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Sample records for 1x mango 1x

  1. Nuflood, Version 1.x

    SciTech Connect

    Tasseff, Byron

    2016-07-29

    NUFLOOD Version 1.x is a surface-water hydrodynamic package designed for the simulation of overland flow of fluids. It consists of various routines to address a wide range of applications (e.g., rainfall-runoff, tsunami, storm surge) and real time, interactive visualization tools. NUFLOOD has been designed for general-purpose computers and workstations containing multi-core processors and/or graphics processing units. The software is easy to use and extensible, constructed in mind for instructors, students, and practicing engineers. NUFLOOD is intended to assist the water resource community in planning against water-related natural disasters.

  2. Interlayer magnetic frustration in quasistoichiometric Li1-xNi1+xO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappel, E.; Núñez-Regueiro, M. D.; de Brion, S.; Chouteau, G.; Bianchi, V.; Caurant, D.; Baffier, N.

    2002-10-01

    Susceptibility, high-field magnetization, and submillimeter-wave electron spin resonance measurements of layered quasistoichiometric Li1-xNi1+xO2 are reported and compared to isomorphic NaNiO2. A mechanism of magnetic frustration induced by the excess Ni ions always present in the Li layers is proposed. We finally comment on the possible realization of an orbital liquid state in this controversial compound.

  3. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes. PMID:26273225

  4. Anomalous Flavor U(1)_X for Everything

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2003-12-01

    We present an ambitious model of flavor, based on an anomalous U(1)_X gauge symmetry with one flavon, only two right-handed neutrinos and only two mass scales: M_{grav} and m_{3/2}. In particular, there are no new scales introduced for right-handed neutrino masses. The X-charges of the matter fields are such that R-parity is conserved exactly, higher-dimensional operators are sufficiently suppressed to guarantee a proton lifetime in agreement with experiment, and the phenomenology is viable for quarks, charged leptons, as well as neutrinos. In our model one of the three light neutrinos automatically is massless. The price we have to pay for this very successful model are highly fractional X-charges which can likely be improved with less restrictive phenomenological ansatze for mass matrices.

  5. Models of GexSe1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malouin, Marc-André.; Mousseau, Normand

    2008-03-01

    We present numerical models of chalcogenide glasses constructed using the effective two and three body interaction potential developed by Mauro and Varshneya [1] combined with the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) [2]. Structures are prepared starting from a random distribution, avoiding biases and crystalline remnants. Structural properties are studied mainly via characteristic system measurements including partial and total radial distribution functions, bond angle distributions, mean coordinations and bonds population. Results are shown for GexSe1-x for various x concentrations and compared to both experimental measurements and ab initio simulation results. [1] J.C. Mauro and A.K. Varshneya, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 89 [7] 2323-6 (2006). [2] R. Malek and N. Mousseau, Phys. Rev. E 62, 7723 (2000).

  6. Maintenance Production Management (2R1X1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Occupational Survey Report Burke Burright Occupational Analyst 2R1X1 MAINTENANCE PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT MARCH 2001 Air Force Occupational Measurement...34DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Occupational Survey Report 2R1X1 Maintenance Production Management Contract or Grant Number Program Element...AFSC AWARDING COURSE § Maintenance Production Management Apprentice (J3ABR2R1X1-003) § 6 Weeks, 1 day § 12 Semester Hours for CCAF § Sheppard AFB, TX

  7. KSC Engineering Academy (KEA): Ares 1-X Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of the ARES 1-X program. Videos include avionics ATVC actuator testing, GS damper retractor, GS vortex shedding, RoCS hot fire at WSTF, RoCS Peacekeeper tests, RoCS installation, thrust OSC, amd Ares 1-X fly through.

  8. Surface band structure of Bi1 -xSbx(111 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benia, Hadj M.; Straßer, Carola; Kern, Klaus; Ast, Christian R.

    2015-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies agree that Bi1-xSbx (0.07 ≤x ≤0.21 ) is a three-dimensional topological insulator. However, there is still a debate on the corresponding Bi1-xSbx(111 ) surface band structure. While three spin polarized bands have been claimed experimentally, theoretically, only two surface bands appear, with the third band being attributed to surface imperfections. Here, we address this controversy using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on Bi1-xSbx films. To minimize surface imperfections, we have optimized the sample growth recipe. We have measured the evolution of the surface band structure of Bi1-xSbx with x increasing gradually from x =0 to x =0.6 . Our ARPES data show better agreement with the theoretical calculations, where the system is topologically nontrivial with two surface bands.

  9. Maintenance Production Management AFSC 2R1X1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MAINTENANCE PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT AFSC 2R1X1 OSSN 2435 MAY 2001 OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM AIR FORCE OCCUPATIONAL...United States Air Force Occupational Survey Report Maintenance Production Management AFSC 2R1X1-OSSN 2435 Contract or Grant Number Program Element...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii PREFACE This report presents the results of an Air Force Occupational Survey of the Maintenance Production Management career ladder

  10. Memristive Switching in Bi(1-x)Sb(x) Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Han, Nalae; Park, Myung Uk; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-04-13

    We investigated the memristive switching behavior in bismuth-antimony alloy (Bi(1-x)Sb(x)) single nanowire devices at 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.42. At 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.42, most Bi(1-x)Sb(x) single nanowire devices exhibited bipolar resistive switching (RS) behavior with on/off ratios of approximately 10(4) and narrow variations in switching parameters. Moreover, the resistance values in the low-resistance state (LRS) were insensitive to x. On the other hand, at 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.15, some Bi(1-x)Sb(x) single nanowire devices showed complementary RS-like behavior, which was ascribed to asymmetric contact properties. Transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping images of Bi, Sb, and O obtained from the cross sections of the Bi(1-x)Sb(x) single nanowire devices, which were cut before and after RS, revealed that the mobile species was Sb ions, and the migration of the Sb ions to the nanowire surface brought the switch to LRS. In addition, we demonstrated that two types of synaptic plasticity, namely, short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation, could be implemented in Bi(1-x)Sb(x) nanowires by applying a sequence of voltage pulses with different repetition intervals.

  11. Mutations in TBL1X Are Associated With Central Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Charlotte A.; Losekoot, Monique; Sun, Yu; Watson, Peter J.; Fairall, Louise; Joustra, Sjoerd D.; Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; Oostdijk, Wilma; van den Akker, Erica L. T.; Alders, Mariëlle; Santen, Gijs W. E.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Surovtseva, Olga V.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Wit, Jan M.; Schwabe, John W. R.; Boelen, Anita; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Context: Isolated congenital central hypothyroidism (CeH) can result from mutations in TRHR, TSHB, and IGSF1, but its etiology often remains unexplained. We identified a missense mutation in the transducin β-like protein 1, X-linked (TBL1X) gene in three relatives diagnosed with isolated CeH. TBL1X is part of the thyroid hormone receptor-corepressor complex. Objective: The objectives of the study were the identification of TBL1X mutations in patients with unexplained isolated CeH, Sanger sequencing of relatives of affected individuals, and clinical and biochemical characterization; in vitro investigation of functional consequences of mutations; and mRNA expression in, and immunostaining of, human hypothalami and pituitary glands. Design: This was an observational study. Setting: The study was conducted at university medical centers. Patients: Nineteen individuals with and seven without a mutation participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included sequencing results, clinical and biochemical characteristics of mutation carriers, and results of in vitro functional and expression studies. Results: Sanger sequencing yielded five additional mutations. All patients (n = 8; six males) were previously diagnosed with CeH (free T4 [FT4] concentration below the reference interval, normal thyrotropin). Eleven relatives (two males) also carried mutations. One female had CeH, whereas 10 others had low-normal FT4 concentrations. As a group, adult mutation carriers had 20%–25% lower FT4 concentrations than controls. Twelve of 19 evaluated carriers had hearing loss. Mutations are located in the highly conserved WD40-repeat domain of the protein, influencing its expression and thermal stability. TBL1X mRNA and protein are expressed in the human hypothalamus and pituitary. Conclusions: TBL1X mutations are associated with CeH and hearing loss. FT4 concentrations in mutation carriers vary from low-normal to values compatible with CeH. PMID:27603907

  12. ALUMINIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE (AlxGa1-xAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Yu. A.

    The following sections are included: * Basic Parameters at 300 K * Band Structure and Carrier Concentration * Temperature Dependences * Dependences on Hydrostatic Pressure * Energy Gap Narrowing at High Doping Levels * Band Discontinuities at AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Heterointerface * Effective Masses * Donors and Acceptors * Electrical Properties * Mobility and Hall Effect * Two-Dimensional Electron and Hole Gas Mobility at AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Interface * Transport Properties in High Electric Field * Transport Properties of Electron and Hole Two-Dimensional Gas in High Electric Field * Impact Ionization * Recombination Parameters * Optical Properties * Thermal Properties * Mechanical Properties, Elastic Constants, Lattice Vibrations, Other Properties * References

  13. Hall Mobilities in GaNxAs1-x

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Walukiewicz2, and Germán Gonzalez-Díaz1 1 Dpto. de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040...Ref. [15] temperature behavior of GaNxAs1-x mobility is modeled, but this model does not account for the different temperature dependences presented

  14. Concerning the Integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, William; Huber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Consider the integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x). In the "CRC Standard Mathematical Tables," this integral can require repeated integral evaluations. Enter this integral into your favourite computer algebra system, and the results may be unrecognizable. In this article, we seek to provide a simpler evaluation for integrals of this form. We state up…

  15. Thermoelectric transport properties of diamond-like Cu1-xFe1+xS2 tetrahedral compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulong; Zhang, Tiansong; Qin, Yuting; Day, Tristan; Jeffrey Snyder, G.; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2014-11-01

    Polycrystalline samples with the composition of Cu1-xFe1+xS2 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1) were synthesized by a melting-annealing-sintering process. X-ray powder diffraction reveals all the samples are phase pure. The backscattered electron image and X-ray map indicate that all elements are distributed homogeneously in the matrix. The measurements of Hall coefficient, electrical conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient show that Fe is an effective n-type dopant in CuFeS2. The electron carrier concentration of Cu1-xFe1+xS2 is tuned within a wide range leading to optimized power factors. The lattice phonons are also strongly scattered by the substitution of Fe for Cu, leading to reduced thermal conductivity. We use Debye approximation to model the low temperature lattice thermal conductivity. It is found that the large strain field fluctuation introduced by the disordered Fe ions generates extra strong phonon scatterings for lowered lattice thermal conductivity.

  16. Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si Infrared Photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon

    1991-01-01

    Cutoff wavelengths depend on x and also adjusted somewhat via reverse bias. Si1-xGex photodiodes with cutoff wavelengths in and beyond practically important range of 8 to 12 micrometers made by molecular-beam epitaxy. Compatible (in terms of fabrication processes) with silicon readout circuitry, exhibit long-term stability, manufactured with sufficient uniformity for use in focal-plane arrays; and operate at temperatures approximately greater than 65 K, for which temperatures small, portable refrigerators available.

  17. Two-photon absorption of Tl1-xIn1-xSnxSe2 nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myronchuk, Galyna; Parasyuk, Oleg; Piskach, Ludmila; Alzayed, Nasser Saleh; Prokhorenko, Serhii; Piasecki, Michal; Kityk, Iwan

    2016-12-01

    Novel materials for the infrared two-photon absorption — Tl1-xIn1-xSnxSe2 single crystals (x = 0.1,0.2) were grown. Two-photon absorption (TPA) was studied at CO2 laser wave-length 9.4μm with pulse duration 1μs. The studies were performed at different temperatures and for the nanocrystallite sizes varying within the 7-200 nm. The studies have shown that the TPA may be enhanced during the decrease of the nanocrystallite sizes below 50-60 nm. There exists also some critical x value at which the TPA value begin substantially to increase. The studied nanocrystallites are relatively stable to the infrared laser treatment and are not hygroscopic which allow to use them in different IR optoelectronic devices.

  18. Valence band anticrossing in GaBixAs1-x

    SciTech Connect

    Alberi, K.; Dubon, O. D.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K. M.; Bertulis, K.; Krotkus, A.

    2007-07-11

    The optical properties of GaBixAs1-x (0.04< x< 0.08) grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by photomodulated reflectance spectroscopy. The alloys exhibit a strong reduction in the bandgap as well as an increase in the spin-orbit splitting energy with increasing Bi concentration. These observations are explained by a valence band anticrossing model, which shows that a restructuring of the valence band occurs as the result of an anticrossing interaction between the extended states of the GaAs valence band and the resonant T2 states of the Bi atoms.

  19. High Temperature Superconductivity at High Pressures for H3 Six P(1 - x) , H3 Px S(1 - x) and H3 Clx S(1 - x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios; Fan, Fudong; Mehl, Michael

    Recent experimental and computational works have established the occurrence of superconducting temperatures,Tc, around 200K at corresponding 200GPa pressures in hydrogen-based sulfur compounds. In this work we have investigated the effects of phosphorus and chlorine substitutions of sulfur on Tc, as well as the effect of hydrogen vacancies. In addition, we have explored the superconductivity-relevant parameters in the H3SixP(1-x) system. In executing this work we have used the virtual-crystal-approximation and performed a systematic set of LAPW calculations for many different concentrations of the sulfur component. From the densities of states and the scattering phase-shifts at the Fermi level, we calculated electron-ion matrix elements and estimated the electron-phonon coupling constants for different concentrations as well as Tc. We find that the high values of Tc correlate with the position of the Fermi level with respect to peaks(van Hove singularities) in the density of electronic states of these materials. US Department of Energy.

  20. Interdiffusion in amorphous AlxZr1-x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Martin A.; Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Interdiffusion in amorphous Alx Zr1 -x compositionally modulated multilayers was investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy sputter-depth profiling. Microstructural characterisation was performed by X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The temperature-dependent chemical diffusion coefficient could be deduced at a series of temperatures in the range of 356 °C to 415 °C and was found to be weakly dependent on composition. The activation enthalpy for the chemical diffusion coefficients is slightly smaller at the composition of the Al-rich am- Al0.62 Zr0.38 sublayer (1.6 eV) than at the composition of the Zr-rich am- Al0.27 Zr0.73 sublayer (1.8 eV), which is not related to the concentration dependence of the excess free volume but to the smaller atomic size and mass of Al as compared to Zr. The smaller activation enthalpy for interdiffusion in partially crystallised specimens than in entirely amorphous Alx Zr1 -x multilayers is ascribed to the relatively large excess free volume in the grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline sublayers, as compared to the amorphous phase, at large Al concentrations. On the basis of an evaluation of the role of diffusion-induced stress in amorphous systems, it is shown that stresses induced by interdiffusion relax relatively fast by viscous flow and do not affect the determined diffusion coefficients.

  1. Fabrication of (Ba1-xSrx)(ZrxTi1-x)O3 ceramics prepared using the combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtha, A.; Angsukased, K.; Bongkarn, T.

    2010-12-01

    Barium strontium zirconate titanate ((Ba1-xSrx)(ZrxTi1-x)O3 BSZT, x = 0.25 and 0.75) ceramics with a highly crystalline structure were successfully synthesized using the combustion technique, in which urea performed an important role. The effect of calcination (1000-1300 °C) and sintering temperatures (1300-1550 °C) on the phase formation and microstructure of BSZT ceramics were investigated. The pure perovskite phase of BSZT (x = 0.25 and 0.75) powders with a uniform cubic morphology were detected at the calcination temperature of 1300 °C. At the same calcination and sintering temperature, the lattice parameter a of BSZT powder and ceramics with x = 0.75 is higher than x = 0.25. The microstructure of BSZT powders exhibited an almost-spherical morphology and had a porous agglomerated form. The average particle size and the average grain size of all ceramics increased with the increase of calcination and sintering temperatures, but decreased when the content of x increased. The maximum densities of x = 0.25 and 0.75 ceramics were around 5.85 and 5.62 g cm-3 obtained from the samples sintered at 1500 and 1450 °C, respectively.

  2. Structural and magnetic studies of the Co1+xTixFe2(1-x)O4 ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    The cubic spinel Co1+xTixFe2(1-x)O4 ferrites, 0.0≤x≤0.5, were prepared by the standard ceramic technique. The samples were examined using the techniques; XRD, FT-IR, SEM and VSM. The average lattice parameter showed dependence on x, whereas the crystallite and grain size and strain did not. The infrared spectra showed six absorption bands in the range of 200-1000 cm-1. They were assigned to the corresponding metallic ion-oxygen bonds among the A- and B-sites. The absorption bands ν1 and ν2 and their intensities and force constants F1 and F2 were increased against x. Using the transmitted and absorbed energy, the IR velocity and refractive index and jump rate of vacancies were determined and discussed as functions of x. The trend of sauration magnetization Ms was decreased with x, whereas that of coercivity and anisotropy constant was increased. The determined Debye temperature and stiffness constant of the samples were discussed as functions of x. The absorption bands ν1 and ν2 proved dependence on the distance between magnetic ions (hopping length) LA-A and LB-B at the A- and B-sites, respectively, whereas F1 and F2 proved dependence on Ms.

  3. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2

    DOE PAGES

    Zou, Junding; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; ...

    2015-01-16

    Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds sequentially order ferrimagnetically and antiferromagnetically, and finally, exhibit spin reorientation transitions. Moreover, these structural distortions from room temperature cubic to low temperature rhombohedral structures occur at TN, and are accompanied by large volume changes reaching ~-1.27% and -1.42%, respectively. First principles electronic structure calculations confirm the phase transformation from the ferrimagnetic cubic structure to the antiferromagnetic rhombohedral structure in TbMn2.

  4. Robust antiferromagnetism in the R1-xLaxCu2Ge2 series: comparison of Ce1-xLaxCu2Ge2 and Nd1-xLaxCu2Ge2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Saunders, Scott M.; Hodovanets, Halyna; Canfield, Paul C.

    Recently, remarkably robust and correlated coherence and antiferromagnetism were found in the Ce1-xLaxCu2Ge2 series [H. Hodovanets et al., PRL 114, 236601 (2015)]. Whereas Ce is known to hybridize and its compounds often show a strongly correlated behavior, Nd magnetism is associated with a local moment nature. In this talk, we report new measurements on the Ce1-xLaxCu2Ge2 series that extend the antiferromagnetic and coherence lines even further and then compare the data for Ce1-xLaxCu2Ge2 and the data for a local moment based Nd1-xLaxCu2Ge2 series to separate effects of Ce - hybridization from the behavior that might be common in the R1-xLaxCu2Ge2 (R=magnetic rare earth) family. Supported by US DOE under the Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  5. MgxZn1-xO/Ag/MgxZn1-xO Multilayers As High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Ju; Kang, Jang-Won; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Song, Sun-Hye; Park, Seong-Ju

    2016-01-27

    We report on the optical and electrical properties of MgxZn1-xO/Ag/MgxZn1-xO transparent conductive electrodes. The transmittance and sheet resistance of MgxZn1-xO/Ag/MgxZn1-xO multilayers deposited at room temperature were strongly dependent on the thickness and surface morphology of Ag layer. The optical absorption edge of MgxZn1-xO/Ag/MgxZn1-xO showed a blue shift with increasing Mg composition due to the increased band gap of MgxZn1-xO. The Haack figure of merit value of Mg0.28Zn0.72O/Ag/Mg0.28Zn0.72O with a 14 nm-thick Ag layer, which has a sheet resistance of 6.36 Ω/sq and an average transmittance of 89.2% at wavelengths in the range from 350 to 780 nm, was 69% higher than that of a ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer electrode. These results indicate that MgxZn1-xO/Ag/MgxZn1-xO multilayers, which also show low surface roughness, can be used as highly conductive transparent electrodes in various optoelectronic devices operating over a wide wavelength region.

  6. Optical reflectance measurements of Co1-xCrx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jing; Fong, C. Y.; Wooten, F.; Perlov, C. M.

    1987-04-01

    The optical reflectance of Co1-xCrx for 0.12≤x≤0.22 has been measured with photon energy between 1.5 and 4.1 eV. Light was unpolarized. For atmospheric pressure, two sets of samples have been used. Spectra were obtained under vacuum (10-3 Torr) with one set of samples. Samples are in the film form with thicknesses of the order of 1 μm. Between 1.5≤ℏω≤3.5 eV, the measured alloy spectra are similar to that for pure Co with Ē∥ĉ. The reflectance decreases monotonically as the photon energy increases. This suggests that the alloying Cr to Co at x≤0.22 has not changed appreciably the electronic properties of Co within 3.0 eV of the Fermi energy EF. At higher energy the present results show a minimum in reflectance at 4.0 eV. Therefore, the alloying of Cr seems to show its effect in higher-energy interband transitions.

  7. Dirac-fermionic dark matter in U(1)X models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Alexandre; Berlin, Asher; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2015-10-01

    We study a number of U(1)X models featuring a Dirac fermion dark matter particle. We perform a comprehensive analysis which includes the study of corrections to the muon magnetic moment, dilepton searches with LHC data, as well as direct and indirect dark matter detection constraints. We consider four different coupling structures, namely U(1) B-L , U(1) d-u , U(1)universal, and U{(1)}_{10+overline{5}} , all motivated by compelling extensions to the standard model. We outline the viable and excluded regions of parameter space using a large set of probes. Our key findings are that (i) the combination of direct detection and collider constraints rule out dark matter particle masses lighter than ˜ 1 TeV, unless rather suppressed Z '-fermion couplings exist, and that (ii) for several of the models under consideration, collider constraints rule out Z ' masses up to ˜ 3 TeV. Lastly, we show that we can accommodate the recent Diboson excess reported by ATLAS collaboration within the U(1) d- u model.

  8. Hybrid metrology solution for 1X node technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaid, Alok; Elia, Alexander; Kelling, Mark; Allgair, John; Hartig, Carsten; Ebersbach, Peter; McLellan, Erin; Sendelbach, Matthew; Saleh, Nedal; Rana, Narender; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikegami, Toru; Ikeno, Masahiko; Kawasaki, Takahiro; Bozdog, Cornel; Kim, Helen; Arnon, Elad; Koret, Roy; Turovets, Igor

    2012-03-01

    The accelerated pace of the semiconductor industry in recent years is putting a strain on existing dimensional metrology equipments (such as CDSEM, AFM, Scatterometry) to keep up with ever-increasing metrology challenges. However, a revolution appears to be forming with the recent advent of Hybrid Metrology (HM) - a practice of combining measurements from multiple equipment types in order to enable or improve measurement performance. In this paper we extend our previous work on HM to measure advanced 1X node layers - EUV and Negative Tone Develop (NTD) resist as well as 3D etch structures such as FinFETs. We study the issue of data quality and matching between toolsets involved in hybridization, and propose a unique optimization methodology to overcome these effects. We demonstrate measurement improvement for these advanced structures using HM by verifying the data with reference tools (AFM, XSEM, TEM). We also study enhanced OCD models for litho structures by modeling Line-edge roughness (LER) and validate its impact on profile accuracy. Finally, we investigate hybrid calibration of CDSEM to measure in-die resist line height by Pattern Top Roughness (PTR) methodology.

  9. Ab initio calculations and synthesis of the off-stoichiometric half-Heusler phase Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Ekholm, M.; Larsson, P.; Alling, B.; Helmersson, U.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2010-11-15

    We perform a combined theoretical and experimental study of the phase stability and magnetism of the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb in the half-Heusler crystal phase. Our work is motivated by the need for strategies to engineer the magnetism of potentially half-metallic materials, such as NiMnSb, for improved performance at elevated temperatures. By means of ab initio calculations we investigate Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb over the whole composition range 0{<=}x{<=}1 of Ni replacing Mn and show that at relevant temperatures, the half-Heusler phase should be thermodynamically stable up to at least x=0.20 with respect to the competing C38 structure of Mn{sub 2}Sb. Furthermore we find that half-Heusler Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb retains half-metallic band structure over the whole concentration range and that the magnetic moments of substitutional Mn{sub Ni} atoms display magnetic exchange interactions an order of magnitude larger than the Ni-Mn interaction in NiMnSb. We also demonstrate experimentally that the alloys indeed can be created by synthesizing off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}Sb films on MgO substrates by means of magnetron sputtering.

  10. Non-magnetic compensation in ferromagnetic Ga1-xMnxAs and Ga1-xMnxP synthesized by ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpulla, M.A.; Stone, P.R.; Sharp, I.D.; Haller, E.E.; Dubon, O.D.; Beeman, J.W.; Yu, K.M.

    2008-02-05

    The electronic and magnetic effects of intentional compensation with non-magnetic donors are investigated in the ferromagnetic semiconductors Ga1-xMnxAs and Ga1-xMnxP synthesized using ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting (II-PLM). It is demonstrated that compensation with non-magnetic donors and MnI have similarqualitative effects on materials properties. With compensation TC decreases, resistivity increases, and stronger magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect attributed to skew scattering are observed. Ga1-xMnxAs can be controllably compensated with Te through a metal-insulator transition through which the magnetic and electrical properties vary continuously. The resistivity of insulating Ga1-xMnxAs:Te can be described by thermal activation to the mobility edge and simply-activated hopping transport. Ga1-xMnxP doped with S is insulating at all compositions but shows decreasing TC with compensation. The existence of a ferromagnetic insulating state in Ga1-xMnxAs:Te and Ga1-xMnxP:S having TCs of the same order as the uncompensated materials demonstrates that localized holes are effective at mediating ferromagnetism in ferromagnetic semiconductors through the percolation of ferromagnetic 'puddles' which at low temperatures.

  11. Thermoelectric Properties of LaFePO1-xFx and LaFeAsO1-xFx ---Possibility of the Hidden Mass Enhancement of LaFeAsO1-xFx---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Hirata, Wataru; Takemori, Akira; Suzuki, Shinnosuke; Saijo, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Shigeki; Tajima, Setsuko

    2011-04-01

    We investigated thermoelectric properties for polycrystalline oxypnictide LaFePO1-xFx and LaFeAsO1-xFx. The temperature (T) and F-doping dependences of resistivity (ρ) and Seebeck coefficient (S) are quite different between these compounds. In contrast to a monotonic T dependence and an absence of large F-doping dependences of ρ and S for LaFePO1-xFx, the S for LaFeAsO1-xFx for 01-xFx seem to evidence an instability of an orbital order accompanying a stripe-type AF order even in the over F-doping region for LaFeAsO1-xFx and indicate a possibility of a hidden mass enhancement of LaFeAsO1-xFx.

  12. Structural, magnetic and transport properties of Pb2Cr1+xMo1-xO6 (-1≤x≤1/3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. F.; Cao, L. P.; Song, Y. J.; Feng, S. M.; Shen, X.; Ni, X. D.; Yao, Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wang, R. M.; Jin, C. Q.; Yu, R. C.

    2017-02-01

    Pb2Cr1+xMo1-xO6 (-1≤x≤1/3) samples were synthesized via a high pressure and high temperature route. X-ray diffraction results suggest the samples crystallize in a disordered double perovskite structure (Pm-3m). X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results confirm the presence of Mo4+ for x=-1 and Mo6+ for x=1/3. The measured magnetic and electrical properties exhibit systematic change with increasing x.

  13. Modelling the thermal conductivity of (UxTh1-x)O2 and (UxPu1-x)O2

    DOE PAGES

    Cooper, M. W. D.; Middleburgh, S. C.; Grimes, R. W.

    2015-07-15

    The degradation of thermal conductivity due to the non-uniform cation lattice of (UxTh1-x)O2 and (UxPu1-x)O2 solid solutions has been investigated by molecular dynamics, using the non-equilibrium method, from 300 to 2000 K. Degradation of thermal conductivity is predicted in (UxTh1-x)O2 and (UxPu1-x)O2 as compositions deviate from the pure end members: UO2, PuO2 and ThO2. The reduction in thermal conductivity is most apparent at low temperatures where phonon-defect scattering dominates over phonon-phonon interactions. The effect is greater for (UxTh1-x)O2 than UxPu1-x)O2 due to the greater mismatch in cation size. Parameters for an analytical expressions have been developed that describe the predictedmore » thermal conductivities over the full temperature and compositional ranges. Finally, these expressions may be used in higher level fuel performance codes.« less

  14. Infrared Detectors Containing Stacked Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Jin S.; Lin, True-Lon; Jones, Eric; Del Castillo, Hector; Gunapala, Sarath

    1996-01-01

    Long-wavelength-infrared detectors containing multiple layers of high-quality crystalline p(+) Si(1-x)Ge(x) alternating with layers of Si undergoing development. Each detector comprises stack of Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) photodetectors. In comparison with older HIP detectors containing single Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunctions, developmental detectors feature greater quantum efficiencies and stronger photoresponses.

  15. Magnetooptical Characterization of Clb-Type Heusler Compounds, Pt1-x/2Mn1+xSb1-x/2 (x{=}-0.1 and 0, 0.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanashi, Kōki; Sato, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Jun; Sato, Yumiko; Fujimori, Hiroyasu

    1991-01-01

    Diagonal (\\varepsilonxx) and off-diagonal (\\varepsilonxy) elements of the dielectric tensor for a polished surface of a bulk sample of stoichiometric PtMnSb were obtained from the measured spectra of reflectance (R), magnetooptical Kerr rotation (θK) and ellipticity (ηK). The enhancement of θK by annealing was found to be due mainly to the decrease in the imaginary part of \\varepsilonxx. The magnetooptical absorption spectrum was in good agreement with that estimated from the joint density of states calculated by van der Heide et al. The spectra of \\varepsilonxx and \\varepsilonxy were also obtained for nonstoichiometric Pt1-x/2Mn1+xSb1-x/2 (x{=}-0.1 and 0.1). It was suggested that the band structure was changed by the existence of excess Mn atoms.

  16. [Preparation of MgxZn1-xO/Au/MgxZn1-xO multilayer transparent conductive film and studies of its photoelectric properties].

    PubMed

    Lü, Shan-Shan; Fang, Xuan; Wang, Jia-Qi; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Hai-Feng; Chu, Xue-Ying; Li, Jin-Hua; Fang, Dan; Tang, Ji-Long; Wei, Zhi-Peng; Ma, Xiao-hui; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Pu, Shuang-Shuang; Xu, Li

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, MgxZn1-xO and MgxZn1-xO/Au/MgxZn1-xO multilayer structures of transparent conductive film were prepared by the simple operation of sol-gel and RF magnetron sputtering method on quartz substrate respectively and then they were annealed. The surface, electrical, crystal and optical properties of the films at different annealing temperature were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and Hall effect, respectively. The influence of annealing temperature on the films was also investigated. The testing results indicated that the films with good c-axis orientation presented hexagonal wurtzite structure. With increasing Mg components, the optical band gap of ZnO thin film increased gradually. There was an obvious blue shift phenomenon in PL spectrum and absorption spectrum line. But the electrical properties of the films declined. In MgxZn1-xO/Au/MgxZn1-xO multilayer structure of thin film samples, the existence of Au interlining led to the poor optical properties of thin film, and the light transmittance in the ultraviolet region was 60%. Compared with MgxZn1-xO film, the electrical properties of MgxZn1-xO/Au/MgxZn1-xO multilayer structure of transparent conductive film were improved, the resistivity and migration rate were significantly increased. In addition, high temperature annealing treatment could effectively improve the crystal quality of thin film and further improve the electrical characteristics of the samples. After the annealing treatment at 500 °C, migration rate of the film reached to 40.9 cm2 · 1 Vs(-1) while the resistivity was 0.0057 Ω · cm. Due to the rising of temperature, the crystal size increased from 25.1 to 32.4 nm to reduce the mobility of the film. Therefore, MgxZn1-xO/Au/MgxZn1-xO multilayer structure of transparent conductive film played an important role in promoting the ZnO transparent conductive film application in deep ultraviolet devices.

  17. Mixed-Up Sex Chromosomes: Identification of Sex Chromosomes in the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y System of the Legless Lizards of the Genus Lialis (Squamata: Gekkota: Pygopodidae).

    PubMed

    Rovatsos, Michail; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation. Both species possess male heterogamety with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system; however, the Y and one of the X chromosomes are not small chromosomes as previously reported in L. burtonis, but the largest macrochromosomal pair in the karyotype. The Y chromosomes in both species have large heterochromatic blocks with extensive accumulations of GATA and AC microsatellite motifs. FISH with telomeric probe revealed an exclusively terminal position of telomeric sequences in L. jicari (2n = 42 chromosomes in females), but extensive interstitial signals, potentially remnants of chromosomal fusions, in L.burtonis (2n = 34 in females). Our study shows that even largely differentiated and heteromorphic sex chromosomes might be misidentified by conventional cytogenetic analyses and that the application of more sensitive cytogenetic techniques for the identification of sex chromosomes is beneficial even in the classical examples of multiple sex chromosomes.

  18. Phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in MnNiGe 1--xAlx, Ni50Mn35(In1--x Crx)15 and (Mn1--xCrx)NiGe 1.05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetz, Abdiel

    The magnetocaloric and thermomagnetic properties of the MnNiGe1-xAlx, Ni50Mn35(In 1-xCrx)15 and (Mn1-xCr x)NiGe1.05 systems have been studied by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and magnetization measurements. Partial substitution of Al for Ge in MnNiGe1-xAl x results in a first-order magnetostructural transition (MST) from a hexagonal ferromagnetic to an orthorhombic antiferromagnetic phase at 186 K (for x = 0.09). A large magnetic entropy change of ∆SM = -17.6 J/kg K for ∆H = 5 T was observed in the vicinity of T M = 186 K for x = 0.09. This value is comparable to those of well-known giant magnetocaloric materials, such as Gd5Si2Ge 2, MnFeP0.45As0.55, and Ni50Mn 37Sn13 [1]. The values of the latent heat (L = 6.6 J/g) and corresponding total entropy changes (∆ST = 35 J/kg K) have been evaluated for the MST using DSC measurements. Large negative values of ∆S M of -5.8 and -4.8 J/kg K for ∆H = 5 T in the vicinity of T C were observed for x = 0.09 and 0.085, respectively. Partial substitution of Cr for Mn in(Mn1-xCrx)NiGe 1.05 results in a MST from a hexagonal paramagnetic to an orthorhombic paramagnetic phase near TM ~ 380 K (for x = 0.07). Partial substitution of Cr for In in Ni50Mn35(In1-xCr x)15 shifts the magnetostructural transition to a higher temperature (TM ~ 450 K) for x = 0.1. Large magnetic entropy changes of ∆SM = -12 (J/kgK) and ∆S = -11 (J/kgK), both for a magnetic field change of 5 T, were observed in the vicinity of TM for (Mn1-xCrx)NiGe1.05 and Ni 50Mn35(In1-xCrx)15, respectively. The concentration-dependent (T-x) phase diagram of transition temperatures (magnetic, structural, and magnetostructural) has been generated using magnetic, XRD, and DSC data. The role of magnetic and structural changes on transition temperatures are discussed.

  19. Pourous Si(x)Ge(1-x) Layers Within Single Crystals Of Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W.; George, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Layers of porous Si(x)Ge(1-x) buried within single crystals of Si formed by epitaxial growth of Si/Si(x)Ge(1-x)/Si structures followed by etching in solutions of HF:HNO3:H2O. Electroluminescence from these layers utilized in novel optoelectronic devices.

  20. Ge1-xSnx alloys synthesized by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kun; Prucnal, S.; Huebner, R.; Baehtz, C.; Skorupa, I.; Wang, Yutian; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2014-07-01

    The tunable bandgap and the high carrier mobility of Ge1-xSnx alloys stimulate a large effort for bandgap and strain engineering for Ge based materials using silicon compatible technology. In this Letter, we present the fabrication of highly mismatched Ge1-xSnx alloys by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting with Sn concentration ranging from 0.5 at. % up to 1.5 at. %. According to the structural investigations, the formed Ge1-xSnx alloys are monocrystalline with high Sn-incorporation rate. The shrinkage of the bandgap of Ge1-xSnx alloys with increasing Sn content is proven by the red-shift of the E1 and E1 + Δ1 critical points in spectroscopic ellipsometry. Our investigation provides a chip technology compatible route to prepare high quality monocrystalline Ge1-xSnx alloys.

  1. Measurements of Local Strain Variation in Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si Heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Manion, S. J.; Milliken, S. J.; Pike, W. T.; Fathauer, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    The energy splitting of the conduction-band minimum of Si(1-x), Ge(x), due to strain has been directly measured by the application of ballistic-electron-emission microscope (BEEM) spectroscopy to Ag/Si(1-x), Ge(x) structures. Experimental values for this conduction-band splitting agree well with calculations. For Au/Si(1-x), Ge(x), however, heterogeneity in the strain of the Si(1-x), Ge(x) layer is introduced by deposition of the Au. This variation is attributed to species interdiffusion, which produces a rough Si(1-x)Ge(x) surface. Preliminary modeling indicates that the observed roughness is consistent with the strain variation measured by BEEM.

  2. Study of the third order nonlinear optical properties of Zn1-xMgxSe and Cd1-xMgxSe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkowska, B.; Firszt, F.; Sahraoui, B.; Marasek, A.; Kujawa, M.

    2008-03-01

    Third order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ<3> of ternary Zn1-xMgxSe and Cd1-xMgxSe crystals have been measured using standard degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) method at 532 nm. The nonlinear transmission technique has been applied to check if our crystals exhibit two-photon absorption. The studied Zn1-xMgxSe and Cd1-xMgxSe solid solutions were grown from the melt by the modified high-pressure Bridgman method. For both crystals the energy gap increases with increasing Mg content. In the case of Zn1-xMgxSe, it was found that the value of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ<3> decreases with increasing Mg content. An explanation of this behaviour results from the dependence of optical nonlinearities on the energy band gap Eg of the studied crystals. In the case of Cd1txMgxSe with low content of Mg, no response was observed for the studied wavelength since the energy gap in such crystals is smaller than the photon energy of the used laser radiation. It was also found that the value of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ<3> for Cd0.70Mg0.30Se is higher than for Zn0.67Mg0.33Se. This behaviour can be understood if one take into consideration that the free carrier concentration in Cd1-xMgxSe samples is about four orders of magnitude higher than that in Zn1txMgxSe ones with comparable Mg content respectively. It is commonly known that when the electric conductivity increases, the values of nonlinear optical properties increase. From the performed measurements one can conclude that the incorporation of Mg as constituent into ZnSe and CdSe crystals leads to a change of the third order nonlinear optical susceptibilities.

  3. Multifunctional Ultrathin PdxCu(1-x) and Pt∼PdxCu(1-x) One-Dimensional Nanowire Motifs for Various Small Molecule Oxidation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiqing; Adzic, Radoslav R; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2015-12-02

    Developing novel electrocatalysts for small molecule oxidation processes, including formic acid oxidation (FAOR), methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), and ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR), denoting the key anodic reactions for their respective fuel cell configurations, is a significant and relevant theme of recent efforts in the field. Herein, in this report, we demonstrated a concerted effort to couple and combine the benefits of small size, anisotropic morphology, and tunable chemical composition in order to devise a novel "family" of functional architectures. In particular, we have fabricated not only ultrathin 1-D Pd(1-x)Cu(x) alloys but also Pt-coated Pd(1-x)Cu(x) (i.e., Pt∼Pd(1-x)Cu(x); herein the ∼ indicates an intimate association, but not necessarily actual bond formation, between the inner bimetallic core and the Pt outer shell) core-shell hierarchical nanostructures with readily tunable chemical compositions by utilizing a facile, surfactant-based, wet chemical synthesis coupled with a Cu underpotential deposition technique. Our main finding is that our series of as-prepared nanowires are functionally flexible. More precisely, we demonstrate that various examples within this "family" of structural motifs can be tailored for exceptional activity with all 3 of these important electrocatalytic reactions. In particular, we note that our series of Pd(1-x)Cu(x) nanowires all exhibit enhanced FAOR activities as compared with not only analogous Pd ultrathin nanowires but also commercial Pt and Pd standards, with Pd9Cu representing the "optimal" composition. Moreover, our group of Pt∼Pd(1-x)Cu(x) nanowires consistently outperformed not only commercial Pt NPs but also ultrathin Pt nanowires by several fold orders of magnitude for both the MOR and EOR reactions in alkaline media. The variation of the MOR and EOR performance with the chemical composition of our ultrathin Pt∼Pd(1-x)Cu(x) nanowires was also discussed.

  4. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods for transgenic rapeseed hybrids MS1xRF1 and MS1xRF2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuhua; Wu, Gang; Xiao, Ling; Lu, Changming

    2007-10-17

    Except for the events RT73, MS8, RF3, and T45, event-specific detection methods for most commercialized genetically modified (GM) rapeseed varieties have not been established, and as a result, the enforcement of genetically modified organism labeling policies has been hindered. The genetically modified rapeseeds, MS1xRF1 and MS1xRF2, are 2 of 11 approved GM-rapeseed varieties for commercialization. In this study, the right border junction fragments between the gene construct and the rapeseed genome of events RF1, RF2, and MS1 were isolated using the commercially available GenomeWalker technology. Homology analysis indicated that the gene construct of RF1 integrated upstream of the nuclease gene, and that of the RF2 and MS1 inserted into the exon region of a gene encoding for an unknown protein. The event-specific primer pairs and corresponding probes were designed on the basis of the revealed right border junction fragments. Then, we successfully developed the identification and quantification methods for the gene-stacked hybrids MS1xRF1 and MS1xRF2 using those primers and probes. The relative limit of detection in the qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 0.013% for the RF2 and MS1 assays using 100 ng of rapeseed DNA per reaction and 0.13% for the RF1 assay. The absolute limit of detection in the quantitative PCR was approximately one to two initial copies for each of the three event-specific assays. The evaluation of the real-time PCR assays revealed that the qualitative and quantitative methods developed by focusing on the gene-stacked hybrids MS1xRF1 and MS1xRF2 were highly specific, sensitive, and suitable for samples with a low quantity of DNA.

  5. GaSe1-xSx and GaSe1-xTex thick crystals for broadband terahertz pulses generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, M. M.; Yu. Sarkisov, S.; Shkurinov, A. P.; Tolbanov, O. P.

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of broadband THz pulse generation in mixed GaSe1-xSx and GaSe1-xTex crystals. The ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the crystals have been measured by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy method, those values strongly influence the efficiency of THz generation process. The high birefringence and transparency of pure GaSe and mixed crystals allow optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses in the several millimeters thick crystal using the еее interaction process (with two pumping waves and generated THz wave all having extraordinary polarization in the crystal).

  6. High efficiency thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic cells using a Cd1-xZnxS buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, R. N.; Contreras, M. A.; Egaas, B.; Noufi, R. N.; Kanevce, A.; Sites, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    The authors have fabricated 19.52% thin-film CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS)-based photovoltaic devices using single layer chemical bath deposited Cd1-xZnxS (CdZnS) buffer layer. The efficiency equals the world record for any thin-film solar cell and is achieved with reduced optical absorption in the window layer. Using current-voltage, quantum efficiency, and capacitance-voltage measurements, the CIGS/CdZnS device parameters are directly compared with those of CIGS/CdS devices fabricated with equivalent absorbers.

  7. Crystal Chemistry and Magnetism of Ternary Actinoid Boron Carbides UB 1- xC 1+ x and U 1- xMxB 2C with M = Sc, Lu, and Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogl, P.; Rupp, B.; Felner, I.; Fischer, P.

    1993-06-01

    Within the homogeneous range of uranium monocarbide UB 1- xC 1+ x, the crystal structures of stoichiometric UBC and of the carbon-rich solid solution UB 0.78C 1.22, have been refined from single-crystal X-ray counter data. From X-ray analysis crystal symmetry in both cases is consistent with the centro-symmetric space group Cmcm and there are no indications of superstructure formation. In contrast to the fully ordered atom arrangement revealed for stoichiometric UBC ( a = 0.35899(4), b = 1.19781(12), c = 0.33474(3) nm), random occupation by boron and carbon atoms is observed for the boron site in UB 0.78C 1.22 ( a = 0.35752(4), b = 1.18584(3), c = 0.33881(4) nm). For 279(278) reflections (|F 0| > 3σ) the obtained reliability factors R x = ∑|ΔF|/∑| F0| were R x = 0.069 for UBC and R x = 0.050 for UB 0.78C 1.22. Neutron powder diffraction experiments at 9 and 295 K unambiguously revealed full occupancy by the nonmetal atoms in UB 0.78C 1.22 and prove the statistical occupation of B and C atoms in the B-sites. For the orthorhombic symmetry Cmcm, refinement was not better than R1 = 0.044. A model calculation in monoclinic symmetry C12/ m1, however, resulted in a significant reduction of the residual value to R1 = 0.030, releasing spatial constraints on the boron atoms. Thus the boron-boron chain in Cmcm (B-B = 0.1874 nm) is dissolved into boron pairs (B-B = 0.1706 nm) which are loosely bound at a distance of 0.2043 nm. The formation of C-B-B-C groups corresponds to the structure types of ThBC and Th 3B 2C 3. The magnetic behavior has been investigated in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 1000 K for UB 1- xC 1+ x (UBC-type) and U 1- xMxB 2C (ThB 2C-type for the high temperature modification and 1-UB 2C-type for the low temperature modification) with U partially substituted by Th or Sc, Lu. From magnetic susceptibilities, the alloys UB 1- xC 1+ x reveal temperature independent paramagnetism with typical intermediate valence fluctuation behavior ( TSF ˜ 350 K

  8. Temperature dependence of elastic properties of Ni2+xMn1-xGa and Ni2Mn(Ga1-xAlx) from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Mei; Luo, Hu-Bin; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2011-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the elastic properties of Ni2+xMn1-xGa and Ni2Mn(Ga1-xAlx) (x=0.0, 0.1, and 0.2) random alloys are investigated by using the first-principles exact muffin-tin orbitals method. At 0 K, the calculated equilibrium parameters in both cubic L21 and nonmodulated tetragonal β'''-Ni2MnGa are in good agreement with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. Separating the thermal effects into single electron excitation, volume expansion, phonon smearing, and magnetic terms, we find that phonon smearing gives the dominating positive tetragonal elastic constant (C') versus temperature (T) slope for the cubic phase. For Ni2+xMn1-xGa, the competition between the negative alloying effect (∂C'/∂x<0) and the positive temperature effect (∂C'/∂T>0) leads to nearly constant C'[x,TM(x)] at the martensitic transition temperature TM(x). For Ni2Mn(Ga1-xAlx), where both ∂C'/∂x and ∂C'/∂T are positive, however, due to the significantly decrease of TM(x), the critical C'[x,TM(x)] slightly decreases with Al doping. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that both the composition and the temperature dependence of C' are indispensable to get a reasonable theoretical TM(x).

  9. Optical properties of amorphous Ge1- x Se x and Ge1- x- y Se x As y thin films — optical gap bowing and phonon modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hosuk; So, Hyeon Seob; Lee, Hosun; Shin, Hae-Young; Yoon, Seokhyun; Ahn, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Su-Dong; Lee, Suyoun; Jeong, Doo-Seok; Cheong, Byung-ki

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the optical properties of Ge1- x Se x and Ge1- x- y Se x As y amorphous films by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy. The dielectric functions and absorption coefficients ( α) of the amorphous films were determined from the measured ellipsometric angles (Ψ,Δ). We obtained the optical gap energies and the Urbach energies from the absorption coefficients and found a strong bowing effect in the optical gap energy of Ge1- x- y Se x As y , where the endpoint binaries were Ge0.50Se0.50 and Ge0.31As0.69. Based on the correlation between the optical gap energies and the Urbach energies, we attributed the large bowing parameter to electronic disorder. Using Raman spectroscopy, we measured the phonon modes and discussed the composition dependence of the phonon peak frequencies and lineshapes in terms of structural units. Based on the composition dependence of the phonons in Ge1- x- y Se x As y , we identified the phonon modes of Ge0.31As0.69. A resonant Raman phenomenon was observed in Ge0.40Se0.60 at a laser excitation of 514 nm (2.41 eV). We verified that this laser energy corresponded to the transition energy of Ge0.40Se0.60 by using the second derivative of the dielectric function of Ge0.40Se0.60.

  10. Fabrication and Luminescence of Narrow Reactive Ion Etched In1-xGaxAs/InP and GaAs/Gas1-xAlxAs Quantum Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izrael, A.; Marzin, J. Y.; Sermage, B.; Birotheau, L.; Robein, D.; Azoulay, R.; Benchimol, J. L.; Henry, L.; Thierry-Mieg, V.; Ladan, F. R.; Taylor, L.

    1991-11-01

    We present the fabrication process of narrow quantum wires in both In1-xGaxAs/InP and GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs systems based upon e-beam lithography, lift-off, reactive ion etching and MOCVD overgrowth. The carrier lifetime, deduced from low temperature time-resolved photoluminescence, remains of the order of one nanosecond in both systems, showing the good quality of the overgrown interfaces. An efficient capture of the carriers created in the barrier material into the wires is demonstrated. One-dimension quantum confinement effects are observed for the lowest lateral sizes: in In1-xGaxAs/InP wires (width down to 15 nm), quantum shifts of the low temperature cw photoluminescence peak (up to 30 meV) are observed while in GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs wires (width down to 20 nm), we report shifts up to 10 meV of the emission peak.

  11. Giant Magnetostriction in Annealed Co1-xFex Thin-Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    REPORT Giant magnetostriction in annealed Co1?xFex thin-films 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Chemical and structural heterogeneity and the...structural heterogeneity in textured Co1?xFex thin films, effective magnetostriction ?eff as large as 260 p.p.m. can be achieved at low-saturation field of...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Giant magnetostriction in annealed Co1?xFex thin-films

  12. Phase stability and the arsenic vacancy defect in InxGa1-xAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. T.; Chroneos, A.; Grimes, R. W.; Jiang, C.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of defects, such as vacancies, into InxGa1-xAs can have a dramatic impact on the physical and electronic properties of the material. Here we employ ab initio simulations of quasirandom supercells to investigate the structure of InxGa1-xAs and then examine the energy and volume changes associated with the introduction of an arsenic vacancy defect. We predict that both defect energies and volumes for intermediate compositions of InxGa1-xAs differ significantly from what would be expected by assuming a simple linear interpolation of the end member defect energies/volumes.

  13. A new multiple sex chromosome system X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 in Siluriformes: cytogenetic characterization of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Aspredinidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Milena; Garcia, Caroline; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; de Jesus, Isac Silva; Feldberg, Eliana

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed one Bunocephalus coracoideus population from the Negro River basin using cytogenetic techniques. The results showed a diploid number of 42 chromosomes in both sexes, with the karyotypic formula 4m + 14sm + 24a and fundamental number (FN) = 60 for females and the formula 5m + 14sm + 23a and FN = 61 for males, constituting an X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 multiple sex chromosome system. The constitutive heterochromatin is distributed in the pericentromeric regions of most of the chromosomes, except for the sex chromosomes, of which the X1, X2, and Y1 chromosomes were euchromatic and the Y2 chromosome was partially heterochromatic. 18S rDNA mapping confirmed the presence of nucleolar organizer regions on the short arms of the fifth chromosomal pair for both sexes. The 5S rDNA is present in the terminal regions of the short arms on the 2nd, 10th, and 12th pairs and on the X2 chromosome of both sexes; however, we observed variations in the presence of these ribosomal cistrons on the Y1 chromosome, on which the cistrons are pericentromeric, and on the Y2 chromosome, on which these cistrons are present in the terminal portions of the short and long arms. Telomeric sequences are located in the terminal regions of all of the chromosomes, particularly conspicuous blocks on the 10th and 12th pairs and internal telomeric sequences in the centromeric regions of the 1st, 6th, and 9th pairs for both sexes. This work describes an new sex chromosomes system for the Siluriformes and increases our genetic knowledge of the Aspredinidae family.

  14. Chromosomal distribution of two multigene families and the unusual occurrence of an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in the dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae): an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Soares, R X; Bertollo, L A C; Cioffi, M B; Costa, G W W F; F Molina, W

    2014-04-03

    Dolphinfishes (Coryphaenidae) are pelagic predators distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical oceans and are very important for commercial, traditional, and sport fishing. This small family contains the Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis species whose chromosomal aspects remain unknown, despite recent advances in cytogenetic data assimilation for Perciformes. In this study, both species were cytogenetically analyzed using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to detect 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA. C. hippurus females exhibit 2n = 48 chromosomes, with 2m+4sm+42a (NF = 54). In C. equiselis, where both sexes could be analyzed, females displayed 2n = 48 chromosomes (2m+6sm+40a) and males exhibited 2n = 47 chromosomes (3m+6sm+38a) (NF = 56), indicating the presence of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes. Sex-chromosome systems are rare in Perciformes, with this study demonstrating the first occurrence in a marine pelagic species. It remains unknown as to whether this system extends to other populations; however, these data are important with respect to evolutionary, phylogenetic, and speciation issues, as well as for elucidating the genesis of this unique sex system.

  15. Refractive index dispersion of AgCl1-xBrx (0≤x≤1) and Ag1-xTlxBr1-xIx (0≤x≤0.05)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakov, Alexandr S.; Vrublevsky, Dmitry S.; Lvov, Alexandr E.; Zhukova, Liya V.

    2017-02-01

    For polycrystalline AgCl1-xBrx (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) and Ag1-xTlxBr1-xIx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) thin plates manufactured by hot embossing, we recorded the ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR) transmission spectra in order to reveal the absorption edge and to measure the refractive index at short wavelengths. The former moves towards longer wavelengths and the latter increases significantly, when the substituting agent content in the solid solution (x) is being increased. Using mid-infrared (MIR) spectra, recorded by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we determined both real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index at 4.5, 5.0, 8.0, 12.0, 14.0 μm. These data, together with the ones collected earlier with He-Ne laser and at 10.6 μm via FTIR, allow observing that the introduction of a heavy substituting agent into a host lattice forces the refractive index to grow gradually at a fixed wavelength and to fall considerably within each composition (vice versa for the extinction coefficient), especially in the NIR. Fresnel reflection (R) and absorption coefficients (K) were also calculated, and several error-calculation equations for n, k, K, and R were proposed concerning all contributions of each approach used.

  16. FP-LAPW methodology based theoretical investigation of structural, electronic and optical properties of MgxPb1-xS, MgxPb1-xSe and MgxPb1-xTe ternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyaya, Surya; Bhattacharjee, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of MgxPb1-xS, MgxPb1-xSe and MgxPb1-xTe alloys for 0≤ x≤1 in their rock-salt (B1) crystallographic phase have been calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method under the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Using the Wu-Cohen generalized-gradient approximation (WC-GGA) induced exchange-correlation potential scheme, the ground state structural parameters such as equilibrium lattice constants, bulk modulus and its pressure derivatives are calculated and deviations of the lattice constants from Vegard's law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence have been observed for the alloys. Electronic band structures and density of states have been calculated using Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnsoexit3b2tex.batn (TB-mBJ) parameterization scheme to study the electronic properties of the binary compounds and their ternary alloys. Using the approach of Zunger and co-workers, the microscopic origins of band gap bowing have been discussed in term of volume deformation, charge exchange and structural relaxation. Optical properties of the binary compounds and their ternary alloys have been calculated in terms of their respective dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity and optical conductivity. Few calculated results are compared with available experimental and other theoretical data.

  17. Novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction internal photoemission long-wavelength infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Maserjian, J.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of a novel p(+)-Si(1-x)Ge(x)-p-Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) IR detector is demonstrated. A degenerately doped p(x)-Si(1-x)Ge(x) layer is required for strong IR absorption to generate photoexcited holes. The Si(1-x)Ge(x) layers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with boron concentrations up to 10 to the 20th/cu cm achieved by using an HBO2 source. Photoresponse at wavelengths ranging from 2 to 10 microns has been obtained with quantum efficiencies above 1 percent. The tailorable cutoff wavelength of the HIP detector has been demonstrated by varying the Ge composition ratio in the Si(1-x)Ge(x) layers.

  18. Incorporation of Sb and As in MBE grown GaAsxSb1-x layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; MacFarland, Don; Detz, Hermann; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing interest in low effective mass materials for intersubband devices, mixed As-Sb compounds, like GaAsxSb1-x or AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y, gain more and more attention. The growth of these materials, however, still provides significant challenges due to the complex interaction between As and Sb. In this work, we provide an in-depth study on the incorporation of Sb into the GaAsxSb1-x layers and compare our findings to the present literature on this topic. It is found that both the composition and the crystal quality of GaAsxSb1-x layers are strongly influenced by the growth rate due to the As-for-Sb exchange reaction which takes place at the growing surface, and that high crystal quality can be achieved when the growth is performed under Sb limited conditions.

  19. Anharmonicity in Light Scattering by Optical Phonons in GaAs1-xBix

    SciTech Connect

    Joshya, R. S.; Rajaji, V.; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Kini, R. N.

    2016-05-28

    We present a Raman spectroscopic study of GaAs 1-xBix epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We have investigated the anharmonic effect on the GaAs-like longitudinal optical phonon mode (LO'GaAs) of GaAs 1-xBix for different Bi concentrations at various temperatures. The results are analyzed in terms of the anharmonic damping effect induced by thermal and compositional disorder. We have observed that the anharmonicity increases with Bi concentration in GaAs 1-xBix as evident from the increase in the anharmonicity constants. In addition, the anharmonic lifetime of the optical phonon decreases with increasing Bi concentration in GaAs 1-xBix.

  20. High-purity InAs1-xSbx epilayer grown by a LPE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Y. F.; Hu, S. H.; Xu, Y. G.; Zhou, W.; Wang, Y.; Wang, R.; Yu, G. L.; Dai, N.

    2015-04-01

    High-purity InAs1-xSbx films with x=0.06 were successfully grown on InAs (100) substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Procedures were applied to purify InAs1-xSbx precursor material, which included prolonging baking time in hydrogen and adding rare-earth element gadolinium (Gd) to the growth melt. Electrical transport properties of InAs1-xSbx film were investigated by Hall measurements in the condition of the conductive InAs substrate being removed completely by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to eliminate its influence on the measurements. Hall measurement results show carrier concentration and mobility of our InAs1-xSbx samples are superior to the other reported values when a combinational purification procedure is applied.

