission to Mars will place a single three-component seismometer on the planet's surface, requiring the application of single-station methods. In addition, seismicity on Mars is likely less abundant than on Earth, making it important to also use the available seismic noise. For these reasons different approaches of seismic noise autocorrelation have been tested with broadband three-component datasets from 12 stations across central Europe. These stations cover varying Moho depths of ca. 25-50 km depth. With the help of the autocorrelations, reflected body waves are extracted in order to estimate the crustal thickness at each station. This is of special relevance for Mars, where average crustal thickness is uncertain by a factor of two. The different approaches used are waterlevel normalized autocorrelation, with and without application of a short-term and long-term average filter to the spectrum of the data prior to autocorrelation, and phase autocorrelation. These approaches are compared and analyzed. Estimates for the Moho depths are made from the lag times of the reflected P-waves and compared to available Moho depth values at the stations. Due to the availability of three-component data these estimates can be cross-validated and in some cases not only P-wave reflections, but also possible S-wave and multiple reflections can be identified. The estimates compare well with the general trend of Moho depth expected for these stations. The consistency of results is further investigated by comparing different stations of the GERES array (aperture 2 km), which also allows to examine results for closely located broad-band and short-period stations side by side.

  20. THEOS: The1st Thailand EO System and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peanvijarnpong, Chanchai

    Thailand has engaged in remote sensing satellite technological and scientific development many years since early 1980s. Thailand Landsat Station was established as a regional center of data processing and dissemination for Thai scientists for data applications. Over the years, GISTDA and Thai user community have been gaining technical experience and expertise in satellite data applications around the country such natural resources and environmental management, forest inventory, forest change detections, soil mapping, land-use and land cover mapping, crop type mapping, coastal shrimp farming, flood zone mapping, base mapping, water and drought management. The Government of Thailand realizes that remote sensing satellite technology is an important mechanism for social and economic development of the country. So the 1st Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS) development program was approved by the Government since 2003. THEOS system is sub-synchronous satellite orbiting around the earth at 822 km. altitude same as SPOT satellites. It carries two imaging instruments; 2-m Panchromatic telescope with 22 km. swath width and 15-m resolution camera with four-multi-spectral band and 90-km swath wide. THEOS is scheduled to launch around March 2008. A number of technological and scientific activities has been implementing for Thailand and international scientific user community. Therefore THEOS is strong endorsement from the Government of Thailand on the value of remote sensing technology. This paper presents Thailand EO activities including THEOS System and its plans.

  1. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  2. A Method for Detecting Positive Growth Autocorrelation without Marking Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Mollie E.; McCoy, Michael W.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    In most ecological studies, within-group variation is a nuisance that obscures patterns of interest and reduces statistical power. However, patterns of within-group variability often contain information about ecological processes. In particular, such patterns can be used to detect positive growth autocorrelation (consistent variation in growth rates among individuals in a cohort across time), even in samples of unmarked individuals. Previous methods for detecting autocorrelated growth required data from marked individuals. We propose a method that requires only estimates of within-cohort variance through time, using maximum likelihood methods to obtain point estimates and confidence intervals of the correlation parameter. We test our method on simulated data sets and determine the loss in statistical power due to the inability to identify individuals. We show how to accommodate nonlinear growth trajectories and test the effects of size-dependent mortality on our method's accuracy. The method can detect significant growth autocorrelation at moderate levels of autocorrelation with moderate-sized cohorts (for example, statistical power of 80% to detect growth autocorrelation ρ2 = 0.5 in a cohort of 100 individuals measured on 16 occasions). We present a case study of growth in the red-eyed tree frog. Better quantification of the processes driving size variation will help ecologists improve predictions of population dynamics. This work will help researchers to detect growth autocorrelation in cases where marking is logistically infeasible or causes unacceptable decreases in the fitness of marked individuals. PMID:24204620

  3. A method for detecting positive growth autocorrelation without marking individuals.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Mollie E; McCoy, Michael W; Bolker, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    In most ecological studies, within-group variation is a nuisance that obscures patterns of interest and reduces statistical power. However, patterns of within-group variability often contain information about ecological processes. In particular, such patterns can be used to detect positive growth autocorrelation (consistent variation in growth rates among individuals in a cohort across time), even in samples of unmarked individuals. Previous methods for detecting autocorrelated growth required data from marked individuals. We propose a method that requires only estimates of within-cohort variance through time, using maximum likelihood methods to obtain point estimates and confidence intervals of the correlation parameter. We test our method on simulated data sets and determine the loss in statistical power due to the inability to identify individuals. We show how to accommodate nonlinear growth trajectories and test the effects of size-dependent mortality on our method's accuracy. The method can detect significant growth autocorrelation at moderate levels of autocorrelation with moderate-sized cohorts (for example, statistical power of 80% to detect growth autocorrelation ρ (2) = 0.5 in a cohort of 100 individuals measured on 16 occasions). We present a case study of growth in the red-eyed tree frog. Better quantification of the processes driving size variation will help ecologists improve predictions of population dynamics. This work will help researchers to detect growth autocorrelation in cases where marking is logistically infeasible or causes unacceptable decreases in the fitness of marked individuals. PMID:24204620

  4. 94. DETAIL, SAME BEAN AS ABOVE, MARKED 'PATENTED DEC. 1ST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. DETAIL, SAME BEAN AS ABOVE, MARKED 'PATENTED DEC. 1ST 1857' - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Bayesian estimation of slip distribution based on von Karman autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, A. J.; Bekaert, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Geodetic observations from techniques such as InSAR and GNSS are routinely used to invert for earthquake fault slip distributions. However, in order to regularize the inversions, extra arbitrary assumptions about the smoothness of the slip distribution are usually included. In previous work we explored a new approach for constraining the slip distribution based on a random vector model following a von Karman autocorrelation function, which has empirical support from a stochastic analysis of seismic finite-source slip inversions. We implemented the random vector constraint in a Bayesian fashion and used a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to derive the posterior joint probability distribution for each of the slipping patches. The von Karman function depends on two parameters: correlation length and Hurst number (related to fractal dimension). In our inversions we used the empirically derived maximum likelihood values for these two parameters, which differ in along-strike and down-dip directions, and with fault mechanism. However, the inversion results depend strongly on the chosen values for correlation length and Hurst number, and the empirically derived histograms show that there is in fact quite some variation between earthquakes with the same mechanism. In our extended approach we treat these two parameters as hyperparameters, with the prior probability distribution constrained by the empirical histograms. The values are thus also allowed to vary in our Bayesian inversion scheme. In this way, the uncertainty in the parameters that define the autocorrelation function is also included in the posterior probability distribution for the slipping patches. To ensure that our MCMC algorithm converges rapidly, we have implemented a variation to the usual MCMC approach, in which the maximum step size for each of the model parameters is initially updated regularly, until optimal values are achieved. In comparisons between our new approach and a more standard

  6. Proceedings of the 1st Puerto Rico Biobanking Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Edna; Robb, James A.; Stefanoff, Gustavo; Mellado, Robert Hunter; Coppola, Domenico; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Flores, Idhaliz

    2015-01-01

    The 1st Puerto Rico Biobanking Workshop took place on August 20th, 2014 in the Auditorium of the Comprehensive Cancer Center of the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus in San Juan Puerto Rico. The program for this 1-day, live workshop included lectures by three biobanking experts, followed by presentations from existing biobanks in Puerto Rico and audience discussion. The need for increasing biobanking expertise in Puerto Rico stems from the fact that Hispanics in general are underrepresented in the biobanks in existence in the US, which limits the research conducted specifically to understand the molecular differences in cancer cells compared to other better studied populations. In turn, this lack of information impairs the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for our population. Dr. James Robb, M.D., F.C.A.P., consulting pathologist to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research (OBBR), opened the workshop with a discussion on the basic aspects of the science of biobanking (e.g., what is a biobank; its goals and objectives; protocols and procedures) in his talk addressing the importance of banking tissues for advancing biomedical research. Next, Dr. Gustavo Stefanoff, from the Cancer Institutes Network of Latin America (RINC by its name in Spanish), explained the mission, objectives, and structure of the Network of Latin-American and Caribbean Biobanks (REBLAC by its name in Spanish), which despite limited resources and many challenges, currently accrue high quality human tissue specimens and data to support cancer research in the region. Dr. Robert Hunter-Mellado, Professor of Internal Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, followed with an examination of the ethical and regulatory aspects of biobanking tissues for future research, including informed consent of subjects; protection of human subjects rights; and balancing risks and benefit ratios. In the afternoon, the

  7. Psychiatric Diagnosis and Concomitant Medical Treatment for 1st and 2nd Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell-Swanson, La Vonne; Frankenberger, William; Ley, Katie; Bowman, Krista

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of children in 1st and 2nd grade classes who were currently prescribed medication for psychotropic disorders. The study also examined the attitudes of 1st and 2nd grade teachers toward diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and use of psychiatric medication to treat children. Results of the current study indicate…

  8. Evaluation of estimation, prediction and inference for autocorrelated latent variable modeling of binary data-a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hutmacher, Matthew M

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal models of binary or ordered categorical data are often evaluated for adequacy by the ability of these to characterize the transition frequency and type between response states. Drug development decisions are often concerned with accurate prediction and inference of the probability of response by time and dose. A question arises on whether the transition probabilities need to be characterized adequately to ensure accurate response prediction probabilities unconditional on the previous response state. To address this, a simulation study was conducted to assess bias in estimation, prediction and inferences of autocorrelated latent variable models (ALVMs) when the transition probabilities are misspecified due to ill-posed random effects structures, inadequate likelihood approximation or omission of the autocorrelation component. The results may be surprising in that these suggest that characterizing autocorrelation in ALVMs is not as important as specifying a suitably rich random effects structure. PMID:27007275

  9. Investigations of Passive Seismic Body-Wave Interferometry Using Noise Auto-correlations for Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, C.; Nowack, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the positive lags of the auto-correlation for the seismic transmission response of a layered medium correspond to the reflection seismogram (Claerbout, 1968). In this study, we investigate the use of ambient seismic noise recorded at selected broadband USArray EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) stations to obtain effective reflection seismograms for frequencies up to 1 Hz. The goal is to determine the most suitable parameters used for the processing of ambient seismic noise for the identification of crustal and upper mantle reflections and to minimize unwanted artifacts in the noise correlations. In order to best retrieve the body-wave components of the Green's function beneath a station, a number of processing steps are required. We first remove the instrument response and apply a temporal normalization to remove the effects of the most energetic sources. Next we implement spectral whitening. We test several operators for the spectral whitening where the undulations of the power spectrum are related to the strengths of later arrivals in the auto-correlation. Different filters are then applied to the auto-correlation functions, including Gaussian and zero phase Butterworth filters, in order to reduce the effect of side lobes. Hourly auto-correlations are then stacked for up to one year. On the final stack, Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is applied to equalize the correlation amplitudes in the time domain. The robustness of the resulting ambient noise auto-correlation is first tested on selected TA stations in Nevada, where we are able to identify PmP and SmS arrivals similar to those found by Tibuleac and von Seggern (2012). We then investigate noise auto-correlations applied to selected USArray TA stations in the central US.

  10. The impact of temporal auto-correlation mismatch on the assimilation of satellite-derived surface soil moisture retrievals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals are commonly assimilated into eco-hydrological models in order to obtain improved profile soil moisture estimates. However, differences in temporal auto-correlation structure between these retrievals and comparable model-based predictions can potentia...

  11. The resemblance of an autocorrelation function to a power spectrum density for a spike train of an auditory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.

  12. Monitoring autocorrelated process: A geometric Brownian motion process approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee Siaw; Djauhari, Maman A.

    2013-09-01

    Autocorrelated process control is common in today's modern industrial process control practice. The current practice of autocorrelated process control is to eliminate the autocorrelation by using an appropriate model such as Box-Jenkins models or other models and then to conduct process control operation based on the residuals. In this paper we show that many time series are governed by a geometric Brownian motion (GBM) process. Therefore, in this case, by using the properties of a GBM process, we only need an appropriate transformation and model the transformed data to come up with the condition needs in traditional process control. An industrial example of cocoa powder production process in a Malaysian company will be presented and discussed to illustrate the advantages of the GBM approach.

  13. Macroscopic lithotype characterisation of the 1st Middle-Polish (1st Lusatian) Lignite Seam in the Miocene of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widera, Marek

    2012-03-01

    The 1st Middle-Polish (1st Lusatian) Lignite Seam is exploited in open-cast mines in central Poland. A large number of lignite lithotypes, grouped in four lithotype associations, are distinguished: xylitic, detritic, xylo-detritic and detro-xylitic lithotype associations, which show various structures. Each lithotype association was produced under specific peat-forming environmental conditions. In the case of the lignite seams under study they represent all the main environments that are known from Neogene mires, i.e.: fen or open water, bush moor, wet forest swamp and dry forest swamp. For a simple and practical description in the field of both the lignite sections and borehole cores, a new codification for lignite lithotypes is proposed. It is based on the codification of clastic deposits (lithofacies). The practical value of the new lignite lithotype codification is examined in three vertical sections of the 1st Middle-Polish Lignite Seam.

  14. Variance of size-age curves: Bootstrapping with autocorrelation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullock, S.H.; Turner, R.M.; Hastings, J.R.; Escoto-Rodriguez, M.; Lopez, Z.R.A.; Rodrigues-Navarro, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    We modify a method of estimating size-age relations from a minimal set of individual increment data, recognizing that growth depends not only on size but also varies greatly among individuals and is consistent within an individual for several to many time intervals. The method is exemplified with data from a long-lived desert plant and a range of autocorrelation factors encompassing field-measured values. The results suggest that age estimates based on size and growth rates with only moderate autocorrelation are subject to large variation, which raises major problems for prediction or hindcasting for ecological analysis or management.

  15. Autocorrelation and Dominance Ratio in Monte Carlo Criticality Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ueki, Taro; Brown, Forrest B.; Parsons, D. Kent; Kornreich, Drew E.

    2003-11-15

    The cycle-to-cycle correlation (autocorrelation) in Monte Carlo criticality calculations is analyzed concerning the dominance ratio of fission kernels. The mathematical analysis focuses on how the eigenfunctions of a fission kernel decay if operated on by the cycle-to-cycle error propagation operator of the Monte Carlo stationary source distribution. The analytical results obtained can be summarized as follows: When the dominance ratio of a fission kernel is close to unity, autocorrelation of the k-effective tallies is weak and may be negligible, while the autocorrelation of the source distribution is strong and decays slowly. The practical implication is that when one analyzes a critical reactor with a large dominance ratio by Monte Carlo methods, the confidence interval estimation of the fission rate and other quantities at individual locations must account for the strong autocorrelation. Numerical results are presented for sample problems with a dominance ratio of 0.85-0.99, where Shannon and relative entropies are utilized to exclude the influence of initial nonstationarity.

  16. New approaches for calculating Moran's index of spatial autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation plays an important role in geographical analysis; however, there is still room for improvement of this method. The formula for Moran's index is complicated, and several basic problems remain to be solved. Therefore, I will reconstruct its mathematical framework using mathematical derivation based on linear algebra and present four simple approaches to calculating Moran's index. Moran's scatterplot will be ameliorated, and new test methods will be proposed. The relationship between the global Moran's index and Geary's coefficient will be discussed from two different vantage points: spatial population and spatial sample. The sphere of applications for both Moran's index and Geary's coefficient will be clarified and defined. One of theoretical findings is that Moran's index is a characteristic parameter of spatial weight matrices, so the selection of weight functions is very significant for autocorrelation analysis of geographical systems. A case study of 29 Chinese cities in 2000 will be employed to validate the innovatory models and methods. This work is a methodological study, which will simplify the process of autocorrelation analysis. The results of this study will lay the foundation for the scaling analysis of spatial autocorrelation. PMID:23874592

  17. Velocity Autocorrelation Functions and Diffusion of Dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Daniyarov, T. T.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.

    2008-09-07

    The velocity autocorrelation functions and square displacements were calculated on the basis of experimental data obtained on experimental setup with dc discharge. Computer simulation of the system of dust particles by the method of the Langevin dynamics was performed. The comparisons of experimental and theoretical results are given.

  18. PROPAGATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE JUNE 1st 2008 CME IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lamb, D. A.; Davila, J. M.; Vinas, A. F.; Moestl, C.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Malandraki, O.; Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.

    2009-12-01

    In this work we present a study of the coronal mass ejection (CME) of June 1st of 2008 in the interplanetary medium. This event has been extensively studied by others because of its favorable geometry and the possible consequences of its peculiar initiation for space weather forecasting. We show an analysis of the evolution of the CME in the interplanetary medium in order to shed some light on the propagation mechanism of the ICME. We have determined the typical shock associated characteristics of the ICME in order to understand the propagation properties. Using two different non force-free models of the magnetic cloud allows us to incorporate expansion of the cloud. We use in-situ measurements from STEREO B/IMPACT to characterize the ICME. In addition, we use images from STEREO A/SECCHI-HI to analyze the propagation and visual evolution of the associated flux rope in the interplanetary medium. We compare and contrast these observations with the results of the analytical models.

  19. Texas Reports 1st U.S. Case of Zika from Travel to Another State

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160450.html Texas Reports 1st U.S. Case of Zika From Travel to Another State Resident had recently ... what appears to be the first case of Zika infection traveling across state lines, Texas health officials ...

  20. 45. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Turn span from SE. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  1. 46. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Overall view, from S. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  2. BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF GERMAN TEXT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cave Hill National Cemetery, 701 Baxter Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  3. U.S. Premature Births Rise for 1st Time in 8 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... 161792.html U.S. Premature Births Rise for 1st Time in 8 Years March of Dimes' report finds ... United States increased in 2015 for the first time in eight years, and rates are especially high ...

  4. 28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  7. 14. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, 1st floor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, 1st floor, crib area of building, showing electrical and plumbing cribs, wall and ceiling detail, looking S. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  8. 7. 1ST FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTH SHOWING DINING ROOM FIREPLACE (LEFT); ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 1ST FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTH SHOWING DINING ROOM FIREPLACE (LEFT); ENTRY SITTING ROOM FIREPLACE (RIGHT) AND LIVING ROOM (BACKGROUND). - Fort Riley, Building No. 4, 4 Barry Avenue, Riley, Riley County, KS

  9. Florida Reports 1st Locally Transmitted Zika Infections in U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160151.html Florida Reports 1st Locally Transmitted Zika Infections in U.S. 4 cases likely originated from ... apparently experiencing its first local outbreak of the Zika virus, with four human infections reported in South ...

  10. 62. Neg. No. F75A, Jun 18, 1930, INTERIORWAREHOUSE, 1ST FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Neg. No. F-75A, Jun 18, 1930, INTERIOR-WAREHOUSE, 1ST FLOOR, STORAGE OF AUTOMOBILE COMPONENTS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. MAGAZINE E30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE E-30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL LOOKING TO THE REAR OF THE MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 19. Detail of brick courses 116, back side, between 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of brick courses 1-16, back side, between 1st and 2nd windows from the right - Oklahoma State University, Boys Dormitory, Northwest corner of Hester Street & Athletic Avenue, Stillwater, Payne County, OK

  13. 20. Detail of brick courses 4675, back side, between 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail of brick courses 46-75, back side, between 1st and 2nd windows from the right - Oklahoma State University, Boys Dormitory, Northwest corner of Hester Street & Athletic Avenue, Stillwater, Payne County, OK

  14. If 1st Baby's Early, 2nd Will Be Too: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... If 1st Baby's Early, 2nd Will Be Too: Study Chances just as high for women who go ... it really is a potent factor," said senior study author Laura Jelliffe-Pawlowski. She is associate director ...

  15. The local autocorrelation time near the surface of a system with uniaxial anisotropy in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1988-07-01

    A three-dimensional semi-infinite system with strong uniaxial anisotropy ina transverse field is considered. The behaviour of the local autocorrelation time for the component of the order parameter in the direction parallel to the easy axis near the second-order phase transition for this component induced by the transverse field is given. The effect of the surface on this behaviour is discussed. The Landau approximation is used.

  16. INL FY2014 1st Quarterly Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Loran Kinghorn

    2014-07-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2 “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 76 occurrence reports and over 16 other deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at the INL during the period of October 2013 through December 2013. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) operates the INL under contract DE AC 07 051D14517

  17. Transverse flowmetry of carbon particles based on photoacoustic Doppler standard deviation using an auto-correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Sun, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    In order to measure the flow velocity of carbon particle suspension perpendicular to the receiving axis of ultrasound transducer, the standard deviation of photoacoustic Doppler frequency spectrum is used to estimate the bandwidth broadening, and the spectrum standard deviation is calculated by an auto-correlation method. A 532 nm pulsed laser with the repetition rate of 20 Hz is used as a pumping source to generate photoacoustic signal. The photoacoustic signals are detected using a focused PZT ultrasound transducer with the central frequency of 10 MHz. The suspension of carbon particles is driven by a syringe pump. The complex photoacoustic signal is calculated by Hilbert transformation from time domain signal before auto-correlation. The standard deviation of the Doppler bandwidth broadening is calculated by averaging the auto-correlation results of several individual A scans. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the spectrum standard deviation of the transversal carbon particle flow from 5.0 mm/s to 8.4 mm/s. The experimental results show that the auto-correlation result is approximately linearly distributed within the measuring range.

  18. National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems 1st Annual Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma; Swindell, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) is a Government -wide initiative that seeks to ensure the resiliency of the Nation fs rocket propulsion community in order for the enterprise to remain vibrant and capable of providing reliable and affordable propulsion systems for the nation fs defense, civil and commercial needs. Recognizing that rocket propulsion is a multi-use technology that ensures the nation fs leadership in aerospace, the Government has a vested interest in maintaining this strategic capability through coordinated and synchronized acquisition programs and continual investments in research and development. NIRPS is a resource for collaboration and integration between all sectors of the U.S. propulsion enterprise, supporting policy development options, identifying technology requirements, and offering solutions that maximize national resources while ensuring that capability exists to meet future demand. NIRPS functions as a multi ]agency organization that our nation fs decision makers can look to for comprehensive information regarding all issues concerning the propulsion enterprise.

  19. Determination of axonal transport velocities via image cross- and autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Welzel, Oliver; Boening, Daniel; Stroebel, Armin; Reulbach, Udo; Klingauf, Jurgen; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    On their way to the synapse and back, neuronal proteins are carried in cargo vesicles along axons and dendrites. Here, we demonstrate that the key parameters of axonal transport, i.e., particle velocities and pausing times can be read out from CCD-camera images automatically. In the present study, this is achieved via cross- and autocorrelation of kymograph columns. The applicability of the method was measured on simulated kymographs and data from axonal transport timeseries of mRFP-labeled synaptophysin. In comparing outcomes of velocity determinations via a performance parameter that is analogous to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) definition, we find that outcomes are dependent on sampling, particle numbers and signal to noise of the kymograph. Autocorrelation of individual columns allows exact determination of pausing time populations. In contrast to manual tracking, correlation does not require experience, a priori assumptions or disentangling of individual particle trajectories and can operate at low SNR.

  20. Evaluation of terrain complexity by autocorrelation. [geomorphology and geobotany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The topographic complexity of various sections of the Ozark, Appalachian, and Interior Low Plateaus, as well as of the New England, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Ouachita, and Valley and Ridge Provinces of the Eastern United States were characterized. The variability of autocorrelation within a small area (7 1/2-ft quadrangle) to the variability at widely separated and diverse areas within the same physiographic region was compared to measure the degree of uniformity of the processes which can be expected to be encountered within a given physiographic province. The variability of autocorrelation across the eight geomorphic regions was compared and contrasted. The total study area was partitioned into subareas homogeneous in terrain complexity. The relation between the complexity measured, the geomorphic process mix implied, and the way in which geobotanical information is modified into a more or less recognizable entity is demonstrated. Sampling strategy is described.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of the Autocorrelation in Single Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyajian, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This conference presentation reviews the authors' work on autocorrelations in single-case designs. The bias-corrected autocorrelation is computed, results are meta-analyzed with 5-level multilevel analysis in SAS Proc Mixed. Results suggest autocorrelations are normally distributed, and that taking into account nesting in outcomes and articles…

  2. Autocorrelation optical coherence tomography for glucose quantification in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, H.; Gilanie, G.; Hussain, F.; Ahmad, E.

    2015-12-01

    We report a new method for glucose monitoring in blood tissue based on the autocorrelation function (ACF) analysis in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). We have determined the changes in OCT monitoring signals’ depth to characterize the modulations in ACFs for quantitative measurements of glucose concentrations in blood. We found that an increase in the concentration of glucose in blood results in decreased OCT monitoring signal due to the increase in the refractive index of the media.

  3. Digital grain-size analysis based on autocorrelation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhixuan; Liu, Haijiang

    2015-08-01

    Grain size is one of the most important parameters in geology and coastal engineering. However, all traditional methods are time consuming, laborious, and expensive. In this study, the autocorrelation technique, which was first expounded by Rubin (2004), was extended to estimate the size of well-sorted sediments and the grain-size distribution of mixed-size sediments. Long and intermediate axes of well-sorted sediments ranging from 1 to 20 mm obtained from applying the autocorrelation method are compared with the corresponding results measured using a vernier caliper. Using the autocorrelation technique, the sediment mean size was calculated and was found to compare better with point counts than sieving. Regarding the mixed-size sediment, a nonlinear programming method, which is different from the conventional 'least-squares with non-negativity' method, the kernel density method, and the maximum entropy method, was used to obtain the representative grain sizes and associated sediment inherent parameters, such as mean diameter, median diameter, sorting, skewness, and kurtosis. Image pre-processing was used in the present analysis to enhance the contrast of the recorded image, and a conversion method applied to take into account the difference between the two-dimensional digital image method and the three-dimensional sieving method. Using the modified fitting points and the improved Gaussian function fitting method, the cumulative grain-size distribution curve and the probability density curve of the mixed-size sediments were obtained. The enhanced autocorrelation technique that was developed from the traditional 'look-up-catalogue' approach provided a more accurate estimation of the grain-size distribution, as well as the relevant physical parameters of the mixed-size sediment.

  4. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of hyperspectral imagery for feature selection

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, T.A.; Shank, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    The spatial information in a single spectral image can be estimated from the spatial autocorrelation, which is a measure of how the local variation compares with the overall variance in a scene. In images of random noise, the local variation tends to be similar to the overall variance. In contrast, scenes in which large features can be discerned have clusters of pixels with similar values, which cause the local variation to be much smaller on average than the overall scene variance. Feature selection is the process of finding a subset of the original bands that provides an optimal trade-off between probability of error and classification cost. Three feature selection problems are addressed in this paper: (1) narrow band feature selection, which is the selection of a subset of individual bands; (2) broad band feature selection, in which groups of adjacent bands are selected, and (3) nonadjacent multiple band feature selection, in which selection of the groups of bands is not limited to adjacent bands. Spatial autocorrelation is useful in all three feature selection problems. Tests with simulated data indicate that the spatial autocorrelation based methods consistently identify the best bands or groups of bands. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data of eastern Washington state are used to illustrate the technique on real data.

  5. Estimating the variation, autocorrelation, and environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection.

    PubMed

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Visser, Marcel E; Tufto, Jarle

    2015-09-01

    Despite considerable interest in temporal and spatial variation of phenotypic selection, very few methods allow quantifying this variation while correctly accounting for the error variance of each individual estimate. Furthermore, the available methods do not estimate the autocorrelation of phenotypic selection, which is a major determinant of eco-evolutionary dynamics in changing environments. We introduce a new method for measuring variable phenotypic selection using random regression. We rely on model selection to assess the support for stabilizing selection, and for a moving optimum that may include a trend plus (possibly autocorrelated) fluctuations. The environmental sensitivity of selection also can be estimated by including an environmental covariate. After testing our method on extensive simulations, we apply it to breeding time in a great tit population in the Netherlands. Our analysis finds support for an optimum that is well predicted by spring temperature, and occurs about 33 days before a peak in food biomass, consistent with what is known from the biology of this species. We also detect autocorrelated fluctuations in the optimum, beyond those caused by temperature and the food peak. Because our approach directly estimates parameters that appear in theoretical models, it should be particularly useful for predicting eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change. PMID:26227394

  6. Bayesian modeling of the covariance structure for irregular longitudinal data using the partial autocorrelation function.

    PubMed

    Su, Li; Daniels, Michael J

    2015-05-30

    In long-term follow-up studies, irregular longitudinal data are observed when individuals are assessed repeatedly over time but at uncommon and irregularly spaced time points. Modeling the covariance structure for this type of data is challenging, as it requires specification of a covariance function that is positive definite. Moreover, in certain settings, careful modeling of the covariance structure for irregular longitudinal data can be crucial in order to ensure no bias arises in the mean structure. Two common settings where this occurs are studies with 'outcome-dependent follow-up' and studies with 'ignorable missing data'. 'Outcome-dependent follow-up' occurs when individuals with a history of poor health outcomes had more follow-up measurements, and the intervals between the repeated measurements were shorter. When the follow-up time process only depends on previous outcomes, likelihood-based methods can still provide consistent estimates of the regression parameters, given that both the mean and covariance structures of the irregular longitudinal data are correctly specified and no model for the follow-up time process is required. For 'ignorable missing data', the missing data mechanism does not need to be specified, but valid likelihood-based inference requires correct specification of the covariance structure. In both cases, flexible modeling approaches for the covariance structure are essential. In this paper, we develop a flexible approach to modeling the covariance structure for irregular continuous longitudinal data using the partial autocorrelation function and the variance function. In particular, we propose semiparametric non-stationary partial autocorrelation function models, which do not suffer from complex positive definiteness restrictions like the autocorrelation function. We describe a Bayesian approach, discuss computational issues, and apply the proposed methods to CD4 count data from a pediatric AIDS clinical trial.

  7. Minimally Invasive Arthrodesis of 1st Metatarsophalangeal Joint for Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Sott, A H

    2016-09-01

    First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis plays a significant role in the management of symptomatic hallux rigidus/osteoarthritis of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint. Several open and few percutaneous techniques have been described in the literature. This article describes and discusses a percutaneous technique that has been successfully used to achieve a pain-free stable and functional 1st metatarsophalangeal joint. All aspects of surgical indication and operative technique and details of patient-reported outcomes are presented with a referenced discussion. PMID:27524706

  8. Influence of autocorrelation on the topology of the climate network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guez, Oded C.; Gozolchiani, Avi; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-12-01

    Different definitions of links in climate networks may lead to considerably different network topologies. We construct a network from climate records of surface level atmospheric temperature in different geographical sites around the globe using two commonly used definitions of links. Utilizing detrended fluctuation analysis, shuffled surrogates, and separation analysis of maritime and continental records, we find that one of the major influences on the structure of climate networks is due to the autocorrelation in the records, which may introduce spurious links. This may explain why different methods could lead to different climate network topologies.

  9. Autocorrelation Analysis of Meteorological Data from a RASS Sodar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Isidro A.; Ángeles García, M.; Sánchez, M. Luisa; de Torre, Beatriz

    2004-08-01

    Autocorrelation analysis is necessary in persistence studies and identification of cyclical processes. In this paper, autocorrelations of available wind speed and temperature data from a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) sodar were calculated. This device was placed on flat terrain, and the measuring campaign extended over April 2001. Ten-minute averages were considered from 40 to 500 m in 20-m levels. The direction frequency rose indicated clear, prevailing directions in the east-northeast west-southwest axis. Analysis of median temperatures revealed that east-northeast advections were 5°C colder than those from the west-southwest. A defined pattern was obtained for both autocorrelations, comprising deterministic and random parts. Noise became more relevant at the higher levels. The deterministic part could be considered as an initial fast-decaying term with the addition of two harmonic functions. The initial decay, linked to fast changes, increased with height for wind speed and decreased for temperature. A diurnal cycle was relevant at intermediate levels for wind speed and at lower temperature levels. The absence of the surface influence added to the horizontal movement associated with the stable night stratification and diurnal convection produced a sharp daily contrast in wind speed at intermediate levels. The influence of the surface decreased with height for temperature. The second cycle was linked to changes in the synoptic pattern and had a 5 6-day period. It was more relevant at lower levels for wind speed, and its amplitude decreased with height. For temperature, this second cycle was less significant. Following these assumptions, a model for the autocorrelation function was proposed and its coefficients are calculated by means of a simple method—a multiple linear regression beyond the first day and a simple linear regression for the first 12-h residuals. This model proved satisfactory, especially below 300 m. A rough height parameterization has

  10. Autocorrelation-based time synchronous averaging for condition monitoring of planetary gearboxes in wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jong M.; Youn, Byeng D.; Oh, Hyunseok; Han, Bongtae; Jung, Yoongho; Park, Jungho

    2016-03-01

    We propose autocorrelation-based time synchronous averaging (ATSA) to cope with the challenges associated with the current practice of time synchronous averaging (TSA) for planet gears in planetary gearboxes of wind turbine (WT). An autocorrelation function that represents physical interactions between the ring, sun, and planet gears in the gearbox is utilized to define the optimal shape and range of the window function for TSA using actual kinetic responses. The proposed ATSA offers two distinctive features: (1) data-efficient TSA processing and (2) prevention of signal distortion during the TSA process. It is thus expected that an order analysis with the ATSA signals significantly improves the efficiency and accuracy in fault diagnostics of planet gears in planetary gearboxes. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method: an analytical signal from a simulation and a signal measured from a 2 kW WT testbed. It can be concluded from the results that the proposed method outperforms conventional TSA methods in condition monitoring of the planetary gearbox when the amount of available stationary data is limited.

  11. Single-molecule fluorescence detection: autocorrelation criterion and experimental realization with phycoerythrin.

    PubMed Central

    Peck, K; Stryer, L; Glazer, A N; Mathies, R A

    1989-01-01

    A theory for single-molecule fluorescence detection is developed and then used to analyze data from subpicomolar solutions of B-phycoerythrin (PE). The distribution of detected counts is the convolution of a Poissonian continuous background with bursts arising from the passage of individual fluorophores through the focused laser beam. The autocorrelation function reveals single-molecule events and provides a criterion for optimizing experimental parameters. The transit time of fluorescent molecules through the 120-fl imaged volume was 800 microseconds. The optimal laser power (32 mW at 514.5 nm) gave an incident intensity of 1.8 x 10(23) photons.cm-2.s-1, corresponding to a mean time of 1.1 ns between absorptions. The mean incremental count rate was 1.5 per 100 microseconds for PE monomers and 3.0 for PE dimers above a background count rate of 1.0. The distribution of counts and the autocorrelation function for 200 fM monomer and 100 fM dimer demonstrate that single-molecule detection was achieved. At this concentration, the mean occupancy was 0.014 monomer molecules in the probed volume. A hard-wired version of this detection system was used to measure the concentration of PE down to 1 fM. This single-molecule counter is 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive than conventional fluorescence detection systems. PMID:2726766

  12. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-12-31

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength {lambda}=8.5 {mu}m suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length N{lambda}. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users` experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 {mu}m have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up.

  13. Autocorrelation in ultraviolet radiation measured at ground level using detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Filho, Paulo Cavalcante; da Silva, Francisco Raimundo; Corso, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the autocorrelation among four ultraviolet (UV) radiation data sets obtained at 305 nm, 320 nm, 340 nm, and 380 nm. The data were recorded at ground level at the INPE climate station in Natal, RN, Brazil, which is a site close to the equator. The autocorrelations were computed by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to estimate the index α. We found that the ​fluctuations in the UV radiation data were fractal, with scale-free behavior at a DFA index α ≃ 0.7. In addition, we performed a power law spectral analysis, which showed that the power spectrum exhibited a power law behavior with an exponent of β ≃ 0.45. Given that the theoretical result is β = 2 α - 1, these two results are in good agreement. Moreover, the application of the DFA ​method to the UV radiation data required detrending using a polynomial with an order of at least eight, which was related to the complex daily solar radiation curve obtained at ground level in a tropical region. The results indicated that the α exponent of UV radiation is similar to other climatic records such as air temperature, wind, or rain, but not solar activity.

  14. 130. Post1911. Photograph labeled, 'SEASON 1913. CAPTAIN, 1st MATE, SUPT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Post-1911. Photograph labeled, 'SEASON 1913. CAPTAIN, 1st MATE, SUPT AND STOREKEEPER, A.P. ASS'N CANNERY, SHIP STAR OF ALASKA.' View forward from mizzenmast, post side. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 47. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Latching mechanism, E end of turn span, viewed from W. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  16. 42. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Copy of postcard ca. 1900. Copy owned and made by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Shows two-span steel truss, built by Phoenix Bridge Co. in 1878. Negative copied by: Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  17. 48. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms Latching mechanism, E end of turn span, view from N. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, MS. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  18. 49. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Top of pier and underside of w end of turn span. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  19. The Student View of 1st Year Laboratory Work in the Biosciences--Score Gamma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Mike; Gibson, Alan; Hughes, Ian; Sayers, Gill; Todd, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Students registered on 1st year bioscience courses in 9 universities were surveyed for their views on the laboratory classes they were taking. Returns were obtained from 695 (70%). Student views were varied, some viewing particular features of laboratory classes as "good" while others viewed the same features as "bad". Students identified as the…

  20. How Many Attempts Until Success in Some Core 1st. Year Disciplines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Graça Leão; Andrade e Silva, João; Lopes, Margarida Chagas

    2012-01-01

    Due to a general development in education brought about by democracy, Portugal has witnessed tremendous development in Higher Education (HE) since the beginning of the 1980s. Nevertheless, the percentage of graduates among the Portuguese population still ranks far below most European countries. This is why academic performance in HE 1st cycle…

  1. First-Generation College Students' 1st-Year College Experiences: Challenges Attending a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    First-generation college students (FGCS) face challenges when switching from high school to college and during their 1st-year in college. Additionally, FGCS may have difficulty understanding the steps required to prepare for and enroll in postsecondary education. The social capital theory examines support of social, academic, and cultural networks…

  2. 24. OVERALL OF 1st FLOOR OF MILL NO. 1. PALLETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OVERALL OF 1st FLOOR OF MILL NO. 1. PALLETS HELD CLOTH IN STORAGE IN LATE 20th CENTURY. IRON POSTS IN LEFT DISTANCE FRONTED CLOTH BINS. HISTORIAN LEEANN LANDS IN BACKGROUND WITH LIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  3. 77 FR 22574 - Filing Dates for the Washington Special Election In the 1st Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Washington Special Election In the 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Washington has...

  4. The Course of Psychological Disorders in the 1st Year After Cancer Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders over the first 12-month period following a cancer diagnosis. Individuals recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy were assessed for ASD within…

  5. Perceptual Narrowing of Linguistic Sign Occurs in the 1st Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephanie Baker; Fais, Laurel; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Werker, Janet F.

    2012-01-01

    Over their 1st year of life, infants' "universal" perception of the sounds of language narrows to encompass only those contrasts made in their native language (J. F. Werker & R. C. Tees, 1984). This research tested 40 infants in an eyetracking paradigm and showed that this pattern also holds for infants exposed to seen language--American Sign…

  6. Requirement of copper for 1st-log growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Como, S.A.; Valerio, V.; Nickless, S.; Connelly, J.L.

    1986-05-01

    Routine evaluation of the role of copper (Cu) in the growth of various mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae disclosed an unexpected effect of Cu on the fermentative first-log growth. The authors subsequent studies are attempting to ascertain the nature and significance of this observation. Cells are grown on glucose in a supplemented minimal media at 29/sup 0/C for 48-72 hrs. using New Brunswick incubator shaking at 200 rpm. Cu concentration was varied by addition of Cu salts or bathocuproine disulfonate (BC), a highly specific Cu chelator. Samples were removed periodically from flasks and dry weights were determined. Growth curve plots of normal yeasts grown in the presence of 1mM to 38mM Cu showed little variation in the expected 1st log; diauxi; 2nd log; stationary phase picture. However, in the presence of BC growth rate in the 1st log was significantly slowed and as expected 2nd log growth was essentially stopped. The low 1st log growth rate could be titrated to normal (+Cu) levels by increments of added Cu but not by added iron. The effect was not seen when Rho-minus strains were used nor when growth was followed under anaerobic conditions. Results to date implicate a mitochondrial protein, oxygen and copper in the 1st log growth of S Cerevisiae. The character of the protein agent and the possible contribution of cytochrome oxidase activity to the lst log growth are being evaluated.

  7. The autocorrelation function of the North Pole dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knude, Jens

    1989-01-01

    The angular scales on which local interstellar dust is distributed are so far rather unknown as are the geometrical shapes of the dust features. From the about 5000 color excesses resulting from a north polar survey with 4 to 5 stars per square degree the two-point autocorrelation function is derived for separations ranging from 10 min to 3 deg. For intercloud lines of sight, -0.020 is less than E(b - y) is less than -0.010 mag, the average cross products (E sub 1 x E sub 2)(sub theta) show no variation with separation theta(1,2) whereas products of cloud column densities, 0.030 is less than E(b - y) is less than 0.040 mag, seem to prefer discrete separations either less than 20 min, around 75 min, or finally at about 150 min. Surprisingly the two point autocorrelation function omega(sub E) = E(sub 1) x E(sub 2)/E squared - 1 equals 0 except for any separation except theta = 0. Omega(sub E)(theta)'s absence of variation is unexpected because omega(sub H)(theta) is known to vary exponentially above b = 40 deg for separations less than 3 deg. Atomic hydrogen and dust may thus not be entirely mixed or the moments (E sub 1 x E sub 2)(sub theta) may not characterize the dust distribution.

  8. A two-photon fluorescence autocorrelator for a Nd:YLF modelocked laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kner, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    In this thesis, I discuss the design and implementation of an autocorrelator for an actively modelocked ND:YLF laser at wavelength 1.054{mu}m. A dye is used to generate a broadband two-photon fluorescence (TPF) signal at 570nm which is the autocorrelation of the laser pulses. Two different techniques are discussed. A colliding pulse scheme can be used to generate a TPF autocorrelation signal as a function of distance, or an interferometer technique can be used to generate an autocorrelation signal as a function of the delay in an interferometer arm. Experimental results are discussed, but they are inconclusive because of difficulties in interpreting the signal.

  9. Simple autocorrelator for ultraviolet pulse-width measurements based on the nonlinear photoelectric effect.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Y

    1994-09-20

    An optical pulse-width measurement in the ultraviolet spectral region has been performed in a simple manner by introducing into the second-order autocorrelator a nonlinear response of the optical detector based on the two-photon photoelectric effect. The pulse widths of the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics of a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser were measured by the use of a photomultiplier with a cesium iodide photocathode with a minimum required pulse energy of 10 nJ and a power density of 10 kW/cm(2). The effect of transient interband optical excitation with different photon energies on the intensity correlation profile was also studied for the case of a copper iodide photocathode, and the result provides a background-free intensity correlation in a part of the ultraviolet spectral region.

  10. Processing of pulse oximeter signals using adaptive filtering and autocorrelation to isolate perfusion and oxygenation components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibey, Bennett; Subramanian, Hariharan; Ericson, Nance; Xu, Weijian; Wilson, Mark; Cote, Gerard L.

    2005-03-01

    A blood perfusion and oxygenation sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of transplanted organs. In processing in situ data, motion artifacts due to increased perfusion can create invalid oxygenation saturation values. In order to remove the unwanted artifacts from the pulsatile signal, adaptive filtering was employed using a third wavelength source centered at 810nm as a reference signal. The 810 nm source resides approximately at the isosbestic point in the hemoglobin absorption curve where the absorbance of light is nearly equal for oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. Using an autocorrelation based algorithm oxygenation saturation values can be obtained without the need for large sampling data sets allowing for near real-time processing. This technique has been shown to be more reliable than traditional techniques and proven to adequately improve the measurement of oxygenation values in varying perfusion states.

  11. Displacement vector measurement using instantaneous ultrasound signal phase - multidimensional autocorrelation and doppler methods.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Chikayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Two new methods of measuring a multidimensional displacement vector using an instantaneous ultrasound signal phase are described, i.e., the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM) and multidimensional Doppler method (MDM). A high measurement accuracy is achieved by combining either method with the lateral Gaussian envelope cosine modulation method (LGECMM) or multidirectional synthetic aperture method (MDSAM). Measurement accuracy is evaluated using simulated noisy echo data. Both methods yield accurate measurements comparable to that of our previously developed cross-spectrum phase gradient method (MCSPGM); however, they require less computational time (the order, MDM < MAM approximate, equals MCSPGM) and would provide realtime measurements. Moreover, comparisons of LGECMM and MDSAM performed by geometrical evaluations clarifies that LGECMM has potentials to yield more accurate measurements with less computational time. Both MAM and MDM can be applied to the measurement of tissue strain, blood flow, sonar data, and other target motions.

  12. Effect of 1st-trimester loss on restoration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.

    PubMed

    Elkas, J C; Cunningham, D S

    1995-01-01

    This randomized prospective study was conducted to determine the length of time required for re-establishment of the reproductive axis following a 1st-trimester spontaneous abortion. The spontaneous gonadotropin secretion was significantly depressed during the first menstrual cycle after pregnancy loss, while the estradiol levels had normalized. Provocative testing revealed blunted gonadotropin release in the first menstrual cycle with return to normal during the first menstrual cycle after a spontaneous abortion. Endometrial biopsy specimens were also abnormal during the first menstrual cycle with normal histological characteristics by the second menstrual cycle. Therefore, restoration of the hypothalamic-pituitary- ovarian axis after a 1st-trimester loss is achieved within two menstrual cycles, as determined by return of normal pituitary function.

  13. Fractal analysis of multiscale spatial autocorrelation among point data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Cola, L.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of spatial autocorrelation among point-data quadrats is a well-developed technique that has made limited but intriguing use of the multiscale aspects of pattern. In this paper are presented theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the analysis of aggregations of quadrats at or above a given density, in which these sets are treated as multifractal regions whose fractal dimension, D, may vary with phenomenon intensity, scale, and location. The technique is illustrated with Matui's quadrat house-count data, which yield measurements consistent with a nonautocorrelated simulated Poisson process but not with an orthogonal unit-step random walk. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of such analysis for multiscale geographic analysis systems. -Author

  14. 44. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Detail from Camille Drie's map: A Bird's Eye View of Columbus, Mississippi ca. 1875-76. Shows M&O RR bridge before the Phoenix Bridge Co. erected iron truss spans in 1878. Credit: Photostat of map in Lowndes Co. Public Library Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  15. 43. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS RAILROAD BRIDGE End of 1st St. S., Columbus, Ms. Copy of photo 1900. Shows 1878 M&O RR bridge. The steamboat, 'Gopher,' in foreground, was an archeological survey vessel from the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. Published in Art in Mississippi (1901). Credit: Copied from print in Lowndes Co. Public Library by Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  16. 46. NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, 1st FLOOR, BELOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, 1st FLOOR, BELOW PICKER AND CLOTH ROOM AREA. FUNCTION OF THIS SPACE UNKNOWN AT PRESENT. NOTE THAT EYE BEAM REPLACES ORIGINAL WALL OF 1892 PICKER HOUSE. CENTER (OR LEFT) DOOR IS ENTRY TO MILL NO. 2. RIGHT DOOR IS ENTRY TO 1892 NAPPER ROOM. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  17. 7. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, ELECTRICAL 1ST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, ELECTRICAL 1ST AND 2ND FLOOR PLANS, SHEET 10 of 11, DRAWING NO. 35-03-05 SF 5/1677, U.S. Army Engineer District, Detroit, Corps of Engineers, 9 June, 1959, on file Selfridge Base Museum. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1041, West of E Street, north of D Street, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  18. Ruthenium indenylidene "1(st) generation" olefin metathesis catalysts containing triisopropyl phosphite.