  1. Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Concrete sill and spandrel also illustrated. Building 43, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Atomic resolution noncontact atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy of TiO2(110)-(1 x 1) and - (1 x 2): simultaneous imaging of surface structures and electronic states.

    PubMed

    Ashino, M; Sugawara, Y; Morita, S; Ishikawa, M

    2001-05-07

    We present simultaneous imaging of TiO2(110)-(1 x 1) and - (1 x 2) using noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The surface topography was imaged under NC-AFM feedback, while the surface electronic states were imaged by STM. The image contrasts of NC-AFM and STM were antiphase in (1 x 1) and in phase in (1 x 2). The uppermost oxygen and Ti atoms underneath were, respectively, imaged by NC-AFM and STM. The NC-AFM image contrast was close to the true surface topography in (1 x 2), but reduced in (1 x 1).

  3. Superlattice of Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots and nanolayers for spintronics application.

    PubMed

    Nie, Tianxiao; Kou, Xufeng; Tang, Jianshi; Fan, Yabin; Lang, Murong; Chang, Li-Te; Chu, Chia-Pu; He, Liang; Lee, Sheng-Wei; Xiu, Faxian; Zou, Jin; Wang, Kang L

    2014-12-19

    Fe(x)Ge(1-x) superlattices with two types of nanostructures, i.e. nanodots and nanolayers, were successfully fabricated using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization clearly shows that both the Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots and nanolayers exhibit a lattice-coherent structure with the surrounding Ge matrix without any metallic precipitations or secondary phases. The magnetic measurement reveals the nature of superparamagnetism in Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots, while showing the absence of superparamagnetism in Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanolayers. Magnetotransport measurements show distinct magnetoresistance (MR) behavior, i.e. a negative to positive MR transition in Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots and only positive MR in nanolayers, which could be due to a competition between the orbital MR and spin-dependent scatterings. Our results open a new growth strategy for engineering Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanostructures to facilitate the development of Ge-based spintronics and magnetoelectronics devices.

  4. Investigation of Ge1-xSnx/Ge quantum-well structures as optical gain media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li-Chou; Li, Hui; Cheng, H. H.; Chang, Guo-En

    2016-11-01

    An efficient Si-based laser is one of the most important components for photonic integrated circuits to break the bottleneck of data transport over optical networks. The main challenge is to create gain media based on group-IV semiconductors. Here we present an investigation of using low-dimensional Ge1-xSnx/Ge quantum-well (QW) structures pseudomorphically grown on Ge-buffered Si substrates as optical gain media for efficient Si-based lasers. Epitaxial growth of Ge1-xSnx/Ge QW structures on Ge-buffer Si substrate was carried out using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy techniques. The light emission properties of the grown Ge1-xSnx/Ge QW structure were studied using photoluminescence spectroscopy, and clear redshifts of emission peaks were observed. Theoretical analysis of band structures indicates that Ge1-xSnx well sandwiched by Ge barriers can form type-I alignment at D point with a sufficient potential barrier height to confine carriers in the Ge1-xSnx well, thereby enhancing efficient electron-hole direct recombination. Our calculations also show that the energy difference between the lowest D-conduction subband and L conduction subband can be reduced with increasing Sn content, thereby enabling optical gain. These results suggest that Ge1-xSnx/Ge QW structures are promising for optical gain media to develop efficient Si-based light emitters.

  5. Crystal structure study of dielectric oxynitride perovskites La1-xSrxTiO2+xN1-x (x=0, 0.2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habu, Daiki; Masubuchi, Yuji; Torii, Shuki; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    As is the case with SrTaO2N, both cis-ordering of nitride anions and octahedral titling are also preferable in La1-xSrxTiO2+xN1-x (x=0, 0.2) oxynitride perovskites. A larger dielectric constant of εr≈5.0×103 was estimated for the pure oxynitride with x=0.2, compared with εr≈750 for the product with x=0, by extrapolating the εr values obtained from powders mixed with paraffin at various mixing ratios. The crystal structure of x=0.2 with larger tolerance factor than x=0 increased the octahedral tilting, which contributes to the increased dielectric constant. The increased dielectric constant supports the exchange mechanism for the dielectric property between two kinds of -Ti-N- helical coils (clockwise and anticlockwise) derived from the above cis-ordering of nitride anions.

  6. Components-dependent optical nonlinearity in a series of CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shunlong; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Qian; Li, Songtao; Cheng, Xiaoman

    2016-08-01

    The different compositions of the ternary alloyed CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS core/shell quantum dots(CSQDs) have been synthesized by the chemical routes. The nonlinear optical properties of these QDs were investigated using Z-scan technique under the excitation of the 1064 nm picosecond laser pulse. The Z-scan results reveal that the nonlinear refractive indices of these QDs can be tuned by changing the ratio of Se and S components. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been shown to be enhanced in CSQDs as compared to their core semiconductor counterparts. These QDs exhibit the components-tuned nonlinear refraction indices, which lead to a wide application in the photonic field.

  7. Nano-indentation investigations of (As2Se3)1-x: Snx and (As4S3Se3)1-x: Snx glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harea, D. V.; Harea, E. E.; Iaseniuc, O. V.; Iovu, M. S.

    2015-02-01

    Experimental results on some physical and optical properties of (As2Se3)1-x:Snx and (As4S3Se3)1-x:Snx (x = 0-10 at %) glasses and amorphous films (d~2.0 μm) are presented. The bulk chalcogenide glasses are studied by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and nanoindentation methods. It is established that the addition of these amounts of tin (x = 0-10 at %) does not lead to significant changes in the physical properties of the glass, such as values of stress and Young's modulus related to the modification of the density and compactness. It has been found that the addition of these amounts of tin in (As4S3Se3)1-x:Snx does not lead to significant changes in the glass physical properties, such as values of stress and Young's modulus related to the modification of the density and compactness. The study of the photoplastic effect is performed in situ, with illumination of the bulk and thin film samples during indentation as well as their indentation after illumination with a green laser (λ = 532 nm) at a power of P = 50 mV/cm2. The hardness is calculated from load-displacement curves by the Oliver-Pharr method. A sharp increase in hardness is registered if the tin concentration exceeds a value of 34% Sn. The hardness H of (As2Se3)1-x:Snx films varies between 115 and 130 kg/mm2. It is found that the hardness H of amorphous thin films is generally higher than the hardness of bulk samples with the same chemical composition. In this study, we are focused on the mechanical characteristics of high-purity As2Se3: Snx thin films. Keyword: Chalcogenide glasses, hardness,

  8. Intersubband absorption in Si(1-x)Ge(x/Si superlattices for long wavelength infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajakarunanayake, Yasantha; Mcgill, Tom C.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers calculated the absorption strengths for intersubband transitions in n-type Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si superlattices. These transitions can be used for the detection of long-wavelength infrared radiation. A significant advantage in Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si supperlattice detectors is the ability to detect normally incident light; in Ga(1-x)Al(x)As/GaAs superlattices, intersubband absorption is possible only if the incident light contains a polarization component in the growth direction of the superlattice. Researchers present detailed calculation of absorption coefficients, and peak absorption wavelengths for (100), (111) and (110) Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si superlattices. Peak absorption strengths of about 2000 to 6000 cm(exp -1) were obtained for typical sheet doping concentrations (approx. equals 10(exp 12)cm(exp -2)). Absorption comparable to that in Ga(1-x)Al(x)As/GaAs superlattice detectors, compatibility with existing Si technology, and the ability to detect normally incident light make these devices promising for future applications.

  9. Influence of Composition on the Thermoelectric Properties of Bi1-x Sb x Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogacheva, E. I.; Nashchekina, O. N.; Orlova, D. S.; Doroshenko, A. N.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    Bi1-x Sb x solid solutions have attracted much attention as promising thermoelectric (TE) materials for cooling devices at temperatures below ˜200 K and as unique model materials for solid-state science because of a high sensitivity of their band structure to changes in composition, temperature, pressure, etc. Earlier, we revealed a non-monotonic behavior of the concentration dependences of TE properties for polycrystalline Bi1-x Sb x solid solutions and attributed these anomalies to percolation effects in the solid solution, transition to a gapless state, and to a semimetal-semiconductor transition. The goal of the present work is to find out whether the non-monotonic behavior of the concentration dependences of TE properties is observed in the thin film state as well. The objects of the study are Bi1-x Sb x thin films with thicknesses in the range d = 250-300 nm prepared by thermal evaporation of Bi1-x Sb x crystals (x = 0-0.09) onto mica substrates. It was shown that the anomalies in the dependence of the TE properties on Bi1-x Sb x crystal composition are reproduced in thin films.

  10. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N Superconducting-Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.; Leduc, Henry G.; Bumble, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in which Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N (where x<1) films serve as the superconducting materials have shown promise as superior alternatives to previously developed SNSPDs in which NbN films serve as the superconducting materials. SNSPDs have potential utility in optical communications and quantum cryptography. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N is a solid solution of NbN and TiN, and has many properties similar to those of NbN. It has been found to be generally easier to stabilize Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N in the high-superconducting-transition temperature phase than it is to so stabilize NbN. In addition, the resistivity and penetration depth of polycrystalline films of Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N have been found to be much smaller than those of films of NbN. These differences have been hypothesized to be attributable to better coupling at grain boundaries within Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N films.

  11. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N Superconducting-Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.; Leduc, Henry G.; Bumble, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting-nanowire singlephoton detectors (SNSPDs) in which Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N (where x<1) films serve as the superconducting materials have shown promise as superior alternatives to previously developed SNSPDs in which NbN films serve as the superconducting materials. SNSPDs have potential utility in optical communications and quantum cryptography. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N is a solid solution of NbN and TiN, and has many properties similar to those of NbN. It has been found to be generally easier to stabilize NbxTi1 xN in the high-superconducting-transitiontemperature phase than it is to so stabilize NbN. In addition, the resistivity and penetration depth of polycrystalline films of Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N have been found to be much smaller than those of films of NbN. These differences have been hypothesized to be attributable to better coupling at grain boundaries within Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N films.

  12. Compositional tuning of ferromagnetism in Ga1-xMnxP

    SciTech Connect

    Farshchi, R.; Scarpulla, M.A.; Stone, P.R.; Yu, K.M.; Sharp,I.D.; Beeman, J.W.; Silvestri, H.H.; Reichertz, L.A.; Haller E.E.; Dubon,O.D.

    2006-05-23

    We report the magnetic and transport properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P synthesized via ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting over a range of x, namely 0.018 to 0.042. Like Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P displays a monotonic increase of the ferromagnetic Curie temperature with x associated with the hole-mediated ferromagnetic phase while thermal annealing above 300 C leads to a quenching of ferromagnetism that is accompanied by a reduction of the substitutional fraction of Mn. However, contrary to observations in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P is non-metallic over the entire composition range. At the lower temperatures over which the films are ferromagnetic, hole transport occurs via hopping conduction in a Mn-derived band; at higher temperatures it arises from holes in the valence band which are thermally excited across an energy gap that shrinks with x.

  13. Electrosynthesis and characterization of Hg1-xCdxSe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, M.; González-Camacho, F. A.; Miranda, D. A.; Meléndez, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    An electrodeposition process from an aqueous bath of CdSO4, SeO2 and Hg2Cl2 at pH 2.3 was performed to synthesize two Hg1-xCdxSe alloys with x >= 0.8 onto TiO2. In order to establish an intimate contact between Hg1-xCdxSe and the TiO2 substrate, electrodeposition of Hg1-xCdxSe films was investigated. Reduction processes of H2SeO3 and Cd2+ to produce CdSe and Hg1-xCdxSe were studied by cyclic voltammetry. Initially, deposition of selenium allows codeposition of Cd2+ and Hg2+. Hg1-xCdxSe film was obtained by holding the electrode at a constant potential. The characterization of the films was performed by GIXRD, FESEM, and the chemical composition of the film was obtained by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Wurtzite Al xGa 1- xN bulk crystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Powell, R. E. L.; Akimov, A. V.; Luckert, F.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.; Kent, A. J.; Foxon, C. T.

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the growth of wurtzite GaN and Al xGa 1- xN layers and bulk crystals by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). MBE is normally regarded as an epitaxial technique for the growth of very thin layers with monolayer control of their thickness. However, we have used the MBE technique for bulk crystal growth and have produced 2 in diameter wurtzite Al xGa 1- xN layers up to 10 μm in thickness. Undoped wurtzite Al xGa 1- xN films were grown on GaAs (1 1 1)B substrates by a plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) method and were removed from the GaAs substrate after the growth. The fact that free-standing ternary Al xGa 1- xN wafers can be grown is very significant for the potential future production of wurtzite Al xGa 1- xN substrates optimized for AlGaN-based device structures.

  15. Coherently Strained Si-SixGe1-x Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Dillen, David C; Wen, Feng; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-01-13

    Coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowire heterostructures are expected to possess a positive shell-to-core conduction band offset, allowing for quantum confinement of electrons in the Si core. We report the growth of epitaxial, coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell heterostructures through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism for the Si core, followed in situ by the epitaxial SixGe1-x shell growth using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The Raman spectra of individual nanowires reveal peaks associated with the Si-Si optical phonon mode in the Si core and the Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge vibrational modes of the SixGe1-x shell. The core Si-Si mode displays a clear red-shift compared to unstrained, bare Si nanowires thanks to the lattice mismatch-induced tensile strain, in agreement with calculated values using a finite-element continuum elasticity model combined with lattice dynamic theory. N-type field-effect transistors using Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires as channel are demonstrated.

  16. Photoelectric converters on Cr/x/Te/y/-Zn/x/Cd/1-x/S heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, E. M.; Stratieva, N. R.

    The layer properties of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S(x) are are investigated, and the use of these materials in heterojunction photocells and convertors is evaluated. Results show that the calculated lattice mismatch of the semiconductor decreases with an increase of the Zn content in the solid solutions. A Cr(x)Te(y)-Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S heterojunction is fabricated and is found to have an increase in efficiency of 1% when the open-circuit voltage is raised by about 150 mV and the other parameters are held constant. The open-circuit voltage for photocells based on Cr(x)Te(y) and Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S, with x = 0.05-0.3, is measured under 80 mW/sq cm illumination, and is shown to be lower than the open circuit voltages for Cr(x)Te(y)-Zn(x) Cd(1-x)S samples. In addition, the I-V characteristics of the samples are determined. It is concluded that the wide spectral sensitivity, the high open-circuit voltage, as well as satisfactory conversion efficiencies, of solar cells based on Cr(x)Te(y)-Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S will allow the development of solar energy convertors with improved parameters.

  17. Evidence of Real-Space Transfer in Buried-Channel GexC1-x Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, En-Shao; Kelly, David; Donnelly, Joseph; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay

    2008-03-01

    We present experimental evidence of real-space transfer (RST) in buried-channel GexC1-x p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) containing a Si cap layer. The output characteristics of these devices reveal a negative differential resistance (NDR) below 150K, at the onset of the saturation regime. This observation indicates a charge transfer from GexC1-x layer into the Si cap at sufficiently large drain bias values. The lower hole mobility of the Si cap with respect to the GexC1-x, translates into a drain current reduction, hence the observed NDR. Our low-field, temperature-dependent mobility measurements indeed reveal a higher effective carrier mobility in the buried-channel GexC1-x layer with respect to a Si-reference sample, which suggests that the observed NDR is caused by RST of holes from the GexC1-x into the Si layer.

  18. The growth and characterization of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As/Ge heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. W.; Bachmann, K. J.; Timmons, M. L.; Colpitts, T. S.; Posthill, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the growth temperature and the Al(x)Ga(1-x)As layer thickness on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As/Ge heterostructures grown for photovoltaic applications were investigated using different-thickness (between 1 micron and 5 microns) Al(x)Ga(1-x)As layers grown by MOCVD in the temperature range between 660 and 780 C. Results obtained from double-crystal X-ray rocking curve measurements, electron beam induced current, cross-sectional TEM, Raman spectroscopy, SIMS, and steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements are presented. It was found that the highest minority carrier lifetime, 2.41 ns, was obtained for T(G) = 780 C, but the lowest interfacial recombination velocity, 1.6 x 10 exp 4, was obtained at 660 C.

  19. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  20. Modelling of the phonon strain shift coefficients in Si1-xGex alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzoli, F.; Sanguinetti, S.; Bonera, E.; Grilli, E.; Guzzi, M.

    2007-12-01

    In the Raman spectrum of epitaxial Si1-xGex alloys, the composition effect, that determines the three mode peak position, is superimposed to the phonon shift caused by strain. Therefore, the experimental spectra interpretation remains not straightforward, unless vibrational properties calculations of such systems are available. In this paper, reticular dynamic calculations within a modified Keating model, the Anharmonic Keating, are discussed. A new set of model parameters is introduced, providing simple and predictive supercell calculations to investigate accurately the three Raman-active phonon modes in Si1-xGex alloys. The recalculated AK model is successfully employed to model the zone centre Raman-active phonon modes of relaxed and hydrostatically stressed Si1-xGex alloys. The results of the calculations are in quantitative agreement with experimental data reported in literature.

  1. Doping of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} with high As content

    SciTech Connect

    Levander, A.X.; Novikov, S.V.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; dos Reis, R.; Dubon, O.D.; Wu, J.; Foxon, C.T.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2011-09-22

    Recent work has shown that GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} can be grown across the entire composition range by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy with intermediate compositions being amorphous, but control of the electrical properties through doping is critical for functionalizing this material. Here we report the bipolar doping of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} with high As content to conductivities above 4 S/cm at room temperature using Mg or Te. The carrier type was confirmed by thermopower measurements. Doping requires an increase in Ga flux during growth resulting in a mixed phase material of polycrystalline GaAs:N embedded in amorphous GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x}.

  2. Luminescence properties of MgxZn1-xSe prepared by Mg diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łożykowski, H. J.; Holtz, P. O.; Monemar, B.

    1983-07-01

    The photoluminescence of ZnSe doped with the isoelectronic substituent Mg with a simple diffusion procedure has been studied. It was found that Mg easily enters substitutionally on Zn-site to form MgxZn1-xSe. The diffused samples therefore show a graded bandgap due to a composition gradient in the surface region. In contrast to ZnSe the photoluminescence spectrum of MgxZn1-xSe is dominated by a near bandgap emission at all temperatures between 1.5 and 300 K. The bandgap shift compared with “pure” ZnSe is estimated from photoluminescence excitation spectra. The luminous efficiency of MgxZn1-xSe makes the material promising for future applications as light emitting diodes with a well defined narrow emission band at a wavelength determined by the Mg content x.

  3. Topological characters in Fe (Te1 -xSex ) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianxin; Qin, Shengshan; Liang, Yi; Fan, Heng; Hu, Jiangping

    2016-03-01

    We investigate topological properties in the Fe(Te,Se) thin films. We find that the single layer FeTe1 -xSex has nontrivial Z2 topological invariance which originates from the parity exchange at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone. The nontrivial topology is mainly controlled by the Te(Se) height. Adjusting the anion height, which can be realized as the function of lattice constants and x in FeTe1 -xSex , can drive a topological phase transition. In a bulk material, the two-dimensional Z2 topology invariance is extended to a strong three-dimensional one. In a thin film, we predict that the topological invariance oscillates with the number of layers. The results can also be applied to iron pnictides. Our research establishes FeTe1 -xSex as a unique system to integrate high-Tc superconductivity and topological properties in a single electronic structure.

  4. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CoFeTiGa1-xSbx compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Liu, Z. H.; Liu, G. D.; Ma, X. Q.

    2017-01-01

    Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Heusler compounds CoFeTiGa1-xSbx have been studied. X-ray diffraction patterns show that CoFeTiGa1-xSbx (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) crystallize into LiMgPdSn-type structure. First-principles calculations indicate that CoFeTiGa1-xSbx (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) are half-metal with considerable minority band gaps. The substitution of Sb for Ga gives rise to the spin moments of the compounds, and makes them to be half-metallic ferrimagnets.

  5. Elemental moment variation of bcc FexMn1-x on MgO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatkar, H.; Snow, R. J.; Arenholz, E.; Idzerda, Y. U.

    2017-02-01

    We report the growth, structural characterization, and electronic structure evolution of epitaxially grown bcc FexMn1-x on MgO(001). It is observed that the 20 nm thick FexMn1-x alloy films remained bcc from 0.65≤x≤1, much beyond the bulk stability range of 0.88≤x≤1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism show that both the Fe and Mn L3 binding energies slightly increase with Mn incorporation and that the elemental moment of Fe in the 20 nm crystalline bcc alloy film remain nearly constant, then shows a dramatic collapse near x 0.84. The Mn MCD intensity is found to be small at all compositions that exhibit ferromagnetism

  6. Diamagnetic vortex barrier stripes in underdoped BaFe2(As1-xPx) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagil, A.; Lamhot, Y.; Almoalem, A.; Kasahara, S.; Watashige, T.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Auslaender, O. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements on underdoped BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 (x =0.26 ) that show enhanced superconductivity along stripes parallel to twin boundaries. These stripes of enhanced diamagnetic response repel superconducting vortices and act as barriers for them to cross. The width of the stripes is hundreds of nanometers, on the scale of the penetration depth, well within the inherent spatial resolution of MFM and implying that the width is set by the interaction of the superconductor with the MFM's magnetic tip. Unlike similar stripes observed previously by scanning SQUID in the electron doped Ba (Fe1 -xCox)2As2 , the stripes in the isovalently doped BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 disappear gradually when we warm the sample towards the superconducting transition temperature. Moreover, we find that the stripes move well below the reported structural transition temperature in BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 and that they can be much denser than in the Ba (Fe1 -xCox)2As2 study. When we cool in finite magnetic field we find that some vortices appear in the middle of stripes, suggesting that the stripes may have an inner structure, which we cannot resolve. Finally, we use both vortex decoration at higher magnetic field and deliberate vortex dragging by the MFM magnetic tip to obtain bounds on the strength of the interaction between the stripes and vortices. We find that this interaction is strong enough to play a significant role in determining the critical current in underdoped BaFe2(As1 -xPx)2 .

  7. Dilatometric study of U1-xAmxO2±δ and U1-xCexO2±δ reactive sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlait, Denis; Feledziak, Alex; Lebreton, Florent; Clavier, Nicolas; Prieur, Damien; Dacheux, Nicolas; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    In order to reduce the radiotoxicity of nuclear fuel waste, the transmutation of americium in U1-xAmxO2±δ dedicated fuels is considered. A convenient route to produce such fuels is reactive sintering from a UO2+δ/AmO2-δ green pellet, i.e., a single heat treatment during which both the densification and the formation of the U1-xAmxO2±δ solid solution occur. The mechanisms of such sintering are however barely known and require experimental data. In this aim, the densification through reactive sintering of a UO2+δ/AmO2-δ sample was monitored by dilatometry. The obtained results were compared to those reported for the formation of the U1-xAmxO2±δ solid solution monitored by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction. To assess the use of Ce as a substitute of Am, similar dilatometric studies were also carried out on UO2+δ/CeO2 pellets. Obtained results show that the use of a reactive sintering causes a delay in the densification process associated to the competition between solid solution formation and densification, which yields limitations in pellet final densities. The importance of redox behavior of Am (or Ce) on the achievement of solid solution formation and densification are also discussed, especially based on discrepancies in densification behavior between UO2+δ/AmO2-δ and UO2+δ/CeO2.

  8. In(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Park, Jin S.; Lin, True-Lon; Liu, John K.

    1995-01-01

    Choice of materials for present quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) affected principally by two considerations. One was that in comparison with GaAs, In(x)Ga(1-x)As is potentially superior quantum-well material because of its stronger absorption of infrared radiation. Other consideration was that in comparison with Al(x)Ga(1-x)As, which is usual barrier material in older devices, GaAs potentially superior barrier material because it exhibits superior transport properties (lower scattering and higher mobility of charge carriers). GaAs is well material in older devices and barrier material in present devices.

  9. AlxGa1-xAs Single-Quantum-Well Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae H.

    1992-01-01

    Surface-emitting solid-state laser contains edge-emitting Al0.08Ga0.92As single-quantum-well (SQW) active layer sandwiched between graded-index-of-refraction separate-confinement-heterostructure (GRINSCH) layers of AlxGa1-xAs, includes etched 90 degree mirrors and 45 degree facets to direct edge-emitted beam perpendicular to top surface. Laser resembles those described in "Pseudomorphic-InxGa1-xAs Surface-Emitting Lasers" (NPO-18243). Suitable for incorporation into optoelectronic integrated circuits for photonic computing; e.g., optoelectronic neural networks.

  10. LPE growth and optical characteristics of GaAs1-xSbx epilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Hu, Shuhong; Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Chao; Dai, Ning

    2017-04-01

    A series of GaAs1-xSbx epilayers have been successfully grown on GaAs (1 0 0) substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique at about 550 °C. Samples with different antimony (Sb) contents have been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurement, which confirms the incorporation of Sb in the epilayers. Room temperature optical properties of GaAs1-xSbx epilayers were performed by photoluminescence (PL) and transmission spectra.

  11. GALLIUM INDIUM ARSENIDE ANTIMONIDE (GaxIn1-xASySb1-y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailova, Maya P.

    The following sections are included: * Basic Parameters at 300 K * Basic Properties of GaxIn1-xASySb1-y Compositions Lattice-Matched to GaSb * Basic Properties of GaxIn1-xASySb1-y Compositions Lattice-Matched to InAs * Band Structure and Carrier Concentration * Temperature Dependences * Band Discontinuities at GaInAsSb/GaSb and GaInAsSb/InAs Heterojunctions * Effective Masses * Donors and Acceptors * Electrical Properties * Mobility and Hall Effect * Impact Ionization * Optical Properties * Thermal Properties * Mechanical Properties, Elastic Constants, Lattice Vibrations, Other Properties * References

  12. High-temperature heat capacity of orthovanadates Ce1- x Bi x VO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, L. T.; Chumilina, L. G.; Belousova, N. V.; Denisov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Orthovanadates Ce1- x Bi x VO4 (1 ≥ x ≥ 0) have been produced by solid-phase synthesis from initial oxides CeO2, Bi2O3, and V2O5 upon step-by-step burning. The high-temperature heat capacity of Ce1- x Bi x VO4 has been measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The experimental data on C p = f(T) were used to calculate the thermodynamic properties (the enthalpy changes, the entropy changes, and the Gibbs energy).

  13. Strong nonlinear optical enhancement in MBE-grown Bi 1-xSb x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngdale, E. R.; Meyer, J. R.; Hoffman, C. A.; Bartoli, F. J.; Partin, D. L.; Thrush, C. M.; Heremans, J. P.

    1991-05-01

    We report an experimental study of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Bi 1-xSb x alloy layers grown by MBE. Non-degenerate four-wave mixing experiments at CO 2 laser wavelengths yield a large third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ (3)≈3.5 × 10 -4 esu). Furthermore, due to the high reflectivity of the Bi 1-xSb x films at both the air and substrate interfaces, the etalon formed can enhance the nonlinear optical signal by over an order of magnitude.

  14. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy of Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te ferromagnetic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Łusakowski, A; Bogusławski, P; Story, T

    2015-06-10

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighbourhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin-orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density are discussed. The calculations are in accordance with the experimental observation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in rhombohedral Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te (1 1 1) thin layers.

  15. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy of Ge1-xMnxTe ferromagnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łusakowski, A.; Bogusławski, P.; Story, T.

    2015-06-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1-xMnxTe were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighbourhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin-orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density are discussed. The calculations are in accordance with the experimental observation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in rhombohedral Ge1-xMnxTe (1 1 1) thin layers.

  16. Electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Lu, P. F.; Yu, Z. Y.; Gao, T.; Wu, C. J.; Ding, L.; Wang, S. M.

    2013-02-01

    A first-principles study has been performed to evaluate the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 compound. The transport coefficients are then calculated within the semiclassical Boltzmann theory, and further evaluated as a function of chemical potential assuming a constant relaxation time and an averaged thermal conductivity. Our theoretical calculations show that the ZT value is 1.43 for Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 system, and it agrees well with previous experimental data.

  17. Ga/1-x/Al/x/As LED structures grown on GaP substrates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodall, J. M.; Potemski, R. M.; Blum, S. E.; Lynch, R.

    1972-01-01

    Ga(1-x)Al(x)As light-emitting diode structures have been grown on GaP substrates by the liquid-phase-epitaxial method. In spite of the large differences in lattice constants and thermal-expansion coefficients, room-temperature efficiencies up to 5.5% in air have been observed for a peak emission of 8500 A. Using undoped GaP substrates, which are transparent to the infrared and red portions of the spectrum, thin structures of Ga(1-x)Al(x)As with large external efficiencies can now be made.

  18. Characterization of transparent conductive delafossite-CuCr1-xO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Chang, Kuei-Ping; Yang, Chun-Chao

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the CuCr1-xO2 films with x = 0.00-0.25 were prepared on a quartz substrate by sol-gel processing. The films were first deposited onto a quartz substrate by spin-coating. The specimens were annealed at 500 °C in air for 1 h and post-annealed in N2 at 700 °C for 2 h. As the films were post-annealed in N2, a pure delafossite-CuCrO2 phase appeared in the CuCr1-xO2 films below x = 0.20. However, an additional CuO phase appeared at x = 0.25. The pure delafossite-CuCrO2 phase can exist within x ≤ 0.20 in CuCr1-xO2 films. The binding energies of Cu-2p3/2 and Cr-2p3/2 in the CuCr1-xO2 films with the pure delafossite-CuCrO2 phase were 932.1 ± 0.2 eV and 576.0 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. The surface exhibited elongated grain features when the pure delafossite-CuCrO2 phase was present in the CuCr1-xO2 films. The maximum transmittance of the CuCr1-xO2 films with the pure delafossite-CuCrO2 phase was approximately 80%, which moved toward the visible region with the increasing x-value. The film absorption edges were observed at 400 nm, which were sharper with the increasing x-value. The optical bandgaps of CuCr1-xO2 films with the pure delafossite-CuCrO2 phase were approximately 3.0 eV. The electrical conductivity of CuCr1-xO2 films with the pure delafossite-CuCrO2 phase was 1.1 × 10-3 S cm-1 (x = 0.00), and increased to 0.16 S cm-1 (x = 0.20). The corresponding carrier concentration of CuCr1-xO2 films with the pure delafossite-CuCrO2 phase was 2.8 × 1014 cm-3 (x = 0.00), and markedly increased to 1.8 × 1016 cm-3 (x = 0.20). The Cr-deficient condition in delafossite-CuCrO2 films enhances film electrical conductivity and carrier concentration, but retains the film's high-visible transparency.

  19. Distribution of cations in wurtzitic InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN alloys: Consequences for energetics and quasiparticle electronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Luiz Cláudio; Schleife, André; Furthmüller, Jürgen; Bechstedt, Friedhelm

    2012-03-01

    The ternary, isostructural, wurtzite-derived group-III mononitride alloys InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN are reexamined within a cluster expansion approach. Using density functional theory together with the AM05 exchange-correlation functional, the total energies and the optimized atomic geometries of all 22 clusters classes of the cluster expansion for each material system are calculated. The computationally demanding calculation of the corresponding quasiparticle electronic structures is achieved for all cluster classes by means of a recently developed scheme to approximately solve the quasiparticle equation based on the HSE06 hybrid functional and the G0W0 approach. Using two different alloy statistics, the configurational averages for the lattice parameters, the mixing enthalpies, and the bulk moduli are calculated. The composition-dependent electronic structures of the alloys are discussed based on configurationally averaged electronic states, band gaps, and densities of states. Ordered cluster arrangements are found to be energetically rather unfavorable, however, they possess the smallest energy gaps and, hence, contribute to light emission. The influence of the alloy statistics on the composition dependencies and the corresponding bowing parameters of the band gaps is found to be significant and should, hence, lead to different signatures in the optical-absorption or -emission spectra.

  20. Sr1-x BaxTiO3 and Sr1-x Cax TiO3 crystal growth by floating zone method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Dos Santos, C. A. M.; Machado, A. J. S.

    2014-03-01

    Strontium titanate has both technological and scientific interest due to high dielectric constant, semiconducting n-type behavior after oxygen reduction, and unconventional superconductivity. Titanate single crystals are commonly grown by many routes as Verneuil commercial, self-flux, and floating zone method. Nabokin et al. were able to grow high quality SrTiO3 samples in an optical furnace. In order to enhance the dielectric constant, Sr 2+has been replaced by Ba2+ or Ca2+ atoms, but solid solutions implies lattice distortions which can affect the quality of these single crystals. This work revisits the preparation of the Sr1-xBaxTiO3 and Sr1-xCaxTiO3 single crystals using floating zone method. The crystals were grown with a Quantum Design infra-red image furnace starting with SrCO3, BaCO3, CaCO3, and TiO2 high purity powders. The quality of single crystals were analyzed by x-ray difractometry. The influence of the growth conditions on the single crystal are reported. The electrical resistivity as a function of the temperature and the influence of the oxygen contents are reported. This material based upon work supported by FAPESP, CNPq, and NAP-USP. K. Behnia is acknowledged for some suggestions.

  1. Preparation and physical properties of the solid solutions Cu 1+xMn 1-xO 2 ( 0⩽x⩽0.2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trari, M.; Töpfer, J.; Dordor, P.; Grenier, J. C.; Pouchard, M.; Doumerc, J. P.

    2005-09-01

    Solid solutions of formula Cu 1+xMn 1-xO 2 ( 0⩽x⩽0.2) were synthesized by solid state reaction in silica sealed tubes. They crystallize with the monoclinic crednerite structure (space group C2/ m). The stability domain in air is quite narrow and a phase diagram is proposed and compared with previous results. Magnetic study confirmed the HS state of Mn 3+ ions and revealed that the predominant interactions are antiferromagnetic. Their strength decreases with x, which can be ascribed to a dilution effect, and long-range 3D magnetic ordering observed for CuMnO 2, disappears for x> 0.05. The crednerite solid solutions are p-type semiconductors. Modeling the thermoelectric power behavior suggests that charge carriers are Cu 2+ holes diffusing in Cu layers for small x values and Mn 4+ holes diffusing in Mn layers for x>0.05. For larger x values a saturation effect limits the charge carrier concentration.

  2. Low-temperature synthesis of homogeneous solid solutions of scheelite-structured Ca1-xSrxWO4 and Sr1-xBaxWO4 nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Culver, Sean P.; Greaney, Matthew J.; Tinoco, Antonio; ...

    2015-07-24

    Here, a series of compositionally complex scheelite-structured nanocrystals of the formula A1-xA’xWO4 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) have been prepared under benign synthesis conditions using the vapor diffusion sol–gel method. Discrete nanocrystals with sub-20 nm mean diameters were obtained after kinetically controlled hydro- lysis and polycondensation at room temperature, followed by composition-dependent thermal aging at or below 60 °C. Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data and Raman spectroscopy verified the synthesis of continuous and phase-pure nanocrystal solid solutions across the entire composition space for A1-xA’xWO4, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Elemental analysis by X-ray photoelectron and inductively coupled plasma-more » atomic emission spectroscopies demonstrated excellent agreement between the nominal and experi- mentally determined elemental stoichiometries, while energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy illustrated good spatial elemental homogeneity within these nanocrystals synthesized under benign conditions.« less

  3. Distribution of cations in wurtzitic InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN alloys: Consequences for energetics and quasiparticle electronic structures

    DOE PAGES

    de Carvalho, Luiz Cláudio; Schleife, André; Furthmüller, Jürgen; ...

    2012-03-27

    The ternary, isostructural, wurtzite-derived group-III mononitride alloys InxGa1-xN andInxAl1-xN are reexamined within a cluster expansion approach. Using density functional theory together with the AM05 exchange-correlation functional, the total energies and the optimized atomic geometries of all 22 clusters classes of the cluster expansion for each material system are calculated. The computationally demanding calculation of the corresponding quasiparticle electronic structures is achieved for all cluster classes by means of a recently developed scheme to approximately solve the quasiparticle equation based on the HSE06 hybrid functional and the G₀W₀ approach. Using two different alloy statistics, the configurational averages for the lattice parameters,more » the mixing enthalpies, and the bulk moduli are calculated. The composition-dependent electronic structures of the alloys are discussed based on configurationally averaged electronic states, band gaps, and densities of states. Ordered cluster arrangements are found to be energetically rather unfavorable, however, they possess the smallest energy gaps and, hence, contribute to light emission. The influence of the alloy statistics on the composition dependencies and the corresponding bowing parameters of the band gaps is found to be significant and should, hence, lead to different signatures in the optical-absorption or -emission spectra.« less

  4. A large iron isotope effect in SmFeAsO(1 - x)F(x) and Ba(1 - x)K(x)Fe(2)As(2).

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Wu, T; Wu, G; Chen, H; Wang, X F; Xie, Y L; Ying, J J; Yan, Y J; Li, Q J; Shi, B C; Chu, W S; Wu, Z Y; Chen, X H

    2009-05-07

    The recent discovery of superconductivity in oxypnictides with a critical transition temperature (T(C)) higher than the McMillan limit of 39 K (the theoretical maximum predicted by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory) has generated great excitement. Theoretical calculations indicate that the electron-phonon interaction is not strong enough to give rise to such high transition temperatures, but strong ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic fluctuations have been proposed to be responsible. Superconductivity and magnetism in pnictide superconductors, however, show a strong sensitivity to the crystal lattice, suggesting the possibility of unconventional electron-phonon coupling. Here we report the effect of oxygen and iron isotope substitution on T(C) and the spin-density wave (SDW) transition temperature (T(SDW)) in the SmFeAsO(1 - x)F(x) and Ba(1 - x)K(x)Fe(2)As(2) systems. The oxygen isotope effect on T(C) and T(SDW) is very small, while the iron isotope exponent alpha(C) = -dlnT(C)/dlnM is about 0.35 (0.5 corresponds to the full isotope effect). Surprisingly, the iron isotope exchange shows the same effect on T(SDW) as T(C). This indicates that electron-phonon interaction plays some role in the superconducting mechanism, but a simple electron-phonon coupling mechanism seems unlikely because a strong magnon-phonon coupling is included.

  5. Thermophysical properties and oxygen transport in the (Ux,Pu1-x)O2 lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, M. W. D.; Murphy, S. T.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Grimes, R. W.

    2015-06-01

    Using molecular dynamics, the thermophysical properties of the (Ux,Pu1-x)O2 system have been investigated between 300 and 3200 K. The variation with temperature of lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure, are explained in terms of defect formation and diffusivity on the oxygen sublattice. Vegard's Law is approximately observed for the thermal expansion of the solid solutions below 2000 K. Deviation from Vegard's Law above this temperature occurs due to the different superionic transition temperatures of the solid solutions (2200-2900 K). Similarly, a spike in the specific heat, associated with the superionic transition, occurs at lower temperatures in solid solutions that have a high Pu content. While oxygen diffusivity is higher in pure PuO2 than in pure UO2, lower oxygen defect enthalpies in (Ux,Pu1-x)O2 solid solutions cause higher oxygen mobility than would be expected by interpolation between the diffusivities of the end members. In comparison to UO2 and PuO2 there is considerable variety of oxygen vacancy and oxygen interstitial sites in solid solutions generating a wide range of property values. Trends in the defect enthalpies are discussed in terms of composition and the lattice parameter of (Ux,Pu1-x)O2. Comparison is made with previous work on (Ux,Th1-x)O2.

  6. Synthesis Of Ir(1-x-y)Rh(x)Co(y)Sb(3) Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry; Borshchevsky, Alexander; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    Ir(1-x-y)Rh(x)Co(y)Sb(3) semiconductors synthesized by gradient-freeze and sintering techniques. Sintering techniques used for variety of compositions; gradient-freeze technique used for RhSb(3) and CoSb(3).

  7. Synthesis of magnetic multicomponent nanoparticles CuxNi1-xFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingölbali, A.; Doğan, N.; Yeşil, Z.; Asiltürk, M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of great importance in many biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hyperthermia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement. To build the most effective magnetic nanoparticle systems for various biomedical applications, characteristics of particle, including size, surface chemistry, magnetic properties, and toxicity have to be fully investigated. In this work, the effects of some production methods of the magnetic nanoparticles for the bio-medical applications are discussed. In this study, multicomponents of CuxNi1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles (where x=0, 0.6, and 1) were prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method. In addition, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a vibrating scanning magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. The particle sizes of the samples were measured by Malvern Instruments Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS instrument. The data were recorded under magnetic fields for different ratios of CuxNi1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles. The temperature dependence of field cooled (FC) magnetization of the CuxNi1-xFe2O4 samples has been shown in this work. Magnetizations change with decreasing the dopant value of Cu. The magnetic phase transition was observed for CuxNi1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Ag2S x Se1-x nanocrystals and their photoelectrochemical property.

    PubMed

    Ji, Changyin; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Peng; Shen, Hongzhi; Gao, Wenzhu; Wang, Yiding; Yu, William W

    2017-02-10

    I-VI chalcogenide low-toxicity semiconductors and their near-infrared optical property are of great importance for solar cell and biological probe applications. Here, we report the synthesis of Ag2S x Se1-x (x = 0-1) ternary nanocrystals (NCs) and their photoelectrochemical properties, using a refined simple hot-injection reaction recipe. The ICP-MS results show the change of non-metallic composition in products and precursors, which can be well fitted with Vegard's equation. Ternary alloying broadens the absorption spectrum region of Ag2S NCs. It can also balance the transfer of photo-excited electrons through the interfaces of TiO2/Ag2S x Se1-x and Ag2S x Se1-x /electrolyte by minimizing electron-hole recombination. By tuning the compositions, an increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was observed with the increase of S composition and the size of the NCs. The photoelectrochemical results reveal that Ag2S x Se1-x ternary NCs exhibit higher conversion efficiency than pure binary NCs. The drop in PCE of the binary NCs is mainly attributed to the decreases of the charge separation following exciton transition.

  9. Structural and optical properties of sol-gel synthesised Zn1-xMgxO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, P.; Anandan, P.; Srinivasan, N.

    2013-12-01

    Zn1-xMgxO nanocrystals with various compositions (x = 0-0.1) were synthesised by sol-gel process using tri ethanol amine (TEA) as a capping agent. The structural properties of the prepared materials were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. Un-agglomerated nanocrystals with spherical morphology were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The presence of Mg in the Zn1-xMgxO was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the Mg composition relatively increases in the synthesised nanocrystals as it increases in the precursor solution. The optical absorption studies of the Zn1-xMgxO samples show the blue shift from the pure ZnO due to the incorporation of Mg in ZnO lattice. The photoluminescence studies demonstrated that the intensity of defect related deep level emission increases drastically with increasing the x value from 0.02 to 0.08 and decreases sharply on further increase of Mg from 0.08 to 0.1. The mechanism for the enhanced green emission was explained based on the structural properties of the Zn1-xMgxO samples.

  10. Phase diagram and neutron spin resonance of superconducting NaFe1 -xCuxAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guotai; Song, Yu; Zhang, Rui; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tian, Long; Chi, Songxue; Graves-Brook, M. K.; Li, Shiliang; Dai, Pengcheng

    2017-02-01

    We use transport and neutron scattering to study the electronic phase diagram and spin excitations of NaFe1 -xCuxAs single crystals. Similar to Co- and Ni-doped NaFeAs, a bulk superconducting phase appears near x ≈2 % with the suppression of stripe-type magnetic order in NaFeAs. Upon further increasing Cu concentration the system becomes insulating, culminating in an antiferromagnetically ordered insulating phase near x ≈50 % . Using transport measurements, we demonstrate that the resistivity in NaFe1 -xCuxAs exhibits non-Fermi-liquid behavior near x ≈1.8 % . Our inelastic neutron scattering experiments reveal a single neutron spin resonance mode exhibiting weak dispersion along c axis in NaFe0.98Cu0.02As . The resonance is high in energy relative to the superconducting transition temperature Tc but weak in intensity, likely resulting from impurity effects. These results are similar to other iron pnictides superconductors despite that the superconducting phase in NaFe1 -xCuxAs is continuously connected to an antiferromagnetically ordered insulating phase near x ≈50 % with significant electronic correlations. Therefore, electron correlations is an important ingredient of superconductivity in NaFe1 -xCuxAs and other iron pnictides.

  11. Mutual Passivation in Dilulte GaNxAs1-x Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Mars, D.E.; Scarpulla, M.A.; Dubon, O.D.; Ridgway, M.C.; Geisz, J.F.

    2005-03-21

    The dilute GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} alloys (with x up to 0.05) have exhibited many unusual properties as compared to the conventional binary and ternary semiconductor alloys. We report on a new effect in the GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} alloy system in which electrically active substitutional group IV donors and isoelectronic N atoms passivate each other's activity. This mutual passivation occurs in dilute GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} doped with group IV donors through the formation of nearest neighbor IV{sub Ga-}N{sub As} pairs when the samples are annealed under conditions such that the diffusion length of the donors is greater than or equal to the average distance between donor and N atoms. The passivation of the shallow donors and the N{sub As} atoms is manifested in a drastic reduction in the free electron concentration and, simultaneously, an increase in the fundamental band gap. This mutual passivation effect is demonstrated in both Si and Ge doped GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} alloys. Analytical calculations of the passivation process based on Ga vacancies mediated diffusion show good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Validity evaluation of Sc x Al1-x N material constants based on SAW characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Yamazaki, Kenta; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed at examining the validity of material constants reported for use in surface acoustic wave (SAW) device simulations. First, based on the full set of material constants calculated by first principle, bulk acoustic wave velocities are calculated for Sc x Al1-x N and compared with published experimental results. Then, the effects of the Sc x Al1-x N material constants with different Sc content on acoustic characteristics are calculated and the influence of shear vibrations on SAW characteristics are recognized. Then, a series of SAW devices are fabricated on Sc x Al1-x N film/Si substrate structure with various Cu and ScAlN thicknesses h Cu and h ScAlN, respectively, and measured variations of phase velocity V and effective electromechanical coupling factor K\\text{e}2 with these parameters are compared with the calculation. The fairly well-agreed results indicate a reliable set of Sc x Al1-x N material constants for SAW device simulations.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Ag2S x Se1-x nanocrystals and their photoelectrochemical property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Changyin; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Peng; Shen, Hongzhi; Gao, Wenzhu; Wang, Yiding; Yu, William W.

    2017-02-01

    I-VI chalcogenide low-toxicity semiconductors and their near-infrared optical property are of great importance for solar cell and biological probe applications. Here, we report the synthesis of Ag2S x Se1-x (x = 0-1) ternary nanocrystals (NCs) and their photoelectrochemical properties, using a refined simple hot-injection reaction recipe. The ICP-MS results show the change of non-metallic composition in products and precursors, which can be well fitted with Vegard’s equation. Ternary alloying broadens the absorption spectrum region of Ag2S NCs. It can also balance the transfer of photo-excited electrons through the interfaces of TiO2/Ag2S x Se1-x and Ag2S x Se1-x /electrolyte by minimizing electron-hole recombination. By tuning the compositions, an increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was observed with the increase of S composition and the size of the NCs. The photoelectrochemical results reveal that Ag2S x Se1-x ternary NCs exhibit higher conversion efficiency than pure binary NCs. The drop in PCE of the binary NCs is mainly attributed to the decreases of the charge separation following exciton transition.

  14. Magnetism of SmFeAsO1-xFx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamihara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto; Hosono, Hideo; Jst Collaboration; Jst Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic properties of superconducting SmFeAs O1 - x Fx are demonstrated by 57 Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy (MS) and 149 Sm Nuclear resonant forward scattering (NRFS). Polycrystalline SmFeAs O1 - x Fx samples were synthesized using two-step solid state reaction described elsewhere. [New J. Phys. 12, 033005 (2010).] Purity of samples was checked by X-ray diffraction patterns using Cu K-alpha radiation. Resistivity and magnetization measurements, as well as by 57 Fe MS and 149 Sm NRFS spectroscopy, at various temperatures were performed to define superconducting, magnetic ordering temperatures. [Phys. Rev. B 78, 184512 (2008) & J. Phys. Soc. Japan 77, 103706 (2008).] A magnetic phase diagram we have proposed is closer to that by Hess et al [Europhys. Lett. 87, 17005 (2009).]; that is long-range AF ordering of Fe (a static magnetism) does not persist in the superconducting regime. Such a relation between spin dynamics and SC is a common feature among LnFeAs O1 - x Fx (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm). Our results indicate that the relation between the static magnetism and Tc of LnFeAs O1 - x Fx shows similar topology to that of copper-based high-Tc superconductors. [Phys. Rev. B 42, 7981 (1990).] One (Y. K) of us was financially supported by the Keio Leading-edge Laboratory of Science and Technology (KLL).

  15. Signature of Griffith phase in (Tb1-xCex)MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Dwivedi, G. D.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Shukla, K. K.; Yang, H. D.; Ghosh, A. K.; Chatterjee, Sandip

    2016-05-01

    Griffith phase phenomena is attributed to existence of FM (ferromagnetic) cluster in AFM (antiferromagnetic) ordering which usually occurs in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bilayers or multilayers. In (Tb1-xCex)MnO3 evolution of Griffith phase have been observed. The observed Griffith phase might be due to the exchange interaction between Mn3+/Mn2+ states.

  16. Quantification of process variables for carbothermic synthesis of UC1-xNx fuel microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemer, T. B.; Silva, C. M.; Henry, J. J.; McMurray, J. W.; Voit, S. L.; Collins, J. L.; Hunt, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    This report details the continued investigation of process variables involved in converting sol-gel-derived, urania-carbon microspheres to ∼820-μm-dia. UC1-xNx fuel kernels in flow-through, vertical Mo and W crucibles at temperatures up to 2123 K. Experiments included calcining of air-dried UO3-H2O-C microspheres in Ar and H2-containing gases, conversion of the resulting UO2-C kernels to dense UO2:2UC in the same gases and vacuum, and its conversion in N2 to UC1-xNx (x = ∼0.85). The thermodynamics of the relevant reactions were applied extensively to interpret and control the process variables. Producing the precursor UO2:2UC kernel of ∼96% theoretical density was required, but its subsequent conversion to UC1-xNx at 2123 K was not accompanied by sintering and resulted in ∼83-86% of theoretical density. Increasing the UC1-xNx kernel nitride component to ∼0.98 in flowing N2-H2 mixtures to evolve HCN was shown to be quantitatively consistent with present and past experiments and the only useful application of H2 in the entire process.

  17. Fundamental linewidth in solitary, ultranarrow output PbS(1-x)Se(x) diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, C.; Bielinski, J. W.; Lo, W.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental, quantum phase noise limited Lorentzian linewidth was directly measured from the beat-note spectra generated by heterodyning PbS(1-x)Se(x) diode lasers with a stable CO gas laser. The experimental results were matched by calculated theoretical line profiles. Linewidths as narrow as 22 kHz full width at half-maximum power were observed.

  18. Fluorographane (C1H(x)F(1-x-δ))n: synthesis and properties.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Zdeněk; Šimek, Petr; Mazánek, Vlastimil; Šembera, Filip; Janoušek, Zbyněk; Pumera, Martin

    2015-04-04

    Fluorographane (C1HxF1-x-δ)n was obtained from graphene by hydrogenation via the Birch reaction with consequent fluorination of the resulting graphane. Fluorographane exhibits fast heterogeneous electron transfer rates and hydrophobicity, which increase with increasing fluorination.

  19. New monocrystalline Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, B.R.; Moehlecke, A.; Ruiz, J.M.; Luque, A.

    1995-08-01

    The development of solar cells on Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} might be interesting because they might present more current photo-response than the silicon cells, based on the lower bandgap of the alloyed crystal. In particular the use of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} solar cells in dual bandgap concentration structures as GaAs/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} can lead to total efficiency increase of about 1% as compared to the GaAs/Si structure, according to our calculations. Our effort is devoted to solar cells with low content of Ge, lower than 20% at. This choice is based on two previous hypothesis (1) A low content of Ge suggests that the well known silicon cell process, slightly modified, can be applied to the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} cells. (2) Calculations suggest that for utilisation in tandem with GaAs cells, the gain of efficiency is low above 20at % Ge.

  20. Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Raised panel door front entry also illustrated. Ground floor detail Building 19, facing north - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel, casements. Concrete stoop, entry overhang and pipe rail detail also illustrated. Building 36, facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Broad overhanging eave also illustrated. Second story detail. Building 13, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Phenomenology of dark matter in chiral U(1 ) X dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, P.; Nomura, Takaaki

    2016-12-01

    We consider dark matter physics in a model for the dark sector with extra dark U(1 ) X gauge symmetry. The dark sector is composed of exotic fermions that are charged under both dark U(1 ) X and the standard model SU(3 ) C×U (1 )Y gauge groups, as well as standard model singlet complex scalars Φ and X with nonzero U(1 ) X charge. In this model, there are two dark matter candidates—a scalar and a fermion—both of which are stabilized by accidental Z2 symmetry. Their thermal relic density, and direct and indirect detection constraints are discussed in detail and we search for the parameter space of the model accommodating dark matter observations. We also discuss constraints from diphoton resonance searches associated with the scalar field which breaks the dark U(1 ) X , in a way consistent with dark matter physics. In addition, implications for collider physics are discussed, focusing on the production cross section of the scalar boson.

  4. S{sup 1}xS{sup 2} Gowdy supersymmetric constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Maceda, Marco; Macias, Alfredo

    2011-02-15

    We obtain the supersymmetric constraint for S{sup 1}xS{sup 2} Gowdy spacetime in the N=1 supergravity formalism of quantum cosmology in four dimensions. The physical states of the model for both polarized and unpolarized cases are presented.

  5. 1. "X15 RUN UP AREA 230." A somewhat blurred, very ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. "X-15 RUN UP AREA 230." A somewhat blurred, very low altitude low oblique view to the northwest. This view predates construction of observation bunkers. Photo no. "14,696 58 A-AFFTC 17 NOV 58." - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Local structural investigation of buried InAs(x)P(1-x)/InP interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, C.; Bordiga, S.; Boscherini, F.; Pascarelli, S.; Schiavini, G. M.; Ferari, C.; Lazzarini, L.; Salviati, G.

    1994-10-01

    A local structural investigation has been carried out on the 10 A InAs(x)P(1-x) layer in ad hoc grown InAs(x)P(1-x)/InP epitaxal multistructures deposited by low pressure metallorganic chemical vapor deposition by means of extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution x-ray diffraction analyses. The goal was to characterize the local structure of the unwanted, strained, interface layers of InAs(x)P(1-x) produced by the exposure of the InP surface to AsH3 as occurs during the growth of InP/In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As heterostructures optimized for photonics. High resolution x-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm the high crystalline perfection of the investigated interfaces. As K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis shows, the first shell environment of As at these interfaces is similar to that found in bulk InAs(x)P(1-X) alloys of similar composition, as determined experimentally and by comparison with recent theories of bond lengths in semiconductor alloys. In particular we measure an As-In bond length which varies at most 0.02 A with As concentration at the interface; this implies that epitaxy with InP is accompanied by local structural distortions, such as bond angle variations, which accommodate the nearly constant As-In bond length.

  7. Microemulsion synthesis and magnetic properties of FexNi(1-x) alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beygi, H.; Babakhani, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates synthesis of FexNi(1-x) bimetallic nanoparticles by microemulsion method. Through studying the mechanism of nanoparticles formation, it is indicated that synthesis of nanoparticles took placed by simultaneous reduction of metal ions and so nanoparticles structure is homogeneous alloy. FexNi(1-x) nanoparticles with different sizes, morphologies and compositions were synthesized by changing the microemulsion parameters such as water/surfactant/oil ratio, presence of co-surfactant and NiCl2·6H2O to FeCl2·4H2O molar ratio. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption and thermogravimetric analyses. The results indicated that, presence of butanol as co-surfactant led to chain-like arrangement of nanoparticles. Also, finer nanoparticles were synthesized by decreasing the amount of oil and water and increasing the amount of CTAB. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer suggested that magnetic properties of FexNi(1-x) alloy nanoparticles were affected by composition, size and morphology of the particles. Spherical and chain-like FexNi(1-x) alloy nanoparticles were superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively. Furthermore, higher iron in the composition of nanoparticles increases the magnetic properties.

  8. A first-principles study of the effects of different Al constituents on Ga1-xAlxN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Kong, Yike; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Meishan

    2016-08-01

    In order to investigate the influences of different Al constituents on Ga1-xAlxN nanowires, the formation energy, stability, band structure, densities of states and optical properties of Ga1-xAlxN nanowires with different Al constituents are calculated using first-principles plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential method. Results show that Ga1-xAlxN nanowires become more stable with increasing Al constituent. Bandgap of Ga1-xAlxN nanowires increases as the Al constituent increases but with a lower amplification compared with bulk Ga1-xAlxN. The peaks of static dielectric constants show a decreasing trend and move towards high-energy side as Al constituent increases. The absorption of Ga1-xAlxN nanowires shows an interesting phenomenon that it firstly increases and then decreases slightly as the Al constituent increases. Reflectivity of Ga1-xAlxN nanowires is much smaller than that of the bulk. The optical properties of Ga1-xAlxN nanowires show a blueshift effect as Al composition increases. According to these calculations, it is found that Ga1-xAlxN nanowires are appropriate to be applied into photoelectric detecting materials by adjusting the Al constituent of Ga1-xAlxN nanowires.