    PubMed

    Guidone, Stefano; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Cazin, Catherine S J

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of triisopropyl phosphite with phosphine-based indenylidene pre-catalysts affords "1(st) generation" cis-complexes. These have been used in olefin metathesis reactions. The cis-Ru species exhibit noticeable differences with the trans-Ru parent complexes in terms of structure, thermal stability and reactivity. Experimental data underline the importance of synergistic effects between phosphites and L-type ligands.

  19. Ruthenium indenylidene “1st generation” olefin metathesis catalysts containing triisopropyl phosphite

    PubMed Central

    Guidone, Stefano; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2015-01-01

    Summary The reaction of triisopropyl phosphite with phosphine-based indenylidene pre-catalysts affords “1st generation” cis-complexes. These have been used in olefin metathesis reactions. The cis-Ru species exhibit noticeable differences with the trans-Ru parent complexes in terms of structure, thermal stability and reactivity. Experimental data underline the importance of synergistic effects between phosphites and L-type ligands. PMID:26425210

  20. Ruthenium indenylidene "1(st) generation" olefin metathesis catalysts containing triisopropyl phosphite.

    PubMed

    Guidone, Stefano; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Cazin, Catherine S J

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of triisopropyl phosphite with phosphine-based indenylidene pre-catalysts affords "1(st) generation" cis-complexes. These have been used in olefin metathesis reactions. The cis-Ru species exhibit noticeable differences with the trans-Ru parent complexes in terms of structure, thermal stability and reactivity. Experimental data underline the importance of synergistic effects between phosphites and L-type ligands. PMID:26425210

  1. An autocorrelation method to detect low frequency earthquakes within tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.R.; Beroza, G.C.; Shelly, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that deep tremor in the Nankai Trough under western Shikoku consists of a swarm of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that occur as slow shear slip on the down-dip extension of the primary seismogenic zone of the plate interface. The similarity of tremor in other locations suggests a similar mechanism, but the absence of cataloged low frequency earthquakes prevents a similar analysis. In this study, we develop a method for identifying LFEs within tremor. The method employs a matched-filter algorithm, similar to the technique used to infer that tremor in parts of Shikoku is comprised of LFEs; however, in this case we do not assume the origin times or locations of any LFEs a priori. We search for LFEs using the running autocorrelation of tremor waveforms for 6 Hi-Net stations in the vicinity of the tremor source. Time lags showing strong similarity in the autocorrelation represent either repeats, or near repeats, of LFEs within the tremor. We test the method on an hour of Hi-Net recordings of tremor and demonstrates that it extracts both known and previously unidentified LFEs. Once identified, we cross correlate waveforms to measure relative arrival times and locate the LFEs. The results are able to explain most of the tremor as a swarm of LFEs and the locations of newly identified events appear to fill a gap in the spatial distribution of known LFEs. This method should allow us to extend the analysis of Shelly et al. (2007a) to parts of the Nankai Trough in Shikoku that have sparse LFE coverage, and may also allow us to extend our analysis to other regions that experience deep tremor, but where LFEs have not yet been identified. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Seismic ambient noise H/V spectral ratio using the ACA (autocorrelations of coda of autocorrelations) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Piña, J.; Campillo, M.; Luzón, F.; García-Jerez, A.; Albarello, D.; Lunedei, E.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic ambient noise horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (NHVSR) are valuable for microzonation, and seismic prospecting. This is particularly true for low-cost dense spatial sampling projects. Arai and Tokimatsu (2004) proposed to use average energy densities to compose the ratios. It means that H/V comes from the square root of the ratio of averages. On the other hand, a popular approach makes the average of spectral ratios. For ergodic processes peak values are usually the same using these two approaches. Sometimes however, the observations are insufficient and computed values for low frequencies display large variability and the corresponding H/V estimates may be inaccurate. The bias caused by localized sources may be the source of errors in the estimates. In this work we propose to compute the NHVSR using the Autocorrelations of Coda of Autocorrelations. This ACA approach is inspired in the work by Stehly et al. (2008). They used the Correlations of Coda of Correlations (C3) to isotropize the field. In our ACA approach the whole time series, say of 30 minutes, for each component is autocorrelated and the averages of the spectral density of selected windows (late coda windows are eliminated) are then improved estimates of directional energy densities. The computation of NHVSR using ACA appears more stable and free of transient effects. It remains to establish how this may be accounted for in forward calculation of H/V spectral ratios for models like a layered medium (e.g. Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2011; Albarello and Lunedei, 2011). This will require further scrutiny. References. Albarello, D. & E. Lunedei (2011). Structure of ambient vibration wavefield in the frequency range of engineering interest ([0.5, 20] Hz): insights from numerical modelling. Near Surface Geophysics 9, 543-559. Arai, H. & K. Tokimatsu (2004). S-wave velocity profiling by inversion of microtremor H/V spectrum, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 94, 53-63. Sánchez-Sesma, F. J., M. Rodr

  3. MATLAB-Based Program for Teaching Autocorrelation Function and Noise Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic Dolecek, G.

    2012-01-01

    An attractive MATLAB-based tool for teaching the basics of autocorrelation function and noise concepts is presented in this paper. This tool enhances traditional in-classroom lecturing. The demonstrations of the tool described here highlight the description of the autocorrelation function (ACF) in a general case for wide-sense stationary (WSS)…

  4. Proposal of a new autocorrelation function in low wind speed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moor, L. P.; Degrazia, G. A.; Stefanello, M. B.; Mortarini, L.; Acevedo, O. C.; Maldaner, S.; Szinvelski, C. R. P.; Roberti, D. R.; Buligon, L.; Anfossi, D.

    2015-11-01

    In this study a new mathematical expression to describe the observed meandering autocorrelation functions in low-wind speed is proposed. The analysis utilizes a large number of best fit curves to show that the proposed theoretical function well reproduces the general form and the negative lobes characterizing the experimental meandering autocorrelation function. Further, the good agreement of the measured autocorrelation curves with the proposed algebraic autocorrelation function allows to calculate the magnitudes of the meandering period and of the loop parameter. The results agree with the values presented and discussed in the literature. Therefore, the new formulation describing experimental meandering autocorrelation functions can be used to simulate the dispersion of contaminant during low wind episodes and to determine relevant meandering parameters.

  5. Fourier and autocorrelation analysis of estuarine tidal rhythmites, lower Breathitt Formation (Pennsylvania), eastern Kentucky, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, R.L.; Sanderson, D.D. )

    1993-01-01

    Outcrops of the Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation in eastern Kentucky reveal a rhythmic pattern of siliciclastic sedimentation in a marginal marine coastal setting. A 15-23 m thick stratigraphic interval of thinly interbedded, fine sandstone and shale displays tidally generated features such as flaser and wavy current ripple bedding, bipolar paleocurrents, and cyclic thickening and thinning of mud-draped sandstone layers. A statistical analysis of sand layer thickness was carried out using shale partings as bounding surfaces for the individual sand units. Fourier and autocorrelation analyses were performed on two vertical sequences containing a total of over 2,100 layers. The results reveal the presence of four cycles of thickness variation. First-order cycles consist of alternating thick-thin sand layers. These daily couplets may reflect unequal flood and ebb currents during a single tidal cycle or dominant and subordinate tidal deposits in an ebb or flood dominated semidiurnal or mixed system. Second-order cycles typically consist of 11-14 sand layers and reflect spring-neap variations in tidal range and current velocities. Third-order cycles are usually composed of 24-35 layers and are formed in response to monthly variations in tidal range resulting from the ellipticity of the moon's orbit. Fourth-order cycles generally contain about 150 layers (range, 100-166) and were caused by seasonal maxima in tidal range associated with the solstice (winter, summer) and seasonal minima associated with the equinox (spring, fall).

  6. RETURN TO DIVISION IA FOOTBALL FOLLOWING A 1ST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT DORSAL DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Zarzour, Hap; Moorman, Claude T.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Although rare in occurrence, a dorsal dislocation of the 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint has been successfully treated using surgical and/or non-operative treatment. No descriptions of conservative intervention following a dorsal dislocation of the MTP joint in an athlete participating in a high contact sport are present in the literature. Objectives. The purpose of this case report is to describe the intervention and clinical reasoning during the rehabilitative process of a collegiate football player diagnosed with a 1st MTP joint dorsal dislocation. The plan of care and return to play criteria used for this athlete are presented. Case Description. The case involved a 19-year-old male Division IA football player, who suffered a traumatic dorsal dislocation of the 1st MTP joint during practice. The dislocation was initially treated on-site by closed reduction. Non-operative management included immobilization, therapeutic exercises, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, manual treatment, modalities, prophylactic athletic taping, gait training, and a sport specific progression program for full return to Division IA football. Outcomes. Discharge from physical therapy occurred after six weeks of treatment. At discharge, no significant deviations existed during running, burst, and agility related drills. At a six-month follow-up, the patient reported full return to all football activities including contact drills without restrictions. Discussion. This case describes an effective six-week rehabilitation intervention for a collegiate football player who sustained a traumatic great toe dorsal dislocation. Further study is suggested to evaluate the intervention strategies and timeframe for return to contact sports. PMID:21589669

  7. Palm Tree Detection Using Circular Autocorrelation of Polar Shape Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, A.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Palm trees play an important role as they are widely used in a variety of products including oil and bio-fuel. Increasing demand and growing cultivation have created a necessity in planned farming and the monitoring different aspects like inventory keeping, health, size etc. The large cultivation regions of palm trees motivate the use of remote sensing to produce such data. This study proposes an object detection methodology on the aerial images, using shape feature for detecting and counting palm trees, which can support an inventory. The study uses circular autocorrelation of the polar shape matrix representation of an image, as the shape feature, and the linear support vector machine to standardize and reduce dimensions of the feature. Finally, the study uses local maximum detection algorithm on the spatial distribution of standardized feature to detect palm trees. The method was applied to 8 images chosen from different tough scenarios and it performed on average with an accuracy of 84% and 76.1%, despite being subjected to different challenging conditions in the chosen test images.

  8. On the statistics of SuperDARN autocorrelation function estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, A. S.; Hussey, G. C.; Dueck, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    Time domain signal processing techniques are employed by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) to obtain bulk measurements of the velocity and spectral width of F region ionospheric plasma irregularities. The measurements are obtained by fitting estimates of the mean autocorrelation function (ACF) of the radar target. To accurately and consistently extract target parameters from the mean unnormalized ACF, it is necessary to utilize error-weighted fitting algorithms with a weight given by the variance of the ACF. Currently implemented weights are ad hoc, and a detailed description of the statistical characterization of SuperDARN ACFs is needed. Following the discussions in Farley (1969) and Woodman and Hagfors (1969), which describe the variance for the mean normalized ACF used with incoherent scatter radars, we present analytic expressions for obtaining the variance of the real and imaginary components of the mean unnormalized SuperDARN ACF. These expressions are based on models by André et al. (1999) and Moorcroft (2004) of the voltage signal received by SuperDARN radars but may be used for other soft target radar systems. An algorithm for obtaining the variance of both the magnitude and phase of the mean ACF is also presented. The results of this study may be directly integrated into existing SuperDARN data analysis software and other pulse-Doppler radar systems that utilize estimates of the mean unnormalized ACF.

  9. Autopsy as a tool for learning gross anatomy during 1st year MBBS

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Parmod Kumar; Gupta, Monika; Kaur, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Embalmed cadavers are the primary tool for teaching anatomy. However, difficulties are encountered due to changed color/texture of organs, hardening of tissues, and smell of formaldehyde. To overcome these difficulties, dissections on a fresh human body were shown to the 1st year MBBS students, and their perception was noted. Materials and Methods: After taking universal precautionary measures, postmortem dissections were shown to students on voluntary donated bodies in the dissection hall, in addition to the traditional teaching on embalmed cadavers. Feedback was taken from students and faculty regarding the utility of these sessions. Results: Better appreciation of texture, orientation, location, and relations of organs in fresh body, integration of teaching, awareness of the process and laws related to body donations were the outcomes of the study. However, the smell and sight of blood was felt to be nauseating by some students, and some students were worried about the spread of infectious diseases. Conclusions: Visualizing single fresh body dissection during 1st year professional MBBS is recommended either on medicolegal autopsy or on voluntarily-donated bodies. PMID:27563594

  10. The Human Auditory System Modeled as AN Autocorrelator.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Mark Aaron

    This thesis is intended to investigate a new strategy for interpreting the human auditory physiology and assess the impact this knowledge might have on engineering applications such as speech encoding, word recognition, and speaker verification. The new interpretation is based around the signal processing properties associated with the autocorrelation function and has been developed from a strong foundation of literature that has been compiled over the last 50 years. A distilation of the pertinent literature includes the phylogenetic development of audition, a detailed description of the anatomy of the inner ear, and the well-recognized inconsistencies involved with traditional interpretations of physiology and psychoacoustic experiments. These issues are discussed and reinterpreted to support a new philosophy on the signal processing functionality of the inner ear. From this conceptual model, a mathematical description and a partly phenomenological computer model are developed. The responses of the new model to test stimuli show qualitative similarity to the results of important psychoacoustic experiments, demonstrating that the new philosophy represents a more unified theory on audition than any proposed so far. In particular the new model predicts the effects known as "pitch", "the second filter", and some other phenomena that are not specifically recognized in the literature. The knowledge gained in this effort is applied to techniques for speech encoding by real zeros, specifically, the reconstruction of signals that have been infinitely clipped. Finally, the concept is extended to include speculation on neural processes at the level of the cochlear nucleus in the brain. At this level an investigation is made to explore the power with which the new model can characterize phoneme signals generated by several different speakers. The results are shown to possess the historically accepted techniques for phoneme characterization as a subset of a dimensionally

  11. TDR Using Autocorrelation and Varying-Duration Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Mullinex, Pam; Huang, PoTien; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Zavala, Carlos; Lane, John

    2008-01-01

    In an alternative to a prior technique of time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) in which very short excitation pulses are used, the pulses have very short rise and fall times and the pulse duration is varied continuously between a minimum and a maximum value. In both the present and prior techniques, the basic idea is to (1) measure the times between the generation of excitation pulses and the reception of reflections of the pulses as indications of the locations of one or more defects along a cable and (2) measure the amplitudes of the reflections as indication of the magnitudes of the defects. In general, an excitation pulse has a duration T. Each leading and trailing edge of an excitation pulse generates a reflection from a defect, so that a unique pair of reflections is associated with each defect. In the present alternative technique, the processing of the measured reflection signal includes computation of the autocorrelation function R(tau) identical with fx(t)x(t-tau)dt where t is time, x(t) is the measured reflection signal at time t, and taus is the correlation interval. The integration is performed over a measurement time interval short enough to enable identification and location of a defect within the corresponding spatial interval along the cable. Typically, where there is a defect, R(tau) exhibits a negative peak having maximum magnitude for tau in the vicinity of T. This peak can be used as a means of identifying a leading-edge/trailing-edge reflection pair. For a given spatial interval, measurements are made and R(tau) computed, as described above, for pulse durations T ranging from the minimum to the maximum value. The advantage of doing this is that the effective signal-to-noise ratio may be significantly increased over that attainable by use of a fixed pulse duration T.

  12. Rapid and stable measurement of respiratory rate from Doppler radar signals using time domain autocorrelation model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Noncontact measurement of respiratory rate using Doppler radar will play a vital role in future clinical practice. Doppler radar remotely monitors the tiny chest wall movements induced by respiration activity. The most competitive advantage of this technique is to allow users fully unconstrained with no biological electrode attachments. However, the Doppler radar, unlike other contact-type sensors, is easily affected by the random body movements. In this paper, we proposed a time domain autocorrelation model to process the radar signals for rapid and stable estimation of the respiratory rate. We tested the autocorrelation model on 8 subjects in laboratory, and compared the respiratory rates detected by noncontact radar with reference contact-type respiratory effort belt. Autocorrelation model showed the effects of reducing the random body movement noise added to Doppler radar's respiration signals. Moreover, the respiratory rate can be rapidly calculated from the first main peak in the autocorrelation waveform within 10 s.

  13. A broadly tunable autocorrelator for ultra-short, ultra-high power infrared optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Szarmes, E.B.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-12-31

    We describe the design of a crossed-beam, optical autocorrelator that uses an uncoated, birefringent beamsplitter to split a linearly polarized incident pulse into two orthogonally polarized pulses, and a Type II, SHG crystal to generate the intensity autocorrelation function. The uncoated beamsplitter accommodates extremely broad tunability while precluding any temporal distortion of ultrashort optical pulses at the dielectric interface, and the specific design provides efficient operation between 1 {mu}m and 4 {mu}m. Furthermore, the use of Type II SHG completely eliminates any single-beam doubling, so the autocorrelator can be operated at very shallow crossed-beam angles without generating a background pedestal. The autocorrelator has been constructed and installed in the Mark III laboratory at Duke University as a broadband diagnostic for ongoing compression experiments on the chirped-pulse FEL.

  14. Rapid and stable measurement of respiratory rate from Doppler radar signals using time domain autocorrelation model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Noncontact measurement of respiratory rate using Doppler radar will play a vital role in future clinical practice. Doppler radar remotely monitors the tiny chest wall movements induced by respiration activity. The most competitive advantage of this technique is to allow users fully unconstrained with no biological electrode attachments. However, the Doppler radar, unlike other contact-type sensors, is easily affected by the random body movements. In this paper, we proposed a time domain autocorrelation model to process the radar signals for rapid and stable estimation of the respiratory rate. We tested the autocorrelation model on 8 subjects in laboratory, and compared the respiratory rates detected by noncontact radar with reference contact-type respiratory effort belt. Autocorrelation model showed the effects of reducing the random body movement noise added to Doppler radar's respiration signals. Moreover, the respiratory rate can be rapidly calculated from the first main peak in the autocorrelation waveform within 10 s. PMID:26737655

  15. Effects of autocorrelation upon LANDSAT classification accuracy. [Richmond, Virginia and Denver, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Richmond, Virginia and Denver, Colorado were study sites in an effort to determine the effect of autocorrelation on the accuracy of a parallelopiped classifier of LANDSAT digital data. The autocorrelation was assumed to decay to insignificant levels when sampled at distances of at least ten pixels. Spectral themes developed using blocks of adjacent pixels, and using groups of pixels spaced at least 10 pixels apart were used. Effects of geometric distortions were minimized by using only pixels from the interiors of land cover sections. Accuracy was evaluated for three classes; agriculture, residential and "all other"; both type 1 and type 2 errors were evaluated by means of overall classification accuracy. All classes give comparable results. Accuracy is approximately the same in both techniques; however, the variance in accuracy is significantly higher using the themes developed from autocorrelated data. The vectors of mean spectral response were nearly identical regardless of sampling method used. The estimated variances were much larger when using autocorrelated pixels.

  16. Local slope, hillslope length and upslope unstable area as 1st order controls on co-seismic landslide hazard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milledge, D.; Densmore, A. L.; Petley, D. N.; Bellugi, D. G.; Li, G.

    2015-12-01

    Many communities in mountainous areas have limited access to and/or understanding of co-seismic landslide hazard maps. Furthermore these maps rarely provide the information that a community seeks: Where is safest? How big could the landslide be? Geomorphic intuition suggests that: 1) on the ridges one is less likely to be hit by a landslide than elsewhere in the landscape; 2) hazard increases with the amount of upslope unstable area; 3) longer slopes contain more candidate landslides and are also capable of producing larger landslides thus they constitute a more severe hazard. These observations could help communities in siting infrastructure or making earthquake plans but have not, to our knowledge, been tested against past landslide inventories. Co-seismic landslide models make no attempt to predict landslide size and focus on initiation, ignoring the runout which is critical in the slope length control on hazard. Here we test our intuitive hypotheses using an inventory of co-seismic landslides from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The inventory is mapped from high-resolution remote imagery using an automated algorithm and manual delineation and does not distinguish between source and runout zones. Discretizing the study area into 30 m cells we define landslide hazard as the probability that a cell is within a mapped landslide polygon (p(ls)). We find that p(ls) increases rapidly with increasing slope and upslope area. Locations with low local slope (<10˚) or upslope area (<900 m2/m) have p(ls) less than one third of the areal average. The joint p(ls) conditional on local slope and upslope area identifies long steep slopes as particularly hazardous and ridges (where slope and upslope area are both low) as particularly low hazard. Examining the slope lengths associated with each landslide in the inventory we find that hillslope length sets an upper limit on landslide size but that its influence on the detailed size distribution is more difficult to untangle. Finally, we combine local slope and upslope unstable area in a simple mechanistic rule-based model of landslide runout hazard and test its ability to predict p(ls). Our findings support the intuitive view that long steep slopes are among the most hazardous locations while ridges are the least hazardous locations in terms of co-seismic landslides.

  17. The local autocorrelation time in thin film and semi-infinite model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1984-05-01

    The nearest-neighbour Ising model of a film in which exchange couplings in surface layers can differ from exchange couplings in other layers is considered. The dependence of the local autocorrelation time on distances to surfaces of the film, temperature and surface exchange couplings is discussed. The behaviour of the local autocorrelation time in a three-dimensional semi-infinite model is obtained assuming that the thickness of the film tends to infinity.

  18. EDITORIAL: The 1st International Conference on Nanomanufacturing (NanoMan2008) The 1st International Conference on Nanomanufacturing (NanoMan2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jack Jiqui; Fang, Fengzhou

    2009-05-01

    Nanomanufacturing is an emerging technology in the field of synthesis of nanomaterials, manufacture of nanodevices, nanosystems and the relevant characterization technologies, and will greatly impact our society and environment: speeding up scientific discovery, technological development, improving healthcare and living standards and slowing down the exhaustion of energy resources, to name but few. The 1st International Conference on Nanomanufacturing (NanoMan2008) was held on the 13-16 July 2008 in Singapore in conjunction with ThinFilm2008 (The 4th International Conference on Technological Advances of Thin Films & Surface Coatings). Approximately 140 delegates from all over the world have participated in the conference and presented their latest discoveries and technological developments. The main focuses of the conference were modern nanomanufacturing by laser machining, focused ion beam fabrication, nano/micro-molding/imprinting, nanomaterial synthesis and characterization, nanometrology and nano/microsystems fabrication and characterization. There was also great interest in applications of nanomanufacturing technologies in traditional areas such as free form machining, polishing and grinding with nano-scale precision and the smoothness of surfaces of objects, and applications in space exploration, military and medicine. This special issue is devoted to NanoMan2008 with a collection of 9 invited talks presented at the conference, covering all the topics of nanomanufacturing technology and development. These papers have been upgraded by the authors with new results and discoveries since the preparation of the conference manuscripts, hence presenting the latest developments. We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the delegates who attended the conference and made the conference successful, and to the authors who contributed papers to this special issue. Thanks also go to the conference committee for their efforts and devotion to the conference. We

  19. Perceptual narrowing of linguistic sign occurs in the 1st year of life.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephanie Baker; Fais, Laurel; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Werker, Janet F

    2012-01-01

    Over their 1st year of life, infants'"universal" perception of the sounds of language narrows to encompass only those contrasts made in their native language (J. F. Werker & R. C. Tees, 1984). This research tested 40 infants in an eyetracking paradigm and showed that this pattern also holds for infants exposed to seen language-American Sign Language (ASL). Four-month-old, English-only, hearing infants discriminated an ASL handshape distinction, while 14-month-old hearing infants did not. Fourteen-month-old ASL-learning infants, however, did discriminate the handshape distinction, suggesting that, as in heard language, exposure to seen language is required for maintenance of visual language discrimination. Perceptual narrowing appears to be a ubiquitous learning mechanism that contributes to language acquisition. PMID:22277043

  20. Meeting report for the 1st skin microbiota workshop, boulder, CO October 15-16 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This report details the outcome of the 1st Skin Microbiota Workshop, Boulder, CO, held on October 15th-16th 2012. The workshop was arranged to bring Department of Defense personnel together with experts in microbial ecology, human skin physiology and anatomy, and computational techniques for interrogating the microbiome to define research frontiers at the intersection of these important areas. The workshop outlined a series of questions and created several working groups to address those questions, specifically to promote interdisciplinary activity and potential future collaboration. The US Army provided generous grant support and the meeting was organized and hosted by the University of Colorado at Boulder. A primary forward vision of the meeting was the importance of understanding skin microbial communities to improve the health and stealth of US Army warfighters.

  1. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M; Le Péchoux, C; Postmus, P E; Sorensen, J B; Felip, E

    2011-09-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through discussion at the Consensus Conference. All relevant scientific literature for each question was reviewed in advance. During the Consensus Conference, the panel developed recommendations for each specific question. The consensus agreement in SCLC is reported in this article. The recommendations detailed here are based on an expert consensus after careful review of published data. All participants have approved this final update.

  2. 4th generation of the 1st level surface detector trigger in the Pierre Auger Observator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Z.

    The proposal of a new 4th generation of the Front-End with the advanced 1st level triggers for the Infill Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory and for the Auger North is described. Newest FPGA chips offer much higher capacity of logic registers and memories, as well as DSP blocks. The calibration channel, previously supported by an external dual-port RAM, has been fully implemented into FPGA chip, through a large internal memory. In turn DSP blocks allowed on implementation of much more sophisticated spectral trigger algorithms. A single chip simplified board design, newer architecture of FPGA reduced resouces utilization and power consumption. Higher sampling in the new Front- End in comparison with previous 40 MHz designs as well as free resources for new detection algotithms can be a good platform for CR radio detection technique at Auger enhancing a duty cycle for the detection of UHECR’s.

  3. [The 1st International Youth Ecologist Forum in China, 2009: a review].

    PubMed

    Xiong, You-cai; Xiong, Jun-lan; Li, Pu-fang; Li, Zhi-hua; Kong, Hai-yan; Wang, Shao-ming

    2011-04-01

    To promote the communication and cooperation between Chinese and overseas youth ecologists, a conference entitled "The 1st International Young Ecologist Forum" was held at Lanzhou University in June 29-30, 2009. This conference was organized by outstanding overseas ecologists and hosted by Lanzhou University. The presentations covered broad areas of ecology, including plant-soil interactions, structure and function of regional ecosystems, ecological security and ecological planning, global change ecology, and environmental sustainability, demonstrating that the development of China ecology is gradually from traditional basic research transforming into applied research. The presentations also reflected in some extent the development characteristics, evolution direction, and distribution pattern of China ecological research. China ecological research has gradually formed four centers, the Northeast, North, Northwest, and Southeast China, and each of them has its definite regional characteristics. Some suggestions about the organization form and future planning of the forum were put forward.

  4. Temporal autocorrelation in host density increases establishment success of parasitoids in an experimental system

    PubMed Central

    Vercken, Elodie; Fauvergue, Xavier; Ris, Nicolas; Crochard, Didier; Mailleret, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    Environmental variation is classically expected to affect negatively population growth and to increase extinction risk, and it has been identified as a major determinant of establishment failures in the field. Yet, recent theoretical investigations have shown that the structure of environmental variation and more precisely the presence of positive temporal autocorrelation might alter this prediction. This is particularly likely to affect the establishment dynamics of biological control agents in the field, as host–parasitoid interactions are expected to induce temporal autocorrelation in host abundance. In the case where parasitoid populations display overcompensatory dynamics, the presence of such positive temporal autocorrelation should increase their establishment success in a variable environment. We tested this prediction in laboratory microcosms by introducing parasitoids to hosts whose abundances were manipulated to simulate uncorrelated or positively autocorrelated variations in carrying capacity. We found that environmental variability decreased population size and increased parasitoid population variance, which is classically expected to extinction risk. However, although exposed to significant environmental variation, we found that parasitoid populations experiencing positive temporal autocorrelation in host abundance were more likely to persist than populations exposed to uncorrelated variation. These results confirm that environmental variation is a key determinant of extinction dynamics that can have counterintuitive effects depending on its autocorrelation structure. PMID:26257880

  5. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jing; Bi, Renzhe; Ho, Jun Hui; Thong, Patricia S. P.; Soo, Khee-Chee; Lee, Kijoon

    2012-09-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging noninvasive technique that probes the deep tissue blood flow, by using the time-averaged intensity autocorrelation function of the fluctuating diffuse reflectance signal. We present a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based software autocorrelator that utilizes the graphical programming language LabVIEW (National Instruments) to complete data acquisition, recording, and processing tasks. The validation and evaluation experiments were conducted on an in-house flow phantom, human forearm, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on mouse tumors under the acquisition rate of ˜400 kHz. The software autocorrelator in general has certain advantages, such as flexibility in raw photon count data preprocessing and low cost. In addition to that, our FFT-based software autocorrelator offers smoother starting and ending plateaus when compared to a hardware correlator, which could directly benefit the fitting results without too much sacrifice in speed. We show that the blood flow index (BFI) obtained by using a software autocorrelator exhibits better linear behavior in a phantom control experiment when compared to a hardware one. The results indicate that an FFT-based software autocorrelator can be an alternative solution to the conventional hardware ones in DCS systems with considerable benefits.

  6. FPGA implementation of a 32x32 autocorrelator array for analysis of fast image series.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Jan; Krieger, Jan Wolfgang; Mocsár, Gábor; Kreith, Balázs; Charbon, Edoardo; Vámosi, György; Kebschull, Udo; Langowski, Jörg

    2012-07-30

    With the evolving technology in CMOS integration, new classes of 2D-imaging detectors have recently become available. In particular, single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays allow detection of single photons at high acquisition rates (≥ 100 kfps), which is about two orders of magnitude higher than with currently available cameras. Here we demonstrate the use of a SPAD array for imaging fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (imFCS), a tool to create 2D maps of the dynamics of fluorescent molecules inside living cells. Time-dependent fluorescence fluctuations, due to fluorophores entering and leaving the observed pixels, are evaluated by means of autocorrelation analysis. The multi-τ correlation algorithm is an appropriate choice, as it does not rely on the full data set to be held in memory. Thus, this algorithm can be efficiently implemented in custom logic. We describe a new implementation for massively parallel multi-τ correlation hardware. Our current implementation can calculate 1024 correlation functions at a resolution of 10 μs in real-time and therefore correlate real-time image streams from high speed single photon cameras with thousands of pixels.

  7. Detecting Anomaly Regions in Satellite Image Time Series Based on Sesaonal Autocorrelation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.-G.; Tang, P.; Zhou, M.

    2016-06-01

    Anomaly regions in satellite images can reflect unexpected changes of land cover caused by flood, fire, landslide, etc. Detecting anomaly regions in satellite image time series is important for studying the dynamic processes of land cover changes as well as for disaster monitoring. Although several methods have been developed to detect land cover changes using satellite image time series, they are generally designed for detecting inter-annual or abrupt land cover changes, but are not focusing on detecting spatial-temporal changes in continuous images. In order to identify spatial-temporal dynamic processes of unexpected changes of land cover, this study proposes a method for detecting anomaly regions in each image of satellite image time series based on seasonal autocorrelation analysis. The method was validated with a case study to detect spatial-temporal processes of a severe flooding using Terra/MODIS image time series. Experiments demonstrated the advantages of the method that (1) it can effectively detect anomaly regions in each of satellite image time series, showing spatial-temporal varying process of anomaly regions, (2) it is flexible to meet some requirement (e.g., z-value or significance level) of detection accuracies with overall accuracy being up to 89% and precision above than 90%, and (3) it does not need time series smoothing and can detect anomaly regions in noisy satellite images with a high reliability.

  8. Parametric optical surface roughness measurement by means of polychromatic speckle autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Stefan; Ciossek, Andreas; Lehmann, Peter; Schoene, Armin

    1998-10-01

    A method for determining surface roughness of engineering surfaces that is applicable to in-process measurements under harsh circumstances of industrial production plants (e.g. vibrations, humidity) is introduced. The rough surface is illuminated with polychromatic laser light. The angular distribution of scattered light intensities, i.e. a polychromatic speckle pattern, is the result of an incoherent superposition of monochromatic speckle intensities. The angular dispersion leads to increasing speckle widths with an increasing distance to the optical axis an effect called speckle elongation. This gives rise to a radial structure of the speckle pattern. However, with increasing surface roughness the radial structure vanishes because of a decreasing similarity of the monochromatic speckle patterns of the different wavelengths. The markedness of this effect is analyzed by digital image processing algorithms, e.g. the procedure of polychromatic speckle autocorrelation. The latest approach to an in-process roughness measurement device was made by the use of singlemode fiber-pigtailed laser diodes in order to supply a trichromatic, temporally partially coherent laser beam. A brief introduction to the theoretical background is followed by the presentation of the experimental setup. The image processing algorithms for calculating an optical roughness measure from digitalized speckle patterns are explained, and first results of surface roughness determination are presented.

  9. Assessment of drug-induced arrhythmic risk using limit cycle and autocorrelation analysis of human iPSC-cardiomyocyte contractility.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R Jason; Qi, Feng; Phatak, Sharangdhar; Smith, Layton H; Malany, Siobhan

    2016-08-15

    Cardiac safety assays incorporating label-free detection of human stem-cell derived cardiomyocyte contractility provide human relevance and medium throughput screening to assess compound-induced cardiotoxicity. In an effort to provide quantitative analysis of the large kinetic datasets resulting from these real-time studies, we applied bioinformatic approaches based on nonlinear dynamical system analysis, including limit cycle analysis and autocorrelation function, to systematically assess beat irregularity. The algorithms were integrated into a software program to seamlessly generate results for 96-well impedance-based data. Our approach was validated by analyzing dose- and time-dependent changes in beat patterns induced by known proarrhythmic compounds and screening a cardiotoxicity library to rank order compounds based on their proarrhythmic potential. We demonstrate a strong correlation for dose-dependent beat irregularity monitored by electrical impedance and quantified by autocorrelation analysis to traditional manual patch clamp potency values for hERG blockers. In addition, our platform identifies non-hERG blockers known to cause clinical arrhythmia. Our method provides a novel suite of medium-throughput quantitative tools for assessing compound effects on cardiac contractility and predicting compounds with potential proarrhythmia and may be applied to in vitro paradigms for pre-clinical cardiac safety evaluation. PMID:27343406

  10. Global Autocorrelation Scales of the Partial Pressure of Oceanic CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhen; Adamec, David; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, Stewart C.

    2004-01-01

    A global database of approximately 1.7 million observations of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters (pCO2) collected between 1970 and 2003 is used to estimate its spatial autocorrelation structure. The patterns of the lag distance where the autocorrelation exceeds 0.8 is similar to patterns in the spatial distribution of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation indicating that ocean circulation processes play a significant role in determining the spatial variability of pCO2. For example, the global maximum of the distance at which autocorrelations exceed 0.8 averages about 140 km in the equatorial Pacific. Also, the lag distance at which the autocorrelation exceed 0.8 is greater in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream than it is near the Kuroshio, approximately 50 km near the Gulf Stream as opposed to 20 km near the Kuroshio. Separate calculations for times when the sun is north and south of the equator revealed no obvious seasonal dependence of the spatial autocorrelation scales. The pCO2 measurements at Ocean Weather Station (OWS) 'P', in the eastern subarctic Pacific (50 N, 145 W) is the only fixed location where an uninterrupted time series of sufficient length exists to calculate a meaningful temporal autocorrelation function for lags greater than a few days. The estimated temporal autocorrelation function at OWS 'P', is highly variable. A spectral analysis of the longest four pCO2 time series indicates a high level of variability occurring over periods from the atmospheric synoptic to the maximum length of the time series, in this case 42 days. It is likely that a relative peak in variability with a period of 3-6 days is related to atmospheric synoptic period variability and ocean mixing events due to wind stirring. However, the short length of available time series makes identifying temporal relationships between pCO2 and atmospheric or ocean processes problematic.

  11. PREFACE: 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows (GasMems 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frijns, Arjan; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Colin, Stéphane; Baldas, Lucien

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is to advance research in Europe and worldwide in the field of gas micro flows as well as to improve global fundamental knowledge and to enable technological applications. Gas flows in microsystems are of great importance and touch almost every industrial field (e.g. fluidic microactuators for active control of aerodynamic flows, vacuum generators for extracting biological samples, mass flow and temperature micro-sensors, pressure gauges, micro heat-exchangers for the cooling of electronic components or for chemical applications, and micro gas analyzers or separators). The main characteristic of gas microflows is their rarefaction, which for device design often requires modelling and simulation both by continuous and molecular approaches. In such flows various non-equilibrium transport phenomena appear, while the role played by the interaction between the gas and the solid device surfaces becomes essential. The proposed models of boundary conditions often need an empirical adjustment strongly dependent on the micro manufacturing technique. The 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is organized under the umbrella of the recently established GASMEMS network (www.gasmems.eu/) consisting of 13 participants and six associate members. The main objectives of the network are to structure research and train researchers in the fields of micro gas dynamics, measurement techniques for gaseous flows in micro experimental setups, microstructure design and micro manufacturing with applications in lab and industry. The conference takes place on June 6-8 2012, at the Skiathos Palace Hotel, on the beautiful island of Skiathos, Greece. The conference has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement ITN GASMEMS no. 215504. It owes its success to many people. We would like to acknowledge the support of all members of the Scientific Committee and of all

  12. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gömze, László A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive knowledge, materials, equipment and technology processes. The idea to organize in Hungary the 1st International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials we have received from prospective scientists, physicists, chemists, mathematicians and engineers from Asia, Europe, North and South America including India, Korea, Russia, Turkey, Estonia, France, Italy, United Kingdom, Chile, Mexico and USA. The goals of ic-rmm1 the 1st International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials are the following: • Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications. • Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. • Promote the communication between the scientists of different disciplines, nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm1 provides a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among the major fields of interest are the influences of material structures, mechanical stresses temperature and deformation speeds on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of

  13. OI and fMRI signal separation using both temporal and spatial autocorrelations.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Liu, Yadong; Feng, Guiyu; Zhou, Zongtan; Hu, Dewen

    2010-08-01

    Separating brain imaging signals by maximizing their autocorrelations is an important component of blind source separation (BSS). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), one of leading BSS techniques, has been widely used for analyzing optical imaging (OI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, because of the need to reduce dimensionality and ignore spatial autocorrelation, CCA is problematic for separating temporal signal sources. To solve the problems of CCA, "straightforward image projection" (SIP) has been incorporated into temporal BSS. This novel method, termed low-dimensional canonical correlation analysis (LD-CCA), relies on the spatial and temporal autocorrelations of all genuine signals of interest. Incorporating both spatial and temporal information, here we introduce a "generalized timecourse" technique in which data are artificially reorganized prior to separation. The quantity of spatial plus temporal autocorrelations can then be defined. By maximizing temporal and spatial autocorrelations in combination, LD-CCA is able to obtain expected "real" signal sources. Generalized timecourses are low-dimensional, eliminating the need for dimension reduction. This removes the risk of discarding useful information. The new method is compared with temporal CCA and temporal independent component analysis (tICA). Comparison of simulated data showed that LD-CCA was more effective for recovering signal sources. Comparisons using real intrinsic OI and fMRI data also supported the validity of LD-CCA.

  14. New Features Using Robust MVDR Spectrum of Filtered Autocorrelation Sequence for Robust Speech Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Gazor, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel noise-robust feature extraction method for speech recognition using the robust perceptual minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) spectrum of temporally filtered autocorrelation sequence. The perceptual MVDR spectrum of the filtered short-time autocorrelation sequence can reduce the effects of residue of the nonstationary additive noise which remains after filtering the autocorrelation. To achieve a more robust front-end, we also modify the robust distortionless constraint of the MVDR spectral estimation method via revised weighting of the subband power spectrum values based on the sub-band signal to noise ratios (SNRs), which adjusts it to the new proposed approach. This new function allows the components of the input signal at the frequencies least affected by noise to pass with larger weights and attenuates more effectively the noisy and undesired components. This modification results in reduction of the noise residuals of the estimated spectrum from the filtered autocorrelation sequence, thereby leading to a more robust algorithm. Our proposed method, when evaluated on Aurora 2 task for recognition purposes, outperformed all Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) as the baseline, relative autocorrelation sequence MFCC (RAS-MFCC), and the MVDR-based features in several different noisy conditions. PMID:24501584

  15. Rigorous home range estimation with movement data: a new autocorrelated kernel density estimator.

    PubMed

    Fleming, C H; Fagan, W F; Mueller, T; Olson, K A; Leimgruber, P; Calabrese, J M

    2015-05-01

    Quantifying animals' home ranges is a key problem in ecology and has important conservation and wildlife management applications. Kernel density estimation (KDE) is a workhorse technique for range delineation problems that is both statistically efficient and nonparametric. KDE assumes that the data are independent and identically distributed (IID). However, animal tracking data, which are routinely used as inputs to KDEs, are inherently autocorrelated and violate this key assumption. As we demonstrate, using realistically autocorrelated data in conventional KDEs results in grossly underestimated home ranges. We further show that the performance of conventional KDEs actually degrades as data quality improves, because autocorrelation strength increases as movement paths become more finely resolved. To remedy these flaws with the traditional KDE method, we derive an autocorrelated KDE (AKDE) from first principles to use autocorrelated data, making it perfectly suited for movement data sets. We illustrate the vastly improved performance of AKDE using analytical arguments, relocation data from Mongolian gazelles, and simulations based upon the gazelle's observed movement process. By yielding better minimum area estimates for threatened wildlife populations, we believe that future widespread use of AKDE will have significant impact on ecology and conservation biology. PMID:26236833

  16. Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2014-07-01

    Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features.

  17. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence. PMID:26334946

  18. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence.

  19. The U.S. Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope 1st Catalog (URAT1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Norbert; Finch, Charlie T.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; DiVittorio, Mike; Harris, Hugh C.; Rafferty, Ted; Wieder, Gary; Eric Ferguson, Chris Kilian, Albert Rhodes, Mike Schultheis

    2015-01-01

    The 1st USNO Robotic Astrometric Telescope Catalog (URAT1) is about tobe released. It contains accurate positions (typically 10 to 30 mas std.error) of 220 million stars, mainly on the northern hemisphere. Propermotions were obtained for 85% of these stars utilizing the 2MASS as 1stepoch. URAT1 is supplemented by 2MASS and APASS photometry. The URAT1catalog was derived from 2 years of operations (April 2012 to April 2014)of the USNO "redlens" astrograph with its 474 Mpx 4-shooter camera at theNaval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) in a joint effort betweenUSNO's Astrometry Department and NOFS. Due to a combination of longexposures and short exposures with objective grating, URAT1 observationscover the large 3 to 18.5 magnitude range in a single 680-750 nm bandpass.The catalog properties are presented together with a brief summary ofobservations and reductions methods. URAT1 has on average about 4-timesthe number of stars per square degree and is 4-times more accurate thanUCAC4. URAT1 will serve as the currently most accurate astrometric anddeep photometric optical reference star catalog until the delivery ofthe Gaia catalog.

  20. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop: April 5-7, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: (1) Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; (2) Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; (3) Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; (4) Identify synergies across different industries; (5) Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; (6) Understand who are the leading experts; (7) Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  1. 1st paleomagnetic investigation of Nubia Sandstone at Kalabsha, south Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, R.; Khashaba, A.; El-Hemaly, I. A.; Takla, E. M.; Abdel Aal, E.; Odah, H.

    2016-06-01

    Two profiles have been sampled from the Nubia Sandstone at Aswan, south Western Desert: the 1st profile has been taken from Abu Aggag Formation and the 2nd one was from Sabaya Formation (23.25 °N, 32.75 °E). 136 oriented cores (from 9 sites) have been sampled. Abu Aggag Formation is of Late Cretaceous (Turonian) and Sabaya Formation is of early Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian). The studied rocks are subjected to rock magnetic measurements as well as demagnetization treatment. It has been found that hematite is the main magnetic mineral in both formations. Four profile sections from Abu Aggag Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 352.7°, I = 36.6° with α95 = 5.2° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 82.8 °N and Long. = 283.1 °E. Five profile sections from Sabaya Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 348.6°, I = 33.3° with α95 = 5.8° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 78.3 °N and Long. = 280.4 °E. The obtained paleopole for the two formations lies at Lat. = 80.5 °N and Long. = 281.7 °E. The obtaind magnetic components are considered primary and the corresponding paleopole reflects the age of Nubia Sandstone when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for Egypt.

  2. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Dennis; Dippold, Vance, III; Georgiadis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a series of convergent convergent nozzles for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. These configurations included a included a reference axisymmetric nozzle as well as 15deg , 25deg , and 40deg conical nozzles. Participants were also asked also asked to examine the plume shock structure for two cases where the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a bifurcated by a solid plate. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  3. 78 FR 47698 - Notice to all Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10183, 1st American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Notice to all Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10183, 1st American State Bank of Minnesota Hancock, MN Notice is hereby given that the Federal Deposit...

  4. Laying a Foundation for Lifelong Learning: Case Studies of E-Assessment in Large 1st-Year Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about noncompletion and the quality of the 1st-year student experience have been linked to recent changes in higher education such as modularisation, increased class sizes, greater diversity in the student intake and reduced resources. Improving formative assessment and feedback processes is seen as one way of addressing academic failure,…

  5. 78 FR 7781 - Filing Dates for the South Carolina Special Elections in the 1st Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the South Carolina Special Elections in the 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special elections. SUMMARY: South Carolina...

  6. Bills to Increase Employment Opportunities through the Youth Conservation Corps and Other Means, 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This packet contains nine Senate bills and eight House bills from the 95th Congress, 1st session, all dealing with various means of increasing employment opportunities. Most of the bills deal with the creation of new jobs or with programs for job training, counseling, or placement. Seven of the bills constitute amendments to the Youth Conservation…

  7. Jordanian Kindergarten and 1st-Grade Teachers' Beliefs about Child-Based Dimensions of School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayez, Merfat; Ahmad, Jamal Fathi; Oliemat, Enass

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs of Jordanian kindergarten and 1st-grade teachers regarding six child-based dimensions of school readiness: academic knowledge, basic thinking skills, socioemotional maturity, physical well-being and motor development, self-discipline, and communication skills. Questionnaires were used to collect…

  8. Maternal Sleep-Related Cognitions and Infant Sleep: A Longitudinal Study from Pregnancy through the 1st Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Infant sleep is a major source of concern for many parents. The aims of this longitudinal study were to assess: (a) the development of sleep patterns among infants, (b) the development of maternal cognitions regarding infant sleep, and (c) the relations between these domains during the 1st year of life. Eighty-five mothers were recruited during…

  9. Addressing the Effects of Reciprocal Teaching on the Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary of 1st-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Eliana; Osana, Helena P.; Venkatesh, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Adapted Reciprocal Teaching (ART) on the receptive and expressive flight-word vocabulary of 1st-grade students. During ART, classroom interactions produced narrative contexts within which students assumed responsibility for applying new flight words in personally meaningful ways. Students in the control group…

  10. Assessing the Significance of Global and Local Correlations under Spatial Autocorrelation; a Nonparametric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Rahul; McInturff, Alex; McCauley, Douglas J.; Hastie, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Summary We propose a method to test the correlation of two random fields when they are both spatially auto-correlated. In this scenario, the assumption of independence for the pair of observations in the standard test does not hold, and as a result we reject in many cases where there is no effect (the precision of the null distribution is overestimated). Our method recovers the null distribution taking into account the autocorrelation. It uses Monte-Carlo methods, and focuses on permuting, and then smoothing and scaling one of the variables to destroy the correlation with the other, while maintaining at the same time the initial autocorrelation. With this simulation model, any test based on the independence of two (or more) random fields can be constructed. This research was motivated by a project in biodiversity and conservation in the Biology Department at Stanford University. PMID:24571609

  11. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Chinese Inter-Provincial Industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xianjin; Liu, Yibo

    2012-01-01

    A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the tendency is more remarkable for discharge intensity. There are large differences between inter-provincial discharge amount and intensity, and with different spatial differentiation features. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that Global Moran’s I of discharge amount and intensity is on the decrease. In space, there is an evolution from an agglomeration pattern to a discretization pattern. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that the agglomeration area of industrial COD discharge amount and intensity varies greatly in space with time. Stringent environmental regulations and increased funding for environmental protections are the crucial factors to cut down industrial COD discharge amount and intensity. PMID:22829788

  12. An Autocorrelation-Based Method for Improvement of Sub-Pixel Displacement Estimation in Ultrasound Strain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungsoo; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Park, Suhyun; O'Donnell, Matthew; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2011-01-01

    In ultrasound strain and elasticity imaging, an accurate and cost-effective sub-pixel displacement estimator is required because strain/elasticity imaging quality relies on the displacement SNR, which can often be higher if more computational resources are provided. In this paper, we introduce an autocorrelation-based method to cost-effectively improve sub-pixel displacement estimation quality. To quantitatively evaluate the performance of the autocorrelation method, simulated and tissue-mimicking phantom experiments were performed. The computational cost of the autocorrelation method is also discussed. The results of our study suggest the autocorrelation method can be used for a real-time elasticity imaging system. PMID:21507761

  13. Testing Pairwise Association between Spatially Autocorrelated Variables: A New Approach Using Surrogate Lattice Data

    PubMed Central

    Deblauwe, Vincent; Kennel, Pol; Couteron, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background Independence between observations is a standard prerequisite of traditional statistical tests of association. This condition is, however, violated when autocorrelation is present within the data. In the case of variables that are regularly sampled in space (i.e. lattice data or images), such as those provided by remote-sensing or geographical databases, this problem is particularly acute. Because analytic derivation of the null probability distribution of the test statistic (e.g. Pearson's r) is not always possible when autocorrelation is present, we propose instead the use of a Monte Carlo simulation with surrogate data. Methodology/Principal Findings The null hypothesis that two observed mapped variables are the result of independent pattern generating processes is tested here by generating sets of random image data while preserving the autocorrelation function of the original images. Surrogates are generated by matching the dual-tree complex wavelet spectra (and hence the autocorrelation functions) of white noise images with the spectra of the original images. The generated images can then be used to build the probability distribution function of any statistic of association under the null hypothesis. We demonstrate the validity of a statistical test of association based on these surrogates with both actual and synthetic data and compare it with a corrected parametric test and three existing methods that generate surrogates (randomization, random rotations and shifts, and iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform). Type I error control was excellent, even with strong and long-range autocorrelation, which is not the case for alternative methods. Conclusions/Significance The wavelet-based surrogates are particularly appropriate in cases where autocorrelation appears at all scales or is direction-dependent (anisotropy). We explore the potential of the method for association tests involving a lattice of binary data and discuss its potential for

  14. Study of terahertz intensity dependence on time resolved dynamic fringes in the interferometric autocorrelation setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, M.; Chaudhary, A. K.

    2014-10-01

    Terahertz signal is generated from Low temperature gallium arsenide photoconductive dipole antennas (gap = 5μm, length = 20μm) by focusing 15 fs laser pulses and applying 12V DC across it. Terahertz intensity is detected by Pyroelectric detector (THZ1.5MB-USB). The collinear autocorrelation arrangement provides dynamic fringes which are allowed to be incident on photoconductive antennas to study the variation in terahertz intensity with respect to delay between laser pulses. Interestingly, the profile of THz intensity variation was similar to interferometric autocorrelation signal of laser pulses. The THz power attenuation with its propagation distance in atmosphere was measured.

  15. A spatial and nondegenerative autocorrelation function to reveal the inner similarity structure of irregular sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Nekka, Fahima

    2012-07-01

    When applied to signals defined on fractal sets, the classical autocorrelation function has generally been exploited through its power law properties, the main hypothesis being that the exponent involved in this power law is uniquely defined. In this paper, we show that different power laws can likely be retrieved for the same signal. This non uniqueness turns out to be associated to the uncertainty in determination of the exponent value. To avoid such degeneracy, we propose to use a generalized form of the autocorrelation function, a version of which we have previously introduced in the context of characterization of fractal sets.

  16. Suppression of image autocorrelation artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography and multiwave digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    Gelikonov, V M; Gelikonov, G V; Terpelov, D A; Shabanov, D V; Shilyagin, P A

    2012-05-31

    An improved method for suppressing image artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and multiwave digital holography, caused by the influence of coherent noise in the course of successive registration of an autocorrelation component and informative signal is reported. The method allows complete suppression of all types of coherent noises, provided that the sample of values used to record the autocorrelation component satisfies the conditions of Kotelnikov's theorem: in SD OCT - for the transverse structure of the studied medium, in multiwave digital holography - for the envelop function of the radiation source frequency tuning spectrum.

  17. DS/LPI autocorrelation detection in noise plus random-tone interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami; Polydoros, Andreas

    1990-01-01

    An analysis is presented of a frequency-noncoherent, two-lag autocorrelation statistic for the wideband detection of random binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signals in noise plus random multitone interference. It is shown that this detector is quite robust to the presence or absence of interference and its specific parameter values contrary to an energy detector. The rule assumes knowledge of the data rate and the active scenario under H0. The purpose of the paper is to promote the real-time autocorrelation domain and its samples (lags) as a viable approach for detecting random signals in dense environments.

  18. PREFACE: 1st Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science 2013 (LPBMS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi

    2014-04-01

    From 29-31 August 2013, the 1st International Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science, LPBMS 2013, took place in the Tsukuba International Congress Center in the city of Tsukuba, Japan. The conference was a continuation of the international series Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS), which started in 1994. The last one, SRMS-7, was held in Oxford UK 11-14 July 2010, where the International Advisory Committee (IAC) recommended the conference be enlarged to incorporate Materials Research from Neutron, Muon, and Slow Positron Sources, as well as the science emerging from Synchrotron Light Sources. The conference brought together contributions from academics and industrial researchers with a diverse background and experience from the physics, chemistry and engineering communities. The topics covered in the LPBMS2013 include strongly correlated electron systems, magnetism and magnetic materials, soft matter, interface and surface defects, catalysts, biomaterials, and ceramics. In the 3-day scientific program, the conference consisted of 9 plenary talks, 33 invited talks, 20 oral presentations, and 126 poster presentations. We are pleased to publish the proceedings of the LPBMS2013 in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This volume contains 58 papers representing the work that was presented and discussed at the conference. We hope that this volume will promote further development of this interdisciplinary materials research emerging from synchrotron light, neutron, muon, and slow positron sciences. Finally, we would like to thank the International Advisory Committee (Chair: Professor G N Greaves), sponsors, all the participants and contributors for making possible this international meeting of researchers. Reiji Kumai & Youichi Murakami Conference photograph Details of the program and organizing committees are available in the pdf

  19. Foreword to Selected presentations from the 1st European Hip Sport Meeting.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Dante; Ribas, Manuel

    2016-05-14

    Recent years have witnessed a growing number of people practising sports both at professional and amateur level. This trend led to a progressive rise in the incidence and prevalence of acute and chronic hip damage. The treatment of hip disease in subjects practising sports is a major challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon. The evaluation of patients, in particular those of young age with high functional demands, is inevitably complex and should be performed with a multidisciplinary approach; from a surgical point of view, it is essential to carefully assess whether the indication is towards conservative surgery or hip replacement surgery. The advent of arthroscopic surgery in recent years has allowed us to improve our knowledge of hip joint diseases, such as femoroacetabular impingement that is typical of sports and overuse activity. A correct and early diagnosis of the disease can direct the patient promptly to a conservative surgical treatment that could reduce the progression of degenerative pathology. However, when the joint is permanently damaged, the only reliable solution remains prosthetic surgery, leading to a series of issues that the orthopaedic surgeon should be able to master, leading to a thoughtful decision on, for example, which implant to use, which biomaterials, which surgical approach or which sport to practise after surgery. This supplement contains selected contributions stemming from the work performed by internationally recognised experts in the field and presented during the 1st European Hip Sport Meeting held in Bologna on May 19th, 20th, 2016 that we had the honour to co-chair. We hope that these contributions will help the orthopaedic surgeon, the sports physician and physiotherapist in their day-to-day practice, and will help in fulfilling our ultimate aim to improve the knowledge of the hip pathology related to sports and overuse activities. PMID:27174057

  20. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  1. Computational Simulations of Convergent Nozzles for the AIAA 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance F., III

    2014-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were completed for a series of convergent nozzles in participation of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The simulations were performed using the Wind-US flow solver. Discharge and thrust coefficients were computed for four axisymmetric nozzles with nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 1.4 to 7.0. The computed discharge coefficients showed excellent agreement with available experimental data; the computed thrust coefficients captured trends observed in the experimental data, but over-predicted the thrust coefficient by 0.25 to 1.0 percent. Sonic lines were computed for cases with NPR >= 2.0 and agreed well with experimental data for NPR >= 2.5. Simulations were also performed for a 25 deg. conic nozzle bifurcated by a flat plate at NPR = 4.0. The jet plume shock structure was compared with and without the splitter plate to the experimental data. The Wind-US simulations predicted the shock structure well, though lack of grid resolution in the plume reduced the sharpness of the shock waves. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations and Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) were performed at NPR = 1.6 for the 25 deg conic nozzle with splitter plate. The simulations predicted vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the splitter plate. However, the vortices of URANS and DES solutions appeared to dissipate earlier than observed experimentally. It is believed that a lack of grid resolution in the region of the vortex shedding may have caused the vortices to break down too soon

  2. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding

    PubMed Central

    Songhurst, Anna; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Few universal trends in spatial patterns of wildlife crop-raiding have been found. Variations in wildlife ecology and movements, and human spatial use have been identified as causes of this apparent unpredictability. However, varying spatial patterns of spatial autocorrelation (SA) in human–wildlife conflict (HWC) data could also contribute. We explicitly explore the effects of SA on wildlife crop-raiding data in order to facilitate the design of future HWC studies. We conducted a comparative survey of raided and nonraided fields to determine key drivers of crop-raiding. Data were subsampled at different spatial scales to select independent raiding data points. The model derived from all data was fitted to subsample data sets. Model parameters from these models were compared to determine the effect of SA. Most methods used to account for SA in data attempt to correct for the change in P-values; yet, by subsampling data at broader spatial scales, we identified changes in regression estimates. We consequently advocate reporting both model parameters across a range of spatial scales to help biological interpretation. Patterns of SA vary spatially in our crop-raiding data. Spatial distribution of fields should therefore be considered when choosing the spatial scale for analyses of HWC studies. Robust key drivers of elephant crop-raiding included raiding history of a field and distance of field to a main elephant pathway. Understanding spatial patterns and determining reliable socio-ecological drivers of wildlife crop-raiding is paramount for designing mitigation and land-use planning strategies to reduce HWC. Spatial patterns of HWC are complex, determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale; therefore, studies need to be designed with an understanding of the effects of SA. Our methods are accessible to a variety of practitioners to assess the effects of SA, thereby improving the reliability of conservation management actions. PMID:25035800

  3. New Approaches for Calculating Moran’s Index of Spatial Autocorrelation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation plays an important role in geographical analysis; however, there is still room for improvement of this method. The formula for Moran’s index is complicated, and several basic problems remain to be solved. Therefore, I will reconstruct its mathematical framework using mathematical derivation based on linear algebra and present four simple approaches to calculating Moran’s index. Moran’s scatterplot will be ameliorated, and new test methods will be proposed. The relationship between the global Moran’s index and Geary’s coefficient will be discussed from two different vantage points: spatial population and spatial sample. The sphere of applications for both Moran’s index and Geary’s coefficient will be clarified and defined. One of theoretical findings is that Moran’s index is a characteristic parameter of spatial weight matrices, so the selection of weight functions is very significant for autocorrelation analysis of geographical systems. A case study of 29 Chinese cities in 2000 will be employed to validate the innovatory models and methods. This work is a methodological study, which will simplify the process of autocorrelation analysis. The results of this study will lay the foundation for the scaling analysis of spatial autocorrelation. PMID:23874592

  4. Temporal autocorrelation functions for movement rates from global positioning system radiotelemetry data

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Mark S.; Pitt, Justin; Northrup, Joseph M.; Morehouse, Andrea T.; Knopff, Kyle H.; Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B.

    2010-01-01

    Autocorrelation has been viewed as a problem in telemetry studies because sequential observations are not independent in time or space, therefore violating assumptions for statistical inference. Yet nearly all ecological and behavioural data are autocorrelated in both space and time. We argue that there is much to learn about the structure of ecological and behavioural data from patterns of autocorrelation. Such patterns include periodicity in movement and patchiness in spatial data, which can be characterized by an autocorrelogram, semivariogram or spectrum. We illustrate the utility of temporal autocorrelation functions (ACFs) for analysing step-length data from GPS telemetry of wolves (Canis lupus), cougars (Puma concolor), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and elk (Cervus elaphus) in western Alberta. ACFs often differ by season, reflecting differences in foraging behaviour. In wilderness landscapes, step-length ACFs for predators decay slowly to apparently random patterns, but sometimes display strong daily rhythms in areas of human disturbance. In contrast, step lengths of elk are consistently periodic, reflecting crepuscular activity. PMID:20566498

  5. Multi-scale autocorrelation via morphological wavelet slices for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Liang, Ming; Zhang, Yi; Hou, Shumin

    2012-08-01

    Fault features of rolling element bearings can be reflected by geometrical structures of the bearing vibration signals. These symptoms, however, often spread over various morphological scales without a known pattern. For this reason, we propose a multi-scale autocorrelation via morphological wavelet slices (MAMWS) approach to detect bearing fault signatures. The vibration measurement of a bearing is decomposed using morphological stationary wavelet with different resolutions of structuring elements. The extracted temporal components are then transformed to form a frequency-domain view of morphological slices by the Fourier transform. Although this three-dimensional representation is more intuitive in terms of fault diagnosis, the existence of the noise may reduce its readability. Hence the autocorrelation function is exploited to produce a multi-scale autocorrelation spectrogram from which the maximal autocorrelation values of all frequencies are aggregated into an ichnographical spectral representation. Accordingly the fault signature is highlighted for easy diagnosis of bearing faults. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by both the simulation and experimental signal analyses.

  6. Negligible influence of spatial autocorrelation in the assessment of fire effects in a mixed conifer forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Schwilk, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important feature of many forest ecosystems, although the quantification of its effects is compromised by the large scale at which fire occurs and its inherent unpredictability. A recurring problem is the use of subsamples collected within individual burns, potentially resulting in spatially autocorrelated data. Using subsamples from six different fires (and three unburned control areas) we show little evidence for strong spatial autocorrelation either before or after burning for eight measures of forest conditions (both fuels and vegetation). Additionally, including a term for spatially autocorrelated errors provided little improvement for simple linear models contrasting the effects of early versus late season burning. While the effects of spatial autocorrelation should always be examined, it may not always greatly influence assessments of fire effects. If high patch scale variability is common in Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests, even following more than a century of fire exclusion, treatments designed to encourage further heterogeneity in forest conditions prior to the reintroduction of fire will likely be unnecessary.

  7. Genetic neighbourhood of clone structures in eelgrass meadows quantified by spatial autocorrelation of microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Hämmerli, A; Reusch, T B H

    2003-11-01

    Limited dispersal distances in plant populations frequently cause local genetic structure, which can be quantified by spatial autocorrelation. In clonal plants, three levels of spatial organization can contribute to positive autocorrelation; namely, the neighbourhood of (a) ramets, (b) clone fragments and (c) entire clones. Here we use data from an exhaustive sampling scheme on a clonal plant to measure the contribution of the neighbourhoods of each distinct clonal structure to total spatial autocorrelation. Four plots (256 grid points each) within dense meadows of the marine clonal plant Zostera marina (eelgrass) were sampled for clone structure with nine microsatellite markers ( approximately 80 alleles). We found significant coancestry (f(ij)), at all three levels of spatial organization, even when not allowing for joins between samples of identical genets. In addition, absolute values of f(ij) and the maximum distance with significant positive f(ij) decreased with the progressive exclusion of joins between alike genotypes. The neighbourhood of this clonal plant thus consists of three levels of organization, which are reflected in different kinship structures. Each of these kinship structures may affect the level of biparental inbreeding and the physical distance between flowering shoots and their outcrossing neighbourhood. These results also emphasize the notion that spatial autocorrelation crucially depends on the scale and intensity of sampling.

  8. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research 2011 (ICMER2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Rosli

    2012-09-01

    The year 2010 represented a significant milestone in the history of the Mechanical Engineering community with the organization of the first and second national level conferences (National Conference in Mechanical Engineering for Research, 1st and 2nd NCMER) at Universiti Malaysia Pahang on 26-27 May and 3-4 December 2010. The conferences attracted a large number of delegates from different premier academic and research institutions in the country to participate and share their research experiences at the conference. The International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2011) followed on from the first and second conferences due to good support from researchers. The ICMER 2011 is a good platform for researchers and postgraduate students to present their latest finding in research. The conference covers a wide range of topics including the internal combustion engine, machining processes, heat and mass transfer, fuel, biomechanical analysis, aerodynamic analysis, thermal comfort, computational techniques, design and simulation, automotive transmission, optimization techniques, hybrid electric vehicles, engine vibration, heat exchangers, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, green energy, vehicle dynamics renewable energy, combustion, design, product development, advanced experimentation techniques, to name but a few. The international conference has helped to bridge the gap between researchers working at different institutions and in different countries to share their knowledge and has helped to motivate young scientists with their research. This has also given some clear direction for further research from the deliberations of the conference. Several people have contributed in different ways to the success of the conference. We thank the keynote speakers and all authors of the contributed papers, for the cooperation rendered to us in the publication of the CD conference proceedings. In particular, we would like to place on record our

  9. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuja Syed, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    The 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies (ICSICCST-2013), took place in Karachi, Pakistan, from 24-26 June 2013. It was organized by Indus University, Karachi, in collaboration with HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi. More than 80 abstracts were submitted to the conference and were double blind-reviewed by an international scientific committee. The topics of the Conference were: Video, Image & Voice Sensing Sensing for Industry, Environment, and Health Automation and Controls Laser Sensors and Systems Displays for Innovative Applications Emerging Technologies Unmanned, Robotic, and Layered Systems Sensing for Defense, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement The title of the conference, 'Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies' is very apt in capturing the main issues facing the industry of Pakistan and the world. We believe the sensing industry, particularly in Pakistan, is currently at a critical juncture of its development. The future of the industry will depend on how the industry players choose to respond to the challenge of global competition and opportunities arising from strong growth in the Asian region for which we are pleased to note that the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues with an international perspective. This will certainly assist industry players to make informed decisions in shaping the future of the industry. The conference gathered qualified researchers from developed countries like USA, UK, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, China, South Korea and Malaysia etc whose expertise resulting from the research can be drawn upon to build an exploitable area of new technology that has potential Defense, Homeland Security, and Military applicability. More than 250 researchers/students attended the event and made the event great success as the turnout was 100%. An exceptional line-up of speakers spoke at the occasion. We want

  10. Effects of the April 1st, 2014 GLONASS Outage on GNSS Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Romero, I.; D'Anastasio, E.

    2014-12-01

    The use of multi-constellation GNSS receivers has been assumed as a way to increase system integrity both by increased coverage during normal operations and failover redundancy in the event of a constellation failure. At approximately 21:00 UTC on April 1st the entire GLONASS constellation was disrupted as illegal ephemeris uploaded to each satellite took effect simultaneously. The outage continued for more than 10 hours. While ephemeris were incorrect, pseudoranges were correctly broadcast on both L1 and L2 and carrier phases were not affected; in the best case, GNSS receivers could be expected to continue to track all signals including GLONASS and at the worst to continue to track GPS and other constellations. It became clear to operators of the GeoNet network in New Zealand that the majority of their 79 GLONASS-enabled receivers experienced total tracking failures. Further detailed analysis of data from these and 315 additional GLONASS-enabled stations worldwide showed that receiver tracking behavior was affected for most receiver brands and models, both for GLONASS and GPS. Findings regarding the impacts of the GLONASS outage on receiver behavior will be highlighted. We use data recorded by GLONASS enabled global sites for the days during, preceding and following the outage to evaluate the impact of the outage on tracking and positioning performance. We observe that for some receiver types the onboard receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) failed to ignore the incorrect messages, resulting in degraded GLONASS and GPS tracking and in some cases complete tracking failures and significant data loss. In addition, many of the receivers with clock steering enabled showed outliers in their receiver clock bias estimates that also coincided with the outage. Our results show in detail how different brands, configurations, and distributions of receivers were affected to varying extents, but no common factors are apparent. This event shows that many manufacturers

  11. Autocorrelation and regularization in digital images. II - Simple image models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jupp, David L. B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Woodcock, Curtis E.

    1989-01-01

    The variogram function used in geostatistical analysis is a useful statistic in the analysis of remotely sensed images. Using the results derived by Jupp et al. (1988), the basic second-order, or covariance, properties of scenes modeled by simple disks of varying size and spacing after imaging into disk-shaped pixels are analyzed to explore the relationship betwee image variograms and discrete object scene structure. The models provide insight into the nature of real images of the earth's surface and the tools for a complete analysis of the more complex case of three-dimensional illuminated discrete-object images.

  12. Global autocorrelation scales of the partial pressure of oceanic CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Adamec, David; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, Stewart C.

    2005-08-01

    A global database of approximately 1.7 million observations of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters (pCO2) collected between 1970 and 2003 is used to estimate its spatial autocorrelation structure. The patterns of the lag distance where the autocorrelation exceeds 0.8 is similar to patterns in the spatial distribution of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation indicating that ocean circulation processes play a significant role in determining the spatial variability of pCO2. Separate calculations for times when the Sun is north and south of the equator revealed no obvious seasonal dependence of the spatial autocorrelation scales. The pCO2 measurements at Ocean Weather Station (OWS) "P" in the eastern subarctic Pacific (50°N, 145°W) is the only fixed location where an uninterrupted time series of sufficient length exists to calculate a meaningful temporal autocorrelation function for lags greater than a few days. The estimated temporal autocorrelation function at OWS "P" is highly variable. A spectral analysis of the longest four pCO2 time series indicates a high level of variability occurring over periods from the atmospheric synoptic to the maximum length of the time series, in this case 42 days. It is likely that a relative peak in variability with a period of 3-6 days is related to atmospheric synoptic period variability and ocean mixing events due to wind stirring. However, the short length of available time series makes identifying temporal relationships between pCO2 and atmospheric or ocean processes problematic.

  13. Use of temporal patterns in vapor pressure deficit to explain spatial autocorrelation dynamics in tree transpiration.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Jonathan D; Ewers, Brent E; Mackay, D Scott

    2008-04-01

    To quantify the relationship between temporal and spatial variation in tree transpiration, we measured sap flow in 129 trees with constant-heat sap flow sensors in a subalpine forest in southern Wyoming, USA. The forest stand was located along a soil water gradient from a stream side to near the top of a ridge. The stand was dominated by Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. with Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm and Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. present near the stream and scattered individuals of Populus tremuloides Michx. throughout the stand. We used a cyclic sampling design that maximized spatial information with a minimum number of samples for semivariogram analyses. All species exhibited previously established responses to environmental variables in which the dominant driver was a saturating response to vapor pressure deficit (D). This response to D is predictable from tree hydraulic theory in which stomatal conductance declines as D increases to prevent excessive cavitation. The degree to which stomatal conductance declines with D is dependent on both species and individual tree physiology and increases the variability in transpiration as D increases. We quantified this variability spatially by calculating the spatial autocorrelation within 0.2-kPa D bins. Across 11 bins of D, spatial autocorrelation in individual tree transpiration was inversely correlated to D and dropped from 45 to 20 m. Spatial autocorrelation was much less for transpiration per unit leaf area and not significant for transpiration per unit sapwood area suggesting that spatial autocorrelation within a particular D bin could be explained by tree size. Future research should focus on the mechanisms underlying tree size spatial variability, and the potentially broad applicability of the inverse relationship between D and spatial autocorrelation in tree transpiration.

  14. Cobble cam: Grain-size measurements of sand to boulder from digital photographs and autocorrelation analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Rubin, D.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Harney, J.N.; Draut, A.E.; Buscombe, D.

    2009-01-01

    A new application of the autocorrelation grain size analysis technique for mixed to coarse sediment settings has been investigated. Photographs of sand- to boulder-sized sediment along the Elwha River delta beach were taken from approximately 1??2 m above the ground surface, and detailed grain size measurements were made from 32 of these sites for calibration and validation. Digital photographs were found to provide accurate estimates of the long and intermediate axes of the surface sediment (r2 > 0??98), but poor estimates of the short axes (r2 = 0??68), suggesting that these short axes were naturally oriented in the vertical dimension. The autocorrelation method was successfully applied resulting in total irreducible error of 14% over a range of mean grain sizes of 1 to 200 mm. Compared with reported edge and object-detection results, it is noted that the autocorrelation method presented here has lower error and can be applied to a much broader range of mean grain sizes without altering the physical set-up of the camera (~200-fold versus ~6-fold). The approach is considerably less sensitive to lighting conditions than object-detection methods, although autocorrelation estimates do improve when measures are taken to shade sediments from direct sunlight. The effects of wet and dry conditions are also evaluated and discussed. The technique provides an estimate of grain size sorting from the easily calculated autocorrelation standard error, which is correlated with the graphical standard deviation at an r2 of 0??69. The technique is transferable to other sites when calibrated with linear corrections based on photo-based measurements, as shown by excellent grain-size analysis results (r2 = 0??97, irreducible error = 16%) from samples from the mixed grain size beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Thus, a method has been developed to measure mean grain size and sorting properties of coarse sediments. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  16. Non-isotropic noise correlation in PET data reconstructed by FBP but not by OSEM demonstrated using auto-correlation function.

    PubMed

    Razifar, Pasha; Lubberink, Mark; Schneider, Harald; Långström, Bengt; Bengtsson, Ewert; Bergström, Mats

    2005-05-13

    BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful imaging technique with the potential of obtaining functional or biochemical information by measuring distribution and kinetics of radiolabelled molecules in a biological system, both in vitro and in vivo. PET images can be used directly or after kinetic modelling to extract quantitative values of a desired physiological, biochemical or pharmacological entity. Because such images are generally noisy, it is essential to understand how noise affects the derived quantitative values. A pre-requisite for this understanding is that the properties of noise such as variance (magnitude) and texture (correlation) are known. METHODS: In this paper we explored the pattern of noise correlation in experimentally generated PET images, with emphasis on the angular dependence of correlation, using the autocorrelation function (ACF). Experimental PET data were acquired in 2D and 3D acquisition mode and reconstructed by analytical filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OSEM) methods. The 3D data was rebinned to a 2D dataset using FOurier REbinning (FORE) followed by 2D reconstruction using either FBP or OSEM. In synthetic images we compared the ACF results with those from covariance matrix. The results were illustrated as 1D profiles and also visualized as 2D ACF images. RESULTS: We found that the autocorrelation images from PET data obtained after FBP were not fully rotationally symmetric or isotropic if the object deviated from a uniform cylindrical radioactivity distribution. In contrast, similar autocorrelation images obtained after OSEM reconstruction were isotropic even when the phantom was not circular. Simulations indicated that the noise autocorrelation is non-isotropic in images created by FBP when the level of noise in projections is angularly variable. Comparison between 1D cross profiles on autocorrelation images obtained by FBP reconstruction and covariance

  17. Educational impact of a clinical anatomy workshop on 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M A; Villaseñor-Ovies, P; Harfush, L A; Navarro-Zarza, J E; Canoso, J J; Cruz-Domínguez, P; Vargas, A; Hernández-Díaz, C; Chiapas-Gasca, K; Camacho-Galindo, J; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Kalish, R A

    2016-05-01

    We aim to study the educational impact of a clinical anatomy workshop in 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows. First-year rheumatology fellows (N = 17) and a convenience sample of 1st-year orthopedic fellows (N = 14) from Mexico City in the 9th month of training participated in the study. The pre- and the post- workshop tests included the same 20 questions that had to be answered by identification or demonstration of relevant anatomical items. The questions, arranged by anatomical regions, were asked in five dynamic stations. Overall, the 31 participants showed an increase of correct answers, from a median of 6 (range 1 to 12) in the pre-workshop test, to a median of 14 (range 7 to 19) in the post-workshop test. In the pre-workshop test, the correct median answers were 7 (range 2 to 12) in the orthopedic fellows and 5 (range 1 to 10) in the rheumatology fellows (p = 0.297). Corresponding scores in the post-workshop were 15 (range 10 to 19) and 12 (range 7 to 18) (p = 0.026) showing a significant difference favoring the orthopedic group. Our clinical anatomy workshop was efficacious, in the short term, as a teaching instrument for 1st-year orthopedic and rheumatology fellows. The post-workshop scores, although significantly improved in both groups, particularly in the orthopedic fellows, were still suboptimal. Further refinements of our workshop might yield better results.

  18. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects on the Development of Immune Responses in the 1st Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Nicolae, Dan; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Roberg, Kathy; Evans, Michael; Mirel, Daniel B.; Steiner, Lori; Walker, Karen; Shult, Peter; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Gern, James E.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Ober, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease that results from both genetic and environmental risk factors. Children attending day care in the 1st year of life have lower risks for developing asthma, although the mechanism for this “day care” effect is largely unknown. We investigated the interactions between day care exposure in the 1st 6 mo of life and genotypes for 72 polymorphisms at 45 candidate loci and their effects on cytokine response profiles and on the development of atopic phenotypes in the 1st year of life in the Childhood Onset of Asthma (COAST) cohort of children. Six interactions (at four polymorphisms in three loci) with “day care” that had an effect on early-life immune phenotypes were significant at P<.001. The estimated false-discovery rate was 33%, indicating that an estimated four P values correspond to true associations. Moreover, the “day care” effect at some loci was accounted for by the increased number of viral infections among COAST children attending day care, whereas interactions at other loci were independent of the number of viral infections, indicating the presence of additional risk factors associated with day care environment. This study identified significant gene-environment interactions influencing the early patterning of the immune system and the subsequent development of asthma and highlights the importance of considering environmental risk factors in genetic analyses. PMID:15726497

  19. PREFACE: PAGES 1st Young Scientists Meeting (YSM) - 'Retrospective views on our planet's future'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2010-03-01

    more recent pollution. The concept and format of the 1st PAGES YSM worked very well, and

  20. Simultaneous measurement of the root-mean-square roughness and autocorrelation length by optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dalwoo; Oh, Ki-Jang; Lim, Choong-Soo

    1998-12-01

    We developed an on-line measurement system for the simultaneous measurement of the root-mean-square roughness and autocorrelation length which are the parameters of surface roughness. The measurement is based on the scattering theory of light on the rough surface. Computer simulation shows that the measurement range depends on the wavelength of the light source, and this is verified with the experiment. We installed the measurement system at the finishing line of a cold-rolling steel work, and measured the two parameters in situ. The rms roughness and autocorrelation length are measured and transformed in the average surface roughness and then umber of peaks per inch, respectively. The measured data for both of the parameters are compared with those of stylus method, an the optical method is well coincided with the conventional stylus method.

  1. Full-field velocity imaging of red blood cells in capillaries with spatiotemporal demodulation autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyi; Zeng, Yaguang; Dong, Nannan; Liao, Riwei; Yang, Guojian

    2016-03-01

    We propose a full-field optical method for the label-free and quantitative mapping of the velocities of red blood cells (RBCs) in capillaries. It integrates spatiotemporal demodulation and an autocorrelation algorithm, and measures RBC velocity according to the ratio of RBC length to lag time. Conventionally, RBC length is assumed to be a constant and lag time is taken as a variable, while our method treats both of them as variables. We use temporal demodulation and the Butterworth spatial filter to separate RBC signal from background signal, based on which we obtain the RBC length by image segmentation and lag time by autocorrelation analysis. The RBC velocity calculated now is more accurate. The validity of our method is verified by an in vivo experiment on a mouse ear. Owing to its higher image signal-to-noise ratio, our method can be used for mapping RBC velocity in the turbid tissue case.

  2. Synchronous self-elimination of autocorrelation interference in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2005-11-01

    We have developed a new algorithm and configuration for self-eliminating the autocorrelation of the object wave in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. A self-interferogram of the object wave is acquired synchronously with the standard interferogram of the recombined object and reference waves. The former is then subtracted from the latter after Fourier transformation. The algorithm is validated by numerical simulation and by experimental measurement of a U.S. Air Force target and a feline eye.

  3. PREFACE: PAGES 1st Young Scientists Meeting (YSM) - 'Retrospective views on our planet's future'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2010-03-01

    more recent pollution. The concept and format of the 1st PAGES YSM worked very well, and created a high degree of enthusiasm and stimulation among the participants (as is demonstrated by this special issue). The 2nd YSM is therefore firmly planned to take place in 2013, back-to-back with the 4th PAGES OSM. Crucial and gratefully acknowledged contributions to the success of the YSM were made by the numerous co-sponsors (see logos below), who provided the financial basis for the YSM and supported the attendance of many early-career researchers from various parts of the world. Furthermore, we cordially thank all reviewers for shaping this proceeding issue with their insightful and helpful reviews. Conference photograph

  4. A new radial strain and strain rate estimation method using autocorrelation for carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jihui; Kim, Hoonmin; Park, Jongho; Yeo, Sunmi; Shim, Hwan; Lim, Hyungjoon; Yoo, Yangmo

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. The early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is of clinical interest since it can prevent any adverse effects of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. In this paper, a new carotid artery radial strain estimation method based on autocorrelation is presented. In the proposed method, the strain is first estimated by the autocorrelation of two complex signals from the consecutive frames. Then, the angular phase from autocorrelation is converted to strain and strain rate and they are analyzed over time. In addition, a 2D strain image over region of interest in a carotid artery can be displayed. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed radial strain estimation method, radiofrequency (RF) data of 408 frames in the carotid artery of a volunteer were acquired by a commercial ultrasound system equipped with a research package (V10, Samsung Medison, Korea) by using a L5-13IS linear array transducer. From in vivo carotid artery data, the mean strain estimate was -0.1372 while its minimum and maximum values were -2.961 and 0.909, respectively. Moreover, the overall strain estimates are highly correlated with the reconstructed M-mode trace. Similar results were obtained from the estimation of the strain rate change over time. These results indicate that the proposed carotid artery radial strain estimation method is useful for assessing the arterial wall's stiffness noninvasively without increasing the computational complexity.

  5. Spatial autocorrelation in farmland grasshopper assemblages (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in western France.

    PubMed

    Badenhausser, I; Gouat, M; Goarant, A; Cornulier, T; Bretagnolle, V

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural intensification in western Europe has caused a dramatic loss of grassland surfaces in farmlands, which have resulted in strong declines in grassland invertebrates, leading to cascade effects at higher trophic levels among consumers of invertebrates. Grasshoppers are important components of grassland invertebrate assemblages in European agricultural ecosystems, particularly as prey for bird species. Understanding how grasshopper populations are distributed in fragmented landscapes with low grassland availability is critical for both studies in biodiversity conservation and insect management. We assessed the range and strength of spatial autocorrelation for two grasshopper taxa (Gomphocerinae subfamily and Calliptamus italicus L.) across an intensive farmland in western France. Data from surveys carried out over 8 yr in 1,715 grassland fields were analyzed using geostatistics. Weak spatial patterns were observed at small spatial scales, suggesting important local effects of management practices on grasshopper densities. Spatial autocorrelation patterns for both grasshopper taxa were only detected at intermediate scales. For Gomphocerinae, the range of spatial autocorrelation varied from 802 to 2,613 m according to the year, depending both on grasshopper density and on grassland surfaces in the study site, whereas spatial patterns for the Italian locust were more variable and not related to grasshopper density or grassland surfaces. Spatial patterns in the distribution of Gomphocerinae supported our hypothesis that habitat availability was a major driver of grasshopper distribution in the landscape, and suggested it was related to density-dependent processes such as dispersal.

  6. What autocorrelation tells us about motor variability: insights from dart throwing.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Robert J; van der Meer, Yor; Veerman, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    In sports such as golf and darts it is important that one can produce ballistic movements of an object towards a goal location with as little variability as possible. A factor that influences this variability is the extent to which motor planning is updated from movement to movement based on observed errors. Previous work has shown that for reaching movements, our motor system uses the learning rate (the proportion of an error that is corrected for in the planning of the next movement) that is optimal for minimizing the endpoint variability. Here we examined whether the learning rate is hard-wired and therefore automatically optimal, or whether it is optimized through experience. We compared the performance of experienced dart players and beginners in a dart task. A hallmark of the optimal learning rate is that the lag-1 autocorrelation of movement endpoints is zero. We found that the lag-1 autocorrelation of experienced dart players was near zero, implying a near-optimal learning rate, whereas it was negative for beginners, suggesting a larger than optimal learning rate. We conclude that learning rates for trial-by-trial motor learning are optimized through experience. This study also highlights the usefulness of the lag-1 autocorrelation as an index of performance in studying motor-skill learning. PMID:23691199

  7. Two Point Autocorrelation Analysis of Auger Highest Energy Events Backtracked in Galactic Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Yevgeniy

    2009-10-01

    Searches for sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays traditionally have included looking for clusters of event arrival directions on the sky. The smallest cluster is a pair of events falling within some angular window. In contrast to the standard two point (2-pt) autocorrelation analysis, this work takes into account influence of the galactic magnetic field (GMF). The highest energy events, those above 50EeV, collected by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory between January 1, 2004 and May 31, 2009 are used in the analysis. Having assumed protons as primaries, events are backtracked through BSS/S, BSS/A, ASS/S and ASS/A versions of Harari-Mollerach-Roulet (HMR) model of the GMF. For each version of the model, a 2-pt autocorrelation analysis is applied to the backtracked events and to 105 isotropic Monte Carlo realizations weighted by the Auger exposure. Scans in energy, separation angular window and different model parameters reveal clustering at different angular scales. Small angle clustering at 2-3 deg is particularly interesting and it is compared between different field scenarios. The strength of the autocorrelation signal at those angular scales differs between BSS and ASS versions of the HMR model. The BSS versions of the model tend to defocus protons as they arrive to Earth whereas for the ASS, in contrary, it is more likely to focus them.

  8. Sparse dictionary learning for fMRI analysis using autocorrelation maximization.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Muhammad Usman; Shah, Adnan; Seghouane, Abd-Krim

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of temporal autocorrelations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on sparse dictionary learning (SDL) is addressed. For sparse general linear model (sGLM), the fMRI time-series is modeled as a linear mixture of several signals such as neural dynamics, structured noise, random noise and unexplained signal variations on the basis of spatial sparseness. These signals are considered as underlying sources and SDL is used to estimate them. However, the sparse GLM model does not take into account the autocorrelations in fMRI data. To address this shortcoming, a new model is proposed to incorporate the prior knowledge about lag-1 autocorrelation into dictionary update stage. This helps improve the sensitivity and specificity of the fMRI data during statistical analysis. Using a simulation study, the effect of the proposed dictionary update on sGLM is compared to conventional sGLM by utilizing various detrending techniques. Furthermore, the proposed update is validated in an sGLM framework for real fMRI datasets, which shows its better capability to estimate neural dynamics in presence of spatiotemporal dependencies.

  9. Spatial autocorrelation of radiation measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment: Scene inhomogeneity and reciprocity violation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Roger

    1994-01-01

    The spatial autocorrelation functions of broad-band longwave and shortwave radiances measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are analyzed as a function of view angle in an investigation of the general effects of scene inhomogeneity on radiation. For nadir views, the correlation distance of the autocorrelation function is about 900 km for longwave radiance and about 500 km for shortwave radiance, consistent with higher degrees of freedom in shortwave reflection. Both functions rise monotonically with view angle, but there is a substantial difference in the relative angular dependence of the shortwave and longwave functions, especially for view angles less than 50 deg. In this range, the increase with angle of the longwave functions is found to depend only on the expansion of pixel area with angle, whereas the shortwave functions show an additional dependence on angle that is attributed to the occlusion of inhomogeneities by cloud height variations. Beyond a view angle of about 50 deg, both longwave and shortwave functions appear to be affected by cloud sides. The shortwave autocorrelation functions do not satisfy the principle of directional reciprocity, thereby proving that the average scene is horizontally inhomogeneous over the scale of an ERBE pixel (1500 sq km). Coarse stratification of the measurements by cloud amount, however, indicates that the average cloud-free scene does satisfy directional reciprocity on this scale.

  10. What Autocorrelation Tells Us about Motor Variability: Insights from Dart Throwing

    PubMed Central

    van Beers, Robert J.; van der Meer, Yor; Veerman, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In sports such as golf and darts it is important that one can produce ballistic movements of an object towards a goal location with as little variability as possible. A factor that influences this variability is the extent to which motor planning is updated from movement to movement based on observed errors. Previous work has shown that for reaching movements, our motor system uses the learning rate (the proportion of an error that is corrected for in the planning of the next movement) that is optimal for minimizing the endpoint variability. Here we examined whether the learning rate is hard-wired and therefore automatically optimal, or whether it is optimized through experience. We compared the performance of experienced dart players and beginners in a dart task. A hallmark of the optimal learning rate is that the lag-1 autocorrelation of movement endpoints is zero. We found that the lag-1 autocorrelation of experienced dart players was near zero, implying a near-optimal learning rate, whereas it was negative for beginners, suggesting a larger than optimal learning rate. We conclude that learning rates for trial-by-trial motor learning are optimized through experience. This study also highlights the usefulness of the lag-1 autocorrelation as an index of performance in studying motor-skill learning. PMID:23691199

  11. [Application of spatial autocorrelation analysis to the COD, SO2 and TSP emission in Jiangsu province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Xian-Jin; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Zhu, De-Ming; Lai, Li; Zhong, Tai-Yang

    2009-06-15

    Spatial autocorrelation is an effective tool of spatial statistics, which is used to disclose the spatial structure of regional disparity. There are two different scales to measure regional spatial dependence: global spatial autocorrelation and local spatial autocorrelation. Based on environmental data of 13 cities in Jiangsu province from 1990 to 2006, the regional disparity of COD, SO2 and TSP emission was discussed by using spatial autocorrelation analysis methods. The results show that total emission of COD and TSP decreased respectively from 596 353 t and 1 101 404 t in 1990 to 291 762 t and 704734 t in 2006, while total emission of SO2 kept steady. In 2006, Global Moran's I of COD, SO2 and TSP emission was 0.465 7, 0.214 2 and 0.510 1 respectively. It is identified that positive spatial autocorrelation is presented and spatial aggregation pattern of COD, SO2 and TSP emission are appeared. However, spatial aggregation pattern of COD emission appears earlier than that of SO2 and TSP, and spatial aggregation degree of COD is also higher than that of SO2 and TSP. There are different spatial patterns between southern and northern Jiangsu. In southern Jiangsu, Global Moran's I of COD, SO2 and TSP emission had increased to 0.499 7, 0.320 2 and 0.298 3 up to 2006, and spatial aggregation pattern appeared remarkably. In northern Jiangsu, most of the Global Moran's I were less than -0.2, and spatial aggregation pattern disappeared accordingly. High cluster region of COD emission is Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou, and high cluster region of SO2 emission is Suzhou and Wuxi. However, spatial pattern of TSP emission does not change much and five cities of southern Jiangsu (Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Zhenjiang, Nanjing) are still the high cluster region. The last, the research provides an important cognition to regional environment disparity and macro-environmental strategy, and a significant means to harmonious society and eco-province construction in Jiangsu province.