  9. Study of electric properties of amorphous AgGe1+xAs1-xS3 with content of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, Nina; Kurochka, Kirill; Volkova, Yana

    2013-06-01

    Multicomponent copper and silver chalcogenides have been known as promising materials for scientific and applied purposes. These materials are also under intense investigation for application in a phase-change random access memory. In order to obtain materials with a high ionic conductivity component, glassy silver chalcogenides AgGe1+xAs1-xS3 with the addition of nanotubes were synthesized. In this work the study of electrical properties of the amorphous chalcogenide AgGe1.4As0.6S3 (x = 0.4) with carbon nanotube content at a frequency of the alternating-current electric field varying from 1 Hz to 5 MHz and on direct current at ambient pressure and at pressure up to 30 GPa are presented. The ion transport was confirmed by means DC measurements in cells with blocking ion component of conductivity electrodes. An evaluation of the proportion of ionic conductivity can make a preliminary conclusion that the ionic component of the conductivity of at least 98%. Analyze of the baric dependences of AC properties have shown that the dielectric loss tangent and the real part of an admittance of the AgGe1.4As0.6S3 with carbon nanotube content compound exponentially increase with a pressure increase from 1 up to 30 GPa. The study was supported in part by the Ural Federal University development program with the financial support of young scientists; and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 12-02-31607.

  10. Low-temperature sequential pulsed chemical vapor deposition of ternary B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N thin film alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, Ali E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Kizir, Seda; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the authors have performed sequential pulsed chemical vapor deposition of ternary B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N alloys at a growth temperature of 450 °C. Triethylboron, triethylgallium, trimethylindium, and N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma have been utilized as boron, gallium, indium, and nitrogen precursors, respectively. The authors have studied the compositional dependence of structural, optical, and morphological properties of B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N ternary thin film alloys. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements showed that boron incorporation in wurtzite lattice of GaN and InN diminishes the crystallinity of B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N sample. Refractive index decreased from 2.24 to 1.65 as the B concentration of B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N increased from 35% to 88%. Similarly, refractive index of B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N changed from 1.98 to 1.74 for increase in B concentration value from 32% to 87%, respectively. Optical transmission band edge values of the B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N films shifted to lower wavelengths with increasing boron content, indicating the tunability of energy band gap with alloy composition. Atomic force microscopy measurements revealed an increase in surface roughness with boron concentration of B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, while an opposite trend was observed for B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N thin films.

  11. High-temperature superconductivity at high pressures for H3SixP1-x, H3PxS1-x, and H3ClxS1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, F.; Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.; Mehl, M. J.; Klein, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent experimental and computational works have established the occurrence of superconducting temperatures, Tc, near 200 K when the pressure is close to 200 GPa in hydrogen-based sulfur compounds. In this work we investigate the effects of phosphorus and chlorine substitutions of sulfur on Tc, as well as the effect of hydrogen vacancies. In addition, we explore the superconductivity-relevant parameters in the H3SixP1-x system. In executing this work we used the virtual crystal approximation and performed a systematic set of linearized augmented plane wave calculations (LAPW) for many different concentrations of the sulfur component. From the densities of states and the scattering phase shifts at the Fermi level, we calculated electron-ion matrix elements and estimated the electron-phonon coupling constants for different concentrations, as well as Tc. We find that the highest value of Tc=197 K corresponds to a phosphorus concentration of x=0.15, or 8.85 valence electrons in a H3P0.15S0.85 alloy. From a detailed analysis of the results given by a Gaspari-Gyorffy (GG) determination of the Hopfield parameter, we identify the role of each term in the GG equation that produce the maximum Tc. In addition, we present a non-orthogonal tight-binding parameterization of the band structure of H3S which fits very well with the LAPW results.

  12. Gettering effects in Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} single crystalline wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Wollweber, J.; Schulz, D.; Schroeder, W.

    1995-08-01

    The new interest in single crystal growth of SiGe solid solutions is caused by the development of advanced electronics. The SiGe alloys are mostly used in the form of Si/Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} epitaxial layers in heterostructures, the perfect bulk crystals are required to study fundamental properties. Furthermore, Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} crystals can be used as a substrate material instead of Silicon in order to avoid the buffer layers between the Silicon substrate and strained Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}. Monocrystalline SiGe alloys may be a potential candidate as a base material for infrared solar cells too because of an enhanced IR-sensitivity. In this paper we report a new approach to the growth of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} single crystals (up to 2{double_prime} in diameter) using the crucible free rf-heated float zone technique as well as the Czochralski-technique for solar cells. The goal is to produce solar cells with an increased photo current in comparison to Silicon cells. based on the lower bandgap of the alloyed crystal. In order to be able to use the Si cells technology (a matter still pending to be proven), low contents of Ge are intended, desirably in the range of about x=0.2. It is worth to mention, that in the conventional Silicon cell processes which give efficiencies up to 18-19%, this efficiency is not limited by the bulk base recombination in the lifetime is above 200 {mu}s there. We can conclude, that there is no basic limitation did prevents Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} wafers to present high lifetimes, above 200{mu}s, at least if the Ge content is below 5%. We can also conclude that the phosphorous gettering from a POCl{sub 3} source, used in silicon, can be successfully used to enhance lifetimes in Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}, at least for the Ge concentration used here.

  13. Magnetic phase diagram of Y1-xTbxMn6Sn6 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. A.; Chetverikov, Yu. O.; Moskvin, E. V.; Pirogov, A. N.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    The Y1-xTbxMn6Sn6 compounds (x=0, 0.175, 0.2, 0.225, 0.25) were studied by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and paramagnetic neutron spin echo. The YMn6Sn6 compound is found to be a helimagnet in the whole temperature range below TN=310 K. Close to TN an additional peak of a Lorenz shape was observed at Q=0. The peak is thought to have originated from the ferromagnetic fluctuations of the magnetic Mn moment in the ab-plane of the hexagonal crystal structure. Compounds, in which Y is replaced by Tb, change their magnetic order with the increase of temperature: from easy cone ferromagnetic phase at low T through the helicoidal phase to the ferromagnetic fluctuation close to TN. Temperature-concentration phase diagram of Y1-xTbxMn6Sn6 is built on the basis of the obtained data.

  14. Robust superconductivity and transport properties in (Li1- x Fe x )OHFeSe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai; Xing, Jie; Zhu, XiYu; Yang, Huan; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2016-05-01

    The recently discovered (Li1- x Fe x )OHFeSe superconductor with T c about 40 K provides a good platform for investigating the magnetization and electrical transport properties of FeSe-based superconductors. By using a hydrothermal ion-exchange method, we have successfully grown crystals of (Li1- x Fe x )OHFeSe. X-ray diffraction on the sample shows the single crystalline PbO-type structure with the c-axis preferential orientation. Magnetic susceptibility and resistive measurements show an onset superconducting transition at around T c =38.3 K. Using the magnetization hysteresis loops and Bean critical state model, a large critical current J s is observed in low temperature region. The critical current density is suppressed exponentially with increasing magnetic field. Temperature dependencies of resistivity under various currents and fields are measured, revealing a robust superconducting current density and bulk superconductivity.

  15. Influence of Bi-related impurity states on the bandgap and spin-orbit splitting energy of dilute III-V-Bi alloys: InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InSb1-xBix and GaSb1-xBix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samajdar, D. P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Valence Band Anticrossing (VBAC) Model is used to calculate the changes in band structure of Bi containing alloys such as InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InSb1-xBix and GaSb1-xBix due to the incorporation of dilute concentrations of bismuth. The coupling parameter CBi which gives the magnitude of interaction of Bi impurity states with the LH, HH and SO sub bands in VBAC depends on the increase in the HH/LH related energy level EHH/LH+, location of the Bi related impurity level EBi and valence band offset ΔEVBM between the endpoint compounds in the corresponding III-V-Bi. The reduction in band gap as well as the enhancement of the spin-orbit splitting energy is well explained using this model and the calculated results are compared with the results of Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, as well as with the available experimental data and are found to have good agreement. The incorporation of Bi mainly perturbs the valence band due to the interaction of the Bi impurity states with the HH, LH and SO bands. The lowering of the conduction band minimum (CBM) due to VCA is added with the upward movement of the HH/LH bands to get the total reduction in band gap for the bismides. The valence band shifts of 31.9, 32.5, 20.8 and 12.4 meV/at%Bi for InP1-xBix, InAs1-xBix, InSb1-xBix and GaSb1-xBix respectively constitute 65, 76, 59 and 31% of the total band gap reduction and the rest is the contribution of the conduction band shift. The spin-orbit splitting energy also shows significant increase with the maximum change in InPBi and the minimum in InSbBi. The same is true for Ga containing bismides if we make a comparison with the available values for GaAsBi and GaPBi with that of GaSbBi. It has also been observed that the increase in splitting energy is greater in case of the bismides such as InAsBi, InPBi and GaAsBi than the bismides such as InSbBi and GaSbBi with the parent substrates having higher values of splitting energy. This may

  16. Effect of Native Defects on Optical Properties of InxGa1-xNAlloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.X.; Haller, E.E.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager III,J.W.; Wu, J.; Shan, W.; Lu, Hai; Schaff, William J.

    2005-05-09

    The energy position of the optical absorption edge and the free carrier populations in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N ternary alloys can be controlled using high energy {sup 4}He{sup +} irradiation. The blue shift of the absorption edge after irradiation in In-rich material (x > 0.34) is attributed to the band-filling effect (Burstein-Moss shift) due to the native donors introduced by the irradiation. In Ga-rich material, optical absorption measurements show that the irradiation-introduced native defects are inside the bandgap, where they are incorporated as acceptors. The observed irradiation-produced changes in the optical absorption edge and the carrier populations in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the amphoteric defect model.

  17. EuFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2: reentrant spin glass and superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Zapf, S; Jeevan, H S; Ivek, T; Pfister, F; Klingert, F; Jiang, S; Wu, D; Gegenwart, P; Kremer, R K; Dressel, M

    2013-06-07

    By systematic investigations of the magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic properties of single crystals of EuFe(2)(As(1-x)P(x))(2) (0≤x≤1), we explore the complex interplay of superconductivity and Eu(2+) magnetism. Below 30 K, two magnetic transitions are observed for all P substituted crystals, suggesting a revision of the phase diagram. In addition to the canted A-type antiferromagnetic order of Eu(2+) at ∼20  K, a spin glass transition is discovered at lower temperatures. Most remarkably, the reentrant spin glass state of EuFe(2)(As(1-x)P(x))(2) coexists with superconductivity around x≈0.2.

  18. Magnetic properties of Y1- xGdxCo2B2C series of borocarbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bud'ko, S. L.; Giordanengo, B.; Sulpice, A.; Fontes, M. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M.

    1995-04-01

    Magnetic properties of Y1- xGdxCo2B2C series of compounds were studied. Two magnetically ordered phases were observed for 0.7 ≤ x ≤ 1. Change of the magnetic ordering temperatures T 1 and T 2 with the Gd concentration is argued to be related to the dilution of magnetic Gd by nonmagnetic Y and to the reduction of the distance between ( Y1- xGdx) C planes. However, significant contribution to the changes in T 1 between pure GdNi2B2C and GdCo2B2C samples is suggested to be due to the different 3 d band filling in these compounds.

  19. Direct Observation of the E_ Resonant State in GaAs1-xBix

    SciTech Connect

    Alberi, Kirstin; Beaton, Daniel A.; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-12-15

    Bismuth-derived resonant states with T2 symmetry are detected in the valence band of GaAs1-xBix using electromodulated reflectance. A doublet is located 42 meV below the valence band edge of GaAs that is split by local strain around isolated Bi impurity atoms. A transition associated with a singlet is also observed just above the GaAs spin orbit split-off band. These states move deeper into the valence band with increasing Bi concentration but at a much slower rate than the well-known giant upward movement of the valence band edge in GaAs1-xBix. Our results provide key new insights for clarifying the mechanisms by which isovalent impurities alter the bandstructure of the host semiconductor.

  20. Graded Si1-xGex Metrology Using a Multi-Technology Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pois, Heath; Huang, Jacky; Morris, Stephen; Peterlinz, Kevin; Zangooie, Shahin; Liu, JinPing; Tan, Boon Lay; Sohn, Dong Kyun; Jones, Robert; Scheirer, Curry

    2003-09-01

    Graded Si1-xGex structures have been measured with good accuracy, stability and tool-tool matching by utilizing different measurement methods in one system (Opti-Probe®). The measurement methods utilized are (i) laser reflectivity versus angle for S and P polarization (BPR®), (ii) visible-DUV reflectometry (BB), and (iii) spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). An alloy dispersion model, along with a multi-layer linear graded-material model, were used to process the data and extract the thickness of the cap-Si, graded and spacer Si1-xGex layers, as well as the Ge%, simultaneously. The results were found to be in agreement with subsequent SIMS analysis to within 50Å for all layers and 0.5% atomic Ge%. Stability and matching results for thickness were <13Å (3σ) for all layers, and for the Ge% the stability was <0.25-0.6% (3σ).

  1. Magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of Ni xPd 1-x alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. B.; Tian, C. S.; Yin, L. F.; Dong, G. S.; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2007-03-01

    Single-crystalline Ni xPd 1-x thin films with a face-centered cubic structure for the whole stoichiometry 0⩽ x⩽1 have been achieved on Cu(1 0 0) via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The ferromagnetism shows up at x⩾0.25 at 300 K and the total magnetization decreases as the Pd concentration increases, which confirms our earlier first-principles calculations (Y.S. Shi, M.F. Wang, D. Qian, G.S. Dong, X.F. Jin, D.S. Wang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 277 (2004) 71). The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Ni xPd 1-x is determined to be cubic with a negative K1, as measured by the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) technique with a rotating magnetic field (ROTMOKE).

  2. Anomalous properties and nature of Ba 1-xK xBiO 3 superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovashkin, A. I.; Anshukova, N. V.; Ivanova, L. I.; Rusakov, A. P.

    1994-12-01

    On the base of temperature dependencies of the specific heat in magnetic fields, thermal expansion and magnetic properties of high quality high-T c Ba 1-xK xBiO 3 ( x = 0,38 - 0,40) it was found that H c2(T) had anomalous upward curvature up to fields 20T and coefficient of thermal expansion was negative at low temperatures. The results contradict the picture of simple electron-phonon coupling. We have presented a model of the electronic ordering in Ba 1-xK xBiO 3 which drives the system to the dielectric-metal phase transition with doping. It was shown that electronic spectrum peculiarities near the Brillouin zone boundary determine the anomalous properties and upward curvature of H c2(T) in BaKBiO. The mechanism of BaKBiO superconductivity is discussed.

  3. Multifunctional Ti1-xTaxO2: Ta doping or alloying?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, A. Roy; Motapothula, M.; Annadi, A.; Gopinadhan, K.; Zhao, Y. L.; Yong, Z.; Santoso, I.; Ariando, Breese, M.; Rusydi, A.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T.

    2011-02-01

    Useful electronic, magnetic, and optical properties have been proposed and observed in thin films of Ti1-xMxO2 (M=Ta,Nb,V). In this work, we have studied phase formation for films of Ti1-xTaxO2 prepared by pulsed laser deposition. We show that substitutional Ta in TiO2 results in a different material system in terms of its electronic properties. Moss-Burstein shift is ruled out by comparing the electrical transport data of anatase and rutile TiO2. Vegard's law fit to the blueshift data and the high energy optical reflectivity studies confirm the formation of an alloy with a distinct band structure.

  4. Significant elastic anisotropy in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi, Ferenc; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Rogstroem, Lina; Johansson, Mats P.; Oden, Magnus; Almer, Jonathan

    2010-12-06

    Strong compositional-dependent elastic properties have been observed theoretically and experimentally in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys. The elastic constant, C{sub 11}, changes by more than 50% depending on the Al-content. Increasing the Al-content weakens the average bond strength in the local octahedral arrangements resulting in a more compliant material. On the other hand, it enhances the directional (covalent) nature of the nearest neighbor bonds that results in greater elastic anisotropy and higher sound velocities. The strong dependence of the elastic properties on the Al-content offers new insight into the detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys.

  5. Optimizing the superconducting transition temperature and upper critical field of Sn1-xInxTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Shi, X. Y.; Xu, Z. J.; Zhang, C.; Tranquada, J. M.; Li, Q.; Gu, G. D.

    2013-07-01

    Sn1-xInxTe is a possible candidate for topological superconductivity. Previous work has shown that substitution of In for Sn in the topological crystalline insulator SnTe results in superconductivity, with the transition temperature, Tc, growing with In concentration. We have performed a systematic investigation of Sn1-xInxTe for a broad range of x, synthesizing single crystals (by a modified floating-zone method) as well as polycrystalline samples. The samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and magnetization. For the single crystals, the maximum Tc is obtained at x=0.45 with a value of 4.5 K, as determined by the onset of diamagnetism.

  6. Étalon enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Bi1 - xSbx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngdale, E. R.; Meyer, J. R.; Hoffman, C. A.; Bartoli, F. J.; Partin, D. L.; Thrush, C. M.; Heremans, J. P.

    1991-08-01

    Measurements of the nondegenerate four-wave mixing of CO2 laser beams in a Bi1-xSbx film have yielded the largest high-power third-order nonlinear susceptibilities ever reported at that wavelength (χ(3)≳6×10-4 esu at P0≳2×105 W/cm2). Furthermore, an étalon effect resulting from the high reflectivity of the Bi1-xSbx films at both the air and substrate interfaces leads to an additional enhancement of the four-wave signal by as much as a factor of 30. A theoretical model based on optical modulation of the free-carrier susceptibility gives results which are in excellent agreement with the data.

  7. Shallow and deep defects in Al xGa 1-xN structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghier, D.; Gislason, H. P.

    2007-12-01

    We report electrical characterization of Al xGa 1-xN materials grown by MOCVD. The techniques used in this study were admittance spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements. We identify a continuum of shallow donors with ionization energies ranging from 50 to 110 meV in Al xGa 1-xN alloys with values of the Al mole fraction x=0.1 and 0.3. Investigations of the photocurrent buildup kinetics allow identification of a deep center with optical ionization energy of 1.2 eV. This center controls the buildup of the photocurrent when the materials are illuminated with sub-bandgap photon energy. In the light of this finding we discuss the broad spectrum of DX-like defects that may contribute to the persistent photocurrent and the collapse in the drain current observed in AlGaN-related structures.

  8. Photoelectrochemical properties of CdSe /SUB x/ Te /SUB 1-x/ semiconducting solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbasov, G.Y.; Karpov, I.I.; Khanat, L.N.; Pavelets, A.M.

    1986-03-01

    This paper studies the photoelectrochemical properties of polycrystalline films of CdSe /SUB x/ Te /SUB 1-x/ solid solutions at x between 0.5 and 0.8. The spectral dependence of photolectro-chemical current is shown measured with a constant number of light quanta striking CdSe /SUB x/ Te /SUP 1-x/ electrodes with compositions. The results obtained indicate that there is no change in potential drop across the Helmholtz layer when the intensity of the light striking the sample is varied, and that ohmic losses at the photoelectrode are low for the light intensities used. Recombination-type losses of the photogenerated carriers which increae with decreasing superficial band bending are chiefly responsible for the decrease in photocurrent.

  9. Thermal Diffusivity and Conductivity of Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te Solids and Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sha, Yi-Gao; Su, Ching-Hua; Mazuruk, K.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of pseudobinary Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te solids and melts was measured by the laser flash method. The measured diffusivities for the solids of 0.10 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.30 are about 60% of that of the HgTe solid. Those for the melts rise rapidly with temperature but less so with increasing x. For x = 0.30, the diffusivity of the melt is about one third of that of the HgTe melt. Using the calculated beat capacity data from the associated solution model and measured density values, the thermal conductivity for the pseudobinary Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te solids of 0.10 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.30 and for the melts of x = O.10, 0.16, and 0.30 was determined.

  10. Physical properties and applications of InxGa1-xN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Gómez-Gómez, M.; Garro, N.; Martínez-Criado, G.; Cantarero, A.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2014-05-01

    We have successfully grown InxGa1-xN nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates. The alloy composition and crystal quality have been analyzed by Raman scattering, photoluminescence spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe techniques. InxGa1-xN is an one-mode alloy, where the different optical modes have an intermediate frequency of that of pure InN and GaN. The sample composition can be derived from the Raman data. On the other hand, by using the optical gap provided by the emission spectra, we conclude that the samples have a lower Ga content than that provided by the Raman analysis. X-ray fluorescence maps and photoluminescence measured in single nanowires help to explain this contradictory result.

  11. Pressure-induced structural transition of CdxZn1-xO alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yabin; Zhang, Shuai; Gao, Weiwei; Ke, Feng; Yan, Jinyuan; Saha, Bivas; Ko, Changhyun; Suh, Joonki; Chen, Bin; Ager, Joel W.; Walukiewicz, Wladek; Jeanloz, Raymond; Wu, Junqiao

    2016-04-01

    CdxZn1-xO alloys, as a transparent conducting oxide, have recently attracted much attention for potential optoelectronic applications. In this letter, we report a hydrostatic pressure-induced phase transition of CdxZn1-xO alloys from the wurtzite to the rocksalt structure and its phase diagram probed using a diamond anvil cell. It is found that the transition pressure, determined by changes in optical and structural properties, depends sensitively on the composition. As the Cd content increases, the critical pressure decreases, until at x = 0.67 where the alloy is intrinsically stable in the rocksalt phase even at ambient pressure. The wurtzite phase is light emitting with a direct bandgap that slightly widens with increasing pressure, while the rocksalt phase has a much wider bandgap that is indirect. The pressure-sensitive light emission and phase transition may find potential applications in fields such as stress sensing and energy storage.

  12. Novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction internal photoemission long wavelength infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Maserjian, Joseph; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, Mark L.; Terhune, R.; Krabach, T. N.

    1990-01-01

    There is a major need for long-wavelength-infrared (LWIR) detector arrays in the range of 8 to 16 microns which operate with close-cycle cryocoolers above 65 K. In addition, it would be very attractive to have Si-based infrared (IR) detectors that can be easily integrated with Si readout circuitry and have good pixel-to-pixel uniformity, which is critical for focal plane array (FPA) applications. Here, researchers report a novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detector approach with a tailorable long wavelength infrared cutoff wavelength, based on internal photoemission over the Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction. The HIP detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), which allows one to optimize the device structure with precise control of doping profiles, layer thickness and composition. The feasibility of a novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si HIP detector has been demonstrated with tailorable cutoff wavelength in the LWIR region. Photoresponse at wavelengths 2 to 10 microns are obtained with quantum efficiency (QE) above approx. 1 percent in these non-optimized device structures. It should be possible to significantly improve the QE of the HIP detectors by optimizing the thickness, composition, and doping concentration of the Si(1-x)Ge(x) layers and by configuring the detector for maximum absorption such as the use of a cavity structure. With optimization of the QE and by matching the barrier energy to the desired wavelength cutoff to minimize the thermionic current, researchers predict near background limited performance in the LWIR region with operating temperatures above 65K. Finally, with mature Si processing, the relatively simple device structure offers potential for low-cost producible arrays with excellent uniformity.

  13. Photovoltaic Devices Employing Ternary PbSxSe1-x Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Wanli; Luther, Joseph; Zheng, Haimei; Wu, Yue; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-02-05

    We report solar cells based on highly confined nanocrystals of the ternary compound PbSxSe1-x. Crystalline, monodisperse alloyed nanocrystals are obtained using a one-pot, hot injection reaction. Rutherford back scattering and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy suggest that the S and Se anions are uniformly distributed in the alloy nanoparticles. Photovoltaic devices made using ternary nanoparticles are more efficient than either pure PbS or pure PbSe based nanocrystal devices.

  14. High-Gain AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Transistors For Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lin, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    High-gain AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs npn double heterojunction bipolar transistors developed for use as phototransistors in optoelectronic integrated circuits, especially in artificial neural networks. Transistors perform both photodetection and saturating-amplification functions of neurons. Good candidates for such application because structurally compatible with laser diodes and light-emitting diodes, detect light, and provide high current gain needed to compensate for losses in holographic optical elements.

  15. Nanocrystalline Ce1- x La x O2- δ Solid Solutions Synthesized by Hydrolyzing and Oxidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xueling; Xue, Yun; Han, Ning; Lu, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaochen; Phan, Manh-Huong; Zhong, Yunbo

    2016-05-01

    We undertook a novel batch production approach for the synthesis of CeO2 nanopowders doped with rare earth elements. Solid solution nanopowders of Ce1- x La x O2- δ ( x = 0.15) were successfully synthesized in a large-scale and low-cost production by hydrolyzing and oxidizing Ce-La-C alloys at room temperature and subsequent calcining of their powders at different temperatures (873-1073 K) for 1 h. The Ce-La-C alloys were prepared in a vacuum induction melting furnace. The final products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and Raman spectroscopy. The calculated lattice parameters of the cubic fluorite-type phase of CeO2 tended to increase when La3+ was incorporated into CeO2. The F 2g band shift and the absence of a peak corresponding to La2O3 in the Raman spectra consistently confirmed the incorporation of the La3+ ion into CeO2, and the formation of Ce1- x La x O2- δ solid solutions as manifested by increased oxygen vacancy defects. High-quality Ce1- x La x O2- δ nanopowders of ~10-15 nm diameter with a high BET surface area of ~77 m2 g-1 were obtained. The average crystallite size of Ce1- x La x O2- δ was found to be smaller than that of CeO2 for the same calcination temperature of 1073 K, demonstrating that the introduction of La3+ into CeO2 can stabilize the host lattice and refine the grain size at high temperatures.

  16. Highly mismatched GaN1-x Sb x alloys: synthesis, structure and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. M.; Sarney, W. L.; Novikov, S. V.; Segercrantz, N.; Ting, M.; Shaw, M.; Svensson, S. P.; Martin, R. W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2016-08-01

    Highly mismatched alloys (HMAs) is a class of semiconductor alloys whose constituents are distinctly different in terms of size, ionicity and/or electronegativity. Electronic properties of the alloys deviate significantly from an interpolation scheme based on small deviations from the virtual crystal approximation. Most of the HMAs were only studied in a dilute composition limit. Recent advances in understanding of the semiconductor synthesis processes allowed growth of thin films of HMAs under non-equilibrium conditions. Thus reducing the growth temperature allowed synthesis of group III-N-V HMAs over almost the entire composition range. This paper focuses on the GaN x Sb1-x HMA which has been suggested as a potential material for solar water dissociation devices. Here we review our recent work on the synthesis, structural and optical characterization of GaN1-x Sb x HMA. Theoretical modeling studies on its electronic structure based on the band anticrossing (BAC) model are also reviewed. In particular we discuss the effects of growth temperature, Ga flux and Sb flux on the incorporation of Sb, film microstructure and optical properties of the alloys. Results obtained from two separate MBE growths are directly compared. Our work demonstrates that a large range of direct bandgap energies from 3.4 eV to below 1.0 eV can be achieved for this alloy grown at low temperature. We show that the electronic band structure of GaN1-x Sb x HMA over the entire composition range is well described by a modified BAC model which includes the dependence of the host matrix band edges as well as the BAC model coupling parameters on composition. We emphasize that the modified BAC model of the electronic band structure developed for the full composition of GaN x Sb1-x is general and is applicable to any HMA.

  17. Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te-detectors and hybrid IR-CCD's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H.; Conzelmann, H.; Geibel, C.; Paehler, G.; Schmidt, B.

    An account is given of the parameters that have been found to be critical in the manufacture of photovoltaic detectors in the Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te system, as well as in their coupling to CCDs for the production of linear thermal detector arrays useful in the 8-12 micron atmospheric window. The critical processing step for the sake of detector performance is surface passivation. Attention is given to a linear staggered-64-element array.

  18. Multi-point quasi-rational approximants for the modified Bessel function I1(x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Olivares, J.; Cortés-Vega, L.; Sotomayor, A.

    2016-08-01

    Approximants for the modified Bessel function I1(x) has been found using the multi-point quasi-rational technique. The approximations here determined has good accuracy for any positive value of the variable, and it seems to be adequate for most of the works where this function are used. Furthermore, the approximants are simple to calculate numerically in a direct way or using any usual MAPLE or MATLAB software.

  19. Metal free growth and characterization of InAs1-xPx nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Mandl, Bernhard; Stangl, Julian; Brehm, Moritz; Fromherz, Thomas; Bauer, Guenther; Maartensson, Thomas; Samuelson, Lars; Seifert, Werner

    2007-04-10

    InAs nanowires have been grown without the use of Au or other metal particles as catalyst by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanowires growth is initiated by a thin layer of SiOx. The wires exhibit a non-tapered shape with a hexagonal cross section. In addition to InAs also InAs1-xPx wires are grown and the incorporation of P is studied by photoluminescence.

  20. Enhancing crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency with SixGe1-x layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Adnan; Cheow, S. L.; Azhari, A. W.; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell represents a cost effective, environment-friendly, and proven renewable energy resource. Industrially manufacturing of c-Si solar has now matured in terms of efficiency and cost. Continuing cost-effective efficiency enhancement requires transition towards thinner wafers in near term and thin-films in the long term. Successful implementation of either of these alternatives must address intrinsic optical absorption limitation of Si. Bandgap engineering through integration with SixGe1-x layers offers an attractive, inexpensive option. With the help of PC1D software, role of SixGe1-x layers in conventional c-Si solar cells has been intensively investigated in both wafer and thin film configurations by varying Ge concentration, thickness, and placement. In wafer configuration, increase in Ge concentration leads to enhanced absorption through bandgap broadening with an efficiency enhancement of 8% for Ge concentrations of less than 20%. At higher Ge concentrations, despite enhanced optical absorption, efficiency is reduced due to substantial lowering of open-circuit voltage. In 5-25-μm thickness, thin-film solar cell configurations, efficiency gain in excess of 30% is achievable. Therefore, SixGe1-x based thin-film solar cells with an order of magnitude reduction in costly Si material are ideally-suited both in terms of high efficiency and cost. Recent research has demonstrated significant improvement in epitaxially grown SixGe1-x layers on nanostructured Si substrates, thereby enhancing potential of this approach for next generation of c-Si based photovoltaics.

  1. Investigation of negative photoconductivity in p-type Pb1-xSnxTe film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, M. A. B.; da Silva, M. J.; Peres, M. L.; de Castro, S.; Soares, D. A. W.; Okazaki, A. K.; Fornari, C. I.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the negative photoconductivity (NPC) effect that was observed in a p-type Pb1-xSnxTe film for temperatures varying from 300 K down to 85 K. We found that this effect is a consequence of defect states located in the bandgap which act as trapping levels, changing the relation between generation and recombination rates. Theoretical calculations predict contributions to the NPC from both conduction and valence bands, which are in accordance with the experimental observations.

  2. Metal free growth and characterization of InAs1-xPx nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, Bernhard; Stangl, Julian; Mârtensson, Thomas; Brehm, Moritz; Fromherz, Thomas; Bauer, Günther; Samuelson, Lars; Seifert, Werner

    2007-04-01

    InAs nanowires have been grown without the use of Au or other metal particles as catalyst by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanowires growth is initiated by a thin layer of SiOx. The wires exhibit a non-tapered shape with a hexagonal cross section. In addition to InAs also InAs1-xPx wires are grown and the incorporation of P is studied by photoluminescence.

  3. Thermostimulated luminescence of Ca(Al x Ga1- x )2S4Eu2+ crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadov, E. G.; Kazimova, F. A.; Ibragimova, T. Sh.; Tagiev, K. O.

    2017-02-01

    Thermoluminescence of Ca(AlxGa1-x)2S4:Eu2+ ( x = 0.1-0.3) solid solutions upon UV irradiation has been studied in the course of linear heating. It is established that the observed thermostimulated emission bands are complex, consisting of several strongly overlapped partial maxima. The activation energies, capture cross sections, frequency factors, and concentrations of trap levels responsible for these peaks are determined. The emission intensity and number of components increase with growing aluminum content x.

  4. Surface phonons and alloying effects in (CdS) x( CdSe) 1- x nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlayah, A.; Brugman, A. M.; Carles, R.; Renucci, J. B.; Valakh, M. Ya.; Pogorelov, A. V.

    1994-06-01

    The present work is devoted to Raman scattering in (CdS) x(CdSe) 1- x nanospheres. Surface phonon modes are observed. Their frequency change, as a function of the alloy content, is analyzed quantitatively. Calculations performed within the framework of the dielectric approaches are found to agree well with the data. Alloying effects and boundary conditions at the sphere- matrix interface are taken into account in these calculations.

  5. Purification, growth, and characterization of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberman, E.; Burger, A.; Chen, W.; Henderson, D. O.; Morgan, S. H.; Springer, John M.; Yao, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The purification of starting materials which were used in the growth of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se (x = 0.2) single crystals using the traveling solution method (TSM) is reported. Up to 13 cm long single crystals and as grown resistivities of 6 x 10(exp 12) ohm/cm could be achieved. Infrared and Raman spectra of Zn(0.2)Cd(0.8)Se are also presented and discussed.

  6. Calculations on Hard Ferroelectric PbZr1-xTixO3 Dynamic Hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Mahmoud A.

    2017-02-01

    A phenomenological model was modified for dynamic hysteresis loops of hard ferroelectric PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT). The comparison with experimental results showed that the modified model can reproduce polarization versus an electric field. A predicted hysteresis loss of hard ferroelectric PZT was formulated and estimated. The calculations showed an increase in hysteresis loss with a decrease of frequency at a 40-kV/cm electric field amplitude.

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigation of Cr1-xScxN solid solutions for thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerdsongpanya, Sit; Sun, Bo; Eriksson, Fredrik; Jensen, Jens; Lu, Jun; Koh, Yee Kan; Nong, Ngo Van; Balke, Benjamin; Alling, Björn; Eklund, Per

    2016-12-01

    The ScN- and CrN-based transition-metal nitrides have recently emerged as a novel and unexpected class of materials for thermoelectrics. These materials constitute well-defined model systems for investigating mixing thermodynamics, phase stability, and band structure aiming for property tailoring. Here, we demonstrate an approach to tailor their thermoelectric properties by solid solutions. The trends in mixing thermodynamics and densities-of-states (DOS) of rocksalt-Cr1-xScxN solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) are investigated by first-principles calculations, and Cr1-xScxN thin films are synthesized by magnetron sputtering. Pure CrN exhibits a high power factor, 1.7 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 720 K, enabled by a high electron concentration thermally activated from N vacancies. Disordered rocksalt-Cr1-xScxN solid solutions are thermodynamically stable, and calculated DOS suggest the possibility for power-factor improvement by Sc3d orbital delocalization on Cr3d electrons giving decreasing electrical resistivity, while localized Cr3d orbitals with a large DOS slope may yield an improved Seebeck coefficient. Sc-rich solid solutions show a large improvement in power factor compared to pure ScN, and all films have power factors above that expected from the rule-of-mixture. These results corroborate the theoretical predictions and enable tailoring and understanding of structure-transport-property correlations of Cr1-xScxN.

  8. Transport Properties of xAgI-(1-x)LiPO3 Composite Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D. P.; Shahi, K.; Kar, K. K.

    2011-07-01

    xAgI-(1-x) LiPO3 composite glasses were made by quenching of molten mixture. XRD confirms that γ-AgI is stabilized in LiPO3 glass matrix. A room temperature conductivity of ˜10-3 S/cm is achieved in the composite glass. The ac conductivity follows Jonscher power law (JPL). Higher composition samples also obey time temperature superposition scaling.

  9. Investigation of the changes in neuronal distribution and phosphorylation state of MAP1X during development.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L; Cheetham, M E; Calvert, R A

    1993-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth is dependent on the presence in neurites of assembled microtubules which consist of polymerized tubulin to which microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are bound. This study adds to previous evidence of the similarity between the high molecular weight MAPs, MAP1X, MAP1B and MAP5, and explains the different staining patterns observed by different laboratories on frozen sections, using monoclonal antibodies against each MAP. Previous studies have shown that monoclonal antibody (mAb) G10 binds to MAP1X and labels growing but not mature axons in the rat nervous system and, therefore, expression of this MAP or molecular changes in it may be important for axon growth. It has been shown that a phosphorylated form of MAP5 can be detected by SDS-PAGE in brain areas with growing axons. This study shows that there is phosphate dependency of mAbG10 binding to MAP1X which is, however, lost during brain homogenization.

  10. Low Temperature Properties and Quantum Criticality of CrAs1-x Px single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jianlin; Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Team

    We report a systematically study of resistivity and specific heat on phosphorus doped CrAs1-xPx single crystals with x =0 to 0.2. With the increasing of phosphorus doping concentration x, the magnetic and structural transition temperature TN is suppressed. Non-fermi liquid behavior and quantum criticality phenomenon are observed from low temperature resistivity around critical doping with xc ~0.05 where the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering is completely suppressed. The low temperature specific heat of CrAs1-xPx is contributed by the thermal excitation of phonons and electrons. The electronic specific heat coefficient γ, which reflects the effective mass of quasi-particles, shows maximum around xc ~0.05, also indicating the existence of quantum critical phenomenon around the critical doping. The value of Kadowaki-Woods ratio of CrAs1-xPx shows no significant different from that of CrAs. Work is done in collaboration with Fukun Lin, Wei Wu, Ping Zheng, Guozhi Fan, Jinguang Cheng.

  11. Phase diagram for Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (x < 0.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuhai; Tyson, Trevor; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Xu, Xiaonong

    2007-03-01

    The multiferroic BiMnO3 system, in which ferroelectronic and ferromagnetic orders can coexist, has attracted much research work in the past years for its potential technological applications. For the more general system Bi1-xCaxMnO3, the phase diagram for the Ca rich region (x > 0.4) has been established [1]. In order to understand the multiferroic behavior near the x=0 system, the hole-doped region (01-xCaxMnO3, by performing detailed structural (XRD and XAFS), magnetization (ZFC/FC) and electrical measurements on Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (0

  12. Phase diagram for Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (x < 0.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuhai; Tyson, Trevor; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Xu, Xiao-Nong

    2008-03-01

    The multiferroic BiMnO3 system, in which ferroelectronic and ferromagnetic orders can coexist, has attracted much research work in the past years for its potential technological applications. For the more general system Bi1-xCaxMnO3, the phase diagram for the Ca rich region (x > 0.4) has been established[1]. In order to understand the multiferroic behavior near the x=0 system, the hole-doped region (01-xCaxMnO3, by performing detailed structural (XRD and XAFS), magnetization (ZFC/FC) and electrical measurements on Bi1-xCaxMnO3 (0

  13. Dynamic elastic response of KMn1-xCaxF3 : Elastic softening and domain freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schranz, W.; Sondergeld, P.; Kityk, A. V.; Salje, E. K. H.

    2009-09-01

    Results of continuous-wave resonance (MHz-region) and ultralow-frequency (Hz-region) dynamic mechanical analyzer measurements of pure KMnF3 and mixed crystals KMn1-xCaxF3 (x<0.017) are presented in a broad temperature range including the phase-transition regions. The elastic anomalies depend strongly on the measurement frequency: The MHz-elastic constants can be well fitted by Landau theory including the difference between isothermal and adiabatic behavior. Contrary, at low frequencies (0.1-50 Hz) an elastic softening (superelasticity) due to domain-wall motion is found quite similar to that observed recently in isostructural SrTiO3 [A. V. Kityk , Phys. Rev. B 61, 946 (2000)]. However, unlike to SrTiO3 , for the mixed system KMn1-xCaxF3 we have measured freezing of the domain-wall movement around 100 K in a certain range of concentration of Ca2+ ions (x=0.003) . Calculating the dynamic elastic response to the ac-stress field by taking into account the motion of randomly pinned ferroelastic domain walls in KMn1-xCaxF3 yields excellent agreement between theory and experiment.

  14. Band alignment of MAPb(I1-xBrx)3 thin films by vacuum deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianzhong; Ye, Wang; Li, Xiaoli; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Richeng; Huang, Feng; Zhong, Dingyong

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the mixed bromide iodide lead perovskites CH3NH3Pb(I1-xBrx)3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.67) thin films were prepared by co-evaporation of CH3NH3I, PbI2, and PbBr2. The electronic properties of CH3NH3Pb(I1-xBrx)3 thin films were investigated by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy in-situ. The results of core level binding energy show that there is no chemical shift of the C1s, N1s, Br3d5, and I3d5 when the Br composition changes, while there is an approximately linear chemical shift of Pb4f7 to higher binding energy as the Br composition increases. The density functional theory calculation reveals that there is more charge transfer from Pb to Br than I, which results in the chemical shift of Pb4f states. On the other hand, the valence band maximum increases as the Br composition increases, while the work function shows no obvious change, because the conduction band is dominated by Pb 6p orbitals while the valence band is dominated by halide p orbitals. Our work demonstrates the adjustability of the energy level alignment of MAPb(I1-xBrx)3 by the Br composition.

  15. Structure and thermal conductivity of Na{sub 1-x}Ge{sub 3+z}

    SciTech Connect

    Beekman, M.; Stefanoski, S.; Wong-Ng, W.; Kaduk, J.A.; Huang, Q.; Reeg, C.; Bowers, C.R.; Nolas, G.S.

    2010-06-15

    Structural analyses as well as low temperature thermal conductivity is reported for the binary phase Na{sub 1-x}Ge{sub 3+z}. Specimens were characterized by thermal analysis, conventional and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, {sup 23}Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrical and thermal transport measurements. With structural characteristics qualitatively analogous to some aluminum-silicate zeolites, the crystal structure of this phase exhibits an unconventional covalently bonded tunnel-like Ge framework, accommodating Na in channels of two different sizes. Observed to be non-stochiometric, Na{sub 1-x}Ge{sub 3+z} concurrently exhibits substantial structural disorder in the large channels and a low lattice thermal conductivity, of interest in the context of identifying novel low thermal conductivity intermetallics for thermoelectric applications. - Graphical abstract: A zeolite-like intermetallic, Na{sub 1-x}Ge{sub 3+z}, is prepared by thermal decomposition of Na{sub 4}Ge{sub 4}. This binary phase exhibits an unusual crystal structure in which germanium forms large tunnels with significant disorder, and is found to possess a very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  16. Transport properties of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabáni, S.; Bat'ko, I.; Bat'ková, M.; Flachbart, K.; Gaz̆o, E.; Pristás̆, G.; Takác̆ová, I.; Bogach, A. V.; Sluchanko, N. E.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Our studies of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions have shown that the temperature of antiferromagnetic (AF) order in geometrically frustrated system of HoB12 ( T N = 7.4 K) is linearly suppressed to zero temperature, i.e. T N → 0, as lutetium concentration increases to x→ x c ≈ 0.9. In this contribution, we present original results of electrical resistivity measurements on Ho1- x Lu x B12 single crystalline samples with x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1 in the temperature range 0.06-300 K and in magnetic fields ( B) up to 8 T. Complex B vs T N phase diagrams were received from precise temperature ρ( T) and field ρ( B) dependences of resistivity with several AF phases for x ≤ 0.5 pointing to a possibility of quantum critical point at x c ≈ 0.9. The scattering of conduction electrons in the AF phase and in the paramagnetic phase as well as Hall effect results are analyzed and discussed for various concentrations x, when magnetic dilution increases with the increasing content of nonmagnetic Lu ions in the Ho1- x Lu x B12 system.

  17. Pyroelectric properties and electrocaloric effect in TGS1-xPx single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2016-10-01

    Triglycine sulfate (TGS) single crystals modified with phosphoric acid (TGS1-xPx) have been grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Lattice parameters were identified by using single crystal x-ray diffractometer. The dielectric, pyroelectric, ferroelectric properties and electrocaloric effect have been investigated. Curie temperature of grown crystals was determined from dielectric constant measurements at various temperatures at a frequency of 1 kHz. The Curie temperature is found decreased for the TGS single crystals with the addition of phosphoric acid. Room temperature P-E hysteresis loops of TGS1-xPx single crystals are presented. The values of coercive field Ec, spontaneous polarization Ps and internal bias field Eb were obtained from the hysteresis loops. Discussion on pyroelectric properties as a function of temperature and applied electric field is presented. Figure of merits (FOMs) were determined to study the pyroelectric performance of the grown crystals. Among all compositions of x, x = 0.2 (i.e., TGS0.8P0.2) single crystals exhibited the largest pyroelectric coefficient and pyroelectric figure of merit at room temperature. From the above investigations the electrocaloric temperature change, ΔT of TGS1-xPx single crystals at selected applied fields and temperatures are obtained by indirect method and discussed.

  18. THE STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF BNxAs1-x ALLOYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Rezek; Katircioğlu, Şenay

    2012-10-01

    The structural and electronic properties of BNxAs1-x alloys have been investigated in the total range of nitrogen by the FP-LAPW method based on DFT within the EV-PW-GGA scheme. The equilibrium lattice constants, bulk moduli, first-order pressure derivatives of the bulk moduli, and cohesive energies have been obtained by total energy calculations of the alloys after both volume and geometry optimizations. The large bowing parameters found for the lattice constants and bulk moduli have demonstrated that the validity of Vegard's linear rule in the definitions of these structural features of the BNxAs1-x alloys is broken. The energy bands and the effective masses of the alloys have been calculated as a function of nitrogen concentration. The large bowing displayed by the variation of the energy gaps has indicated the band gap engineering capacity of the BNxAs1-x alloys and again in deviations from Vegard's linear rule. The effective electron masses calculated either at the edges of the conduction bands or along the directions approaching the edges of the conduction bands are all found to be small with respect to the effective electron masses in the BAs and BN compounds calculated at the Δmin and X points, respectively.

  19. Effect of Pressure on Some Optical Properties of GaxIn1-xP Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, P.; Gajjar, P.; Jani, A.

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical procedure is presented for the study of optical properties of ternary alloy GaxIn1-xP. The calculations are based on the pseudopotential formalism in which local potential coupled with the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) is applied to evaluate the effect of pressure on the optical properties like refractive index, electronic polarizability, plasmon energy, dielectric constant and equation of state for gallium concentration x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 of the ternary alloy GaxIn1-xP. To incorporate the screening effect, local field correction functions due to Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru et al. and Nagy are employed. The refractive index, electronic polarizability and dielectric constant computed for the parent binary compounds GaP and InP are found to be satisfactorily agreeing with the experimental report. It is seen that the refractive index of GaxIn1-xP decreases nonlinearly with the increase in pressure. The results obtained using Hartree's screening functions are not very close to the experimental data as it does not include any exchange and correlation effects. Overall good agreement with the experimental and other theoretical findings confirms the application. The author P. S. Vyas is thankful to UGC, New Delhi, India for providing financial support under minor research project No. F.: 47-651/08(WRO).

  20. MWIR InAs1-xSbx nCBn detectors data and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, A. I.; Robinson, E.; Ionescu, A. C.; Okerlund, D.; de Lyon, T. J.; Rajavel, R. D.; Sharifi, H.; Yap, D.; Dhar, N.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Grein, C.

    2012-06-01

    In InAs1-xSbx material alloy composition was adjusted to achieve 200K cutoff wavelengths in the 5 μm range. Reflectance was minimized and absorption in the InAs1-xSbx material maximized by the use of pyramid shaped structures fabricated in the InAs1-xSbx material which function as an AR coating. Compound-barrier (CB) detectors were fabricated and tested for optical response and dark current density versus bias measurements were acquired as a function of temperature. For 5 μm cutoff detectors, QE is high, ~ 75 % between 4.0 μm and 4.6 μm and > 80 % between 2.0 μand 4.0 μm, demonstrating the efficacy of the pyramids as photon trap structures and as a replacement for multi-layer AR-coatings. Jdark in the low 10-3 A/cm2 range at 200 K and low 10-5 A/cm2 range at 150 K was measured at the bias at which the QE peaked.

  1. High temperature magnetic behavior of multiferroics Bi1-xCaxFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Su, J.; Liu, Z. Y.; Fu, Z. M.; Wang, X. W.; Song, G. L.; Chang, F. G.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the room temperature microstructure and high temperature magnetic properties of Ca2+-substituted Bi1-xCaxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) ceramics. The Bi1-xCaxFeO3 compound transforms from rhombohedral into tetragonal structure with the phase boundary lying around x = 0.1. Based on this, the magnetic modulation becomes significant and the strongest remnant magnetization Mr is obtained at x = 0.1 compound. An important observation is the ferromagnetic-like phase transition revealed at TFM = 878 K in pure BiFeO3. The TFM of Bi1-xCaxFeO3 varies with Ca concentration and is close to the TAFM when x = 0.1. The convergence between TFM and TAFM implies the severe competition between Fe3+-O2--Fe3+ and unbalanced Fe3+-O2--Fe2+ antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, which leads to the dramatic change around TAFM in the M-T curve of x = 0.1 compound. The structure-related modulation of magnetic structure and complex interaction between Fe3+ and Fe2+ may be the driving force for the excellent magnetic properties of x = 0.1 sample.

  2. Spectral and structural features of Lu1 - x RE x BO3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmurak, S. Z.; Kedrov, V. V.; Kiselev, A. P.; Fursova, T. N.; Shmyt'ko, I. M.

    2015-08-01

    The luminescence spectra, luminescence excitation spectra, IR absorption spectra, and crystal structure of orthoborates Lu1 - x RE x BO3 ( RE = Eu, Gd, Tb, Y, Dy) have been investigated. It has been found that the solid solution consisting of a LuBO3 orthoborate, which has two stable structural modifications (calcite and vaterite), and an REBO3 orthoborate, which has one structural modification (vaterite), crystallizes only in the vaterite structure when the concentration of a rare-earth ion substituting for lutetium exceeds 15-20 at %. The investigation of the photoluminescence spectra has demonstrated that, for rare-earth ions Lu3+, Eu3+, Y3+, and Gd3+ in the vaterite modification of Lu1 - x RE x BO3 orthoborates, there are at least two positions that are not equivalent in the symmetry of the local environment. It has been established that the maximum intensity of the luminescence of the vaterite modification of Lu1 - x Tb x BO3 compounds synthesized at 970°C, which is observed at a terbium concentration of 15 at %, is several times higher than the maximum intensity of the luminescence of the calcite modification.

  3. Magnetocaloric properties in La1-xCaxMnO3 thin films: Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Parra, E.; Ramos-Rivera, L.; Londoño-Navarro, J.

    2014-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of La1-xCaxMnO3 was analyzed when varying the stoichiometry (x=0.2, 0.33, 0.4 and 0.5) and the external applied magnetic field. Simulations were carried out using the Monte Carlo method having a configuration ascribed by the set Sz of all-site spin projections, under the Metropolis algorithm. La1-xCaxMnO3 is characterized for three types of magnetic ions corresponding to Mn4+ (S=3/2), which are bonded to Ca2+, and Mn3+(eg) and Mn3+(eg', S=2), which are both bonded to La3+. Different interactions must be considered depending on the type of interacting ions. The entropy change ΔS in an isothermal process as well as the temperature change ΔT in an adiabatic process was determined with this model. Both ΔS and ΔT show stoichiometry-dependent maximums near the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC), confirming the order-disorder change at this temperature. The strong dependence in La1-xCaxMnO3 of the MCE on the stoichiometry and the external magnetic field makes this phenomenon important for different technological applications, particularly in refrigeration.

  4. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. F.; Xie, X. H.; Zheng, Y. F.; Cong, Y.; Zhou, F. Y.; Qiu, K. J.; Wang, X.; Chen, S. H.; Huang, L.; Tian, L.; Qin, L.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals. PMID:26023878

  5. Kinetic analysis for formation of Cd1-xZnxSe solid-solution nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun-Mo; Lee, Yong-Ji; Park, Kyung-Soo

    2006-07-19

    Kinetic analysis on the nanocrystal solid-solution formation was performed by heat treating CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals, synthesized via a typical TOP/TOPO approach, at different temperatures for different time periods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak shifts in Cd1-xZnxSe cores according to the solid-solution treatments were monitored and used for the estimation of the lattice parameter change. The degree of solid-solution formation was determined considering the compositional variation in Cd1-xZnxSe cores, which was obtained from the Vegard's law. The degree of solid-solution formation (x) was applied to Jander analysis, and an Arrhenius-type plot was produced using the slopes of Jander plots. The activation energy for solid-solution formation was determined as approximately 152 kJ/mol, which evidently indicates that the diffusion of Zn2+ ions in the CdSe-ZnSe system is the governing mechanism for the Cd1-xZnxSe solid-solution formation. The Jander equation to predict the solid-solution formation kinetics for the CdSe/ZnSe core/shell systems was completed using the reaction rate constant (k).

  6. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Xie, X H; Zheng, Y F; Cong, Y; Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Wang, X; Chen, S H; Huang, L; Tian, L; Qin, L

    2015-05-29

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals.

  7. Structural and luminescent properties of KY(1-x)DyxBO3 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowjanya, G.; Rama Moorthy, L.; Basavapoornima, Ch.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Yttrium borate phosphors (KY(1-x)DyxBO3) doped with Dy3+ ions were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The structural and morphological characteristics were studied by XRD, FTIR and SEM measurements. Luminescent properties of different concentrations of KY(1-x)DyxBO3 phosphors were investigated from the excitation, emission and decay analyses. The emission spectra exhibited characteristic blue (460-500 nm) and yellow (555-610 nm) bands of Dy3+ ions which combines to give white light. The evaluated color co-ordinates (x, y) were found to lie within the white light region of CIE chromaticity diagram. All the decay curves of Dy3+ ions exhibited non-exponential nature and the experimental lifetimes for the 4F9/2 excited level were found to decrease from 0.87, 0.47, 0.35, 0.26 and 0.13 ms with the increase of Dy3+ ion concentrations from 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 mol%, respectively. In order to understand the energy transfer mechanism, the decay curves were fitted to Inokutti-Hirayama model and found that the energy transfer is of dipole-dipole type. From the results of these investigations, it is concluded that the KY(1-x)DyxBO3 phosphors are more useful for white light emitting diodes.

  8. Study of visible emission and phase transition in nanocrystalline A 1- xA‧ xTiO 3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J. F.; Rai, Brajesh K.; Katiyar, Ram S.; Zou, G. T.

    1997-02-01

    Room temperature photoluminescence spectra on Ba 1- xPb xTiO 3 and Sr 1- xPb xTiO 3, with grain sizes of ∼ 60 and ∼ 30 nm, respectively, have been measured. The Pb content dependence of the visible emission can be used to provide evidence for the origin of photoluminescence occuring in these nanocrystalline ABO 3 oxides. The phase transitions for Ba 1- xPb xTiO 3 and Sr 1- xPb xTiO 3 are found to have an obvious effect on the visible emission band.

  9. Radiation Effects in ALUMINUM(X)GALLIUM(1-X)ARSENIDE and Indium-Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, T. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Radiation effects in Al_{ rm x}Ga_{rm 1-x}As and InP produced by hydrogen ion bombardment have been studied using mainly electrical resistivity measurements and thermal annealing techniques. Multiple energy ion bombardments at 400 keV to 100 keV were used in most experiments at beam power densities of below 100 mW cm^{-2}. Two terminal, through layer, resistivity measurements were made on Al_{rm x}Ga _{rm 1-x}As:Se with Al mole fraction, x, from 0 (GaAs) to 0.82. In all cases, a maximum resistivity of 1E8 to 1E10 ohm cm was achieved with proton or deuteron bombardment. As x is increased from 0 the resistivity maximum rises gradually from 1E8 to 1E10 ohm cm at x = 0.45 and then gently falls. This behaviour has been explained by considering a single deep level with an activation energy which varies with x in a similar manner to that of the shallow donor levels in Al_{rm x}Ga _{rm 1-x}As. Using an interdigital contact geometry, the first in-situ measurements of the change in Al_ {rm x}Ga_{rm 1-x}As resistivity with ion dose have been made. This has enabled repeated irradiation-measurement cycles, resulting in a rapid determination of the resistivity behaviour and a more accurate measurement of the optimum ion dose for maximum resistivity. The observed anomalously efficient carrier removal of deuterons in GaAs:Si has not been observed in any GaAs:Se or Al_{rm x}Ga _{rm 1-x}As:Se. Proton bombardment is less efficient in GaAs:Si than in GaAs:Se, perhaps due to a parasitic interaction of the protons with the silicon donor species. The thermal stability of the isolation in Al _{rm x}Ga_ {rm 1-x}As:Se, over the whole composition range, appears to be suitable for device applications if post-implant process steps are kept below 400^ circC. Whilst the isolation in InP was observed to be stable to up to 300^circC, some indications of room temperature annealing were noted. The electrical properties of proton and

  10. Preparation & characterization of high purity Cu2 ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negash, Bethlehem G.

    Research in thin film solar cells applies novel techniques to synthesize cost effective and highly efficient absorber materials in order to generate electricity directly from solar energy. Of these materials, copper zinc tin sulfoselenide (Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x) 4) nanoparticles have shown great promise in solar cell applications due to optimal material properties as well as low cost & relative abundance of materials.1,2 Sulfoselenide nanoparticles have also a broader impact in other industries including electronics3, LED 4, and biomedical research5. Of the many routes of manufacturing these class of semiconductors, colloidal synthesis of Cu 2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 offers a scalable, low cost and high-throughput route for manufacturing high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Hydrazine processed Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x )4 devices have reached a record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.6%, much higher than the 9.6% reported for physical vapor deposition (PVD) systems.6,7. Despite high efficiencies, wet synthesis of nanoparticles, however, is made more complicated in multi-element, quaternary and quinary systems such as copper zinc tin sulfoselenide (CZTSSe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGSe). One major disadvantage in these systems is growth of the desired quaternary or quinary phase in competition with unwanted binary and ternary phases with low energy of formation.8,9 Moreover, various reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, and choice of ligand also affect, chemical as well as physical properties of resulting nanoparticles. Understanding of the formation mechanisms of the particles is necessary in order to address some of these challenges in wet synthesis of CZTSSe nanoparticles. In this study, we investigate synthesis conditions & reaction parameters which yield high purity Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x) 4 nanoparticles as well as attempt to understand the growth mechanism of these nanoparticles. This was achieved by manipulating anion precursor preparation routes as

  11. Comparative study of flux pinning characteristics of Ba(Fe 1-x Cox)2 As 2 and BaFe2(As1-x Px)2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikumoto, Noriko; Hirata, Wataru; Miyasaka, Shigeki; Tajima, Setsuko; Tanabe, Keiichi

    2011-03-01

    We have studied the magnetization behavior of iron-pnictide superconductor, Ba(Fe 1-x Co x)2 As 2 (Co-doped Fe122) with various Co doping and BaFe 2 (As 0.65 P0.35)2 (P-doped Fe122) single crystals. All of the Co-doped Fe122 crystals showed a very pronounced ``peak effect'' in all the temperature range, irrespective of doping state. It is important to mention that a similar peak effect was previously reported for REBa 2 Cu 3 Oy . In order to get further insight into the pinning mechanism of the present system, we analyzed the pinning force density Fp =Jc B . A good scaling of the Fp versus the reduced field, b = B /Birr , was established for all the Co-doped Fe122 crystals and the scaling curves were well fitted with the function given by Fp /Fp , max =Abp (1 - b)q , where A is a numerical parameter, p and q are describing the actual pinning mechanism. It was found that p value monotonically increases with x, while q value decreases with x. On the other hand, P-doped Fe122 did not show ``peak effect''. We will discuss about the possible pinning mechanism causing the peak effect. This work was supported by JSPS through FIRST Program.