  12. Improving the assessment of ICESat water altimetry accuracy accounting for autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Hani; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Lemarquand, Nicolas

    2011-11-01

    Given that water resources are scarce and are strained by competing demands, it has become crucial to develop and improve techniques to observe the temporal and spatial variations in the inland water volume. Due to the lack of data and the heterogeneity of water level stations, remote sensing, and especially altimetry from space, appear as complementary techniques for water level monitoring. In addition to spatial resolution and sampling rates in space or time, one of the most relevant criteria for satellite altimetry on inland water is the accuracy of the elevation data. Here, the accuracy of ICESat LIDAR altimetry product is assessed over the Great Lakes in North America. The accuracy assessment method used in this paper emphasizes on autocorrelation in high temporal frequency ICESat measurements. It also considers uncertainties resulting from both in situ lake level reference data. A probabilistic upscaling process was developed. This process is based on several successive ICESat shots averaged in a spatial transect accounting for autocorrelation between successive shots. The method also applies pre-processing of the ICESat data with saturation correction of ICESat waveforms, spatial filtering to avoid measurement disturbance from the land-water transition effects on waveform saturation and data selection to avoid trends in water elevations across space. Initially this paper analyzes 237 collected ICESat transects, consistent with the available hydrometric ground stations for four of the Great Lakes. By adapting a geostatistical framework, a high frequency autocorrelation between successive shot elevation values was observed and then modeled for 45% of the 237 transects. The modeled autocorrelation was therefore used to estimate water elevations at the transect scale and the resulting uncertainty for the 117 transects without trend. This uncertainty was 8 times greater than the usual computed uncertainty, when no temporal correlation is taken into account. This

  13. Using PPI network autocorrelation in hierarchical multi-label classification trees for gene function prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ontologies and catalogs of gene functions, such as the Gene Ontology (GO) and MIPS-FUN, assume that functional classes are organized hierarchically, that is, general functions include more specific ones. This has recently motivated the development of several machine learning algorithms for gene function prediction that leverages on this hierarchical organization where instances may belong to multiple classes. In addition, it is possible to exploit relationships among examples, since it is plausible that related genes tend to share functional annotations. Although these relationships have been identified and extensively studied in the area of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, they have not received much attention in hierarchical and multi-class gene function prediction. Relations between genes introduce autocorrelation in functional annotations and violate the assumption that instances are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.), which underlines most machine learning algorithms. Although the explicit consideration of these relations brings additional complexity to the learning process, we expect substantial benefits in predictive accuracy of learned classifiers. Results This article demonstrates the benefits (in terms of predictive accuracy) of considering autocorrelation in multi-class gene function prediction. We develop a tree-based algorithm for considering network autocorrelation in the setting of Hierarchical Multi-label Classification (HMC). We empirically evaluate the proposed algorithm, called NHMC (Network Hierarchical Multi-label Classification), on 12 yeast datasets using each of the MIPS-FUN and GO annotation schemes and exploiting 2 different PPI networks. The results clearly show that taking autocorrelation into account improves the predictive performance of the learned models for predicting gene function. Conclusions Our newly developed method for HMC takes into account network information in the learning phase: When

  14. Calling depths of baleen whales from single sensor data: development of an autocorrelation method using multipath localization.

    PubMed

    Valtierra, Robert D; Glynn Holt, R; Cholewiak, Danielle; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2013-09-01

    Multipath localization techniques have not previously been applied to baleen whale vocalizations due to difficulties in application to tonal vocalizations. Here it is shown that an autocorrelation method coupled with the direct reflected time difference of arrival localization technique can successfully resolve location information. A derivation was made to model the autocorrelation of a direct signal and its overlapping reflections to illustrate that an autocorrelation may be used to extract reflection information from longer duration signals containing a frequency sweep, such as some calls produced by baleen whales. An analysis was performed to characterize the difference in behavior of the autocorrelation when applied to call types with varying parameters (sweep rate, call duration). The method's feasibility was tested using data from playback transmissions to localize an acoustic transducer at a known depth and location. The method was then used to estimate the depth and range of a single North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) from two separate experiments.

  15. BMI differences in 1st and 2nd generation immigrants of Asian and European origin to Australia.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Morgan, Lawrie

    2011-01-01

    We estimate assimilation of immigrants' body mass index (BMI) to the host population of Australia over one generation, conducting separate analyses for immigrants from 7 regions of Europe and Asia. We use quantile regressions to allow for differing impact of generational status across 19 quantiles of BMI from under-weight to morbidly obese individuals. We find that 1st generation South European immigrants have higher, and South and East Asian immigrants have lower BMI than Australians, but have assimilated to the BMI of their hosts in the 2nd generation. There are no or only small BMI differences between Australians and 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from East Europe, North-West Europe, Middle East and Pacific regions. We conclude that both upward and downward assimilation in some immigrant groups is most likely caused by factors which can change over one generation (such as acculturation), and not factors which would take longer to change (such as genetics). Our results suggest that public health policies targeting the lifestyles of well educated Asian immigrants may be effective in preventing BMI increase in this subgroup.

  16. Attitudes towards General Practice: a comparative cross-sectional survey of 1st and 5th year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kruschinski, Carsten; Wiese, Birgitt; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive attitudes towards General Practice can be understood as a prerequisite for becoming a General Practitioner (GP) and for collaboration with GPs later on. This study aimed to assess attitudes of medical students at the beginning and the end of medical school. Methods: A total of 160 1st year students at Hannover Medical School were surveyed. Their attitudes were compared to those of 287 5th year students. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate influences of year of study and gender. Results: Year of study and gender both were associated with the attitudes towards General Practice. The interest in General Practice and patient-orientation (communication, care of older patients with chronic diseases) was higher in 1st year students compared to more advanced students. Female students valued such requirements more than male students, the differences in attitudes between the years of study being more pronounced in male students. Conclusion: Despite some limitations caused by the cross-sectional design, the attitudes towards General Practice competencies changed to their disadvantage during medical school. This suggests a formative influence of the strategies used in medical education. Educational strategies, however, could be used to bring about a change of attitudes in the other direction. PMID:23255966

  17. A Predictive Risk Model for A(H7N9) Human Infections Based on Spatial-Temporal Autocorrelation and Risk Factors: China, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-Li; Yang, Yu-Lian

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution, spatial autocorrelation, temporal cluster, spatial-temporal autocorrelation and probable risk factors of H7N9 outbreaks in humans from March 2013 to December 2014 in China. The results showed that the epidemic spread with significant spatial-temporal autocorrelation. In order to describe the spatial-temporal autocorrelation of H7N9, an improved model was developed by introducing a spatial-temporal factor in this paper. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to investigate the risk factors associated with their distribution, and nine risk factors were significantly associated with the occurrence of A(H7N9) human infections: the spatial-temporal factor φ (OR = 2546669.382, p < 0.001), migration route (OR = 0.993, p < 0.01), river (OR = 0.861, p < 0.001), lake(OR = 0.992, p < 0.001), road (OR = 0.906, p < 0.001), railway (OR = 0.980, p < 0.001), temperature (OR = 1.170, p < 0.01), precipitation (OR = 0.615, p < 0.001) and relative humidity (OR = 1.337, p < 0.001). The improved model obtained a better prediction performance and a higher fitting accuracy than the traditional model: in the improved model 90.1% (91/101) of the cases during February 2014 occurred in the high risk areas (the predictive risk > 0.70) of the predictive risk map, whereas 44.6% (45/101) of which overlaid on the high risk areas (the predictive risk > 0.70) for the traditional model, and the fitting accuracy of the improved model was 91.6% which was superior to the traditional model (86.1%). The predictive risk map generated based on the improved model revealed that the east and southeast of China were the high risk areas of A(H7N9) human infections in February 2014. These results provided baseline data for the control and prevention of future human infections. PMID:26633446

  18. A Predictive Risk Model for A(H7N9) Human Infections Based on Spatial-Temporal Autocorrelation and Risk Factors: China, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-Li; Yang, Yu-Lian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution, spatial autocorrelation, temporal cluster, spatial-temporal autocorrelation and probable risk factors of H7N9 outbreaks in humans from March 2013 to December 2014 in China. The results showed that the epidemic spread with significant spatial-temporal autocorrelation. In order to describe the spatial-temporal autocorrelation of H7N9, an improved model was developed by introducing a spatial-temporal factor in this paper. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to investigate the risk factors associated with their distribution, and nine risk factors were significantly associated with the occurrence of A(H7N9) human infections: the spatial-temporal factor φ (OR = 2546669.382, p < 0.001), migration route (OR = 0.993, p < 0.01), river (OR = 0.861, p < 0.001), lake(OR = 0.992, p < 0.001), road (OR = 0.906, p < 0.001), railway (OR = 0.980, p < 0.001), temperature (OR = 1.170, p < 0.01), precipitation (OR = 0.615, p < 0.001) and relative humidity (OR = 1.337, p < 0.001). The improved model obtained a better prediction performance and a higher fitting accuracy than the traditional model: in the improved model 90.1% (91/101) of the cases during February 2014 occurred in the high risk areas (the predictive risk > 0.70) of the predictive risk map, whereas 44.6% (45/101) of which overlaid on the high risk areas (the predictive risk > 0.70) for the traditional model, and the fitting accuracy of the improved model was 91.6% which was superior to the traditional model (86.1%). The predictive risk map generated based on the improved model revealed that the east and southeast of China were the high risk areas of A(H7N9) human infections in February 2014. These results provided baseline data for the control and prevention of future human infections. PMID:26633446

  19. A Predictive Risk Model for A(H7N9) Human Infections Based on Spatial-Temporal Autocorrelation and Risk Factors: China, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-Li; Yang, Yu-Lian

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution, spatial autocorrelation, temporal cluster, spatial-temporal autocorrelation and probable risk factors of H7N9 outbreaks in humans from March 2013 to December 2014 in China. The results showed that the epidemic spread with significant spatial-temporal autocorrelation. In order to describe the spatial-temporal autocorrelation of H7N9, an improved model was developed by introducing a spatial-temporal factor in this paper. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to investigate the risk factors associated with their distribution, and nine risk factors were significantly associated with the occurrence of A(H7N9) human infections: the spatial-temporal factor φ (OR = 2546669.382, p < 0.001), migration route (OR = 0.993, p < 0.01), river (OR = 0.861, p < 0.001), lake(OR = 0.992, p < 0.001), road (OR = 0.906, p < 0.001), railway (OR = 0.980, p < 0.001), temperature (OR = 1.170, p < 0.01), precipitation (OR = 0.615, p < 0.001) and relative humidity (OR = 1.337, p < 0.001). The improved model obtained a better prediction performance and a higher fitting accuracy than the traditional model: in the improved model 90.1% (91/101) of the cases during February 2014 occurred in the high risk areas (the predictive risk > 0.70) of the predictive risk map, whereas 44.6% (45/101) of which overlaid on the high risk areas (the predictive risk > 0.70) for the traditional model, and the fitting accuracy of the improved model was 91.6% which was superior to the traditional model (86.1%). The predictive risk map generated based on the improved model revealed that the east and southeast of China were the high risk areas of A(H7N9) human infections in February 2014. These results provided baseline data for the control and prevention of future human infections.

  20. Evaluation of an Extended Autocorrelation Phase Estimator for Ultrasonic Velocity Profiles Using Nondestructive Testing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ofuchi, César Yutaka; Coutinho, Fabio Rizental; Neves, Flávio; de Arruda, Lucia Valéria Ramos; Morales, Rigoberto Eleazar Melgarejo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extended autocorrelation velocity estimator is evaluated and compared using a nondestructive ultrasonic device. For this purpose, three velocity estimators are evaluated and compared. The autocorrelation method (ACM) is the most used and well established in current ultrasonic velocity profiler technology, however, the technique suffers with phase aliasing (also known as the Nyquist limit) at higher velocities. The cross-correlation method (CCM) is also well known and does not suffer with phase aliasing as it relies on time shift measurements between emissions. The problem of this method is the large computational burden due to several required mathematical operations. Recently, an extended autocorrelation method (EAM) which combines both ACM and CCM was developed. The technique is not well known within the fluid engineering community, but it can measure velocities beyond the Nyquist limit without the ACM phase aliasing issues and with a lower computational cost than CCM. In this work, all three velocity estimation methods are used to measure a uniform flow of the liquid inside a controlled rotating cylinder. The root-mean-square deviation variation coefficient (CVRMSD) of the velocity estimate and the reference cylinder velocity was used to evaluate the three different methods. Results show that EAM correctly measures velocities below the Nyquist limit with less than 2% CVRMSD. Velocities beyond the Nyquist limit are only measured well by EAM and CCM, with the advantage of the former of being computationally 15 times faster. Furthermore, the maximum value of measurable velocity is also investigated considering the number of times the velocity surpasses the Nyquist limit. The combination of number of pulses and number of samples, which highly affects the results, are also studied in this work. Velocities up to six times the Nyquist limit could be measurable with CCM and EAM using a set of parameters as suggested in this work. The results validate

  1. Structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from the Autocorrelation of Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, George; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquakes or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct body wave images for the entire crust and the shallow upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using autocorrelations of the vertical component of ground motion, P-wave reflections can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the northern branch of the fault zone, indicating that the NAFZ reaches the upper mantle as a narrow structure. The southern branch has a less clear effect on crustal structure. We also see evidence of several discontinuities in the mid-crust in addition to an upper mantle reflector that we interpret to represent the Hales discontinuity.

  2. Evaluation of an Extended Autocorrelation Phase Estimator for Ultrasonic Velocity Profiles Using Nondestructive Testing Systems.

    PubMed

    Ofuchi, César Yutaka; Coutinho, Fabio Rizental; Neves, Flávio; de Arruda, Lucia Valéria Ramos; Morales, Rigoberto Eleazar Melgarejo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extended autocorrelation velocity estimator is evaluated and compared using a nondestructive ultrasonic device. For this purpose, three velocity estimators are evaluated and compared. The autocorrelation method (ACM) is the most used and well established in current ultrasonic velocity profiler technology, however, the technique suffers with phase aliasing (also known as the Nyquist limit) at higher velocities. The cross-correlation method (CCM) is also well known and does not suffer with phase aliasing as it relies on time shift measurements between emissions. The problem of this method is the large computational burden due to several required mathematical operations. Recently, an extended autocorrelation method (EAM) which combines both ACM and CCM was developed. The technique is not well known within the fluid engineering community, but it can measure velocities beyond the Nyquist limit without the ACM phase aliasing issues and with a lower computational cost than CCM. In this work, all three velocity estimation methods are used to measure a uniform flow of the liquid inside a controlled rotating cylinder. The root-mean-square deviation variation coefficient (CVRMSD) of the velocity estimate and the reference cylinder velocity was used to evaluate the three different methods. Results show that EAM correctly measures velocities below the Nyquist limit with less than 2% CVRMSD. Velocities beyond the Nyquist limit are only measured well by EAM and CCM, with the advantage of the former of being computationally 15 times faster. Furthermore, the maximum value of measurable velocity is also investigated considering the number of times the velocity surpasses the Nyquist limit. The combination of number of pulses and number of samples, which highly affects the results, are also studied in this work. Velocities up to six times the Nyquist limit could be measurable with CCM and EAM using a set of parameters as suggested in this work. The results validate

  3. Evaluation of an Extended Autocorrelation Phase Estimator for Ultrasonic Velocity Profiles Using Nondestructive Testing Systems.

    PubMed

    Ofuchi, César Yutaka; Coutinho, Fabio Rizental; Neves, Flávio; de Arruda, Lucia Valéria Ramos; Morales, Rigoberto Eleazar Melgarejo

    2016-08-09

    In this paper the extended autocorrelation velocity estimator is evaluated and compared using a nondestructive ultrasonic device. For this purpose, three velocity estimators are evaluated and compared. The autocorrelation method (ACM) is the most used and well established in current ultrasonic velocity profiler technology, however, the technique suffers with phase aliasing (also known as the Nyquist limit) at higher velocities. The cross-correlation method (CCM) is also well known and does not suffer with phase aliasing as it relies on time shift measurements between emissions. The problem of this method is the large computational burden due to several required mathematical operations. Recently, an extended autocorrelation method (EAM) which combines both ACM and CCM was developed. The technique is not well known within the fluid engineering community, but it can measure velocities beyond the Nyquist limit without the ACM phase aliasing issues and with a lower computational cost than CCM. In this work, all three velocity estimation methods are used to measure a uniform flow of the liquid inside a controlled rotating cylinder. The root-mean-square deviation variation coefficient (CVRMSD) of the velocity estimate and the reference cylinder velocity was used to evaluate the three different methods. Results show that EAM correctly measures velocities below the Nyquist limit with less than 2% CVRMSD. Velocities beyond the Nyquist limit are only measured well by EAM and CCM, with the advantage of the former of being computationally 15 times faster. Furthermore, the maximum value of measurable velocity is also investigated considering the number of times the velocity surpasses the Nyquist limit. The combination of number of pulses and number of samples, which highly affects the results, are also studied in this work. Velocities up to six times the Nyquist limit could be measurable with CCM and EAM using a set of parameters as suggested in this work. The results validate

  4. Blending vocal music with a given sound field due to the characteristics of the running autocorrelation function of singing voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kosuke; Fujii, Kenji; Kawai, Keiji; Ando, Yoichi; Yano, Takashi

    2001-05-01

    This is a study to meet music and the opera house acoustics. It is said that singers adjust their interpretation style according to the acoustical condition of the sound field in a room. However, this mechanism of blending of musical performance with the sound field is unknown. In order to obtain a method of performance blending of opera house acoustics, we attempted to develop evaluation criteria for a singing voice in terms of the minimum value of the effective duration of the running autocorrelation function (r-ACF), (te)min, of sound source signals. This temporal factor has shown to have close correlation with the subjective response of both listeners and performers to sound fields [Y. Ando, Architectural Acoustics (AIP Press/Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998)]. As example for the control of (te)min due to performing style, effects of singing style, kind of vowel, relative pitch, vibrato extent, and intonation on the values of (te)min are demonstrated. In addition, the fine structure of the r-ACF is discussed with regard to the identification of vowels of singing voice. a)Now at 1-10-27 Yamanokami, Kumamoto, Japan.

  5. New autocorrelation technique for the IR FEL optical pulse width measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, K.A.; Becker, C.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a new technique for the autocorrelation measurement of optical pulse width at the Vanderbilt University FEL center. This method is based on nonlinear absorption and transmission characteristics of semiconductors such as Ge, Te and InAs suitable for the wavelength range from 2 to over 6 microns. This approach, aside being simple and low cost, removes the phase matching condition that is generally required for the standard frequency doubling technique and covers a greater wavelength range per nonlinear material. In this paper we will describe the apparatus, explain the principal mechanism involved and compare data which have been acquired with both frequency doubling and two-photon absorption.

  6. Sign reversals of the output autocorrelation function for the stochastic Bernoulli-Verhulst equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2015-10-01

    We consider a stochastic Bernoulli-Verhulst equation as a model for population growth processes. The effect of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity of a population is modeled as colored dichotomous noise. Relying on the composite master equation an explicit expression for the stationary autocorrelation function (ACF) of population sizes is found. On the basis of this expression a nonmonotonic decay of the ACF by increasing lag-time is shown. Moreover, in a certain regime of the noise parameters the ACF demonstrates anticorrelation as well as related sign reversals at some values of the lag-time. The conditions for the appearance of this highly unexpected effect are also discussed.

  7. Sign reversals of the output autocorrelation function for the stochastic Bernoulli-Verhulst equation

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N. Mankin, R.

    2015-10-28

    We consider a stochastic Bernoulli-Verhulst equation as a model for population growth processes. The effect of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity of a population is modeled as colored dichotomous noise. Relying on the composite master equation an explicit expression for the stationary autocorrelation function (ACF) of population sizes is found. On the basis of this expression a nonmonotonic decay of the ACF by increasing lag-time is shown. Moreover, in a certain regime of the noise parameters the ACF demonstrates anticorrelation as well as related sign reversals at some values of the lag-time. The conditions for the appearance of this highly unexpected effect are also discussed.

  8. Impact of volcanic eruptions on the climate of the 1st millennium AD in a comprehensive climate simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The climate of the 1st millennium AD shows some remarkable differences compared to the last millennium concerning variation in external forcings. Together with an orbitally induced increased solar insolation during the northern hemisphere summer season and a general lack of strong solar minima, the frequency and intensity of large tropical and extratropical eruptions is decreased. Here we present results of a new climate simulation carried out with the comprehensive Earth System Model MPI-ESM-P forced with variations in orbital, solar, volcanic and greenhouse gas variations and land use changes for the last 2,100 years. The atmospheric model has a horizontal resolution of T63 (approx. 125x125 km) and therefore also allows investigations of regional-to-continental scale climatic phenomena. The volcanic forcing was reconstructed based on a publication by Sigl et al. (2013) using the sulfate records of the NEEM and WAIS ice cores. To obtain information on the aerosol optical depth (AOD) these sulfate records were scaled to an established reconstruction from Crowley and Unterman (2010), which is also a standard forcing in the framework of CMIP5/PMIP3. A comparison between the newly created data set with the Crowley and Unterman dataset reveals that the new reconstruction shows in general weaker intensities, especially of the large tropical outbreaks and fewer northern hemispheric small-to-medium scale eruptions. However, the general pattern in the overlapping period is similar. A hypothesis that can be tested with the simulation is whether the reduced volcanic intensity of the 1st millennium AD contributed to the elevated temperature levels over Europe, evident within a new proxy-based reconstruction. On the other hand, the few but large volcanic eruptions, e.g. the 528 AD event, also induced negative decadal-scale temperature anomalies. Another interesting result of the simulation relates to the 79 AD eruption of the Vesuvius, which caused the collapse of the city of

  9. New Markov-autocorrelation indices for re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks used in metabolomics, parasitology, neurosciences, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Riera-Fernández, Pablo

    2012-12-21

    The development of new methods for the computational re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks is very important to save time and resources. The Moreau-Broto autocorrelation indices (MBis) are well-known topological indices (TIs) used in QSAR/QSPR studies to encode the structural information contained in molecular graphs. In addition, MBis and similar autocorrelation measures have been used to study other systems like, for example, proteins. In the present work, MBis are combined with Markov chains to develop a general class of stochastic MBis of order k (MB(k)) that is used to encode the structural information contained in different types of large complex networks. The MB(k) values obtained for the nodes (centralities) of these networks are used as input variables to seek QSPR-like equations (by means of linear discriminant analysis) in which the outputs are numerical scores S(L(ij)) that allow us to discriminate between connected and nonconnected nodes and therefore re-evaluate the connectivity of the whole network. The models developed in this work produced the following results in terms of overall accuracy for network reconstruction: metabolic networks (72.10%), parasite-host networks (88.70%), CoCoMac brain cortex coactivation network (81.89%), and fasciolosis spreading network (86.39%).

  10. 77 FR 39215 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year... Investigations Lemon Juice from Argentina (A-357-818) (1st Sally Gannon Review). (202) 482-0162 Lemon Juice...

  11. A decadal gridded hyperspectral infrared record for climate Sep 1st 2002--Aug 31st 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David Raymond

    We present a gridded Fundamental Decadal Data Record (FDDR) of Brightness Temperatures (BT) from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) from ten years of hyperspectral Infrared Radiances onboard the NASA EOS Aqua satellite. Although global surface temperature data records are available for over 130 years, it was not until 1978 when the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) was the first instrument series to reliably monitor long-term trends of the upper atmosphere. AIRS, operational on September 1, 2002 is the first successful hyperspectral satellite weather instrument of more than 1 year, and provides a 10 year global hyperspectral IR radiance data record. Our contribution was to prepare a gridded decadal data record of climate resolution from the AIRS Outgoing Longwave Spectrum (OLS). In order to do this, we developed a robust software infrastructure "Gridderama" using large multivariate array storage to facilitate this multi-terabyte parallel data processing task while ensuring integrity, tracking provenance, logging errors, and providing extensive visualization. All of our data, code, logs and visualizations are freely available online and browsable via a real-time "Data Catalog" interface. We show that these global all-sky trends are consistent with the expected radiative forcings from an increase in greenhouse gasses. We have also measured high global correlations with the GISS global surface air temperatures as well as high regional anticorrelations with the NOAA ONI index of El Niño phase. In addition, we have performed inter-annual inter-comparisons with the Moderate Resolution Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua satellite to examine the relative consistency of their calibrations. The comparisons of the two instruments for the 4µ spectral channels (between 3.9µ and 4.1µ) indicate an inter-annual warming of 0.13K per decade of AIRS more than MODIS. This decadal relative drift is small compared to inter-annual variability but on the order of

  12. Improving conversion yield of fermentable sugars into fuel ethanol in 1st generation yeast-based production processes.

    PubMed

    Gombert, Andreas K; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2015-06-01

    Current fuel ethanol production using yeasts and starch or sucrose-based feedstocks is referred to as 1st generation (1G) ethanol production. These processes are characterized by the high contribution of sugar prices to the final production costs, by high production volumes, and by low profit margins. In this context, small improvements in the ethanol yield on sugars have a large impact on process economy. Three types of strategies used to achieve this goal are discussed: engineering free-energy conservation, engineering redox-metabolism, and decreasing sugar losses in the process. Whereas the two former strategies lead to decreased biomass and/or glycerol formation, the latter requires increased process and/or yeast robustness.

  13. Plasma properties from the multi-wavelength analysis of the November 1st 2003 CME/shock event

    PubMed Central

    Benna, Carlo; Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio; Gioannini, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the spectral properties and dynamic evolution of a CME/shock event observed on November 1st 2003 in white-light by the LASCO coronagraph and in the ultraviolet by the UVCS instrument operating aboard SOHO, has been performed to compute the properties of some important plasma parameters in the middle corona below about 2R⊙. Simultaneous observations obtained with the MLSO/Mk4 white-light coronagraph, providing both the early evolution of the CME expansion in the corona and the pre-shock electron density profile along the CME front, were also used to study this event. By combining the above information with the analysis of the metric type II radio emission detected by ground-based radio spectrographs, we finally derive estimates of the values of the local Alfvén speed and magnetic field strength in the solar corona. PMID:25685432

  14. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks of gestation, n 15), very preterm (28-<32 weeks of gestation, n 15), moderately preterm (32-<37 weeks of gestation, n 15) and term infants (37-41 weeks of gestation, n 15). Total protein, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, soluble CD14 receptor (sCD14), transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), α defensin 5 (HD5), β defensins 1 (HBD1) and 2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-γ, TNF-α and lysozyme (LZ) were quantified in milk. We examined the effects of lactation stage, gestational age, volume of milk expressed, mode of delivery, parity and maternal infection on milk immune factor concentrations using repeated-measures regression analysis. The concentrations of all factors except LZ and HD5 decreased over the 1st month postpartum. Extremely preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk.

  15. Experience from the 1st Year running a Massive High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Joao; Baron, Thomas; Bompastor, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    In the last few years, we have witnessed an explosion of visual collaboration initiatives in the industry. Several advances in video services and also in their underlying infrastructure are currently improving the way people collaborate globally. These advances are creating new usage paradigms: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To keep apace with this technology progression, the CERN IT Department launched a service based on the Vidyo product. This new service architecture introduces Adaptive Video Layering, which dynamically optimizes the video for each endpoint by leveraging the H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC)-based compression technology. It combines intelligent AV routing techniques with the flexibility of H.264 SVC video compression, in order to achieve resilient video collaboration over the Internet, 3G and WiFi. We present an overview of the results that have been achieved after this major change. In particular, the first year of operation of the CERN Vidyo service will be described in terms of performance and scale: The service became part of the daily activity of the LHC collaborations, reaching a monthly usage of more than 3200 meetings with a peak of 750 simultaneous connections. We also present some key features such as the integration with CERN Indico. LHC users can now join a Vidyo meeting either from their personal computer or a CERN videoconference room simply from an Indico event page, with the ease of a single click. The roadmap for future improvements, service extensions and core infrastructure tendencies such as cloud based services and virtualization of system components will also be discussed. Vidyo's strengths allowed us to build a universal service (it is accessible from PCs, but also videoconference rooms, traditional phones, tablets and smartphones), developed with 3 key ideas in mind: ease of use, full integration and high quality.

  16. Autocorrelation based denoising of manatee vocalizations using the undecimated discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Gur, Berke M; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2007-07-01

    Recent interest in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) vocalizations has been primarily induced by an effort to reduce manatee mortality rates due to watercraft collisions. A warning system based on passive acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations is desired. The success and feasibility of such a system depends on effective denoising of the vocalizations in the presence of high levels of background noise. In the last decade, simple and effective wavelet domain nonlinear denoising methods have emerged as an alternative to linear estimation methods. However, the denoising performances of these methods degrades considerably with decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and therefore are not suited for denoising manatee vocalizations in which the typical SNR is below 0 dB. Manatee vocalizations possess a strong harmonic content and a slow decaying autocorrelation function. In this paper, an efficient denoising scheme that exploits both the autocorrelation function of manatee vocalizations and effectiveness of the nonlinear wavelet transform based denoising algorithms is introduced. The suggested wavelet-based denoising algorithm is shown to outperform linear filtering methods, extending the detection range of vocalizations.

  17. Autocorrelation based denoising of manatee vocalizations using the undecimated discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Gur, Berke M; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2007-07-01

    Recent interest in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) vocalizations has been primarily induced by an effort to reduce manatee mortality rates due to watercraft collisions. A warning system based on passive acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations is desired. The success and feasibility of such a system depends on effective denoising of the vocalizations in the presence of high levels of background noise. In the last decade, simple and effective wavelet domain nonlinear denoising methods have emerged as an alternative to linear estimation methods. However, the denoising performances of these methods degrades considerably with decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and therefore are not suited for denoising manatee vocalizations in which the typical SNR is below 0 dB. Manatee vocalizations possess a strong harmonic content and a slow decaying autocorrelation function. In this paper, an efficient denoising scheme that exploits both the autocorrelation function of manatee vocalizations and effectiveness of the nonlinear wavelet transform based denoising algorithms is introduced. The suggested wavelet-based denoising algorithm is shown to outperform linear filtering methods, extending the detection range of vocalizations. PMID:17614478

  18. The Genetic Structure of a Tribal Population, the Yanomama Indians. Xv. Patterns Inferred by Autocorrelation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Robert R.; Smouse, Peter E.; Neel, James V.

    1986-01-01

    Fifteen allele frequencies have previously been determined for 50 villages of the Yanomama, an Amerindian tribe from southern Venezuela and northern Brazil. These frequencies were subjected to spatial autocorrelation analysis to investigate their population structure. There are significant spatial patterns for most allele frequencies. Clinal patterns, investigated by one-dimensional and directional spatial correlograms, were relatively few in number and were moderate in strength. Overall, however, there is a marked decline in genetic similarity with geographic distance. The results are compatible with a hierarchic population structure superimposed on the geography, and generated by a stochastic fission-fusion model of village propagation, followed by localized gene flow. Strong temporal autocorrelations of allele frequencies based on linguistic-historical distances representing time since divergence were also found. There appears to be a stronger relation between geography and linguistic-historical hierarchic subdivisions than between either feature and genetic distances. These findings confirm by different approaches the results of earlier analyses concerning the important roles of both stochastic and social factors in determining village allele frequencies and the occurrence within this tribe of some allele frequency clines most likely due to the operation of chance historical processes. PMID:3770468

  19. Dispersal leads to spatial autocorrelation in species distributions: A simulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahn, V.; Krohn, W.B.; O'Connor, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to population growth regulated by local conditions, dispersal has been underappreciated as a central process shaping the spatial distribution of populations. This paper asks: (a) which conditions increase the importance of dispersers relative to local recruits in determining population sizes? and (b) how does dispersal influence the spatial distribution patterns of abundances among connected populations? We approached these questions with a simulation model of populations on a coupled lattice with cells of continuously varying habitat quality expressed as carrying capacities. Each cell contained a population with the basic dynamics of density-regulated growth, and was connected to other populations by immigration and emigration. The degree to which dispersal influenced the distribution of population sizes depended most strongly on the absolute amount of dispersal, and then on the potential population growth rate. Dispersal decaying in intensity with distance left close neighbours more alike in population size than distant populations, leading to an increase in spatial autocorrelation. The spatial distribution of species with low potential growth rates is more dependent on dispersal than that of species with high growth rates; therefore, distribution modelling for species with low growth rates requires particular attention to autocorrelation, and conservation management of these species requires attention to factors curtailing dispersal, such as fragmentation and dispersal barriers. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of a Modified Self-Organizing Map Incorporating Auto-Correlated Data for Hydrochemical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, A. R.; Watzin, M. C.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    We modified a self-organizing map (SOM), a clustering artificial neural network, using variogram analyses to incorporate the spatial and temporal auto-correlation that exists in many surface and subsurface environmental datasets. The SOM reduces the dimensionality and clusters the data. The SOM is particularly effective with multiple data types (e.g. continuous, discrete and categorical variables). The standard SOM algorithm iteratively updates connection weights between the input parameters and the two-dimensional output mapping over a specified region of the estimation field. The method accounts for the anisotropy found in geologic and hydrologic datasets. The algorithm is tested on a unique dataset collected from a slab of Berea sandstone (1 m by 0.4 m). Air permeability, electrical resistivity and compressional wave velocity were measured on a 3 mm rectangular grid. Sparse testing data were drawn randomly from this exhaustive dataset for validating the new computational methods. We apply the method using biogeochemical data collected along a transect between the Vermont and New York shorelines of Lake Champlain, to demonstrate the ability to discriminate between different functional zones in the lake. This clustering method could be applied to a variety of terrestrial, aquatic, or subsurface biogeochemical or geophysical problems. Considering spatial auto-correlation in delineating regions or zones in environmental systems creates more accurate estimations.

  1. Spatial Pattern Analysis of Heavy Metals in Beijing Agricultural Soils Based on Spatial Autocorrelation Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Dan-Feng; Li, Hong; Zhou, Lian-Di; Li, Bao-Guo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the spatial pattern of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils using Moran’s I statistic of spatial autocorrelation. The global Moran’s I result showed that the spatial dependence of Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg changed with different spatial weight matrixes, and they had significant and positive global spatial correlations based on distance weight. The spatial dependence of the four metals was scale-dependent on distance, but these scale effects existed within a threshold distance of 13 km, 32 km, 50 km, and 29 km, respectively for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg. The maximal spatial positive correlation range was 57 km, 70 km, 57 km, and 55 km for Cr, Ni, Zn, and Hg, respectively and these were not affected by sampling density. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis detected the locations of spatial clusters and spatial outliers and revealed that the pollution of these four metals occurred in significant High-high spatial clusters, Low-high, or even High-low spatial outliers. Thus, three major areas were identified and should be receiving more attention: the first was the northeast region of Beijing, where Cr, Zn, Ni, and Hg had significant increases. The second was the southeast region of Beijing where wastewater irrigation had strongly changed the content of metals, particularly of Cr and Zn, in soils. The third area was the urban fringe around city, where Hg showed a significant increase. PMID:21776217

  2. Comparison of Kasai Autocorrelation and Maximum Likelihood Estimators for Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Aaron C.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2013-01-01

    In optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound, unbiased Doppler frequency estimators with low variance are desirable for blood velocity estimation. Hardware improvements in OCT mean that ever higher acquisition rates are possible, which should also, in principle, improve estimation performance. Paradoxically, however, the widely used Kasai autocorrelation estimator’s performance worsens with increasing acquisition rate. We propose that parametric estimators based on accurate models of noise statistics can offer better performance. We derive a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) based on a simple additive white Gaussian noise model, and show that it can outperform the Kasai autocorrelation estimator. In addition, we also derive the Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB), and show that the variance of the MLE approaches the CRLB for moderate data lengths and noise levels. We note that the MLE performance improves with longer acquisition time, and remains constant or improves with higher acquisition rates. These qualities may make it a preferred technique as OCT imaging speed continues to improve. Finally, our work motivates the development of more general parametric estimators based on statistical models of decorrelation noise. PMID:23446044

  3. Assessment of the orbits from the 1st IGS reprocessing campaign (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J.; Gendt, G.; Nischan, T.; Ray, J.

    2009-12-01

    combinations for the years 2000 to 2007 can be used as a measure of the quality improvement of the reprocessed combined orbits. Whereas the historic IGS orbits show differences between the ACs and the combined orbits on the order of 3 to 4 cm in 2000, the reprocessed IGS orbits have differences of 1 to 1.5 cm in 2000, nearly the same quality as in recent years. With a similar improvement in the clock solutions, more precise PPP results can be obtained for the past years. Also, the scale, rotation and translation Helmert transformation parameters for each of the individual AC orbits have improved by at least a factor of two in 2000, which will give more consistent orbits over time, and thus better PPP derived station position time series.

  4. Report of the 1st meeting of the "Vienna Initiative to Save European Academic Research (VISAER)".

    PubMed

    Druml, Christiane; Singer, Ernst A; Wolzt, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The European Directive 2001/20/EC ("Clinical Trials Directive") was aimed at simplifying and harmonising European clinical research. The directive's attempt represents an important step because many European Member States lack national laws that specifically address details of research, but the goal has been only partly achieved. For academic investigators doing national or multi-national research the new European law and the requirements following its implementation are likely to have the opposite effect. Some areas seem to be of particular concern: trial sponsorship, the ethical review process, the participation of patients who are temporarily not able to consent in clinical trials, in particular the informed consent process, an accepted European registry for all clinical trials, insurance and pharmacovigilance. Furthermore there are fundamental problems of the conduct of clinical trials that could have been foreseen at the time of implementation of the new law, which are impeding academic basic clinical research. The bureaucratic burden for academic investigators has tremendously increased without representing any contribution to patients' safety or to the scientific value of research. Furthermore some large European academic trials cannot be conducted anymore due to the new regulations. This result in a reduction in the number of trials and additionally in a reduction in the number of patients enrolled in a study. European research and thus European patients will suffer from the loss of potential benefits of research. The Vienna Initiative to Save European Academic Research (VISEAR) brings together leading stakeholders from academic research groups and interested parties from industry, international organisations and regulatory authorities to focus on the issues of concern regarding the organisational and funding of academic clinical research in order to improve the development and use of medicines in Europe. The first step of the initiative was a meeting held

  5. Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula. PMID:22111788

  6. [Spatial autocorrelation of genetic structure of Prunus padus population in broadleaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Min; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Zheng-Feng; Ye, Wan-Hui; Hao, Zhan-Qing

    2014-02-01

    All 396 Prunus padus individuals of the population with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were sampled in a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine forest plot of Changbai Mountains and divided into three DBH classes: 1-3 cm, 3-10 cm, and >10 cm. They were then genotyped using microsatellite loci. The spatial autocorrelation of their genetic structure was analyzed at different distance classes and life stages. The results showed that positive autocorrelation mainly occurred at scales less than 70 m, while negative autocorrelation occurred at scales larger than 110 m. The spatial genetic structure (SGS) at different life stages was similar due to limited pollen/seed dispersal and asexual reproduction. No significant self-thinning occurred in the studied population. PMID:24830226

  7. First- and second-order contrast sensitivity functions reveal disrupted visual processing following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Reynaud, Alexandre; Ruiz, Tatiana; Laguë-Beauvais, Maude; Hess, Robert; Farivar, Reza

    2016-05-01

    Vision is disrupted by traumatic brain injury (TBI), with vision-related complaints being amongst the most common in this population. Based on the neural responses of early visual cortical areas, injury to the visual cortex would be predicted to affect both 1(st) order and 2(nd) order contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs)-the height and/or the cut-off of the CSF are expected to be affected by TBI. Previous studies have reported disruptions only in 2(nd) order contrast sensitivity, but using a narrow range of parameters and divergent methodologies-no study has characterized the effect of TBI on the full CSF for both 1(st) and 2(nd) order stimuli. Such information is needed to properly understand the effect of TBI on contrast perception, which underlies all visual processing. Using a unified framework based on the quick contrast sensitivity function, we measured full CSFs for static and dynamic 1(st) and 2(nd) order stimuli. Our results provide a unique dataset showing alterations in sensitivity for both 1(st) and 2(nd) order visual stimuli. In particular, we show that TBI patients have increased sensitivity for 1(st) order motion stimuli and decreased sensitivity to orientation-defined and contrast-defined 2(nd) order stimuli. In addition, our data suggest that TBI patients' sensitivity for both 1(st) order stimuli and 2(nd) order contrast-defined stimuli is shifted towards higher spatial frequencies.

  8. Autocorrelation spectra of an air-fluidized granular system measured by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasic, S.; Stepisnik, J.; Mohoric, A.; Sersa, I.; Planinsic, G.

    2006-09-01

    A novel insight into the dynamics of a fluidized granular system is given by a nuclear magnetic resonance method that yields the spin-echo attenuation proportional to the spectrum of the grain positional fluctuation. Measurements of the air-fluidized oil-filled spheres and mustard seeds at different degrees of fluidization and grain volume fractions provide the velocity autocorrelation that differs from the commonly anticipated exponential Enskog decay. An empiric formula, which corresponds to the model of grain caging at collisions with adjacent beads, fits well to the experimental data. Its parameters are the characteristic collision time, the free path between collisions and the cage-breaking rate or the diffusion-like constant, which decreases with increasing grain volume fraction. Mean-squared displacements calculated from the correlation spectrum clearly show transitions from ballistic, through sub-diffusion and into diffusion regimes of grain motion.

  9. Artificial fingerprint recognition by using optical coherence tomography with autocorrelation analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yezeng; Larin, Kirill V

    2006-12-20

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most widely used methods of biometrics. This method relies on the surface topography of a finger and, thus, is potentially vulnerable for spoofing by artificial dummies with embedded fingerprints. In this study, we applied the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to distinguish artificial materials commonly used for spoofing fingerprint scanning systems from the real skin. Several artificial fingerprint dummies made from household cement and liquid silicone rubber were prepared and tested using a commercial fingerprint reader and an OCT system. While the artificial fingerprints easily spoofed the commercial fingerprint reader, OCT images revealed the presence of them at all times. We also demonstrated that an autocorrelation analysis of the OCT images could be potentially used in automatic recognition systems. PMID:17151765

  10. How cosmic microwave background correlations at large angles relate to mass autocorrelations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenthal, George R.; Johnston, Kathryn V.

    1994-01-01

    The Sachs-Wolfe effect is known to produce large angular scale fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) due to gravitational potential fluctuations. We show how the angular correlation function of the CMBR can be expressed explicitly in terms of the mass autocorrelation function xi(r) in the universe. We derive analytic expressions for the angular correlation function and its multipole moments in terms of integrals over xi(r) or its second moment, J(sub 3)(r), which does not need to satisfy the sort of integral constraint that xi(r) must. We derive similar expressions for bulk flow velocity in terms of xi and J(sub 3). One interesting result that emerges directly from this analysis is that, for all angles theta, there is a substantial contribution to the correlation function from a wide range of distance r and that radial shape of this contribution does not vary greatly with angle.

  11. Evidence of partial temporal coherence effects in the linear autocorrelation of extreme ultraviolet laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Le Marec, Andréa; Guilbaud, Olivier; Larroche, Olivier; Klisnick, Annie

    2016-07-15

    We study how the degree of temporal coherence of plasma-based extreme ultraviolet lasers operated in the amplification of the spontaneous emission mode is encoded in the shape of the linear autocorrelation function, which is obtained from the variation of the fringe visibility while varying the delay in a variable path-difference interferometer. We discuss the implications of this effect when the technique is used to infer the spectral properties of the source. Our numerical simulations, based on a partial coherence model developed by other authors for x-ray free electron lasers, are in good agreement with previously reported sets of measurements, illustrating similar statistical properties for both sources. PMID:27420542

  12. Application of Fourier transform and autocorrelation to cluster identification in the three-dimensional atom probe.

    PubMed

    Vurpillot, F; De Geuser, F; Da Costa, G; Blavette, D

    2004-12-01

    Because of the increasing number of collected atoms (up to millions) in the three-dimensional atom probe, derivation of chemical or structural information from the direct observation of three-dimensional images is becoming more and more difficult. New data analysis tools are thus required. Application of a discrete Fourier transform algorithm to three-dimensional atom probe datasets provides information that is not easily accessible in real space. Derivation of mean particle size from Fourier intensities or from three-dimensional autocorrelation is an example. These powerful methods can be used to detect and image nano-segregations. Using three-dimensional 'bright-field' imaging, single nano-segregations were isolated from the surrounding matrix of an iron-copper alloy. Measurement of the inner concentration within clusters is, therefore, straightforward. Theoretical aspects related to filtering in reciprocal space are developed.

  13. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography: direct recovery of elasticity distribution from experimentally measured intensity autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, K P; Nandakumaran, A K; Roy, D; Vasu, R M

    2015-05-01

    Based on an ultrasound-modulated optical tomography experiment, a direct, quantitative recovery of Young's modulus (E) is achieved from the modulation depth (M) in the intensity autocorrelation. The number of detector locations is limited to two in orthogonal directions, reducing the complexity of the data gathering step whilst ensuring against an impoverishment of the measurement, by employing ultrasound frequency as a parameter to vary during data collection. The M and E are related via two partial differential equations. The first one connects M to the amplitude of vibration of the scattering centers in the focal volume and the other, this amplitude to E. A (composite) sensitivity matrix is arrived at mapping the variation of M with that of E and used in a (barely regularized) Gauss-Newton algorithm to iteratively recover E. The reconstruction results showing the variation of E are presented. PMID:26366922

  14. A simple autocorrelation algorithm for determining grain size from digital images of sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Autocorrelation between pixels in digital images of sediment can be used to measure average grain size of sediment on the bed, grain-size distribution of bed sediment, and vertical profiles in grain size in a cross-sectional image through a bed. The technique is less sensitive than traditional laboratory analyses to tails of a grain-size distribution, but it offers substantial other advantages: it is 100 times as fast; it is ideal for sampling surficial sediment (the part that interacts with a flow); it can determine vertical profiles in grain size on a scale finer than can be sampled physically; and it can be used in the field to provide almost real-time grain-size analysis. The technique can be applied to digital images obtained using any source with sufficient resolution, including digital cameras, digital video, or underwater digital microscopes (for real-time grain-size mapping of the bed). ?? 2004, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  15. Amplitude autocorrelation of femtosecond laser pulses using linear photogalvanic effect in sillenite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachev, A. I.; Romashko, R. V.; Kulchin, Yu. N.; Golik, S. S.; Nippolainen, E.; Kamshilin, A. A.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate excitation of the linear photogalvanic current in a Bi12TiO20 crystal by two orthogonally polarized femtosecond laser pulses with detecting the electrical current via charge accumulation on the sample electrodes. Such a setup was used to implement an interferometric autocorrelation technique for characterization of ultrashort light pulses. Integration of the detected current in femtosecond time domain leads to vanishing of a bipolar component of the photogalvanic current which arises due to a pulse chirping. The advantage of the proposed technique is that it produces the electric field correlation function directly without the need for data processing using a compact, robust, and non-expensive detector in the form of a photoconductive cell of a non-centrosymmetric crystal.

  16. Establishment of the 1st World Health Organization International Standard for Plasmodium falciparum DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays

    PubMed Central

    Padley, David J; Heath, Alan B; Sutherland, Colin; Chiodini, Peter L; Baylis, Sally A

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to harmonize results for the detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA by nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays, a World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative study was performed, evaluating a series of candidate standard preparations. Methods Fourteen laboratories from 10 different countries participated in the collaborative study. Four candidate preparations based upon blood samples parasitaemic for P. falciparum were evaluated in the study. Sample AA was lyophilized, whilst samples BB, CC and DD were liquid/frozen preparations. The candidate standards were tested by each laboratory at a range of dilutions in four independent assays, using both qualitative and quantitative NAT-based assays. The results were collated and analysed statistically. Results Twenty sets of data were returned from the participating laboratories and used to determine the mean P. falciparum DNA content for each sample. The mean log10 "equivalents"/ml were 8.51 for sample AA, 8.45 for sample BB, 8.35 for sample CC, and 5.51 for sample DD. The freeze-dried preparation AA, was examined by accelerated thermal degradation studies and found to be highly stable. Conclusion On the basis of the collaborative study, the freeze-dried material, AA (NIBSC code No. 04/176) was established as the 1st WHO International Standard for P. falciparum DNA NAT-based assays and has been assigned a potency of 109 International Units (IU) per ml. Each vial contains 5 × 108 IU, equivalent to 0.5 ml of material after reconstitution. PMID:18652656

  17. Extension of the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method to mixed-component correlations of surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, Matthew M.; Mikesell, T. Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper; Nakahara, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Using ambient seismic noise for imaging subsurface structure dates back to the development of the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method in the 1950s. We present a theoretical analysis of the SPAC method for multicomponent recordings of surface waves to determine the complete 3 × 3 matrix of correlations between all pairs of three-component motions, called the correlation matrix. In the case of isotropic incidence, when either Rayleigh or Love waves arrive from all directions with equal power, the only non-zero off-diagonal terms in the matrix are the vertical–radial (ZR) and radial–vertical (RZ) correlations in the presence of Rayleigh waves. Such combinations were not considered in the development of the SPAC method. The method originally addressed the vertical–vertical (ZZ), RR and TT correlations, hence the name spatial autocorrelation. The theoretical expressions we derive for the ZR and RZ correlations offer additional ways to measure Rayleigh wave dispersion within the SPAC framework. Expanding on the results for isotropic incidence, we derive the complete correlation matrix in the case of generally anisotropic incidence. We show that the ZR and RZ correlations have advantageous properties in the presence of an out-of-plane directional wavefield compared to ZZ and RR correlations. We apply the results for mixed-component correlations to a data set from Akutan Volcano, Alaska and find consistent estimates of Rayleigh wave phase velocity from ZR compared to ZZ correlations. This work together with the recently discovered connections between the SPAC method and time-domain correlations of ambient noise provide further insights into the retrieval of surface wave Green’s functions from seismic noise.

  18. Frontline nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results from the European ENEST1st study

    PubMed Central

    Hochhaus, A; Rosti, G; Cross, N C P; Steegmann, J L; le Coutre, P; Ossenkoppele, G; Petrov, L; Masszi, T; Hellmann, A; Griskevicius, L; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Rea, D; Coriu, D; Brümmendorf, T H; Porkka, K; Saglio, G; Gastl, G; Müller, M C; Schuld, P; Di Matteo, P; Pellegrino, A; Dezzani, L; Mahon, F-X; Baccarani, M; Giles, F J

    2016-01-01

    The Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials as First-Line Treatment (ENEST1st) study included 1089 patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The rate of deep molecular response (MR4 (BCR-ABL1⩽0.01% on the International Scale or undetectable BCR-ABL1 with ⩾10 000 ABL1 transcripts)) at 18 months was evaluated as the primary end point, with molecular responses monitored by the European Treatment and Outcome Study network of standardized laboratories. This analysis was conducted after all patients had completed 24 months of study treatment (80.9% of patients) or discontinued early. In patients with typical BCR-ABL1 transcripts and ⩽3 months of prior imatinib therapy, 38.4% (404/1052) achieved MR4 at 18 months. Six patients (0.6%) developed accelerated or blastic phase, and 13 (1.2%) died. The safety profile of nilotinib was consistent with that of previous studies, although the frequencies of some nilotinib-associated adverse events were lower (for example, rash, 21.4%). Ischemic cardiovascular events occurred in 6.0% of patients. Routine monitoring of lipid and glucose levels was not mandated in the protocol. These results support the use of frontline nilotinib, particularly when achievement of a deep molecular response (a prerequisite for attempting treatment-free remission in clinical trials) is a treatment goal. PMID:26437782

  19. Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Fanconi Anemia: Report from the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, Jakub; Adair, Jennifer E; Antoniou, Michael; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Becker, Pamela S; Blazar, Bruce R; Bueren, Juan; Carroll, Thomas; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Clapp, D Wade; Dalgleish, Robert; Galy, Anne; Gaspar, H Bobby; Hanenberg, Helmut; Von Kalle, Christof; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Lindeman, Dirk; Naldini, Luigi; Navarro, Susana; Renella, Raffaele; Rio, Paula; Sevilla, Julián; Schmidt, Manfred; Verhoeyen, Els; Wagner, John E; Williams, David A; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) have increased dramatically since 2000. However, the use of autologous stem cell gene therapy, whereby the patient's own blood stem cells are modified to express the wild-type gene product, could potentially avoid the early and late complications of allogeneic HCT. Over the last decades, gene therapy has experienced a high degree of optimism interrupted by periods of diminished expectation. Optimism stems from recent examples of successful gene correction in several congenital immunodeficiencies, whereas diminished expectations come from the realization that gene therapy will not be free of side effects. The goal of the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting was to determine the optimal strategy for moving stem cell gene therapy into clinical trials for individuals with FA. To this end, key investigators examined vector design, transduction method, criteria for large-scale clinical-grade vector manufacture, hematopoietic cell preparation, and eligibility criteria for FA patients most likely to benefit. The report summarizes the roadmap for the development of gene therapy for FA. PMID:21540837

  20. Embryonic development of chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) from 1st to 19th day-ectodermal structures.

    PubMed

    Toledo Fonseca, Erika; De Oliveira Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Alcântara, Dayane; Carvalho Cardoso, Rafael; Luís Franciolli, André; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Fratini, Paula; José Piantino Ferreira, Antônio; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-12-01

    Birds occupy a prominent place in the Brazilian economy not only in the poultry industry but also as an animal model in many areas of scientific research. Thus the aim of this study was to provide a description of macro and microscopic aspects of the ectoderm-derived structures in chicken embryos / fetuses poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 1st to 19th day of incubation. 40 fertilized eggs, from a strain of domestic chickens, with an incubation period of 2-19 days were subjected to macroscopic description, biometrics, light, and scanning microscopy. All changes observed during the development were described. The nervous system, skin and appendages and organs related to vision and hearing began to be identified, both macro and microscopically, from the second day of incubation. The vesicles from the primitive central nervous system-forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain-were identified on the third day of incubation. On the sixth day of incubation, there was a clear vascularization of the skin. The optic vesicle was first observed fourth day of development and on the fifth day there was the beginning of the lens formation. Although embryonic development is influenced by animal line as well as external factors such as incubation temperature, this paper provides a chronological description for chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) during its embryonic development. PMID:24019213

  1. 1st Quarter Transportation Report FY 2015: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2015-02-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 1st quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report include minor volumes of non-radioactive classified waste/material that were approved for disposal (non-radioactive classified or nonradioactive classified hazardous). Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to rounding conventions for volumetric conversions from cubic meters to cubic feet.

  2. A collaborative study to establish the 1st WHO International Standard for human cytomegalovirus for nucleic acid amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Jacqueline F; Heath, Alan B; Minor, Philip D

    2016-07-01

    Variability in the performance of nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays presents a significant problem in the diagnosis and management of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Here we describe a collaborative study to evaluate the suitability of candidate reference materials to harmonize HCMV viral load measurements in a wide range of NAT assays. Candidate materials comprised lyophilized Merlin virus, liquid Merlin virus, liquid AD169 virus, and purified HCMV Merlin DNA cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. Variability in the laboratory mean HCMV concentrations determined for virus samples across the different assays was 2 log10. Variability for the purified DNA sample was higher (>3 log10). The agreement between laboratories was markedly improved when the potencies of the liquid virus samples were expressed relative to the lyophilized virus candidate. In contrast, the agreement between laboratories for the purified DNA sample was not improved. Results indicated the suitability of the lyophilized Merlin virus preparation as the 1st WHO International Standard for HCMV for NAT. It was established in October 2010, with an assigned potency of 5 × 10(6) International Units (IU) (NIBSC code 09/162). It is intended to be used to calibrate secondary references, used in HCMV NAT assays, in IU. PMID:27179913

  3. Embryonic development of chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) from 1st to 19th day-ectodermal structures.

    PubMed

    Toledo Fonseca, Erika; De Oliveira Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Alcântara, Dayane; Carvalho Cardoso, Rafael; Luís Franciolli, André; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Fratini, Paula; José Piantino Ferreira, Antônio; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-12-01

    Birds occupy a prominent place in the Brazilian economy not only in the poultry industry but also as an animal model in many areas of scientific research. Thus the aim of this study was to provide a description of macro and microscopic aspects of the ectoderm-derived structures in chicken embryos / fetuses poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 1st to 19th day of incubation. 40 fertilized eggs, from a strain of domestic chickens, with an incubation period of 2-19 days were subjected to macroscopic description, biometrics, light, and scanning microscopy. All changes observed during the development were described. The nervous system, skin and appendages and organs related to vision and hearing began to be identified, both macro and microscopically, from the second day of incubation. The vesicles from the primitive central nervous system-forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain-were identified on the third day of incubation. On the sixth day of incubation, there was a clear vascularization of the skin. The optic vesicle was first observed fourth day of development and on the fifth day there was the beginning of the lens formation. Although embryonic development is influenced by animal line as well as external factors such as incubation temperature, this paper provides a chronological description for chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) during its embryonic development.

  4. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  5. Synthesis of nanomagnetic fluids and their UV spectrophotometric response with aliphatic organic acids and 1st tier dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Shivani R.; Singh, Man

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of Magnetic nanoparticles were made using coprecipitation method on mixing Fe+3 and Fe+2 in 2:1 ratio with aqueous 8M NaOH which on heating at 90°C for 2 h has yielded 85% magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs), characterized by XRD, VSM, SEM, and HR-TEM. The formic acid (FA), oxalic acid (OA) and citric acid (CA), the series of aliphatic organic acids along with Trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridimethyl malonate (TTDMM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridiethyl malonate (TTDEM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridipropyl malonate (TTDPM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridibutyl malonate (TTDBM) and trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridihexyl malonate (TTDHM) 1st tier dendrimers were used separately for preparing nanomagnetic fluid. From 25 to 150 µM MNPs at an interval of 25 µM were dispersed in 150 µM of acids and dendrimers separately with DMSO. UV-VIS spectrophotometry showed a maximum MNPs dispersion with TTDMM against others and found to be most stable nanomagnetic fluid on account of capping type mechanism of acids.

  6. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade.

  7. Case Study of Severe Lightning Activity Prior to and During the Outbreak of the June 1st Greenbelt Tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, B. H.; Badesha, S.; Shishineh, A.; Adams, N. H.

    2012-12-01

    Surges in lightning activity have been known to be associated with the outbreak of tornado activity. We present a case study of a tornado that touched down near Greenbelt Maryland during the evening of June 1st 2012. Preceding the tornado touchdown, two single point lightning detection systems, a Boltek LD-250 and Vaisala SA20, recorded very high lightning activity rates. An electric field mill (EFM) was also making measurements and recorded large, rapid amplitude oscillations in the vertical electric fields. These electric field oscillations quickly subsided after the initial tornado touchdown. The lightning activity also generated significant RF interference in the S-band dish antenna operated at the Applied Physics Laboratory. It was somewhat surprising that the lightning activity produced enough radiation at these frequencies to cause measured levels of interference which could potentially impair satellite communications. Our interpretation of the EFM data is that intensive vertical forcing and rotation in the thunderstorm during the tornado formation caused the observed rapid electric field oscillations. At the same time, the vertical mixing in the storm caused a surge in lightning activity rates recorded by the Boltek and Vaisala sensors. Following the tornado touchdown, there was a rapid decrease in the lightning rates from the sensors. The EFM oscillations also abruptly ceased and went to a more normal slow-varying pattern typically observed during other thunderstorms without associated tornado activity. It is suggested that a network of field mills could provide realtime warning of imminent tornado activity.

  8. The Impact of Gender-Fair versus Gender-Stereotyped Basal Readers on 1st-Grade Children's Gender Stereotypes: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel; Gal-Disegni, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Israeli 1st-grade children in two different schools in the same neighborhood who were using either a gender-stereotyped or a gender-fair basal reader were asked to judge for a series of female-stereotyped, male-stereotyped, and gender-neutral activities whether they were characteristic of females, of males, or of both. Children using the…

  9. Moving beyond the Lone Scientist: Helping 1st-Grade Students Appreciate the Social Context of Scientific Work Using Stories about Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented young children's (K-2) stereotypic views of scientists and scientific work, few have examined students' views of the social nature of scientific work and the strategies effective in broadening these views. The purpose of this study is to examine how stories about scientists influence 1st-grade students' views…

  10. Diagnostic Online Assessment of Basic IT Skills in 1st-Year Undergraduates in the Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieber, Vivien

    2009-01-01

    Attitude, experience and competence (broadly covered by the European Computer Driving Licence syllabus) in information technology (IT) were assessed in 846 1st-year Medical Sciences Division undergraduates (2003-06) at the start of their first term. Online assessments delivered during induction workshops were presented as an opportunity for…

  11. Determining the spatial autocorrelation of dengue vector populations: influences of mosquito sampling method, covariables, and vector control.

    PubMed

    Azil, Aishah H; Bruce, David; Williams, Craig R

    2014-06-01

    We investigated spatial autocorrelation of female Aedes aegypti L. mosquito abundance from BG-Sentinel trap and sticky ovitrap collections in Cairns, north Queensland, Australia. BG-Sentinel trap collections in 2010 show a significant spatial autocorrelation across the study site and over a smaller spatial extent, while sticky ovitrap collections only indicate a non-significant, weak spatial autocorrelation. The BG-Sentinel trap collections were suitable for spatial interpolation using ordinary kriging and cokriging techniques. The uses of Premise Condition Index and potential breeding container data have helped improve our prediction of vector abundance. Semiovariograms and prediction maps indicate that the spatial autocorrelation of mosquito abundance determined by BG-Sentinel traps extends farther compared to sticky ovitrap collections. Based on our data, fewer BG-Sentinel traps are required to represent vector abundance at a series of houses compared to sticky ovitraps. A lack of spatial structure was observed following vector control treatment in the area. This finding has implications for the design and costs of dengue vector surveillance programs. PMID:24820568

  12. Field test comparison of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size using a digital 'beachball' camera versus traditional methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Rubin, D.M.; Harney, J.; Mustain, N.

    2007-01-01

    This extensive field test of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size from digital images was conducted using a digital bed-sediment camera, or 'beachball' camera. Using 205 sediment samples and >1200 images from a variety of beaches on the west coast of the US, grain size ranging from sand to granules was measured from field samples using both the autocorrelation technique developed by Rubin [Rubin, D.M., 2004. A simple autocorrelation algorithm for determining grain size from digital images of sediment. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 74(1): 160-165.] and traditional methods (i.e. settling tube analysis, sieving, and point counts). To test the accuracy of the digital-image grain size algorithm, we compared results with manual point counts of an extensive image data set in the Santa Barbara littoral cell. Grain sizes calculated using the autocorrelation algorithm were highly correlated with the point counts of the same images (r2 = 0.93; n = 79) and had an error of only 1%. Comparisons of calculated grain sizes and grain sizes measured from grab samples demonstrated that the autocorrelation technique works well on high-energy dissipative beaches with well-sorted sediment such as in the Pacific Northwest (r2 ??? 0.92; n = 115). On less dissipative, more poorly sorted beaches such as Ocean Beach in San Francisco, results were not as good (r2 ??? 0.70; n = 67; within 3% accuracy). Because the algorithm works well compared with point counts of the same image, the poorer correlation with grab samples must be a result of actual spatial and vertical variability of sediment in the field; closer agreement between grain size in the images and grain size of grab samples can be achieved by increasing the sampling volume of the images (taking more images, distributed over a volume comparable to that of a grab sample). In all field tests the autocorrelation method was able to predict the mean and median grain size with ???96% accuracy, which is more than

  13. New approaches for improving the production of the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by yeast.

    PubMed

    Kurylenko, Olena; Semkiv, Marta; Ruchala, Justyna; Hryniv, Orest; Kshanovska, Barbara; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45°C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene. PMID:26619255

  14. Establishment of the 1st World Health Organization international standards for human papillomavirus type 16 DNA and type 18 DNA.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dianna E; Baylis, Sally A; Padley, David; Heath, Alan B; Ferguson, Morag; Pagliusi, Sonia R; Quint, Wim G; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-06-15

    A World Health Organization collaborative study was conducted to evaluate candidate international standards for human papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 DNA (NIBSC code 06/202) and HPV Type 18 DNA (NIBSC code 06/206) for use in the amplification and detection steps of nucleic acid-based assays. The freeze-dried candidate international standards were prepared from bulk preparations of cloned plasmid containing full-length HPV-16 or HPV-18 genomic DNA. Nineteen laboratories from 13 countries participated in the study using a variety of commercial and in-house quantitative and qualitative assays. The data presented here indicate that, upon freeze-drying, there is no significant loss in potency for the candidate HPV-18 DNA and a slight loss in potency for the candidate HPV-16 DNA; although this is likely not scientifically relevant when assay precision is considered. In general, the individual laboratory mean estimates for each study sample were grouped +/- approximately 2 log(10) around the theoretical HPV DNA concentration of the reconstituted ampoule (1 x 10(7) HPV genome equivalents/mL). The agreement between laboratories is improved when potencies are made relative to the candidate international standards, demonstrating their utility in harmonizing amplification and detection steps of HPV-16 and -18 DNA assays. Degradation studies indicate that the candidate international standards are extremely stable and suitable for long-term use. Based on these findings, the candidate standards were established as the 1st WHO international standards for HPV-16 DNA and HPV-18 DNA, each with a potency of 5 x 10(6) international units (IU) per ampoule or 1 x 10(7) IU mL(-1) when reconstituted as directed.

  15. Cognitive-based approach in teaching 1st year Physics for Life Sciences, including Atmospheric Physics and Climate Change components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    Most 1st year students who take the service course in Physics - Physics for Life Sciences - in Australia encounter numerous problems caused by such factors as no previous experience with this subject; general perception that Physics is hard and only very gifted people are able to understand it; lack of knowledge of elementary mathematics; difficulties encountered by lecturers in teaching university level Physics to a class of nearly 200 students with no prior experience, diverse and sometime disadvantageous backgrounds, different majoring areas, and different learning abilities. As a result, many students either drop, or fail the subject. In addition, many of those who pass develop a huge dislike towards Physics, consider the whole experience as time wasted, and spread this opinion among their peers and friends. The above issues were addressed by introducing numerous changes to the curriculum and modifying strategies and approaches in teaching Physics for Life Sciences. Instead of a conventional approach - teaching Physics from simple to complicated, topic after topic, the students were placed in the world of Physics in the same way as a newborn child is introduced to this world - everything is seen all the time and everywhere. That created a unique environment where a bigger picture and all details were always present and interrelated. Numerous concepts of classical and modern physics were discussed, compared, and interconnected all the time with “Light” being a key component. Our primary field of research is Atmospheric Physics, in particular studying the atmospheric composition and structure using various satellite and ground-based data. With this expertise and also inspired by an increasing importance of training a scientifically educated generation who understands the challenges of the modern society and responsibilities that come with wealth, a new section on environmental physics has been developed. It included atmospheric processes and the greenhouse

  16. The application of local measures of spatial autocorrelation for describing pattern in north Australian landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Diane M

    2002-01-01

    This paper tests the use of a spatial analysis technique, based on the calculation of local spatial autocorrelation, as a possible approach for modelling and quantifying structure in northern Australian savanna landscapes. Unlike many landscapes in the world, northern Australian savanna landscapes appear on the surface to be intact. They have not experienced the same large-scale land clearance and intensive land management as other landscapes across Australia. Despite this, natural resource managers are beginning to notice that processes are breaking down and declines in species are becoming more evident. With future declines of species looking more imminent it is particularly important that models are available that can help to assess landscape health, and quantify any structural change that takes place. GIS and landscape ecology provide a useful way of describing landscapes both spatially and temporally and have proved to be particularly useful for understanding vegetation structure or pattern in landscapes across the world. There are many measures that examine spatial structure in the landscape and most of these are now available in a GIS environment (e.g. FRAGSTATS* ARC, r.le, and Patch Analyst). All these methods depend on a landscape described in terms of patches, corridors and matrix. However, since landscapes in northern Australia appear to be relatively intact they tend to exist as surfaces of continuous variation rather than in clearly defined homogeneous units. As a result they cannot be easily described using entity-based models requiring patches and other essentially cartographic approaches. This means that more appropriate methods need to be developed and explored. The approach examined in this paper enables clustering and local pattern in the data to be identified and forms a generic method for conceptualising the landscape structure where patches are not obvious and where boundaries between landscape features are difficult to determine. Two sites

  17. Characterization of Forested Landscapes From Remotely Sensed Data Using Fractals and Spatial Autocorrelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Cruise, James F.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of forested areas is frequently required in resource management practice. Passive remotely sensed data, which are much more accessible and cost effective than are active data, have rarely, if ever, been used to characterize forest structure directly, but rather they usually focus on the estimation of indirect measurement of biomass or canopy coverage. In this study, some spatial analysis techniques are presented that might be employed with Landsat TM data to analyze forest structure characteristics. A case study is presented wherein fractal dimensions, along with a simple spatial autocorrelation technique (Moran s I), were related to stand density parameters of the Oakmulgee National Forest located in the southeastern United States (Alabama). The results of the case study presented herein have shown that as the percentage of smaller diameter trees becomes greater, and particularly if it exceeds 50%, then the canopy image obtained from Landsat TM data becomes sufficiently homogeneous so that the spatial indices reach their lower limits and thus are no longer determinative. It also appears, at least for the Oakmulgee forest, that the relationships between the spatial indices and forest class percentages within the boundaries can reasonably be considered linear. The linear relationship is much more pronounced in the sawtimber and saplings cases than in samples dominated by medium sized trees (poletimber). In addition, it also appears that, at least for the Oakmulgee forest, the relationships between the spatial indices and forest species groups (Hardwood and Softwood) percentages can reasonably be considered linear. The linear relationship is more pronounced in the forest species groups cases than in the forest classes cases. These results appear to indicate that both fractal dimensions and spatial autocorrelation indices hold promise as means of estimating forest stand characteristics from remotely sensed images. However, additional work is

  18. Estimating where and how animals travel: an optimal framework for path reconstruction from autocorrelated tracking data.

    PubMed

    Fleming, C H; Fagan, W F; Mueller, T; Olson, K A; Leimgruber, P; Calabrese, J M

    2016-03-01

    An animal's trajectory is a fundamental object of interest in movement ecology, as it directly informs a range of topics from resource selection to energy expenditure and behavioral states. Optimally inferring the mostly unobserved movement path and its dynamics from a limited sample of telemetry observations is a key unsolved problem, however. The field of geostatistics has focused significant attention on a mathematically analogous problem that has a statistically optimal solution coined after its inventor, Krige. Kriging revolutionized geostatistics and is now the gold standard for interpolating between a limited number of autocorrelated spatial point observations. Here we translate Kriging for use with animal movement data. Our Kriging formalism encompasses previous methods to estimate animal's trajectories--the Brownian bridge and continuous-time correlated random walk library--as special cases, informs users as to when these previous methods are appropriate, and provides a more general method when they are not. We demonstrate the capabilities of Kriging on a case study with Mongolian gazelles where, compared to the Brownian bridge, Kriging with a more optimal model was 10% more precise in interpolating locations and 500% more precise in estimating occurrence areas. PMID:27197385

  19. Ultrasound modulated light blood flow measurement using intensity autocorrelation function: a Monte-Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsalach, A.; Metzger, Y.; Breskin, I.; Zeitak, R.; Shechter, R.

    2014-03-01

    Development of techniques for continuous measurement of regional blood flow, and in particular cerebral blood flow (CBF), is essential for monitoring critical care patients. Recently, a novel technique, based on ultrasound modulation of light was developed for non-invasive, continuous CBF monitoring (termed ultrasound-tagged light (UTL or UT-NIRS)), and shown to correlate with readings of 133 Xe SPECT1 and laser Doppler2. Coherent light is introduced into the tissue concurrently with an Ultrasound (US) field. Displacement of scattering centers within the sampled volume induced by Brownian motion, blood flow and the US field affects the photons' temporal correlation. Hence, the temporal fluctuations of the obtained speckle pattern provide dynamic information about the blood flow. We developed a comprehensive simulation, combining the effects of Brownian motion, US and flow on the obtained speckle pattern. Photons trajectories within the tissue are generated using a Monte-Carlo based model. Then, the temporal changes in the optical path due to displacement of scattering centers are determined, and the corresponding interference pattern over time is derived. Finally, the light intensity autocorrelation function of a single speckle is calculated, from which the tissue decorrelation time is determined. The simulation's results are compared with in-vitro experiments, using a digital correlator, demonstrating decorrelation time prediction within the 95% confidence interval. This model may assist in the development of optical based methods for blood flow measurements and particularly, in methods using the acousto-optic effect.

  20. Snow Pack and Lake Ice Pack Remote Sensing using Wideband Autocorrelation Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S.; De Roo, R. D.; Sarabandi, K.; England, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    A novel microwave radiometric technique, wideband autocorrelation radiometry (WiBAR), offers a deterministic method of remotely sensing the propagation time τdelay of microwaves through low loss layers at the bottom of the atmosphere. Terrestrial examples are the snow and lake ice packs. This technique is based on the Planck radiation from the surface beneath the pack which travels upwards through the pack towards the radiometer; such a signal we call a direct signal. On the other hand, part of this radiation reflects back from the pack's upper interface then from its lower interface, before traveling towards the radiometer's antenna. Thus, there are two signals received by the radiometer, the direct signal and a delayed copy of it. The microwave propagation time τdelay through the pack yields a measure of its vertical extent. We report a time series of measurements of the ice pack on Lake Superior from February to April 2014 to demonstrate this technique. The observations are done at frequencies from 7 to 10 GHz. At these frequencies, the volume and surface scattering are small in the ice pack. This technique is inherently low-power since there is no transmitter as opposed to active remote sensing techniques. The results of this paper is to present the WiBAR technique and show that the microwave travel time within a dry snow pack and lake ice pack can be deterministically measured for different thicknesses using this technique.

  1. Shear-stress relaxation and ensemble transformation of shear-stress autocorrelation functions.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, J P; Xu, H; Baschnagel, J

    2015-02-01

    We revisit the relation between the shear-stress relaxation modulus G(t), computed at finite shear strain 0<γ≪1, and the shear-stress autocorrelation functions C(t)|(γ) and C(t)|(τ) computed, respectively, at imposed strain γ and mean stress τ. Focusing on permanent isotropic spring networks it is shown theoretically and computationally that in general G(t)=C(t)|(τ)=C(t)|(γ)+G(eq) for t>0 with G(eq) being the static equilibrium shear modulus. G(t) and C(t)|(γ) thus must become different for solids and it is impossible to obtain G(eq) alone from C(t)|(γ) as often assumed. We comment briefly on self-assembled transient networks where G(eq)(f) must vanish for a finite scission-recombination frequency f. We argue that G(t)=C(t)|(τ)=C(t)|(γ) should reveal an intermediate plateau set by the shear modulus G(eq)(f=0) of the quenched network.

  2. Estimating where and how animals travel: an optimal framework for path reconstruction from autocorrelated tracking data.

    PubMed

    Fleming, C H; Fagan, W F; Mueller, T; Olson, K A; Leimgruber, P; Calabrese, J M

    2016-03-01

    An animal's trajectory is a fundamental object of interest in movement ecology, as it directly informs a range of topics from resource selection to energy expenditure and behavioral states. Optimally inferring the mostly unobserved movement path and its dynamics from a limited sample of telemetry observations is a key unsolved problem, however. The field of geostatistics has focused significant attention on a mathematically analogous problem that has a statistically optimal solution coined after its inventor, Krige. Kriging revolutionized geostatistics and is now the gold standard for interpolating between a limited number of autocorrelated spatial point observations. Here we translate Kriging for use with animal movement data. Our Kriging formalism encompasses previous methods to estimate animal's trajectories--the Brownian bridge and continuous-time correlated random walk library--as special cases, informs users as to when these previous methods are appropriate, and provides a more general method when they are not. We demonstrate the capabilities of Kriging on a case study with Mongolian gazelles where, compared to the Brownian bridge, Kriging with a more optimal model was 10% more precise in interpolating locations and 500% more precise in estimating occurrence areas.

  3. Autocorrelation structure at rest predicts value correlates of single neurons during reward-guided choice

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Sean E; Wallis, Joni D; Kennerley, Steven W; Hunt, Laurence T

    2016-01-01

    Correlates of value are routinely observed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during reward-guided decision making. In previous work (Hunt et al., 2015), we argued that PFC correlates of chosen value are a consequence of varying rates of a dynamical evidence accumulation process. Yet within PFC, there is substantial variability in chosen value correlates across individual neurons. Here we show that this variability is explained by neurons having different temporal receptive fields of integration, indexed by examining neuronal spike rate autocorrelation structure whilst at rest. We find that neurons with protracted resting temporal receptive fields exhibit stronger chosen value correlates during choice. Within orbitofrontal cortex, these neurons also sustain coding of chosen value from choice through the delivery of reward, providing a potential neural mechanism for maintaining predictions and updating stored values during learning. These findings reveal that within PFC, variability in temporal specialisation across neurons predicts involvement in specific decision-making computations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18937.001 PMID:27705742

  4. Spectrum auto-correlation analysis and its application to fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, A. B.; Qin, Z. Y.; Zhang, W.; Chu, F. L.

    2013-12-01

    Bearing failure is one of the most common reasons of machine breakdowns and accidents. Therefore, the fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings is of great significance to the safe and efficient operation of machines owing to its fault indication and accident prevention capability in engineering applications. Based on the orthogonal projection theory, a novel method is proposed to extract the fault characteristic frequency for the incipient fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings in this paper. With the capability of exposing the oscillation frequency of the signal energy, the proposed method is a generalized form of the squared envelope analysis and named as spectral auto-correlation analysis (SACA). Meanwhile, the SACA is a simplified form of the cyclostationary analysis as well and can be iteratively carried out in applications. Simulations and experiments are used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method. Comparing the results of SACA, the traditional envelope analysis and the squared envelope analysis, it is found that the result of SACA is more legible due to the more prominent harmonic amplitudes of the fault characteristic frequency and that the SACA with the proper iteration will further enhance the fault features.

  5. Single-shot electron bunch length measurements using a spatial electro-optical autocorrelation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sütterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jäckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel

    2010-10-01

    A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.

  6. High-Responsivity Graphene-Boron Nitride Photodetector and Autocorrelator in a Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ren-Jye; Gao, Yuanda; Wang, Yifei; Peng, Cheng; Robertson, Alexander D; Efetov, Dmitri K; Assefa, Solomon; Koppens, Frank H L; Hone, James; Englund, Dirk

    2015-11-11

    Graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as promising materials for broadband and ultrafast photodetection and optical modulation. These optoelectronic capabilities can augment complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices for high-speed and low-power optical interconnects. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip ultrafast photodetector based on a two-dimensional heterostructure consisting of high-quality graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. Coupled to the optical mode of a silicon waveguide, this 2D heterostructure-based photodetector exhibits a maximum responsivity of 0.36 A/W and high-speed operation with a 3 dB cutoff at 42 GHz. From photocurrent measurements as a function of the top-gate and source-drain voltages, we conclude that the photoresponse is consistent with hot electron mediated effects. At moderate peak powers above 50 mW, we observe a saturating photocurrent consistent with the mechanisms of electron-phonon supercollision cooling. This nonlinear photoresponse enables optical on-chip autocorrelation measurements with picosecond-scale timing resolution and exceptionally low peak powers.

  7. Impact of infrastructure and local environment on road unsafety. Logistic modeling with spatial autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Flahaut, Benoît

    2004-11-01

    This article aims at modeling the impact of road characteristics and local spatial environment on road (un)safety. The study applies to Belgium where some 1,500 people are killed annually on the roads. This statistic corresponds to one of the highest risks in Europe. Road unsafety is expressed here as whether an hectometer of road belongs to a black zone; a black zone is defined as a segment of road where roads accidents are concentrated. Logistic modeling including spatial autocorrelation is used and compared to non-spatial regression. It is shown that a spatial model is needed to avoid biased estimated parameters. Results show that local environment and road infrastructure play a substantial role in the co-occurrence of road accidents. Hence, education and enforcement cannot be the only measures taken to reach a sustainable road safety. To attain their objectives of accident reduction, public authorities should also take their responsibilities in the matter of securing road infrastructure. PMID:15350882

  8. Creating Research-Rich Learning Experiences and Quantitative Skills in a 1st Year Earth Systems Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. L.; Eggins, S.; Jones, S.

    2014-12-01

    We are creating a 1st year Earth Systems course at the Australian National University that is built around research-rich learning experiences and quantitative skills. The course has top students including ≤20% indigenous/foreign students; nonetheless, students' backgrounds in math and science vary considerably posing challenges for learning. We are addressing this issue and aiming to improve knowledge retention and deep learning by changing our teaching approach. In 2013-2014, we modified the weekly course structure to a 1hr lecture; a 2hr workshop with hands-on activities; a 2hr lab; an assessment piece covering all face-to-face activities; and a 1hr tutorial. Our new approach was aimed at: 1) building student confidence with data analysis and quantitative skills through increasingly difficult tasks in science, math, physics, chemistry, climate science and biology; 2) creating effective learning groups using name tags and a classroom with 8-person tiered tables; 3) requiring students to apply new knowledge to new situations in group activities, two 1-day field trips and assessment items; 4) using pre-lab and pre-workshop exercises to promote prior engagement with key concepts; 5) adding open-ended experiments to foster structured 'scientific play' or enquiry and creativity; and 6) aligning the assessment with the learning outcomes and ensuring that it contains authentic and challenging southern hemisphere problems. Students were asked to design their own ocean current experiment in the lab and we were astounded by their ingenuity: they simulated the ocean currents off Antarctica; varied water density to verify an equation; and examined the effect of wind and seafloor topography on currents. To evaluate changes in student learning, we conducted surveys in 2013 and 2014. In 2014, we found higher levels of student engagement with the course: >~80% attendance rates and >~70% satisfaction (20% neutral). The 2014 cohort felt that they were more competent in writing

  9. PREFACE: 1st International School and Conference "Saint Petersburg OPEN 2014" on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-09-01

    Dear Colleagues, 1st International School and Conference "Saint Petersburg OPEN 2014" on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on March 25 - 27, 2014 at St. Petersburg Academic University - Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology. The keynote speakers were: Mikhail Glazov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Vladimir Dubrovskii (Saint Petersburg Academic University RAS, Russia) Alexey Kavokin (University of Southampton, United Kingdom and St. Petersburg State University, Russia) Vladimir Korenev (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Sergey Kukushkin (Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering RAS, Russia) Nikita Pikhtin (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia and "Elfolum" Ltd., Russia) Dmitry Firsov (Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Russia) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. Sufficiently large number of participants with more than 160 student attendees from all over the world allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for the fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for the valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers basing on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year's School and Conference is supported by SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics), OSA (The Optical Society), St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University and by Skolkovo Foundation. It is a continuation of the annual schools and

  10. 1st principle simulations of ions in water solutions: Bond structure and chemistry in the hydration shells of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weare, John

    2012-02-01

    Methods of direct simulation (Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics) have provided new insights into the structure and dynamics of electrolyte solutions. However, these methods are limited by the difficulty of developing reliable ion-solvent and solvent-solvent potential interactions in the highly perturbed hydration region. To model the interactions in this region methods of simulation that are based on the direct on the fly solution to the electronic Schr"odinger equation (ab-initio molecular dynamics, AIMD) are being developed. However, 1st principle methods have their own problems because the solution to the electronic structure problem is intractable unless rather uncontrolled approximations are made (e.g. density functional theory, DFT) and there is high computational cost to the solution to the Schr"odinger equation. To test the accuracy of AIMD methods we have directly simulated the XAFS spectra for a series of transition metal ions Ca^2+, Cr^3+, Mn^2+, Fe^3+, Co^2+, Ni^2+, Cu^2+, and Zn^2+. Despite DFT's well know deficiencies, the agreement between the calculated XAFS spectra and the data is almost quantitative for these test ions. This agreement supports the extension of the interpretation well beyond that of the usual XAFS analysis to include higher-order multiple scattering signals in the XAFS spectra, which provide a rigorous probe of the first shell distances and disorders. Less well resolved features of the spectra can still be analyzed and are related to 2nd shell structure. The combination of XAFS measurements and the parameter free AIMD method leads to new insights into the hydration structure of these ions. While strictly local DFT +gga provides excellent agreement with data, the addition of exact exchange seems to provide slightly better structural agreement. The computational complexity of these calculations requires the development of simulation tools that scale to high processor number on massively parallel supercomputers. Our present algorithm

  11. Extraordinary induction heating effect near the first order Curie transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barati, M. R.; Selomulya, C.; Sandeman, K. G.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-10-01

    While materials with a 1st order Curie transition (TC) are known for the magnetic cooling effect due to the reversibility of their large entropy change, they also have a great potential as a candidate material for induction heating where a large loss power is required under a limited alternating magnetic field. We have carried out a proof-of-concept study on the induction heating effect in 1st order ferromagnetic materials where the temperature is self-regulated at TC. LaFe11.57Si1.43H1.75, a well-known magnetocaloric material, was employed in this study because TC of this compound (319 K) resides in the ideal temperature range for hyperthermia treatment of cancerous cells. It is found that the hysteresis loss of LaFe11.57Si1.43H1.75 increases dramatically near TC due to the magnetic phase coexistence associated with the 1st order magnetic transition. The spontaneous magnetization (Ms) shows a very abrupt decrease from 110 Am2kg-1 at 316 K to zero at 319 K. This large Ms immediately below TC along with the enhanced irreversibility of the hysteresis curve result in a specific absorption rate as large as 0.5 kWg-1 under a field of 8.8 kAm-1 at 279 kHz. This value is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that observed under the same condition for conventional iron oxide-based materials. Moreover, the large heating effect is self-regulated at the 1st order TC (319 K). This proof-of-concept study shows that the extraordinary heating effect near the 1st order Curie point opens up a novel alloy design strategy for large, self-regulated induction heating.

  12. 1st Guidelines of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology on processes and skills for education in cardiology in Brazil--executive summary.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Marcos Roberto de; Mourilhe-Rocha, Ricardo; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Köhler, Ilmar; Feitosa, Gilson Soares; Schneider, Jamil Cherem; Feitosa-Filho, Gilson Soares; Nicolau, José Carlos; Ferreira, João Fernando Monteiro; Morais, Nelson Siqueira de

    2012-02-01

    This article summarizes the "1st Guidelines of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology on Processes and Skills for Education in Cardiology in Brazil," which can be found in full at: . The guideline establishes the education time required in Internal Medicine and Cardiology with Specialization through theoretical and practical training. These requirements must be available at the center forming Specialists in Cardiology and the Cardiology contents.

  13. The 1st European Summer School on 'proteomic basics'--the students view. 12-18 August, 2007 Kloster Neustift, Brixen/Bressanone, South Tyrol, Italy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Emily S; Little, Samantha J

    2008-01-01

    Fifty postgraduate and postdoctoral delegates from all over Europe attended the week-long '1st European Summer School on Proteomic Basics' in Kloster Neustift in the Italian South Tyrol in August 2007. Invited proteomics experts gave tutorial lectures on Proteomics techniques with an emphasis on sample preparation, protein separation and purification in the first of an annual series of Proteomics Summer Schools funded by the EU and the Volkswagen Stiftung.

  14. The 1st European Summer School on 'proteomic basics'--the students view. 12-18 August, 2007 Kloster Neustift, Brixen/Bressanone, South Tyrol, Italy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Emily S; Little, Samantha J

    2008-01-01

    Fifty postgraduate and postdoctoral delegates from all over Europe attended the week-long '1st European Summer School on Proteomic Basics' in Kloster Neustift in the Italian South Tyrol in August 2007. Invited proteomics experts gave tutorial lectures on Proteomics techniques with an emphasis on sample preparation, protein separation and purification in the first of an annual series of Proteomics Summer Schools funded by the EU and the Volkswagen Stiftung. PMID:18203275

  15. A binary sequence of period 60 with better autocorrelation properties than the Barker sequence of period 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, J.; Loftsson, J.; Tyler, S.

    1985-01-01

    A binary sequence of period 60 has been discovered which in some respects has better autocorrelation properties than the Barker sequence of period 13. When both sequences are processed using appropriate sidelobe-eliminating mismatched filters, the Barker sequence's main lobe is reduced by a factor of 1.040 or 0.17 dB, while the new sequence's main lobe is reduced by a factor of only 1.035 or 0.15 dB. This sequence is the first counterexample known to the authors of the hypothesis that the autocorrelation properties of all sequences of periods greater than 13 are inferior to those of the Barker period-13 sequences. Sequences of this type are very useful in radar and deep space communications, especially in situations where there is an adverse signal to noise ratio.

  16. Power-law decay of the velocity autocorrelation function of a granular fluid in the homogeneous cooling state.

    PubMed

    Brey, J Javier; Ruiz-Montero, M J

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodynamic part of the velocity autocorrelation function of a granular fluid in the homogeneous cooling state has been calculated by using mode-coupling theory for a finite system with periodic boundary conditions. The existence of the shearing instability, leading to a divergent behavior of the velocity flow fluctuations, is taken into account. A time region in which the velocity autocorrelation function exhibits a power-law decay, when time is measured by the number of collisions per particle, has been been identified. Also the explicit form of the exponential asymptotic long time decay has been obtained. The theoretical prediction for the power-law decay is compared with molecular dynamics simulation results, and a good agreement is found, after taking into account finite size corrections. The effects of approaching the shearing instability are also explored.

  17. The influence of autocorrelation in signature extraction - An example from a geobotanical investigation of Cotter Basin, MT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of positive serial correlation (autocorrelation) in remotely sensed data results in an underestimate of the variance-covariance matrix when calculated using contiguous pixels. This underestimate produces an inflation in F statistics. For a set of Thematic Mapper Simulator data (TMS), used to test the ability to discriminate a known geobotanical anomaly from its background, the inflation in F statistics related to serial correlation is between 7 and 70 times. This means that significance tests of means of the spectral bands initially appear to suggest that the anomalous site is very different in spectral reflectance and emittance from its background sites. However, this difference often disappears and is always dramatically reduced when compared to frequency distributions of test statistics produced by the comparison of simulated training sets possessing equal means, but which are composed of autocorrelated observations. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25602

  18. The influence of autocorrelation in signature extraction - An example from a geobotanical investigation of Cotter Basin, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of positive serial correlation (autocorrelation) in remotely sensed data results in an underestimate of the variance-covariance matrix when calculated using contiguous pixels. This underestimate produces an inflation in F statistics. For a set of Thematic Mapper Simulator data (TMS), used to test the ability to discriminate a known geobotanical anomaly from its background, the inflation in F statistics related to serial correlation is between 7 and 70 times. This means that significance tests of means of the spectal bands initially appear to suggest that the anomalous site is very different in spectral reflectance and emittance from its background sites. However, this difference often disappears and is always dramatically reduced when compared to frequency distributions of test statistics produced by the comparison of simulated training sets possessing equal means, but which are composed of autocorrelated observations.

  19. The influence of autocorrelation in signature extraction: An example from a geobotanical investigation of Cotter Basin, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The presence of positive serial correlation (autocorrelation) in remotely sensed data results in an underestimate of the variance-covariance matrix when calculated using contiguous pixels. This underestimate produces an inflation in F statistics. For a set of Thematic Mapper Simulator data (TMS), used to test the ability to discriminate a known geobotanical anomaly from its background, the inflation in F statistics related to serial correlation is between 7 and 70 times. This means that significance tests of means of the spectral bands initially appear to suggest that the anomalous site is very different in spectral reflectance and emittance from its background sites. However, this difference often disappears and is always dramatically reduced when compared to frequency distributions of test statistics produced by the comparison of simulated training sets possessing equal means, but which are composed of autocorrelated observations.

  20. Power-law decay of the velocity autocorrelation function of a granular fluid in the homogeneous cooling state.

    PubMed

    Brey, J Javier; Ruiz-Montero, M J

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodynamic part of the velocity autocorrelation function of a granular fluid in the homogeneous cooling state has been calculated by using mode-coupling theory for a finite system with periodic boundary conditions. The existence of the shearing instability, leading to a divergent behavior of the velocity flow fluctuations, is taken into account. A time region in which the velocity autocorrelation function exhibits a power-law decay, when time is measured by the number of collisions per particle, has been been identified. Also the explicit form of the exponential asymptotic long time decay has been obtained. The theoretical prediction for the power-law decay is compared with molecular dynamics simulation results, and a good agreement is found, after taking into account finite size corrections. The effects of approaching the shearing instability are also explored. PMID:25679614

  1. AUTO: A computer program for the determination of the two-dimensional autocorrelation function of digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleiderer, S.; Ball, D. G. A.; Bailey, R. C.

    1993-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) autocorrelation function (ACF) of an image statistically characterizes the spatial pattern within that image and presents a powerful tool for fabric analysis. It determines shape preferred orientation, degree of alignment, and distribution anisotropy of image objects. We present here a fast, user-friendly, MS-DOS based computer program, AUTO, to calculate the 2-D ACF of a digital monochrome image. AUTO displays an image on the screen and allows selection of a portion of the image for autocorrelation. Rapid calculation of ACF values is achieved by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) routine according to the convolution theorem. The spatial distribution of ACF values is contoured for quantitative analysis of fabric anisotropy. Applications of this technique include the determination of grain or pore fabric of geological specimens, strain analysis, and the interpretation of petrophysical properties.

  2. Improving autocorrelation regression for the Hurst parameter estimation of long-range dependent time series based on golden section search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Peidong; Leng, Jianxing

    2016-03-01

    This article presents an improved autocorrelation correlation function (ACF) regression method of estimating the Hurst parameter of a time series with long-range dependence (LRD) by using golden section search (GSS). We shall show that the present method is substantially efficient than the conventional ACF regression method of H estimation. Our research uses fractional Gaussian noise as a data case but the method introduced is applicable to time series with LRD in general.

  3. Variability of human gait: effect of backward walking and dual-tasking on the presence of long-range autocorrelations.