  12. Single crystals of LnFeAsO 1-xF x (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd) and Ba 1-xRb xFe 2As 2: Growth, structure and superconducting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinski, J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Bukowski, Z.; Moll, P.; Weyeneth, S.; Keller, H.; Puzniak, R.; Tortello, M.; Daghero, D.; Gonnelli, R.; Maggio-Aprile, I.; Fasano, Y.; Fischer, Ø.; Rogacki, K.; Batlogg, B.

    2009-05-01

    A review of our investigations on single crystals of LnFeAsO 1-xF x (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd) and Ba 1-xRb xFe 2As 2 is presented. A high-pressure technique has been applied for the growth of LnFeAsO 1-xF x crystals, while Ba 1-xRb xFe 2As 2 crystals were grown using a quartz ampoule method. Single crystals were used for electrical transport, structure, magnetic torque and spectroscopic studies. Investigations of the crystal structure confirmed high structural perfection and show incomplete occupation of the (O, F) position in superconducting LnFeAsO 1-xF x crystals. Resistivity measurements on LnFeAsO 1-xF x crystals show a significant broadening of the transition in high magnetic fields, whereas the resistive transition in Ba 1-xRb xFe 2As 2 simply shifts to lower temperature. The critical current density for both compounds is relatively high and exceeds 2 × 10 9 A/m 2 at 15 K in 7 T. The anisotropy of magnetic penetration depth, measured on LnFeAsO 1-xF x crystals by torque magnetometry is temperature dependent and apparently larger than the anisotropy of the upper critical field. Ba 1-xRb xFe 2As 2 crystals are electronically significantly less anisotropic. Point-Contact Andreev-Reflection spectroscopy indicates the existence of two energy gaps in LnFeAsO 1-xF x. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy reveals in addition to a superconducting gap, also some feature at high energy (∼20 meV).

  13. Language Learning Actions in Two 1x1 Secondary Schools in Catalonia: The Case of Online Language Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Boris Vázquez; Cassany, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes current attitudes towards classroom digitization and digital language learning practices under the umbrella of EduCAT 1x1, the One-Laptop-Per-Child (OLPC or 1x1) initiative in place in Catalonia. We thoroughly analyze practices worked out by six language teachers and twelve Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE)…

  14. The excitonic photoluminescence mechanism and lasing action in band-gap-tunable CdS1-xSex nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jun; Zhou, Pengxia; Lu, Junfeng; Zheng, Hongge; Guo, Jiyuan; Wang, Fang; Gu, Ning; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-12-01

    Bandgap tunable semiconductor materials have wide application in integrated-optoelectronic and communication devices. The CdS1-xSex ternary semiconductor materials covering green-red bands have been reported previously, but their basic band-gap and optical properties crucial to the performance of the CdS1-xSex-based optoelectronic devices have not been deeply understood. In this paper, we theoretically simulated and discussed the feasibility of bandgap-tunable CdS1-xSex nanomaterials for designing wavelength tunable microlasers. Then we fabricated the CdS1-xSex nanobelts with their band gap ranging from 2.4 to 1.74 eV by adjusting the composition ratio x in the vapor-phase-transport growth process. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence and exciton-related optical constants of the CdS1-xSex nanobelts were carefully demonstrated. Finally, the wavelength-tunable Fabry-Perot lasing in CdS1-xSex nanobelts was obtained, and the Fabry-Perot lasing mechanism was numerically simulated by the FDTD method. The systematic results on the mechanism of the tunable band gap, exciton properties and lasing of the CdS1-xSex nanostructure help us deeply understand the intrinsic optical properties of this material, and will build a strong foundation for future application of green-red wavelength-tunable CdS1-xSex microlasers.

  15. FABRICATION AND OPTOELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF MgxZn1-xO ULTRATHIN FILMS BY LANGMUIR-BLODGETT TECHNOLOGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dongyan; Feng, Qian; Jiang, Enying; He, Baozhu

    2012-08-01

    By transferring MgxZn1-xO sol and stearic acid onto a hydrophilic silicon wafer or glass plate, the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) multilayers of MgxZn1-xO (x:0, 0.2, 0.4) were deposited. After calcinations at 350°C for 0.5 h and at 500°C for 3 h, MgxZn1-xO ultrathin films were fabricated. The optimized parameters for monolayer formation and multilayer deposition were determined by the surface pressure-surface (Π-A) area and the transfer coefficient, respectively. The expended areas of stearic acid with MgxZn1-xO sols under Π-A isotherms inferred the interaction of stearic acid with MgxZn1-xO sols during the formation of monolayer at air-water interface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the crystal structures of MgxZn1-xO nanoparticles and ultrathin films. The surface morphologies of MgxZn1-xO ultrathin films were observed by scanning probe microscopy (AFM). And the optoelectronic properties of MgxZn1-xO were detected and discussed based on photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  16. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 Precipitation: Implications for Cr Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Chong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, B; Hu, Yandi

    2016-02-16

    The formation of (Fe, Cr)(OH)3 nanoparticles determines the fate of aqueous Cr in many aquatic environments. Using small angle X-ray scattering, precipitation rates of (Fe, Cr)(OH)3 nanoparticles in solution and on quartz were quantified from 0.1 mM Fe(III) solutions containing 0 – 0.25 mM Cr(III) at pH = 3.7 ± 0.2. Concentration ratio of aqueous Cr(III)/Fe(III) controlled the chemical composition (x) of (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 precipitates, solutions’ supersaturation with respect to precipitates, and the surface charge of quartz. Therefore, aqueous Cr(III)/Fe(III) ratio affected homogeneous (in solution) and heterogeneous (on quartz) precipitation rates of (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 through different mechanisms. The sequestration mechanisms of Cr(III) in precipitates were also investigated. In solutions with high aqueous Cr(III)/Fe(III) ratios, surface enrichment of Cr(III) on the precipitates occurred, resulting in slower particle growth in solution. From solutions with 0 – 0.1 mM Cr(III), the particles on quartz grew from 2 to 4 nm within 1 h. Interestingly, from solution with 0.25 mM Cr(III), particles of two distinct sizes (2 and 6 nm) formed on quartz, and their sizes remained unchanged throughout the reaction. Our study provided new insights on homogeneous and heterogeneous precipitation of (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 nanoparticles, which can help determine the fate of Cr in aquatic environments.

  17. Alloy disorder modulated electron transport at MgxZn1-xO/ZnO heterointerface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnuradhan, Aswin; Kozuka, Y.; Uchida, M.; Falson, J.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kawasaki, M.

    2017-01-01

    High-mobility electron systems in two dimensions have been the platform for realizing many fascinating quantum phenomena at low temperatures. Continuous demand to improve the sample quality has necessitated the investigations of various disorders influencing the quantum transport. Here, we study the effect of short-ranged alloy disorder on the scattering of two-dimensional electron system in MgxZn1-xO/ZnO. For this purpose, we employ a modified interface profile consisting of Mg0.01Zn0.99O/ZnO with a thin (2nm) MgxZn1-xO interlayer with x ranging from 0.005 to 0.4. This interlayer design allows us to investigate scattering mechanisms at a nearly constant carrier density as the interlayer is found not to significantly affect the carrier density but enhance alloy disorder. While the transport scattering time (τtr) shows a strong correlation with x, the quantum scattering time (τq) remains insensitive to x. The large variation in the τtr/τq ratio (from 16.2 to 1.5 corresponding to x from 0.005 to 0.4) implies a change in the dominant scattering mechanism from long range towards short range with increasing x. The insensitivity of τq on x indicates the scattering rate is not dominated by the alloy disorder. This implies that other scattering mechanisms, likely unintentional background impurities or remote surface disorders, are dominant in limiting τq, and therefore providing a prospect for pursuing ever higher levels in the quality of the two-dimensional electron system in MgxZn1-xO/ZnO system.

  18. Structural, Raman and dielectric behavior in Bi1-xSrxFeO3 multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Kumar, Ashwini

    2013-04-01

    The effect of Sr2+ doping on Bi1-xSrxFeO3 (x = 0.0, 0.15, 0.175, 0.25) multiferroic ceramics synthesized by citrate sol-gel method has been investigated by Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data, Raman spectroscopy and dielectric measurement. X-ray diffraction along with the Rietveld-refinement showed a gradual change in crystal structure from rhombohedral (R3c) to pseudotetragonal (P4/mmm) with enhanced divalent Sr2+ ion concentration. All the 13 Raman modes predicted by group theory (ΓR3c = 4A1 + 9E) for R3c structure of Bi1-xSrxFeO3 (x = 0.0, 0.15, 0.175, 0.25) were observed in the present study. The A1-2 and E-4 modes are completely suppressed, while that of A1-3, E-8 mode in Bi1-xSrxFeO3 (x = 0.175, 0.25) and E-2, E-5, and E-8 modes (x = 0.25) disappear completely as compared to parent BFO. The structural phase transition and weakening of long-range ferroelectric order with increasing doping concentration are thus further confirmed from Raman scattering spectra. The dielectric anomaly has been observed in dielectric constant and dielectric loss near 325 °C, 305 °C, 270 °C and 250 °C (f = 10 kHz) in BiFeO3, Bi0.85Sr0.15FeO3, Bi0.825Sr0.175FeO3 and Bi0.75Sr0.25FeO3, respectively.

  19. Evolution of magnetic properties in the solid solution UCo1-xPdx Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gralak, D.; Zaleski, A. J.; Tran, V. H.

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the evolution of magnetic properties in pseudo-ternary UCo1-xPdxGe (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9) intermetallics by measurements of ac-magnetic susceptibility and dc-magnetization. The measured samples have been prepared by arc-melting and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray energy-dispersive electron spectroscopy technique. Rietveld refinements of the X-ray patterns indicate that the pseudo-ternaries crystallize in the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure with Pnma space group as the parent UCoGe and UPdGe compounds do. The magnetic measurements reveal that in addition to an increase in 5f-electron localization degree with increasing Pd concentration, an interesting magnetic phase diagram, which is more complex than that expected from the gradual change in magnetic ground state due to the substitution. Three compositional ranges with different magnetic properties have been established; the coexistence of spin-glass and itinerant-electron ferromagnetic orderings for x ≤ 0.3 , antiferromagnetic order occurs in the range 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.7 , and a complex ferromagnetic structure of more localized 5f moments takes place in x ≥ 0.8 . The evolution of magnetic ground states in UCo1-xPdxGe is discussed in terms of interplay between cooperative magnetic interactions. We consider also implications of increasing conduction electrons upon the Pd substitution in Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions, which would give rise to the evolution of magnetic properties in UCo1-xPdxGe pseudo-ternaries.

  20. Moment Mapping of bcc Fe1-xMnx Alloy Films on MgO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idzerda, Yves; Bhatkar, Harsh; Arenholz, Elke

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic moments of ~ 20 nm single crystal films of compositionally graded Fe1-xMnx films (0.1 <= x <= 0.2) grown on MgO(001) are determined by spatially resolved moment mapping using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD). RHEED measurements confirmed that the growth of Fe1-xMnx films remained epitaxial and in the bcc phase up to x =0.35 but, like Fe growth, is rotated 45 degree with respect to the MgO(001) surface net. This is beyond the bulk bcc stability limit of x =0.12. Both magnetometry and XMCD measurements show that the net magnetic moment of these alloy films behave similarly to the bulk behavior, with a gradual moment reduction at low Mn concentrations followed by an abrupt departure from the Slater-Pauling curve and disappearance of the moment at x =0.15. By generating a compositional variation around this critical concentration and subsequently using spatially resolved mapping of the X-ray absorption at the Fe and Mn L3-edge using linear and circular polarized soft X-rays, the local composition and elemental moments can be simultaneously mapped across the surface of the sample. The Fe moment is found to gradually reduce with increasing Mn content with a very abrupt decline at x =0.15. Surprisingly, the Mn moment shows a very small net moment (<0.1 muB) at all compositions, suggesting a complicated Mn spin structure.

  1. The optical spectrum of ternary alloy BBi1-xAsx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Battal G.; Aslan, M.; Ozcan, M. H.; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Among the III-V semiconductors, boron BBi and BAs as well as their alloys have attracted both scientific and technological interest in recent years. We present a calculation of the structural, electronic and optical properties of ternary alloy BBi1-xAsx by means of the WIEN2k software package. The exchange-correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within the schema of Wu and Cohen. Also, we have used the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) formalism to improve the band gap results. All the calculations have been performed after geometry optimization. In this study, we have investigated structural properties such as the lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B0) and its pressure derivative (B‧), and calculated the electronic band structures of the studied materials. Accurate calculation of linear optical properties, such as real (ɛ 1) and imaginary (ɛ 2) dielectric functions, reflectivity (R), electron energy loss spectrum, absorption coefficient (α), refractive index (n) and sum rule (Neff) are investigated. Our obtained results for studied binary compounds, BBi and BAs, fairly coincide with other theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. According to the best of our knowledge, no experimental or theoretical data are presently available for the studied ternary alloy BBi1-xAsx (0 < x < 1). The role of electronic band structure calculation with regards to the linear optical properties of BBi1-xAsx is discussed. The effect of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is also investigated and found to be quite small.

  2. Normal state electronic properties of LaO1-x Fx BiS2 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querales-Flores, J. D.; Ventura, C. I.; Citro, R.; Rodríguez-Núñez, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    A good description of the electronic structure of BiS2-based superconductors is essential to understand their phase diagram, normal state and superconducting properties. To describe the first reports of normal state electronic structure features from angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in LaO1-x Fx BiS2, we used a minimal microscopic model to study their low energy properties. It includes the two effective tight-binding bands proposed by Usui et al., Phys. Rev. B, 86, 2012, 220501(R), and we added moderate intra- and inter-orbital electron correlations related to Bi-(pY, pX) and S-(pY, pX) orbitals. We calculated the electron Green's functions using their equations of motion, which we decoupled in second-order of perturbations on the correlations. We determined the normal state spectral density function and total density of states for LaO1-x Fx BiS2, focusing on the description of the k-dependence, effect of doping, and the prediction of the temperature dependence of spectral properties. Including moderate electron correlations, improves the description of the few experimental ARPES and soft X-ray photoemission data available for LaO1-x Fx BiS2. Our analytical approximation enabled us to calculate the spectral density around the conduction band minimum at k→0 =(0.45 π , 0.45 π), and to predict the temperature dependence of the spectral properties at different BZ points, which might be verified by temperature-dependent ARPES.

  3. Cathodoluminescence of Al/x/Ga/1-x/As grown by liquid-phase epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, E. R.; Ladany, I.

    1978-01-01

    Small-area contrast fluctuations observed in cathodoluminescence-mode SEM images of thin Al(x)Ga(1-x)As layers grown by liquid-phase epitaxy on GaAs:Cr substrates are attributed to local variations in alloy composition. Quantitative estimates of the composition excursions are obtained from the variations in CL intensity by calibration against compositions known from electron-probe microanalysis. In a typical sample, the CL variations are shown to correspond to peak-to-peak fluctuations of about 1 at. % of Al and occur over irregular regions generally in the range 6-20 microns in diameter.

  4. Structure and magnetic properties of Tb1-xSrxMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, Hariharan; Elizabeth, Suja

    2015-06-01

    Tb1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) polycrystalline samples are prepared via conventional solid state synthesis route. All samples crystallize in orthorhombic Pnma space group and possess O'-type distortion. Orthorhombic and octahedral distortion is found to decrease with increase in Sr content. At intermediate distortion, (20% and 30% doping level) Curie-Weiss analysis of inverse dc magnetic susceptibility data yields +ve Curies-Weiss constant, characteristic of FM interaction. Isothermal magnetization measurements give the highest magnitude of magnetic moment at these compositions.

  5. Electronic and magnetic structure of GaxFe1-x thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; McClure, A.; Idzerda, Y.

    2010-09-08

    The electronic as well as magnetic properties of Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x} films were studied by soft x-ray measurements. Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism the Fe majority-spin band was found to be completely filled for x {approx} 0.3. With further enhanced Ga content, the Fe moment as well as the angular dependence of the x-ray magnetic linear dichroism decrease strongly, which we attribute to the formation of D0{sub 3} precipitates. Moreover, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy drops significantly.

  6. Properties of single crystal Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, Adam; Li, H.; Rugheimer, P.; Idzerda, Y. U.; Albert, S.; Jaeger, T.; Schaefer, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy was used to deposit single crystal thin film Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} samples on ZnSe buffer layers grown on (001) and (110) single crystal GaAs substrates. The crystal quality of the GaAs surface and each deposited layer was monitored in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction. The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The FMR linewidth increases dramatically with Ga concentration while the cubic anisotropy term K{sub 1} switches sign.

  7. Intrinsic Carrier Concentration and Electron Effective Mass in Hg(1-x) Zn(x) Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sha, Yi-Gao; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the intrinsic carrier concentration and electron effective mass in Hg(l-x)Zn(x)Te were numerically calculated. We adopt the procedures similar to those used by Su et. al. for calculating intrinsic carrier concentrations in Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te which solve the exact dispersion relation in Kane model for the calculation of the conduction band electron concentrations and the corresponding electron effective masses. No approximation beyond those inherent in the k centered dot p model was used here.

  8. Large miscibility gap in the Ba(MnxFe1-x)2As2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Anand, V. K.; Johnston, D. C.

    2011-07-01

    The compounds BaMn2As2 and BaFe2As2 both crystallize in the body-centered-tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type (122-type) structure at room temperature but exhibit quite different unit cell volumes and very different magnetic and electronic transport properties. Evidently reflecting these disparities, we have discovered a large miscibility gap in the system Ba(MnxFe1-x)2As2. Rietveld refinements of powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on samples slow-cooled from 1000 °C to room temperature (RT) reveal a two-phase mixture of BaMn2As2 and Ba(Mn0.12Fe0.88)2As2 phases together with impurity phases for x=0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.8. We infer that there exists a miscibility gap in this system at 300 K with composition limits 0.12≲x≲1. For samples quenched from 1000 °C to 77 K, the refinements of RT XRD data indicate that the miscibility gap at RT narrows at 1000 °C to 0.2≲x≲0.8. Samples with x=0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 quenched from 1100 to 1400 °C to 77 K contain a single 122-type phase together with significant amounts of Fe1-xMnxAs and FeAs2 impurity phases. These results indicate that the system is not a pseudobinary system over the whole composition range and that the 122-type phase has a significant homogeneity range at these temperatures. Magnetic susceptibility χ, electrical resistivity ρ, and heat capacity measurements versus temperature T of the single-phase quenched polycrystalline samples with x=0.2 and 0.8 are reported. We also report attempts to grow single crystals of the substituted compounds Ba(Mn1-xTx)2As2 (T = Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, and Pt) and BaMn2(As1-xSbx)2 out of Sn flux. Energy-dispersive x-ray analyses show that most of these elements do not substitute into the lattice in amounts greater than 0.5%. However, concentrations of 4.4%, ~10% and 2.6% were achieved for Cr, Fe, and Sb substitutions, respectively, and χ(T) and ρ(T) data for these crystals are presented.

  9. Noncubic layered structure of Ba1-xKxBiO3 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkova, L. A.; Uchida, M.; Matsui, Y.; Nikolaichik, V. I.; Barkovskii, N. V.

    2003-04-01

    Bismuthate superconductor Ba1-xKxBiO3 (x=0.27-0.49, Tc=25-32 K) grown by an electrolysis technique was studied by electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. The crystalline structure thereof has been found to be noncubic, noncentrosymmetric and of the layered nature, with the lattice parameters a≈ap, c≈2ap (ap is a simple cubic perovskite cell parameter) containing an ordered arrangement of barium and potassium. The evidence for the layered nature of the bismuthate superconductor removes the principal crystallographic contradiction between bismuthate and cuprate high-Tc superconductors.

  10. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on SrFe2(As1 -xPx )2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandke, Jasmin; Wild, Petra; Schackert, Michael; Suga, Shigemasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Miyasaka, Shigeki; Tajima, Setsuko; Wulfhekel, Wulf

    2016-03-01

    We investigated SrFe 2 (As 1 -xPx )2 single crystals with four different phosphorus concentrations x in the superconducting phase (x =0.35 ,0.46 ) and in the magnetic phase (x =0 ,0.2 ). The superconducting samples display a V-shaped superconducting gap, which suggests nodal superconductivity. Furthermore, we determined the superconducting coherence length by measuring the spatially resolved superconducting density of states. Using inelastic tunneling spectroscopy, we investigated excitations in the samples with four different phosphorus concentrations. Inelastic peaks are related to bosonic modes. The phonon and nonphonon mechanisms for the origin of these peaks are discussed.

  11. Phase Transitions at the Cr1-x Vx /W(110) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupin, Oleg; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, Steve

    2006-03-01

    The rich phase diagram of thin films of chromium-vanadium (Cr1-xVx) alloys offers a unique possibility to study the phenomena associated with the spin-density wave (SDW) ground state and quantum phase transition (QPT). Using angular-resolved photoemission (ARP) we have studied the periodicity of SDW in the region of commensurate-incommensurate phase transition followed by quantum phase transition as a function of two non-thermal parameters: film thickness and vanadium concentration. That allows probing the interplay between spatial confinement and Fermi surface topology change resulting from modification of chromium electron structure by vanadium doping.

  12. Controlling the Magnetic Ground State in Cr1-xVx Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupin, O.; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, S. D.

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate the ability to control the magnetic phase diagram of Cr1-xVx(110) thin films grown on a W(110) substrate. Using angle-resolved photoemission, we have mapped paramagnetic and commensurate and incommensurate antiferromagnetic phases as a function of temperature, film thickness, and composition. We show that surface-localized electron states play a key role in the observed phase behaviors and suggest from this that it might be possible to control the magnetic phase by applying an external electric field.

  13. Consequences of Broken Translational Symmetry in FeSexTe1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreschini, L.; Lin, P.-H.; Lin, C.-H.; Ku, W.; Innocenti, D.; Chang, Y. J.; Walter, A. L.; Kim, K. S.; Brouet, V.; Yeh, K.-W.; Wu, M.-K.; Rotenberg, E.; Bostwick, A.; Grioni, M.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the consequences of broken translational symmetry in the superconductor FeSexTe1-x using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We find that the intensity does not follow the periodicity dictated by the crystal structure, owing to the form of the perturbing potential and the symmetries of the Fe d orbitals. Their interplay leads to substantial differences in the orbital character and spectral features observed at nominally equivalent locations in the reciprocal space. Such differences cannot be accounted for by the usual dipole matrix element effects and are due instead to the structure factor, which must be explicitly considered whenever more than one atom is present in the unit cell.

  14. Pb"1"-"xFe"xS nanoparticle films grown from acidic chemical bath [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Rakesh K.; Subbaraju, G. V.; Sharma, Renu; Sehgal, H. K.

    2004-12-01

    Pb 1- xFe xS ( x=0.25, 0.50, 0.75) films were grown from an acidic chemical bath. Nanoparticle films were structurally characterized by XRD and TEM. Optical band gap of films is observed to vary from 1.65 to 1.42 eV with increase in their iron concentration from x=0.25 to 0.75 in the films. Increased optical band gap of the ternary films compared to the estimated bulk value is attributed to quantum confinement in the nanocrystals deposited on solid substrates.

  15. The iodine donor in ZnSxSe1 - x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornell, J.-O.; Grimmeiss, H. G.; Mach, R.; Müller, G.

    1988-12-01

    The energy position of an iodine-related donor has been tracked through the alloyed system ZnSx Se1-x, where 0.60

  16. A multiband model for SmFeAsO1-xFx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, S.; Ortiz, M. A.; Méndez-Moreno, R. M.; Murguía, G.

    2012-12-01

    A multi-band model within the BCS framework is proposed for the description of iron-based oxypnictide superconductors. A s-wave pairing symmetry and different doping values are considered. This model is used to describe some properties of the oxypnictide SmFeAsO1-x Fx superconductor. The electron-phonon coupling of the corresponding Fe in-plane breathing mode is considered. The Fe isotope effect is evaluated as function of the coupling parameter as well as other relevant parameters of the model.

  17. GALLIUM INDIUM ARSENIDE PHOSPHIDE (GaxIn1-xASyP1-y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Yu. A.; Shmidt, Natalya M.

    The following sections are included: * Basic Parameters at 300 K * Basic Properties of GaxIn1-xASyP1-y Compositions Lattice-Matched to InP at 300 K(x≅0.47y) * Band Structure and Carrier Concentration * Temperature Dependences * Dependence on Hydrostatic Pressure * Band Discontinuities at GaInAsP/InP Heterostructure * Effective Masses * Donors and Acceptors * Electrical Properties * Mobility and Hall Effect * Transport Properties in High Electric Field * Impact Ionization * Recombination Parameters * Optical Properties * Thermal Properties * Mechanical Properties, Elastic Constants, Lattice Vibrations, Other Properties * References

  18. Correlation Between Surface Chemistry and Electrocatalytic Properties of Monodisperse Pt(x)Ni(1-x) Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Chi, Miaofang; Wang, Guofeng; Van der Vliet, Dennis; Li, Dongguo; More, Karren Leslie; Wang, Hsien-Hua; Schlueter, John; Markovic, Nenad; Stamenkovic, Vojislav

    2011-01-01

    Monodisperse and homogeneous Pt{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} alloy nanoparticles of various compositions are synthesized via an organic solution approach in order to reveal the correlation between surface chemistry and their electrocatalytic properties. Atomic-level microscopic analysis of the compositional profile and modeling of nanoparticle structure are combined to follow the dependence of Ni dissolution on the initial alloy composition and formation of the Pt-skeleton nanostructures. The developed approach and acquired knowledge about surface structure-property correlation can be further generalized and applied towards the design of advanced functional nanomaterials.

  19. Luminescent Properties and Mechanism of Gd1-x-yAlO3Eux,REy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lan; Liu, Qing-Feng; Liu, Qian

    2005-01-01

    GAP:Eu,Re(Gd1-x-yAlO3:Eux, REy, RE=Pr or Ce) powders were prepared by a nitrate-citrate process. It is found that luminescent intensity decreases when GAP:Eu is co-doped with Pr or Ce. The phenomena of spectra prove that there is a resonant energy transfer between Eu and Pr, by the absorption and emission of lower-energy phonon, and also Ce sensitizer decreases the activator energy level from host→Eu. The two factors are considered to be the main reasons for decrease of the luminescent intensity for the co-doped GAP:Eu,Re.

  20. Conduction electron spin resonance in Mg 1 - x Al x B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likodimos, V.; Koutandos, S.; Pissas, M.; Papavassiliou, G.; Prassides, K.

    2003-01-01

    Conduction electron spin resonance is employed to study the interplay of the electronic and structural properties in the normal state of Mg 1 - x Al x B2 alloys as a function of Al-doping for 0 <= x <= 1. The x-dependence of the spin susceptibility reveals considerable reduction of the total density of states N(EF) with increasing Al concentration, complying with theoretical predictions for a predominant filling effect of the hole σ bands by electron doping. The CESR linewidth exhibits significant broadening, especially prominent in the high-Al-content region, indicative of the presence of enhanced structural disorder, consistent with the presence of compositional fluctuations.

  1. Morphotropic phase boundaries in ferromagnets: Tb(1-x)Dy(x)Fe2 alloys.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Richard; Wuttig, Manfred; Cullen, James; Zavalij, Peter; Briber, Robert; Dennis, Cindi; Garlea, V Ovidiu; Laver, Mark

    2013-07-05

    The structure and properties of the ferromagnet Tb(1-x)Dy(x)Fe(2) are explored through the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) separating ferroic phases of differing symmetry. Our synchrotron data support a first order structural transition, with a broadening MPB width at higher temperatures. The optimal point for magnetomechanical applications is not centered on the MPB but lies on the rhombohedral side, where the high striction of the rhombohedral majority phase combines with the softened anisotropy of the MPB. We compare our findings with single ion crystal field theory and with ferroelectric MPBs, where the controlling energies are different.

  2. Morphotropic Phase Boundaries in Ferromagnets: Tb1 xDyxFe2 Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, Richard; Wuttig, Manfred; Cullen, James; Zavalij, Peter; Dennis, Cindi; Garlea, Vasile O; Laver, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The structure and properties of the ferromagnet Tb1 xDyxFe2 are explored through the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) separating ferroic phases of differing symmetry. Our synchrotron data support a first order structural transition, with a broadening MPB width at higher temperatures. The optimal point for magnetomechanical applications is not centered on the MPB but lies on the rhombohedral side, where the high striction of the rhombohedral majority phase combines with the softened anisotropy of the MPB. We compare our findings with single ion crystal field theory and with ferroelectric MPBs.

  3. Fabrications and Characterizations of ZnO/Zn1-xMgxO Nanorod Quantum Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-15

    by modulating composition along axial and radial direction. These novel nanorod QSs opened up the possibilities of developing nanoscale photonic...Recently, we fabricated ZnO/MgxZn1-xO nanorod QSs by composition modulation along axial and radial direction. These novel nanorod QSs opened up the...Figure 8 shows the separation dependence of the nutation frequencies of 3-DQWs Those of 3-DQWs (PS3D) had three peaks at 1.9, 4.7, and 7.1 ns-1. Since

  4. Atomic transport properties of Ag xSn 1-x liquid binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, E. H.; Ziauddin Ahmed, A. Z.; Bhuiyan, G. M.; Shahjahan, M.

    2008-05-01

    Atomic transport properties, in particular the shear viscosity and diffusion constants for Ag xSn 1-x less simple liquid binary alloys are theoretically studied from a statistical mechanical theory called the distribution function method. The essential ingredients of this theory are the interionic interaction and the pair distribution function for hard spheres. The interionic interaction are described from a local pseudopotential model and the effective hard sphere diameters are obtained from the thermodynamic perturbative method known as the linearized Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (LWCA). Results of calculations for shear viscosities agree well with the available experimental data.

  5. Orbital Dependent Band Renormalization in Fe1+yTe1-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongkai; Yi, Ming; Lu, Donghui; He, Ruihua; Hu, Jin; Hashimoto, Makoto; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Devereaux, Tom; Mao, Zhiqiang; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Stanford University Team; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Team; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team; Boston College Collaboration; Tulane University Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    One of the important factors in understanding the Fe-based superconductor is their multi-orbital nature. In this study we present ARPES results on the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe1-xSex (known as the 11 system), the structurally simplest member in Fe-based superconductors. Our result shows that as Te substitutes Se, the Fe dxy orbital has seen a significant increase in the band renormalization while the other orbitals stay unchanged. Our discovery indicates that different orbitals in Fe-based superconductors have different correlation levels, evolve distinctively with crystal parameters and may play different roles in the emergence of superconductivity.

  6. Scaling theory of magnetoresistance and carrier localization in Ga1-xMnxAs.

    PubMed

    Moca, C P; Sheu, B L; Samarth, N; Schiffer, P; Janko, B; Zarand, G

    2009-04-03

    We compare experimental resistivity data on Ga1-xMnxAs films with theoretical calculations using a scaling theory for strongly disordered ferromagnets. The characteristic features of the temperature dependent resistivity can be quantitatively understood through this approach as originating from the close vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. However, accounting for thermal fluctuations is crucial for a quantitative description of the magnetic field induced changes in resistance. While the noninteracting scaling theory is in reasonable agreement with the data, we find clear evidence for interaction effects at low temperatures.

  7. Exciton mobility edge in CdS 1-xSe x solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permogorov, S.; Reznitsky, A.; Verbin, S.; Lysenko, V.

    1983-07-01

    Low temperature emission spectra of localized excitons in CdS 1-xSe x solid solutions under the monochromatic excitation with tunable laser have been studied. It has been found that the luminescence of localized excitons has a high degree of linear polarization with respect to the polarization direction of exciting light. This polarization reflects the "hidden" anisotropy of macroscopically isotropic localized exciton system and strongly depends on the frequency of exciting light. Study of this dependence has permitted for the first time a determination of position of the "mobility edge" for exciton migration in disordered semiconductor solid solution.

  8. Fabrication of high quality nanocrystalline Cd(1-x)ZnxS thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Urvashi; Thakur, Vikas; Rajaram, P.; Shrivastava, A. K.

    2013-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Cd(1-x)ZnxS thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. XRD studies showed that the films are polycrystalline and possess the hexagonal structure. The preferred crystallographic orientation of crystallites changes gradually from (002) to (101) with the increase in Zn composition. The AFM studies showed that the surface of the film is highly smooth and uniformly covered with the CdZnS nanoparticles. UV-VIS studies confirm the high quality of films. The band edge of these films is blue-shifted with the increase in Zn composition.

  9. Diffusion of high magnetic field in (V 1- xCr x) 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudasov, Yu. B.; Makarov, I. V.; Pavlov, V. N.

    2001-01-01

    The penetration of a high magnetic field into a substance that undergoes a metal-insulator phase transition of the first order under Joule heating is discussed. This phenomenon can be used in high-current opening switches. (V 1- xCr x) 2O 3 is taken as a model substance. An analytical treatment of stationary diffusion as well as a numerical analysis are presented. The development of thermomagnetic instabilities of the metal-insulator phase boundary is investigated. It is shown that a switching time of order of few microseconds can be achieved.

  10. Magnetic properties of Pr1-xGdxMn2Ge2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elerman, Y.; Dincer, I.; Elmali, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Duman, E.; Acet, M.

    2004-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Pr1-xGdxMn2Ge2 were studied by x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The substitution of Gd for Pr leads to a linear decrease in the lattice constants and the magnetic interactions in the Mn sublattice cross over from a ferromagnetic character to an antiferromagnetic one. At low temperatures, the rare-earth sublattice also orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. The spins in the Mn sublattice are arranged parallel to the Pr sublattice and antiparallel to the Gd sublattice. The results are collected in a phase diagram.

  11. Ab initio calculations of elastic properties of Ru1-xNixAl superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleskov, I. D.; Smirnova, E. A.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Korzhavyi, P. A.; Johansson, B.; Katsnelson, M.; Vitos, L.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Isaev, E. I.

    2009-04-01

    Ab initio total energy calculations based on the exact muffin-tin orbitals method, combined with the coherent potential approximation, have been used to study the thermodynamical and elastic properties of substitutional refractory Ru1-xNixAl alloys. We have found that the elastic constants C' and C11 exhibit pronounced peculiarities near the concentration of about 40 at. % Ni, which we ascribe to electronic topological transitions. Our suggestion is supported by the Fermi surface calculations in the whole concentration range. Results of our calculations show that one can design Ru-Ni-Al alloys substituting Ru by Ni (up to 40 at. %) with almost invariable elastic constants and reduced density.

  12. SPIN-FRUSTRATED EFFECT AND THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES IN YMn1-xAlxO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. M.; Zhu, W. H.; Wu, X. S.; Bian, Q.

    2013-08-01

    Polycrystalline samples YMn1-xAlxO3 with different Al doping concentration were synthesized by standard solid-state reaction. Effect of Al doping on the magnetic properties was studied. Magnetization measurements show that the magnetization increases, while the calculated frustration factor decreases with the doping content of Al3+ ion increasing. And the spin-glass behavior becomes more and more obvious with increasing the Al doping content. These results were ascribed to the broken exchange path between Mn ions by Al doping.

  13. Intersubband infrared absorption in Ge(x)Si(1-x)/Si superlattice by photocurrent measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karunasiri, R. P. G.; Park, J. S.; Wang, K. L.; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    The intersubband IR absorption of holes in a Ge(x)Si(1-x)/Si superlattice is observed for the first time. In the experiment, the photocurrent is measured as a function of applied bias which is used to inject holes to the minibands of the superlattice. Two peaks in the photocurrent as a function of bias across the device are observed due to intersubband absorption between the ground to the first and the first of the second light hole minibands. The polarization dependence measurement is used to study the nature of the transitions and is in good agreement with the selection rules.

  14. The magneto-structural transition in Mn1-x Fe x CoGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Q. Y.; Hutchison, W. D.; Wang, J. L.; Studer, A. J.; Din, M. F. Md; Muñoz Pérez, S.; Cadogan, J. M.; Campbell, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Large refrigeration capacities, between 212(30) J kg-1 and 261(40) J kg-1 for a magnetic field change from 0 T to 5 T, were obtained in Mn1-x Fe x CoGe (x  =  0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04) compounds. A partial magnetic phase diagram has been derived on the basis of magnetic transition and martensitic transformation temperatures determined from differential scanning calorimetry (200 K to 450 K), variable temperature x-ray diffraction (20 K to 310 K) and magnetisation measurements (5 K to 340 K 0.01 T). Mn1-x Fe x CoGe compounds with compositions in the range x  =  0.01 to 0.03 exhibit magneto-structural transitions. Neutron diffraction experiments were carried out on the Mn0.98Fe0.02CoGe sample over the temperature range of 5 K to 450 K. The diffraction patterns were analysed based on irreducible representation theory which confirms a ferromagnetic structure in the sample with an atomic magnetic moment of 3.7(1)μ B at 5 K on the Mn sublattice, oriented along the orthorhombic c axis. More significantly, a magneto-structural transition around T M ~ 297(1) K with a full width at half maximum of 29 K is demonstrated directly via neutron diffraction. Larger magnetic entropy changes are obtained for the Mn1-x Fe x CoGe (x  =  0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) samples than for Mn0.96Fe0.04CoGe which has separate structural and magnetic transitions. In addition, it is noted that standard Arrott plots do not provide unambiguous insight to the nature of the magneto-structural transition in the Mn1-x Fe x CoGe compounds.

  15. Cation non-stoichiometry in pulsed laser deposited Sr{sub 2+y}Fe{sub 1+x}Mo{sub 1-x}O₆ epitaxial films

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, T. L.; Woodward, P. M.; Dixit, M.; Williams, R. E. A.; Susner, M. A.; Fraser, H. L.; McComb, D. W.; Sumption, M. D.; Lemberger, T. R.

    2014-07-07

    Sr₂FeMoO₆ (SFMO) films were grown on SrTiO₃ (100)- and (111)-oriented substrates via pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to study the fundamental characteristics of deposition, films were grown in two different PLD chambers. In chamber I, the best films were grown with a relatively long substrate-to-target distance (89 mm), high substrate temperature (850 °C), and low pressure (50 mTorr) in a 95% Ar/5% H₂ atmosphere. Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicate these films are single phase, Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) measurements reveal considerable non-stoichiometry, corresponding to a Sr₂Fe{sub 1–x}Mo{sub 1+x}O₆ composition with x≅0.2–0.3. This level of non-stoichiometry results in inferior magnetic properties. In chamber II, the best films were grown with a much shorter substrate-to-target distance (38 mm), lower temperature (680 °C), and higher pressure (225 mTorr). XRD measurements show that the films are single phase, and RBS measurements indicate that they are nearly stoichiometric. The degree of ordering between Fe and Mo was dependent on both the temperature and pressure used during deposition, reaching a maximum order parameter of 85%. The saturation magnetization increases as the Fe/Mo ordering increases, reaching a maximum of 2.4 μB/f.u. Based on prior studies of bulk samples, one would expect a higher saturation magnetization for this degree of Fe/Mo order. The presence of extra strontium oxide layers in the form of Ruddlesden-Popper intergrowths appears to be responsible for the lower than expected saturation magnetization of these films.

  16. Ion-Exchange-Induced 2D-3D Conversion of HMA1-x FAx PbI3 Cl Perovskite into a High-Quality MA1-x FAx PbI3 Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Zhang, Taiyang; Guo, Nanjie; Xu, Feng; Qian, Xufang; Zhao, Yixin

    2016-10-17

    High-quality phase-pure MA1-x FAx PbI3 planar films (MA=methylammonium, FA=formamidinium) with extended absorption and enhanced thermal stability are difficult to deposit by regular simple solution chemistry approaches owing to crystallization competition between the easy-to-crystallize but unwanted δ-FAPbI3 /MAPbI3 and FAx MA1-x PbI3 requiring rigid crystallization conditions. Here A 2D-3D conversion to transform compact 2D mixed composition HMA1-x FAx PbI3 Cl perovskite precursor films into 3D MA1-x FAx PbI3 (x=0.1-0.9) perovskites is presented. The designed Cl/I and H/FA(MA) ion exchange reaction induced fast transformation of compact 2D perovskite film, helping to form the phase-pure and high quality MA1-x FAx PbI3 without δ-FAPbI3 and MAPbI3 impurity. In all, we successfully developed a facile one-step method to fabricate high quality phase-pure MA1-x FAx PbI3 (x=0.1-0.9) perovskite films by 2D-3D conversion of HMA1-x FAx PbI3 Cl perovskite. This 2D-3D conversion is a promising strategy for lead halide perovskite fabrication.

  17. Giant thermal vibrations in the framework compounds Ba1 -xSrxAl2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Ishii, Y.; Tanaka, E.; Tsukasaki, H.; Kubota, Y.; Mori, S.

    2016-08-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were performed on the network compounds Ba1 -xSrxAl2O4 at temperatures between 15 and 800 K. The ferroelectric phase of the parent BaAl2O4 is largely suppressed by substituting a small amount of Sr for Ba and disappears for x ≥0.1 . Structural refinements reveal that the isotropic atomic displacement parameter Biso in the bridging oxygen atom is largely independent of temperature and retains an anomalously large value in the adjacent paraelectric phase even at the lowest temperature. The Biso systematically increases as x increases, exhibiting an especially large value for x =0.5 . According to previous electron diffraction experiments for Ba1 -xSrxAl2O4 with x ≥0.1 , strong thermal diffuse scattering occurs at two reciprocal points relating to two distinct soft modes at the M and K points over a wide range of temperatures below 800 K [Y. Ishii et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 19154 (2016), 10.1038/srep19154]. Although the latter mode disappears at approximately 200 K, the former does not condense, at least down to 100 K. The anomalously large Biso observed in this study is ascribed to these soft modes existing in a wide temperature range.

  18. InxGa1-xP Nanowire Growth Dynamics Strongly Affected by Doping Using Diethylzinc.

    PubMed

    Otnes, Gaute; Heurlin, Magnus; Zeng, Xulu; Borgström, Magnus T

    2017-02-08

    Semiconductor nanowires are versatile building blocks for optoelectronic devices, in part because nanowires offer an increased freedom in material design due to relaxed constraints on lattice matching during the epitaxial growth. This enables the growth of ternary alloy nanowires in which the bandgap is tunable over a large energy range, desirable for optoelectronic devices. However, little is known about the effects of doping in the ternary nanowire materials, a prerequisite for applications. Here we present a study of p-doping of InxGa1-xP nanowires and show that the growth dynamics are strongly affected when diethylzinc is used as a dopant precursor. Specifically, using in situ optical reflectometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we show that the doping results in a smaller nanowire diameter, a more predominant zincblende crystal structure, a more Ga-rich composition, and an increased axial growth rate. We attribute these effects to changes in seed particle wetting angle and increased TMGa pyrolysis efficiency upon introducing diethylzinc. Lastly, we demonstrate degenerate p-doping levels in InxGa1-xP nanowires by the realization of an Esaki tunnel diode. Our findings provide insights into the growth dynamics of ternary alloy nanowires during doping, thus potentially enabling the realization of such nanowires with high compositional homogeneity and controlled doping for high-performance optoelectronics devices.

  19. Hybrid functional calculations on the band gap bowing parameters of In x Ga1-x N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Lin; Yixu, Xu; Jianhua, Zhang; Shunqing, Wu; Zizhong, Zhu

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structures and band gap bowing parameters of In x Ga1-x N are studied by the first-principles method based on the density functional theory. Calculations by employing both the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerh of hybrid functional (HSE06) and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) one are performed. We found that the theoretical band gap bowing parameter is dependent significantly on the calculation method, especially on the exchange-correlation functional employed in the DFT calculations. The band gap of In x Ga1-x N alloy decreases considerably when the In constituent x increases. It is the interactions of s-s and p-p orbitals between anions and cations that play significant roles in formatting the band gaps bowing. In general, the HSE06 hybrid functional could provide a good alternative to the PBE functional in calculating the band gap bowing parameters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11204257, 21233004) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2012M511447).

  20. Efficient Catalysis of Hydrogen Evolution Reaction from WS2(1-x) P2x Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Wang, Fengmei; Liu, Kaili; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Xu, Kai; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhan, Xueying; Jiang, Chao; He, Jun

    2017-02-06

    The rational design of Earth abundant electrocatalysts for efficiently catalyzing hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is believed to lead to the generation of carbon neutral energy carrier. Owing to their fascinating chemical and physical properties, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are widely studied for this purpose. Of particular note is that doping by foreign atom can bring the advent of electronic perturbation, which affects the intrinsic catalytic property. Hence, through doping, the catalytic activity of such materials could be boosted. A rational synthesis approach that enables phosphorous atom to be doped into WS2 without inducing phase impurity to form WS2(1-x) P2x nanoribbon (NRs) is herein reported. It is found that the WS2(1-x) P2x NRs exhibit considerably enhanced HER performance, requiring only -98 mV versus reversible hydrogen electrode to achieve a current density of -10 mA cm(-2) . Such a high performance can be attributed to the ease of H-atom adsorption and desorption due to intrinsically tuned WS2 , and partial formation of NRs, a morphology wherein the exposure of active edges is more pronounced. This finding can provide a fertile ground for subsequent works aiming at tuning intrinsic catalytic activity of TMDs.

  1. Experimental and theoretical XANES of CdSxSe1-x nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiu, Y. M.; Murphy, M. W.; Liu, L.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T. K.

    2014-03-01

    The morphology and electronic properties of the CdSxSe1-x nanostructures with varying alloy compositions have been acquired experimentally by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structures (XANES) at the Cd, Se and S K-edge and L3,2-edges. The theoretical XANES spectra have been calculated using the density functional approach. It is found that the optical band-gap emission of these CdSxSe1-x nano-ribbons can be tuned to the range between that of pure CdS (2.43 eV) and CdSe (1.74 eV) by changing the S and Se ratio. This gradual shift in (optical and structural) properties from CdS character to CdSe character is also seen in the electronic structures. The densities of states and band structures show that with the addition of Se replacing S in CdS, the band gap shrinks. The K and L3,2 edges of Cd, Se, and S of the XANES structures of both the CdS and CdSe in B4 (wurtzite) and B3 (cubic zinc-blende) structures have been calculated and compared.

  2. Thermodynamical and electronic properties of Bx Al1-x N alloys: A first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Joshi, Suman; Joshi, B.; Auluck, S.

    2015-11-01

    A series of first principle calculations were carried out to investigate thermodynamical, electronic and optical properties of cubic Bx Al1-x N ordered alloys using supercell approach within density functional theory (DFT). Here we calculate the lattice constants using van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) at several concentrations (x) of boron. We find that the vdW-DF prediction shows slightly better agreement with experiment in contrast to local density approximation (LDA)/generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results show that the direct energy band gap (Γv-Γc) has strong nonlinear dependence on the concentration (x). At x=0.04 and 0.84, Bx Al1-x N has a phase transition from direct to an indirect band gap semiconductor. To describe the alloys' solubility, formation enthalpy were calculated and fitted to quadratic function to obtain interaction parameter. The calculated T-x phase diagram shows a broad miscibility gap with a high critical temperature equal to 3063 K. The calculated dielectric function is explained in terms of band structure and density of states and compared with the available experimental data, showing good agreement.

  3. Ab initio study of structural, electronic, and thermal properties of Pt1-xPdx alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Zafar, Muhammad; Shakil, M.; Choudhary, M. A.; Hashmi, Muhammad Raza-Ur-Rehman

    2017-01-01

    We report a systematic theoretical study of Pt1-xPdx alloys using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) by pseudo potential method. We have used super cell approach to investigate structural, electronic and thermal properties of Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd) and their alloys Pt1-xPdx(x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00). The calculated lattice constants and bulk moduli are in good agreement with available literature data. The results of electronic properties revealed that the alloys are metallic in nature. The thermal properties were investigated through density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) and quasi-harmonic approximation. The contribution to the free energy from the lattice vibration was calculated using the phonon densities of states (DOS) derived by means of the linear-response theory. The DFPT with quasi-harmonic approximation methods was applied to determine the phonon DOS and thermal quantities i.e., the Debye temperatures, vibration energy, entropy and constant-volume specific heat.

  4. Improvements in MOCVD growth of Hg1-xCdxTe heterostructures for uncooled infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gawron, W.; Klos, K.; Pawluczyk, J.; Piotrowski, J.; Madejczyk, P.; Rogalski, A.

    2005-09-01

    We report here the recent progress at VIGO/MUT (Military University of Technology) MOCVD Laboratory in the growth of Hg1-xCdxTe multilayer heterostructures for various types of uncooled infrared devices. The detectors are optimized for any wavelength within 1-12 μm spectral range. Hg1-xCdxTe growth with interdiffused multilayer process (IMP) technique has been improved. The total flow of the carrier gas was optimized to improve lateral uniformity of the composition and doping. The parasitic transient stages between the CdTe and HgTe phases were reduced to reasonable minimum. As a result, we were able to grow layers with homogeneous composition and doping, characterized by steep interfaces. The additional benefits were improved morphology, reduced dislocation density, and minimized consumption of precursors. The other issues addressed in this work were growth of heavy As-doped low-x and heavy Idoped high-x materials. Special modification to IMP process has been applied for in-situ control of stoichiometry. To maintain low vacancy concentration, special growth finish procedure has been developed. No post-growth thermal anneal was necessary for device-quality material. The MOCVD grown heterostructures have been successfully used for advanced uncooled infrared photodetectors such as multiple heterojunction photodiodes, multicolor and specially shaped spectral response multiabsorber devices.

  5. Evolution of the electronic structure in Mo1 xRex alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Michio; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, S. D.; Schäfer, J.; Ujfalussy, Balazs; Stocks, George Malcolm; Genatempo, B.; Bruno, E.; Plummer, E. W.

    2013-01-01

    We report a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the electronic structure of Mo1 xRex random alloys. We have measured electronic band dispersions for clean and hydrogen-covered Mo1 xRex (110) with x = 0 0.25 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our results suggest that the bulk and most surface electronic bands shift relative to the Fermi level systematically and approximately rigidly with Re concentration. We distinguish and quantify two contributions to these shifts: a raise of the Fermi energy and an increase of the overall bandwidth. Alloy bands calculated using the firstprinciples Korringa Kohn Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation method accurately predict both of these effects. As derived from the rigid band model, the Fermi energy shift is inversely related to the bulk density of states in this energy region. Using our results, we also characterize an electronic topological transition of the bulk Fermi surface and relate this to bulk transport properties. Finally, we distinguish effects beyond the rigid band approximation: a highly surface-localized state and a composition-dependent impact of the spin orbit interaction.

  6. Growth and characterisation of Cd 1- xMg xSe mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firszt, F.; Łȩgowski, S.; Mȩczyńska, H.; Szatkowski, J.; Paszkowicz, W.; Marczak, M.

    1998-02-01

    Cd 1- xMg xSe mixed crystals for 0 < × < 0.55 have been grown by the high-pressure Bridgman method under an argon overpressure. The dependence of the energy gap, the luminescence and the electrical properties on the Mg concentration has been investigated. Luminescence and transmission spectra show that the band-gap energy is considerably larger than that of "pure" CdSe and for Cd 0.45Mg 0.55Se we measured about 2.82 eV at T = 40 K. As grown Cd 1- xMg xSe solid solutions with x < 0.4 exhibit n-type conductivity and low electrical resistivity (ϱ < 1 Ω cm at room temperature). The maximum of electron concentration 1.3 × 10 18 cm -3 was obtained for Cd 0.85Mg 0.15Se. An attempt to explain the dependence of free-carrier concentration on composition by a model of Fermi-level pinning is presented.

  7. Low temperature passivation of Si1-xGex alloys by dry high pressure oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caragianis, C.; Shigesato, Y.; Paine, D. C.

    1994-09-01

    Thermal passivation of Si1-xGex using high pressure (70 MPa) oxidation was studied for potential use in MOS-device applications. Alloys of CVD-grown Si1-xGex (x = 10 and 15 at.%, 200 and 150 nm thick, respectively), were oxidized at 500 and 550°C using high purity dry oxygen at a pressure of 70 MPa. For comparative purposes, a second set of alloys were oxidized using conventional wet atmospheric pressure oxidation at 800°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and metal-oxide semiconductor capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were used to characterize the as-grown oxides. Chemical analysis by XPS confirmed that under high pressure conditions compositionally congruent oxides are grown from these alloys. High resolution TEM and Raman spectroscopy show that the as-grown oxide/semiconductor interface is planar and free of Ge enrichment on a scale of 1-2 monolayers. A midgap interface state density for both the 10 and 15 at.% samples of 1 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1 was estimated based on 1 MHz C-V measurement.

  8. Element Specific Spin and Orbital Moments in Fe1-x Vx Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Y.; Scheck, C; Bailey, W

    2009-01-01

    We present transmission-mode X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements of element-specific magnetic moments for Fe and V at the L2,3 edges in polycrystalline Fe1-xVx ultrathin films. We find that the orbital-to-spin moment ratio of Fe does not change within experimental error. The V XMCD is not very informative, and a nearly pure-spin type V impurity moment ({approx}1.0 {mu}{sub B}/atom, antiparallel to the Fe host moment) is assumed to match known magnetization data. Data are further reduced to a two-sublattice model and found to be compatible with known spectroscopic splitting g-factor data in the alloy. The results confirm that the very low Gilbert damping, attained through the introduction of V into epitaxial Fe1-xVx films and found by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), does not result from the reduction of orbital moment content in the alloy.

  9. Electron doping evolution of the magnetic excitations in NaFe1-xCoxAs

    DOE PAGES

    Carr, Scott V.; Zhang, Chenglin; Song, Yu; ...

    2016-06-13

    We use time-of-flight (TOF) inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy to investigate the doping dependence of magnetic excitations across the phase diagram of NaFe1-xCoxAs with x = 0, 0.0175, 0.0215, 0.05, and 0.11. The effect of electron-doping by partially substituting Fe by Co is to form resonances that couple with superconductivity, broaden and suppress low energy (E 80 meV) spin excitations compared with spin waves in undoped NaFeAs. However, high energy (E > 80 meV) spin excitations are weakly Co-doping dependent. Integration of the local spin dynamic susceptibility "(!) of NaFe1-xCoxAs reveals a total fluctuating moment of 3.6 μ2 B/Fe andmore » a small but systematic reduction with electron doping. The presence of a large spin gap in the Cooverdoped nonsuperconducting NaFe0.89Co0.11As suggests that Fermi surface nesting is responsible for low-energy spin excitations. These results parallel Ni-doping evolution of spin excitations in BaFe2-xNixAs2, confirming the notion that low-energy spin excitations coupling with itinerant electrons are important for superconductivity, while weakly doping dependent high-energy spin excitations result from localized moments.« less

  10. Characteristics of superconducting tungsten silicide WxS i1 -x for single photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Engel, A.; Wang, Q.; Schilling, A.; Semenov, A.; Sidorova, M.; Hübers, H.-W.; Charaev, I.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.

    2016-11-01

    Superconducting properties of three series of amorphous WxS i1 -x films with different thickness and stoichiometry were investigated by dc transport measurements in a magnetic field up to 9 T. These amorphous WxS i1 -x films were deposited by magnetron cosputtering of the elemental source targets onto silicon substrates at room temperature and patterned in the form of bridges by optical lithography and reactive ion etching. Analysis of the data on magnetoconductivity allowed us to extract the critical temperatures, superconducting coherence lengths, magnetic penetration depths, and diffusion constants of electrons in the normal state as functions of film thickness for each stoichiometry. Two basic time constants were derived from transport and time-resolving measurements. A dynamic process of the formation of a hotspot was analyzed in the framework of a diffusion-based vortex-entry model. We used a two-stage diffusion approach and defined a hotspot size by assuming that the quasiparticles and normal-state electrons have the same diffusion constant. With this definition and these measured material parameters, the hotspot in the 5-nm-thick W0.85S i0.15 film had a diameter of 107 nm at the peak of the number of nonequilibrium quasiparticles.