    PubMed

    Bollens, Benjamin; Crevecoeur, Frédéric; Detrembleur, Christine; Warlop, Thibault; Lejeune, Thierry M

    2014-04-01

    Information from the central and peripheral nervous systems is continuously integrated to produce a stable gait pattern. However, stride duration fluctuates in a complex manner in healthy subjects, exhibiting long-range autocorrelations that can span over hundreds of consecutive strides. The present study was conducted to explore the mechanisms controlling the long-term fluctuation dynamics of gait. In the first part of the study, stride duration variability was evaluated on a treadmill during forward (FW) and backward walking (BW). Despite the modification of the biomechanical constraints imposed on the locomotor system, the characteristics of the long-range autocorrelations remained unchanged in both modes of locomotion (FW: H = 0.79 ± 0.04 and α = 0.58 ± 0.13; BW: H = 0.79 ± 0.11 and α = 0.53 ± 0.25). In the second part of the study, stride duration variability was assessed while the subjects were performing a dual-task paradigm that combined gait and mental calculation. The long-term variability of stride duration was similar during usual walking (H = 0.80 ± 0.06 and α = 0.57 ± 0.13) and in dual-tasking (H = 0.77 ± 0.06 and α = 0.52 ± 0.16), whereas walking altered the performance of the cognitive task. Hence, the biomechanical and cognitive interferences imposed in the present study were not sufficient to induce a modification of the long-range autocorrelations highlighted in walking variability. These observations underline the robustness of the long-range autocorrelations. PMID:24366525

  4. Possible origin of the non-linear long-term autocorrelations within the Gaussian regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Świtała, Filip

    2003-12-01

    time series), which are collected with a discrete time step, we used in the continuous-time series produced by the model a discretization procedure. We observed that such a procedure generates, in general, long-range non-linear autocorrelations even in the Gaussian regime, which appear to be similar to those observed, e.g., in the financial time series (Phys. A 287 (2000) 396; Phys. A 299 (2001) 1; Phys. A 299 (2001) 16; Phys. A 299 (2001) 16), although single steps of the walker within continuous time are, by definition, uncorrelated. This suggests a suprising origin of long-range non-linear autocorrelations alternative to the one proposed very recently (cf. Mosaliver et al. (Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003) 021112) and refs. therein) although both approaches involve related variants of the well-known continuous-time random walk formalism applied yet in many different branches of knowledge (Phys. Rep. 158 (1987) 263; Phys. Rep. 195 (1990) 127; in: A. Bunde, S. Havlin (Eds.), Fractals in Science, Springer, Berlin, 1995, p. 1).

  5. Long-time behavior of the velocity autocorrelation function at low densities and near the critical point of simple fluids.

    PubMed

    Dib, R F A; Ould-Kaddour, F; Levesque, D

    2006-07-01

    Numerous theoretical and numerical works have been devoted to the study of the algebraic decrease at large times of the velocity autocorrelation function of particles in a fluid. The derivation of this behavior, the so-called long-time tail, generally based on linearized hydrodynamics, makes no reference to any specific characteristic of the particle interactions. However, in the literature doubts have been expressed about the possibility that by numerical simulations the long-time tail can be observed in the whole fluid phase domain of systems in which the particles interact by soft-core and attractive pair potentials. In this work, extensive and accurate molecular-dynamics simulations establish that the predicted long-time tail of the velocity autocorrelation function exists in a low-density fluid of particles interacting by a soft-repulsive potential and near the liquid-gas critical point of a Lennard-Jones system. These results contribute to the confirmation that the algebraic decay of the velocity autocorrelation function is universal in these fluid systems.

  6. The analysis of trend variations of reference evapotranspiration via eliminating the significance effect of all autocorrelation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirataee, Babak; Montaseri, Majid; Sanikhani, Hadi

    2016-10-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is considered a key parameter for evaluating the climatic changes as well as spatial and temporal patterns of parameters influencing the eco-hydrological processes. The analysis of trend variations of this index can be used to determine appropriate strategies in planning and management of water resources. In this paper, the trend variations of monthly and annual ET0 in Urmia Lake basin, located in the northwest of Iran, have been analyzed using data from 14 synoptic stations in the study area. Regarding the significant effect of autocorrelation coefficients with different lags on trend variations of ET0, this paper has resorted to modified Mann-Kendall test via eliminating the significance effect of autocorrelation coefficients with different lags to analyze the trend variations. Furthermore, Theil-Sen estimator has been used to determine the slope of trend line of ET0. The results indicated an increasing trend in ET0 values at all the studied stations. Having used the modified Mann-Kendall test, the values of significant increasing (positive) trend, which were estimated using common Mann-Kendall test, dramatically decreased. As such, the values of only 7 stations have been significant at 95 % level. The results confirmed the need for eliminating the significance effect of autocorrelation coefficients with different lags to determine and evaluate the trend of hydrological variables.

  7. Dynamics of revolution time variability in cycling pattern: voluntary intent can alter the long-range autocorrelations.

    PubMed

    Warlop, Thibault B; Bollens, Benjamin; Crevecoeur, Frédéric; Detrembleur, Christine; Lejeune, Thierry M

    2013-08-01

    Long-range dependency has been found in most rhythmic motor signals. The origin of this property is unknown and largely debated. There is a controversy on the influence of voluntary control induced by requiring a pre-determined pace such as asking subjects to step to a metronome. We studied the cycle duration variability of 15 men pedaling on an ergometer at free pace and at an imposed pace (60 rpm). Revolution time was determined based on accelerometer signals (sample frequency 512 Hz). Revolution time variability was assessed by coefficient of variation (CV). The presence of long-range autocorrelations was based on scaling properties of the series variability (Hurst exponent) and the shape of the power spectral density (α exponent). Mean revolution time was significantly lower at freely chosen cadence, while values of CV were similar between both sessions. Long-range autocorrelations were highlighted in all series of cycling patterns. However, Hurst and α exponents were significantly lower at imposed cadence. This study demonstrates the presence of long-range autocorrelations during cycling and that voluntary intent can modulate the interdependency between consecutive cycles. Therefore, cycling may constitute a powerful paradigm to investigate the influence of central control mechanisms on the long-range interdependency characterizing rhythmic motor tasks. PMID:23712680

  8. Explaining local-scale species distributions: relative contributions of spatial autocorrelation and landscape heterogeneity for an avian assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Blank, Peter J.; Sauer, John R.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition.

  9. Explaining Local-Scale Species Distributions: Relative Contributions of Spatial Autocorrelation and Landscape Heterogeneity for an Avian Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Blank, Peter J.; Sauer, John R.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition. PMID:23393564

  10. ROTATION PERIODS OF 34,030 KEPLER MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: THE FULL AUTOCORRELATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    McQuillan, A.; Mazeh, T.; Aigrain, S.

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed three years of data from the Kepler space mission to derive rotation periods of main-sequence stars below 6500 K. Our automated autocorrelation-based method detected rotation periods between 0.2 and 70 days for 34,030 (25.6%) of the 133,030 main-sequence Kepler targets (excluding known eclipsing binaries and Kepler Objects of Interest), making this the largest sample of stellar rotation periods to date. In this paper we consider the detailed features of the now well-populated period-temperature distribution and demonstrate that the period bimodality, first seen by McQuillan et al. in the M-dwarf sample, persists to higher masses, becoming less visible above 0.6 M {sub ☉}. We show that these results are globally consistent with the existing ground-based rotation-period data and find that the upper envelope of the period distribution is broadly consistent with a gyrochronological age of 4.5 Gyr, based on the isochrones of Barnes, Mamajek, and Hillenbrand and Meibom et al. We also performed a detailed comparison of our results to those of Reinhold et al. and Nielsen et al., who measured rotation periods of field stars observed by Kepler. We examined the amplitude of periodic variability for the stars with detection rotation periods, and found a typical range between ∼950 ppm (5th percentile) and ∼22,700 ppm (95th percentile), with a median of ∼5600 ppm. We found typically higher amplitudes for shorter periods and lower effective temperatures, with an excess of low-amplitude stars above ∼5400 K.

  11. Viscosity and stress autocorrelation function in supercooled water: a molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guang-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Gang; Refson, Keith; Zhao, Ya-Juan

    Following GUO, G.-J., and ZHANG, Y.-G., 2001, Molec. Phys. , 99 , 283, which calculates the bulk and shear viscosities of SPC/E water at 30°C and 0.999gcm -3 , further molecular dynamics simulations have been performed at state points of 0°C,-20°C,-40°C, and -60°C along an approximate isobar with the previous state point. SACF and BACF (stress autocorrelation functions related to shear and bulk viscosities, respectively) of high precision have been obtained and compared for their similarities and differences. Shear and bulk viscosities calculated from them showed an increased deviation from real water with decreasing temperature. These correlation functions were then fitted using a uniform two-step relaxation function including a fast oscillatory Kohlrausch law and a slow straightforward Kohlrausch law. The fitting parameters of SACF and BACF have been analysed in detail, and several interesting dynamic phenomena were observed. (1) The oscillation frequency of SACF (44 ~ 48ps -1 ) for short time intervals agrees with the stretching mode of hydrogen bonds, while that of BACF (7 ~ 12ps -1 ) agrees with the bending mode of hydrogen bonds. (2) With decreasing temperature, the slow relaxation fraction of the BACF increases, while that of the SACF remains constant. (3) The exponents βin the Kohlrausch laws with values greater than 1 are obtained for BACF at ambient temperatures. (4) With regard to both shear and bulk viscosities, the slow relaxation time largely increases with decreasing temperature, while the fast relaxation time slightly decreases. These phenomena are qualitatively explained and discussed.

  12. Equatorial anisotropy of the Earth's inner inner core from autocorrelations of earthquake coda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Song, X.; Xia, H.

    2014-12-01

    The anisotropic structure of the inner core seems complex with significant depth and lateral variations. An innermost inner core has been suggested with a distinct form of anisotropy, but it has considerable uncertainties in its form, size, or even existence. All the previous inner-core anisotropy models have assumed a cylindrical anisotropy with the symmetry axis parallel (or nearly parallel) to the Earth's spin axis. In this study, we obtain inner-core phases, PKIIKP2 and PKIKP2 (the round-trip phases between the station and its antipode that passes straight through the center of the Earth and that is reflected from the inner-core boundary, respectively), from stackings of autocorrelations of earthquake coda at seismic station clusters around the world. The differential travel times PKIIKP2 - PKIKP2, which are sensitive to inner-core structure, show fast arrivals at high latitudes. However, we also observed large variations of up to 10 s along equatorial paths. These observations can be explained by a cylindrical anisotropy in the inner inner core (IIC) (with a radius of slightly less than half the inner core radius) that has a fast axis aligned near the equator and a cylindrical anisotropy in the outer inner core (OIC) that has a fast axis along the north-south direction. The equatorial fast axis of the IIC is near the Central America and the Southeast Asia. The form of the anisotropy in the IIC is distinctly different from that in the OIC and the anisotropy amplitude in the IIC is about 70% stronger than in the OIC. The different forms of anisotropy may be explained by a two-phase system of iron in the inner core (hcp in the OIC and bcc in the IIC). These results may suggest a major shift of the tectonics of the inner core during its formation and growth.

  13. PREFACE: 1st Nano-IBCT Conference 2011 - Radiation Damage of Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Bernd A.; Malot, Christiane; Domaracka, Alicja; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    The 1st Nano-IBCT Conference entitled 'Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy' was held in Caen, France, in October 2011. The Meeting was organised in the framework of the COST Action MP1002 (Nano-IBCT) which was launched in December 2010 (http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/nano-ibct). This action aims to promote the understanding of mechanisms and processes underlying the radiation damage of biomolecular systems at the molecular and nanoscopic level and to use the findings to improve the strategy of Ion Beam Cancer Therapy. In the hope of achieving this, participants from different disciplines were invited to represent the fields of physics, biology, medicine and chemistry, and also included those from industry and the operators of hadron therapy centres. Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal healthy tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. Several ion beam cancer therapy clinical centres are now operating in Europe and elsewhere. However, the full potential of such therapy can only be exploited by better understanding the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that lead to cell death under ion irradiation. Considering a range of spatio-temporal scales, the proposed action therefore aims to combine the unique experimental and theoretical expertise available within Europe to acquire greater insight at the nanoscopic and molecular level into radiation damage induced by ion impact. Success in this endeavour will be both an important scientific breakthrough and give great impetus to the practical improvement of this innovative therapeutic technique. Ion therapy potentially provides an important advance in cancer therapy and the COST action MP1002 will be very significant in ensuring Europe's leadership in this field, providing the scientific background, required data and mechanistic insight which

  14. Dependency of supershear transition and ground motion on the autocorrelation of initial stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedes, Jan; Archuleta, Ralph J.; Lavallée, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    critical value. We introduce a modified dimensionless parameter κac that is based on the original parameter κ. The parameter κac incorporates a length scale Wac that reflects the degree of the autocorrelation of the stress field. We compute κac for a large number of available dynamic ruptures that propagate at subshear and supershear speeds and find: i) there is a critical value κac( c) below which all ruptures propagate subshear; ii) for values larger than κac( c) there is only a finite probability that the rupture goes supershear, i.e. it is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the occurrence of supershear rupture propagation.

  15. Characterizing tissue microstructure using an ultrasound system-independent spatial autocorrelation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fang

    1999-09-01

    The research described in this dissertation is related to characterization of tissue microstructure using a system- independent spatial autocorrelation function (SAF). The function was determined using a reference phantom method, which employed a well-defined ``point- scatterer'' reference phantom to account for instrumental factors. The SAF's were estimated for several tissue-mimicking (TM) phantoms and fresh dog livers. Both phantom tests and in vitro dog liver measurements showed that the reference phantom method is relatively simple and fairly accurate, providing the bandwidth of the measurement system is sufficient for the size of the scatterer being involved in the scattering process. Implementation of this method in clinical scanner requires that distortions from patient's body wall be properly accounted for. The SAF's were estimated for two phantoms with body-wall-like distortions. The experimental results demonstrated that body wall distortions have little effect if echo data are acquired from a large scattering volume. One interesting application of the SAF is to form a ``scatterer size image''. The scatterer size image may help providing diagnostic tools for those diseases in which the tissue microstructure is different from the normal. Another method, the BSC method, utilizes information contained in the frequency dependence of the backscatter coefficient to estimate the scatterer size. The SAF technique produced accurate scatterer size images of homogeneous TM phantoms and the BSC method was capable of generating accurate size images for heterogeneous phantoms. In the scatterer size image of dog kidneys, the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) between renal cortex and medulla was improved dramatically compared to the gray- scale image. The effect of nonlinear propagation was investigated by using a custom-designed phantom with overlaying TM fat layer. The results showed that the correlation length decreased when the transmitting power increased. The

  16. Auto-correlation of journal impact factor for consensus research reporting statements: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    factor of the journal in which a reporting statement was published was shown to influence the number of citations that statement will gather over time. Similarly, the number of article accesses also influenced the number of citations, although to a lesser extent than the impact factor. This demonstrates that citation counts are not purely a reflection of scientific merit and the impact factor is, in fact, auto-correlated. PMID:27069817

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of the distal movement of maxillary 1st molars in patients fitted with mini-implant-aided trans-palatal arches

    PubMed Central

    Miresmaeili, Amirfarhang; Sajedi, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate three-dimensional molar displacement after distalization via miniscrews and a horizontal modification of the trans-palatal-arch (TPA). Methods The subjects in this clinical trial were 26 Class II patients. After the preparation of a complete set of diagnostic records, miniscrews were inserted between the maxillary 2nd premolar and 1st molar on the palatal side. Elastic modules connected to the TPA exerting an average force of 150-200 g/side parallel to the occlusal plane were applied. Cone-beam computed tomography was utilized to evaluate the position of the miniscrews relative to the adjacent teeth and maxillary sinus, and the direction of force relative to molar furcation. The distances from the central point of the incisive papilla to the mesiopalatal cusps of the 1st maxillary molars and the distances between the mesiopalatal cusps of the left and right molars were measured to evaluate displacement of the maxillary molars on the horizontal plane. Interocclusal space was used to evaluate vertical changes. Results Mean maxillary 1st molar distalization was 2.3 ± 1.1 mm, at a rate of 0.4 ± 0.2 mm/month, and rotation was not significant. Intermolar width increased by 2.9 ± 1.8 mm. Molars were intruded relative to the neighboring teeth, from 0.1 to 0.8 mm. Conclusions Distalization of molars was possible without extrusion, using the appliance investigated. The intrusive component of force reduced the rate of distal movement. PMID:26445718

  18. Quantifying Temporal Autocorrelations for the Expression of Geobacter species mRNA Gene Transcripts at Variable Ammonium Levels during in situ U(VI) Bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouser, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    In order to develop decision-making tools for the prediction and optimization of subsurface bioremediation strategies, we must be able to link the molecular-scale activity of microorganisms involved in remediation processes with biogeochemical processes observed at the field-scale. This requires the ability to quantify changes in the in situ metabolic condition of dominant microbes and associate these changes to fluctuations in nutrient levels throughout the bioremediation process. It also necessitates a need to understand the spatiotemporal variability of the molecular-scale information to develop meaningful parameters and constraint ranges in complex bio-physio-chemical models. The expression of three Geobacter species genes (ammonium transporter (amtB), nitrogen fixation (nifD), and a housekeeping gene (recA)) were tracked at two monitoring locations that differed significantly in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations during a field-scale experiment where acetate was injected into the subsurface to simulate Geobacteraceae in a uranium-contaminated aquifer. Analysis of amtB and nifD mRNA transcript levels indicated that NH4+ was the primary form of fixed nitrogen during bioremediation. Overall expression levels of amtB were on average 8-fold higher at NH4+ concentrations of 300 μM or more than at lower NH4+ levels (average 60 μM). The degree of temporal correlation in Geobacter species mRNA expression levels was calculated at both locations using autocorrelation methods that describe the relationship between sample semi-variance and time lag. At the monitoring location with lower NH4+, a temporal correlation lag of 8 days was observed for both amtB and nifD transcript patterns. At the location where higher NH4+ levels were observed, no discernable temporal correlation lag above the sampling frequency (approximately every 2 days) was observed for amtB or nifD transcript fluctuations. Autocorrelation trends in recA expression levels at both locations indicated that

  19. Disentangling the effects of forage, social rank, and risk on movement autocorrelation of elephants using Fourier and wavelet analyses.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Polansky, Leo; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Getz, Wayne M

    2008-12-01

    The internal state of an individual-as it relates to thirst, hunger, fear, or reproductive drive-can be inferred by referencing points on its movement path to external environmental and sociological variables. Using time-series approaches to characterize autocorrelative properties of step-length movements collated every 3 h for seven free-ranging African elephants, we examined the influence of social rank, predation risk, and seasonal variation in resource abundance on periodic properties of movement. The frequency domain methods of Fourier and wavelet analyses provide compact summaries of temporal autocorrelation and show both strong diurnal and seasonal based periodicities in the step-length time series. This autocorrelation is weaker during the wet season, indicating random movements are more common when ecological conditions are good. Periodograms of socially dominant individuals are consistent across seasons, whereas subordinate individuals show distinct differences diverging from that of dominants during the dry season. We link temporally localized statistical properties of movement to landscape features and find that diurnal movement correlation is more common within protected wildlife areas, and multiday movement correlations found among lower ranked individuals are typically outside of protected areas where predation risks are greatest. A frequency-related spatial analysis of movement-step lengths reveal that rest cycles related to the spatial distribution of critical resources (i.e., forage and water) are responsible for creating the observed patterns. Our approach generates unique information regarding the spatial-temporal interplay between environmental and individual characteristics, providing an original approach for understanding the movement ecology of individual animals and the spatial organization of animal populations.

  20. Shared spatial effects on quantitative genetic parameters: accounting for spatial autocorrelation and home range overlap reduces estimates of heritability in wild red deer.

    PubMed

    Stopher, Katie V; Walling, Craig A; Morris, Alison; Guinness, Fiona E; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Nussey, Daniel H

    2012-08-01

    Social structure, limited dispersal, and spatial heterogeneity in resources are ubiquitous in wild vertebrate populations. As a result, relatives share environments as well as genes, and environmental and genetic sources of similarity between individuals are potentially confounded. Quantitative genetic studies in the wild therefore typically account for easily captured shared environmental effects (e.g., parent, nest, or region). Fine-scale spatial effects are likely to be just as important in wild vertebrates, but have been largely ignored. We used data from wild red deer to build "animal models" to estimate additive genetic variance and heritability in four female traits (spring and rut home range size, offspring birth weight, and lifetime breeding success). We then, separately, incorporated spatial autocorrelation and a matrix of home range overlap into these models to estimate the effect of location or shared habitat on phenotypic variation. These terms explained a substantial amount of variation in all traits and their inclusion resulted in reductions in heritability estimates, up to an order of magnitude up for home range size. Our results highlight the potential of multiple covariance matrices to dissect environmental, social, and genetic contributions to phenotypic variation, and the importance of considering fine-scale spatial processes in quantitative genetic studies.

  1. Breakdown of the continuum limit approximation to the discrete scattering events and its influence on the electric field autocorrelation functions of transmitted light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šormaz, Miloš; Reufer, Mathias; Völker, Andreas C.; Simon, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    The complexity of modeling light propagation in turbid media can be significantly simplified if one assumes it to be diffusive. This is, however, only valid after the light has traveled a sufficient distance so that the diffusion equation can be employed. So far, there has been no reliable way to determine this distance, despite the fact that the assumption is often applied in optics. The discrete nature of scattering events plays an important role in modeling propagation of weakly scattered light, so a continuum equation such as the diffusion equation cannot be used to describe this process. Electric field autocorrelation functions g1(τ ) of light transmitted through turbid colloidal samples are measured using diffusing wave spectroscopy and compared to Monte Carlo simulations in order to obtain a better estimation of the continuum limit. The two methods to calculate g1(τ ) from the simulated photon trajectories are compared; the first assumes the continuum limit by using the path-length distributions of photon trajectories, while the second considers the square momentum transfers and therefore accurately calculates g1(τ ) even if the detected signal is composed of weakly scattered light. The results of the two methods are used to determine the lengths of the shortest diffuse photon trajectories; they grow with the sample thickness and scattering anisotropy.

  2. Measurement of nonlinear optical refraction of composite material based on sapphire with silver by Kerr-lens autocorrelation method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang-xiang; Wang, Yu-hua

    2014-01-13

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized in a synthetic sapphire matrix were fabricated by ion implantation using the metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. The optical absorption spectrum of the Ag: Al2O3 composite material has been measured. The analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum displayed the nonlinear refractive property of this kind of sample. Nonlinear optical refraction index was identified at 800 nm excitation using the Kerr-lens autocorrelation (KLAC) technique. The spectrum showed that the material possessed self-defocusing property (n(2) = -1.1 × 10(-15) cm(2)W). The mechanism of nonlinear refraction has been discussed.

  3. Moral Judgment and Its Relation to Second-Order Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S.; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old…

  4. Weather Education. Proceedings of the International Conference on School and Popular Meteorological Education (1st, Oxford, England, July 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, J. M., Ed.

    The First International Conference on School and Popular Meteorological Education was designed to: (1) examine the need for the general public to be educated in science and mathematics in order to live in today's high technological society; (2) note special attributes that meteorology possesses as a vehicle to teach science and mathematics to all…

  5. COERC 2002: Appreciating Scholarship. Proceedings of the Annual College of Education Research Conference (1st, Miami, Florida, April 27, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Sarah M., Ed.; Rocco, Tonette S., Ed.

    This conference was designed to offer a view to novice scholars of what scholarship is and provide insights on how to share knowledge with others. The keynote speech by Lisa Delpit, "The Role of Scholarship," is not included in this volume. Other conference papers, presented in alphabetical order by first author, include: (1) "Social Studies in…

  6. Understanding abnormal potential behaviors at the 1st charge in Li2S cathode material for rechargeable Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yongjo; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2016-08-01

    In this study, electrochemical behaviors of Li2S such as a large potential barrier at the beginning of the 1st charging process and a continuous increase in potential to ∼4 V during the rest of this process were understood through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and electrochemical evaluations for a full utilization of Li2S. The large potential barrier to the 1st charge in Li2S can be caused by the presence of insulating oxidized products (Li2SO3 or Li2SO4-like structures) on the surface; simple surface etching can remove them and thereby reduce the potential barrier. Even though the potential barrier was substantially reduced, the electrochemical activity of Li2S might not be improved due to the continuous increase in potential. This increase in potential was related to the polarization caused by the Li2S-conversion reaction; the polarization can affect the utilization of Li2S in subsequent cycles. We speculate that the increase in potential is related to the decomposition of oxidized products such as Li2CO3-like or Li2O-like structures on the surface of the Li2S particles. These findings indicate that the full utilization of Li2S can be achieved by controlling their surface characteristics, especially the surface oxidation products. PMID:27426215

  7. Real-time autocorrelator for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy based on graphical-processor-unit architecture: method, implementation, and comparative studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laracuente, Nicholas; Grossman, Carl

    2013-03-01

    We developed an algorithm and software to calculate autocorrelation functions from real-time photon-counting data using the fast, parallel capabilities of graphical processor units (GPUs). Recent developments in hardware and software have allowed for general purpose computing with inexpensive GPU hardware. These devices are more suited for emulating hardware autocorrelators than traditional CPU-based software applications by emphasizing parallel throughput over sequential speed. Incoming data are binned in a standard multi-tau scheme with configurable points-per-bin size and are mapped into a GPU memory pattern to reduce time-expensive memory access. Applications include dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments. We ran the software on a 64-core graphics pci card in a 3.2 GHz Intel i5 CPU based computer running Linux. FCS measurements were made on Alexa-546 and Texas Red dyes in a standard buffer (PBS). Software correlations were compared to hardware correlator measurements on the same signals. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College

  8. Autocorrelation measurement of femtosecond laser pulses based on two-photon absorption in GaP photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, E. Z.; Watson, T. F.; Festy, F.

    2014-08-11

    Semiconductor materials which exhibit two-photon absorption characteristic within a spectral region of interest can be useful in building an ultra-compact interferometric autocorrelator. In this paper, we report on the evidence of a nonlinear absorption process in GaP photodiodes which was exploited to measure the temporal profile of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses with a tunable peak wavelength above 680 nm. The two-photon mediated conductivity measurements were performed at an average laser power of less than a few tenths of milliwatts. Its suitability as a single detector in a broadband autocorrelator setup was assessed by investigating the nonlinear spectral sensitivity bandwidth of a GaP photodiode. The highly favourable nonlinear response was found to cover the entire tuning range of our Ti:sapphire laser and can potentially be extended to wavelengths below 680 nm. We also demonstrated the flexibility of GaP in determining the optimum compensation value of the group delay dispersion required to restore the positively chirped pulses inherent in our experimental optical system to the shortest pulse width possible. With the rise in the popularity of nonlinear microscopy, the broad two-photon response of GaP and the simplicity of this technique can provide an alternative way of measuring the excitation laser pulse duration at the focal point of any microscopy systems.

  9. Hot temperatures can force delayed mosquito outbreaks via sequential changes in Aedes aegypti demographic parameters in autocorrelated environments.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Scott, Thomas W; Morrison, Amy C; Takada, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a common pantropical urban mosquito, vector of dengue, Yellow Fever and chikungunya viruses. Studies have shown Ae. aegypti abundance to be associated with environmental fluctuations, revealing patterns such as the occurrence of delayed mosquito outbreaks, i.e., sudden extraordinary increases in mosquito abundance following transient extreme high temperatures. Here, we use a two-stage (larvae and adults) matrix model to propose a mechanism for environmental signal canalization into demographic parameters of Ae. aegypti that could explain delayed high temperature induced mosquito outbreaks. We performed model simulations using parameters estimated from a weekly time series from Thailand, assuming either independent or autocorrelated environments. For autocorrelated environments, we found that long delays in the association between the onset of "hot" environments and mosquito outbreaks (10 weeks, as observed in Thailand) can be generated when "hot" environments sequentially trigger a larval survival decrease and over-compensatory fecundity increase, which lasts for the whole "hot" period, in conjunction with a larval survival increase followed by a fecundity decrease when the environment returns to "normal". This result was not observed for independent environments. Finally, we discuss our results implications for prospective entomological research and vector management under changing environments.

  10. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3rd African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities. PMID:26523191

  11. Specialty preferences of 1st year medical students in a Saudi Medical School – Factors affecting these choices and the influence of gender

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Qureshi, Habib; Al Wadani, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of career preference in medicine as it affects student learning and academic performance. Various factors influence the specialty choices of medical students. Some specialties tend to attract students more than others. One possible consequence of this would be a mismatch between health needs and specialist numbers in the region. This study investigated the career preferences of 1st year medical students in a Saudi medical school and to assess factors affecting these choices. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey carried out on the 1st year undergraduate students in the college of medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A total of 109 students (57 female and 52 males) responded to the questionnaire which was initially administered to all the students of the 1st year – A total of 120 students (response rate was 90.8%). A mixed method approach was used and qualitative data from open-ended questions were analyzed based on thematic analysis. Results: The top choices were general surgery, internal medicine, and pediatrics. Among female students; the top specialty choices were: General surgery (23%), pediatrics (18%), and dermatology (15%). Among the male students; the top choices were: General surgery (54%) and internal medicine (23%). Of the total, 57% of the students agreed or strongly agreed that primary aptitude was the main factor affecting the choice. Only 31% felt that there was a significant influence of role model, 48% felt that the advice of others – peers and family, would be a factor influencing their choices, and 53% agreed that specialty choice would influence their future learning patterns. Males were more likely to choose a specialty based on actual aptitude for the specialty, financial rewards, and scope for research; and this gender difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Surgery was the top-choice in both genders

  12. Effect of milk feed source, frequency of feeding and age at turnout on calf performance, live-weight at mating and 1st lactation milk production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Female calves (n = 108) were assigned to 6 cold milk feeding treatments in two experiments for a 70-day period. Live-weight (LW) was measured weekly, with an additional LW taken at day 410 and post-calving for animals in experiment 1. In Experiment 1, the effect of feeding frequency and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance and 1st lactation milk yields were evaluated. The whole milk (WM) feeding treatments applied were (i) once daily feeding (OD), (ii) twice daily feeding (TD), (iii) OD feeding, outdoors at 38 days (ODO). In Experiment 2, the effects of feeding milk replacer (MR) as opposed to WM and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance were evaluated. The treatments applied were (i) OD feeding with WM (OD), (ii) OD feeding with milk replacer (MR) (ODMR), (iii) OD feeding with MR, outdoors at 38 days (ODMRO). Experiment 1: There were no differences (P > 0.05) in LW or average daily gain between TD and OD calves at day 80 or 410. ODO calves had lower LW at day 80 as compared to OD or TD (P < 0.001). Calf LW at day 80 was 86, 89 and 85 kg and at day 410 was 304, 309 and 316 kg for OD, TD and ODO, respectively. Milk feeding frequency or time of calf turnout had no effect on LW post calving, milk composition or 1st lactation milk yields. Experiment 2: Total LW at day 80 was higher (P < 0.05) for ODMR compared to OD or ODMRO calves. Calf LW was 87, 95, and 88 kg for OD, ODMR and ODMRO, respectively. However, LW at day 410 did not differ between treatments. This study showed that while some differences were observed in calf LW at day 80, these differences had no effect on LW at day 410 or 1st lactation milk yield. It can be concluded that calves can be successfully reared when fed OD with WM or MR, indoors and when turned out to pasture at 38 days of age. PMID:23078871

  13. Joint U.S./Japan Conference on Adaptive Structures, 1st, Maui, HI, Nov. 13-15, 1990, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K. (Editor); Fanson, James L. (Editor); Miura, Koryo (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present volume of adaptive structures discusses the development of control laws for an orbiting tethered antenna/reflector system test scale model, the sizing of active piezoelectric struts for vibration suppression on a space-based interferometer, the control design of a space station mobile transporter with multiple constraints, and optimum configuration control of an intelligent truss structure. Attention is given to the formulation of full state feedback for infinite order structural systems, robustness issues in the design of smart structures, passive piezoelectric vibration damping, shape control experiments with a functional model for large optical reflectors, and a mathematical basis for the design optimization of adaptive trusses in precision control. Topics addressed include approaches to the optimal adaptive geometries of intelligent truss structures, the design of an automated manufacturing system for tubular smart structures, the Sandia structural control experiments, and the zero-gravity dynamics of space structures in parabolic aircraft flight.

  14. Order-parameter scaling in fluctuation-dominated phase ordering.

    PubMed

    Kapri, Rajeev; Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Barma, Mustansir

    2016-01-01

    In systems exhibiting fluctuation-dominated phase ordering, a single order parameter does not suffice to characterize the order, and it is necessary to monitor a larger set. For hard-core sliding particles on a fluctuating surface and the related coarse-grained depth (CD) models, this set comprises the long-wavelength Fourier components of the density profile, which capture the breakup and remerging of particle-rich regions. We study both static and dynamic scaling laws obeyed by the Fourier modes Q_{mL} and find that the mean value obeys the static scaling law 〈Q_{mL}〉∼L^{-ϕ}f(m/L) with ϕ≃2/3 and ϕ≃3/5 for Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) surface evolution, respectively, and ϕ≃3/4 for the CD model. The full probability distribution P(Q_{mL}) exhibits scaling as well. Further, time-dependent correlation functions such as the steady-state autocorrelation and cross-correlations of order-parameter components are scaling functions of t/L^{z}, where L is the system size and z is the dynamic exponent, with z=2 for EW and z=3/2 for KPZ surface evolution. In addition we find that the CD model shows temporal intermittency, manifested in the dynamical structure functions of the density and the weak divergence of the flatness as the scaled time approaches 0. PMID:26871034

  15. The transient nature of 2nd-order stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert F; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2008-05-01

    There are currently two competing dichotomies used to describe how local stereoscopic information is processed by the human visual system. The first is in terms of the type of the spatial filtering operations used to extract relevant image features prior to stereoscopic analysis (i.e. 1st- vs 2nd-order stereo; [Hess, R. F., & Wilcox, L. M. (1994). Linear and non-linear filtering in stereopsis. Vision Research, 34, 2431-2438]). The second is in terms of the temporal properties of the mechanisms used to process stereoscopic information (i.e. sustained vs transient stereo; [Schor, C. M., Edwards, M., & Pope, D. R. (1998). Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system. Vision Research, 38(20), 3057-3068]). Here we compare the dynamics of 1st- and 2nd-order stereopsis using several types of stimuli and find a clear dissociation in which 1st-order stimuli exhibit sustained properties while 2nd-order patterns show more transient properties. Our results and analyses unify and simplify two complimentary bodies of work. PMID:18407312

  16. The transient nature of 2nd-order stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert F; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2008-05-01

    There are currently two competing dichotomies used to describe how local stereoscopic information is processed by the human visual system. The first is in terms of the type of the spatial filtering operations used to extract relevant image features prior to stereoscopic analysis (i.e. 1st- vs 2nd-order stereo; [Hess, R. F., & Wilcox, L. M. (1994). Linear and non-linear filtering in stereopsis. Vision Research, 34, 2431-2438]). The second is in terms of the temporal properties of the mechanisms used to process stereoscopic information (i.e. sustained vs transient stereo; [Schor, C. M., Edwards, M., & Pope, D. R. (1998). Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system. Vision Research, 38(20), 3057-3068]). Here we compare the dynamics of 1st- and 2nd-order stereopsis using several types of stimuli and find a clear dissociation in which 1st-order stimuli exhibit sustained properties while 2nd-order patterns show more transient properties. Our results and analyses unify and simplify two complimentary bodies of work.

  17. Development of a Local Size Hierarchy Causes Regular Spacing of Trees in an Even-aged Abies Forest: Analyses Using Spatial Autocorrelation and the Mark Correlation Function

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Satoshi N.; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims During the development of an even-aged plant population, the spatial distribution of individuals often changes from a clumped pattern to a random or regular one. The development of local size hierarchies in an Abies forest was analysed for a period of 47 years following a large disturbance in 1959. Methods In 1980 all trees in an 8 × 8 m plot were mapped and their height growth after the disturbance was estimated. Their mortality and growth were then recorded at 1- to 4-year intervals between 1980 and 2006. Spatial distribution patterns of trees were analysed by the pair correlation function. Spatial correlations between tree heights were analysed with a spatial autocorrelation function and the mark correlation function. The mark correlation function was able to detect a local size hierarchy that could not be detected by the spatial autocorrelation function alone. Key Results The small-scale spatial distribution pattern of trees changed from clumped to slightly regular during the 47 years. Mortality occurred in a density-dependent manner, which resulted in regular spacing between trees after 1980. The spatial autocorrelation and mark correlation functions revealed the existence of tree patches consisting of large trees at the initial stage. Development of a local size hierarchy was detected within the first decade after the disturbance, although the spatial autocorrelation was not negative. Local size hierarchies that developed persisted until 2006, and the spatial autocorrelation became negative at later stages (after about 40 years). Conclusions This is the first study to detect local size hierarchies as a prelude to regular spacing using the mark correlation function. The results confirm that use of the mark correlation function together with the spatial autocorrelation function is an effective tool to analyse the development of a local size hierarchy of trees in a forest. PMID:18599560

  18. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Malone, John B

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

  19. JANNAF 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S.; Becker, Dorothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Volume I, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 24 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meeting held jointly with the 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered include: a Keynote Address on Future Combat Systems, a review of the new JANNAF Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee, and technical papers on Hyper-X propulsion development and verification; GTX airbreathing launch vehicles; Hypersonic technology development, including program overviews, fuels for advanced propulsion, ramjet and scramjet research, hypersonic test medium effects; and RBCC engine design and performance, and PDE and UCAV advanced and combined cycle engine technologies.

  20. [State of the reproductive systemin in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation (897 MHz) during embryogenesis and postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Vereshchako, G G; Chueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Naumov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone (897 MHz, daily 8 h/day) in male rats of the 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and subjected to prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation of the range of mobile communications during ontogeny and postnatal development were studied. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the number of births of animals, changing the sex ratio towards the increase in the number of males. It had a significant impact on the reproductive system of males, accelerating their sexual development, revealed at the age of two months. Radiation from cell phones led to significant disproportions in the cell number at different stages of spermatogenesis. It increased the number of mature spermatozoa which decreased viability.

  1. [State of the reproductive systemin in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation (897 MHz) during embryogenesis and postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Vereshchako, G G; Chueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Naumov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone (897 MHz, daily 8 h/day) in male rats of the 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and subjected to prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation of the range of mobile communications during ontogeny and postnatal development were studied. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the number of births of animals, changing the sex ratio towards the increase in the number of males. It had a significant impact on the reproductive system of males, accelerating their sexual development, revealed at the age of two months. Radiation from cell phones led to significant disproportions in the cell number at different stages of spermatogenesis. It increased the number of mature spermatozoa which decreased viability. PMID:25764821

  2. Understanding Stress-Related Behavioral Phenotypes: Report from the 1st International Neuroscience Summer School and the 11th International “Stress and Behavior” Conference

    PubMed Central

    LaPorte, J. L.; Klimenko, V. M.; Kalueff, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    The 1st International Neuroscience Summer School and the 11th International Multidisciplinary Neuroscience and Biopsychiatry Conference on Stress and Behavior were held in St. Petersburg, Russia, during May 9–20, 2008. The summer school gathered 30 talented young scientists from 15 countries worldwide, and was dedicated to different topics of behavioral neuroscience. Many interactive courses were provided on neuropharmacology, animal phenotyping, and biopsychology. The conference's excellent scientific and social program attracted almost 500 delegates from 40 countries from many areas of stress research. The eclectic interaction between medical doctors, basic scientists, psychologists, and students made for a productive and collaborative environment, which contributed greatly to the success of the school and conference.

  3. Variation of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field in Portugal in the 1st millennium BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.

    2009-07-01

    The study of magnetization of the ceramic material from 21 archeological monuments of Portugal (the Evora province), dated archeologically from the Bronze Age to the end of the Iron Age has been carried out. For the purpose of more detailed timing of the material from the monuments the method of ceramic age dating on the basis of its porosity has been used. In order to take into account the distorted factors in the determination of the parameters of the ancient geomagnetic field with the aim of the maximal approximation to the actual values the diagnostic features of magnetite weathering have been considered and the level of weathering of the magnetic fraction in the ceramics from archeological monuments has been determined. The data of geomagnetic field-strength variation in the time interval of the 12th century BC to the beginning of the Common Era have been obtained. The field-strength at this time interval varied in the range of 60-90 micro Tesla with the maximal values in the 9th, 8th, and the second half of the 5th to the beginning of the 4th century BC. In addition, the timing of the ceramic material from the urns of the megalithic complex Monte de Tera of the Evora province has been clarified.

  4. Preparing for introduction of a dengue vaccine: recommendations from the 1st Dengue v2V Asia-Pacific Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sai Kit; Burke, Donald; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chong, Chee Keong; Coudeville, Laurent; Farrar, Jeremy; Gubler, Duane; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hanna, Jeffrey; Lang, Jean; Lee, Han Lim; Leo, Yee Sin; Luong, Chan Quang; Mahoney, Richard; McBride, John; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge; Ng, Lee Ching; Nimmannitya, Suchitra; Ooi, Eng Eong; Shepard, Donald; Smit, Jaco; Teyssou, Rémy; Thomas, Laurent; Torresi, Joseph; Vasconcelos, Pedro; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoksan, Sutee

    2011-11-28

    Infection with dengue virus is a major public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Vaccination represents a major opportunity to control dengue and several candidate vaccines are in development. Experts in dengue and in vaccine introduction gathered for a two day meeting during which they examined the challenges inherent to the introduction of a dengue vaccine into the national immunisation programmes of countries of the Asia-Pacific. The aim was to develop a series of recommendations to reduce the delay between vaccine licensure and vaccine introduction. Major recommendations arising from the meeting included: ascertaining and publicising the full burden and cost of dengue; changing the perception of dengue in non-endemic countries to help generate global support for dengue vaccination; ensuring high quality active surveillance systems and diagnostics; and identifying sustainable sources of funding, both to support vaccine introduction and to maintain the vaccination programme. The attendees at the meeting were in agreement that with the introduction of an effective vaccine, dengue is a disease that could be controlled, and that in order to ensure a vaccine is introduced as rapidly as possible, there is a need to start preparing now.

  5. Superacid Catalyzed Coal Conversion Chemistry. 1st and 2nd Quarterly Technical Progress Reports, September 1, 1983-March 30, 1984.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Olah, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    In our laboratories we have previously developed a mild coal conversion process. This involves the use of a superacid system consisting of HF and BF{sub 3} in presence of hydrogen and/or a hydrogen donor solvent. In order to understand the chemistry involved in the process of depolymerization of coal by the HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system we are carrying out a systematic study of a number of coal model compounds. The model compounds selected for present study have two benzene rings connected with various bridging units such as alkylidene, ether, sulfide etc. From studies so far carried out it appears that high pyridine extractibilities achieved by treating coal at temperature below 100 degrees C results from the cleavage of bridges such as present in bibenzyl, diphenyl methane, dibenzyl ether, dibenzyl sulfide etc. On the other hand the increased cyclohexane extractibility and distillability observed at relatively higher temperatures and hydrogen pressures reflects the hydrogenation and cleavage of the aromatic backbone in coal structure similar to what is seen in the conversion of model compounds such as biphenyl, diphenyl ether, diphenyl sulfide, anthracene, etc.

  6. Lengthening osteotomy of the calcaneus and flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer in flexible flatfoot deformity improves talo-1st metatarsal-Index, clinical outcome and pedographic parameter.

    PubMed

    Richter, Martinus; Zech, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Lengthening osteotomy of the calcaneus (LO) and flexor digitorum longus tendon (FDL) transfer to the navicular is one option for the treatment of flexible flatfoot deformity (FD). The aim of the study was to analyse the amount of correction and clinical outcome including pedographic assessment. In a prospective consecutive non-controlled clinical followup study, all patients with FD that were treated with LO and FDL from September 1st 2006 to August 31st, 2009 were included. Assessment was performed before surgery and at 2-year-followup including clinical examination (with staging of posterior tibialis insufficiency) weight bearing radiographs (Talo-1st metatarsal angles (TMT)), pedography (increased midfoot contact area and force) and Visual Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS FA). 112 feet in 102 patients were analysed (age, 57.6 (13-82), 42% male). In 12 feet (9%) wound healing delay without further surgical measures was registered. All patients achieved full weight bearing during the 7th postoperative week. Until followup, revision surgery was done in 3 patients (fusion calcaneocuboid joint (n=2), correction triple arthrodesis (n=1)). 101 feet (90%) completed 2-year-followup. TMT dorsoplantar/lateral/Index and VAS FA scores were increased, and posterior tibialis insufficiency stage, pedographic midfoot contact area and force percentage were decreased (each p<.05). All relevant parameters (stage of posterior tibialis insufficiency, TMT angles and Index, pedographic midfoot contact area and force percentage, VAS FA) were improved 2 years after LO and FDL transfer to the navicular in FD. The complication rate was low. This method allows safe and predictable correction.

  7. Determination of modulation transfer function of a printer by measuring the autocorrelation of the transmission function of a printed Ronchi grating

    SciTech Connect

    Madanipour, Khosro; Tavassoly, Mohammad T

    2009-02-01

    We show theoretically and verify experimentally that the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a printing system can be determined by measuring the autocorrelation of a printed Ronchi grating. In practice, two similar Ronchi gratings are printed on two transparencies and the transparencies are superimposed with parallel grating lines. Then, the gratings are uniformly illuminated and the transmitted light from a large section is measured versus the displacement of one grating with respect to the other in a grating pitch interval. This measurement provides the required autocorrelation function for determination of the MTF.

  8. Non-iterative determination of pattern phase in structured illumination microscopy using auto-correlations in Fourier space.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Kai

    2013-10-21

    The artefact-free reconstruction of structured illumination microscopy images requires precise knowledge of the pattern phases in the raw images. If this parameter cannot be controlled precisely enough in an experimental setup, the phases have to be determined a posteriori from the acquired data. While an iterative optimisation based on cross-correlations between individual Fourier images yields accurate results, it is rather time-consuming. Here I present a fast non-iterative technique which determines each pattern phase from an auto-correlation of the respective Fourier image. In addition to improving the speed of the reconstruction, simulations show that this method is also more robust, yielding errors of typically less than λ/500 under realistic signal-to-noise levels.

  9. Quantifying uncertainty in soot volume fraction estimates using Bayesian inference of auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadwin, Paul J.; Sipkens, T. A.; Thomson, K. A.; Liu, F.; Daun, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence (AC-LII) infers the soot volume fraction (SVF) of soot particles by comparing the spectral incandescence from laser-energized particles to the pyrometrically inferred peak soot temperature. This calculation requires detailed knowledge of model parameters such as the absorption function of soot, which may vary with combustion chemistry, soot age, and the internal structure of the soot. This work presents a Bayesian methodology to quantify such uncertainties. This technique treats the additional "nuisance" model parameters, including the soot absorption function, as stochastic variables and incorporates the current state of knowledge of these parameters into the inference process through maximum entropy priors. While standard AC-LII analysis provides a point estimate of the SVF, Bayesian techniques infer the posterior probability density, which will allow scientists and engineers to better assess the reliability of AC-LII inferred SVFs in the context of environmental regulations and competing diagnostics.

  10. Analytical Tools To Distinguish the Effects of Localization Error, Confinement, and Medium Elasticity on the Velocity Autocorrelation Function

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Stephanie C.; Thompson, Michael A.; Moerner, W.E.; Spakowitz, Andrew J.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Single particle tracking is a powerful technique for investigating the dynamic behavior of biological molecules. However, many of the analytical tools are prone to generate results that can lead to mistaken interpretations of the underlying transport process. Here, we explore the effects of localization error and confinement on the velocity autocorrelation function, Cυ. We show that calculation of Cυ across a range of discretizations can distinguish the effects of localization error, confinement, and medium elasticity. Thus, under certain regimes, Cυ can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusion. Finally, we apply our analysis to experimental data sets of chromosomal loci and RNA-protein particles in Escherichia coli. PMID:22713559

  11. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H

    2005-01-22

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to approximately 5% for a wide range of temperature. PMID:15740237

  12. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to ˜5% for a wide range of temperature.

  13. The ability of spectrum autocorrelation models to predict the lycopene concentration in foods through visible spectroscopic data.

    PubMed

    Torrecilla, José S; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Cámara, Montaña; Mata, M Cortes Sánchez

    2011-10-15

    We developed a novel computerized approach based on lag-k autocorrelation coefficients (LCCs) and linear models (LMs) to estimate the concentration of lycopene in foods by the spectroscopy. The LCCs were calculated using the data obtained using whole visible scans from 400 to 600 nm (vide supra) of lycopene standards and food samples (ketchup, tomato juice and tomato sauce). The chaotic parameter (CP) was then transferred into a LM to estimate the concentration of lycopene compound. The integrated LCC/visible spectroscopy method developed can be considered as a satisfactory analytical technique able to estimate lycopene concentration in food samples in a fast accurate way, with a mean prediction error lower than 5.7% and a mean correlation coefficient higher than 0.957. PMID:21962671

  14. Velocity autocorrelation by quantum simulations for direct parameter-free computations of the neutron cross sections. II. Liquid deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarini, E.; Neumann, M.; Bafile, U.; Celli, M.; Colognesi, D.; Bellissima, S.; Farhi, E.; Calzavara, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Very recently we showed that quantum centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the velocity autocorrelation function provide, through the Gaussian approximation (GA), an appropriate representation of the single-molecule dynamic structure factor of liquid H2, as witnessed by a straightforward absolute-scale agreement between calculated and experimental values of the total neutron cross section (TCS) at thermal and epithermal incident energies. Also, a proper quantum evaluation of the self-dynamics was found to guarantee, via the simple Sköld model, a suitable account of the distinct (intermolecular) contributions that influence the neutron TCS of para-H2 for low-energy neutrons (below 10 meV). The very different role of coherent nuclear scattering in D2 makes the neutron response from this liquid much more extensively determined by the collective dynamics, even above the cold neutron range. Here we show that the Sköld approximation maintains its effectiveness in producing the correct cross section values also in the deuterium case. This confirms that the true key point for reliable computational estimates of the neutron TCS of the hydrogen liquids is, together with a good knowledge of the static structure factor, the modeling of the self part, which must take into due account quantum delocalization effects on the translational single-molecule dynamics. We demonstrate that both CMD and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations provide similar results for the velocity autocorrelation function of liquid D2 and, consequently, for the neutron double differential cross section and its integrals. This second investigation completes and reinforces the validity of the proposed quantum method for the prediction of the scattering law of these cryogenic liquids, so important for cold neutron production and related condensed matter research.

  15. Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Veser, Goetz

    2009-08-31

    Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700°C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting “plateau” of stability from 600-900°C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and

  16. Construction and 1st Experiment of the 500-meter and 1000-meter DC Superconducting Power Cable in Ishikari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Koshiduka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Sawamura, T.

    Ishikari project constructs two lines. The length of the Line 1 is 500 m, and connects the photovoltaic cell to the internet-data center. The other line is 1 km length, and it is a test facility and called Line 2. The structures of the cable systems are not same to test their performance. The construction was started from 2014 in the field, the Line 1 was completed in May 2015, and it was cooled down and do the current experiment, and warmed up. The Line 2 is almost complete in October 2015. It will be tested in November and December, 2015. In order to reduce the stress of the cable induced by the thermal expansion and contraction, we adopted the way of the helical deformation of the cable. The force of the cable is reduced to 1/3 of an usual cable test. Because the cryogenic pipes are welded in the field and we cannot use the baking of the vacuum chamber of the cryogenic pipe, a new vacuum pumping method was proposed and tested for the cryogenic pipe. Since the straight pipes are used to compose the cryogenic pipe, the pressure drop of the circulation would be 1/100 of the corrugated pipe in the present condition, and it is suitable for longer cable system. The heat leak of the cryogenic pipe is ∼1.4W/m including the cable pipe's and the return pipe's. The heat leak of the current lead is ∼30W/kA in the test bench. Finally the current of 6kA/3 sec and the current of 5kA/15 min were achieved in Line 1. The reduction of heat leak will be a major subject of the longer cable system. The cost of the construction will be almost twice higher than that of the copper and aluminum over-head line with the iron tower in the present Japan. The cost construction of the over-head line is an average value, and depends on the newspaper.

  17. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J.; Paulissen, E.; Kaniewski, D.; Poblome, J.; De Laet, V.; Verstraeten, G.; Waelkens, M.

    2012-08-01

    Ottoman times. The pollen data reveals that the old model of a fast rise in Pinus pollen after the end of the Beyşehir Occupation Phase is not necessarily accurate. The notion of high Pinus pollen percentages indicating an open landscape incapable of countering the influx of pine pollen is also deemed unrealistic. While multiple fires occurred in the region through time, they were never a major influence on vegetation dynamics and were mostly linked to increased abundance of pine forests, rather than the presence of human impact or of specifically wet or dry environmental conditions. While this study reveals much new information concerning the impact of climate change and human occupation on the environment, more studies from SW turkey are required in order to properly quantify the range of the observed phenomena and the magnitude of their impacts.

  18. PREFACE: 1st METECH workshop - From deep-sea to coastal zones: Methods and Techniques for studying Palaeoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga-Pires, C.; St-Onge, G.

    2008-10-01

    Reconstructing past climate and past ocean circulation demands the highest possible precision and accuracy which urges the scientific community to look at different sediment records such as the ones from coastal zones to deep-sea with a more complete set of technical and methodological tools. However, the information given by each tool varies in precision, accuracy and in significance according to their environmental settings. It is therefore essential to compare tools. With that in mind, and as part of the International year of Planet Earth, a workshop entitled `From deep-sea to coastal zones: Methods and Techniques for studying palaeoenvironments' took place in Faro (Portugal), from 25-29 February 2008 in order to: present several methods and techniques that can be used for studying sediments from deep-sea to coastal zones, namely for reconstructing palaeoenvironments in order to document past climatic changes and short to long-term environmental processes; allow cross experience between different fields and specialties, either from deep-sea to coastal zones or from micropaleontology to geochemistry; give the opportunity to students from different universities and countries to attend the workshop; publish a special volume on the presented methods and techniques during the workshop. The workshop was organized in four non-parallel sessions dealing with the use of micropaleontology, isotopes, biogeochemistry and sedimentology, as tools for palaeoenvironmental studies. The present IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science proceedings reflect this organization and papers are published in each theme. The papers are either short reviews or case studies and are highlighted below. The remains of microorganisms found in sediments are the main proxies used in micropaleontological studies. However, the link between fossilized remains and their living origin is not easy to reconstruct only based on the geologic/sedimentary record. Accordingly, Barbosa presents a

  19. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J.; Paulissen, E.; Kaniewski, D.; Poblome, J.; De Laet, V.; Verstraeten, G.; Waelkens, M.

    2013-01-01

    times. The pollen data reveal that a fast rise in Pinus pollen after the end of the Beyşehir Occupation Phase need not always occur. The notion of high Pinus pollen percentages indicating an open landscape incapable of countering the influx of pine pollen is also deemed unrealistic. While multiple fires occurred in the region through time, extended fire periods, as had occurred during the Bronze Age and Beyşehir Occupation Phase, did not occur, and no signs of local fire activity were observed. Fires were never a major influence on vegetation dynamics. While no complete overview of post-BO Phase fire events can be presented, the available data indicates that fires in the vicinity of Gravgaz may have been linked to anthropogenic activity in the wider surroundings of the marsh. Fires in the vicinity of Bereket appeared to be linked to increased abundance of pine forests. There was no link with specifically wet or dry environmental conditions at either site. While this study reveals much new information concerning the impact of climate change and human occupation on the environment, more studies from SW Turkey are required in order to properly quantify the range of the observed phenomena and the magnitude of their impacts.

  20. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  1. Spatio-temporal autocorrelation of Neogene-Quaternary volcanic and clastic sedimentary rocks in SW Montana and SE Idaho: Relationship to Cenozoic tectonic and thermally induced extensional events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.; Dai, D.

    2013-12-01

    Two systems of full and half grabens have been forming since the mid-Tertiary through tectonic and thermally induced extensional events in SW Montana and neighboring SE Idaho. The earlier mid-Tertiary Basin and Range (BR) tectonic event formed the NW- and NE-striking mountains around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and SW Montana, respectively. Since the mid-Tertiary, partially synchronous with the BR event, diachronous bulging and subsidence due to the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) has produced the second system of variably-oriented grabens through faulting across the older BR fault blocks. The track of the migration of the YHS is defined by the presence of six prominent volcanic calderas along the SRP which become younger toward the present location of the YHS. Graben basins bounded by both the BR faults and thermally induced cross-faults (CF) systems are now filled with Tertiary-Quaternary clastic sedimentary and volcanic-volcaniclastic rocks. Neogene mafic and felsic lava which erupted along the SRP and clastic sedimentary units (Sixmile Creek Fm., Ts) deposited in both types of graben basins were classified based on their lithology and age, and mapped in ArcGIS 10 as polygon using a combination of MBMG and USGS databases and geological maps at scales of 1:250.000, 1:100,000, and 1:48,000. The spatio-temporal distributions of the lava polygons were then analyzed applying the Global and Local Moran`s I methods to detect any possible spatial or temporal autocorrelation relative to the track of the YHS. The results reveal the spatial autocorrelation of the lithology and age of the Neogene lavas, and suggest a spatio-temporal sequence of eruption of extrusive rocks between Miocene and late Pleistocene along the SRP. The sequence of eruptions, which progressively becomes younger toward the Yellowstone National Park, may track the migration of the YSH. The sub-parallelism of the trend of the SRP with the long axis of the

  2. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  3. Exploring the spatial heterogeneity of terraced landscapes using LiDAR: the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Giulia; Marinello, Francesco; Tarolli, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Terraces represent an outstanding example that displays centuries of a ubiquitous human-Earth interaction, in a very specific and productive way, and they are a significant part of numerous local economies. They, in fact, optimise the local resources for agricultural purposes, but also exploit marginal landscapes, expanding local populations. The ubiquity, variety, and importance of terraces have motivated studies designed to understand them better both as cultural and ecological features, but also as elements that can deeply influence runoff generation and propagation, contributing to local instabilities, and triggering or aggravating land degradation processes. Their vulnerability in the face of fast-growing urban settlements and the changes in agricultural practices is also well known, prompting protection measures strongly supported by local communities, but also by national and international projects. This work explores the spatial heterogeneity of terraced landscapes, identifying a proper indicator able to discriminate a terraced landscape respect to a more natural one. Recognizing and characterizing terraced areas can offer important multi-temporal insights into issues such as agricultural sustainability, indigenous knowledge systems, human-induced impact on soil degradation or erosive and landslide processes, geomorphological and pedologic processes that influence soil development, and climatic and biodiversity changes. More in detail, the present work introduces a new morphological indicator from LiDAR, effectively implementable for the automatic characterization of terraced landscapes. For the study, we tested the algorithm for environments that differ in term of natural morphology and terracing system. Starting from a LiDAR Digital Terrain Models (DTM), we considered the local auto-correlation (~local self-similarity) of the slope, calculating the correlation between a slope patch and its surrounding areas. We define the resulting map as the "Slope Local

  4. Molecular cloning, functional characterization and expression of potato (Solanum tuberosum) 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 1 (StDXS1) in response to Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Maria Antonia; Soliman, Atta; Li, Genyi; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Ayele, Belay T; Daayf, Fouad

    2016-02-01

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) catalyzes the initial step of the plastidial 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP-MEP) pathway involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis. In this study, we cloned the complete cDNA of potato DXS gene that was designated StDXS1. StDXS1 cDNA encodes for 719 amino acid residues, with MW of 77.8 kDa, and is present in one copy in the potato genome. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments assigned StDXS1 to a group with DXS homologues from closely related species and exhibited homodomain identity with known DXS proteins from other plant species. Late blight symptoms occurred in parallel with a reduction in StDXS1 transcript levels, which may be associated with the levels of isoprenoids that contribute to plant protection against pathogens. Subcellular localization indicated that StDXS1 targets the chloroplasts where isoprenoids are synthesized. Arabidopsis expressing StDXS1 showed a higher accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll as compared to wild type controls. Lower levels of ABA and GA were detected in the transgenic DXS lines as compared to control plants, which reflected on higher germination rates of the transgenic DXS lines. No changes were detected in JA or SA contents. Selected downstream genes in the DOXP-MEP pathway, especially GGPPS genes, were up-regulated in the transgenic lines.

  5. Report on: "The 1st Workshop on National Immunization Programs and Vaccine Coverage in ASEAN Countries, April 30, 2015, Pattaya, Thailand".

    PubMed

    Hattasingh, Weerawan; Pengsaa, Krisana; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2016-03-01

    The 1st Workshop on National Immunization Programs and Vaccine Coverage in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Countries Group (WNIPVC-ASEAN) held a meeting on April 30, 2015, Pattaya, Thailand under the auspices of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the World Health Organization (WHO). Reports on the current status and initiatives of the national immunization program (NIP) in each ASEAN countries that attended were presented. These reports along with survey data collected from ministries of health in ASEAN countries NIPs demonstrate that good progress has been made toward the goal of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). However, some ASEAN countries have fragile health care systems that still have insufficient vaccine coverage of some basic EPI antigens. Most ASEAN countries still do not have national coverage of some new and underused vaccines, and raising funds for the expansion of NIPs is challenging. Also, there is insufficient research into disease burden of vaccine preventable diseases and surveillance. Health care workers must advocate NIPs to government policy makers and other stakeholders as well as improve research and surveillance to achieve the goals of the GVAP.

  6. First and second-order-motion perception after focal human brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Matthew; Nawrot, Mark; Sparks, JonDavid; Dawson, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Perception of visual motion includes a 1st-order mechanism sensitive to luminance changes and a 2nd-order motion mechanism sensitive to contrast changes. We studied neural substrates for these motion types in 142 subjects with visual cortex lesions, 68 normal controls and 28 brain lesion controls. On 1st-order motion, the visual cortex lesion group performed significantly worse than normal controls overall and in each hemifield, but 2nd-order motion did not differ. Only 1 individual showed a selective 2nd-order motion deficit. Motion deficits were seen with lesions outside the small occipitotemporal region thought to contain a human homolog of motion processing area MT (V5), suggesting that many areas of human brain process visual motion. PMID:18440580

  7. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network. PMID:26966662

  8. Time-resolved imaging of magnetic vortex dynamics using holography with extended reference autocorrelation by linear differential operator

    PubMed Central

    Bukin, N.; McKeever, C.; Burgos-Parra, E.; Keatley, P. S.; Hicken, R. J.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Beutier, G.; Dupraz, M.; Popescu, H.; Jaouen, N.; Yakhou-Harris, F.; Cavill, S. A.; van der Laan, G.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetisation dynamics of the vortex core and Landau pattern of magnetic thin-film elements has been studied using holography with extended reference autocorrelation by linear differential operator (HERALDO). Here we present the first time-resolved x-ray measurements using this technique and investigate the structure and dynamics of the domain walls after excitation with nanosecond pulsed magnetic fields. It is shown that the average magnetisation of the domain walls has a perpendicular component that can change dynamically depending on the parameters of the pulsed excitation. In particular, we demonstrate the formation of wave bullet-like excitations, which are generated in the domain walls and can propagate inside them during the cyclic motion of the vortex core. Based on numerical simulations we also show that, besides the core, there are four singularities formed at the corners of the pattern. The polarisation of these singularities has a direct relation to the vortex core, and can be switched dynamically by the wave bullets excited with a magnetic pulse of specific parameters. The subsequent dynamics of the Landau pattern is dependent on the particular configuration of the polarisations of the core and the singularities. PMID:27796347

  9. Autocorrelation Analysis Combined with a Wavelet Transform Method to Detect and Remove Cosmic Rays in a Single Raman Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Maury, Augusto; Revilla, Reynier I

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) occasionally affect charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors, introducing large spikes with very narrow bandwidth in the spectrum. These CR features can distort the chemical information expressed by the spectra. Consequently, we propose here an algorithm to identify and remove significant spikes in a single Raman spectrum. An autocorrelation analysis is first carried out to accentuate the CRs feature as outliers. Subsequently, with an adequate selection of the threshold, a discrete wavelet transform filter is used to identify CR spikes. Identified data points are then replaced by interpolated values using the weighted-average interpolation technique. This approach only modifies the data in a close vicinity of the CRs. Additionally, robust wavelet transform parameters are proposed (a desirable property for automation) after optimizing them with the application of the method in a great number of spectra. However, this algorithm, as well as all the single-spectrum analysis procedures, is limited to the cases in which CRs have much narrower bandwidth than the Raman bands. This might not be the case when low-resolution Raman instruments are used.

  10. Anisotropy of the Earth's inner inner core from autocorrelations of earthquake coda in China Regional Seismic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H.; Song, X.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's inner core possesses strong cylindrical anisotropy with the fast symmetry axis parallel to the rotation axis. However, recent study has suggested that the inner part of the inner core has a fast symmetry axis near the equator with a different form of anisotropy from the outer part (Wang et al., this session). To confirm the observation, we use data from dense seismic arrays of the China Regional Seismic Networks. We perform autocorrelation (ACC) of the coda after major earthquakes (Mw>=7.0) at each station and then stack the ACCs at each cluster of stations. The PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases (round-trip phase from the Earth's surface reflections) can be clearly extracted from the stacked empirical Green's functions. We observe systematic variation of the differential times between PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases, which are sensitive to the bulk anisotropy of the inner core. The differential times show large variations with both latitudes and longitudes, even though our ray paths are not polar (with our stations at mid-range latitudes of about 20 to 45 degrees). The observations cannot be explained by an averaged anisotropy model with the fast axis along the rotation axis. The pattern appears consistent with an inner inner core that has a fast axis near the equator.

  11. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neill, K.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59 °C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C · decade-1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d · decade-1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (~ 0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (~ 0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  12. Autocorrelation analysis for the unbiased determination of power-law exponents in single-quantum-dot blinking.

    PubMed

    Houel, Julien; Doan, Quang T; Cajgfinger, Thomas; Ledoux, Gilles; Amans, David; Aubret, Antoine; Dominjon, Agnès; Ferriol, Sylvain; Barbier, Rémi; Nasilowski, Michel; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Dubertret, Benoît; Dujardin, Christophe; Kulzer, Florian

    2015-01-27

    We present an unbiased and robust analysis method for power-law blinking statistics in the photoluminescence of single nanoemitters, allowing us to extract both the bright- and dark-state power-law exponents from the emitters' intensity autocorrelation functions. As opposed to the widely used threshold method, our technique therefore does not require discriminating the emission levels of bright and dark states in the experimental intensity timetraces. We rely on the simultaneous recording of 450 emission timetraces of single CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots at a frame rate of 250 Hz with single photon sensitivity. Under these conditions, our approach can determine ON and OFF power-law exponents with a precision of 3% from a comparison to numerical simulations, even for shot-noise-dominated emission signals with an average intensity below 1 photon per frame and per quantum dot. These capabilities pave the way for the unbiased, threshold-free determination of blinking power-law exponents at the microsecond time scale.

  13. Preliminary evidence for the influence of physiography and scale upon the autocorrelation function of remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Toll, D. L.; Kennard, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Previously established results demonstrate that LANDSAT data are autocorrelated and can be described by a univariate linear stochastic process known as auto-regressive-integrated-moving-average model of degree 1, 0, 1 or ARIMA (1, 0, 1). This model has two coefficients of interest for interpretation phi(1) and theta(1). In a comparison of LANDSAT thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data and LANDSAT MSS data several results were established: (1) The form of the relatedness as described by this model is not dependent upon system look angle or pixel size. (2) The phi(1) coefficient increases with decreasing pixel size and increasing topographic complexity. (3) Changes in topography have a greater influence upon phi(1) than changes in land cover class. (4) The theta(1) seems to vary with the amount of atmospheric haze. These patterns of variation in phi(1) and theta(1) are potentially exploitable by the remote sensing community to yield stochastically independent sets of observations, characterize topography, and reduce the number of bytes needed to store remotely sensed data.

  14. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Daniel J.; O’Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O’Donnell, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network. PMID:26966662

  15. Source Process of the Solomon Islands Earthquake of April 1st, 2007 (Mw8.1) Based on SAR Data and its Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, M.; Kato, T.; Furuya, M.; Ochi, T.; Miyazaki, S.; Aoki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We analyzed SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data to derive the crustal deformation due to the Solomon Islands earthquake (Mw8.1) that occurred on April 1st, 2007. Three tracks that cover the source areas were used and the image data taken before and after the earthquake were processed to make interferograms. Then, we examined the obtained interferograms if the previous two source models that were obtained by seismic wave form inversion analyses could reproduce them. However, none of the models were able to reproduce the crustal deformations derived from the SAR data analysis. Then, we tried to construct a source model that explains the observed crustal deformations well. We considered some geophysical data to constrain the source geometry; the multichannel reflection data and observed vertical deformations using coral reef survey. Considering these lines of evidence, we introduced two possible source geometries; one is single-segment model that assumes only shallow-dipping (10 deg.) main thrust ruptured, and the other is two-segment model that assumes both a high angle spray fault of 30 degree dip and the main thrust fault slipped. The comparison of models based on inversion analyses suggested that the two-segment model would be preferable. This result suggests that the Solomon Islands earthquake would be the first observed earthquake on a steeply dipping splay fault that ruptured off the main converging plate boundary. If this is the case, this earthquake might provide us with an important clue for understanding the mechanisms of land formation such as landward titling of the coastal terraces.

  16. PREFACE: 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics & 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-09-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38) and the 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics (IWTCP-1). Both the conference and the workshop were held from 29 July to 1 August 2013 in Pullman hotel, Da Nang, Vietnam. The IWTCP-1 was a new activity of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society (VTPS) organized in association with the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38), the most well-known annual scientific forum dedicated to the dissemination of the latest development in the field of theoretical physics within the country. The IWTCP-1 was also an External Activity of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP). The overriding goal of the IWTCP is to provide an international forum for scientists and engineers from academia to share ideas, problems and solution relating to the recent advances in theoretical physics as well as in computational physics. The main IWTCP motivation is to foster scientific exchanges between the Vietnamese theoretical and computational physics community and world-wide scientists as well as to promote high-standard level of research and education activities for young physicists in the country. About 110 participants coming from 10 countries participated in the conference and the workshop. 4 invited talks, 18 oral contributions and 46 posters were presented at the conference. In the workshop we had one keynote lecture and 9 invited talks presented by international experts in the fields of theoretical and computational physics, together with 14 oral and 33 poster contributions. The proceedings were edited by Nguyen Tri Lan, Trinh Xuan Hoang, and Nguyen Ai Viet. We would like to thank all invited speakers, participants and sponsors for making the conference and the workshop successful. Nguyen Ai Viet Chair of NCTP-38 and IWTCP-1

  17. Using waveguide scattering of laser radiation for determining the autocorrelation function of statistical surface roughness within a wide range of changes of the roughness correlation interval

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Alexander A

    2002-04-30

    An electrodynamic problem of laser radiation scattering in an integrated-optical waveguide containing small statistical irregularities (interface roughness and irregularities of the refractive indices of the waveguide-forming media) is considered. The possibility of using the waveguide scattering of laser radiation for extracting the information on the statistical properties of irregularities from noisy data of the scattering diagram in a far-field zone is shown. An algorithm for reconstructing the autocorrelation function of irregularities for the correlation interval changing within a wide range is described. The possibility of restoring a given Gaussian autocorrelation function that describes statistical irregularities of the waveguide substrate surface for a correlation interval changing between 10 nm and 10 {mu}m and a high-level additive white real noise is shown by computer simulation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. Reconstruction of the experimental autocorrelation function and determination of the parameters of the statistical roughness of a surface from laser radiation scattering in an integrated-optical waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Aleksei A

    2003-04-30

    The possibility of using the waveguide scattering of laser radiation for obtaining information on the statistical properties of irregularities from the noisy data obtained in the far-field zone is shown. A complex algorithm for reconstructing the experimental autocorrelation function of the surface roughness of an integrated-optical waveguide substrate is described. This algorithm is based on a combination of the classical regularisation and quasi-optimal filtering. (waveguides)

  19. Structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from the Auto-Correlation of Ambient Seismic Noise Recorded at a Dense Seismometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. G.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquake or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct reflection images for the entire crust and upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using auto-correlations of vertical and horizontal components of ground motion, both P- and S-wave velocity information can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure further to established methods. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the fault zone in the region. The combined analysis of auto-correlations using vertical and horizontal components will lead to further insight into the fault zone structure throughout the crust and upper mantle.

  20. Effect of Site Level Environmental Variables, Spatial Autocorrelation and Sampling Intensity on Arthropod Communities in an Ancient Temperate Lowland Woodland Area

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of arthropods with the environment and the management of their populations is a focus of the ecological agenda. Spatial autocorrelation and under-sampling may generate bias and, when they are ignored, it is hard to determine if results can in any way be trusted. Arthropod communities were studied during two seasons and using two methods: window and panel traps, in an area of ancient temperate lowland woodland of Zebracka (Czech Republic). The composition of arthropod communities was studied focusing on four site level variables (canopy openness, diameter in the breast height and height of tree, and water distance) and finally analysed using two approaches: with and without effects of spatial autocorrelation. I found that the proportion of variance explained by space cannot be ignored (≈20% in both years). Potential bias in analyses of the response of arthropods to site level variables without including spatial co-variables is well illustrated by redundancy analyses. Inclusion of space led to more accurate results, as water distance and tree diameter were significant, showing approximately the same ratio of explained variance and direction in both seasons. Results without spatial co-variables were much more disordered and were difficult to explain. This study showed that neglecting the effects of spatial autocorrelation could lead to wrong conclusions in site level studies and, furthermore, that inclusion of space may lead to more accurate and unambiguous outcomes. Rarefactions showed that lower sampling intensity, when appropriately designed, can produce sufficient results without exploitation of the environment. PMID:24349087

  1. Effect of site level environmental variables, spatial autocorrelation and sampling intensity on arthropod communities in an ancient temperate lowland woodland area.

    PubMed

    Horak, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of arthropods with the environment and the management of their populations is a focus of the ecological agenda. Spatial autocorrelation and under-sampling may generate bias and, when they are ignored, it is hard to determine if results can in any way be trusted. Arthropod communities were studied during two seasons and using two methods: window and panel traps, in an area of ancient temperate lowland woodland of Zebracka (Czech Republic). The composition of arthropod communities was studied focusing on four site level variables (canopy openness, diameter in the breast height and height of tree, and water distance) and finally analysed using two approaches: with and without effects of spatial autocorrelation. I found that the proportion of variance explained by space cannot be ignored (≈20% in both years). Potential bias in analyses of the response of arthropods to site level variables without including spatial co-variables is well illustrated by redundancy analyses. Inclusion of space led to more accurate results, as water distance and tree diameter were significant, showing approximately the same ratio of explained variance and direction in both seasons. Results without spatial co-variables were much more disordered and were difficult to explain. This study showed that neglecting the effects of spatial autocorrelation could lead to wrong conclusions in site level studies and, furthermore, that inclusion of space may lead to more accurate and unambiguous outcomes. Rarefactions showed that lower sampling intensity, when appropriately designed, can produce sufficient results without exploitation of the environment.

  2. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a…

  3. The first-order giant neurons of the giant fiber system in the squid: electrophysiological and ultrastructural observations.

    PubMed

    Pozzo-Miller, L D; Moreira, J E; Llinás, R R

    1998-06-01

    The giant fiber system controlling mantle contraction used for jet propulsion in squid consists of two sets of three giant neurons organized in tandem. The somata of the 1st- and 2nd-order giant cells are located in the brain, while the perikarya of the 3rd-order giant cells are encountered in the stellate ganglia of the mantle. The somata and dendrites of one fused pair of 1st-order giant cells are thought to receive synaptic input from the eye, statocyst, skin proprioceptors, and supraesophageal lobes. To define the cellular properties for integration of such an extensive synaptic load, especially given its diversity, intracellular recordings and electron microscopic observations were performed on 1st-order giant cells in an isolated head preparation. Spontaneous bursts of action potentials and spikes evoked by extracellular stimulation of the brachial lobe were sensitive to the Na+ channel blocker TTX. Action potentials were also abolished by recording with microelectrodes containing the membrane impermeant, use dependent Na+ channel blocker QX-314. The small action potential amplitude and the abundant synaptic input imply that the spike initiation zone is remotely located from the recording site. The high spontaneous activity in the isolated head preparation, as well as the presence of synaptic junctions resembling inhibitory synapses, suggest; that afferent synapses on 1st-order giant neurons might represent the inhibitory control of the giant fiber system. The characterization of the electroresponsive properties of the 1st-order giant neurons will provide a description of the single cell integrative properties that trigger the rapid jet propulsion necessary for escape behavior in squid.

  4. Mathematics at matriculation level as an indicator of success or failure in the 1st year of the Veterinary Nursing Diploma at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria.

    PubMed

    Botha, A E; McCrindle, C M E; Owen, J H

    2003-12-01

    Mathematics at matriculation level (Grade 12) is one of the subjects required for admission to the Veterinary Nursing Diploma in the Faculty at Veterinary Science of the University of Pretoria. The present study shows that there is no statistically significant relationship between the grade of mathematics at matriculation level and the success or failure in the 1st year of study. There is, however, a statistical difference in the adjusted mark obtained for mathematics at matriculation level between the groups that passed and failed the 1st year of the veterinary nursing course. The results of this research are not consistent with other research which showed that secondary school mathematics results are not a significant factor in tertiary education. It is recommended that selection criteria for veterinary nurses should in future still include mathematics, but that cognisance should be taken of the mark obtained and students with higher marks (above 57%) given preference.

  5. Poincaré plot analysis of autocorrelation function of RR intervals in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shin-Shin; Wu, Kung-Tai; Lin, Chen-Yang; Lee, Steven; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2014-08-01

    The Poincaré plot of RR intervals (RRI) is obtained by plotting RRIn+1 against RRIn. The Pearson correlation coefficient (ρRRI), slope (SRRI), Y-intercept (YRRI), standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat RRI variability (SD1RR), and standard deviation of continuous long-term RRI variability (SD2RR) can be defined to characterize the plot. Similarly, the Poincaré plot of autocorrelation function (ACF) of RRI can be obtained by plotting ACFk+1 against ACFk. The corresponding Pearson correlation coefficient (ρACF), slope (SACF), Y-intercept (YACF), SD1ACF, and SD2ACF can be defined similarly to characterize the plot. By comparing the indices of Poincaré plots of RRI and ACF between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and patients with patent coronary artery (PCA), we found that the ρACF and SACF were significantly larger, whereas the RMSSDACF/SDACF and SD1ACF/SD2ACF were significantly smaller in AMI patients. The ρACF and SACF correlated significantly and negatively with normalized high-frequency power (nHFP), and significantly and positively with normalized very low-frequency power (nVLFP) of heart rate variability in both groups of patients. On the contrary, the RMSSDACF/SDACF and SD1ACF/SD2ACF correlated significantly and positively with nHFP, and significantly and negatively with nVLFP and low-/high-frequency power ratio (LHR) in both groups of patients. We concluded that the ρACF, SACF, RMSSDACF/SDACF, and SD1ACF/SD2ACF, among many other indices of ACF Poincaré plot, can be used to differentiate between patients with AMI and patients with PCA, and that the increase in ρACF and SACF and the decrease in RMSSDACF/SDACF and SD1ACF/SD2ACF suggest an increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulations in both groups of patients.

  6. Determination of the nonlinear refractive index of multimode silica fiber with a dual-line ultra-short pulse laser source by using the induced grating autocorrelation technique.

    PubMed

    Traore, Aboubakar; Lalanne, Elaine; Johnson, Anthony M

    2015-06-29

    We measured, within 6% accuracy, the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of 10 meter long multimode silica fiber of 17μm core diameter, using a modified induced grating autocorrelation technique (IGA). This measurement technique, based on time-delayed two beam coupling in a photorefractive crystal has been used to accurately measure n2 in short lengths of single mode fibers. For the first time to our knowledge, IGA is used to measure n2 of multimode fiber with a passively modelocked Nd:YVO4 laser operating with a dual-line near 1342 nm. PMID:26191721

  7. Spatial and Temporal Characterization of Femtosecond Pulses at High-Numerical Aperture Using Collinear, Background-Free, Third-Harmonic Autocorrelation

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D N; der Au, J A; Squier, J A

    2004-08-09

    We show that a simple plane wave analysis can be used even under tight focusing conditions to predict the dependence of third-harmonic generation on the polarization state of the incident beam. Exploiting this fact, we then show that circularly polarized beams may be used to spatially characterize the beam focus and temporally characterize ultrashort pulses in high numerical aperture systems by experimentally demonstrating, for the first time, novel collinear, background-free, third-harmonic intensity autocorrelations in time and space in a high numerical aperture microscope. We also discuss the possibility of using third harmonic generation with circularly polarized beams for background-free collinear frequency resolved optical gating.

  8. The adaptive nature of liquidity taking in limit order books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranto, D. E.; Bormetti, G.; Lillo, F.

    2014-06-01

    In financial markets, the order flow, defined as the process assuming value one for buy market orders and minus one for sell market orders, displays a very slowly decaying autocorrelation function. Since orders impact prices, reconciling the persistence of the order flow with market efficiency is a subtle issue. A possible solution is provided by asymmetric liquidity, which states that the impact of a buy or sell order is inversely related to the probability of its occurrence. We empirically find that when the order flow predictability increases in one direction, the liquidity in the opposite side decreases, but the probability that a trade moves the price decreases significantly. While the last mechanism is able to counterbalance the persistence of order flow and restore efficiency and diffusivity, the first acts in the opposite direction. We introduce a statistical order book model where the persistence of the order flow is mitigated by adjusting the market order volume to the predictability of the order flow. The model reproduces the diffusive behaviour of prices at all time scales without fine-tuning the values of parameters, as well as the behaviour of most order book quantities as a function of the local predictability of the order flow.

  9. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  10. Trajectory variance and autocorrelations within single-sperm tracks as population-level descriptors of sperm track complexity, predictability, and energy-generating ability.

    PubMed

    Abaigar, Teresa; Barbero, Javier; Holt, William V

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop an alternative theoretical approach to the analysis of sperm motility and to develop motility parameters that would complement those more commonly used in current computer-assisted semen analysis procedures. We have defined a set of parameters and have tested them using boar spermatozoa undergoing bicarbonate-induced motility activation. The new parameters were calculated for a series of (x,y) coordinates of sperm head positions recorded at each move along the trajectory. The parameters were: mean velocity (MV), immobility ratio, fractal dimension (FD), the variance of the steplengths (VAR), and 2 autocorrelation function coefficients of the step-length time series for lags 1 and 2 (C(1) and C(2)). MV measures the average speed along the trajectory, and VAR is a measure of displacement variability that can be related to the specific mean (per step) kinetic energy of the spermatozoon. All of the parameters except MV and FD were affected by the sampling frequency (25 vs 50 Hz); inappropriately high sampling frequency in relation to magnification resulted in step-lengths between successive frames that were below the resolution threshold of the imaging system. The autocorrelation functions were especially informative; discrimination between sperm subpopulations was obvious within simple histogram formats, and complex statistical analyses were not needed for their identification. PMID:21474791

  11. Autocorrelation standard deviation and root mean square frequency analysis of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell to monitor for hydrogen and air undersupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Mukherjee, Santanu; Bates, Alex; Zickel, Benjamin; Park, Sam; Son, Byung Rak; Choi, Jae Sung; Kwon, Osung; Lee, Dong Ha; Chung, Hyun-Youl

    2015-12-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a promising energy conversion device which can help to solve urgent environmental and economic problems. Among the various types of fuel cells, the air breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell, which minimizes the balance of plant, has drawn a lot of attention due to its superior energy density. In this study a compact, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell based on Nafion and a Pt/C membrane electrode assembly was designed. The fuel cell was tested using a Scribner Associates 850e fuel cell test station. Specifically, the hydrogen fuel and oxygen starvation of the fuel cell were accurately and systematically tested and analyzed using a frequency analysis method which can analyze the input and output frequency. The analysis of the frequency variation under a fuel starvation condition was done using RMSF (root mean square frequency) and ACSD (autocorrelation standard deviation). The study reveals two significant results: first, the fuel starvations show entirely different phenomenon in both RMSF and ACSD and second, the results of the Autocorrelation show clearer results for fuel starvation detection than the results with RMSF.

  12. The Hospital Microbiome Project: Meeting Report for the 1st Hospital Microbiome Project Workshop on sampling design and building science measurements, Chicago, USA, June 7th-8th 2012

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel; Alverdy, John; An, Gary; Coleman, Maureen; Garcia-Houchins, Sylvia; Green, Jessica; Keegan, Kevin; Kelley, Scott T.; Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Kociolek, Larry; Levin, Hal; Landon, Emily; Olsiewski, Paula; Knight, Rob; Siegel, Jeffrey; Weber, Stephen; Gilbert, Jack

    2013-01-01

    This report details the outcome of the 1st Hospital Microbiome Project workshop held on June 7th-8th, 2012 at the University of Chicago, USA. The workshop was arranged to determine the most appropriate sampling strategy and approach to building science measurement to characterize the development of a microbial community within a new hospital pavilion being built at the University of Chicago Medical Center. The workshop made several recommendations and led to the development of a full proposal to the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation as well as to the creation of the Hospital Microbiome Consortium. PMID:23961316

  13. X-ray diffraction study on ordered, disordered and reconstituted intercellular lipid lamellar structure in stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Hatta, I; Ohta, N; Ban, S; Tanaka, H; Nakata, S

    2001-02-15

    From small angle X-ray diffraction for the stratum corneum of hairless mouse, it was obtained that in the normal stratum corneum, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd order diffraction peaks for the intercellular lipid lamellar structure appear at 13.8, 6.87 and 4.59 nm, respectively and also a broad hump for the 4th order reflection appears as observed by the previous researchers. In the damaged stratum corneum prepared by the treatment of sodium dodecyl sulfate, these small-angle diffraction peaks disappear and only the broad maxima remain around the 1st, 2nd and 3rd order diffraction peaks. These facts indicate that in the normal stratum the lamellar structure is ordered and in the damaged stratum corneum the lamellar structure is disordered. Furthermore, in the reconstituted lamellar structure obtained by immersing into the dilute suspension of the mixture of ceramide 3, cholesterol and stearic acid, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd order diffraction peaks reappear at 13.3, 6.67 and 4.44 nm, respectively. This fact indicates that the reorganization of the ordered lamellar structure takes place by adding the mixture to the damaged stratum corneum. PMID:11254216

  14. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Implementations of an eLearning Design: Re-Use from Postgraduate Law to Block/Online Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sarah; Brewer, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of postgraduate students who were time poor and unable to regularly attend face-to-face classes, one lecturer in the Faculty Law at the University of Wollongong (UOW) sought the assistance of a Learning Designer to redesign the Postgraduate Practical Legal Training (PLT) program into a flexible blended learning format,…

  15. Cholesterol favors the emergence of a long-range autocorrelated fluctuation pattern in voltage-induced ionic currents through lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, Natalia A; Kembro, Jackelyn M; Clop, Pedro D; Perillo, María A

    2013-08-01

    The present paper was aimed at evaluating the effect of cholesterol (CHO) on the voltage-induced lipid pore formation in bilayer membranes through a global characterization of the temporal dynamics of the fluctuation pattern of ion currents. The bilayer model used was black lipid membranes (BLMs) of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylethanolamine and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPE:POPC) at a 7:3 molar ratio in the absence (BLM0) or in the presence of 30 (BLM30), 40 (BLM40) or 50(BLM50)mol% of cholesterol with respect to total phospholipids. Electrical current intensities (I) were measured in voltage (ΔV) clamped conditions at ΔV ranging between 0 and ±200mV. The autocorrelation parameter α derived from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on temporal fluctuation patterns of electrical currents allowed discriminating between non-correlated (α=0.5, white noise) and long-range correlated (0.5<α<1) behaviors. The increase in |ΔV| as well as in cholesterol content increased the number of conductance states, the magnitude of conductance level, the capacitance of the bilayers and increased the tendency towards the development of long-range autocorrelated (fractal) processes (0.5<α<1) in lipid channel generation. Experiments were performed above the phase transition temperature of the lipid mixtures, but compositions used predicted a superlattice-like organization. This leads to the conclusion that structural defects other than phase coexistence may promote lipid channel formation under voltage clamped conditions. Furthermore, cholesterol controls the voltage threshold that allows the percolation of channel behavior where isolated channels become an interconnected network.

  16. FY-2015 FES (Fusion and Energy Sciences) Joint Research Target: Final Report for the Period October 1st, 2014, through September 30th, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, M.; Holcomb, C.; Wallace, G.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Scott, S. D.; Solomon, W.

    2015-09-30

    Annual JRT-15 Target: Conduct experiments and analysis to quantify the impact of broadened current and pressure profiles on tokamak plasma confinement and stability. Broadened pressure profiles generally improve global stability but can also affect transport and confinement, while broadened current profiles can have both beneficial and adverse impacts on confinement and stability. This research will examine a variety of heating and current drive techniques in order to validate theoretical models of both the actuator performance and the transport and global stability response to varied heating and current drive deposition.

  17. Post waterflood CO2 miscible flood in light oil fluvial - dominated deltaic reservoirs. Technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 30, 1994. 1st Quarter, fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-15

    Production is averaging about 450 BOPD for the quarter. The fluctuation was primarily due to a temporary shutdown of CO{sub 2} delivery and maturing of the first WAG cycle. CO{sub 2} and water injection were reversed again in order to optimize changing yields and water cuts in the producing wells. Measured BHP was close to the anticipated value. A limited CO{sub 2} volume of 120 MMCF was injected to stimulate well Kuhn No. 6 to test the Huff-Puff process, since the well did not respond to CO{sub 2} injection from the main reservoir. The well will be placed on February 1, 1995. Total CO{sub 2} injection averaged this quarter about 8.8 MMCFD, including 3.6 MMCFD purchased CO{sub 2} from Cardox. The stratigraphy of the sand deposits is also discussed.

  18. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    PubMed

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  19. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD)

    PubMed Central

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome—Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco—and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  20. Structural and electronic trends for five coordinate 1(st) row transition metal complexes: Mn(ii) to Zn(ii) captured in a bis(iminopyridine) framework.

    PubMed

    Jurca, Titel; Ouanounou, Sarah; Shih, Wei-Chih; Ong, Tiow-Gan; Yap, Glenn P A; Korobkov, Ilia; Gorelsky, Serge; Richeson, Darrin

    2016-09-28

    The preparation and characterization of a series of divalent 3d transition metal complexes supported by a tridentate planar bis(iminopyridine) ligand are reported. The complexes {2,6-[PhC[double bond, length as m-dash]N(tBu2C6H3)]2C5H3N}MBr2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), 1-6, were characterized by single crystal X-ray structural studies revealing complexes with pentacoordinate distorted square pyramidal coordination environments. This assembly of complexes provided a unique array for examining the relationship between experimental structure and computed electronic structure. While experimental structural features basically correlated with the Irving-Williams series, some clear deviations were rationalized through the computational analysis. A balance of bis(imino)pyridine/metal with bonding/antibonding π interactions was used to explain the divergent directions of Fe(ii)-N and Co(ii)-N bond lengths. Similarly, orbital details were used to justify the opposing change in Cu-Brap and Cu-Brbas bond lengths. Furthermore, computational analysis provided a unique method to document a surprising low bond order for the M-N bonds of bis(imino)pyridine ligand in this series. PMID:27539867

  1. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    PubMed

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  2. A novel Van91 I polymorphism in the 1st intron of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor gene and its effect on the urinary cAMP response to PTH.