  11. Interplay between Superconductivity and Magnetism in Fe1-xPdxTe

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, A B; Garlea, Vasile O; Custelcean, Radu; Stadler, S.; Plummer, E. W.; Jin, Rongying

    2013-01-01

    The love/hate relationship between superconductivity and magnetic ordering has fascinated the condensed matter physics community for a century. In the early days, magnetic impurities doped into a superconductor were found to quickly suppress superconductivity. Later, a variety of systems, such as cuprates, heavy fermions and Fe pnictides, show superconductivity in a narrow region near the border to antiferromagnetism (AFM) as a function of pressure or doping. On the other hand, the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetic (FM) or AFM ordering is found in a few compounds (RRh4B4 (R = Nd, Sm, Tm, Er), R'Mo6X8 (R' = Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, and X = S, Se), UMGe (M = Ge, Rh, Co), CeCoIn5, EuFe2(As1-xPx)2 etc.), providing evidence for their compatibility. Here, we present a third situation, where superconductivity coexists with FM and near the border of AFM in Fe1-xPdxTe. The doping of Pd for Fe gradually suppresses the first-order AFM ordering at temperature TN/S, and turns into short-range (SR) AFM correlation with a characteristic peak in magnetic susceptibility at T'N. Superconductivity sets in when T'N reaches zero. However, there is a gigantic ferromagnetic dome imposed in the superconducting-AFM (SR) crossover regime. Such a system is ideal for studying the interplay between superconductivity and two types of magnetic interactions (FM and AFM).

  12. Magnetic multicomponent nanoparticles CuxMn1-xFe2O4 for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Nurcan

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly important in many biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hyperthermia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement. In this multicomponent nanoparticles CuxMn1-xFe2O4 (CuMnF), x = 0, 0.6, 1, were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, sol-gel and solid state methods. To build the most effective magnetic nanoparticle systems for various biomedical applications, particle characteristics including size, surface chemistry, magnetic properties and toxicity have to be fully investigated. In this work, effects of production methods of magnetic nanoparticles for the bio-medical applications are discussed. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating scanning magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the structural, morphological and magnetic properties. The particle size of samples is measured by Malvern Instruments Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS instrument. The temperature dependence of field cooled (FC) magnetization of all CuxMn1-xFe2O4 samples have been shown here. The data were recorded under 1k Oe and 100 Oe magnetic fields for different ratio.

  13. Nanoscale Inhomogeneous Superconductivity in Fe(Te1-xSex) Probed by Nanostructure Transport.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chunlei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Xue; Sanchez, Ana M; Mao, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jiang

    2016-01-26

    Among iron-based superconductors, the layered iron chalcogenide Fe(Te1-xSex) is structurally the simplest and has attracted considerable attention. It has been speculated from bulk studies that nanoscale inhomogeneous superconductivity may inherently exist in this system. However, this has not been directly observed from nanoscale transport measurements. In this work, through simple micromechanical exfoliation and high-precision low-energy ion milling thinning, we prepared Fe(Te0.5Se0.5) nanoflakes with various thicknesses and systematically studied the correlation between the thickness and superconducting phase transition. Our result revealed a systematic thickness-dependent evolution of superconducting transition. When the thickness of the Fe(Te0.5Se0.5) flake is reduced to less than the characteristic inhomogeneity length (around 12 nm), both the superconducting current path and the metallicity of the normal state in Fe(Te0.5Se0.5) atomic sheets are suppressed. This observation provides the first transport evidence for the nanoscale inhomogeneous nature of superconductivity in Fe(Te1-xSex).

  14. Interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in Fe(1-x)Pd(x)Te.

    PubMed

    Karki, Amar B; Garlea, V Ovidiu; Custelcean, Radu; Stadler, Shane; Plummer, E W; Jin, Rongying

    2013-06-04

    The attractive/repulsive relationship between superconductivity and magnetic ordering has fascinated the condensed matter physics community for a century. In the early days, magnetic impurities doped into a superconductor were found to quickly suppress superconductivity. Later, a variety of systems, such as cuprates, heavy fermions, and Fe pnictides, showed superconductivity in a narrow region near the border to antiferromagnetism (AFM) as a function of pressure or doping. However, the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetic (FM) or AFM ordering is found in a few compounds [RRh4B4 (R = Nd, Sm, Tm, Er), R'Mo6X8 (R' = Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, and X = S, Se), UMGe (M = Ge, Rh, Co), CeCoIn5, EuFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2, etc.], providing evidence for their compatibility. Here, we present a third situation, where superconductivity coexists with FM and near the border of AFM in Fe(1-x)Pd(x)Te. The doping of Pd for Fe gradually suppresses the first-order AFM ordering at temperature T(N/S), and turns into short-range AFM correlation with a characteristic peak in magnetic susceptibility at T'(N). Superconductivity sets in when T'(N) reaches zero. However, there is a gigantic ferromagnetic dome imposed in the superconducting-AFM (short-range) cross-over regime. Such a system is ideal for studying the interplay between superconductivity and two types of magnetic (FM and AFM) interactions.

  15. Evolution of the electronic structure in Mo1-xRex alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Michio; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, S. D.; Schäfer, J.; Ujfalussy, Balazs; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Genatempo, B.; Bruno, E.; Plummer, E. W.

    2013-09-01

    We report a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the electronic structure of Mo1-xRex random alloys. We have measured electronic band dispersions for clean and hydrogen-covered Mo1-xRex(110) with x = 0-0.25 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our results suggest that the bulk and most surface electronic bands shift relative to the Fermi level systematically and approximately rigidly with Re concentration. We distinguish and quantify two contributions to these shifts: a raise of the Fermi energy and an increase of the overall bandwidth. Alloy bands calculated using the first-principles Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation method accurately predict both of these effects. As derived from the rigid band model, the Fermi energy shift is inversely related to the bulk density of states in this energy region. Using our results, we also characterize an electronic topological transition of the bulk Fermi surface and relate this to bulk transport properties. Finally, we distinguish effects beyond the rigid band approximation: a highly surface-localized state and a composition-dependent impact of the spin-orbit interaction.

  16. Giant magnetostriction in annealed Co(1-x)Fe(x) thin-films.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Dwight; Osborn, Will; Wang, Ke; Kazantseva, Nataliya; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason; Suchoski, Richard; Takahashi, Ryota; Young, Marcus L; Mehta, Apurva; Bendersky, Leonid A; Lofland, Sam E; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2011-11-01

    Chemical and structural heterogeneity and the resulting interaction of coexisting phases can lead to extraordinary behaviours in oxides, as observed in piezoelectric materials at morphotropic phase boundaries and relaxor ferroelectrics. However, such phenomena are rare in metallic alloys. Here we show that, by tuning the presence of structural heterogeneity in textured Co(1-x)Fe(x) thin films, effective magnetostriction λ(eff) as large as 260 p.p.m. can be achieved at low-saturation field of ~10 mT. Assuming λ(100) is the dominant component, this number translates to an upper limit of magnetostriction of λ(100)≈5λ(eff) >1,000 p.p.m. Microstructural analyses of Co(1-x)Fe(x) films indicate that maximal magnetostriction occurs at compositions near the (fcc+bcc)/bcc phase boundary and originates from precipitation of an equilibrium Co-rich fcc phase embedded in a Fe-rich bcc matrix. The results indicate that the recently proposed heterogeneous magnetostriction mechanism can be used to guide exploration of compounds with unusual magnetoelastic properties.

  17. Water electrolysis on La1-xSrxCoO3-δ perovskite electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mefford, J. Tyler; Rong, Xi; Abakumov, Artem M.; Hardin, William G.; Dai, Sheng; Kolpak, Alexie M.; Johnston, Keith P.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2016-03-01

    Perovskite oxides are attractive candidates as catalysts for the electrolysis of water in alkaline energy storage and conversion systems. However, the rational design of active catalysts has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the mechanism of water electrolysis on perovskite surfaces. Key parameters that have been overlooked include the role of oxygen vacancies, B-O bond covalency, and redox activity of lattice oxygen species. Here we present a series of cobaltite perovskites where the covalency of the Co-O bond and the concentration of oxygen vacancies are controlled through Sr2+ substitution into La1-xSrxCoO3-δ. We attempt to rationalize the high activities of La1-xSrxCoO3-δ through the electronic structure and participation of lattice oxygen in the mechanism of water electrolysis as revealed through ab initio modelling. Using this approach, we report a material, SrCoO2.7, with a high, room temperature-specific activity and mass activity towards alkaline water electrolysis.

  18. Water electrolysis on La(1-x)Sr(x)CoO(3-δ) perovskite electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Mefford, J Tyler; Rong, Xi; Abakumov, Artem M; Hardin, William G; Dai, Sheng; Kolpak, Alexie M; Johnston, Keith P; Stevenson, Keith J

    2016-03-23

    Perovskite oxides are attractive candidates as catalysts for the electrolysis of water in alkaline energy storage and conversion systems. However, the rational design of active catalysts has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the mechanism of water electrolysis on perovskite surfaces. Key parameters that have been overlooked include the role of oxygen vacancies, B-O bond covalency, and redox activity of lattice oxygen species. Here we present a series of cobaltite perovskites where the covalency of the Co-O bond and the concentration of oxygen vacancies are controlled through Sr(2+) substitution into La(1-x)Sr(x)CoO(3-δ) . We attempt to rationalize the high activities of La(1-x)Sr(x)CoO(3-δ) through the electronic structure and participation of lattice oxygen in the mechanism of water electrolysis as revealed through ab initio modelling. Using this approach, we report a material, SrCoO2.7, with a high, room temperature-specific activity and mass activity towards alkaline water electrolysis.

  19. Growth and characterization of Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Se alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, R. N.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed evaluation of the influence of growth conditions on the radial and axial compositional variations in directionally solidified Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Se alloys was performed. The measured axial compositional profiles were fitted to theoretical profiles to determine the effective solute (CdSe) diffusion coefficient (D) for the Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Se system. The value for D was estimated to be 3.0 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the -5th sq cm/s and did not appear to be significantly affected by the rate of crystal growth. The axial crystal uniformity was shown to be highly growth-rate dependent, with the faster growth rates producing crystals of more uniform composition in the axial direction. The magnitude of the radial variations was also shown to be highly growth-rate dependent, with the slower growth rates producing crystals of greater radial uniformity. This translation rate dependence of the radial uniformity is discussed in terms of lateral solute diffusion and convective interfacial fluid flows.

  20. Superconductivity at 43 K in SmFeAsO1-xFx.

    PubMed

    Chen, X H; Wu, T; Wu, G; Liu, R H; Chen, H; Fang, D F

    2008-06-05

    Since the discovery of high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) superconductivity in layered copper oxides, extensive effort has been devoted to exploring the origins of this phenomenon. A T(c) higher than 40 K (about the theoretical maximum predicted from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory), however, has been obtained only in the copper oxide superconductors. The highest reported value for non-copper-oxide bulk superconductivity is T(c) = 39 K in MgB(2) (ref. 2). The layered rare-earth metal oxypnictides LnOFeAs (where Ln is La-Nd, Sm and Gd) are now attracting attention following the discovery of superconductivity at 26 K in the iron-based LaO(1-x)F(x)FeAs (ref. 3). Here we report the discovery of bulk superconductivity in the related compound SmFeAsO(1-x)F(x), which has a ZrCuSiAs-type structure. Resistivity and magnetization measurements reveal a transition temperature as high as 43 K. This provides a new material base for studying the origin of high-temperature superconductivity.

  1. Electronic and magnetic phase diagram of superconductors, SmFeAsO1-xFx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamihara, Yoichi; Nomura, Takatoshi; Hirano, Masahiro; Kim, Jung Eun; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Higashitaniguchi, Satoshi; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto; Hosono, Hideo

    2010-03-01

    A crystallographic and magnetic phase diagram of SmFeAsO1-xFx is determined as a function of x in terms of temperature based on electrical transport and magnetization, synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectra (MS), and 149Sm nuclear resonant forward scattering (NRFS) measurements. MS revealed that the magnetic moments of Fe were aligned antiferromagnetically at ~144 K (TN(Fe)). The magnetic moment of Fe (MFe) is estimated to be 0.34 μB/Fe at 4.2 K for undoped SmFeAsO; MFe is quenched in superconducting F-doped SmFeAsO. 149Sm NRFS spectra revealed that the magnetic moments of Sm start to order antiferromagnetically at 5.6 K (undoped) and 4.4 K (TN(Sm)) (x=0.069). Results clearly indicate that the antiferromagnetic (AF) Sm sublattice coexists with the superconducting phase in SmFeAsO1-xFx below TN(Sm), while the AF Fe sublattice does not coexist with the superconducting phase.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and chemical stability of silicon dichalcogenides, Si(SexS1-x)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiaotian; Krishna, Lakshmi; Kendrick, Chito; Shang, Shun-Li; Toberer, Eric; Liu, Zi-Kui; Tamboli, Adele; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-10-01

    Silicon dichalcogenides have an intriguing crystal structure consisting of long tetrahedral chains held together by van der Waals forces but the electronic and optical properties have been less explored. In the present work, bulk SiSe2, SiS2, and Si(SexS1-x)2 were synthesized by the congruent melt growth method and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction and UV/visible/IR transmission measurements supported by first-principles calculations. First-principles calculations reveal a nearly linear decrease of band gap energy in Si(SexS1-x)2 with increasing Se content, i.e., from SiS2 to SiSe2 which corresponds with a blue-shift in the transmission spectra from bulk SiSe2 to Si(Se0.6S0.4)2, and to SiS2. Air stability tests demonstrate the formation of toxic H2Se/H2S gas from sample oxidation at room temperature upon exposure to ambient air, and great care should be paid when handling these materials.

  3. Gate Tunable Infrared Optical Response of (Bi1-xSbx)2 Te3 Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, William; Brar, Victor; Ou, Yunbo; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun; Atwater, Harry

    The electronic properties of topological insulators - narrow band-gap semiconductors that exhibit insulating bulk and semimetallic Dirac surface states - have been the subject of intense study over the past several years. The optical and optoelectronic behavior of these materials, however, remain widely uncharacterized. It has previously been shown that electrostatic gating can be used to tune the Fermi level in the Dirac semimetal graphene, modifying interband transitions and free carrier absorption. We report here experiments that demonstrate electronic control of the optical properties of 5-20 nm thick (Bi1-xSbx)2 Te3 films grown by Van der Waals epitaxy and transferred to silicon dioxide on silicon via an epitaxial lift off process. We find that infrared transmission and reflection from 3 to 10 microns are consistent with modulation of free-carrier absorption and bulk interband transitions in (Bi1-xSbx)2 Te3. We discuss transport results as well as the contributions that bulk and topological surface electronic transitions make to the optical response of these materials.

  4. Field Dependent Phase Front in Ni[1-x]Cu[x] Graded Alloy Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, B. J.; Belliveau, H. F.; Belyea, D. D.; Miller, C. W.

    2014-03-01

    For heterostructures composed of distinct, homogeneous layers, the magnetic properties of the individual layers can be strongly affected by interlayer exchange coupling, leading novel and useful properties (exchange bias, GMR, etc.). Less well understood are structures exhibiting a gradient in magnetic properties, with no discrete interfaces. Particularly interesting is the case where a phase transition is expected across the length of the gradient - do individual regions behave as they would in isolation, or does exchange coupling cause a single phase? Ni[1-x]Cu[x] alloy is a useful model system for, as the Curie temperature (Tc) varies with x. We have studied a 100 nm Ni[1-x]Cu[x] film with x that varies smoothly from 0.39-0.30 across the thickness. Magnetometry measurements of homogenous x=0.39 (x=0.30) samples reveal Tc near 200 K (300 K). Polarized neutron reflectometry measurements of the graded sample magnetic depth profile reveal a distribution of Tc, demonstrating that the sample is not completely coupled. At 300 K we observe evidence of a non-magnetized / magnetized boundary that moves vertically with applied field. Implications of a spatially controllable paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase boundary will be discussed. Work at USF was supported by NSF-CAREER.

  5. Structure-property coupling in Sr3(Ru1 xMnx)2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Biao; McCandless, Gregory; Garlea, Vasile O; Stadler, S.; Xiong, Yimin; Chan, Julia; Plummer, E. Ward; Jin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Layered ruthenates are prototype materials for the study of structure-property correlations. We report the structural and physical properties of double-layered perovskite Sr3(Ru1 xMnx )2O7 single crystals with 0 < x < 0.7. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction refinements reveal that Mn doping on the Ru site leads to the shrinkage of unit-cell volume and the disappearance of (Ru/Mn)O6 octahedron rotation when x > 0.16, but the crystal structure remains tetragonal. Upon doping, the electrical resistivity reveals a metallic character (d /dT > 0) at high temperatures but insulating behavior (d /dT < 0) below a characteristic temperature TMIT. Interestingly, TMIT is different from TM, at which magnetic susceptibility reaches maximum. While TMIT increases monotonically with increasing x,TM displays a nonmonotonic dependence with x even though the effective spin increases from S 1 (x = 0) to 3/2 (x = 0.7). The phase diagram consists of three distinct magnetic ground states due to local structure change.

  6. History dependence of the magnetic properties of single-crystal Fe1 -xCoxSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Garst, M.; Pfleiderer, C.

    2016-06-01

    We report the magnetization, ac susceptibility, and specific heat of optically float-zoned single crystals of Fe1 -xCoxSi , 0.20 ≤x ≤0.50 . We determine the magnetic phase diagrams for all major crystallographic directions and cooling histories. After zero-field cooling, the phase diagrams resemble that of the archetypal stoichiometric cubic chiral magnet MnSi. Besides the helical and conical state, we observe a pocket of skyrmion lattice phase just below the helimagnetic ordering temperature. At the phase boundaries between these states evidence for slow dynamics is observed. When the sample is cooled in small magnetic fields, the phase pocket of skyrmion lattice may persist metastably down to the lowest temperatures. Taken together with the large variation in the transition temperatures, transition fields, and helix wavelength as a function of the composition, this hysteresis identifies Fe1 -xCoxSi as an ideal material for future experiments exploring, for instance, the topological unwinding of the skyrmion lattice.

  7. Spectroscopic ellipsometric characterization of Si/Si(1-x)Ge(x) strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, H.; Woollam, J. A.; Wang, P. J.; Tejwani, M. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was employed to characterize Si/Si(1-x)Ge(x) strained-layer superlattices. An algorithm was developed, using the available optical constants measured at a number of fixed x values of Ge composition, to compute the dielectric function spectrum of Si(1-x)Ge(x) at an arbitrary x value in the spectral range 17 to 5.6 eV. The ellipsometrically determined superlattice thicknesses and alloy compositional fractions were in excellent agreement with results from high-resolution x ray diffraction studies. The silicon surfaces of the superlattices were subjected to a 9:1 HF cleaning prior to the SE measurements. The HF solution removed silicon oxides on the semiconductor surface, and terminated the Si surface with hydrogen-silicon bonds, which were monitored over a period of several weeks, after the HF cleaning, by SE measurements. An equivalent dielectric layer model was established to describe the hydrogen-terminated Si surface layer. The passivated Si surface remained unchanged for greater than 2 h, and very little surface oxidation took place even over 3 to 4 days.

  8. Selective oxidation of cyclohexane using Ce1-xMnxO2 nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Selvamani, A; Selvaraj, M; Gurulakshmi, M; Ramya, R; Shanthi, K

    2014-04-01

    The Ce1-xMnxO2 nanocatalysts (x = 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 wt.%) were synthesized by sol-gel method. The catalysts were characterized using various techniques such as XRD, N2 sorption study, DRSUV-Vis, TPR, SEM and TEM. The incorporation of Mn ions into the ceria lattice was confirmed by XRD analysis. DRUV-Vis spectra confirm the presence of Ce3+ ions in the lattice of Ce1-xMnxO2. H2-TPR study revealed the oxygen storage capacity of the catalyst. The 3D flowerlike morphology of the nanocatalysts was confirmed from FESEM and HRTEM images. The catalytic activity was tested for the vapor phase oxidation of cyclohexane using air as an oxidant. The key reaction parameters were varied to study the stability, activity and selectivity of the catalysts. The study concluded that suitable amount of manganese content is essential for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane at low temperature and Ce0.25Mn0.75O2 is the most suitable catalyst for high conversion and selectivity under the given reaction conditions. The activity of the catalyst is correlated with the characterization results.

  9. Half-metallicity in Heusler-type Fe2Cr1-x Co x Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramudu, M.; Inamdar, Swaleha; Arout Chelvane, J.; Manivel Raja, M.; Kamat, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of Cr with Co on microstructure, phase composition, structure, magnetic, and electrical properties in \\text{F}{{\\text{e}}2}\\text{C}{{\\text{r}}1-x}\\text{C}{{\\text{o}}x}\\text{Si} (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  1) alloys was investigated to identify the compositions with the potential to exhibit half-metallicity. The microstructural and structural studies revealed that only \\text{F}{{\\text{e}}2}\\text{C}{{\\text{r}}1-x}\\text{C}{{\\text{o}}x}\\text{Si} alloys with x  ⩾  0.5 exhibited the desired single phase L21 full Heusler alloy structure. Both the saturation magnetization (M s) and Curie temperature (T C) were found to increase with the increase in Co concentration. The experimentally measured M s values are in good agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule. The electrical resistivity measurements in the temperature range 10-300 K gives indirect evidence of half-metallic behaviour in these alloys at low temperatures. The temperature range in which the half-metallic behaviour was observed also increased with an increase in Co concentration.

  10. Composition dependence of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} sputter yield

    SciTech Connect

    Tuboltsev, V.; Jalkanen, P.; Kolodyazhnaya, M.; Raeisaenen, J.

    2005-11-15

    Sputtering yields have been measured for unstrained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x=0-1) alloys when bombarded with Ar{sup +} ions within the linear cascade regime. Nonlinear S-shape dependence of the sputter yield as a function of the alloy composition has been revealed. The dependence is analyzed within the frameworks of the cascade theory conventionally accepted to be the most systematic to date theoretical approach in sputtering. In view of a linear composition dependence predicted for the sputter yield by the cascade theory adapted for polyatomic substrates, the nonlinearity observed in our experiments is shown to be related to the alloying effect on the surface binding energies of the alloy components. Based on this analysis, an interpretation is proposed for the experimentally observed nonlinear composition dependence of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} sputter yield. The yield is expressed by an equation derived from the cascade theory with additional terms of the composition parameter x. The form of the equation implies that for a polyatomic substrate the surface binding energy of an individual atom is determined not only by its own chemical identity but to a considerable degree by the identities of its neighbors.

  11. Twinning in vapour-grown, large volume Cd1-xZnxTe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, B. K.; Mullins, J. T.; Pym, A. T. G.; Maneuski, D.

    2016-08-01

    The onset of twinning from (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) to (1 bar 3 bar 3 bar) in large volume Cd1-xZnxTe crystals, grown by vapour transport on (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) , often referred to as (211)B, oriented GaAs seeds, has been investigated using X-ray diffraction imaging (X-ray topography). Twinning is not associated with strains at the GaAs/CdTe interface as the initial growth was always in (2 bar 1 bar 1 bar) orientation. Nor is twinning related to lattice strains associated with injection of Zn subsequent to initial nucleation and growth of pure CdTe as in both cases twinning occurred after growth of several mm length of Cd1-xZnxTe. While in both cases examined, there was a region of disturbed growth prior to the twinning transition, in neither crystal does this strain appear to have nucleated the twinning process. In both cases, un-twinned material remained after twinning was observed, the scale of the resulting twin boundaries being sub-micron. Simultaneous twinning across the whole sample surface was observed in one sample, whereas in the other, twinning was nucleated at different points and times in the growth.

  12. High-field magnetization of Heusler compound Fe2Mn1 -xVxSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, Masahiko; Tazoko, Tomoya; Sano, Hiroaki; Shigeta, Iduru; Koyama, Keiichi; Kondo, Akihiro; Kindo, Koich; Manaka, Hirotaka; Terada, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Fe2MnSi exhibits a ferromagnetic transition at TC˜230 K and another transition to a phase with antiferromagnetic components at TA˜60 K. By substituting V for Mn, so as to obtain Fe2Mn1 -xVxSi , TA is revealed to decrease with x and then vanish around x ˜0.2 . In this study, the phase boundary of the transition at TA in the high-field range is found for 0 ≤x ≤0.15 with pulsed fields up to ˜70 T. The magnetization of Fe2Mn1 -xVxSi slowly increases even at the highest field of ˜70 T, though it occurs more gradually as x increases. We compare the magnetization for 0 ≤x ≤0.20 at 62 T with the Slater-Pauling rule, which holds when a Heusler compound is a half-metal, and find fairly good agreement. This suggests an intimate relation between the high-field phase and the half-metallic electronic structure, and that at the high-field limit the phase approaches the half-metallic state, which has been predicted by band-structure calculations.

  13. Magnetic properties of multiferroics-semiconductors Eu1-xCexMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanina, V. A.; Golovenchits, E. I.; Zalesskii, V. G.; Scheglov, M. P.

    2011-11-01

    Studies of magnetization, magnetoresistance, and magnetic oscillations in semiconductor-multiferroics Eu1-xCexMn2O5 (x = 0.2-0.25) (ECMO) at temperatures ranging from 5 to 350 K in magnetic fields up to 6 T are presented. It is shown that phase separation and charge carrier self-organization in the crystals give rise to a layered superstructure perpendicular to the c axis. An effect of magnetic field cycling on the superstructure, magnetization, and magnetoresistance is demonstrated. X-ray diffraction studies of ECMO demonstrating the effect of magnetic field on the superstructure are presented. The de Haas-van Alphen magnetization oscillations in high magnetic fields and the temperature-induced magnetic oscillations in a fixed magnetic field are observed at low temperatures. Below 10 K the quantum corrections to magnetization due to the weak charge carrier localization in 2D superlattice layers occur. It is shown that at all the temperatures the Eu1-xCexMn2O5 magnetic state is dictated by superparamagnetism of isolated ferromagnetic domains.

  14. Novel synthesis and photocatalytic performance of Ce1 - xZrxO2/silica fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Pengfei; Gu, Guoqiang; Wu, Qiang; Yao, Weifeng

    2016-09-01

    A series of Ce1 - xZrxO2/silica fiber composites were successfully synthesized via a carbon nanofiber (CNF) template-assisted alcohol-thermal procedure. The resulting samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) apparatus, and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by UV-light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) solution. The results show that the photocatalytic degradation of MB was fairly effective for the as-prepared Ce1 - xZrxO2/silica fiber samples. Particularly, with zirconium (Zr) doping, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2/silica fiber composites clearly exhibit enhanced photocatalytic efficiencies, compared with CeO2/silica fiber samples. The incorporation of Zr into the CeO2 lattice not only causes a decrease in particle size but also brings about an increase in BET specific area and UV absorption ability, which should be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  15. Effect of composition and annealing on electrodeposited CoxPt1-X nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Manvendra Singh; Agarwal, Shivani; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Chien, Chia-Hua; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered CoxPt1-x (x ≤ 0.82) magnetic nanowire arrays of 60 nm diameter have been fabricated successfully by electrodeposition process into the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Electrodeposition process has been used as it is one of the simplest and most inexpensive, easily controlled method for the synthesis of nanowires.It was found that deposition potential is a key factor to control the composition and thus the magnetic properties of the nanowires. The as-deposited CoxPt1-x nanowires were characterized by XRD to have fcc structure with preferred orientation of (111) or (001) along the nanowire. Co-rich nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic behavior in contrast to near superparamagnetic response of the Pt-rich nanowires. Upon annealing the effects of crystallization cause the decrease of anisotropy along the wire axis for Co82Pt18 nanowires due to the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy perpendicular to the wire axis. In the next phase of our work segmented CoPtP/Pt multilayers nanowires will be deposited within the AAO template. Such multilayers nanowires are expected to have the high anisotropy due to the formation of ordered Co-Pt alloy phase at the interface.

  16. Cyclotron resonance in epitaxial Bi1-xSbx films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, J.; Partin, D. L.; Thrush, C. M.; Karczewski, G.; Richardson, M. S.; Furdyna, J. K.

    1993-10-01

    The far-infrared magnetotransmission of thin films of semiconducting and semimetallic Bi1-xSbx alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy has been measured at fixed photon energies between 2.5 and 21.4 meV in magnetic fields up to 6 T, at T=1.8 K. The samples, grown on BaF2 substrates with composition 0<=x<=22.5%, were monocrystalline, with the trigonal axis perpendicular to the surface plane. The measurements were carried out in Faraday and Voigt geometries, with the magnetic field oriented parallel to binary, bisectrix, and trigonal axes of the films. Cyclotron-resonance lines of both electrons and holes were observed. From them, we establish the composition dependence of the effective-mass tensor, of the direct L-point band gap, and of the energy overlap in the semimetallic samples. We conclude that all band-structure parameters are the same in the films as in bulk Bi1-xSbx alloys, except for the energy overlap, which is increased by 16 meV independently of composition, possibly because of the strain induced by the substrate.

  17. High Compositional Homogeneity of CdTexSe1-x Crystals Grown by the Bridgman Method

    DOE PAGES

    Roy, U. N.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; ...

    2015-02-03

    We obtained high-quality CdTexSe1-x (CdTeSe) crystals from ingots grown by the vertical Bridgman technique. The compositional uniformity of the ingots was evaluated by X-ray fluorescence at BNL’s National Synchrotron Light Source X27A beam line. The resulting compositional homogeneity was highly uniform throughout the ingot, and the effective segregation coefficient of Se was ~1.0. This uniformity offers potential opportunity to enhance the yield of the materials for both infrared substrate and radiation-detector applications, so greatly lowering the cost of production and also offering us the prospect to grow large-diameter ingots for use as large-area substrates and for producing higher efficiency gamma-raymore » detectors. The concentration of secondary phases was found to be much lower, by eight- to ten fold compared to that of conventional CdxZn1-xTe (CdZnTe or CZT).« less

  18. Structural characterization of epitaxial Cr(x)Mo(1-x) alloy thin films.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, T C; Bowden, M E; Varga, T; Wang, C M; Shutthanandan, V; Joly, A G; Wirth, B D; Kurtz, R J

    2012-03-07

    To develop a model system containing regularly spaced misfit dislocations for studies of the radiation resistance of nanoscale defects, epitaxial thin films of Cr, Mo, and Cr(x)Mo(1-x) alloys were deposited on MgO(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. Film compositions were chosen to vary the lattice mismatch with MgO. The film structure was investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Epitaxial films with reasonably high crystalline quality and abrupt interfaces were achieved at a relatively low deposition temperature, as confirmed by STEM. However, it was found by XRD and RBS in the channeling geometry that increasing the Mo content of the CrMo alloy films degraded the crystalline quality, despite the improved lattice match with MgO. XRD rocking curve data indicated that regions of different crystalline order may be present within the films with higher Mo content. This is tentatively ascribed to spinodal decomposition into Cr-rich and Mo-rich regions, as predicted by the Cr(x)Mo(1-x) phase diagram.

  19. Electronic and optical properties of mixed perovskites CsSnxPb(1-x)I3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang-Tao; Wei, Jun-Hong; Peng, Yu-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The electronic structure and optical properties of the new solar cells absorber material: mixed perovskites CsSnxPb(1-x)I3 are studied by the first-principle calculations with mBJ + SOC (modified Beak Johnson approximation plus spin-orbit coupling) method. The band gap of the serial of compounds almost quasi-linearly reduces with increasing Sn content from 0.96 eV (x = 0) to 0.16 eV (x = 1). Optical absorption coefficient revealed a progressive red shift with the increment of the Sn content, accompanying with the absorption edge broadening. The absorption coefficient and Ideal Power Absorption Coefficient (IPAC) increase greatly with the Pb atoms being partially substituted by Sn atoms. The pure CsSnI3 has the highest IPAC, but it is unstable in the air because the Sn2+ will be oxidized to Sn4+. So our results indicate that partially substituted CsSnxPb(1-x)I3 might be the good solar cell absorption material.

  20. Evolution of spin excitations into the superconducting state in FeTe1-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumsden, M. D.; Christianson, A. D.; Goremychkin, E. A.; Nagler, S. E.; Mook, H. A.; Stone, M. B.; Abernathy, D. L.; Guidi, T.; MacDougall, G. J.; de La Cruz, C.; Sefat, A. S.; McGuire, M. A.; Sales, B. C.; Mandrus, D.

    2010-03-01

    The origin of the superconducting state in the recently discovered Fe-based materials is the subject of intense scrutiny. Neutron scattering and NMR (ref. 8) measurements have already demonstrated a strong correlation between magnetism and superconductivity. A central unanswered question concerns the nature of the normal-state spin fluctuations that may be responsible for the pairing. Here we present inelastic neutron scattering measurements from large single crystals of superconducting and non-superconducting Fe1+yTe1-xSex. These measurements indicate a spin fluctuation spectrum dominated by two-dimensional incommensurate excitations extending to energies greater than 250meV. Most importantly, the spin excitations in Fe1+yTe1-xSex have four-fold symmetry about the (1, 0) wavevector (square-lattice (π,π) point). Moreover, the excitations are described by the identical wavevector and can be characterized by the same model as the normal-state spin excitations in the high-TC cuprates. These results demonstrate commonality between the magnetism in these classes of materials, which perhaps extends to a common origin for superconductivity.

  1. Exploration of optical behavior of Cd1-xNixTe thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Arshad; Aziz, U.; Rashid, R.; Shah, A.; Ali, Zahid; Raza, Qaiser; Raffi, M.; Shakir, Imran

    2014-12-01

    We report on the tunability over the optical behavior of e-beam evaporated nanocrystalline thin films of Cd1-xNixTe (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15). X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the polycrystalline nature of the film having zinc blend structure with a preferred growth direction along (111) plane parallel to the substrate. X-ray diffraction results also indicate that the grain size of the films decreases from 27.13 nm to 16.23 nm with an increase in Ni concentration from 0 to 15 at%. The compositional analysis of the film was carried out by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) which confirms the successful inclusion of Ni in CdTe matrix. Spectroscopic ellipsometery (SE) results demonstrate that the band gap of the grown films increases from 1.48 eV to 1.86 eV while refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) decrease with the increasing Ni concentration. The increase in band gap energy of Cd1-xNixTe films as a function of Ni concentration was confirmed by spectrophotometric analysis.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and thermoluminescence studies of (ZnS)1-x (MnTe)x nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Pateria, Deepti; Baghel, R N; Bisen, D P; Jha, Piyush; Chandra, V K; Chandra, B P

    2017-05-01

    The present paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) of (ZnS)1-x (MnTe)x nanophosphors that were prepared by a wet chemical synthesis method. The structure investigated by X-ray diffraction patterns confirms the formation of a sphalerite phase whose space group was found to be F 4¯3m. From XRD, TEM and SEM analyses the average sizes of the particles were found to be 12 nm, 11 nm and 15 nm, respectively. Initially the TL intensity increased with increasing values of x because the number of luminescence centres increased; however, for higher values of x the TL intensity decreased because of the concentration quenching. Thus the TL, mechanoluminescence and photoluminescence intensities are optimum for a particular value of x, that is for x = 0.05. Thermoluminescence of the (ZnS)1-x (MnTe)x nanophosphor has not been reported previously. There were two peaks seen in the thermoluminescence glow curves in which the first peak lay at 105-100 °C and the second peak lay at 183.5-178.5 °C. The activation energies for the first and second peaks were found to be 0.45 eV and 0.75 eV, respectively.

  3. First-principle investigation on perovskite La1-x EuxGaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yanni; Xu, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoshan

    2016-12-01

    The pseudopotential method has been used to investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of La1-xEuxGaO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) within the scheme of generalized gradient approximation. The spin-polarized calculations demonstrate that the ground state is an antiferromagnetic insulator for x ≤ 0.5, while it is ferromagnetic half-metal at x > 0.5. The substitutions of magnetic Eu ions for non-magnetic La ions produce and strength spin polarization, which forcefully urges the system from the insulator to the half metal. Meanwhile, Eu doping strengthens a stoner mechanism for ferromagnetism of La1-xEuxGaO3 (x = 0.75 and 1), which may lead to a rapid increasing in the total magnetic moment and therefore, antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic transition happens. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1332205, 11274153, 10974081, and 10979017) and the Postdoctoral Fund of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 1301019B).

  4. CoxFe1-x oxide coatings on metallic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fengyu; Lu, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve the performance of Cr-containing steel as an interconnect material for solid oxide fuel cells, CoFe alloy coatings with Co:Fe ratios of 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, and 5:5 are deposited by electrodeposition and then oxidized to CoxFe1-x oxide coatings with a thickness of ∼6 μm as protective layers on the interconnect. The area specific resistance of the coated interconnect increases with the Fe content. Higher Co content oxide coatings are more effective in limiting the growth of the chromia scale while all coatings are effective in inhibiting Cr diffusion and evaporation. With the Co0.8Fe0.2 oxide coated interconnect, the electrochemical performance of the Sm0.5Sr0.5Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode is improved. Only 1.54 atomic percentage of Cr is detected on the surface of the Sm0.5Sr0.5Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode while no Cr is detected 0.66 μm or more into the cathode. CoxFe1-x oxide coatings are promising candidates for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects with the advantage of using existing cathode species for compatibility and performance enhancement.

  5. Structural and electronic properties of Fe(AlxGa1-x)3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Debashis; Kamal, C.; Banik, Soma; Bhakar, Ashok; Kak, Ajay; Das, Gangadhar; Reddy, V. R.; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Ganguli, Tapas

    2016-10-01

    FeGa3 is a well known intermetallic semiconductor with a band gap, which is induced by d-p hybridization. In this work, we present the results of experimental and theoretical studies on the effect of Al substitution in FeGa3, obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, temperature dependent resistivity measurement, room temperature Mössbauer measurement, and density functional theory based electronic structure calculations. It is observed that up to x = 0.178 in Fe(AlxGa1-x)3, which is the maximum range studied in this work, Al substitution reduces the lattice parameters a and c, preserving the parent tetragonal P42/mnm crystal structure of FeGa3. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that Al atoms replace Ga atoms located at the 8j sites in FeGa3. A comparison of the trends of the lattice parameters and energy band gap obtained from the calculations and experimental measurements also confirms that Al atoms primarily replace the Ga atoms in the 8j site. The band gap of Fe(AlxGa1-x)3 for x = 0.178 is reduced by ≈24% as compared to FeGa3. The system thus has a lot of promise for applications in band gap engineering in infra-red devices.

  6. Growth and characterization of Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Se

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Hg sub 1-xZn sub xSe alloys of composition x=0.10 were grown in a Bridgman-Stockbarger growth furnace at translation rates of 0.3 and 0.1 micron sec. The axial and radial composition profiles were determined using precision density measurements and IR transmission-edge-mapping, respectively. A more radially homogeneous alloy was produced at the slower growth rate, while the faster growth rate produced more axially homogeneous alloys. A determination of the electrical properties of the Hg sub 1-xZn sub xSe samples in the temperature range 300K-20K was also made. Typical carrier concentrations were on the order of magnitude of 10 to the 18th power cu/cm, and remained fairly constant as a function of temperature. A study was also made of the temperature dependence of the resistivity and Hall mobility. The effect of annealing in a selenium vapor on both the IR transmission and the electrical properties was determined. Annealing was effective in reducing the number of native donor defects and at the resulting lower carrier concentrations, charge carrier concentration was shown to be a function of temperature. Annealing caused the mobility to increase, primarily at the lower temperature, and the room temperature resistivity to increase. Annealing was also observed to greatly enhance the % IR transmittance of the samples. This was due primarily to the effect of annealing on decreasing the charge carrier concentration.

  7. Microstructural Development of Directionally Solidified Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Se Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. F.; Jones, K. S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Se alloys have been studied as an alternative to Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te for the detection of electromagnetic radiation, because the shorter ZnSe and HgSe bonds have been predicted to improve lattice stability. Several ingots with x = 0.1 were directionally solidified using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger method; one was grown in an applied magnetic field, which greatly reduced radial compositional variations. A method was developed to reduce wetting. This, combined with the convex liquid-solid interface shape, produced boules that were single crystalline after growing about 3.5 cm. Observed surface features indicated ampoule wetting was eliminated using a graphite getter. Microstructural characteristics were greatly improved over HgCdTe alloys. In six boules, a total of only one twin was observed. A method for polishing and producing dislocation etch pits was developed for these alloys, revealing dislocation etch pit densities one to two orders of magnitude less than HgTe-based alloys. A kink in the thermal profile during processing of one boule generated more dislocations than did lattice mismatch due to compositional variations. This alloy has improved microstructural properties and resistance to dislocation formation compared with similar II-VI alloys.

  8. Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2016-07-01

    In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near ≈0.17, the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.

  9. High-speed AFM for 1x node metrology and inspection: Does it damage the features?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghian, Hamed; van den Dool, Teun C.; Uziel, Yoram; Bar Or, Ron

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at unraveling the mystery of damage in high speed AFMs for 1X node and below. With the device dimensions moving towards the 1X node and below, the semiconductor industry is rapidly approaching the point where existing metrology, inspection and review tools face huge challenges in terms of resolution, the ability to resolve 3D, and throughput. In this paper, we critically asses the important issue of damage in high speed AFM for metrology and inspection of semiconductor wafers. The issues of damage in four major scanning modes (contact mode, tapping mode, non-contact mode, and peak force tapping mode) are described to show which modes are suitable for which applications and which conditions are damaging. The effects of all important scanning parameters on resulting damage are taken into account for materials such as silicon, photoresists and low K materials. Finally, we recommend appropriate scanning parameters and conditions for several use cases (FinFET, patterned photoresist, HAR structures) that avoid exceeding a critical contact stress such that sample damage is minimized. In conclusion, we show using our theoretical analysis that selecting parameters that exceed the target contact stress, indeed leads to significant damage. This method provides AFM users for metrology with a better understanding of contact stresses and enables selection of AFM cantilevers and experimental parameters that prevent sample damage.

  10. Charge density wave in layered La1 -xCexSb2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luccas, R. F.; Fente, A.; Hanko, J.; Correa-Orellana, A.; Herrera, E.; Climent-Pascual, E.; Azpeitia, J.; Pérez-Castañeda, T.; Osorio, M. R.; Salas-Colera, E.; Nemes, N. M.; Mompean, F. J.; García-Hernández, M.; Rodrigo, J. G.; Ramos, M. A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

    2015-12-01

    The layered rare-earth diantimonides R Sb2 are anisotropic metals with generally low electronic densities whose properties can be modified by substituting the rare earth. LaSb2 is a nonmagnetic metal with a low residual resistivity presenting a low-temperature magnetoresistance that does not saturate with the magnetic field. It has been proposed that the latter can be associated to a charge density wave (CDW), but no CDW has yet been found. Here we find a kink in the resistivity above room temperature in LaSb2 (at 355 K) and show that the kink becomes much more pronounced with substitution of La by Ce along the La1 -xCexSb2 series. We find signatures of a CDW in x-ray scattering, specific heat, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments in particular for x ≈0.5 . We observe a distortion of rare-earth-Sb bonds lying in-plane of the tetragonal crystal using x-ray scattering, an anomaly in the specific heat at the same temperature as the kink in resistivity and charge modulations in STM. We conclude that LaSb2 has a CDW which is stabilized in the La1 -xCexSb2 series due to substitutional disorder.

  11. Sharp variation in coercivity and magnetic interactions in patterned CoxNi1-x nanoarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao-Yao; Wang, Liang-Wei; Chen, Po-An; Lin, Hong-Ji; Lai, Chih-Huang; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    We present a study concerning the unexpectedly large coercivity increase and associated magneto-structural properties of CoxNi1-x patterned arrays. An increase in x led to an face-center-cubic (FCC)→hexagonal-close-packed (HCP) transition in CoxNi1-x arrays, accompanied by a 6-fold increase in coercivity and strong 3d exchange interactions probed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Sum-rule analysis revealed that orbital moment involved very little in the variable coercivity and magnetic anisotropy; this is distinct from other nanostructures displaying variable coercivity. The sharp rise in coercivity can be attributed to the geometrical confinement of the arrays, causing the microstructure of the nano-clusters to switch magnetization reversal mechanism from fanning to coherent with increasing x, based on the chain-of-spheres model. First-order-reversal curves revealed that the FCC and HCP arrays comprised both soft and hard ferromagnetic components; however, the soft component of the FCC was much more pronounced, leading to differences in reversibility. This type of nanostructure provides a sharp control of magnetic hardness that could be tailored in related technologies.

  12. Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada

    2016-07-19

    In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near [Formula: see text], the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.

  13. Structural and antiferromagnetic properties of Ba(Fe1-x-y Cox Rhy)2 As2 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Heitmann, T. W.; Mulcahy, S. R.; Bourret-Courchesne, E. D.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    We present a systematic investigation of the electrical, structural, and antiferromagnetic properties for the series of Ba(Fe1-x-y CoxRhy)2 As2 compounds with fixed x = 0.027 and 0 < y <0.035. We compare our results for the Co-Rh doped Ba(Fe1-x-y CoxRhy)2 As2 compounds with Ba(Fe 1-xCox)2 As2 compounds. We demonstrate that the electrical, structural, antiferromagnetic, and superconducting properties of the Co-Rh doped compounds are similar to the properties of the Co doped compounds. We find that the overall behaviors of Ba(Fe1-x-y CoxRhy)2 As2 and Ba(Fe1-x Cox)2 As2 compounds are very similar when the total number of the extra electrons per Fe/TM (TM = transition metal) site is considered, which is consistent with the rigid band model. Despite the similarity, we find that the details of the transitions are different in between Ba(Fe1-x-y CoxRhy)2 As2 and Ba(Fe1-x Cox)2 As2 compounds. The work at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  14. Two-color thermosensors based on [Y_{1-x}Dy_x(acetylacetonate)_3(1,10-phenanthroline)] molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen

    2017-02-01

    We develop a two-color thermometry (TCT) phosphor based on [Y_{1-x}Dy_x(acetylacetonate)_3(1,10-phenanthroline)] ([Y_{1-x}Dy_x(acac)_3(phen)]) molecular crystals for use in heterogeneous materials. We characterize the optical properties of [Y_{1-x}Dy_x(acac)_3(phen)] crystals at different temperatures and Dy concentrations, and find that the emission is strongly quenched by increasing temperature and concentration. We also observe a broad background emission (due to the ligands) and find that [Y_{1-x}Dy_x(acac)_3(phen)] photodegrades under 355 nm illumination with the photodegradation resulting in decreased luminescence intensity. However, while decreasing the overall emission intensity, photodegradation is not found to influence the integrated intensity ratio of the ^4I_{15/2} → ^6H_{15/2} and ^4F_{9/2} → ^6H_{15/2} transitions. This ratio allows us to compute the temperature of the complex. Based on the temperature dependence of these ratios; we calculate that [Y_{1-x}Dy_x(acac)_3(phen)] has a maximum sensitivity of 1.5% K^{-1} and our TCT system has a minimum temperature resolution of 1.8 K. Finally, we demonstrate the use of [Y_{1-x}Dy_x(acac)_3(phen)] as a TCT phosphor by determining a dynamic temperature profile using the emission from [Y_{1-x}Dy_x(acac)_3(phen)].

  15. Understanding the optical properties of ZnO1-xSx and ZnO1-xSex alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldissera, Gustavo; Persson, Clas

    2016-01-01

    ZnO1-xYx with chalcogen element Y exhibits intriguing optoelectronic properties as the alloying strongly impacts the band-gap energy Eg(x). In this work, we analyze and compare the electronic structures and the dielectric responses of Zn(O,S) and Zn(O,Se) alloys by means of the density functional theory and the partially self-consistent GW approach. We model the crystalline stability from the total energies, and the results indicate that Zn(O,S) is more stable as alloy than Zn(O,Se). We demonstrate also that ion relaxation strongly affects total energies, and that the band-gap bowing depends primarily on local relaxation of the bonds. Moreover, we show that the composition dependent band-gap needs to be analyzed by the band anti-crossing model for small alloying concentration, while the alloying band-bowing model is accurate for strong alloying. We find that the Se-based alloys have a stronger change in the band-gap energy (for instance, ΔEg(0.50) = Eg(ZnO) - Eg(x = 0.50) ≈ 2.2 eV) compared with that of the S-based alloy (ΔEg(0.50) = 1.2 eV), mainly due to a stronger relaxation of the Zn-anion bonds that affects the electronic structure near the band edges. The optical properties of the alloys are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ɛ(ω) = ɛ1(ω) + iɛ2(ω) and the absorption coefficient α(ω). While the large band-gap bowing directly impacts the low-energy absorption spectra, the high-frequency dielectric constant ɛ∞ is correlated to the intensity of the dielectric response at energies above 4 eV. Therefore, the dielectric constant is only weakly affected by the non-linear band-gap variation. Despite strong structural relaxation, the high absorption coefficients of the alloys demonstrate that the alloys have well-behaved optoelectronic properties.

  16. Self-catalysed InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires grown directly on bare Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Anyebe, E.A. Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Self-catalysed InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires grown directly on bare Si substrates. • InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires directly grown on bare Si substrates without employing the commonly used nucleation nanowire stems which could be problematic in device applications. • Pre-deposited Indium droplets were employed to facilitate InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowire nucleation and growth. • Unravels a promising route for the direct integration of InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires with the well-established Silicon platform. - Abstract: We report the self-catalysed growth of InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires directly on bare Si substrates. Vertically aligned and non-tapered InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires were realized via indium-assisted nucleation without using nanowire stems. The compositions of the InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires were determined by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). It is observed that the geometry of the nanowires is modified by the Sb flux resulting in an almost doubling of the lateral dimension and a corresponding suppression in the axial growth of the InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires. This observation unravels a method to modify the geometry of InAs nanowire and open up a promising route for the direct integration of InAs{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires with the well-established Si platform.

  17. The photocatalytic properties of hollow (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x composite nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding; Zhang, Minglu; Zhuang, Huaijuan; Chen, Xu; Wang, Xianying; Zheng, Xuejun; Yang, Junhe

    2017-02-01

    (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x composite nanofibers with hollow structure were prepared by initial electrospinning, and the subsequent calcination and nitridation. The structure and morphology characteristics of samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results showed the phase transition from ZnGa2O4 to (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution under ammonia atmosphere. The preparation conditions were explored and the optimum nitridation temperature and holding time are 750 °C and 2 h, respectively. The photocatalytic properties of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x with different Ga:Zn atomic ratios were investigated by degrading Rhodamine B under the visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity sequence is (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x (Ga:Zn = 1:2) > (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x (Ga:Zn = 1:3) > ZnO nanofibers > (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x (Ga:Zn = 1:4) > (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x (Ga:Zn = 1:1). The photocatalytic mechanism of the (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x hollow nanofibers was further studied by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The excellent photocatalytic performance of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x hollow nanofibers was attributed to the narrow band gap and high surface area of porous nanofibers with hollow structure.

  18. Chromatographic behaviour of alkaloids on thin layers of anion and cation exhangers. I. AG 1-X4 and cellex D.

    PubMed

    Lepri, L; Desideri, P G; Lepori, M

    1976-01-07

    The chromatographic behaviour of 48 alkaloids has been studied on Bio-Rad AG 1-X4, Cellex D and microcrystalline cellulose, eluting with solutions of different pH but constant ionic strength (0.5). Many interesting separations were effected on both AG 1-X4 and Cellex D layers. The influence of pH on the chromatographic behaviour of alkaloids has been quantitatively studied and an equation was used that expresses the behaviour of the alkaloids on both AG 1-X4 (AcO-) and microcrystalling cellulose layers. The nonapplicability of this equation to Cellex D layers is discussed.

  19. Purification of (NB/sub 1-x/TA/sub x/)/sub 2/O/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, R.C.; Gorre, L.E.

    1988-07-12

    A process for purifying compounds of the form (Nb/sub 1-x/Ta/sub x/)/sub 2/O/sub 5/, where x ranges from 0 to 1 is described, comprising the steps of: furnishing the (Nb/sub 1-x/Ta/sub x/)/sub 2/O/sub 5/ in a finely divided form; contacting a liquid extraction phase containing a source of halide ions, and separating the liquid extraction phase and the reacted impurities contained therein from the finely divided (Nb/sub 1-x/Ta/sub x/)/sub 2/O/sub 5/.

  20. Band gap tuning of Na{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} for H{sub 2} generation from water under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Z. G.; Ye, J. H.

    2009-10-01

    Semiconductors of Na{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3}(x=0-1.00) were prepared with conventional solid state reactions method. The crystal structure changed from monoclinic (x<=0.60) to orthorhombic (x>=0.70) with the modulation of chemical composition. H{sub 2} generation under visible light irradiation (lambda>420 nm) was successfully obtained with the tuning of band structures of Na{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3}. The highest performance for H{sub 2} generation (4.5 mumol/h) was observed at x=0.4 with apparent quantum yield of 0.5%. The visible light harvesting as well as the photocatalysis was further discussed based on the electronic structures thereof.

  1. Quaternary Znx'Cdy'Mg1-x'-y'Se/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe quantum wells grown on InP substrates for blue emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. P.; Zeng, L.; Tamargo, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Quaternary Znx'Cdy'Mg1-x'-y'Se/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe quantum well (QW) structures in which both the well and the barrier layers are composed of quaternary alloys lattice matched to InP and having various well thicknesses have been grown and investigated. A blue emission with narrow linewidth was achieved by using a relatively thick well thickness (40-60 Å). The quaternary QW emission exhibits excitonic recombination behavior and it has higher quantum efficiency than the ternary ZnxCd1-xSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe QW of comparable thickness. The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence measurements shows a high activation energy of 68 meV, indicating a strong quantum confinement by introduction of Mg in the QW region.

  2. Luminescence of narrow RIE etched In 1-xGa xAs/InP and GaAs/Ga 1-xAl xAs quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzin, J. Y.; Izrael, A.; Birotheau, L.; Sermage, B.; Roy, N.; Azoulay, R.; Robein, D.; Benchimol, J.-L.; Henry, L.; Thierry-Mieg, V.; Ladan, F. R.; Taylor, L.

    We present low temperature optical data obtained on narrow quantum wires, fabricated with reactive ion etching and MOCVD overgrowth, in both In 1- xGa xAs/InP and GaAs/Ga 1- xAl xAs systems. One-dimensional quantum confinement effects are observed in both cases for the lowest lateral sizes ( Lx), in which carrier lifetimes remain of the order of one nanosecond. For In 1- xGa xAs/InP wires ( Lx down to 15 nm, quantum shifts of the photoluminescence peak (up to 30 meV) are observed. For GaAs/Ga 1- xAl xAs wires ( Lx down to 20 nm). We present photoluminescence excitation spectra showing additional lateral confinement effects, concerning mainly the polarization of the observed transitions.

  3. Novel magnetic and optical properties of Sn1-xZnxO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Nevil A.; Reddy, Kongara M.; Eixenberger, Josh; Tenne, Dmitri A.; Hanna, Charles B.; Punnoose, Alex

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we report on the effects of doping SnO2 nanoparticles with Zn2+ ions. A series of ˜2-3 nm sized Sn1-xZnxO2 crystallite samples with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.18 were synthesized using a forced hydrolysis method. Increasing dopant concentration caused systematic changes in the crystallite size, oxidation state of Sn, visible emission, and band gap of SnO2 nanoparticles. X-ray Diffraction studies confirmed the SnO2 phase purity and the absence of any impurity phases. Magnetic measurements at room temperature showed a weak ferromagnetic behavior characterized by an open hysteresis loop. Their saturation magnetization Ms increases initially with increasing Zn concentrations; however for x > 0.06, Ms decreases. Samples with the highest Ms values (x = 0.06) were analyzed using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, looking for traces of any magnetic elements in the samples. Concentrations of all transition metals (Fe, Co, Mn, Cr, and Ni) in these samples were below ppb level, suggesting that the observed magnetism is not due to random inclusions of any spurious magnetic impurities and it cannot be explained by the existing models of magnetic exchange. A new visible emission near 490 nm appeared in the Zn doped SnO2 samples in the photoluminescence spectra which strengthened as x increased, suggesting the formation of defects such as oxygen vacancies. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the nominal Zn dopant concentrations and the 2+ oxidation state of Zn in the Sn1-xZnxO2 samples. Interestingly, the XPS data indicated the presence of a small fraction of Sn2+ ions in Sn1-xZnxO2 samples in addition to the expected Sn4+, and the Sn2+ concentration increased with increasing x. The presence of multi-valent metal ions and oxygen defects in high surface area oxide nanoparticles has been proposed as a potential recipe for weak ferromagnetism (Coey et al., New J. Phys. 12, 053025 (2010)).

  4. A new photothermal therapeutic agent: core-free nanostructured Au x Ag1-x dendrites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Chih-Chia; Hwu, Jih-Ru; Su, Wu-Chou; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    A new class of Au(x)Ag(1-x) nanostructures with dendrite morphology and a hollow interior were synthesized by using a replacement reaction between Ag dendrites and an aqueous solution of HAuCl(4). The Ag nanostructured dendrites were generated by the reaction of AgNO(3) with ascorbic acid in a methanol/water system. The dendrites resemble a coral shape and are built up of many stems with an asymmetric arrangement. Each stem is approximately 400 nm in length and 65 nm in diameter. The bimetallic composition of Au(x)Ag(1-x) can be tuned by the addition of different amounts of HAuCl(4) to the Ag dendritic solution. The hollowing process resulted in tubular structures with a wall thickness of 10.5 nm in Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites. The UV/Vis spectra indicate that the strongest NIR absorption among the resulting hollow Au(x)Ag(1-x) dendrites was in Au(0.3)Ag(0.7). The MTT assay was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Ag dendrites, hollow Au(0.06)Ag(0.94) and Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites, and Au nanorods. It was found that hollow Au(0.06)Ag(0.94) and Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites exhibited good biocompatibility, while both Ag dendrites and Au nanorods showed dose-dependent toxicity. Because of absorption in the NIR region, hollow Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites were used as photothermal absorbers for destroying A549 lung cancer cells. Their photothermal performance was compared to that of Au nanorod photothermal therapeutic agents. As a result, the particle concentration and laser power required for efficient cancer cell damage were significantly reduced for hollow Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites relative to those used for Au nanorods. The hollow Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) nanostructured dendrites show potential in photothermolysis for killing cancer cells.