    PubMed

    Heishi, M; Tazawa, H; Matsuo, T; Saruta, T; Hanaoka, M; Tsukamoto, Y

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to identify a parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor gene polymorphism in a healthy Japanese population. All known 13 introns of this gene were amplified by PCR, except the 1st intron, which was amplified by the long-PCR method. No restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were detected by BsmI or XbaI in any of these introns. Twenty-one other restriction enzymes (Hind III, Bgl II, Sty I, Pvu II, Eco81 I, Van91 I, BstX I, Sse8387 I, EcoR I, BamH I, Mbo II, Tth111 I, PshA I, Eam1105 I, Not I, Srf I, Bgl I, Fok I, Sfi I, Apa I, Taq I) were tested on the 1st intron. Furthermore, digestion by Van911 (CCANNNNNTGG) identified a single, two-allele polymorphism with a fragment of approximately 3.5 kb (V allele) or a fragment of 3.1 and 0.4 kb (v allele). The frequency of the Van91 I polymorphism in 106 healthy Japanese volunteers was 77.4% for type vv, 19.8% for type Vv and 2.8% for type VV. In addition, the urinary cAMP response to exogenous [1-34]PTH was studied in 17 healthy volunteers and found to be significantly greater in persons with type Vv than type vv (p<0.05). In conclusion, the Van91 I polymorphism of the PTH/PTHrP receptor gene can be used to study the role of polymorphism in various disorders involving PTH or PTHrP. PMID:10784412

  3. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against CMP-N-Acetylneuraminate-beta-galactosamide-alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 1 (ST3Gal-I) Recombinant Protein Expressed in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anuj Kumar; Kaur, Parvinder; Patil, Harshada; Kadam, Pallavi; Bhanushali, Paresh B; Chugh, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is one of the major hallmarks of cancer with altered gene expression signatures of sialyltransferases. ST3Gal-I, a sialyltransferase, is known to play a crucial role in sialylation of T antigen in bladder cancer and it has reported elevated expression in breast carcinogenesis with increased tumor progression stages. The aim of the current study is to develop new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human ST3Gal-I and evaluate their diagnostic potential. We developed a repertoire of stable hybridoma cell lines producing high-affinity IgG antibodies against recombinant human ST3Gal-I, expressed in E. coli BL21-DE3 strain. In order to demonstrate the diagnostic value of the mAbs, various clones were employed for the immunohistochemistry analysis of ST3Gal-I expression in cancerous tissues. Antibodies generated by 7E51C83A10 clone demonstrated a strong and specific fluorescence staining in breast cancer tissue sections and did not exhibit significant background in fibroadenoma sections. In conclusion, the mAbs raised against recombinant ST3Gal-I recognize cellular ST3Gal-I and represent a promising diagnostic tool for the immunodetection of ST3Gal-I expressing cells. Specific-reactivity of clone 7E51C83A10 mAbs towards ST3Gal-I was also confirmed by immunoblotting. Therefore, our observations warrant evaluation of ST3Gal-I as a potential marker for cancer diagnosis at larger scale. PMID:26783462

  4. Uncertainty calculation in the RIO air quality interpolation model and aggregation to yearly average and exceedance probability taking into account the temporal auto-correlation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiheu, Bino; Nele, Veldeman; Janssen, Stijn; Fierens, Frans; Trimpeneers, Elke

    2010-05-01

    RIO is an operational air quality interpolation model developed by VITO and IRCEL-CELINE and produces hourly maps for different pollutant concentrations such as O3, PM10 and NO2 measured in Belgium [1]. The RIO methodology consists of residual interpolation by Ordinary Kriging of the residuals of the measured concentrations and pre-determined trend functions which express the relation between land cover information derived from the CORINE dataset and measured time-averaged concentrations [2]. RIO is an important tool for the Flemish administration and is among others used to report, as is required by each member state, on the air quality status in Flanders to the European Union. We feel that a good estimate of the uncertainty of the yearly average concentration maps and the probability of norm-exceedance are both as important as the values themselves. In this contribution we will discuss the uncertainties specific to the RIO methodology, where we have both contributions from the Ordinary Kriging technique as well as the trend functions. Especially the parameterisation of the uncertainty w.r.t. the trend functions will be the key indicator for the degree of confidence the model puts into using land cover information for spatial interpolation of pollutant concentrations. Next, we will propose a method which enables us to calculate the uncertainty on the yearly average concentrations as well as the number of exceedance days, taking into account the temporal auto-correlation of the concentration fields. It is clear that the autocorrelation will have a strong impact on the uncertainty estimation [3] of yearly averages. The method we propose is based on a Monte Carlo technique that generates an ensemble of interpolation maps with the correct temporal auto-correlation structure. From a generated ensemble, the calculation of norm-exceedance probability at each interpolation location becomes quite straightforward. A comparison with the ad-hoc method proposed in [3], where

  5. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    OMS'05 is the first international conference wholly dedicated to optical microsystems. It was organized by the European Optical Society (EOS) in the frame of its international topical meeting activity and was held in Italy, September 2005, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. A possible definition of an optical microsystem is a complex system, able to perform one or more sensing and actuation functions, where optical devices are integrated in a smart way with electronic, mechanical and sensing components by taking advantage of the progress in micro- and nano-technologies. The increasing interest in this field arises from the expected applications that would significantly improve the quality of life. The list of possibilities offered by the optical microsystem enabling technologies is very long and seems to increase day by day. We are not only thinking about the next generation of optical telecommunication networks and computers, but also about low-cost, compact microsystems for environmental monitoring, in order to improve safety in the avionic and automotive fields, medical diagnostics and proteomic/genomic studies, or just finding general applications in several industrial fields. The goal of the conference was to involve scientists and young researchers from the main public and private laboratories, giving them the opportunity to present new scientific results and compare their know-how in the exciting and emerging field of optical microsystems. We believe that we succeeded in this. More than 200 scientists from all over the world attended the conference. We had more than 100 oral presentations and approximately 20 from the keynote lectures and invited speeches. It was an opportunity to define the most recent progress carried out in the field and to outline the possible road-map leading to the expected results in the industrial and social fields. We strongly believe that research and technology are closely interconnected at present and cannot

  6. Computation of ESR spectra from the time evolution of the magnetization: Comparison of autocorrelation and Wiener-Khinchin-relation-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroki; De Raedt, Hans; Bertaina, Sylvain; Miyashita, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    The calculation of finite temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra for concrete specified crystal configurations is a very important issue in the study of quantum spin systems. Although direct evaluation of the Kubo formula by means of numerical diagonalization yields exact results, memory and CPU time restrictions limit the applicability of this approach to small system sizes. Methods based on the time evolution of a single pure quantum state can be used to study larger systems. One such method exploits the property that the expectation value of the autocorrelation function obtained for a few samples of so-called thermal typical states yields a good estimate of the thermal equilibrium value. In this paper, we propose a new method based on a Wiener-Khinchin-like theorem for quantum system. By comparison with exact diagonalization results, it is shown that both methods yield correct results. As the Wiener-Khinchin-based method involves sampling over thermal typical states, we study the statistical properties of the sampling distribution. Effects due to finite observation time are investigated and found to differ for the two methods but it is also found that, for both methods, the effects vanish as the system size increases. We present ESR spectra of the one-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg chain of up to 28 spins and discuss the dependence of separation of double peaks on the chain length.

  7. Computation and analysis of the transverse current autocorrelation function, Ct(k,t), for small wave vectors: A molecular-dynamics study for a Lennard-Jones fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsang, R.; Hoheisel, C.

    1987-02-01

    Molecular-dynamics (MD) calculations are reported for three thermodynamic states of a Lennard-Jones fluid. Systems of 2048 particles and 105 integration steps were used. The transverse current autocorrelation function, Ct(k,t), has been determined for wave vectors of the range 0.5<||k||σ<1.5. Ct(k,t) was fitted by hydrodynamic-type functions. The fits returned k-dependent decay times and shear viscosities which showed a systematic behavior as a function of k. Extrapolation to the hydrodynamic region at k=0 gave shear viscosity coefficients in good agreement with direct Green-Kubo results obtained in previous work. The two-exponential model fit for the memory function proposed by other authors does not provide a reasonable description of the MD results, as the fit parameters show no systematic wave-vector dependence, although the Ct(k,t) functions are somewhat better fitted. Similarly, the semiempirical interpolation formula for the decay time based on the viscoelastic concept proposed by Akcasu and Daniels fails to reproduce the correct k dependence for the wavelength range investigated herein.

  8. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  9. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    SciTech Connect

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  10. Elementary Science Guide -- 1st Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 1. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Four units are…

  11. MERIS 1st Year: early calibration results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delwart, Steven; Bourg, Ludovic; Huot, Jean-Paul

    2004-02-01

    Envisat is ESA's environmental research satellite launched on 1 March 2002. It carries a suit of sensors offering opportunities for a broad range of scientific research and applications. The calibration results from the first year of operation of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) will be presented, including in-flight verification and radiometric, spectral and geometric characterization of the instrument. Radiometric calibration using the on-board diffuser will be discussed and comparison with vicarious calibration results over desert sites or well-characterized marine sites will be presented. The image quality will be assessed, and improvements resulting from the in-flight characterization will be presented.

  12. GALEX 1st Light Near Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image was taken on May 21 and 22 by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image was made from data gathered during the missions 'first light' milestone, and shows celestial objects in the constellation Hercules. The objects shown represent those detected by the camera's near ultraviolet channel over a 5-minute period. The radial streaks at the edge of the image are due to stars reflecting from the near ultraviolet detector window.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer's first light images are dedicated to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Hercules region was directly above Columbia when it made its last contact with NASA Mission Control on February 1, over the skies of Texas.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer launched on April 28 on a mission to map the celestial sky in the ultraviolet and determine the history of star formation in the universe over the last 10 billion years.

  13. GALEX 1st Light Near Ultraviolet -50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image was taken May 21 and 22 by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image was made from data gathered by the two channels of the spacecraft camera during the mission's 'first light' milestone. It shows about 50 celestial objects in the constellation Hercules. The reddish objects represent those detected by the camera's near ultraviolet channel over a 5-minute period, while bluish objects were detected over a 3-minute period by the camera's far ultraviolet channel. Deeper imaging may confirm the apparent existence in this field of galaxy pairs and triplets or individual star formation regions in single galaxies.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer's first light images are dedicated to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Hercules region was directly above Columbia when it made its last contact with NASA Mission Control on February 1, over the skies of Texas.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer launched on April 28 on a mission to map the celestial sky in the ultraviolet and determine the history of star formation in the universe over the last 10 billion years.

  14. GALEX 1st Light Far Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image was taken May 21 and 22 by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image was made from data gathered by the far ultraviolet channel of the spacecraft camera during the mission's 'first light' milestone. It shows about 400 celestial objects, appearing in blue, detected over a 3-minute, 20-second period in the constellation Hercules.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer's first light images are dedicated to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Hercules region was directly above Columbia when it made its last contact with NASA Mission Control on February 1, over the skies of Texas.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer launched on April 28 on a mission to map the celestial sky in the ultraviolet and determine the history of star formation in the universe over the last 10 billion years.

  15. Phase-ordering kinetics on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenborn, Oliver Lars

    I investigate phase-ordering kinetics on static curved surfaces, starting from a well-known time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, known as model A and valid in flat two-dimensional systems, and generalizing this to apply on curved surfaces. I develop and implement an interface formalism for model A, valid in both curved and flat surfaces. This is based on an interface velocity equation explicitly showing how interface motion couples to local surface geometry. I discuss extensively both theoretical and numerical aspects of this formalism. I derive a coupled set of curvature equations and use them to obtain an approximate expression for the curvature autocorrelation function (CAF) in the flat case. This is compared for the first time to numerical simulation results and shows that the CAF provides dynamical information not readily available from the traditional order-parameter structure-factor, yet is far easier to compute than the latter. A dominant length-scale is observed for the first time, in the domain interface undulations, even in Euclidean model A dynamics. I discuss how this affects the interpretation of what is needed for a system to exhibit dynamical scaling. I look at the effect of surface Gauss curvature on the growth rate of domains and show that when the phase-ordering occurs on a corrugated surface, metastable long-range disorder may result. I show how these effects cause a break-down of dynamical scaling and power-law growth, how they bring about the elimination of the zero-temperature fixed point of Euclidean model A, and how phase-ordering in curved lipid-bilayer membranes should be affected. A new very-late stage regime appears for simulations of model A on sinusoid (i.e. egg-carton-like) surfaces. These features indicate that thermal noise should be included in future studies of phase ordering kinetics on curved surfaces. They also indicate that even before the order-parameter is explicitly coupled to surface quantities such as the local mean

  16. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Joy, Elizabeth; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon

    2014-02-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the 1st (San Francisco, California, USA) and 2nd (Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers and other healthcare providers for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians and other healthcare professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. PMID:24463911

  17. Highly ordered self-assembled nanoscale periodic faceting in GaAs(631) homoepitaxial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Hernandez, E.; Mendez-Garcia, V. H.; Shimomura, S.

    2012-08-13

    We report on the self-assembly of large-order-correlated nanoscale faceting on GaAs(631)A substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The surface morphology of the grown samples as a function of the growth temperature and the As-beam equivalent pressure was studied using atomic force microscopy. A two-dimensional autocorrelation function analysis was performed in order to quantitatively determine the uniformity of the surface corrugation. By optimizing the growth conditions, correlated faceted areas as large as 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 1.7 {mu}m{sup 2} are obtained. The highly ordered surface corrugation discussed here provides useful insights to prepare highly ordered facet planes for the self organized growth of quantum wires.

  18. Persistence and spatial autocorrelation of clones of Erysiphe necator overwintering as mycelium in dormant buds in an isolated vineyard in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, P; Pizzatti, C; Bertocchi, D; Milgroom, M G

    2008-02-01

    The population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator (formerly Uncinula necator), has been hypothesized to vary from being clonal to highly diverse and recombining. We report here on the structure of an E. necator population sampled during a 4-year period from an isolated vineyard in northern Italy (Voghera, Pavia Province). We obtained 54 isolates of E. necator that overwintered asexually as mycelium in grapevine buds and caused severe symptoms on the emerging shoots, known as flag shoots. All isolates were genotyped for mating type, four multilocus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers (a total of 64 loci were scored), and two single-copy loci designed to identify genetic subgroups in E. necator. All isolates had the same mating type and single-locus alleles that correlate to isolates from flag shoots in other areas. Only 2 of the 64 loci scored from multilocus markers were polymorphic; 46 of the 54 isolates had the same multilocus haplotype. Seven isolates had a second haplotype that was recovered over 3 years, and only a single isolate was found with a third haplotype. Both variant haplotypes differed from the main clonal haplotype by single loci. Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed that vines with flag shoots were not aggregated within years, but they were aggregated between consecutive years. These results demonstrate that this subpopulation of E. necator on flag shoots is composed of a single clonal lineage that has persisted for at least 4 years. We speculate that the lack of diversity in the flag shoot subpopulation in this vineyard is the result of restricted immigration from surrounding areas and genetic drift operating through founder effects and periodic bottlenecks. We propose a model that integrates epidemiology and population genetics to explain the variation observed in genetic structure of E. necator flag shoot subpopulations from different vineyards or viticultural regions. PMID:18943190

  19. Mono-static GPR without transmitting anything for pavement damage inspection: interferometry by auto-correlation applied to mobile phone signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, R.; Slob, E. C.; Thorbecke, J.

    2015-12-01

    Creating virtual sources at locations where physical receivers have measured a response is known as seismic interferometry. A much appreciated benefit of interferometry is its independence of the actual source locations. The use of ambient noise as actual source is therefore not uncommon in this field. Ambient noise can be commercial noise, like for example mobile phone signals. For GPR this can be useful in cases where it is not possible to place a source, for instance when it is prohibited by laws and regulations. A mono-static GPR antenna can measure ambient noise. Interferometry by auto-correlation (AC) places a virtual source on this antenna's position, without actually transmitting anything. This can be used for pavement damage inspection. Earlier work showed very promising results with 2D numerical models of damaged pavement. 1D and 2D heterogeneities were compared, both modelled in a 2D pavement world. In a 1D heterogeneous model energy leaks away to the sides, whereas in a 2D heterogeneous model rays can reflect and therefore still add to the signal reconstruction (see illustration). In the first case the amount of stationary points is strictly limited, while in the other case the amount of stationary points is very large. We extend these models to a 3D world and optimise an experimental configuration. The illustration originates from the journal article under submission 'Non-destructive pavement damage inspection by mono-static GPR without transmitting anything' by R. Feld, E.C. Slob, and J.W. Thorbecke. (a) 2D heterogeneous pavement model with three irregular-shaped misalignments between the base and subbase layer (marked by arrows). Mono-antenna B-scan positions are shown schematically. (b) Ideal output: a real source at the receiver's position. The difference w.r.t. the trace found in the middle is shown. (c) AC output: a virtual source at the receiver's position. There is a clear overlap with the ideal output.

  20. A Theory for Market Impact: How Order Flow Affects Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerig, Austin

    2008-04-01

    It is known that the impact of transactions on stock price (market impact) is a concave function of the size of the order, but there exists little quantitative theory that suggests why this is so. I develop a quantitative theory for the market impact of hidden orders (orders that reflect the true intention of buying and selling) that matches the empirically measured result and that reproduces some of the non-trivial and universal properties of stock returns (returns are percent changes in stock price). The theory is based on a simple premise, that the stock market can be modeled in a mechanical way - as a device that translates order flow into an uncorrelated price stream. Given that order flow is highly autocorrelated, this premise requires that market impact (1) depends on past order flow and (2) is asymmetric for buying and selling. I derive the specific form for the dependence in (1) by assuming that current liquidity responds to information about all currently active hidden orders (liquidity is a measure of the price response to a transaction of a given size). This produces an equation that suggests market impact should scale logarithmically with total order size. Using data from the London Stock Exchange I empirically measure market impact and show that the result matches the theory. Also using empirical data, I qualitatively specify the asymmetry of (2). Putting all results together, I form a model for market impact that reproduces three universal properties of stock returns - that returns are uncorrelated, that returns are distributed with a power law tail, and that the magnitude of returns is highly autocorrelated (also known as clustered volatility).

  1. 78 FR 54234 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film from Dana Mermelstein (202) Brazil (A-351-841) (1st Review). 482-1391.... Lightweight Thermal Paper from China (A-570-920) David Goldberger (202) (1st Review). 482-4136. Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany (A-428- David Goldberger (202) 840) (1st Review). 482-4136....

  2. Results of Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Using 36 mm Femoral Heads on 1st Generation Highly Cross Linked Polyethylene in Patients 50 Years and Less with Minimum Five Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Kee; Kim, Hee-soo; Nam, Jun-Ho; Chae, Seung-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the clinical and radiographic midterm results of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a 36 mm diameter femoral head on 1st generation highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) in patients 50 years and less with minimum five year follow-up. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients (41 hips) aged 50 years and less underwent primary THA with a 36 mm diameter femoral head on HXLPE between 2004 and 2010. Clinical follow-ups included specific measurements like modified Harris hip scores (HHS) and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel score. For radiologic evaluations, together with position of acetabular cup at six weeks later of postoperation, we separately calculated the penentrations of femoral head into polyethylene liners during postoperation and one year later check-ups, and during one year later check-ups and final check-ups. Results There were no major complications except for one case of dislocation. Average modified HHS at final follow-up was 88 (81-98), and Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores were more than 15. Mean acetabular cup inclination and anteversion were 45.81°(36.33°-54.91°) and 13.26°(6.72°-27.71°), respectively. Average femoral head penetration of steady-state wear rate determined using radiographs taken at one-year postoperatively and at latest follow-up was 0.042±0.001 mm/year. Conclusion Based on minimum 5 years clinical results, we think 36 mm metal head coupling with HXLPE as the good alternate articulation surface when planning THA for patients aged 50 years and less. PMID:27536648

  3. Critical comparison of several order-book models for stock-market fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanina, F.

    2008-01-01

    Far-from-equilibrium models of interacting particles in one dimension are used as a basis for modelling the stock-market fluctuations. Particle types and their positions are interpreted as buy and sel orders placed on a price axis in the order book. We revisit some modifications of well-known models, starting with the Bak-Paczuski-Shubik model. We look at the four decades old Stigler model and investigate its variants. One of them is the simplified version of the Genoa artificial market. The list of studied models is completed by the models of Maslov and Daniels et al. Generically, in all cases we compare the return distribution, absolute return autocorrelation and the value of the Hurst exponent. It turns out that none of the models reproduces satisfactorily all the empirical data, but the most promising candidates for further development are the Genoa artificial market and the Maslov model with moderate order evaporation.

  4. Optical implementation of a second-order translation-invariant network algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, Paul; Jennings, Andrew; Kelly, Brian; Hegarty, John

    1993-03-01

    Higher-order networks, particularly second-order translation-invariant networks, are introduced, and their suitability for optical implementation is outlined. The algorithm is implemented with a conventional liquid-crystal display, permitting on-line learning and updating of weights. The basic operation of the optical system is demonstrated, and the ability of the system to adapt to system nonuniformities is illustrated. The implementation with an integrated optoelectronic array of asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators containing a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well active region is described. The principles of operation and operating characteristics of the device array are outlined. The use of the array in an optical system to calculate the autocorrelation matrix necessary for a second-order network is demonstrated.

  5. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  6. Surface Roughness and Critical Exponent Analyses of Boron-Doped Diamond Films Using Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging: Application of Autocorrelation and Power Spectral Density Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Vierkant, G. P.

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of the surface roughness of growing metal or semiconductor thin films provides much needed information about their growth kinetics and corresponding mechanism. While some systems show stages of nucleation, coalescence, and growth, others exhibit varying microstructures for different process conditions. In view of these classifications, we report herein detailed analyses based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization to extract the surface roughness and growth kinetics exponents of relatively low boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by utilizing the analytical power spectral density (PSD) and autocorrelation function (ACF) as mathematical tools. The machining industry has applied PSD for a number of years for tool design and analysis of wear and machined surface quality. Herein, we present similar analyses at the mesoscale to study the surface morphology as well as quality of BDD films grown using the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. PSD spectra as a function of boron concentration (in gaseous phase) are compared with those for samples grown without boron. We find that relatively higher boron concentration yields higher amplitudes of the longer-wavelength power spectral lines, with amplitudes decreasing in an exponential or power-law fashion towards shorter wavelengths, determining the roughness exponent ( α ≈ 0.16 ± 0.03) and growth exponent ( β ≈ 0.54), albeit indirectly. A unique application of the ACF, which is widely used in signal processing, was also applied to one-dimensional or line analyses (i.e., along the x- and y-axes) of AFM images, revealing surface topology datasets with varying boron concentration. Here, the ACF was used to cancel random surface "noise" and identify any spatial periodicity via repetitive ACF peaks or spatially correlated noise. Periodicity at shorter spatial wavelengths was observed for no doping and low doping levels, while smaller correlations were observed for relatively

  7. Ecosystem functional assessment based on the "optical type" concept and self-similarity patterns: An application using MODIS-NDVI time series autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesca, Margarita; Merino-de-Miguel, Silvia; Eklundh, Lars; Litago, Javier; Cicuéndez, Victor; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Ustin, Susan L.; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing (RS) time series are an excellent operative source for information about the land surface across several scales and different levels of landscape heterogeneity. Ustin and Gamon (2010) proposed the new concept of "optical types" (OT), meaning "optically distinguishable functional types", as a way to better understand remote sensing signals related to the actual functional behavior of species that share common physiognomic forms but differ in functionality. Whereas the OT approach seems to be promising and consistent with ecological theory as a way to monitor vegetation derived from RS, it received little implementation. This work presents a method for implementing the OT concept for efficient monitoring of ecosystems based on RS time series. We propose relying on an ecosystem's repetitive pattern in the temporal domain (self-similarity) to assess its dynamics. Based on this approach, our main hypothesis is that distinct dynamics are intrinsic to a specific OT. Self-similarity level in the temporal domain within a broadleaf forest class was quantitatively assessed using the auto-correlation function (ACF), from statistical time series analysis. A vector comparison classification method, spectral angle mapper, and principal component analysis were used to identify general patterns related to forest dynamics. Phenological metrics derived from MODIS NDVI time series using the TIMESAT software, together with information from the National Forest Map were used to explain the different dynamics found. Results showed significant and highly stable self-similarity patterns in OTs that corresponded to forests under non-moisture-limited environments with an adaptation strategy based on a strong phenological synchrony with climate seasonality. These forests are characterized by dense closed canopy deciduous forests associated with high productivity and low biodiversity in terms of dominant species. Forests in transitional areas were associated with patterns of less

  8. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  9. First-order inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  10. Infants Communicate in Order to Be Understood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Gerlind; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Infants intentionally communicate with others from before their 1st birthday. But there is some question about how they understand the communicative process. Do they understand that for their request to work the recipient must both understand the request and be cooperatively disposed to fulfill it? On the basis of the study by Shwe and Markman…

  11. New archaeomagnetic data recovered from the study of celtiberic remains from central Spain (Numantia and Ciadueña, 3rd-1st centuries BC). Implications on the fidelity of the Iberian paleointensity database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Catanzariti, G.; Jimeno, A.; Campuzano, S. A.; Benito-Batanero, J. P.; Tabernero-Galán, C.; Roperch, P.

    2016-11-01

    Variations of geomagnetic field in the Iberian Peninsula prior to roman times are poorly constrained. Here we report new archaeomagnetic results from four ceramic collections and two combustion structures recovered in two pre-roman (celtiberic) archaeological sites in central Spain. The studied materials have been dated by archaeological evidences and supported by five radiocarbon dates. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that the characteristic remanent manetization (ChRM) is carried by a low coercivity magnetic phase with Curie temperatures of 530-575 °C, most likely Ti-poor titanomagnetite/titanomaghemite. Archaeointensity determinations were carried out by using the classical Thellier-Thellier protocol including tests and corrections for magnetic anisotropy and cooling rate dependency. Two magnetic behaviours were depicted during the laboratory treatment. Black potsherds and poor heated samples from the kilns, presented two magnetization components, alterations or curved Arai plots and were therefore rejected. In contrast, well heated specimens (red ceramic fragments and well heated samples from the kilns) show one single well defined component of magnetization going through the origin and linear Arai plots providing successful archaeointensity determinations. The effect of anisotropy of the thermoremanent magnetization (ATRM) on paleointensity analysis was systematically investigated obtaining very high ATRM corrections on fine pottery specimens. In some cases, differences between the uncorrected and ATRM corrected paleointensity values reached up to 86 %. The mean intensity values obtained from three selected set of samples were 64.3 ± 5.8 μT; 56.8 ± 3.8 and 56.7 ± 4.6 μT (NUS2, CI2 and CIA, respectively), which contribute to better understand the evolution of the palaeofield intensity in central Iberia during the 3rd-1st centuries BC. The direction of the field at first century BC has also been determined from oriented samples from CIA kilns (D = 357

  12. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  13. 0.1 Trend analysis of δ18O composition of precipitation in Germany: Combining Mann-Kendall trend test and ARIMA models to correct for higher order serial correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Julian; Pan Chun, Kwok; Stumpp, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Spatio-temporal dynamics of stable oxygen (18O) and hydrogen (2H) isotopes in precipitation can be used as proxies for changing hydro-meteorological and regional and global climate patterns. While spatial patterns and distributions gained much attention in recent years the temporal trends in stable isotope time series are rarely investigated and our understanding of them is still limited. These might be a result of a lack of proper trend detection tools and effort for exploring trend processes. Here we make use of an extensive data set of stable isotope in German precipitation. In this study we investigate temporal trends of δ18O in precipitation at 17 observation station in Germany between 1978 and 2009. For that we test different approaches for proper trend detection, accounting for first and higher order serial correlation. We test if significant trends in the isotope time series based on different models can be observed. We apply the Mann-Kendall trend tests on the isotope series, using general multiplicative seasonal autoregressive integrate moving average (ARIMA) models which account for first and higher order serial correlations. With the approach we can also account for the effects of temperature, precipitation amount on the trend. Further we investigate the role of geographic parameters on isotope trends. To benchmark our proposed approach, the ARIMA results are compared to a trend-free prewhiting (TFPW) procedure, the state of the art method for removing the first order autocorrelation in environmental trend studies. Moreover, we explore whether higher order serial correlations in isotope series affects our trend results. The results show that three out of the 17 stations have significant changes when higher order autocorrelation are adjusted, and four stations show a significant trend when temperature and precipitation effects are considered. Significant trends in the isotope time series are generally observed at low elevation stations (≤315 m a

  14. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  15. Complete Sequence of pEC012, a Multidrug-Resistant IncI1 ST71 Plasmid Carrying bla CTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an Avian Escherichia coli ST117 Strain.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu-Shan; Zong, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Li; Du, Xiang-Dang; Huang, Hui; Zhong, Xing-Hao; Hu, Gong-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A 139,622-bp IncI1 ST71 conjugative plasmid pEC012 from an avian Escherichia coli D-ST117 strain was sequenced, which carried five IS26-bracketed resistance modules: IS26-fosA3-orf1-orf2-Δorf3-IS26, IS26-fip-ΔISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65-IS903D-iroN-IS26, IS26-ΔtnpR-bla TEM-1-rmtB-IS26, IS26-oqxAB-IS26, and IS26-floR-aac(3)-IV-IS26. The backbone of pEC012 was similar to that of several other IncI1 ST71 plasmids: pV408, pM105, and pC271, but these plasmids had different arrangements of multidrug resistance region. In addition, the novel ISEc57 element was identified, which is in the IS21 family. The stepwise emergence of multi-resistance regions demonstrated the accumulation of different resistance determinants through homologous recombination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a multidrug-resistant IncI1 ST71 plasmid carrying bla CTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an avian E. coli ST117 strain. PMID:27486449

  16. Complete Sequence of pEC012, a Multidrug-Resistant IncI1 ST71 Plasmid Carrying blaCTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an Avian Escherichia coli ST117 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu-Shan; Zong, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Li; Du, Xiang-Dang; Huang, Hui; Zhong, Xing-Hao; Hu, Gong-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A 139,622-bp IncI1 ST71 conjugative plasmid pEC012 from an avian Escherichia coli D-ST117 strain was sequenced, which carried five IS26-bracketed resistance modules: IS26-fosA3-orf1-orf2-Δorf3-IS26, IS26-fip-ΔISEcp1-blaCTX-M-65-IS903D-iroN-IS26, IS26-ΔtnpR-blaTEM-1-rmtB-IS26, IS26-oqxAB-IS26, and IS26-floR-aac(3)-IV-IS26. The backbone of pEC012 was similar to that of several other IncI1 ST71 plasmids: pV408, pM105, and pC271, but these plasmids had different arrangements of multidrug resistance region. In addition, the novel ISEc57 element was identified, which is in the IS21 family. The stepwise emergence of multi-resistance regions demonstrated the accumulation of different resistance determinants through homologous recombination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a multidrug-resistant IncI1 ST71 plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an avian E. coli ST117 strain. PMID:27486449

  17. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Shiga toxin gene (stx1)-positive Escherichia coli O91:H14 carrying blaCTX-M-15 on an IncI1-ST31 plasmid isolated from a human patient in Germany.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Mardjan; Bettge-Weller, Gudrun; Fruth, Angelika; Uphoff, Helmut; Pfeifer, Yvonne

    2015-05-01

    In 2011, the Shiga toxin- and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 caused a serious outbreak of gastroenteritis in Germany. This strain carried bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(TEM-1) on an IncI1-ST31 plasmid. During screening of individuals at risk for acquisition of the epidemic E. coli O104:H4, we isolated another ESBL-producing and Shiga toxin-positive E. coli belonging to serotype O91:H14 from feces of a human patient. Interestingly, the patient also carried a further ESBL-producing but Shiga toxin-negative E. coli. Both strains harbored bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(TEM-1) on an IncI1-ST31 plasmid, which was indistinguishable regarding size and plasmid restriction pattern from the plasmid of the epidemic E. coli O104:H4 strain. The patient had traveled to India 6 months prior to the isolation of the E. coli strains. This is the first report of an ESBL-producing, Shiga toxin-positive E. coli of serogroup O91. Our data suggest a high propensity of the IncI1-ST31 plasmid to spread in the human and/or animal population.

  18. After order 636

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.G.

    1995-02-01

    Through its Order 636, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) completed a restructuring of the natural gas industry. The order severed the last links in the chain linking gas producers to pipeline companies to local gas distribution companies (LDCs) to customers. Before Order 636 took effect, many predicted electric power generation, particularly by cogenerators and independent power producers (IPPs), would be a major growth area for natural gas. In fact, what Order 636 has shown is, that timing is everything, and that it`s difficult to sort out the effect of one agent of change when many others are at work.

  19. Bioregions and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakthrough, 1985

    1985-01-01

    What bioregions can do to contribute to world order and security is discussed in this newsletter. A bioregion is defined as an identifiable geographical area of interacting life-systems that is relatively self-sustaining in the ever-renewing processes of nature. Articles included are: "Bioregionalism and World Order" (Gerald Mische); "Bioregions:…

  20. Narcissism and birth order.

    PubMed

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  1. Representation of linear orders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D A; Kim, J O; Sudevan, P

    1984-01-01

    Two binary classification tasks were used to explore the associative structure of linear orders. In Experiment 1, college students classified English letters as targets or nontargets, the targets being consecutive letters of the alphabet. The time to reject nontargets was a decreasing function of the distance from the target set, suggesting response interference mediated by automatic associations from the target to the nontarget letters. The way in which this interference effect depended on the placement of the boundaries between the target and nontarget sets revealed the relative strengths of individual interletter associations. In Experiment 2, students were assigned novel linear orders composed of letterlike symbols and asked to classify pairs of symbols as being adjacent or nonadjacent in the assigned sequence. Reaction time was found to be a joint function of the distance between any pair of symbols and the relative positions of those symbols within the sequence. The effects of both distance and position decreased systematically over 6 days of practice with a particular order, beginning at a level typical of unfamiliar orders and converging on a level characteristic of familiar orders such as letters and digits. These results provide an empirical unification of two previously disparate sets of findings in the literature on linear orders, those concerning familiar and unfamiliar orders, and the systematic transition between the two patterns of results suggests the gradual integration of a new associative structure.

  2. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  3. ASDC Order Tools

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-04-17

    ... users to search our data holdings without logging in to the system. The user, however, must log in before ordering the data. ... Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor II (ACRIM II) Total Solar Irradiance Data Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) data (Selected ...

  4. 'Good palliative care' orders.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, I

    1993-01-01

    A Select Committee of the Parliament of South Australia, considering revisions to legislation governing care of the dying, did not support allowing doctors to assist suicide. They recommended that no liability attach to the provision of reasonable palliative care which happens to shorten life. The Committee affirmed the suggestion that positive open orders to provide 'good palliative care' should replace 'do not resuscitate' orders. PMID:7506978

  5. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    PubMed

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  6. Arguments from Developmental Order

    PubMed Central

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  7. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order. PMID:24479023

  8. Finite order variational bicomplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitolo, Raffaele

    1999-01-01

    The theory of variational bicomplexes was established at the end of the seventies by several authors [2, 17, 23, 26, 29-32]. The idea is that the operations which take a Lagrangian into its Euler-Lagrange morphism [9, 10, 12, 24] and an Euler-Lagrange morphism into its Helmholtz' conditions of local variationality [1-3, 7, 11, 13, 18, 27] are morphisms of a (long) exact sheaf sequence. This viewpoint overcomes several problems of Lagrangian formulations in mechanics and field theories [21, 28]. To avoid technical difficulties variational bicomplexes were formulated over the space of infinite jets of a fibred manifold. But in this formalism the information relative to the order of the jet where objects are defined is lost.We refer to the recent formulation of variational bicomplexes on finite order jet spaces [13]. Here, a finite order variational sequence is obtained by quotienting the de Rham sequence on a finite order jet space with an intrinsically defined sub-sequence, whose choice is inspired by the calculus of variations. It is important to find an isomorphism of the quotient sequence with a sequence of sheaves of ‘concrete’ sections of some vector bundle. This task has already been faced locally [22, 25] and intrinsically [33] in the case of one independent variable.In this paper, we give an intrinsic isomorphism of the variational sequence (in the general case of n independent variables) with a sequence which is made by sheaves of forms on a jet space of minimal order. This yields new natural solutions to problems like the minimal order Lagrangian corresponding to a locally variational Euler-Lagrange morphism and the search of variationally trivial Lagrangians. Moreover, we give a new intrinsic formulation of Helmholtz' local variationality conditions, proving the existence of a new intrinsic geometric object which, for an Euler-Lagrange morphism, plays a role analogous to that of the momentum of a Lagrangian.

  9. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to…

  10. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  11. Word Order in Klamath.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Karen

    The word order in Klamath, a Penutian language of southern Oregon, has been described as almost completely "free". The language is examined in terms of the effect of the relative topicality of arguments on their position preceding or following the verb. The database used for this study consisted of seven Klamath texts from Barker (1963): five…

  12. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  13. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  14. Higher-order Multiples.

    PubMed

    Stone, Joanne; Kohari, Katherine S

    2015-09-01

    Higher-order multiple gestations have increased since the advent of advanced reproductive technologies. These pregnancies present unique risks to both mothers and fetuses. It is imperative that early diagnosis of chronicity be determined and that proper counseling is performed, so patients understand the risks, evaluation, and management needed.

  15. Order, topology and preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sertel, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

  16. High-order random Raman lasing in a PM fiber with ultimate efficiency and narrow bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Babin, Sergey A; Zlobina, Ekaterina A; Kablukov, Sergey I; Podivilov, Evgeniy V

    2016-01-01

    Random Raman lasers attract now a great deal of attention as they operate in non-active turbid or transparent scattering media. In the last case, single mode fibers with feedback via Rayleigh backscattering generate a high-quality unidirectional laser beam. However, such fiber lasers have rather poor spectral and polarization properties, worsening with increasing power and Stokes order. Here we demonstrate a linearly-polarized cascaded random Raman lasing in a polarization-maintaining fiber. The quantum efficiency of converting the pump (1.05 μm) into the output radiation is almost independent of the Stokes order, amounting to 79%, 83%, and 77% for the 1(st) (1.11 μm), 2(nd) (1.17 μm) and 3(rd) (1.23 μm) order, respectively, at the polarization extinction ratio >22 dB for all orders. The laser bandwidth grows with increasing order, but it is almost independent of power in the 1-10 W range, amounting to ~1, ~2 and ~3 nm for orders 1-3, respectively. So, the random Raman laser exhibits no degradation of output characteristics with increasing Stokes order. A theory adequately describing the unique laser features has been developed. Thus, a full picture of the cascaded random Raman lasing in fibers is shown. PMID:26940082

  17. Simplification of high order polynomial calibration model for fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liandong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Weishi; Pan, Chengliang; Xia, Haojie

    2016-10-01

    In fringe projection profilometry systems, high order polynomial calibration models can be employed to improve the accuracy. However, it is not stable to fit a high order polynomial model with least-squares algorithms. In this paper, a novel method is presented to analyze the significance of each polynomial term and simplify the high order polynomial calibration model. Term significance is evaluated by comparing the loading vector elements of the first few principal components which are obtained with the principal component analysis, and trivial terms are identified and neglected from the high order polynomial calibration model. As a result, the high order model is simplified with significant improvement of computation stability and little loss of reconstruction accuracy. An interesting finding is that some terms of 0 and 1st order, as well as some high order terms related to the image direction that is vertical to the phase change direction, are trivial terms for this specific problem. Experimental results are shown to validate of the proposed method.

  18. High-order random Raman lasing in a PM fiber with ultimate efficiency and narrow bandwidth

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Sergey A.; Zlobina, Ekaterina A.; Kablukov, Sergey I.; Podivilov, Evgeniy V.

    2016-01-01

    Random Raman lasers attract now a great deal of attention as they operate in non-active turbid or transparent scattering media. In the last case, single mode fibers with feedback via Rayleigh backscattering generate a high-quality unidirectional laser beam. However, such fiber lasers have rather poor spectral and polarization properties, worsening with increasing power and Stokes order. Here we demonstrate a linearly-polarized cascaded random Raman lasing in a polarization-maintaining fiber. The quantum efficiency of converting the pump (1.05 μm) into the output radiation is almost independent of the Stokes order, amounting to 79%, 83%, and 77% for the 1st (1.11 μm), 2nd (1.17 μm) and 3rd (1.23 μm) order, respectively, at the polarization extinction ratio >22 dB for all orders. The laser bandwidth grows with increasing order, but it is almost independent of power in the 1–10 W range, amounting to ~1, ~2 and ~3 nm for orders 1–3, respectively. So, the random Raman laser exhibits no degradation of output characteristics with increasing Stokes order. A theory adequately describing the unique laser features has been developed. Thus, a full picture of the cascaded random Raman lasing in fibers is shown. PMID:26940082

  19. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  20. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-08

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  1. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.

  2. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  3. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  4. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper. PMID:27660531

  5. Computationally efficient banding of large covariance matrices for ordered data and connections to banding the inverse Cholesky factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Daniels, M J

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we propose a computationally efficient approach to estimate (large) p-dimensional covariance matrices of ordered (or longitudinal) data based on an independent sample of size n. To do this, we construct the estimator based on a k-band partial autocorrelation matrix with the number of bands chosen using an exact multiple hypothesis testing procedure. This approach is considerably faster than many existing methods and only requires inversion of (k + 1)-dimensional covariance matrices. The resulting estimator is positive definite as long as k < n (where p can be larger than n). We make connections between this approach and banding the Cholesky factor of the modified Cholesky decomposition of the inverse covariance matrix (Wu and Pourahmadi, 2003) and show that the maximum likelihood estimator of the k-band partial autocorrelation matrix is the same as the k-band inverse Cholesky factor. We evaluate our estimator via extensive simulations and illustrate the approach using high-dimensional sonar data.

  6. An Ion Chamber Dedicated to Carbon NEXAFS: Removal of High-Order X-Rays and Reliable Flux Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.-J.; Yang, Y.-W.; Lee, Kaidee

    2007-02-02

    The difficulty of performing a reliable carbon NEXAFS measurement for thin films and adsorbate systems has long been recognized. The difficulty is typically related to lower S/B, carbon buildup in beamline optics, dirty mesh, presence of the high-order x-rays, etc. To alleviate the experimental difficulty, we have constructed an intensity-monitoring ion chamber situated between the beamline and sample chamber. The ion chamber is filled with argon up to a working pressure of 10-3 Torr and terminated with 0.1 {mu}m thick Ti foils at both ends. Titanium foils and the filled argon gas effectively remove the high-order x-rays. Consequently, the data are acquired with predominant 1st-order x-rays and thus free of the aforementioned interference, leading to a more reliable data analysis.

  7. Higher-order spectra for identification of nonlinear modal coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Daryl; Worden, Keith; Platten, Michael F.; Wright, Jan R.; Cooper, Jonathan E.

    2009-05-01

    Over the past four decades considerable work has been done in the area of power spectrum estimation. The information contained within the power spectrum relates to a signal's autocorrelation or 'second-order statistics'. The power spectrum provides a complete statistical description of a Gaussian process; however, a problem with this information is that it is phase blind. This problem is addressed if one turns to a system's frequency response function (FRF). The FRF graphs the magnitude and phase of the frequency response of a system; in order to do this it requires information regarding the frequency content of the input and output signals. Situations arise in science and engineering whereby signal analysts are required to look beyond second-order statistics and analyse a signal's higher-order statistics (HOS). HOS or spectra give information on a signal's deviation from Gaussianity and consequently are a good indicator function for the presence of nonlinearity within a system. One of the main problems in nonlinear system identification is that of high modal density. Many modelling schemes involve making some expansion of the nonlinear restoring force in terms of polynomial or other basis terms. If more than one degree-of-freedom is involved this becomes a multivariate problem and the number of candidate terms in the expansion grows explosively with the order of nonlinearity and the number of degrees-of-freedom. This paper attempts to use HOS to detect and qualify nonlinear behaviour for a number of symmetrical and asymmetrical systems over a range of degrees-of-freedom. In doing so the paper also attempts to show that HOS are a more sensitive tool than the FRF in detecting nonlinearity. Furthermore, the object of this paper is to try and identify which modes couple in a nonlinear manner in order to reduce the number of candidate coupling terms, for a model, as much as possible. The bispectrum method has previously been applied to simple low-DOF systems with high

  8. Between order and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchfield, James P.

    2012-01-01

    What is a pattern? How do we come to recognize patterns never seen before? Quantifying the notion of pattern and formalizing the process of pattern discovery go right to the heart of physical science. Over the past few decades physics' view of nature's lack of structure--its unpredictability--underwent a major renovation with the discovery of deterministic chaos, overthrowing two centuries of Laplace's strict determinism in classical physics. Behind the veil of apparent randomness, though, many processes are highly ordered, following simple rules. Tools adapted from the theories of information and computation have brought physical science to the brink of automatically discovering hidden patterns and quantifying their structural complexity.

  9. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  10. The Easy Guide to Accredited Degrees through Correspondence. Earn Your Associates, Bachelors, Masters or Ph.D. from Accredited Colleges and Universities across the United States, While You Study at Home. 1st Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taji, Nancy Lydia

    This guide lists 24 accredited colleges and universities that offer degrees through correspondence courses. The colleges and universities are listed in alphabetical order. Each listing includes the following: name of the institution, a short history, the regional accrediting body by which it is accredited, a brief introduction about how each…

  11. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel γ -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  12. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  13. Yield and temporal characterization of high-order harmonics from intense midinfrared excitation of a cesium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Clatterbuck, T.O.; Lyngaa, C.; Paul, P.M.; DiMauro, L.F.; Gaarde, M.B.; Schafer, K.J.; Agostini, P.; Kulander, K.C.; Walmsley, I.

    2004-03-01

    Cesium vapor interacting with a tightly focused, intense midinfrared (3.4 {mu}m) source produces high harmonic radiation in the visible/UV spectral range. The measured yields of harmonic orders 9-17 are found to yield good quantitative agreement with numerical simulations that include both the single-atom and the macroscopic response. The 5th-9th harmonic orders are generated with sufficient pulse energies ({approx}100 pJ) for direct temporal measurements using an autocorrelation method and when correlated with bandwidth measurements are found not to be transform limited. A blueshift connected to a strong time-dependent ionization appears to be the cause of this spectral broadening.

  14. Yield and temporal characterization of high-order harmonics from intense midinfrared excitation of a cesium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clatterbuck, T. O.; Lyngå, C.; Paul, P. M.; Dimauro, L. F.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Agostini, P.; Kulander, K. C.; Walmsley, I.

    2004-03-01

    Cesium vapor interacting with a tightly focused, intense midinfrared (3.4 μm) source produces high harmonic radiation in the visible/UV spectral range. The measured yields of harmonic orders 9 17 are found to yield good quantitative agreement with numerical simulations that include both the single-atom and the macroscopic response. The 5th 9th harmonic orders are generated with sufficient pulse energies (˜100 pJ) for direct temporal measurements using an autocorrelation method and when correlated with bandwidth measurements are found not to be transform limited. A blueshift connected to a strong time-dependent ionization appears to be the cause of this spectral broadening.

  15. Computerized Physician Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks. PMID:24381708

  16. Order without design.

    PubMed

    Kurakin, Alexei

    2010-04-14

    Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent) is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and their constituents.

  17. Birth order and myopia

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A.; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A.; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L.; Williams, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in 4 subject groups. Methods Subject groups were participants in 1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N=4,401), 2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N=1,959), 3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N=1,344), and 4) Israeli Defense Force recruitment candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N=888,277). Main outcome: Odds ratio (OR) for myopia in first born versus non-first born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. Results The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first born versus fourth or higher born comparison than for the first born versus second/third born comparison (P<0.001) and (b) with increasing myopia severity (P<0.001). Conclusions Across all studies, the increased risk of myopia in first born individuals was low (OR <1.3). Indeed, only the studies with >4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism. PMID:24168726

  18. Search for the First-Order Liquid-to-Liquid Phase Transition in Low-Temperature Confined Water by Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the alpha-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

  19. Search for the first-order liquid-to-liquid phase transition in low-temperature confined water by neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang

    2013-02-01

    It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the α-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

  20. 48 CFR 53.216-1 - Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). 53.216-1 Section 53.216-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). OF 347, Order for Supplies or Services. OF 347, prescribed in 53.213(f), (or an approved agency form) may be used to place orders...