  5. Structural and optical investigation of InAsxP1-x/InP strained superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, C.; Bordiga, S.; Boscherini, F.; Mobilio, S.; Pascarelli, S.; Gastaldi, L.; Madella, M.; Papuzza, C.; Rigo, C.; Soldani, D.; Ferrari, C.; Lazzarini, L.; Salviati, G.

    1998-01-01

    We report a complete characterization of InAsxP1-x/InP (0.051-x/InP layers (10-20 Å) are obtained by P↔As substitutions effects. Arsenic composition of the so obtained layers depends both on AsH3 flux intensity and exposure times. Samples have been characterized by means of high resolution x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, 4 K photoluminescence, and extended x ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The combined use of high resolution x-ray diffraction and of 4 K photoluminescence, with related simulations, allows us to predict both InAsP composition and width, which are qualitatively confirmed by electron microscopy. Our study indicates that the effect of the formation of thin InAsP layers is due to the As incorporation onto the InP surface exposed to the As flux during the AsH3 exposure, rather than the residual As pressure in the growth chamber during InP growth. Arsenic K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis shows that the first shell environment of As at these interfaces is similar to that found in bulk InAsxP1-x alloys of similar composition. In particular we measure an almost constant As-In bond length (within 0.02 Å), independent of As concentration; this confirms that epitaxy with InP is accompanied by local structural distortions, such as bond angle variations, which accommodate the nearly constant As-In bond length. In our investigation we characterize not only very high quality heterostructures but also samples showing serious interface problems such as nonplanarity and/or a consistent chemical spread along the growth axis. In the study presented here we thus propose a general method, based on

  6. Modulation of electronic and optical properties in mixed halide perovskites CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziqi; Cui, Yu; Deng, Hui-Xiong; Huang, Le; Wei, Zhongming; Li, Jingbo

    2017-03-01

    The recent discovery of lead halide perovskites with band gaps in the visible presents important potential in the design of high efficient solar cells. CsPbCl3, CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 are stable compounds within this new family of semiconductors. By performing the first-principles calculation, we explore the structural, electronic and optical properties of CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) with various compositions of halide atoms. Structural stability is demonstrated with halide atoms distributing randomly at the halide atomic sites. CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) exhibit the modulation of their band gaps by varying the halide composition. Our results also indicate that CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) with different halide compositions are suitable to application to solar cells for the general features are well preserved. Good absorption to lights of different wavelengths has been obtained in these mixed halide perovskites.

  7. Modelling the thermal conductivity of (UxTh1-x)O2 and (UxPu1-x)O2

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M. W. D.; Middleburgh, S. C.; Grimes, R. W.

    2015-07-15

    The degradation of thermal conductivity due to the non-uniform cation lattice of (UxTh1-x)O2 and (UxPu1-x)O2 solid solutions has been investigated by molecular dynamics, using the non-equilibrium method, from 300 to 2000 K. Degradation of thermal conductivity is predicted in (UxTh1-x)O2 and (UxPu1-x)O2 as compositions deviate from the pure end members: UO2, PuO2 and ThO2. The reduction in thermal conductivity is most apparent at low temperatures where phonon-defect scattering dominates over phonon-phonon interactions. The effect is greater for (UxTh1-x)O2 than UxPu1-x)O2 due to the greater mismatch in cation size. Parameters for an analytical expressions have been developed that describe the predicted thermal conductivities over the full temperature and compositional ranges. Finally, these expressions may be used in higher level fuel performance codes.

  8. Photoresponse Model for Si_(1-x)Ge_x/Si Heterojunction Internal Photoemission Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T.; Park, J. S.; Gunapala, S. D.; Jones, E. W.; Castillo, H. M. Del

    1993-01-01

    A photoresponse model has been developed for the Si_(1-x)Ge_x/Si heterojunction internalphotoemission (HIP) infrared detector at wavelengths corresponding to photon energies less than theFermi energy. A Si_(0.7)Ge_(0.3)/Si HIP detector with a cutoff wavelength of 23 micrometers andan emission coefficient of 0.4 eV^(-1) has been demonstrated. The model agrees with the measureddetector response at lambda greater than 8 micrometers. The potential barrier determined by themodel is in close agreement (difference similar to 4 meV) with the potential barrier determined by theRichardson plot, compared to the discrepancies of 20-50 meV usually observed for PtSi Schottkydetectors.

  9. Zn1-xCoxO nanoparticles: Synthesis and study of enhanced optical and structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Abdul; Majid, Suhail; Rahman, F.

    2016-05-01

    We have synthesized the Zn1-xCoxO (x= 0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) using Sol-gel method. The structural properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction. Optical properties were characterized using UV-VIS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The lattice parameters were refined using Reitveld refinement which also reveals that all the peaks in XRD patterns were indexed in the wurtzite type hexagonal structure with space group P 63 mc. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the presence of functional groups and chemical bonding. The band gap of each sample was calculated by adopting Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra and effect of doping on band gap is also studied.

  10. Hidden Magnetic Configuration in Epitaxial La1-x SrxMnO3 Films

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Arena, D.A.; Yu, P.; Nelson, C.S.; Fan, R.; Kinane, C.J.; Langridge, S.; Rossell, M.D.; Ramesh, R.; Kao, C.C.

    2010-12-17

    We present an unreported magnetic configuration in epitaxial La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x {approx} 0.3) (LSMO) films grown on strontium titanate (STO). X-ray magnetic circular dichroism indicates that the remanent magnetic state of thick LSMO films is opposite to the direction of the applied magnetic field. Spectroscopic and scattering measurements reveal that the average Mn valence varies from mixed Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} to an enriched Mn{sup 3+} region near the STO interface, resulting in a compressive lattice along the a, b axis and a possible electronic reconstruction in the Mn e{sub g} orbital (d{sub 3z{sup 2}-r{sup 2}}). This reconstruction may provide a mechanism for coupling the Mn{sup 3+} moments antiferromagnetically along the surface normal direction, and in turn may lead to the observed reversed magnetic configuration.

  11. Optical and Phonon Characterization of Ternary CdSe x S1- x Alloy Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, L. A.; Cong, N. D.; Dang, N. T.; Nghia, N. X.; Quang, V. X.

    2016-05-01

    Ternary CdSe x S1- x alloy quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using a wet chemical method. Their morphology, particle size, structural, optical, and vibrational properties were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The optical and vibrational properties of the QDs can be controlled by adjusting the Se/S molar ratio. The absorption and emission peaks shift to a longer wavelength range when increasing the Se content. The presence of two CdSe-like and CdS-like longitudinal optical phonon modes was observed. The dependencies of the optical and phonon modes on the Se content are discussed in detail.

  12. Magnetic properties of delafossite oxide: CuCr1-xTixO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majee, M. K.; Bhobe, P. A.; Nigam, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In order to increase the possibility for technological applications of CuCrO2, there have been attempts to introduce ferromagnetic (FM) order by doping at B-site. With this aim, we present here study of polycrystalline CuCr1-xTixO2 with x=0.0, 0.05, 0.1. The samples have been prepared using solid state synthesis method and characterized for its crystal structure and magnetic properties. All the samples crystallize in the 2H delafossite structure with R-3m space group. Ti substitution causes the expansion of unit cell with increase in both the lattice constants. Antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is seen to decrease with increasing Ti. Ferromagnetic-like signature is obtained in one of the compositions at low applied magnetic field of 100 Oe.

  13. First-principles study on the formation energies of Ga1_xCrxAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, N.; Rodríguez Martínez, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The electronic structure and formation energy of the Ga1-xCrxAs compound has been studied by principles of methods based on the Density Functional Theory. The formation energy of the compound is calculated, as well as the vacancies and substitutions. The equations of Kohn-Sham are solved employing the plane wave method and the ultra-soft atomic pseudopotentials approximation. The generalized gradient approximation was employed for the exchange and correlation energy in the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) parametrization as it is implemented in the computational code Quantum Espresso. It was found that the most favourable configuration is the GaAs lattice by doing the substitution of one Ga atom by one Cr in the analyzed lattices.

  14. Raman Scattering Studies in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Zn(1-x)Co(x)O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, K.; Bhattacharya, P.; Katiyar, R. S.; Iwamoto, W.; Pagiluso, P. G.; Rettori, C.

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectra of ZnO and Co substituted Zn1-xCoxO (ZCO) were carried out using the Raman microprobe system with an p.,+ ion laser source of 514.5 nm wavelength. The shift towards the lower frequency side of the nonpolar E210w mode and the broadening due to Co substitution in ZnO were analyzed using the phonon confinement model. The magnetic measurements showed ferromagnetic behavior with the maximum saturation magnetization (1.2micron Beta/ErCo) for 10% Co substitution, which decreased wi th at further increase in Co concentrations. The intensities of E1(LO) at 584 cm-1 and multiphonon modes at 540 cm-1 were increased with an increase in Co substitution. The additional Raman modes in ceramic targets of ZCO spectra for higher concentration of Co substitution (x=15%-20%) were identified to be due to the spinel ZnCo2O4 secondary phase.

  15. Temperature field driven polar nanoregions in KTa1-xNbxO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Peng; Tian, Hao; Hu, Chengpeng; Meng, Xiangda; Mao, Chenyang; Huang, Fei; Shi, Guang; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2016-12-01

    Correlated disorder, which exists more widely in materials than crystalline phases, is beneficial for the improvement of material properties. KTa1-xNbxO3 (KTN), a type of perovskite crystal, is recognized as a correlated disorder system in the vicinity of the Curie temperature, Tc, because of the existence of polar nanoregions (PNRs), which yield scale-free optics, reprogrammable soliton nonlinearity, and giant electro-optic effects. In this letter, we propose the mechanisms for induced PNR reorientation under a specific temperature field and manipulate PNRs using a temperature gradient in KTN to modulate light polarization, reduce light scattering, and enhance the electro-optic effect. A designed temperature gradient provides an effective way to drive correlated disordered PNRs, which could guide the exploitation of PNRs and is significant for correlated disorder applications.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Compositionally Graded Si1-xGex Layers on Si substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhongqing; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Chong M.; Shutthanandan, V.; Lyubinetsky, Igor; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Mccready, David E.; Henager, Charles H.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2007-08-01

    Thin film of silicon germanium (Si1-xGex) with tailored composition was grown on Si (100) substrate at 650oC in an ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy system. The nominal x-value is ranged from 0 to 0.14. The quality of the film was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling geometries, glancing angle x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). RBS/Channeling measurements indicate that the strain associated with lattice mismatch is compressive in the film. Both RBS and EDX analyses indicate the compositional graded incorporation of Ge in the film with x ranging from 0 to 0.14. The film shows island growth with each island centering around an interface dislocation.

  17. Phase formation and superconducting properties of mechanically alloyed Nb3(Al1-x Ge x ) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pingyuan; Chen, Yongliang; Xu, Liyuan; Zhang, Yun; Pan, Xifeng; Yan, Guo; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, C. H.; Feng, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Mechanically alloyed Nb3(Al1-x Ge x ) compounds with nominal composition x = 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% were synthesized using high-energy ball milling. The effects of Ge content and sintering temperature on the formation of the Nb3Al superconducting phase at a relatively low temperature without the extremely high-temperature rapid heating, quenching and transformation process were studied. The results revealed that Ge doping in Nb3Al improved the formation of the A15 phase at low temperatures, enhanced the superconducting transition temperature (T c), and refined the grain structure, thus improving the overall superconducting properties. The pinning behavior was also studied for the optimized sample.

  18. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Junding; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Karl A.

    2015-01-16

    Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds sequentially order ferrimagnetically and antiferromagnetically, and finally, exhibit spin reorientation transitions. Moreover, these structural distortions from room temperature cubic to low temperature rhombohedral structures occur at TN, and are accompanied by large volume changes reaching ~-1.27% and -1.42%, respectively. First principles electronic structure calculations confirm the phase transformation from the ferrimagnetic cubic structure to the antiferromagnetic rhombohedral structure in TbMn2.

  19. Optical fiber temperature sensor utilizing alloyed Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Kim, Jongsung

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, optical fiber temperature sensors have been prepared by using alloyed Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S quantum dots as sensing media. The surface of the optical fiber was silanized to enhance covalent bond between quantum dots and optical fiber. The quantum dots were bonded to the surface of optical fiber and further encapsulated via sol-gel coating using 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) in ethyl alcohol in acidic condition. Quantum dots with green, yellow, and red fluorescence were used. The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) intensity from quantum dots on ambient temperature has been studied. Linear relation between the fluorescent intensity and temperature was obtained from alloyed quantum dots immobilized on the surface of optical fiber. The PL intensity, sensitivity, and thermal stability were increased by the silica encapsulation.

  20. Low temperature heat capacity of Fe1-xGax alloys with large magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.M.; McQueeney, R.J.; Wu, Ruqian; Dennis, K.; McCallum, R.W.; Huang, M.; Lograsso, T.A.

    2008-01-22

    The low temperature heat capacity C{sub p} of Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} alloys with large magnetostriction has been investigated. The data were analyzed in the standard way using electron ({gamma}T) and phonon ({beta}T{sup 3}) contributions. The Debye temperature {Theta}{sub D} decreases approximately linearly with increasing Ga concentration, consistent with previous resonant ultrasound measurements and measured phonon dispersion curves. Calculations of {Theta}{sub D} from lattice dynamical models and from measured elastic constants C{sub 11}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 44} are in agreement with the measured data. The linear coefficient of electronic specific heat {gamma} remains relatively constant as the Ga concentration increases, despite the fact that the magnetoelastic coupling increases. Band structure calculations show that this is due to the compensation of majority and minority spin states at the Fermi level.

  1. Low temperature heat capacity of Fe1-xGax alloys with large mafnetosreiction

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; McQueeney, R.; Wu, Ruqian; Dennis, K.; McCallum, R.W.; Huang, M.; Lograsso, T.

    2008-01-22

    The low temperature heat capacity C{sub p} of Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} alloys with large magnetostriction has been investigated. The data were analyzed in the standard way using electron ({gamma}T) and phonon ({beta}T{sup 3}) contributions. The Debye temperature {Theta}{sub D} decreases approximately linearly with increasing Ga concentration, consistent with previous resonant ultrasound measurements and measured phonon dispersion curves. Calculations of {Theta}{sub D} from lattice dynamical models and from measured elastic constants C{sub 11}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 44} are in agreement with the measured data. The linear coefficient of electronic specific heat {gamma} remains relatively constant as the Ga concentration increases, despite the fact that the magnetoelastic coupling increases. Band structure calculations show that this is due to the compensation of majority and minority spin states at the Fermi level.

  2. Photoluminescence properties of MgxZn1-xO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Huang, Y. S.; Hu, S. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Tiong, K. K.; Chang, C. C.; Chou, W. C.; Shen, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    The optical properties of MgxZn1-xO films with x=0.03, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.11 grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been studied by temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement. It is presented that the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the 12 K PL spectrum of MgZnO films increases with increasing Mg concentration and would deviate significantly from the simulation curve of Schubert model with higher Mg contents. The abnormal broader PL FWHM is inferred from larger compositional fluctuation by incorporating higher Mg contents, which results in larger effect of excitonic localization to induce more significant S-shaped behavior of the PL peak energy with temperature dependence. Additionally, the degree of localization increases as the linear proportion of the PL FWHM, indicating that the excitonic behavior in MgZnO films belong to the strong localization effect.

  3. Properties of arsenic-implanted Hg1-xCdxTe MBE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhnin, Igor I.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexandr V.; Korotaev, Alexandr G.; Fitsych, Olena I.; Bonchyk, Oleksandr Yu.; Savytskyy, Hrygory V.; Mynbaev, Karim D.; Varavin, Vasilii S.; Dvoretsky, Sergey A.; Yakushev, Maxim V.; Jakiela, Rafal; Trzyna, Malgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Defect structure of arsenic-implanted Hg1-xCdxTe films (x=0.23-0.30) grown with molecular-beam epitaxy on Si substrates was investigated with the use of optical methods and by studying the electrical properties of the films. The structural perfection of the films remained higher after implantation with more energetic arsenic ions (350 keV vs 190 keV). 100%-activation of implanted ions as a result of post-implantation annealing was achieved, as well as the effective removal of radiation-induced donor defects. In some samples, however, activation of acceptor-like defects not related to mercury vacancies as a result of annealing was observed, possibly related to the effect of the substrate.

  4. Antiferromagnetic resonance in KNi xMn 1- xF 3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, D.

    1995-02-01

    The X-band AFMR spectra of single crystals of the series KNi xMn 1- xF 3 have been measured over the range of temperatures from 4.2 K to TN. The results lead to the following conclusions: (i) for x < 0.1, transition into a weak ferromagnetic phase, characteristic of KMnF 3, is maintained, (ii) with increasing concentration of nickel ions, the temperature range over which the observation of the X-band AFMR is feasible becomes progressively narrow, and (iii) a considerable widening of the resonance lines and a simultaneous decrease in their amplitude are due to both the relaxation processes and the domain spin-flop effect occurring at relatively low external magnetic fields.

  5. Optical Properties of Hg1- x- y Cd x Dy y Se Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyuk, T. T.; Maryanchuk, P. D.; Maistruk, É. V.; Koziarskyi, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Results of investigations of the optical properties of Hg1- x- y Cd x Dy y Se crystals by the Bridgeman method are presented. Based on independent measurements of the reflection and transmission coefficients with a Nicolet 6700 spectrometer at Т = 300 K for wavelengths 0.9 ≤ λ ≤ 26.6 μm, values of the refractive and absorption indices and of the absorption coefficient are determined for the examined crystals. From the dependences α = f(hν) it is established that direct interband optical transitions are allowed in the crystals, and values of the gap width are determined. The effects of the temperature on the transmission coefficient and on the gap width at Т = 118-297 K are investigated.

  6. Superconducting and Magnetic Properties of FeSe1-xAsx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziq, Khalil; Owolabi, T.; Salem, A.

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic and transport measurements have been performed on FeSe1-xAsx samples in the normal and superconducting state. The normal state resistivity increases to a broad maximum (Tm) near room temperature that persists down to about 80K then linearly drops down to just above the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) . The normal state behavior of the resistivity is found to insensitive to the applied magnetic field. The normal state magnetic measurements revealed ferromagnetic like behavior for samples with As-doping above x = 4%. Moreover; Tc is reduced drastically with increasing As-concentration above 2%. This project has been supported by KACST NSTIP under 11-ADV1631-04.

  7. Enhanced moments in bcc Co1-xMnx on MgO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, R. J.; Bhatkar, H.; N'Diaye, A. T.; Arenholz, E.; Idzerda, Y. U.

    2016-12-01

    A 40% enhancement of the Co magnetic moment has been found for thin films of bcc Co1-xMnx grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a 2 nm bcc Fe buffer layer on MgO(001). Although the bcc phase cannot be stabilized in the bulk, we confirm that it is stable as an epitaxial film in the composition range x=0-0.7. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we show that the Co moment is a maximum of 2.38 μB at x=0.24, while the net Mn moment remains roughly constant until x=0.24, then drops steadily. Mn is found to align parallel with Co for all ferromagnetic concentrations, up to x=0.7, where the total moment of the film abruptly collapses to zero, most likely due to the onset of the observed structural instability.

  8. The structure and optical properties of Sr1-xCaxMoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, H. A.; Macphee, D. E.; Mclaughlin, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    The solid solution Sr1-xCaxMoO3 (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.13, 0.15 and 0.17) has successfully been synthesised and X-ray Powder diffraction has revealed the occurrence of structural phase transitions, from cubic Pm-3m to tetragonal I4/mcm, and then to orthorhombic Imma as the value of x increased. Discontinuities were observed in the cell parameters and bond lengths and angles at the transition from tetragonal to orthorhombic symmetry as a result of the switching of the octahedral rotation axis at the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition. The increased octahedral tilting could also be linked to the decrease in the band gap from 2.20 eV to 2.10 eV as x increased from 0 to 0.17.

  9. La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 semiconducting nanostructures: morphology and thermoelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Culebras, Mario; Torán, Raquel; Gómez, Clara M; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Semiconducting metallic oxides, especially perosvkite materials, are great candidates for thermoelectric applications due to several advantages over traditionally metallic alloys such as low production costs and high chemical stability at high temperatures. Nanostructuration can be the key to develop highly efficient thermoelectric materials. In this work, La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 perosvkite nanostructures with Ca as a dopant have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method to be used in thermoelectric applications at room temperature. Several heat treatments have been made in all samples, leading to a change in their morphology and thermoelectric properties. The best thermoelectric efficiency has been obtained for a Ca content of x=0.5. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are strongly related to the calcium content.

  10. Ferrimagnetism and magnetization reversal in Pr1- x Gd x MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sanjay; Pal, Sudipta; Bose, Esa

    2014-10-01

    Temperature dependent magnetic properties of Pr1- x Gd x MnO3 ( x = 0.3, 0.5, 0.7) have been reported. All the samples belong to the family of orthorhombic perovskites structure with Pbnm space group. Below the Neel temperature T N ( 92 K), a magnetization reversal is observed in DC magnetization measurements (at 50 Oe), in all the samples. This may be due to the competition between two magnetic sublattices (Pr + Gd and Mn) coupled with a negative exchange interaction. In the temperature dependent magnetization data, the bifurcation between the zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization is attributed to the canted antiferromagnetism. Ferrimagnetic characteristic is observed in the field dependent magnetization curve below T N .

  11. Doping dependent nonlinear Hall effect in SmFeAsO(1-x)F(x).

    PubMed

    Riggs, Scott C; McDonald, R D; Kemper, J B; Stegen, Z; Boebinger, G S; Balakirev, F F; Kohama, Y; Migliori, A; Chen, H; Liu, R H; Chen, X H

    2009-10-14

    We report the Hall resistivity, ρ(xy), of polycrystalline SmFeAsO(1-x)F(x) for four different fluorine concentrations from the onset of superconductivity through the collapse of the structural phase transition. For the two more highly doped samples, ρ(xy) is linear in magnetic field up to 50 T with only weak temperature dependence, reminiscent of a simple Fermi liquid. For the lightly doped samples with x<0.15, we find a low temperature regime characterized as ρ(xy)(H) being both nonlinear in magnetic field and strongly temperature-dependent even though the Hall angle is small. The onset temperature for this nonlinear regime is in the vicinity of the structural phase (SPT)/magnetic ordering (MO) transitions. The temperature dependence of the Hall resistivity is consistent with a thermal activation of carriers across an energy gap. The evolution of the energy gap with doping is reported.

  12. Superconductivity in SmFe1-xMxASO (M = Co, Rh, Ir)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yan-Peng; Wang, Lei; Gao, Zhao-Shun; Wang, Don-Liang; Zhang, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Ma, Yan-Wei

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we report the comparative study of superconductivity by 3d (Co), 4d (Rh), 5d (Ir) element doping in SmFeAsO. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the material has formed the ZrCuSiAs-type structure with a space group P4/nmm. It is found that the antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave (SDW) order in the parent compounds is rapidly suppressed by Co, Rh, and Ir doping, and superconductivity emerges. The diamagnetism, consistent with the R-T data, conforms to the bulk superconductivity in our SmFe1-xMxAsO (M=Co, Rh, Ir) samples. Co, Rh and Ir locate in the same column in the periodic table of the elements but have different electronic band structure, so a comparative study would add more ingredients to the underlying physics of iron-based superconductors.

  13. 1x4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on free-standing silicon racetrack resonators.

    PubMed

    Dong, Po; Qian, Wei; Liang, Hong; Shafiiha, Roshanak; Wang, Xin; Feng, Dazeng; Li, Guoliang; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V; Asghari, Mehdi

    2010-11-22

    We present a 1x4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on cascaded thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning powers. The use of free-standing silicon resonators with undercut structures significantly reduces the tuning power, with a figure of ~2.9 mW per free spectral range. Even with the presence of thermal crosstalk between two adjacent resonators, we demonstrate multiplexing functionality for channel spacings of 200 GHz, 100 GHz, and 50 GHz, with channel wavelengths aligned to International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid specifications. Crosstalk values for 200 GHz and 50 GHz channel spacings are less than -20 dB and -11.5 dB, respectively. The total power to achieve this performance is in the range of 1.84 mW to 2.4 mW. Such low-power, compact, and reconfigurable filters are particularly useful in chip-scale optical interconnects.

  14. Superconductivity and ferromagnetism in EuFe₂(As(1-x)P(x))₂.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Shenggao; Ren, Zhi; Jiang, Shuai; Feng, Chunmu; Xu, Zhu'an

    2011-11-23

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two antagonistic cooperative phenomena, which makes it difficult for them to coexist. Here we demonstrate experimentally that they do coexist in EuFe₂(As(1-x)P(x))₂ with 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.4, in which superconductivity is associated with Fe 3d electrons and ferromagnetism comes from the long-range ordering of Eu 4f moments via Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions. The coexistence features large saturated ferromagnetic moments, high and comparable superconducting and magnetic transition temperatures, and broad coexistence ranges in temperature and field. We ascribe this unusual phenomenon to the robustness of superconductivity as well as the multi-orbital character of iron pnictides.

  15. Quantum Critical Scaling in the Disordered Itinerant Ferromagnet UCo1 -xFexGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Eley, S.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Civale, L.; Bauer, E. D.; Baumbach, R. E.; Maple, M. B.; Janoschek, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Belitz-Kirkpatrick-Vojta (BKV) theory shows in excellent agreement with experiment that ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in clean metals are generally first order due to the coupling of the magnetization to electronic soft modes, in contrast to the classical analogue that is an archetypical second-order phase transition. For disordered metals the BKV theory predicts that the second-order nature of the QPT is restored because the electronic soft modes change their nature from ballistic to diffusive. Our low-temperature magnetization study identifies the ferromagnetic QPT in the disordered metal UCo1 -xFexGe as the first clear example that exhibits the associated critical exponents predicted by the BKV theory.

  16. Sputtering and native oxide formation on (110) surfaces of Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, H.; Lay, K. Y.; Abid, B.; Lange, P.; Lucovsky, G.

    1986-01-01

    Native oxides on the surface of Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te (X between 0 and 0.7) have been analyzed on the basis of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements. Depth profile analysis revealed a significant increase in the thickness at higher Mn concentrations and a strong Mn segregation to the surface, respectively. Sputter-induced damage on cleaved (110)-oriented surfaces was analyzed by photoreflectance and photoluminescence measurements. The damage was found to be larger on CdTe than on the alloy. Thermal annealing showed nearly complete restoration for the surface of the alloy, while CdTe revealed irreversible modifications in the near-surface regime upon sputtering and post annealing.

  17. Magnetic properties of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabáni, S.; Gaz̆o, E.; Pristás̆, G.; Takác̆ová, I.; Flachbart, K.; Shitsevalova, N.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Sluchanko, N.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic properties of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet HoB12 (with T N = 7.4 K) modified by substitution of magnetic Ho atoms through non-magnetic Lu ones are presented and discussed. In this case, in Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions, both chemical pressure resulting from different Lu3+ and Ho3+ radii and magnetic dilution take place with increasing Lu content ( x) that change properties of the system. The received results show strong indication for the existence of a quantum critical point near x = 0.9, which separates the region of magnetic order (starting with HoB12 for x = 0) and the nonmagnetic region (ending with superconducting LuB12 for x = 1).

  18. Dielectric properties and specific heat of Bi1- x Sm x FeO3 multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallaev, S. N.; Sadykov, S. A.; Omarov, Z. M.; Kurbaitaev, A. Ya.; Reznichenko, L. A.; Khasbulatov, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The specific heat and dielectric permittivity of Bi1- x Sm x FeO3 ( x = 0-0.30) multiferroics have been studied in the temperature range of 300-800 K. A slight substitution of bismuth with samarium is established to cause a considerable shift in the antiferromagnetic phase transition temperature and to an increase in the specific heat over a wide temperature range. Other anomalies typical of phase transitions have been found in the temperature dependences of the specific heat and dielectric permittivity for the compounds with x = 0.10 and 0.15 at T ≈ 735 and 495 K, respectively. The results of the studies of the specific heat have been discussed together with the data of the structural investigations.

  19. Octahedral tilt transitions in relaxed epitaxial Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinberg, Daniel S.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Fong, Dillon D.; Fister, Timothy T.; Streiffer, Stephen K.; Han, Yisong; Reaney, Ian M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2011-05-01

    Relaxed epitaxial {100}pc and {111}pc oriented films (350 nm) of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 substrates were grown by pulsed laser deposition and studied using high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The dielectric behavior and ferroelectric phase transition temperatures of the films were consistent with bulk PZT. However, weak 1/2{311}pc reflections in x-ray diffraction profiles were recorded above bulk TTilt (as indicated in the Jaffe, Cooke, and Jaffe phase diagram, where pc denotes pseudocubic indices). Moreover, anomalies in the dielectric and ferroelectric response were detected above TTilt which are explained by coupling of short coherence or weakly tilted regions to the ferroelectric polarization.

  20. Superconductivity In Y2Pd(Ge1-xSix)3 (x = 0-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Katsunori; Koshi, Yasunobu; Nishimura, Katsuhiko

    2006-09-01

    The electrical resistivity (2 - 300K), magnetization (2 - 10 K), and specific heat (0.5 - 10 K) were measured in Y2Pd(Ge1-xSix)3, which is of AlB2-type structure as the same as MgB2. The superconducting critical temperature showed a maximum of Tc = 3.48 K near x = 0.05 and monotonically decreased with x increasing up to x = 0.7 in Si substitution. The variation of Tc with Si concentration is related to the electron-phonon coupling constant λ, which was calculated by use of the McMillan's equation. The variation of λ also exhibited a maximum near x = 0.05, and it monotonically decreased with x increasing up to x = 0.7 in Si substitution.

  1. What is the valence of Mn in Ga1-xMnxN?

    DOE PAGES

    Berlijn, Tom; Jarrell, Mark; Nelson, Ryky; ...

    2015-11-04

    Motivated by the potential high Curie temperature of Ga1-xMnxN, we investigate the controversial Mn valence in this diluted magnetic semiconductor. From a first-principles Wannier-function analysis of the high energy Hilbert space, we find unambiguously the Mn valence to be close to 2+(d5), but in a mixed spin configuration with average magnetic moments of 4µB. By integrating out high-energy degrees of freedom differently, we further demonstrate the feasibility of both effective d4 and d5 descriptions. These two descriptions offer simple pictures for local and extended properties of the system, and highlight the dual nature of its doped hole. Specifically, in themore » effective d5 description, we demonstrate novel physical effects absent in previous studies. Thus, our derivation highlights the richness of low-energy sectors in interacting many-body systems and the generic need for multiple effective descriptions.« less

  2. Transport properties of Nd1-xFexOF polycrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales-Mendoza, I.; Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Conde-Gallardo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The transport properties of Nd1-xFexOF films with 0.2

  3. Microstructure of In x Ga1-x N nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, R. F.; Soundararajah, Q. Y.; Griffiths, I. J.; Cherns, D.; Novikov, S. V.; Foxon, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the structure and composition of In x Ga1-x N nanorods grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The results confirm a core-shell structure with an In-rich core and In-poor shell resulting from axial and lateral growth sectors respectively. Atomic resolution mapping by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and high angle annular dark field imaging show that both the core and the shell are decomposed into Ga-rich and In-rich platelets parallel to their respective growth surfaces. It is argued that platelet formation occurs at the surfaces, through the lateral expansion of surface steps. Studies of nanorods with graded composition show that decomposition ceases for x ≥ 0.8 and the ratio of growth rates, shell:core, decreases with increasing In concentration.

  4. Magnetochromic effect in multiferroic R In1 -xMnxO3 (R =Tb , Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Holinsworth, B. S.; O'Neal, K. R.; Brinzari, T. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Topping, C. V.; Luo, X.; Cheong, S.-W.; Singleton, J.; McGill, S.; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    We combined high field magnetization and magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate spin-charge coupling in Mn-substituted rare-earth indium oxides of chemical formula R In1 -xMnxO3 (R =Tb , Dy). The edge states, on-site Mn3 +d to d excitations, and rare-earth f -manifold excitations all track the magnetization energy due to dominant Zeeman interactions. The field-induced modifications to the rare-earth excitations are quite large because spin-orbit coupling naturally mixes spin and charge, suggesting that the next logical step in the design strategy should be to bring spin-orbit coupling onto the trigonal bipyramidal chromophore site with a 4 or 5 d center.

  5. Segregation of Mg in Zn1-xMgxO single crystals grown from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Detlev; Bertram, Rainer; Klimm, Detlef; Schulz, Tobias; Thiede, Elvira

    2011-11-01

    Solid solutions between zinc oxide and magnesium oxide containing up to 4 at.% Mg were grown from the melt using a modified Bridgman technique. Chemical analysis (ICP-OES) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the Mg concentration in the melt is larger compared with the starting material. This observation contradicts the commonly accepted assumption, that the ZnO-MgO phase diagram is of eutectic type. Peritectic melting of Zn-rich Zn1-xMgxO can explain the new experimental results, and a new ZnO-MgO phase diagram is proposed. Furthermore a distribution coefficient for Mg of keff=1.32…1.4 has been determined.

  6. Temperature-induced phase transformation of Fe1-xNix alloys: molecular-dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak-Saracino, Emilia; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-07-01

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the temperature induced bcc/fcc phase transformation of random Fe1-xNix alloys in the concentration range of x ≤ 40 at%. The Meyer-Entel potential describes faithfully the decrease of the transition temperature with increasing Ni concentration. The austenite transformation proceeds by homogeneous nucleation and results in a fine-grained poly-crystalline structure. The transformation follows the Nishiyama-Wassermann orientation relationship. The martensite phase nucleates at the grain boundaries (heterogeneous nucleation). Even for the largest crystallite studied (2.75 × 105 atoms) the back-transformation results in a single-crystalline grain containing only a small amount of defects. The morphological changes in the transformed material show no significant dependence on Ni content.

  7. Metal enhanced photoluminescence of near-infrared CdTexSe1-x quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling; Xu, Xiaoliang; Luo, Tian; Liu, Yansong; Yang, Zhou; Lei, Jiemei

    2012-07-01

    High-quality alloyed near-infrared CdTexSe1-x quantum dots were synthesized by a modified organometallic method. The emission wavelength of the alloyed quantum dots were turned from visible to near-infrared range by changing the composition of the precursor. The photoluminescence intensity of the alloyed quantum dots was further enhanced by coupling through localized surface plasmons from Au nanoparticles. The alloyed CdTeSe quantum dots coupled with Au nanoparticles exhibited a 4 times photoluminescence enhancement than that of bare CdTeSe quantum dots by turning the localized surface plasmons resonant absorption of Au nanoparticles consistent to the excitation wavelength. This method will be beneficial for the potential applications in the biological imaging and detection.

  8. Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N epitaxial films with high magnetization

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert, G.; Kruse, C.; Figge, S.; Hommel, D.; Dobkowska, S.; Jakiela, R.; Stefanowicz, W.; Sawicki, M.; Li, Tian; Bonanni, A.; Reuther, H.; Grenzer, J.; Borany, J. von; Dietl, T.

    2012-07-09

    We report on the fabrication of pseudomorphic wurtzite Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N grown on GaN with Mn concentrations up to 10% using molecular beam epitaxy. According to Rutherford backscattering, the Mn ions are mainly at the Ga-substitutional positions, and they are homogeneously distributed according to depth-resolved Auger-electron spectroscopy and secondary-ion mass-spectroscopy measurements. A random Mn distribution is indicated by transmission electron microscopy, and no Mn-rich clusters are present for optimized growth conditions. A linear increase of the c-lattice parameter with increasing Mn concentration is found using x-ray diffraction. The ferromagnetic behavior is confirmed by superconducting quantum-interference measurements showing saturation magnetizations of up to 150 emu/cm{sup 3}.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations on local structure and diffusion in liquid Ti x Al 1- x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J. H.; Liu, C. S.; Cheng, Z. F.; Shi, D. P.

    2011-10-01

    The microscopic structure and dynamics of liquid Ti xAl 1- x alloys together with pure liquid Ti and Al metals were investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. This work gives the structural properties, including pair-correlation function, bond-angle distribution function, HA and Voronoi indices, and their composition dependence. The dynamical properties have also been studied. The calculated pair-correlation function, bond-angle distribution function, and HA and Voronoi indices suggest that the stoichiometric composition Ti 0.75Al 0.25 exhibits a different local structure order compared with other concentrations, which help us understand the appearance of the minimum diffusion coefficient at this composition. These results indicate that the mobility of atoms strongly depends on their atomic local structure.

  10. Quantum critical scaling in the disordered itinerant ferromagnet UCo1-xFexGe

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Kevin; Eley, Serena Merteen; Civale, Leonardo; ...

    2016-11-30

    The Belitz-Kirkpatrick-Vojta (BKV) theory shows in excellent agreement with experiment that ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in clean metals are generally first order due to the coupling of the magnetization to electronic soft modes, in contrast to the classical analogue that is an archetypical second-order phase transition. For disordered metals the BKV theory predicts that the secondorder nature of the QPT is restored because the electronic soft modes change their nature from ballistic to diffusive. Lastly, our low-temperature magnetization study identifies the ferromagnetic QPT in the disordered metal UCo1$-$xFexGe as the first clear example that exhibits the associated critical exponentsmore » predicted by the BKV theory.« less

  11. Epitaxial growth of the Heusler alloy Co2Cr1-xFexAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekar, R.; Clemens, B. M.

    2004-07-01

    We report a method for the growth of single-phase epitaxial thin films of compounds from the family of Heusler alloys Co2Cr1-xFexAl. Elemental targets were dc magnetron sputtered in 1.5 mtorr Ar gas onto MgO substrates held at 500 °C at a total growth rate of ≈0.8 Å/s. As the Fe content increases, the structural quality improves, the level of chemical ordering increases, and the slope of the resistivity versus temperature, dρ/dt, above 50 K changes from negative to positive. An extraordinary Hall resistivity exceeding 1×10-8 Ω m is observed in the Cr-containing alloys at low temperature and room temperature. Preliminary work on the incorporation of a single quaternary alloy into spin valves shows maximum giant magnetoresistances ranging from 4% at 15 K to 2% at room temperature.

  12. Ellipsometric study of optical properties of GaSxSe1-x layered mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik, Mehmet; Gasanly, Nizami

    2016-04-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were performed on GaSxSe1-x mixed crystals (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) in the 1.2-6.2 eV range. Spectral dependence of optical parameters; real and imaginary components of pseudodielectric function, pseudorefractive index and pseudoextinction coefficient were reported in the present work. Critical point (CP) analyses on second-energy derivative spectra of the pseudodielectric function were accomplished to find the interband transition energies. The revealed energy values were associated with each other taking into account the fact that band gap energy of mixed crystals rises with increase in sulfur content. The variation of CP energies with composition (x) was also plotted. Peaks in the spectra of studied optical parameters and CP energy values were observed to be shifted to higher energy values as sulfur concentration is increased in the mixed crystals.

  13. Ab initio studies of Co2FeAl1-xSix Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwacki, N. Gonzalez; Majewski, Jacek A.

    2016-07-01

    We present results of extensive theoretical studies of Co2FeAl1-xSix Heusler alloys, which have been performed in the framework of density functional theory employing the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave scheme. It is shown that the Si-rich alloys are more resistive to structural disorder and as a consequence Si stabilizes the L21 structure. Si alloying changes position of the Fermi level, pushing it into the gap of the minority spin-band. It is also shown that the hyperfine field on Co nuclei increases with the Si concentration, and this increase originates mostly from the changes in the electronic density of the valence electrons.

  14. Development of Si(1-x)Ge(x) technology for microwave sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, Rafael A.; Taub, Susan R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Young, Paul E.; Simons, Rainee N.; Rosenfeld, David

    1993-01-01

    The progress for the first year of the work done under the Director's Discretionary Fund (DDF) research project entitled, 'Development of Si(1-x)Ge(x) Technology for Microwave Sensing Applications.' This project includes basic material characterization studies of silicon-germanium (SiGe), device processing on both silicon (Si) and SiGe substrates, and microwave characterization of transmission lines on silicon substrates. The material characterization studies consisted of ellipsometric and magneto-transport measurements and theoretical calculations of the SiGe band-structure. The device fabrication efforts consisted of establishing SiGe device processing capabilities in the Lewis cleanroom. The characterization of microwave transmission lines included studying the losses of various coplanar transmission lines and the development of transitions on silicon. Each part of the project is discussed individually and the findings for each part are presented. Future directions are also discussed.

  15. Crossover to striped magnetic domains in Fe1-xGax magnetostrictive thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barturen, M.; Rache Salles, B.; Schio, P.; Milano, J.; Butera, A.; Bustingorry, S.; Ramos, C.; de Oliveira, A. J. A.; Eddrief, M.; Lacaze, E.; Gendron, F.; Etgens, V. H.; Marangolo, M.

    2012-08-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties at room temperature of Fe1-xGax (FeGa) epitaxial thin films grown on ZnSe/GaAs(100) for 0.14≤x≤0.29 range concentration, and film thicknesses, d = 36 and 72 nm. The study was performed by means of magnetometric measurements and magnetic force microscopy scans. Increasing x promotes the loss of the four-fold magnetic-crystalline anisotropy associated to an Fe-like behavior, which is lost completely above x = 0.20. Stripe domains with rotatable anisotropy are observed even in samples in which the theoretical conditions for stripe appearance are not completely fulfilled. An unexpected "saw-tooth" stripe structure has been found under certain conditions.

  16. Ferrimagnetic ordering of single crystal Fe1-xGax thin films

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, A.; Arenholz, E.; Idzerda, Y. U.

    2009-10-19

    Molecular beam epitaxy was used to deposit body centered cubic single crystal Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} thin films on MgO(001) and ZnSe/GaAs(001) substrates well beyond the bulk stability concentration of about 28%. The crystal quality of the substrate surface and each deposited layer was monitored in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction. The magnetization of the samples as a function of Ga is found to decrease more rapidly than a simple dilution effect, and element-specific x-ray magnetic circular dichroism ascribes this trend to a decrease in the Fe moment and an induced moment in the Ga that is antialigned to the Fe moment.

  17. Study of Structural Phase Transitions in Na1-xSrx/2NbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahuguna, Rajni; Wankhede, M. G.; Mishra, S. K.; Shinde, A. B.; Krishna, P. S. R.

    2015-02-01

    The solid solution Na1-xSrx/2NbO3 is prepared by solid state reaction method. Detailed analyses of powder x-ray diffraction data clearly suggest a change of structure from ABO3 perovskite (NaNbO3 like) to complicated Tungsten Bronze SrNb2O6 like. The presence of additional reflections clearly suggests that cell multiplicity for x>=0.20 is different to that of pure NaNbO3. For composition x>=0.20, the lattice parameters are related with pseudocubic perovskite cell parameters as follows: Ao= 4ap, Bo= 3bp Co= 5cp. The lattice parameters and volume increases monotonically with increasing concentration of Sr2+ in NaNbO3 matrix.

  18. Thermoelectric properties of LaRh1-xNixO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibasaki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Terasaki, I.

    2009-03-01

    We report measurements and analyses of resistivity, thermopower and thermal conductivity of polycrystalline samples of perovskite LaRh1-xNixO3. The thermopower is found to be large at 800 K (185 µV K-1 for x = 0.3), which is ascribed to the high-temperature stability of the low-spin state of Rh3+/Rh4+ ions. This clearly contrasts with the thermopower of the isostructural oxide LaCoO3, which rapidly decreases above 500 K owing to the spin-state transition. The spin state of the transition-metal ions is one of the most important parameters in oxide thermoelectrics.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of LaRh(1-x)Ni(x)O(3).

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, S; Takahashi, Y; Terasaki, I

    2009-03-18

    We report measurements and analyses of resistivity, thermopower and thermal conductivity of polycrystalline samples of perovskite LaRh(1-x)Ni(x)O(3). The thermopower is found to be large at 800 K (185 µV K(-1) for x = 0.3), which is ascribed to the high-temperature stability of the low-spin state of Rh(3+)/Rh(4+) ions. This clearly contrasts with the thermopower of the isostructural oxide LaCoO(3), which rapidly decreases above 500 K owing to the spin-state transition. The spin state of the transition-metal ions is one of the most important parameters in oxide thermoelectrics.

  20. Nonlinear optical properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown Bi1 - xSbx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngdale, E. R.; Meyer, J. R.; Hoffman, C. A.; Bartoli, F. J.; Partin, D. L.; Thrush, C. M.; Heremans, J. P.

    1990-07-01

    We discuss the first investigation of Bi1-xSbx as an infrared nonlinear optical material. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing experiments at CO2 laser wavelengths yield a large nonlinearity (χ(3)≊3×10-4 esu) which does not saturate at power densities up to 0.5 MW/cm2. Both the ambient and substrate interfaces of the film are highly reflective and the étalon they form is found to have a large effect on the transmission and reflectivity spectra of the as-grown films. This suggests the possibility that constructive interference of the film's internal optical fields could be used to considerably enhance the nonlinear signal.

  1. Photoluminescence enhancement of Ca1-xSrxF2:Mn2 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, R. E.; Rodríguez, F.; Moreno, M.; Alcal&Á, R.

    This work investigates the surprising disappearance of the Mn2+ green photoluminescence (PL) observed at room temperature on passing from CaF2 to SrF2 along the Ca1-xSrxF2:Mn2+ fluorite series. The aim is to understand the microscopic origin of the excited-state relaxation phenomena leading to radiationless processes in these crystals. High-pressure experiments performed on Ca0.25Sr0.75F2:Mn2+ show that PL can gradually recover by application of pressure. The increase of intensity and lifetime with pressure is explained by a reduction of the fluorite lattice parameter, a. The variation of Mn2+ PL lifetime with pressure and x is described through the same equation by renormalising these parameters to a.

  2. Linear and nonlinear optical studies of CdS1- x Se x quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrig, A.; Banyai, L.; Gaponenko, S.; Wörner, A.; Neuroth, N.; Klingshirn, C.

    1991-03-01

    In this contribution we present and discuss our measurements on CdS1- x Se x quantum dots in a glass matrix. In linear absorption measurements we find the typical blue shift of the transitions with decreasing crystallite radius due to quantization. The luminescence shows a significant Stokes shift with respect to absorption, which is interpreted in terms of strong exciton-phonon coupling and allows to deduce the Huang-Rhys factor S. Under high excitation we find an additional emission band on the high energy side, which can be attributed to the recombination of an excited two electron-hole pair state to a one electron-hole pair state in agreement with theory. Pump and probe beam experiments give a bleaching but no hole burning. Finally we discuss some open questions especially concerning the high energy structures in the absorption spectrum.

  3. Diphoton decay for a 750 GeV scalar boson in a U(1)X model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Ochoa, F.; Sierra, C. F.

    2016-12-01

    In the context of a nonuniversal and anomaly free U(1)X extension of the standard model, we examine the decay of a 750 GeV scalar singlet state, ξχ, as a possible explanation of the observed diphoton excess announced by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at CERN-LHC collider. The one-loop decay to photons is allowed through three heavy singlet quarks and one charged Higgs boson into the loop. We obtain, for different width approximations and for masses of the exotic singlet quarks in the region [ 900 , 3000 ] GeV, a production cross section σ (pp →ξχ → γγ) compatible with ATLAS and CMS collaborations data. We also include another scalar singlet, σ, as a dark matter candidate that may couple with the 750 GeV scalar at tree level with production cross sections in agreement with ATLAS and CMS.

  4. Density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies for (Fe1-xCox)2B

    DOE PAGES

    Daene, Markus; Kim, Soo Kyung; Surh, Michael P.; ...

    2015-06-15

    We present and discuss density functional theory calculations of magnetic properties of the family of ferromagnetic compounds, (Fe1-xCox)2B, focusing specifically on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). Using periodic supercells of various sizes (up to 96 atoms), it is shown that the general qualitative features of the composition dependence of the MAE is in agreement with experimental findings, while our predicted magnitudes are larger than those of experiment. We find that the use of small supercells (6 and 12-atom) favors larger MAE values relative to a statistical sample of configurations constructed with 96-atom supercells. As a result, the effect of latticemore » relaxations is shown to be small. Calculations of the Curie temperature for this alloy are also presented.« less

  5. Monopolar photoelectromagnetic effect in Pb1-xSnxTe(In) under terahertz laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernichkin, V. I.; Ryabova, L. I.; Nicorici, A. V.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2012-03-01

    We report on the observation of a new effect—the appearance of a galvanic signal in the narrow-gap semiconductor Pb1-xSnxTe(In) in the magnetic field under the action of strong 100 ns-long terahertz laser pulses. The signal changes its sign and kinetics as the temperature increases from 4.2 K to 25 K. This semiconductor possesses inversion symmetry of the crystalline lattice making impossible the observation of the magnetophotogalvanic effect which looks similar in its experimental manifestation. On the other hand, the laser quantum energy is much less than the bandgap of the semiconductor making the effect considerably different from the conventional Kikoin-Noskov photoelectromagnetic effect. Possible mechanisms responsible for the appearance of the effect are discussed.

  6. Diffused phase transition of Ba1- x Eu x TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Byeong-Eog; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Moon, Byung Kee

    2016-06-01

    By applying the sol-gel method, we fabricated Ba1- x Eu x TiO3 (BET) ceramics as a single peroveskite phase in the composition range of x = 0 ~ 0.20. The BET ceramics displayed a ferroelectric phase transition temperature that changed from 120 °C to 80 °C, and exhibited the coexistance of the tetragonal, and cubic structures as the Eu composition was increased. They also displayed anomalous dielectric behaviors related to structural relaxation in the temperature range from 200 °C to 600 °C. We considered the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation time by using the electric modulus formalism. The characteristic activation energy was thought to be related with the substitution of Eu (Eu2+, Eu3+) ions for Ba2+ or Ti4+ ions in the perovskite structure.

  7. MnxGa1-x nanodots with high coercivity and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karel, J.; Casoli, F.; Lupo, P.; Celegato, F.; Sahoo, R.; Ernst, B.; Tiberto, P.; Albertini, F.; Felser, C.

    2016-11-01

    A MnxGa1-x (x = 0.70) epitaxial thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a large coercivity (μ0Hc = 1 T) was patterned into nanodots using a combined self-assembly nanolithography and plasma etching procedure. Nanostructuring is achieved by self-assembly of polystyrene nanospheres acting as a mask on the magnetic film. This procedure allows easy patterning of a large area although introduced some chemical disorder, which resulted in a soft magnetic component in the magnetic hysteresis loops. However, chemical order was recovered after vacuum annealing at low temperature. The resulting nanodots retain the properties of the original film, i.e. magnetization oriented perpendicular to the particle and large coercivity. Our results suggest this lithography procedure could be a promising direction for nanostructuring tetragonal Heusler alloys.

  8. Particle-assisted GaxIn1-xP nanowire growth for designed bandgap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, D.; Persson, J. M.; Kriegner, D.; Etzelstorfer, T.; Wallentin, J.; Wagner, J. B.; Stangl, J.; Samuelson, L.; Deppert, K.; Borgström, M. T.

    2012-06-01

    Non-tapered vertically straight GaxIn1-xP nanowires were grown in a compositional range from Ga0.2In0.8P to pure GaP in particle-assisted mode by controlling the trimethylindium, trimethylgallium and hydrogen chloride flows in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy in transmission electron microscopy revealed homogeneous radial material composition in single nanowires, whereas variations in the material composition were found along the nanowires. High-resolution x-ray diffraction indicates a variation of the material composition on the order of about 19% measuring an entire sample area, i.e., including edge effects during growth. The non-capped nanowires emit room temperature photoluminescence strongly in the energy range of 1.43-2.16 eV, correlated with the bandgap expected from the material composition.

  9. Nonuniform paramagnetic state in nonstoichiometric lanthanum manganites La1- x Mn1- y O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzova, T. I.; Naumov, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic properties of nonstoichiometric lanthanum manganites La1- x Mn1- y O3 have been studied in the temperature range 80 K < T < 650 K. The Curie temperature T C changes nonmonotonically as the number of Mn4+ ions increases. In the paramagnetic region, there exist isolated Mn ions and magnetic polarons which can be conserved to T ⩽ 4 T C, independent of the lattice symmetry. In the T C < T < T pol region, the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility are nonlinear and can be described by the Curie law with a temperature-dependent Curie constant C. The sample has been prepared having a composition near the O' → O structural transition; the spontaneous magnetization of the sample at T ⩽ 1.6 T C is associated to correlated polarons forming due to the double exchange in chains of the E-type antiferromagnetic phase.

  10. Low-field magnetocaloric effect in antiperovskite Mn3Ga1-xGexC compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qiang; Lv, Qun; Yang, Xiaozhi; Han, Zhida; Dong, Shiyuan; Qian, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Changliang; Fang, Yong; Jiang, Xuefan

    2015-12-01

    A series of Mn3Ga1-xGexC (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) compounds were prepared by solid state reaction, and their magnetic properties, phase transitions, and magnetocaloric effect were investigated. All samples, after becoming ferromagnetic below Curie temperature Tc, undergo a first-order ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at Tt at low temperature, giving rise to conventional and inverse magnetocaloric effect. Tt increases while Tc shows a decrease with the increase of Ge content. Isothermal magnetization curves around Tt are strongly history-dependent, which may result in spurious peak in the magnetic field induced entropy change (ΔSM). The magnetothermal properties near Tt, compared with those near Tc, are of larger ΔSM , but have larger magnetic hysteresis and smaller refrigerant capacity.

  11. Epitaxial ternary RexMo1 - xSi2 thin films on Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantomme, André; Nicolet, Marc-A.; Long, Robert G.; Mahan, John E.

    1994-04-01

    Reactive deposition epitaxy was used to synthesize thin layers of RexMo1-xSi2 on Si(100). In the case of x=1, ReSi2 layers of excellent crystalline quality have been reported previously [J. E. Mahan, K. M. Geib, G. Y. Robinson, R. G. Long, Y. Xinghua, G. Bai, and M.-A. Nicolet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2439 (1990)]. In the case of x=0, however, virtually no alignment of the MoSi2 and the substrate is found, although this silicide is nearly isomorphic to ReSi2. For intermediate values of x, highly epitaxial ternary silicides are obtained, at least for a Mo fraction up to 1/3.

  12. Pyroelectric response in crystalline hafnium zirconium oxide (Hf1-xZrxO2) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. W.; Kitahara, A. R.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Henry, M. D.; Brumbach, M. T.; Ihlefeld, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    Pyroelectric coefficients were measured for 20 nm thick crystalline hafnium zirconium oxide (Hf1-xZrxO2) thin films across a composition range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Pyroelectric currents were collected near room temperature under zero applied bias and a sinusoidal oscillating temperature profile to separate the influence of non-pyroelectric currents. The pyroelectric coefficient was observed to correlate with zirconium content, increased orthorhombic/tetragonal phase content, and maximum polarization response. The largest measured absolute value was 48 μCm-2 K-1 for a composition with x = 0.64, while no pyroelectric response was measured for compositions which displayed no remanent polarization (x = 0, 0.91, and 1).

  13. Characterization of directionally solidified Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Se semiconducting alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Andrews, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Se alloys with composition between x = 0.08 and 0.115 were synthesized from elemental constituents and were resolidified using a Bridgman-Stockbarger growth technique. By performing precision mass-density measurements on selected wafers cut perpendicular to the growth axis, it was shown that the axial compositional profiles fit a numerical solution to the 1D diffusion equation which takes into account the variation of interface velocity with time. Infrared transmission-edge measurements performed on selected transverse slices from each ingot showed that the relative radial variations in composition decreased with decreasing growth rate. Van der Pauw measurements on selected wafers showed that the 10 exp 18/cu cm electron concentration, typical of as-grown crystals, could be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude by annealing in Se vapor.

  14. Structure of Li(x)Rb(1-x)PO(3) glasses near the glass transition.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andreas; Swenson, Jan; Bowron, Daniel T; Adams, Stefan

    2009-06-17

    The temperature dependence of mixed alkali metaphosphate Li(x)Rb(1-x)PO(3) (x = 1, 0.5, 0) structures has been studied from room temperature up to about 20 K above the glass transition temperature (T(g)) by means of neutron diffraction and reverse Monte Carlo modelling. The results show that the structural changes are limited to a slight temperature-induced broadening of the peaks in S(Q) and a linear thermal expansion of 50-100 ppm K(-1). Furthermore, the possible diffusion pathways of the mobile ions have been investigated by the bond valence technique and the results show that they are not significantly affected as the glass is brought above T(g). The decrease in activation energy that occurs above T(g) is thus attributed to an increased coupling between the motions of the mobile ions and the relaxation of the phosphate network.

  15. Lattice vibrations and electrical transport in (Bi1-xInx)2Se3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajun; Liu, Fang; Zhou, Shengqiang; Franke, C.; Wimmer, S.; Volobuev, V. V.; Springholz, G.; Pashkin, A.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.

    2016-11-01

    We present Raman, terahertz transmission, and transport measurements on (Bi1-xInx)2Se3 films to study the evolution of phonon modes and resistivity with an increasing indium content across the metal-insulator phase transition. The frequencies of two Raman-active modes Eg 2 and A1 g 2 as well as an infrared-active mode Eu increase with an increasing indium content due to the smaller atomic weight of indium compared to bismuth. Terahertz data are fitted by a Drude-Lorentz model. Drude scattering rates increase from 47 to 75 cm-1 with an increasing indium content from 0% to 16% due to stronger impurity scattering. The carrier concentration drops significantly for x = 24%. The temperature dependence of the resistivity switches from metallic at x = 16% to insulating at x = 24%, indicating a metal-insulator transition in between.

  16. Kondo effect in CoxCu1-x granular alloys prepared by chemical reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Susmita; Chowdhury, Rajeswari Roy; Bandyopadhyay, Bilwadal

    2015-06-01

    Nanostructured CoCu granular alloys CoxCu1-x (x ≤ 0.3) have been prepared by chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. Electronic transport properties are studied in the temperature range 4-300 K. Resistance exhibits a metallic behavior below room temperature and draws a minimum near 20 K in all the samples except in Co0.3Cu0.7. This low temperature resistivity minimum diminishes with applied magnetic field. There is also a logarithmic temperature dependence of resistivity at temperatures below 20 K. This phenomenon indicates a Kondo-like scattering mechanism involving magnetic Co impurity spin clusters in Cu host.

  17. Electrical characterization of Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Summers, C. J.; Szofran, F. R.; Martin, B. G.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical models are described for calculations of charge-carrier concentrations, Fermi energy, and conduction electron mobility as functions of x, temperature, and ionized and neutral defect concentrations of Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys. Measurements are reported of electron concentration and electron mobility from 5-300 K for alloys with x values of between 0.17 and 0.30. The electrical data are in reasonable agreement with theory, and were analyzed to obtain estimates of donor and acceptor state concentrations. The electron mobilities are calculated in terms of a microscopic theory of electrical conduction derived from the solution of the Boltzmann equation for the perturbed steady-state electron distribution function, and they show that longitudinal optical-phonon and charged and neutral defect scattering are the dominant mobility-limiting mechanisms.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Cu doped magnesium hydroxide fluoride, Mg1-xCuxFOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosyadi, A. Sirojul Anam Izza; Murwani, Irmina K.

    2017-03-01

    A series of Cu doped magnesium hydroxide fluoride, Mg1-xCuxFOH, were synthesized via sol-gel method followed by vacuum drying. The characterization of synthesized solids with XRD revealed the presence of an X-ray amorphous phase of the samples and appearance of some humps. FTIR spectra of solids synthesized showed a band at 3700 cm-1 which is an isolated OH group, wide band at 3750-3000 cm-1 supported by the peak at 1650 cm-1 indicated the presence of absorbed water on the surface. Characteristic peaks for Mg-F and Mg-O vibrations were seen at 500-400 cm-1 and 600-500 cm-1 respectively.

  19. On the structural and magnetic study of Mg1-xZnxFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghuvanshi, S.; Satalkar, M.; Tapkir, P.; Ghodke, N.; Kane, S. N.

    2014-09-01

    Mg1-xZnxFe2O4 (with x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) spinel ferrite was synthesized via sol-gel auto combustion method. XRD confirms the formation of spinel phase with a secondary phase of Fe2O3 (in case of x = 1.0). Structural parameters changes as the Zn concentration increases which can be ascribed to the replacement of an ion with lower ionic radius (Mg2+) with that of an ion with higher ionic radius (Zn2+). Variation in the magnetic properties with Zn content are interpreted in terms of migration of Fe3+ between tetrahedral and octahedral sites.

  20. Magnetic penetration depth of single-crystalline SmFeAsO1-xFy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, L.; Fletcher, J. D.; Serafin, A.; Carrington, A.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Bukowski, Z.; Katrych, S.; Karpinski, J.

    2009-04-01

    We report measurements of the in-plane magnetic penetration depth λ in single crystals of SmFeAsO1-xFy (x≃y≃0.2) with Tc≃44K . We find that at low temperature λ has an exponential temperature dependence which suggests that the Fermi surface is fully gapped. The magnitude of the minimum energy gap, Δ1=1.1±0.1kBTc at T=0 , is significantly smaller than the BCS weak-coupling value suggesting that the gap is either strongly anisotropic or varies significantly between the different Fermi-surface sheets. Our data are well fitted by a two-gap model with the larger gap (Δ2=1.7±0.2kBTc) associated with ˜80% of the total superfluid density.

  1. Crystallograhic and magnetic properties of Fe1- x Ni x Ga2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Bo Ra; Lim, Jung Tae; Kim, Chul Sung

    2017-01-01

    We report the crystallographic and magnetic effects on inverse spinel Fe1- x Ni x Ga2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.9) due to doped Ni cations. The crystalline structures of Fe1- x Ni x Ga2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.9) were examined by using a Philips X'Pert diffractometer with a Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.5406 Å) source and analyzed with the Rietveld refinement method. The crystal structures were found to be inverse spinel with space group Fd-3m. From the Rietveld analysis, with increasing Ni concentration, the ratio of magnetic Fe2+ cations, compared to the total number of Fe2+ cations on A-site (tetrahedron) decreased from 43 to 7%, and that on B-site (octahedron) increased from 57 to 93%. The lattice constants a 0, and bond length d_{Ga^{3+}-Fe^{2+}[Ni^{2+}]} on A-site and B-site decreased linearly with increasing Ni concentration. From the temperature dependence of susceptibility χ in zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization under 400 Oe, with increasing Ni concentration, the sample showed a decrease in the freezing temperature T f . Mössbauer spectra of all samples at room temperature showed 2-sets (A-site, and B-site) with large electric quadrupole splitting. The Mössbauer absorption area ratio of A-site decreased, while that of B-site increased with increasing Ni concentration, which is accord with the Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD results.

  2. Magnetic and Magnetocaloric Properties of Zn1-x Co x Fe2O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, T. L.; Tran, N.; Kim, D. H.; Dang, N. T.; Manh, D. H.; Bach, T. N.; Liu, C. L.; Lee, B. W.

    2017-02-01

    We have prepared Zn1-x Co x Fe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by using a hydrothermal method, and then studied their structural and magnetic properties. The analyses of x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman scattering spectra reveal that the samples crystallized mainly in a cubic-spinel structure with the lattice parameter a ≈ 8.4 Å. Averaged crystallite sizes determined from the XRD linewidth are about 16-22 nm, close to the particle sizes of 19-28 nm determined from scanning electron microscopy images. Magnetization measurements versus temperature, M(T), in the field H = 100 Oe indicate that the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase transition temperature (T C) of Zn1-x Co x Fe2O4 NPs increases from 606 K for x = 0 to 823 K for x = 1. The features of the M(T) curves also indicate magnetic inhomogeneity in the samples, and their magnetic property is unstable versus temperature. This is ascribed to the changes in the structural characterization and/or concentration of magnetic ions situated at the A and B sites in the spinel lattice. At room temperature, we found that both the saturation magnetization (M s) and coercivity (H c) increase with increasing Co content, with M s = 59-70 emu/g and H c = 100-1100 Oe. These results reflect that the Co doping into ZnFe2O4 NPs greatly improves their magnetic property, making them more useful for practical applications. Additionally, we also assess magnetic interactions and the magnetocaloric effect in the samples based on analyzing initial magnetization data, M(H), recorded at temperatures around T C.

  3. Helical antiferromagnetic ordering in Lu1-xScxMnSi

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, Ryan J; Anand, V K; Johnston, David C

    2014-08-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Lu1-xScxMnSi (x=0, 0.25, 0.5) are studied using powder x-ray diffraction, heat capacity Cp, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility χ, and electrical resistivity ρ measurements versus temperature T and magnetic field H. This system crystallizes in the primitive orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure (space group Pnma) as previously reported. The ρ(T) data indicate metallic behavior. The Cp(T), χ(T), and ρ(T) measurements consistently indicate long-range antiferromagnetic (AF) transitions with AF ordering temperatures TN=246, 215, and 188 K for x=0, 0.25, and 0.5, respectively. A second transition is observed at somewhat lower T for each sample from the χ(T) and ρ(T) measurements, which we speculate are due to spin reorientation transitions; these second transitions are completely suppressed in H=5.5 T. The Cp data below 10 K for each composition indicate an enhanced Sommerfeld electronic heat capacity coefficient for the series in the range γ=24–29 mJ/mol K2. The χ(T) measurements up to 1000 K were fitted by local-moment Curie-Weiss behaviors which indicate a low Mn spin S~1. The χ data below TN are analyzed using the Weiss molecular field theory for a planar noncollinear cycloidal AF structure with a composition-dependent pitch, following the previous neutron diffraction work of Venturini et al. [J. Alloys Compd. 256, 65 (1997)]. Within this model, the fits indicate a turn angle between Mn ordered moments along the cycloid axis of ~100° or ~145°, either of which indicate dominant AF interactions between the Mn spins in the Lu1-xScxMnSi series of compounds.

  4. Optimizing magnetic anisotropy of La1-xSrxMnO3 nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Amin ur; Manzoor, Sadia

    2016-12-01

    Maximizing the magnetothermal response of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's) for hyperthermia applications is a complex problem, because it depends sensitively upon interrelated magnetic and structural parameters. The task is somewhat simpler for systems with fixed composition, e.g. Fe3O4 or CoFe2O4, in which the particle size is the only means of modifying the magnetic anisotropy, and hence the magnetothermal response. In the La1-xSrxMnO3 system however, the magnetic interactions as well as the particle size both change with the Sr concentration x, which makes it a much more complex system for which to optimize the hyperthermia response. We have investigated the effect of magnetic anisotropy on the magnetothermal response of La1-xSrxMnO3 nanoparticles as a function of the particle size as well as the Sr concentration x where 0.20≤x≤0.45. The optimum particle size range is 25-30 nm for all concentrations, where the specific absorption rate (SAR) has a maximum. The linear response theory (LRT) has been applied to this system and good agreement has been found between the experimental and theoretically determined values of the SAR for samples lying in the single domain regime and having large enough anisotropy energies. The agreement is much better for the intermediate concentrations of 0.27 and 0.33, because of their large anisotropy as compared to other concentrations. It is concluded that the LRT can be successfully used to predict the SAR of these nanoparticles, provided they possess large enough effective anisotropies. Values of the ILP have been obtained for these samples and found to be comparable to those of magnetite and some commercial ferrofluids.

  5. Defect structure of epitaxial CrxV1-x thin films on MgO(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Bowden, Mark E.; Wang, Chongmin; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Wirth, Brian D.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of CrxV1-x over the entire composition range were deposited on MgO(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The films exhibited the expected 45° in-plane rotation with no evidence of phase segregation or spinodal decomposition. Pure Cr, with the largest lattice mismatch to MgO, exhibited full relaxation and cubic lattice parameters. As the lattice mismatch decreased with alloy composition, residual epitaxial strain was observed. For 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 the films were coherently strained to the substrate with associated tetragonal distortion; near the lattice-matched composition of x = 0.33, the films exhibited strain-free pseudomorphic matching to MgO. Unusually, films on the Cr-rich side of the lattice-matched composition exhibited more in-plane compression than expected from the bulk lattice parameters; this result was confirmed with both x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling measurements. Although thermal expansion mismatch in the heterostructure may play a role, the dominant mechanism for this phenomenon is still unknown. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was utilized to characterize the misfit dislocation network present at the film/MgO interface. Dislocations were found to be present with a non-uniform distribution, which is attributed to the Volmer-Weber growth mode of the films. The CrxV1-x / MgO(001) system can serve as a model system to study both the fundamentals of defect formation in bcc films and the interplay between nanoscale defects such as dislocations and radiation damage.

  6. CBD-Cd1-xZnxS thin films and their application in CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Wu, X.; Teeter, G.; To, B.; Yan, Y.; Dhere, R. G.; Gessert, T. A.

    2004-02-01

    Composition, optical properties, structure properties, and surface morphology of thin films of Cd1-xZnxS (x 10%) prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) are reported. The best cell efficiency was 15.7%. It used a Cd1-xZnxS window layer, was confirmed by NREL (Voc = 840.1 mV, Jsc = 24.81 mA/cm2, and FF = 75.55%), and had a CTO/ZTO/Cd0.92Zn0.08S/CdTe cell structure. The use of low zinc concentration in the Cd1-xZnxS layer and interdiffusion between Cd1-xZnxS and CdTe layers were assumed to be the reasons for maintaining high Voc and FF.

  7. ULTRAFAST ELECTRON SPIN DYNAMICS OF AS-GROWN Ga1-xMnxAs WITH APPROPRIATE Mn DOPING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Han

    2013-06-01

    The electron spin dynamics in the as-grown Ga1-xMnxAs films with appropriate Mn doping of x 2-5% is studied using time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. Due to the existence of Mn interstitials, the s-d exchange scattering is found to play an important role for the as-grown Ga1-xMnxAs, and compete with p-d exchange coupling to dominate the electron spin relaxation process. The contribution of electron-electron Coulomb scattering to the electron spin dynamics for the as-grown Ga1-x MnxAs appears to be as important as that of the annealed ones. Our findings are fundamentally important for better understanding the electron spin dynamics in Ga1-xMnxAs for its future spintronic applications.

  8. MBE growth of CdTe and Hg (1-x) Cd (x) Te films and multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, R. F. C.; Noreika, A. J.; Takei, W. J.; Wood, S.; Greggi, J.

    1985-04-01

    The MBE growth of CdTe and Hg1-xCdxTe films on InSb and CdTe substrates has been investigated. Growth conditions for high-perfection CdTe films, exactly lattice-matched to InSb substrates, have been identified. These films are ideal for substrates for Hg1-xCdxTe film growth since they are free from low-angle grain boundaries and also provide electrical isolation of the Hg1-xCdxTe film from the InSb substrate. Magnetophotoconductivity studies of abrupt n-CdTe/p-InSb heterojunctions indicate the presence of an n-type inversion layer in the InSb. This could be the basis for a new type of FET device. Conditions for growth of Hg1-xCdxTe films have been explored and films of suitable quality for LWIR device fabrication have been prepared.

  9. Comment on ‘Electronic structure of Mo(1-x)Re x alloys studied through resonant photoemission spectroscopy’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Prescott; Dowben, P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Further analysis of the resonant photoemission data, found within Sundar et al (2016 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 28 315502), show the intensities do not follow the elemental composition in the Mo1-x Re x alloy. Similar trends are observed in the published data for Gd1-x Ni x alloy films. The analysis of the resonant photoemission intensities suggests that Mo in the Mo1-x Re x alloy and Gd in the Gd1-x Ni x alloy have nearest neighbor bonds to Re and Ni respectively. This means the A-B bond is favored over the average of the A-A bond and the B-B bond in these binary alloys, so that the short range order favors strong local ordering rather than clustering alloys.

  10. BN-coated Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S:Eu solid-solution nanowires with tunable red light emission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Mi, Jiao; Zhang, Xinghua; Lu, Zunming; Xu, Xuewen; Fan, Ying; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2013-10-11

    We report on the controlled growth of novel BN-coated Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S:Eu nanowires via a solid-liquid-solid process. The Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S solid solution forms as one-dimensional nanowires and has been coated with homogeneous protective BN nanolayers. The structure and luminescence properties of this new nanocomposite have been systematically investigated. High-spatial-resolution cathodoluminescence investigations reveal that effective red color tuning has been achieved by tailoring the composition of the Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S nanowires. Moreover, codoping of Ce(3+) and Eu(2+) in the CaS nanowire can induce energy transfer in the matrix and make it possible to obtain enhanced orange color in the nanowires. The BN-coated Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S:Eu solid-solution nanowires are envisaged to be valuable red-emitting nanophosphors and useful in advanced nanodevices and white LEDs.

  11. Comment on 'Electronic structure of Mo(1-x)Re x alloys studied through resonant photoemission spectroscopy'.

    PubMed

    Evans, Prescott; Dowben, P A

    2017-03-08

    Further analysis of the resonant photoemission data, found within Sundar et al (2016 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 28 315502), show the intensities do not follow the elemental composition in the Mo1-x Re x alloy. Similar trends are observed in the published data for Gd1-x Ni x alloy films. The analysis of the resonant photoemission intensities suggests that Mo in the Mo1-x Re x alloy and Gd in the Gd1-x Ni x alloy have nearest neighbor bonds to Re and Ni respectively. This means the A-B bond is favored over the average of the A-A bond and the B-B bond in these binary alloys, so that the short range order favors strong local ordering rather than clustering alloys.

  12. Research Update: Magnetic phase diagram of EuTi1-xBxO3 (B = Zr, Nb)

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ling; Zhou, Haidong; Yan, Jiaqiang; ...

    2014-11-21

    Herein, we report the magnetic phase diagram of EuTi1-xBxO3 (B = Zr, Nb), determined from magnetization and heat capacity measurements. Upon Zr-doping, the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature TN of EuTi1-xZrxO3 gradually decreases from 5.6 K (x = 0) to 4.1 K (x = 1). Whereas a similar decrease in TN is observed for small amounts of Nb doping (x ≤ 0.05), ferromagnetism is induced in EuTi1-xNbxO3 with x > 0.05. Lastly, the ferromagnetic interaction between localized Eu 4f spins mediated by itinerant electrons introduced by Nb doping results in the ferromagnetism in EuTi1-xNbxO3.

  13. Thin single-crystalline Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 ternary nanosheets synthesized by a solvothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Rong; Li, Jin; Sun, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 ternary nanosheets have been successfully synthesized through a facile solvothermal technique using diethylenetriamine as solvent, where x can vary from 0 to 1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that the as-synthesized Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 samples are nanosheets with rhombohedral structure, and the thickness of the nanosheets can be as thin as several nanometers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) reveal that the nanosheets are single crystalline with a rhombohedral structure. Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and XRD analysis by Vegard's law confirm that the ternary Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 nanosheets have been obtained here. The growth of the nanosheets is discussed based on an amine-based molecular template mechanism that has been employed to synthesize some other metal chalcogenides.

  14. Mechanisms for p -type behavior of ZnO, Zn1 -xMgxO , and related oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Daniel F.; Körner, Wolfgang; Elsässer, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The possibilities of turning intrinsically n -type oxide semiconductors like ZnO and Zn1 -xMgxO into p -type materials are investigated. Motivated by recent experiments on Zn1 -xMgxO doped with nitrogen, we analyze the electronic defect levels of point defects NO,vZn, and NO-vZn pairs in ZnO and Zn1 -xMgxO by means of self-interaction-corrected density functional theory calculations. We show how the interplay of defects can lead to shallow acceptor defect levels, although the levels of individual point defects NO are too deep in the band gap to be responsible for p -type conduction. We relate our results to p -type conduction paths at grain boundaries seen in polycrystalline ZnO and develop an understanding of a p -type mechanism which is common to ZnO, Zn1 -xMgxO , and related materials.

  15. The growth of epitaxial single crystal PbS 1-xSe x films by hot wall evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuelmann, R.; Marino, A.; Reichelt, K.

    1983-12-01

    Heteroepitaxial films of semiconducting PbS 1- xSe x on rock salt and mica substrates have been prepared and studied. The films have good crystalline perfection but have low electron mobilities, probably due to deviations from stoichiometry.

  16. Ballistic-Electron-Emission-Microscopy of Strained Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, L. D.; Milliken, A. M.; Manion, S. J.; Kaiser, W. J.; Fathauer, R. W.; Pike, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) has been used to investigate the effects of strain on Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) alloys. Lifting of the degeneracy of the conduction-band minimum of Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x), due to lattice deformation has been directly measured by application of BEEM spectroscopy to Ag/Si structures. Experimental values for this conduction-band splitting agree well with calculations. In addition, an unexpected heterogeneity in the strain of the Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) layer is introduced by deposition of Au. This effect, not observed with Ag, is attributed to species interdiffusion and has important implications for metal-semiconductor devices based oil pseudomorphic Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x)/Si material systems.

  17. Magnetic properties of the layered III-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xFexTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekarek, T. M.; Edwards, P. S.; Olejniczak, T. L.; Lampropoulos, C.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of single crystalline Ga1-xFexTe (x = 0.05) have been measured. GaTe and related layered III-VI semiconductors exhibit a rich collection of important properties for THz generation and detection. The magnetization versus field for an x = 0.05 sample deviates from the linear response seen previously in Ga1-xMnxSe and Ga1-xMnxS and reaches a maximum of 0.68 emu/g at 2 K in 7 T. The magnetization of Ga1-xFexTe saturates rapidly even at room temperature where the magnetization reaches 50% of saturation in a field of only 0.2 T. In 0.1 T at temperatures between 50 and 400 K, the magnetization drops to a roughly constant 0.22 emu/g. In 0 T, the magnetization drops to zero with no hysteresis present. The data is consistent with Van-Vleck paramagnetism combined with a pronounced crystalline anisotropy, which is similar to that observed for Ga1-xFexSe. Neither the broad thermal hysteresis observed from 100-300 K in In1-xMnxSe nor the spin-glass behavior observed around 10.9 K in Ga1-xMnxS are observed in Ga1-xFexTe. Single crystal x-ray diffraction data yield a rhombohedral space group bearing hexagonal axes, namely R3c. The unit cell dimensions were a = 5.01 Å, b = 5.01 Å, and c = 17.02 Å, with α = 90°, β = 90°, and γ = 120° giving a unit cell volume of 369 Å3.

  18. Energy transfer to Ln 3+ in GaS 1-xSe x(0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagiev, B. G.; Aidaev, F. Sh.; Abbasova, T. M.

    1988-04-01

    The paper deals with the matrix mechanism of excitation energy transfer to rare-earth centres in GaS xSe 1- x crystals. Energy transfer to Ln 3+ is shown to be radiationless in GaS 1- xSe x (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) single crystals and to come about predominantly by resonance, involving local states of the matrix forbidden band.

  19. Effect of Mn doping on structural and optical properties of Zn1-xMnxO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, R.; Neogi, S. K.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, Aritra

    2012-06-01

    We report structural and optical properties of single phase Zn1-xMnxO (0 < x < 0.05) thin films synthesized by sol-gel technique. Lattice parameter and unit cell volume of Zn1-xMnxO films increases but grain size decreases with increasing Mn concentration. Observed red shift in band gap values with increasing Mn concentration have been analyzed in the light of modification of electronic structure and disorder introduced in the system with doping.

  20. Gas Sensors Based on Metal Sulfide Zn(1-x)Cd(x)S Nanowires with Excellent Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linghui; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Dezhong; Li, Chao; Sun, Dongming; Wen, Shanpeng; Chen, Yu; Ruan, Shengping

    2015-09-23

    Metal sulfide Zn1-xCdxS nanowires (NWs) covering the entire compositional range prepared by one step solvothermal method were used to fabricate gas sensors. This is the first time for ternary metal sulfide nanostructures to be used in the field of gas sensing. Surprisingly, the sensors based on Zn1-xCdxS nanowires were found to exhibit enhanced response to ethanol compared to those of binary CdS and ZnS NWs. Especially for the sensor based on the Zn1-xCdxS (x = 0.4) NWs, a large sensor response (s = 12.8) and a quick rise time (2 s) and recovery time (1 s) were observed at 206 °C toward 20 ppm ethanol, showing preferred selectivity. A dynamic equilibrium mechanism of oxygen molecules absorption process and carrier intensity change in the NWs was used to explain the higher response of Zn1-xCdxS. The reason for the much quicker response and recovery speed of the Zn1-xCdxS NWs than those of the binary ZnS NWs was also discussed. These results demonstrated that the growth of metal sulfide Zn1-xCdxS nanostructures can be utilized to develop gas sensors with high performance.

  1. Low-temperature growth of InxGa1-xN films by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Shi, X. J.; Zhu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The low-temperature growth of InxGa1-xN films on quartz glass substrates utilizing radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is investigated. In the InxGa1-xN films prepared using an In-Ga alloy target, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) peaks corresponding to wurtzite structure were observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to study the extent of oxygen contamination and chemical states, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to evaluate the distribution profiles of oxygen impurity in the as-grown InxGa1-xN thin films. XPS and SIMS analysis indicate that the entire thin films have oxide phases. However, no evidence of In2O3, Ga2O3, or indium oxynitride phases was shown in XRD studies. It may be predicted that the oxygen impurities formed amorphous oxide phases embedded in InxGa1-xN matrix. According to our findings, indium is a major phase in the InxGa1-xN thin films which suggests that a significant amount of indium remains un-reacted with N2. The optical transmittance spectra of the as-grown films show interference fringe patterns. The indium fraction x of the as-deposited InxGa1-xN thin films can be calculated out by the transmittance data.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of Zn x Cd1- x S-MWCNT heterostructures and their photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaqiang; Yao, Youzhi; Li, Wenting; Zhu, Lulu; Ni, Na; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2011-05-01

    The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) wrapped with hexagonal wurtzite Zn x Cd1- x S nanoparticles with a uniform and small diameter have been prepared to form Zn x Cd1- x S-MWCNT heterostructures by microwave-assisted route using Zn(Ac)2, Cd(NO3)2, and thioacetamide as the reactants. The heterostructures have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and PL excited lifetime. Despite the analogous size and configuration, the Zn x Cd1- x S-MWCNT ( x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1) with different Zn concentration exhibit composition-dependent absorption properties in the visible zone. The PL peak positions of Zn x Cd1- x S-MWCNT change gradually from ZnS-MWCNT to CdS-MWCNT. The Zn x Cd1- x S-MWCNT shows different photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of fuchsin acid under visible light illumination, photocatalytic activity of the Zn x Cd1- x S-MWCNT decreases gradually with the increase in the Zn concentration, the Zn0.2Cd0.8S-MWCNT possessed the best photocatalytic activity. After recycling thrice, the photocatalysts still have about 85% efficiency.

  3. Preparation and optical properties of alloyed Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Sun, Yujie

    2015-02-01

    Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles were synthesized via a colloidal route by reacting zinc and cadmium ions with sulfide ions, followed by coating with alginate. The crystal structure, morphology, size and optical properties of the core/shell nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV/vis and photoluminescent spectra, respectively. The Znx Cd1-x S nanoparticles are spherical and have a cubic structure with a mean crystalline size of 2-4 nm. The band gap of Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles increases with increasing Zn/Cd molar ratio, and the UV/vis absorption blue-shifts correspondingly. Two emissions related to zinc and sulfide ion vacancies were observed for the Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles due to the surface changes from the alginate coating. A cadmium-related emission was observed for both the uncovered Znx Cd1-x S and Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles, which has a significant blue-shift with increasing Zn/Cd molar ratio.

  4. The behavior of mixed-metal oxides: Physical and chemical properties of bulk Ce1-xTbxO2 and nanoparticles of Ce1-xTbxOy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Liu, Gang; Rodriguez, José A.; Iglesias-Juez, Ana; Fernández-García, Marcos

    2004-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of bulk Ce1-xTbxO2 and Ce1-xTbxOy nanoparticles (x⩽0.5) were investigated using synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray adsorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and first-principles density-functional (DF) calculations. DF results and Raman spectra point to a small tetragonal distortion after introducing terbium in ceria. The results of XRD show a small contraction (⩽ 0.08 Å) in the cell dimensions. The presence of Tb generates strain in the lattice through the variation of the ionic radii and creation of crystal imperfections and O vacancies. The strain increases with the content of Tb and affects the chemical reactivity of the Ce1-xTbxOy nanoparticles towards hydrogen, SO2, and NO2. DF calculations for bulk Ce1-xTbxO2 and Ce8-nTbnO16 (n=0, 1, 2, or 4) clusters show oxide systems that are not fully ionic. The theoretical results and XANES spectra indicate that neither a Ce↔Tb exchange nor the introduction of oxygen vacancies in Ce1-xTbxOy significantly affect the charge on the Ce cations. In contrast, the O K-edge and Tb LIII-edge XANES spectra for Ce1-xTbxOy nanoparticles show substantial changes with respect to the corresponding spectra of Ce and Tb single oxide references. The Ce0.5Tb0.5Oy compounds exhibit a much larger Tb3+/Tb4+ ratio than TbO1.7. A comparison with the properties of Ce1-xZrxOy and Ce1-xCaxOy shows important differences in the charge distribution, the magnitude of the dopant induced strain in the oxide lattice, and a superior behavior in the case of the Ce1-xTbxOy systems. The Tb-containing oxides combine stability at high temperature against phase segregation and a reasonable concentration of O vacancies, making them attractive for chemical and catalytic applications.

  5. The behavior of mixed-metal oxides: physical and chemical properties of bulk Ce1-xTbxO2 and nanoparticles of Ce1-xTbxOy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan C; Liu, Gang; Rodriguez, José A; Iglesias-Juez, Ana; Fernández-García, Marcos

    2004-09-15

    The physical and chemical properties of bulk Ce(1-x)Tb(x)O(2) and Ce(1-x)Tb(x)O(y) nanoparticles (x1-x)Tb(x)O(y) nanoparticles towards hydrogen, SO(2), and NO(2). DF calculations for bulk Ce(1-x)Tb(x)O(2) and Ce(8-n)Tb(n)O(16) (n=0, 1, 2, or 4) clusters show oxide systems that are not fully ionic. The theoretical results and XANES spectra indicate that neither a Ce<-->Tb exchange nor the introduction of oxygen vacancies in Ce(1-x)Tb(x)O(y) significantly affect the charge on the Ce cations. In contrast, the O K-edge and Tb L(III)-edge XANES spectra for Ce(1-x)Tb(x)O(y) nanoparticles show substantial changes with respect to the corresponding spectra of Ce and Tb single oxide references. The Ce(0.5)Tb(0.5)O(y) compounds exhibit a much larger Tb(3+)/Tb(4+) ratio than TbO(1.7). A comparison with the properties of Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O(y) and Ce(1-x)Ca(x)O(y) shows important differences in the charge distribution, the magnitude of the dopant induced strain in the oxide lattice, and a superior behavior in the case of the Ce(1-x)Tb(x)O(y) systems. The Tb-containing oxides combine stability at high temperature against phase segregation and a reasonable concentration of O vacancies, making them attractive for chemical and catalytic applications.

  6. Dielectric Function and Interband Transitions in Hg{1-x}Zn{x}Te Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaing, O.; Benhlal, J. T.; Granger, R.; Triboulet, R.

    1996-07-01

    The dielectric function ɛ_r + iɛ_i in Hg{1-x}Znx Te is found, for the first time, at 293 K. It is deduced from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements for the entire composition range and for photon energies ranging from 0.75 eV to 5.7 eV. A detailed analysis of the chemical treatments leading to the best surfaces which correspond to the highest values of ɛ_i at the E_2 peak is presented. The oxydation of the surface after the last stripping is also studied. The pseudodielectric function is analysed for the critical point model. The variation, with x of the parameters describing the main critical transitions E_0, E_0 + Δ_0, E_1, E_1 + Δ_1 and E_2 are obtained. The results are discussed in relation to the band structure and to the properties of these compounds. La fonction diélectrique ɛ_r + iɛ_i des solutions solides Hg{1-x}ZnxTe est donnée, pour la première fois, à 293 K. Ces résultats sont déduits de mesures d'ellipsométrie spectroscopique dans tout le domaine de composition et pour des énergies de photon allant de 0,75 eV à 5,7 eV. Les traitements chimiques permettant d'obtenir les meilleures surfaces correspondant aux plus fortes valeurs de ɛ_i au pic E_2 sont analysés en détail. De même, l'oxydation de la surface est suivie par ellipsométrie. La fonction pseudodiélectrique est analysée avec le modèle de points critiques. Les variations des paramètres définissant les principales transitions E_0, E_0 + Δ_0, E_1, E_1 + Δ_1 et E_2 sont données en fonction de la composition x. Ces résultats sont discutés en relation avec la structure de bande et les propriétés de ces solutions solides.

  7. Coprecipitation of nickel zinc malonate: A facile and reproducible synthesis route for Ni1-xZnxO nanoparticles and Ni1-xZnxO/ZnO nanocomposites via pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lontio Fomekong, Roussin; Kenfack Tsobnang, Patrice; Magnin, Delphine; Hermans, Sophie; Delcorte, Arnaud; Lambi Ngolui, John

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles of Ni1-xZnxO and Ni1-xZnxO/ZnO, which can be good candidates for selective gas sensors, were successfully obtained via a two-step synthetic route, in which the nickel zinc malonate precursor was first synthesized by co-precipitation from an aqueous solution, followed by pyrolysis in air at a relatively low temperature (~500 °C). The precursor was characterized by ICP-AES, FTIR and TG and the results indicate the molecular structure of the precursor to be compatible with Ni1-xZnx(OOCCH2COO)·2H2O. The decomposition product, characterized using various techniques (FTIR, XRD, ToF-SIMS, SEM, TEM and XPS), was established to be a doped nickel oxide (Ni1-xZnxO for 0.01≤x≤0.1) and a composite material (Ni1-xZnxO/ZnO for 0.2≤x≤0.5). To elucidate the form in which the Zn is present in the NiO structure, three analytical techniques were employed: ToF-SIMS, XRD and XPS. While ToF SIMS provided a direct evidence of the presence of Zn in the NiO crystal structure, XRD showed that Zn actually substitutes Ni in the structure and XPS is a bit more specific by indicating that the Zn is present in the form of Zn2+ ions.

  8. Properties of the thin-film solar cells with heterojunctions Cu2S-Cd1-xZnxS and Cu2Se-Cd1-xZnxSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarov, M. A.; Nasirov, E. F.

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, resumed intensive studies of heterojunctions, in connection with the possibility of using them on the most economical and relatively efficient photodetectors. In this economy is determined by the structure of production technology and the value of the source material. Thus there is a substitution reaction on the surface of the films Cd1-xZnxS formed a second layer of Cu2S, whose thickness is determined by the time of deposition. When light 1,45ṡ104 lux photocells studied Cu2S-Cd1-xZnxS and Cu2Se-Cd1-xZnxSe generated voltage 0,5÷0,6V and in 0,45-0,58V, current Jsc 15 ÷ 20 mA/sm2 and 12-15mA/cm2 and efficiency were = 11%. and 8%. respectively. It is established that with increasing content of Zn in the base material-circuit voltage Uos photocell increases and short-circuit current decreases. Using as a base material of solid solutions of Cd1-xZnxS and Cd1-xZnxSe causes an increase in the potential barrier at the contact.

  9. NMR study of spin fluctuations and superconductivity in LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Yoichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    We have performed NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1-xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1-xFx. LaFeAsO1-xHx is most recently known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. LaFeAsO1-xHx is an electron- doped system, and protons act as H-1 as well as F-1. The first SC dome is very similar between F and H doping, suggesting that H doping supplies the same amount of electrons as F doping. Interestingly, an excess amount of H up to x=0.5 can be replaced with O2-. In the H-overdoped regime (x > 0 . 2), LaFeAsO1-xHx undergoes the second superconducting state. We measured the relaxation rate of LaFeAsO1-xHx for x=0.2 and 0.4, and fond an anomalous electronic state; spin fluctuations measured from 1 /T1 T is enhanced with increasing the doping level from x = 0 . 2 to 0.4. The enhancement of spin fluctuations with increasing carrier doping is a new phenomenon that has not observed in LaFeAsO1-xFx in which the upper limit of the doping level is at most x = 0 . 2 . We will discuss the phenomenon in relation to superconductivity. Grant (KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Sports and Science, Japan

  10. Effects of the inhomogenous co doping on the magnetoresistance of Zn1-xCo(x)O epitaxial films.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuangli; Klar, Limei; Ney, Andreas; Ney, Verena; Kammermeier, Tom; Ollefs, Katharina; Liu, Feng; Wang, Gaofeng

    2012-02-01

    A series of Zn1-xCo(x)O epitaxial films around 100 nm with nominal Co concentration from 5% to 15% was prepared by ultra high vacuum (UHV) magnetron reactive sputtering. The optical, magnetic and magneto-transport properties of this series of Zn1-xCo(x)O epitaxial films were investigated, respectively. Resonant Raman spectra indicate the high structural and crystalline quality of these Zn1-xCo(x)O (5 < or = x < or = 15%) films, and confirm a consistent correlation between the substituting Co ions content with the Co doping concentration as well. Paramagnetism, superparamagnetism and ferromagnetism with altered Curie temperature from low temperatures to above room temperatures have been observed in these films by SQUID magnetometry. The broad blocking temperature range indicates the presence of inhomogenous distribution of the magnetic nano-clusters in the superparamagnetic films. However, the magneto-transport behaviors do not strongly respond to the change of the magnetic properties from paramagnetism to ferromagnetism of these Zn1-xCo(x)O films. The lack of efficient coupling between the inhomogenous magnetic nanoclusters and the carrier system in ferromagnetic Zn1-xCo(x)O films highlights the absence of the intrinsic magnetic origins in high structural quality Zn1-xCo(x)O (5 < or = x < or = 15%) epitaxial films. On the other hand, the competition between the spin alignments and the inhomogenous local disorder effect by magnetic ions is suggested to be responsible for the carrier properties and the oberseved magnetoresistance in these Co doping Zn1-xCo(x)O (5 < or = x < or = 15%) epitaxial films.

  11. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Mn1-xZnxFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Jagadeesha Angadi.; Rudraswamy, B.; Matteppanavar, Shidaling; Bharathi, P.; Praveena, K.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystalline Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.0) were prepared via solution combustion method. Structural and morphology of Mn-Zn ferrites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Magnetic properties were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature (RT) up to maximum field of 1.5 T. The room temperature real and imaginary part of permeability (μ' and μ″) has been measured in the frequency range of 1MHz to 1GHz. The room temperature XRD patterns exhibits the spinel cubic (Fm-3m) structure and broad XRD patterns shows the presence of nanoparticles. The imaginary part of the permeability (μ″) gradually increased with the frequency and took a broad maximum at a certain frequency, where the real permeability (μ') rapidly decreases, which is known as natural resonance. The coercive filed values are low, hence probability of domain rotation is also lower and the magnetization decreased with zinc substitution. The values of μ' and μ″ increases sharply, attained a maximum and then decreases with zinc content.

  12. Semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO and MgxZn1-xO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yaonan; Mei, Zengxia; Du, Xiaolong

    2014-07-01

    It is indispensable to develop wide-band-gap based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs), which are one of the basic building blocks of solid state UV optoelectronic devices. In the last two decades, we have witnessed the renaissance of ZnO as a wide-band-gap semiconductor and an enormous development of ZnO-based UV PDs as a result of its superb optical and electronic properties. Since the first demonstration, a great variety of UV PDs based on ZnO and its related materials have been proposed and demonstrated. These PDs, with diverse device geometries, exhibit either high performance or multiple functions, reflecting a state-of-the-art technology of UV optoelectronics. In this review, we study the latest progress of UV PDs made on ZnO and MgxZn1-xO, which is a representative alloy of ZnO for band-gap engineering techniques. The discussion focuses on the device performance and the behind device physics according to the architecture of UV PDs.

  13. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Transition-Metal-Doped Zn 1- x Fe x O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Baset, T. A.; Fang, Yue-Wen; Anis, B.; Duan, Chun-Gang; Abdel-Hafiez, Mahmoud

    2016-02-01

    The ability to produce high-quality single-phase diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is the driving factor to study DMS for spintronics applications. Fe-doped ZnO was synthesized by using a low-temperature co-precipitation technique producing Zn 1- x Fe x O nanoparticles ( x= 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.1). Structural, Raman, density functional calculations, and magnetic studies have been carried out in studying the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO. The results show that Fe atoms are substituted by Zn ions successfully. Due to the small ionic radius of Fe ions compared to that of a Zn ions, the crystal size decreases with an increasing dopant concentration. First-principle calculations indicate that the charge state of iron is Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ with a zinc vacancy or an interstitial oxygen anion, respectively. The calculations predict that the exchange interaction between transition metal ions can switch from the antiferromagnetic coupling into its quasi-degenerate ferromagnetic coupling by external perturbations. This is further supported and explains the observed ferromagnetic bahaviour at magnetic measurements. Magnetic measurements reveal that decreasing particle size increases the ferromagnetism volume fraction. Furthermore, introducing Fe into ZnO induces a strong magnetic moment without any distortion in the geometrical symmetry; it also reveals the ferromagnetic coupling.

  14. Low-cost Ce1-xSmx(Fe, Co, Ti)12 alloys for permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, A. M.; Martín-Cid, A.; Barandiaran, J. M.; Salazar, D.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2016-05-01

    Ce1-xSmxFe9Co2Ti alloys based on the ThMn12-type crystal structure have been synthesized via melt-spinning of prefabricated alloys and via mechanochemical processing of CeO2- Sm2O3- Fe2O3-TiO2- Co - Ca - CaO powder mixtures. Coercive fields up to 0.8 kOe and 2.1 kOe were obtained in annealed melt-spun alloys with x = 0 and x = 0.5, respectively. Submicron, partially anisotropic particles collected after the mechanochemical synthesis for x = 0.5 and x = 1 exhibited coercivity (energy product) of 1.8 kOe (5.4 MGOe) and 5.8 kOe (9.9 MGOe), respectively. The low magnetic anisotropy field of CeFe9Co2Ti alloy requires at least a partial Sm-substitution for Ce in order to develop a reasonably high coercivity.

  15. Room temperature multiferroic properties of (Fex, Sr1-x)TiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Cheolbok; Fang, Sheng-Po; Yoon, Yong-Kyu

    2014-09-01

    This letter reports the structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of Fe substituted SrTiO3 thin films in room temperature. The structural data obtained from x-ray diffraction indicates that (Fex,Sr1-x)TiO3, the so called FST, transforms from pseudocubic to tetragonal structures with increase of the Fe content in SrTiO3 thin films, featuring the ferroelectricity, while vibrating sample magnetometer measurements show magnetic hysteresis loops for the samples with low iron contents indicating their ferromagnetism. The characterized ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism confirms strong multiferroitism of the single phase FST thin films in room temperature. Also, an FST thin film metal-insulator-metal multiferroic capacitor has been fabricated and characterized in microwave frequencies between 10 MHz and 5 GHz. A capacitor based on Fe0.1Sr0.9TiO3 with a thickness of 260 nm shows a high electric tunability of 18.6% at 10 V and a maximum magnetodielectric value of 1.37% at 0.4 mT with a loss tangent of 0.021 at 1 GHz. This high tuning and low loss makes this material as a good candidate for frequency agile microwave devices such as tunable filters, phase shifters, and antennas.

  16. Lithium-7 NMR studies of Li(1-x)CoO2 battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, B.; Cao, X.; Lin, H. W.; Slane, S.; Kostov, S.

    1995-05-01

    Lithium-deficient cathode materials Li(1-x)CoO2, where x = 0.1, 0.4 and 0.6 were prepared electrochemically from the stoichiometric parent compound (x = 0.0). The materials were observed to be air-stable, and x-ray diffraction characterization yielded good agreement with the in situ studies of Dahn and co-workers, regarding changes in lattice parameters. In addition to both static and magic angle spinning (MAS) Li-7 NMR, measurements, the samples were investigated by EPR and cobalt K-edge NEXAFS. The removal of Li is accompanied by compensating electrons from the Co d-orbitals, as evidenced by both shifts in the NEXAFS peak and the observation of EPR signals due to spins localized on the Co ions. These spins, in turn, result in dramatic 7Li chemical shifts (89 ppm for x = 0.6) and line broadening. Whereas MAS analysis of Li(0.9)CoO2 indicates two magnetically inequivalent Li sites, the spectra become too broad to resolve different sites for higher values of x. Finally NMR linewidth and spin- lattice relaxation measurements as a function of temperature suggest a modest increase in Li(+) ion mobility for Li-deficient samples as compared to the parent compound.

  17. Magnetic properties of Co2Fe(Ga1-xSix) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Bhargab; Chakraborty, Dibyashree; Srinivasan, Ananthakrishnan

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic and crystallographic properties of bulk Co2Fe(Ga1-xSix) alloys with 0≤x≤1 are reported in this work. The alloys with x=0.75 and 1.00 exhibit L21 structure whereas the alloys with x=0, 0.25 and 0.50 crystallized in the disordered A2 phase. Unit cell volume of this series of alloys decreased from 189.1 to 178.5 Å3 as x was increased from 0 to 1.00. All alloy compositions exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with a high Curie temperature (TC) which showed a systematic variation with x (1089 K, 1075 K, 1059 K, 1019 K and 1015 K for x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00, respectively). The saturation magnetization moment Ms for the alloys with x=0, 0.25 and 0.50 are 5.05μB, 5.23μB, 5.49μB, respectively, in accordance with the Slater-Pauling rule, but alloys with x=0.75 and 1.00 deviated from this rule. The effective moment per magnetic atom (pc) of the alloys was estimated from the inverse DC magnetic susceptibility data above TC. A comparison of Ms with pc reveals the half-metallic character of the alloys.

  18. Visible photoluminescence of porous Si(1-x)Ge(x) obtained by stain etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, A.; Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Pike, W. T.; Vasquez, R. P.; Taylor, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated visible photoluminescence (PL) from thin porous Si(1-x)Ge(x) alloy layers prepared by stain etching of molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown material. Seven samples with nominal Ge fraction x varying from 0.04 to 0.41 were studied at room temperature and 80 K. Samples of bulk stain etched Si and Ge were also investigated. The composition of the porous material was determined using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering techniques to be considerably more Ge-rich than the starting epitaxial layers. While the luminescence intensity drops significantly with the increasing Ge fraction, we observe no significant variation in the PL wavelength at room temperature. This is clearly in contradiction to the popular model based on quantum confinement in crystalline silicon which predicts that the PL energy should follow the bandgap variation of the starting material. However, our data are consistent with small active units containing only a few Si atoms that are responsible for the light emission. Such units are present in many compounds proposed in the literature as the cause of the visible PL in porous Si.

  19. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in EuTi1-xNbxO3

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ling; Morris, James R.; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2015-07-30

    Here, we investigate the structural and magnetic phase transitions in EuTi1-xNbxO3 (0≤x≤0.3) with synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Upon Nb doping, the Pmmore » $$\\bar{3}$$m ↔ I4/mcm structural transition shifts to higher temperatures and the room temperature lattice parameter increases while the magnitude of the octahedral tilting decreases. In addition, Nb substitution for Ti destabilizes the antiferromagnetic ground state of the parent compound and long-range ferromagnetic order is observed in the samples with x≥0.1. Moreover, the structural transition in pure and doped compounds is marked by a dramatic step-like softening of the elastic moduli near TS, which resembles that of SrTiO3 and can be adequately modeled using the Landau free energy model employing the same coupling between strain and octahedral tilting order parameter as previously used to model SrTiO3.« less

  20. Orbital Moment Determination in (MnxFe1-x)3O4 Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, V. L.; Jolley, C.; Douglas, T.; Arenholz, E.; Idzerda, Y. U.

    2010-10-22

    Nanoparticles of (Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}){sub 3}O{sub 4} with a concentration ranging from x = 0 to 1 and a crystallite size of 14-15 nm were measured using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to determine the ratio of the orbital moment to the spin moment for Mn and Fe. At low Mn concentrations, the Mn substitutes into the host Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel structure as Mn{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral A-site. The net Fe moment, as identified by the X-ray dichroism intensity, is found to increase at the lowest Mn concentrations then rapidly decrease until no dichroism is observed at 20% Mn. The average Fe orbit/spin moment ratio is determined to initially be negative and small for pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and quickly go to 0 by 5%-10% Mn addition. The average Mn moment is anti-aligned to the Fe moment with an orbit/spin moment ratio of 0.12 which gradually decreases with Mn concentration.

  1. Exchange equilibria between bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride and bromide on dowex 1 x 8.

    PubMed

    Lundström, U; Olin, A

    1984-07-01

    The exchange reaction 2R(+)HCO(3)(2-) + CO(3)(2-) right harpoon over left harpoon R(2)(+) CO(3)(2-) + 2HCO(3)(2-) has been studied on Dowex 1 x 8 in the presence of bicarbonate solution in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide (open system). The experiments showed, as theory predicts, that the composition of the resin phase is independent of the concentration of the bicarbonate solution. The mole fraction of carbonate at equilibrium is about 0.4 and the equilibrium constant is 0.15M at 20 degrees . With this value of the constant, the composition of the ion-exchanger for various bicarbonate concentrations has been calculated for a closed system. At [HCO(3)(-)] < 0.01M a substantial part of the resin is in the carbonate form, whereas for [HCO(3)(-)] 0.05M the resin is present almost exclusively in bicarbonate form. The exchange constants of bromide at trace level have been determined for the bicarbonate and mixed carbonate forms of the ion-exchanger. The exchange constant K(Cl)(HCO(3)) has been determined over the whole composition range and the results can be represented by K(Cl)(HCO(3))= 0.428 -0.063x(Cl) -0.115x(Cl)(2), where X(Cl) is the mole fraction of chloride in the resin. The constants are used to discuss the conditions for the Chromatographie enrichment of bromide from fresh water.

  2. Charge fluctuations in a disordered superconductor, LaO1-xFxBiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athauda, Anushika; Lee, Seunghun; Louca, Despina; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    LaO1-xFxBiS2 is a disordered, non-magnetic superconductor with a transition temperature of 10.8 K at x = 0.5. The parent compound, LaOBiS2, is a band insulator with a layered tetragonal structure. The evolution of the crystal structure and nano-scale atomic fluctuations are investigated as a function of temperature and composition using neutron scattering. Even though the symmetry remains unchanged with doping, lattice strain develops along the c-axis and buckling of the BiS2 plane changes orientation. In addition, strong local distortions are observed around the Bi ion that are in response to charge fluctuations. Two distinct Bi-S plaquettes are present due to atomic displacement of in-plane sulfur because the Bi ion undergoes a charge disproportionation. The charge fluctuations along with spin-orbit coupling most likely play important roles in the mechanism of superconductivity in this system.

  3. The structure of a-Si 1-xSn x:H thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. M.; Fairbanks, M. C.; Newport, R. J.

    1990-12-01

    The doping of a-Si:H with Sn is known to modify the electrical and optical properties of the material. The optical band gap decreases as the doping level is increased, however, there is no insulator-metal transition of the type observed, for example, when transition metals are used as dopants. In order to increase the understanding of the conductivity processes that occur in a-Si:metal:H alloys we have measured the atomic scale structure of a series of a-Si 1- xSn x:H thin-films using EXAFS. Samples were prepared by RF reactive co-sputtering and both Si and Sn K-edge EXAFS examined. The results indicate that the Sn atoms are substituted randomly into the a-Si tetrahedral random network. Both Si and Sn atoms retain fourfold co-ordination over the composition range studied (0⩽ x⩽0.18). In contrast to results obtained using transition metal dopants there is no local modification of the tetrahedral random network.

  4. Nano Mg1-xNixAl2O4 spinel pigments for advanced applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, H. E. H.; Khattab, R. M.; Gaber, A. A.; Zawrah, M. F.

    Nano Mg1-xNixAl2O4 spinel pigments were synthesized via polymeric combustion technique upon heat treatment at 210 °C. Citric acid in the presence of ethylene glycol polymer, with mass ratio of 60:40, was successfully used as a host network for the synthesis process. The obtained spinel was calcined at different temperatures; 300-1200 °C and investigated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG/DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) using CIE-Lab/parameters methods have been used for color measurements. The addition of colored pigment on different types of glazes was studied. The results revealed that NiMgAl2O4 spinel beside MgNiO phases were crystallized with particle sizes of 9-21 nm at 600 °C and 52-180 nm at 1200 °C. All prepared samples exhibited green to pale green colors due to the inclusion of Ni2+ inside the spinel structure. The pale green color intensity increased with increasing calcination temperature. The prepared pigment was suitable to convert commercial and opaque glazes to color product to be used in different applications.

  5. Origin of the Bandgap Bowing in ZNSe(1-x)Te(x) Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Yu, Kin Man; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Miokowski, L.; Ramdas, A. K.; Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Photomodulated reflection and optical absorption spectroscopies were used to measure the composition and hydrostatic pressure dependencies of interband optical transitions in ZnSe(1-x)Te(x) alloys. On the Te-rich side, the bandgap reduction and the reduction in the pressure dependence of the bandgap are well explained by the band anticrossing interaction between the ZnTe conduction band states and the Se localized state located at 2.85 eV above the valence band top of ZnTe. On the Se-rich side, an interaction between the degenerate Gamma valence bands of ZnSe and the localized Te state located at 0.1 eV above the valence band top of ZnSe is proposed to generate the bandgap reduction and the rapid increase of the spin-orbit splitting with increasing Te concentration. A linear interpolation between these two models accounts for the composition and pressure dependencies of the bandgap in the entire composition range.

  6. Controlling Spin-Density Wave Periodicity in Thin Cr1-x Vx Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupin, Oleg; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, S. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chromium is an itinerant antiferromagnet with a spin-density wave (SDW) ground state driven by a nesting of Fermi surface sheets around the Gamma and H points of the Brillouin zone. Periodicity of the SDW plays an important role in mediating magnetic interactions in magnetic multilayer structures providing a giant magnetoresistance effect and potentially interesting for application in spintronic devices. Therefore control of SDW in thin chromium films is of the high importance. It requires a detailed understanding of phenomena related to stabilization of SDW. We used angle-resolved photoemission to characterize spin-density wave and Fermi surface topology in thin Cr1-x Vx films as a function of the film thickness, temperature, composition and hydrogen surface coverage. A key feature of our results is the ability to control the magnetic structure of thin films of Cr with an external perturbation: balancing the surface energetic interactions favored commensurate state of SDW vs. the energy associated with Fermi surface topology stabilizing SDW incommensurate phase in the bulk.

  7. Morphotropic phase boundary and magnetoelastic behaviour in ferromagnetic Tb1-xGdxFe2 system

    SciTech Connect

    Adil, Murtaza; Yang, Sen; Mi, Meng; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Rui; Liao, Xiaoqi; Wang, Yu; Ren, Xiaobing; Song, Xiaoping; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-30

    Morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), separating two ferroic phases of different crystal symmetries, has been studied extensively for its extraordinary enhancement of piezoelectricity in ferroelectrics. Based on the same mechanism, we have designed a magnetic MPB in the pseudobinary ferromagnetic system of Tb1-xGdxFe2 and the corresponding crystal structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostriction are explored. With the synchrotron x-ray diffractometry, the structure symmetry of TbFe2-rich compositions is detected to be rhombohedral (R) and that of GdFe2-rich compositions is tetragonal (T) below T-c. With the change of concentration, the value of magnetostriction of the samples changes monotonously, while the MPB composition Tb0.1Gd0.9Fe2, which corresponds to the coexistence of R and T phases, exhibits the maximum magnetization among all available compositions and superposition of magnetostriction behaviour of R and T phases. Our result of MPB phenomena in ferromagnets may provide an effective route to design functional magnetic materials with exotic properties. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  8. Signature of frustrated moments in quantum critical CePd1 -xNixAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Akito; Lucas, Stefan; Gegenwart, Philipp; Stockert, Oliver; v. Löhneysen, Hilbert; Fritsch, Veronika

    2016-12-01

    CePdAl with Ce 4 f moments forming a distorted kagome network is one of the scarce materials exhibiting Kondo physics and magnetic frustration simultaneously. As a result, antiferromagnetic (AF) order setting in at TN=2.7 K encompasses only two-thirds of the Ce moments. We report measurements of the specific heat, C , and the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, Γmag, on single crystals of CePd1 -xNixAl with x ≤0.16 at temperatures down to 0.05 K and magnetic fields B up to 8 T . Field-induced quantum criticality for various concentrations is observed with the critical field decreasing to zero at xc≈0.15 . Remarkably, two-dimensional AF quantum criticality of Hertz-Millis-Moriya type arises for x =0.05 and x =0.1 at the suppression of three-dimensional magnetic order. Furthermore, Γmag(B ) shows an additional contribution near 2.5 T for all concentrations, which is ascribed to correlations of the frustrated one-third of Ce moments.

  9. Magnetoresistance in polycrystalline and epitaxial Fe1-xCoxSi thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, N. A.; Creeth, G. L.; Marrows, C. H.

    2012-08-01

    Thin films of Fe1-xCoxSi were grown using molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111). These 20-nm-thick films, with compositions x=0 or 0.5, were produced by two methods: the first produced large (111)-textured crystallites of the B20 phase; the second produced phase-pure B20 (111) epilayers. The lattice mismatch with the substrate causes biaxial tensile strain in the layers, greater in the epilayers, that distorts the (111)-oriented material to a rhombohedral form. Magnetotransport measurements show that a combination of additional scattering arising from crystal grain boundaries and strain-free polycrystalline films results in a higher resistivity than for the epitaxial films. Magnetometry for x=0.5 suggests an increase in the ordering temperature in strained films relative to the polycrystalline films of 15±4 K. Moreover, the characteristic linear magnetoresistance, typical of bulk single-crystal material of this composition, is retained in the polycrystalline film but reduced in the epitaxial film. While the bulk properties of these materials are reproduced qualitatively, there are small quantitative modifications, due to the strain, to properties such as band gap, Curie temperature, and magnetoresistance.

  10. Femtosecond laser ablation of CuxZr1-x bulk metallic glasses: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinier, Sébastien; Lewis, Laurent J.

    2015-11-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations combined with a two-temperature model are used to study laser ablation in CuxZr1-x (x =0.33 ,0.50 ,0.67 ) metallic glasses as well as crystalline CuZr2 in the C11b (MoSi2) structure. Ablation thresholds are found to be 430 ±10 ,450 ±10 ,510 ±10 , and 470 ±10 J/m 2 for a-Cu2Zr , a-CuZr, a-CuZr2, and c-CuZr2, respectively. The larger threshold in amorphous CuZr2 results from a weaker electron-phonon coupling and thus longer electron-ion equilibration time. We observe that the velocity of the pressure waves in the amorphous samples is not affected by the fluence, in contrast to the crystal; this is due to differences in the behavior of the shear modulus with increasing pressure. The heat-affected zone in the different systems is characterized in terms of the melting depth as well as inelastic deformations. The melting depth is found to be smaller in the crystal than in the amorphous targets because of its higher melting temperature. The inelastic deformations are investigated in terms of the von Mises shear strain invariant ηMises; the homogeneous nucleation of shear transformation zones is observed in the glass as reported in previous theoretical and experimental studies. The coalescence of the shear transformation zones is also found at higher fluence.

  11. Order parameter fluctuation and ordering competition in Ba1 -xKxFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Guo-Zhu; Efremov, Dmitry V.; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The competition among superconductivity, stripe-type magnetic order, and a new type of C4 symmetric magnetic order in Ba1-xKxFe2As2 is theoretically studied, focusing on its impact on the global phase diagram. By carrying out a renormalization group analysis of an effective field theory, we obtain the energy-scale dependent flows of all the model parameters, and then apply the results to understand the observed phase diagram. On the basis of the renormalization group analysis, we show that the critical line of nematic order has a negative slope in the superconducting dome and superconductivity is suppressed near the magnetic quantum critical point, which are both consistent with recent experiments. Moreover, we find that, although the observed C4 symmetric magnetic state could be a charge-spin density wave or a spin-vortex crystal at high temperatures, charge-spin density wave is the only stable C4 magnetic state in the low-temperature regime. Therefore, ordering competition provides a method to distinguish these two candidate C4 magnetic states.

  12. Evolution of structure, magnetic and transport properties of {{Fe}}_{{1-x}}{{Mn}}_{x}{Se}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Kapil E.; Priolkar, K. R.; Bhobe, P. A.; Nigam, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The present paper seeks to investigate effect of Mn doping in superconducting FeSe. It is found that over the entire doping range in {{Fe}}1-xMn x Se (0≤slant x≤slant 1), Mn does not substitute Fe in the superconducting tetragonal phase. Instead two impurity phases, NiAs type hexagonal phase and NaCl type cubic phase, grow with increasing Mn content. Initially, hexagonal phase has a higher content than the cubic phase but beyond x = 0.5, the cubic phase grows rapidly and for x≥slant 0.8, the sample is monophasic with cubic NaCl type structure. The superconducting tetragonal phase content steadily decreases with increasing Mn concentration and completely disappears beyond x = 0.5. The premise that Mn never replaces Fe in the superconducting phase is further strengthened by observation of a sharp drop in AC susceptibility akin to superconducting transition at the T c of FeSe up to x = 0.5. EXAFS studies at the Fe K edge also show that the Fe has a four coordinated tetragonal local structure in all compositions below x = 0.5, similar to that in FeSe and it gradually changes to a six coordinated one as is expected for a NaCl type cubic phase for x≥slant 0.5.

  13. Magnetization hysteresis studies in Sm1-xGdxAl2 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, U. V.; Venkatesh, S.; Rakhecha, V. C.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A. K.

    2009-03-01

    SmAl2 (Tc ˜ 125 K, μsat= 0.23 μB/f.u.) is known to exhibit magnetic compensation when doped with Gd (< 3 at.%). In such stoichiometries though the magnetization gets closer to zero, there exists a large spin polarization. This makes such materials attractive candidates for applications. We have performed detailed magnetization hysteresis and other studies in the series Sm1-xGdxAl2. In x=0.02 alloy, the loops are shifted (notion of exchange bias) along negative H-axis for temperatures just above Tcomp , and along positive H-axis for temperatures T < Tcomp. We argue that the change in the sign of exchange bias is due to the magnetic contribution of conduction electron polarization as well as that of local magnetic moments reversing the signs. At Tcomp the width of the hysteresis loop collapses. In the given series, one can set up the system in either spin-surplus or orbital-surplus state and control the exchange bias field. The compositions with 0.03 <= x < 0.06 do not exhibit zero cross over of magnetization and remain spin surplus. Our various studies and analysis shall be presented.

  14. Magnetic control of the zero-magnetization ferromagnet Sm1-xGdxAl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersweiler, M.; Dumesnil, K.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2013-08-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments have been performed up to ±17 T to investigate the magnetic configuration and magnetization reversal of an original zero-magnetization ferromagnet Sm1-xGdxAl2 (x = 0.028), both as a single epitaxial layer and as a pinning layer in an exchange-coupled system. The Sm0.972Gd0.028Al2 single layer appears to exhibit an extraordinary large coercivity that exceeds 20 T below its magnetic compensation (Tcomp). Despite such huge magnetic stability in the single layer, interface exchange coupling in the bilayer drives the formation of domains in Sm0.972Gd0.028Al2 and their reversal upon field, both below and at magnetic compensation. Increasing the cooling field yields the increase in exchange-favored domains in Sm0.972Gd0.028Al2, surprisingly also at Tcomp, whereas, Zeeman energy does not favor this specific orientation neither at compensation nor during the cooling process. We propose a possible scenario for those domains’ formation and highlight the way the external magnetic field may tune the magnetic configuration in such a zero-magnetization ferromagnet. The cooling field also consequently influences the SmAl2 magnetization reversal which is biased by pinned magnetic components in Sm0.972Gd0.028Al2; the bias field is satisfactorily explained in considering different pinned contributions with opposite magnetic orientations.

  15. Magnetic properties of NdMn1-xFexO3+δ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalik, M.; Mihalik, M.; Lazúrová, J.; Fitta, M.; Vavra, M.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetization, AC susceptibility and specific heat measurements were performed on polycrystalline NdMn1-xFexO3+δ compounds (x = 0.0, 0.1 and 0.2). Substitution of Fe for Mn reduces the Néel temperature TN, which is associated with magnetic ordering of Mn sublattice, from 85.5 K to 57.0 K. The temperature dependence of magnetization for x = 0.2 exhibits the compensation temperature and the pole inversion below Tcomp = 26.7(5) K. Initial magnetization curves present a remnant magnetization in the ordered region with the sign of remnant magnetization depending on temperature. The substitution of Fe for Mn changes hysteresis loop of NdMnO3+δ from the ferromagnetic-like one (μ0Hc = 0.09 T) by expanding the width of the loop (μ0Hc = 0.55 T) for x = 0.1 and then shrinking the central part of the loop to "butterfly" type (μ0Hc = 0.35 T) for x = 0.2.

  16. Quantum Criticality and Superconductivity in SmFe1-xCoxAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, H.; Yun, Y.; Shumsun, N.; Savinkov, A.; Suzuki, H.; Li, Y. K.; Tao, Q.; Cao, G. H.; Xu, Z. A.

    2012-12-01

    One of the iron pnictide superconductors, SmFe1-xCoxAsO shows a domelike TC curve against Co concentration x. The parent compound SmFeAsO shows the crystal structure transition and antiferromagnetic spin density wave (SDW) ordering. With increasing x, the structural transition temperature TD and SDW ordering temperature TN decrease and reach 0 K at the critical concentration xC. It is not so clear that the critical concentrations for TD and for TN coincident to each other or not. In our present report, we investigated the structural transition by the low temperature x-ray diffraction and the SDW ordering and the superconducting transition by measuring the magnetization using the SQUID magnetometer, MPMS We determined the phase diagram of TD, TN and the superconductive transition temperature TC against the Co concentration x near the xC precisely. We found that the maximum of TC in domelike shape locates near the xC, suggesting the QCP.

  17. Local structural investigation of SmFeAsO1 - xFx high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo; Artioli, Gianluca A.; Kim, Hyunjeong; Maroni, Beatrice; Joseph, Boby; Ren, Yang; Proffen, Thomas; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2011-07-01

    A strong revitalization of the field of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) has been induced recently by the discovery of TC around 26 K in F-doped LaFeAsO iron pnictides. Starting from this discovery, a huge amount of experimental data have been accumulated. This important corpus of results will allow the development of suitable theoretical models aimed at describing the basic electronic structure properties and nature of superconducting states in these fascinating new systems. A close correlation between structural features and physical properties of the normal and superconducting states has already been demonstrated in the current literature. Advanced theoretical models are also based on the close correlation with structural properties and in particular with the Fe-As tetrahedral array. As for other complex materials, a deeper understanding of their structure-properties correlation requires a full knowledge of the atomic arrangement within the structure. Here we report an investigation of the local structure in the SmFeAsO1 - xFx system carried out by means of x-ray total scattering measurements and pair distribution function analysis. The results presented indicate that the local structure of these HTSC significantly differs from the average structure determined by means of traditional diffraction techniques, in particular the distribution of Fe-As bond lengths. In addition, a model for describing the observed discrepancies is presented.

  18. Optical Conductivity of Small Polarons in Sm1-xSrxTiO3 Epitaxial Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, William; Hauser, Adam; Law, Strange; Jackson, Clayton; Raghavan, Santosh; Isaac, Brandon; Freeze, Chris; Allen, S. James; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-03-01

    We present our findings in the optical conductivity in a doping-controlled metal-to-Mott-insulator transition. These samples, grown using hybrid MBE, span the transition from the Mott insulator SmTiO3 to metallic, lightly-doped SrTiO3. Zhou and Goodenough have studied a wide range of rare earth titanates and found that SmTiO3 has thermally activated transport. We measure the optical conductivity to determine the conduction mechanism. Using FTIR spectroscopy, we extract the optical conductivity in the 0.06-2.5 eV range. If conduction in Sm1-xSrxTiO3 is due to small polarons, it will have a distinct Gaussian optical conductivity feature, related to the DC transport, as described by David Emin. Alternatively, conduction could be due to variable-range hopping between defects. Furthermore, the combination of DC and optical conductivity can test the prediction of Yee and Balents that the metal-to-insulator transition is first-order with percolative phase separation between metallic and localized regions. Such a sample would have a distinct Drude tail plus polaron contributions to its conductivity. Extreme Electron Concentration Oxide Devices, Supported by ONR N00014-12-0976.

  19. Resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy of KTa1-xNbxO3 ferroelectric relaxor crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Svitelskiy, O.; Headley, S.; Suslov, A. V.; Migliori, A.; Yong, G.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2008-08-01

    The influence of the development of a ferroelectric state on the elastic properties of KTa1-xNbxO3 relaxor crystals is explored. The high sensitivity of all elements of the elastic stiffness tensor to the polar distortions and their reorientational dynamics is, however, individual for each particular element: c11 and c44 are pimarily influenced by the reorientational motion of these distortions between neighboring (111) directions; the c12 mostly depends on the reorientations between cubic face diagonal (111) directions. Consequently, the temperature behavior of c12 demonstrates different dependence on the Nb concentration than that of c11 and c44. While in the 1.2% Nb crystal all three elastic constants clearly show their softening with the appearance of the dynamic polar distortions; in the 16% crystal this effect is strong for c11 and c44, but negligible for c12. The curves of slowness and Young's modulus within (100) crystallographic plane are presented. The linear compressibility modulus is estimated. The value of the Debye temperature is estimated to be approximately 592 K.

  20. Competing exchange interactions and magnetic anisotropy of La1-xTbxMn2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, E. G.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Terentev, P. B.; Yazovskikh, K. A.; Titov, I. S.; Gaviko, V. S.; Umetsu, Rie Y.

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structure, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility have been studied for the La1-xTbxMn2Si2 (0≤x≤1) polycrystalline and quasi-single crystalline samples. It has been shown that, at low temperature T =4.2 K, substitution of the terbium for lanthanum leads to recurred change of the type of interlayer Mn-Mn magnetic ordering. For the compounds with x<0.2 ≈ xc1 the manganese magnetic moments of adjacent layers are ordered ferromagnetically, in the concentration range 0.2xc2 the Mn sublattice is again ferromagnetically ordered and, due to the negative Tb-Mn interaction, ferrimagnetic structure is formed. Using the magnetization data, the concentration magnetic phase diagram has been suggested. The observed variation of the type of magnetic ordering has been explained in terms of the change of interatomic Mn-Mn distances and a competition of the Tb-Mn, Mn-Mn and Tb-Tb interlayer exchange interactions.

  1. Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of Pb1-x Fe x Te Alloys Doped with Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X. L.; Cai, W.; Deng, H. D.; Gao, R. L.; Fu, C. L.; Pan, F. S.

    2016-09-01

    This is the first systematic report on the preparation and thermoelectric properties of n-type Pb1-x Fe x Te alloys. Iodine-doped n-type Pb0.85Fe0.15Te polycrystalline was prepared by melting and hot-pressing techniques. The morphology and phase structure of the prepared materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, which indicated that the samples possessed a rock-salt crystal structure and showed a biphase structure. The major phase was the polycrystalline PbTe compound and the second phase was the FeTe compound. The FeTe nano-/micro-precipitates were homogeneously distributed in the PbTe matrix, which is beneficial for the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity. The effects of the iodine content on the thermoelectric properties of I-doped Pb0.85Fe0.15Te have been investigated. The measurement results of electrical resistivity, carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300-850 K indicate that the thermoelectric transport properties of the obtained samples are sensitive to the iodine content. When the concentration of iodine is about 0.6 at.%, the maximum dimensionless figure-of-merit value of ˜0.65 at 800 K was obtained.

  2. Effect of microstructure on the thermoelectric performance of La1-xSrxCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viskadourakis, Z.; Athanasopoulos, G. I.; Kasotakis, E.; Giapintzakis, J.

    2016-11-01

    We present a case where the microstructure has a profound effect on the thermoelectric properties of oxide compounds. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of different sintering treatments on La1-xSrxCoO3 samples synthesized using the Pechini method. We found that the samples, which are dense and consist of inhomogeneously-mixed grains of different size, exhibit both higher Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric figure of merit than the samples, which are porous and consist of grains with almost identical size. The enhancement of Seebeck coefficient in the dense samples is attributed to the so-called "energy-filtering" mechanism that is related to the energy barrier of the grain boundary. On the other hand, the thermal conductivity for the porous compounds is significantly reduced in comparison to the dense compounds. It is suggested that a fine-manipulation of grain size ratio combined with a fine-tuning of porosity could considerably enhance the thermoelectric performance of oxides.

  3. InxAl1-xN chiral nanorods mimicking the polarization features of scarab beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, R.; Birch, J.; Hsiao, C.-L.; Sandström, P.; Arwin, H.; Järrendahl, K.

    2015-03-01

    The scarab beetle Cetonia aurata is known to reflect light with brilliant colors and a high degree of circular polarization. Both color and polarization effects originate from the beetles exoskeleton and have been attributed to a Bragg reflection of the incident light due to a twisted laminar structure. Our strategy for mimicking the optical properties of the Cetonia aurata was therefore to design and fabricate transparent, chiral films. A series of films with tailored transparent structures of helicoidal InxAl1-xN nanorods were grown on sapphire substrates using UHV magnetron sputtering. The value of x is tailored to gradually decrease from one side to the other in each nanorod normal to its growth direction. This introduces an in-plane anisotropy with different refractive indices in the direction of the gradient and perpendicular to it. By rotating the sample during film growth the in-plane optical axis will be rotated from bottom to top and thereby creating a chiral film. Based on Muellermatrix ellipsometry, optical modeling has been done suggesting that both the exoskeleton of Cetonia aurata and our artificial material can be modeled by an anisotropic film made up of a stack of thin layers, each one with its in-plane optical axis slightly rotated with respect to the previous layer. Simulations based on the optical modeling were used to investigate how pitch and thickness of the film together with the optical properties of the constitutive materials affects the width and spectral position of the Bragg reflection band.

  4. High temperature magnetism and microstructure of ferromagnetic alloy Si1-x Mn x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronzon, B. A.; Davydov, A. B.; Vasiliev, A. L.; Perov, N. S.; Novodvorsky, O. A.; Parshina, L. S.; Presniakov, M. Yu; Lahderanta, E.

    2017-02-01

    The results of a detailed study of magnetic properties and of the microstructure of SiMn films with a small deviation from stoichiometry are presented. The aim was to reveal the origin of the high temperature ferromagnetic ordering in such compounds. Unlike SiMn single crystals with the Curie temperature ~30 K, considered Si1-x Mn x compounds with x  =  0.5  +Δx and Δx in the range of 0.01-0.02 demonstrate a ferromagnetic state above room temperature. Such a ferromagnetic state can be explained by the existence of highly defective B20 SiMn nanocrystallites. These defects are Si vacancies, which are suggested to possess magnetic moments. The nanocrystallites interact with each other through paramagnons (magnetic fluctuations) inside a weakly magnetic manganese silicide matrix giving rise to a long range ferromagnetic percolation cluster. The studied structures with a higher value of Δx  ≈  0.05 contained three different magnetic phases: (a)—the low temperature ferromagnetic phase related to SiMn; (b)—the above mentioned high temperature phase with Curie temperature in the range of 200-300 K depending on the growth history and (c)—superparamagnetic phase formed by separated noninteracting SiMn nanocrystallites.

  5. Large configuration-induced band-gap fluctuations in GaNxAs1-x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tit, Nacir

    2006-06-01

    The electronic band structures of GaNxAs1-x alloys were investigated versus the nitrogen mole fraction x and the nitrogen atomic configuration. The computational method is based on the sp3s* tight-binding technique. Two main nitrogen atomic distributions were considered: (i) the nitrogen atoms grouped in one region to form like a GaN dot inside the GaAs so as to have a maximally N-clustered (MNC) configuration; and (ii) the nitrogen atoms homogeneously distributed over the alloy and, of course, the minimal N-clustered distribution as the maximally As-clustered (MAsC) configuration. The former is found to always have the lowest band gaps. More interestingly, the results show that in the latter distribution the nitrogen atoms introduce resonant states above the conduction-band edge by about 230 meV, which is consistent with the literature, whereas they introduce a deep gap state above the valence-band edge at about 150 meV in the former distribution. As a suitable model for experimental samples, the MAsC configuration, was used to model some available photoluminescence data in the dilute regime.

  6. Inorganic selenium speciation in groundwaters by solid phase extraction on Dowex 1X2.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tser-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    A Dowex 1X2 resin separation technique followed by analysis with atomic absorption spectroscopy was evaluated for the study of inorganic selenium speciation in groundwaters. After Se(IV) and Se(VI) were retained on the resin column, Se(IV) and Se(VI) were eluted out by 0.1 and 1M nitric acid solutions. The method detection limit was 5.6 ng/L for both Se(IV) and Se(VI). Analysis of synthetic solutions consistently yielded more than 90% recovery of these two selenium forms with negligible cross-contamination. The results of spiked well waters show that this method can be applied at ultra-trace level of Se in groundwater and the interference of chloride ion can be neglected. Water samples collected from the monitoring wells in the Science-based Industrial Park, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, were analyzed. Average dissolved selenium concentrations were 32.1+/-17.6 ng/L. The proportion of Se(VI) to the total dissolved selenium ranged from 47.6 to 61.2% and an average of 53.8% in water samples analyzed.

  7. Magnetism of Rapidly Quenched Sm1-xZrxCo5 Nanocrystalline Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, WY; Valloppilly, S; Li, XZ; Liu, Y; Michalski, S; George, TA; Skomski, R; Shield, JE; Sellmyer, DJ

    2013-07-01

    The effect of Zr addition on nanostructure and magnetic properties in nanocrystalline Sm1-xZrxCo5 (x = 0 - 0.6) has been investigated. (Sm, Zr)Co-5 with the CaCu5 structure was synthesized by melt spinning. The lattice parameters a and b decrease with x, whereas c increases. Thus, the unit cell volume of (Sm, Zr)Co-5 shrinks because the smaller Zr atoms occupy the sites of the larger Sm atoms. Zr addition decreases the grain size and induces the formation of planar defects. The coercivity decreases with x, due to weakening of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy and effective intergrain exchange coupling. A very high coercivity of 39 kOe and energy product of 13.9 MGOe are obtained for x = 0. The remanence of (Sm, Zr)Co-5 increases with x. For x <= 0.4, the energy product slightly decreases with x. The results show that 40% of the Sm can be replaced by the less expensive Zr, with an energy-product reduction of only 10%. In addition, the planar defects are responsible for the change of coercivity mechanism from the nucleation-type of reverse domain for the x = 0 to the pinning-type of domain wall for the x = 0.4.

  8. Magnetic properties of MnSe1-xTex solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidenko, O. F.; Makovetskii, G. I.; Yanushkevich, K. I.; Aplesnin, S. S.; Ryabinkina, L. I.; Romanova, O. B.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the MnSe1-xTex solid solutions system is caused by the possibility of the orbital ordering existence into the Torb < T < TN temperature range in MnSe and MnTe. Samples in the 0.0 <= x <= 0.4 concentration interval with the step Δx = 0.1 are synthesized. It is established that all synthesized compositions possess the elementary NaCl-type cubic cell. The unit cell parameter a linearly varies from a = 0.546 nm for the composition with x = 0 to a = 0.562 nm for x = 0.4. The magnetic susceptibility temperature dependences are studied. It is determined that Neel's temperature in the investigated samples smoothly decreases from 132 K for MnSe0.9Te0.1 to 118 Script K for MnSe0.6Te0.4 composition. Paramagnetic Curie temperature so decreases with the concentration increase from ΘP = -350 Script K for x =0.1 to ΘP = -270 Script K for x = 0.4. Similarly changes the effective magnetic moment value, decreasing 5.50 Bohr magnetons for MnSe0.9Te0.1 and 5.13 Bohr magnetons for MnSe0.6Te0.4.

  9. Raman scattering by phonons of Ga1-xAlxSb mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdekas, D.

    2013-06-01

    We present calculations of the Raman scattering spectra by the long-wavelength vibrations of Ga1-xAlxSb mixed crystals for three different cation concentrations. Each mixed crystal is approached using a primitive cell 64 times larger than the primitive cell of the bulk constituents GaSb and AlSb. The phonon modes are calculated on the basis of an 11 parameter Rigid Ion Model and the Raman spectra are calculated using the Bond Polarizability Model (BPM), away from resonance conditions. The parameters of this model (BPM) are not arbitrarily approximated but we have obtained them on the basis of certain relations, involving directly measurable quantities, such as dielectric and elastooptic constants of the bulk crystal. It is shown that for small concentrations the Al ions are not randomly distributed over the whole crystal but almost all tend to concentrate in neighboring lattice planes. Further, we have reproduced the Raman spectra close to resonance conditions, assuming that the value of the first order polarizability of AlSb is increased by an amount of 50% close to resonance conditions. Finally it is shown that disorder produces asymmetric Raman lines spectra with the intensities of the two strongest peaks in the optic frequency ranges of the bulk constituents being concentration dependent.

  10. Impedance analysis of BaMo1-xWxO4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzidi, C.; Sdiri, N.; Boukhachem, A.; Elhouichet, H.; Férid, M.

    2015-06-01

    The materials BaMo1-xWxO4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) were prepared by solid state reaction method. XRD analysis showed that the prepared samples crystallize in tetragonal structure with a preferred orientation of the crystallites along (1 1 2) direction. The values of optical band gap and Urbach energy are in the ranges 2.21-2.44 eV and 77.82-151.51 meV, respectively. Their impedance analysis have been determined in frequency and temperature range of (40-106 Hz) and (30-800 °C) respectively. The Nyquist diagrams were investigated in terms of equivalent circuits due to resistors and constant phase elements (CPE). Complex impedance analysis showed the behavior of a dielectric relaxation non-Debye type. We found that resistance of the compounds decreases with temperature, which is related to the electrical conductivity improvement. Conductivity measurements using σac were performed on compact pellets of these materials. The ac conductivity versus frequency shows Jonscher's universal power law. In order to study the activation energy versus temperature, we have chosen the small polaron hopping (SPH) model. The obtained activation energy values ranges from 0.29 to 1.08 eV. The dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss (tan δ) decreased with frequency, however the ac conductivity (σac) increased.

  11. Anomalous dielectric nonlinearity and dielectric relaxation in xBST-(1- x) (LMT-LNT) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng; Liu, Peng

    2011-11-01

    xwt%Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-(1- x)wt%[0.4La (Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3-0.6(La0.5Na0.5)TiO3] ( x=0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90, 0.95) ceramics were prepared via a traditional solid-state reaction route. Interesting anomalous dielectric nonlinearity (ADN)—permittivity increased with dc bias electric field ( E-field), and low-temperature dielectric relaxation (LTDR) behaviors—were observed within a x range of 0.30˜0.70 for the first time. Based on our experimental facts, it was suggested that the LTDR was originated from a charge-associated process between electron-oxygen vacancy pairs during a thermal stimulation, while the ADN was related with a metastable state of polarized nano-regions (PNRs).

  12. Magnetic properties of polycrystalline Co2Cr1-xFexAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmeier, M.; Schneider, C. M.; Werner, J.; Elefant, D.; Teresiak, A.; Behr, G.; Schumann, J.; Arushanov, E.

    2007-06-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of the Heusler phase Co2Cr1-xFexAl in the composition regime (x=0.3-0.5) in the disordered B2 phase. Both bulk and surface static and dynamic magnetic aspects were addressed by employing alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS). All samples show ferromagnetic hysteresis loops and a tendency of increasing saturation magnetization Ms with the iron content. With BLS the behavior of bulk spin waves and the Damon Eshbach (DE) surface spin wave mode have been studied. The spectra are typical for opaque bulk ferromagnetic samples with strong exchange. The measured spin wave frequencies as a function of magnetic field are in good agreement with the calculated values. Saturation magnetization and gyromagnetic ratio g have been determined from the field-dependent peak positions of the bulk and the DE modes. The g-factor extracted from the DE mode shows a clear tendency of increase with increasing Fe-content. However, we could not find any peculiarities of the alloy with x=0.4, which had been proposed as a Heusler phase on the basis of electronic structure calculations [T. Block, C. Felser, G. Jakob, J. Ensling, B. Mühling, P. Gütlich, R.J. Cava, J. Solid State Chem. 176 (2003) 646].

  13. Defect chemistry and characterization of Hg sub 1x Cd sub x Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vydyanath, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Single crystal samples of undoped and doped Hg sub 1-x Cd sub x Te were annealed at varying temperatures and partial pressures of Hg. Hall effect and mobility measurements were carried out on these samples after quenching to room temperature. Based on the variation of the carrier concentration and the carrier mobility as a function of the partial pressure of Hg temperature, and dopant concentration, defect models were established for the doped and the undoped crystals. These models indicate that the native acceptor defects in both Hg0.8Cd0.2Te and Hg0.6Cd0.4Te doubly ionized and the native donor defects are negligible in concentration, implying that p to n conversion in these alloys occurs due only to residual donors. Incorporation mechanism of copper, indium, iodine, and phosphorus were investigated. A large concentration of indium is found to be paired with the native acceptor defects. Results on crystals doped with phosphorus indicate that phosphorus behaves amphoterically, acting as a donor on Hg lattice sites and as an acceptor intersitially on Te lattice sites. A majority of the phosphorus is found to be present as neutral species formed from the pairing reaction between phosphorus on Hg lattice sites and phosphorus in interstitial sites. Equilibrium constants for the intrinsic excitation reaction, as well as for the incorporation of the different dopants and the native acceptor defects were established.

  14. Inkjet Printed Metallizations for Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, P. A.; Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Kreuder, J. J.; Pasquarelli, R.; Miednaer, A.; Ginley, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the inkjet printing of Ag front contacts on Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO)/intrinsic Zinc Oxide (i-ZnO)/CdS/Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Mo thin film photovoltaic cells. The printed Ag contacts are being developed to replace the currently employed evaporated Ni/Al bi-layer contacts. Inkjet deposition conditions were optimized to reduce line resistivity and reduce contact resistance to the Al:ZnO layer. Ag lines printed at a substrate temperature of 200 C showed a line resistivity of 2.06 {mu}{Omega} {center_dot} cm and a contact resistance to Al:ZnO of 8.2 {+-} 0.2 m{Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} compared to 6.93 {+-} 0.3 m{Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} for thermally evaporated contacts. These deposition conditions were used to deposit front contacts onto high quality CIGS thin film photovoltaic cells. The heating required to print the Ag contacts caused the performance to degrade compared to similar devices with evaporated Ni/Al contacts that were not heated. Devices with inkjet printed contacts showed 11.4% conversion efficiency compared to 14.8% with evaporated contacts. Strategies to minimize heating, which is detrimental for efficiency, during inkjet printing are proposed.

  15. Magnetoelectric coupling tuned by competing anisotropies in Mn1-xNixTiO3

    DOE PAGES

    Chi, Songxue; Ye, Feng; Zhou, H. D.; ...

    2014-10-24

    A flop of electric polarization from Pmore » $$\\|$$c (Pc) to P$$\\|$$ a (Pa) is observed in MnTiO3 as a spin flop transtion is triggered by a c-axis magnetic field, H$$\\|$$c=7 T. The critical magnetic field for Pa is significantly reduced in Mn1-xNixTiO3 (x=0.33). Neutron diffraction measurements revealed similar magnetic arrangements for the two compositions where the ordered spins couple antiferromagnetically with their nearest intra- and inter-planar neighbors. In the x=0.33 system, the single ion anisotropies of Mn2+ and Ni2+ compete and give rise to an additional spin reorientation transition at TR. A magnetic field, Hc, aligns the spins along c for TRN. The rotation of the collinear spins away from the c-axis for TR alters the magnetic point symmetry and gives rise to new ME susceptibility tensor form. Such linear ME response provides satisfactory explanation for behavior of field-induced electric polarization in both compositions. As the Ni content increases to x=0.5 and 0.68, the ME effect disappears as a new magnetic phase emerges.« less

  16. Spin and orbital ordering in Y1-xLaxVO₃

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, J.-Q.; Zhou, J.-S.; Cheng, J. G.; ...

    2011-12-02

    The spin and orbital ordering in Y1-xLaxVO₃ (0.30 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) has been studied to map out the phase diagram over the whole doping range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. The phase diagram is compared with that for RVO₃ (R = rare earth or Y) perovskites without A-site variance. For x > 0.20, no long-range orbital ordering was observed above the magnetic ordering temperature TN; the magnetic order is accompanied by a lattice anomaly at a Tt ≤ TN as in LaVO₃. The magnetic ordering below Tt ≤ TN is G type in the compositional range 0.20 ≤ xmore » ≤ 0.40 and C type in the range 0.738 ≤ x ≤ 1.0. Magnetization and neutron powder diffraction measurements point to the coexistence below TN of the two magnetic phases in the compositional range 0.4 < x < 0.738. Samples in the compositional range 0.20 < x ≤ 1.0 are characterized by an additional suppression of a glasslike thermal conductivity in the temperature interval TN < T < T* and a change in the slope of 1/χ(T). We argue that T* represents a temperature below which spin and orbital fluctuations couple together via λL∙S.« less

  17. Nd magnetic order in NdFexGa1-xO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolome, Fernando; Parra-Borderias, Maria; Rodriguez-Velamazan, Jose Alberto; Bartolome, Juan; Enrique, Burzuri; Luis, Fernando; Evangelisti, Marco

    2012-02-01

    The Nd magnetic order in NdFexGa1-xO3 has been studied as a function of Fe content along the whole 0

  18. Specific heat critical behavior in Bi1-xSbx solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogacheva, E. I.; Doroshenko, A. N.; Nashchekina, O. N.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Studies of the specific heat Cp room temperature concentration dependences for the Bi1-xSbx (x = 0-0.12) solid solutions have shown that in the Cp(x) curves, three peaks of Cp are observed near x = 0.015, x = 0.037, and x = 0.07. These peaks are attributed to critical phenomena accompanying second-order concentration phase transitions (PT) from dilute to concentrated solid solutions, to a gapless state, and a semimetal-semiconductor transition, respectively. The numerical values for the critical exponents of the specific heat α for the Cp peaks near x = 0.015 and x = 0.037 have been determined within the framework of fluctuation theory for second-order phase transitions and percolation theory. It was shown that the α values (α = 0.11 ± 0.005) are the same within the margin of error for both peaks and correspond to the values theoretically calculated within the framework of scale-invariant theory for three-dimensional (3D) models and determined experimentally for different physical systems undergoing second-order phase transitions.

  19. Magnetic behaviors of Co1-xZnxFe2O4 nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haibo; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Zonglin; Kou, Zhaoxia; Yuan, Xue; Ren, Zhiyan; Zhai, Ya; Du, Jun; Zhai, Hongru

    2015-05-01

    A series of Co1-xZnxFe2O4 particulate nano-ferrites with x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8, fabricated by the co-precipitation method, have been investigated. The lattice parameter is found to increase and particle size decreases with increasing x. Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature exhibits ferromagnetic hyperfine splitting sextet peaks with a doublet peak overlapping at its center as Zn contents x < 0.6, and only a single doublet as x ≥ 0.7. The fitting results of Mössbauer spectra reveal the occupation rule of nonmagnetic Zn2+ ions and superparamagnetic behavior. At room temperature, the superparamagnetic excitation plays an important role in the magnetic properties. The fitted hyperfine magnetic field of the octahedral and tetrahedral sublattices decreases with increasing Zn content. The saturation magnetization and coercivity monotonously reduce to a small value. However, at low temperature of 5 K, the saturation magnetization (Ms) fully reflects the occupation of Zn ions. Zn substitutions that occupied first the tetrahedral sites cause the increase of magnetization when Zn content is below 0.4, while when Zn content is above 0.4, Zn substitutions occupied both the tetrahedral sites and the octahedral site, which leads to the decrease of magnetization.

  20. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in EuTi1-xNbxO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Morris, James R.; Koehler, Michael R.; Dun, Zhiling; Zhou, Haidong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Keppens, Veerle

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the structural and magnetic phase transitions in EuTi1 -xNbxO3 (0 ≤x ≤0.3 ) with synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Upon Nb doping, the P m 3 ¯m ↔I 4 /m c m structural transition shifts to higher temperatures and the room temperature lattice parameter increases while the magnitude of the octahedral tilting decreases. In addition, Nb substitution for Ti destabilizes the antiferromagnetic ground state of the parent compound and long-range ferromagnetic order is observed in the samples with x ≥0.1 . The structural transition in pure and doped compounds is marked by a dramatic steplike softening of the elastic moduli near TS, which resembles that of SrTiO3 and can be adequately modeled using the Landau free energy model employing the same coupling between strain and octahedral tilting order parameter as previously used to model SrTiO3.

  1. Crystal structure and thermal expansion of Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge.

    PubMed

    Dyadkin, Vadim; Grigoriev, Sergey; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V; Bykova, Elena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Tsvyashchenko, Anatoly; Fomicheva, L N; Chernyshov, Dmitry

    2014-08-01

    A series of temperature-dependent single-crystal and powder diffraction experiments has been carried out using synchrotron radiation in order to characterize the monogermanides of Mn, Fe and their solid solutions. The MnGe single crystal is found to be enantiopure and we report the absolute structure determination. The thermal expansion, parametrized with the Debye model, is discussed from the temperature-dependent powder diffraction measurements for Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.9). Whereas the unit-cell dimension and the Debye temperature follow a linear trend as a function of composition, the thermal expansion coefficient deviates from linear dependence with increasing Mn content. No structural phase transformations have been observed for any composition in the temperature range 80-500 K for both single-crystal and powder diffraction, indicating that the phase transition previously observed with neutron powder diffraction most probably has a magnetic origin.

  2. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Transition-Metal-Doped Zn 1-x Fe x O.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baset, T A; Fang, Yue-Wen; Anis, B; Duan, Chun-Gang; Abdel-Hafiez, Mahmoud

    2016-12-01

    The ability to produce high-quality single-phase diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is the driving factor to study DMS for spintronics applications. Fe-doped ZnO was synthesized by using a low-temperature co-precipitation technique producing Zn 1-x Fe x O nanoparticles (x= 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.1). Structural, Raman, density functional calculations, and magnetic studies have been carried out in studying the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO. The results show that Fe atoms are substituted by Zn ions successfully. Due to the small ionic radius of Fe ions compared to that of a Zn ions, the crystal size decreases with an increasing dopant concentration. First-principle calculations indicate that the charge state of iron is Fe (2+) and Fe (3+) with a zinc vacancy or an interstitial oxygen anion, respectively. The calculations predict that the exchange interaction between transition metal ions can switch from the antiferromagnetic coupling into its quasi-degenerate ferromagnetic coupling by external perturbations. This is further supported and explains the observed ferromagnetic bahaviour at magnetic measurements. Magnetic measurements reveal that decreasing particle size increases the ferromagnetism volume fraction. Furthermore, introducing Fe into ZnO induces a strong magnetic moment without any distortion in the geometrical symmetry; it also reveals the ferromagnetic coupling.

  3. Lattice instability and elastic response of metastable Mo1-xSix thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, A.; Jaouen, C.; Michel, A.; Abadias, G.; Tromas, C.; Belliard, L.; Perrin, B.; Djemia, Ph.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed experimental study on Mo1-xSix thin films, an archetypal alloy system combining metallic and semiconductor materials. The correlations between structure and elastic response are comprehensively investigated. We focus on assessing trends for understanding the evolution of elastic properties upon Si alloying in relation to the structural state (crystalline vs amorphous), bonding character (metallic vs covalent), and local atomic environment. By combining picosecond ultrasonics and Brillouin light scattering techniques, a complete set of effective elastic constants and mechanical moduli (B, G, E) is provided in the whole compositional range, covering bcc solid solutions (x < 0.20) and the amorphous phase (0.20 < x < 1.0). A softening of the shear and Young moduli and a concomitant decrease of the Debye temperature is revealed for crystalline alloys, with a significant drop being observed at x ˜ 0.2 corresponding to the limit of crystal lattice stability. Amorphous alloys exhibit a more complex elastic response, related to variations in coordination number, atomic volume, and bonding state, depending on Si content. Finally, distinct evolutions of the G/B ratio as a function of Cauchy pressure are reported for crystalline and amorphous alloys, enabling us to identify signatures of ductility vs brittleness in the features of the local atomic environment. This work paves the way to design materials with improved mechanical properties by appropriate chemical substitution or impurity incorporation during thin-film growth.

  4. Structure and electronic properties of ZnxSn1-xO2-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Jin, Yansha; Jiang, Tonghu; Falk, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Using first-principles based hybrid-exchange calculations we look at the structural and electronic properties of Zn-Sn-O system. The oxides represented by ZnxSn1-xO2-x has end members ZnO and SnO2. These relatively well studied, native n-type semiconductors are technologically important. Intermediate oxides corresponding to x = 2/3 and 1/2 have been synthesized: spinel Zn2SnO4 and rhombohedral ZnSnO3. These mixed oxides are functionally promising for their potential as ferroelectrics, transparent conducting oxides, thermoelectrics etc. Previously, ab initio calculations investigated the structures, electronic and thermodynamic properties of these mixed oxides. However, we considerably improve our understanding of band gap values and band structure of these compounds using hybrid-exchange method. We also perform band alignment calculations, estimate work function of these intermediate oxides, and compare those values to that of the end members and to the experimental results. The existence of Zn2SnO4 in the spinel structure allows a number of configurations which correspond to normal, partially inverted, or inverted spinel forms. We use cluster expansion method to identify energetically most stable form before calculating other properties.

  5. Superconductivity in LaFe1-xCoxAsO

    SciTech Connect

    Safa-Sefat, Athena; Huq, Ashfia; McGuire, Michael A; Jin, Rongying; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David; Cranswick, Lachlan M.D.; Stephens, Peter W; Stone, Kevin H.

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the synthesis and basic characterization of LaFe{sub 1?x}Co{sub x}AsO for several values of x. The parent phase LaFeAsO orders antiferromagnetically (T{sub N} {approx} 145 K). Replacing Fe with Co is expected both to electron dope and introduce disorder in the FeAs layer. For x=0.05 antiferromagnetic order is destroyed and superconductivity is observed at T{sub c}{sup onset} = 11.2 K. For x = 0.11 superconductivity is observed at T{sub c}{sup onset} = 14.3 K and for x = 0.15 it is observed at T{sub c}{sup onset} = 6.0 K. For x = 1, and the material appears to be ferromagnetic as judged by magnetization measurements. We conclude that Co is an effective dopant to induce superconductivity. Somewhat surprisingly, the system appears to tolerate considerable disorder in the FeAs planes.

  6. Temperature dependence of electron focusing in In1-xGaxAs/InP heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, J.; Fuller, B. K.; Thrush, C. M.; Partin, D. L.

    1995-08-01

    Transverse electron focusing is studied in a two-dimensional electron gas in the lattice-matched In1-xGaxAs/InP system, as a function of temperature (3 K15 K. This implies that thermal smearing of the Fermi surface is also important.

  7. Negative Magnetoresistance in In_1-xY_xSb at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jihui; Naik, Ratna; Heremans, Joseph; Partin, Dale L.; Thrush, Christopher M.

    1997-03-01

    We report the low temperature negative magnetoresistance and magnetic susceptibility of MBE grown In_1-xY_xSb for a range of yttrium concentrations. The trivalent Y atoms in these samples act as donors, and do not hybridize all their outer shell d-electrons with the InSb band. The localized d-electrons contribute to the paramagnetic magnetization in the temperature region studied. The s-d exchange interaction between the localized and the conduction electrons gives rise to the large negative magnetoresistance observed. A theoretical model is used to explain the scattering mechanism: when the conduction electrons in the lower subband have energy E smaller than the Zeeman splitting AM, where A is the s-d exchange integral and M is the magnetic moment, they are scattered from the d-spins without changing their spin projections. When E > AM, the spin-flip process can be thermally activated. For the conduction electrons in the upper subband, both spin-flip and spin-non-flip coexist. Thus the model uses two distinctive relaxation times. The correlation between the magnetoresistance and the magnetic moment of the Y atom is shown to fit the model. We find that the s-d exchange integral is not a constant for different Y concentrations.

  8. Highly efficient functional GexPb1-xTe based thermoelectric alloys.

    PubMed

    Gelbstein, Yaniv; Davidow, Joseph

    2014-10-07

    Methods for enhancement of the direct thermal to electrical energy conversion efficiency, upon development of advanced thermoelectric materials, are constantly investigated mainly for efficient implementation of thermoelectric devices in automotive vehicles, for converting the waste heat generated in such engines into useful electrical power and thereby reduction of the fuel consumption and CO2 emission levels. It was recently shown that GeTe based compounds and specifically GeTe-PbTe rich alloys are efficient p-type thermoelectric compositions. In the current research, Bi2Te3 doping and PbTe alloying effects in GexPb1-xTe alloys, subjected to phase separation reactions, were investigated for identifying the phase separation potential for enhancement of the thermoelectric properties beyond a pure alloying effect. All of the investigated compositions exhibit maximal dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, values beyond 1, with the extraordinary value of 2.1 found for the 5% Bi2Te3 doped-Ge0.87Pb0.13Te composition, considered as among the highest ever reported.

  9. Epitaxial PbxZr1-xTiO3 on GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisley, E. A.; Craft, H. S.; Losego, M. D.; Lu, H.; Gruverman, A.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.

    2013-02-01

    Epitaxial integration of PbxZr1-xTiO3 (PZT) (111) with GaN (0002) presents the possibility of polarity coupling across a functional-oxide/nitride heteropolar interface. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of such thin film heterostructures by magnetron sputtering, with specific attention given to process optimization. Using x-ray diffraction and electrical characterization, the growth of epitaxial PZT (˜250 nm) on GaN and PZT on MgO/GaN stacks was verified. A two-stage growth process was developed for epitaxial PZT with a deposition temperature of 300 °C and an ex-situ anneal at 650 °C, which was effective in mitigating interfacial reactions and promoting phase-pure perovskite growth. Electrical analysis of interdigital capacitors revealed a nonlinear and hysteretic dielectric response consistent with ferroelectric PZT. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) characterization shows clear evidence of ferroelectric switching, and PFM hysteresis loop analysis shows minimal evidence for direct polarity coupling, but suggests that band offsets which accompany the oxide-nitride heterostructures influence switching.

  10. Long Term Aging of AsxSe1-x glasses and the Intermediate Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Wachtman, Jacob; Boolchand, P.

    2009-03-01

    The reversibility window in AsxSe1-x glasses was reportedootnotetextD.G. Georgiev et al. Phys. Rev. B 62, R9228(2000). 8 years ago to reside in the 28% < x < 37% range. We have re-examined those samples in m-DSC and Raman scattering. Both the 8 year old hermetically sealed samples in Al holders (set A) and samples from the same batch preparation but stored in plastic vials (set B) at laboratory ambient environment were studied. The reversibility window in samples of set A, after 8 years of aging, is found to be intact. In set B, analysis of the Tg endotherm becomes difficult because of a precursor exotherm that appears in the 32% < x < 60% range, and steadily increases with x. In addition, in both set of samples, one observes a sub Tg endotherm upon aging in the 90 ^oC < T < 120 ^oC range. These m-DSC results supported by Raman scattering suggest that the exotherm is due to light induced nanocrystallization (nc) of As4Se4 fragments (an extrinsic effect), while the sub-Tg feature is due to nc fragments of trigonal Se formed upon long term aging(an intrinsic effect). These findings will be compared to a recent report.ootnotetextR. Golovchak et al. Phys. Rev. B 78, 014202(2008).

  11. Luminescence studies in InxGa1-xN epitaxial layers with different indium contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Tiong, K. K.; Lee, Y. C.; Hu, S. Y.; Lin, L. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Feng, Z. C.

    2013-08-01

    The optical properties of InxGa1-xN epitaxial layers (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.11, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.33) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated by temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement. The surface morphologies of InGaN samples are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The PL feature at 12 K has shown an increase in full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with increasing In content. An anomalous S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy exhibited by InGaN films with higher In content enabled the evaluation of the exciton localization energy. The broadened FWHM and S-shaped emission shift are attributed to larger compositional fluctuation due to compositional inhomogeneity of In. Additionally, the luminescence mechanism relating to the phase separation has to be considered for the much larger FWHM value and the pronounced S-shaped behavior for the InGaN samples with In content of 0.30 and 0.33.

  12. Mo1-xWxSe2-Based Schottky Junction Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sum-Gyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Sungjin; Oh, Donggun; Choi, Hwan Young; Lee, Nara; Choi, Young Jai; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-12-14

    We developed Schottky junction photovoltaic cells based on multilayer Mo1-xWxSe2 with x = 0, 0.5, and 1. To generate built-in potentials, Pd and Al were used as the source and drain electrodes in a lateral structure, and Pd and graphene were used as the bottom and top electrodes in a vertical structure. These devices exhibited gate-tunable diode-like current rectification and photovoltaic responses. Mo0.5W0.5Se2 Schottky diodes with Pd and Al electrodes exhibited higher photovoltaic efficiency than MoSe2 and WSe2 devices with Pd and Al electrodes, likely because of the greater adjusted band alignment in Mo0.5W0.5Se2 devices. Furthermore, we showed that Mo0.5W0.5Se2-based vertical Schottky diodes yield a power conversion efficiency of ∼16% under 532 nm light and ∼13% under a standard air mass 1.5 spectrum, demonstrating their remarkable potential for photovoltaic applications.

  13. Dephasing of localized excitons in CdS1-xSex mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, H.; Lyssenko, V. G.; Hvam, J. M.; Klingshirn, C.

    1991-08-01

    We performed photon-echo experiments in the alloy semiconductor CdS1-xSex to study the influence of the localization depth on the dephasing of localized excitons. It was found that the laser pulse width critically influences the measured values for the phase coherence time T2, as well as the observed behavior of the investigated localized states. At TL=1.8 K T2 increases from 400+/-40 ps on the high-energy side of the luminescence band, close to the extended states, up to 2.2+/-0.7 ns on the low-energy side of this emission band for deeply localized states. These extremely large values are comparable with the lifetime of these resonantly excited states. If we raise the lattice temperature TL the scattering rate increases significantly. We find T2 to be 1.5 ns at 2.208 eV and TL=5 K and T2=80 ps at 15 K at the same energy. At shorter wavelengths the influence of the temperature is less pronounced.

  14. Magnetization studies and spin Hamiltonian modelling of Li2 (Li1 - xFex) N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, James H.; Jesche, Anton; Del Barco, Enrique; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-03-01

    The study of ferromagnetic materials has yielded many examples of compounds which exhibit large energy barriers to a reversal of magnetization and correspondingly wide magnetization versus field hysteresis loops. Some materials, such as members of the class called ``single-molecule magnets'' (SMMs), even display vivid signatures of quantum tunneling effects, manifested as step-like features in hysteresis loop measurements of crystalline ensembles. The compound Li2(Li1-xFex)N has been previously shown to display an extremely high blocking temperature (~ 20 K) and large coercive fields (>11 T), as well as step-like features like those seen in SMMs. Here we report the results of low-temperature Hall sensor magnetization studies on a crystalline sample of Li2(Li1-0.006Fe0.006)N in which we detail evidence of a preferential orientation for the observed features, as well as their dependence upon transverse component fields in their magnitude, behavior which we attempt to model with a giant spin Hamiltonian. This work is supported by the US DOE, Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  15. Ti1-xAgx electrodes deposited on polymer based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, S. M.; Manninen, N. K.; Ferdov, Stanislav; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Carvalho, S.

    2014-10-01

    Piezoelectric materials are interesting for the development of sensors and actuators for biomedical applications in areas such as smart prosthesis, implantable biosensors and biomechanical signal monitoring, among others. For acquiring or applying the electrical signal from/to the piezoelectric material, suitable electrodes can be produced from Ti based coatings with tailored multifunctional properties: conductivity and antibacterial characteristics through Ag inclusions. This work reports on Ti1-xAgx electrodes with different Ag/Ti atomic ratios deposited by dc and pulsed magnetron sputtering at room temperature on poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that the deposition conditions preserve the polymer structure and suggested the presence of crystalline Tiβ phase in pure titanium coating and fcc-Ag phase in pure silver coating. According to the results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, the coatings are homogeneous and no clusters were found; since β-PVDF is anisotropic, the deposited coatings replicate the underlying substrate surface. Sheet resistivity values show a typical behavior of a binary alloy system, with low resistivity values for coatings of zone 1 (Ti rich) and zone 3 (Ag rich) and a slightly higher resistivity values in zone 2. The piezoelectricity of the different samples show similar values.

  16. Terahertz conductivity of Sr1 -xCaxRuO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Diana; Pracht, Uwe S.; Dressel, Martin; Mravlje, Jernej; Schneider, Melanie; Gegenwart, Philipp; Scheffler, Marc

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the optical conductivity of Sr1 -xCaxRuO3 across the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition that occurs at x =0.8 . The thin films were grown by metalorganic aerosol deposition with 0 ≤x ≤1 onto NdGaO3 substrates. We performed terahertz frequency domain spectroscopy in a frequency range from 3 to 40 cm-1 (100 GHz to 1.4 THz) and at temperatures ranging from 5 to 300 K, measuring transmittivity and phase shift through the films. From this we obtained the real and imaginary parts of the optical conductivity. The end-members, ferromagnetic SrRuO3 and paramagnetic CaRuO3, show a strongly frequency dependent metallic response at temperatures below 20 K. Due to the high quality of these samples we can access pronounced intrinsic electronic contributions to the optical scattering rate, which at 1.4 THz exceeds the residual scattering rate by more than a factor of three. Deviations from a Drude response start at about 0.7 THz for both end-members in a remarkably similar way. For the intermediate members a higher residual scattering originating in the compositional disorder leads to a featureless optical response instead. The relevance of low-lying interband transitions is addressed by a calculation of the optical conductivity within density functional theory in the local-density approximation.

  17. Nano Mg(1-x)Ni(x)Al₂O₄ spinel pigments for advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Sadek, H E H; Khattab, R M; Gaber, A A; Zawrah, M F

    2014-05-05

    Nano Mg(1-x)Ni(x)Al2O4 spinel pigments were synthesized via polymeric combustion technique upon heat treatment at 210 °C. Citric acid in the presence of ethylene glycol polymer, with mass ratio of 60:40, was successfully used as a host network for the synthesis process. The obtained spinel was calcined at different temperatures; 300-1200°C and investigated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG/DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) using CIE-Lab/parameters methods have been used for color measurements. The addition of colored pigment on different types of glazes was studied. The results revealed that NiMgAl2O4 spinel beside MgNiO phases were crystallized with particle sizes of 9-21 nm at 600 °C and 52-180 nm at 1200 °C. All prepared samples exhibited green to pale green colors due to the inclusion of Ni(2+) inside the spinel structure. The pale green color intensity increased with increasing calcination temperature. The prepared pigment was suitable to convert commercial and opaque glazes to color product to be used in different applications.

  18. Photochromism and polaronic photocharge localization in diluted KTa1-xNbxO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubaev, A. I.; Kapphan, S. E.; Jastrabik, L.; Trepakov, V. A.; Syrnikov, P. P.

    2006-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-light-induced optical absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region was observed in diluted KTa1-xNbxO3 single crystals (x =0,0.004,0.007,0.012,0.07) at low temperatures. Illumination by wideband light (3.10-4.13eV, 300-400nm) is accompanied by the appearance of a broad NIR absorption band with the position of the maxima varying in the 0.69-0.8eV (1.54-1.79μ, T =1.3K) region for different Nb concentrations. This UV-light-induced absorption is absent in nominally pure KTaO3, as well as in all Nb diluted specimens at elevated temperatures. The centers responsible for the photochromic NIR absorption bands are tied to interband optical transitions of pair Nb4+ electronic polarons. The photochromic experimental data, supplemented by luminescence studies in the visible range, evidence the strong localization of the photocharge carriers by pair Nb4+ polarons at low temperatures. It is suggested that namely the strong localization of the photocarriers plays a crucial role in photoinduced gigantic dielectric effects and possible phase transitions, which have been recognized recently in incipient ferroelectrics at low temperatures.

  19. Quantum Phase Transitions and Multicriticality in Ta(Fe1-xVx)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brando, Manuel; Kerkau, Alexander; Todorova, Adriana; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Khuntia, Panchanan; Förster, Tobias; Burkhard, Ulrich; Baenitz, Michael; Kreiner, Guido

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive study of synthesis, structure analysis, transport and thermodynamic properties of the C14 Laves phase Ta(Fe1-xVx)2. Our measurements confirm the appearance of spin-density wave (SDW) order within a dome-like region of the x-T phase diagram with vanadium content 0.02 < x < 0.3. Our results indicate that on approaching TaFe2 from the vanadium-rich side, ferromagnetic (FM) correlations increase faster than the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ones. This results in an exchange-enhanced susceptibility and in the suppression of the SDW transition temperature for x < 0.13 forming the dome-like shape of the phase diagram. This effect is strictly related to a significant lattice distortion of the crystal structure manifested in the c/a ratio. At x = 0.02 both FM and AFM energy scales have similar strength and the system remains paramagnetic down to 2 K with an extremely large Stoner enhancement factor of about 400. Here, spin fluctuations dominate the temperature dependence of the resistivity ρ ∝ T3/2 and of the specific heat C/T ∝ -log(T) which deviate from their conventional Fermi liquid forms, inferring the presence of a quantum critical point of dual nature.

  20. Research on 1x2 all fiber high-speed magneto-optic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shaohan; Weng, Zihua; Wang, Minfeng; Chen, Xu; Ruan, Jianjian

    2008-11-01

    In this paper two new types of 1x2 all fiber high-speed magneto-optic switches with thick film ferromagnetic bismuth-substituted rare-earth iron garnets are proposed and tested. Two types of magneto-optic switches are discussed by using two kinds of crystals. One is the ordinary switch which needs indurance magnetic field to maintain its state; And the other is latching type switch, the crystal remains in a given magnetic state for unlimited duration without energy supply. Circuits used to generate magnetic field are also discussed. The theoretical and experimental analysis of optical route, measurement of switching time and magnetic filed etc. are included. The extinction ratio of the switches are currently about 20 dB. It can be improved further by additional Faraday rotation created by another magneto-optic (MO) material in the light path. The switching time of MO material is under 100 ns, it can be ignored. Magnetic field should be able to change the voltage rapidly in order to obtain fast operating time of the optical switch. The inductance of the solenoid used for generating the required magnetic field is the bottleneck for rapid switching of the magnetic field in the MO material. The switching time of the two optical switch are discussed.

  1. Magnetism in the YxGd1-xFe3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajorek, Anna; Chrobak, Artur; Chełkowska, Grażyna; Ociepka, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    The series of polycrystalline YxGd1-xFe3 compounds with a PuNi3-type of crystal structure have been obtained. Based on wide-ranging SQUID magnetometer series of different magnetic measurements have been carried out. Moreover, the magnetic properties in the paramagnetic range has been studied by means of Faraday type magnetic balance. The partial replacement of Gd by Y atoms is reflected in the increase within the total saturation magnetic moment MS from 1.61 μB/f.u (x=0.0) to 5.32 μB/f.u (x=1.0) and the decrease of the Curie temperature TC from 721 K (x=0.0) to 533 K (x=1.0). Exchange coupling parameters of R-R (ARR), T-T (ATT) and R-T (ART) have been evaluated from M(T) magnetization curves based on the mean field theory (MFT) calculation. The valence band spectra as well as the core level lines obtained by the use of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) at room temperature have been analyzed as the influence of Gd/Y substitution on the electronic structure. The valence bands near the Fermi level are dominated by Fe3d states. A quite good agreement between the values of the iron magnetic moment estimated from M(H) curves, from MFT calculations as well as from fitting of Fe3s core level lines has been obtained.

  2. Temperature dependence of the energy gap of zinc-blende CdSe and Cd1 - xZnxSe epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunz, U.; Kuhn, J.; Goschenhofer, F.; Schüssler, U.; Einfeldt, S.; Becker, C. R.; Landwehr, G.

    1996-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the energy gap of zinc-blende CdSe and Cd1-xZnxSe has been determined over the entire range of composition from optical transmission and reflection measurements at temperatures between 5 and 300 K. The experimental results can be expressed by the following modified empirical Varshni formula, whose parameters are functions of the composition x: Eg(x,T)=Eg(x,0)-β(x)T2/[T+γ(x)]. Eg(x,0) exhibits a nonlinear dependence on composition, according to Eg=Eg(0,0)(1-x)+Eg(1,0)x-ax(1-x). The parameters β(x) and γ(x) can be expressed by β(x)=β(0)(1-x)+β(1)x+bx(1-x) and γ(x)=γ(0)(1-x)+γ(1)x.

  3. Conduction- and Valence-Band Energies in Bulk InAs(1-x)Sb(x) and Type II InAs(1-x) Sb(x)/InAs Strained-Layer Superlattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-08

    metamorphic buffers and type II InAs1-xSbx/InAs strained-layer superlattices (SLS) with x = 0.225 to 0.296 in the temperature range from T = 13 K to 300 K...x = 0.2 to 0.46 grown on metamorphic buffers and type II InAs1-xSbx/InAs strained-layer superlattices (SLS) with x = 0.225 to 0.296 in the... metamorphic buffers and type II InAs1!xSbx/InAs strained-layer superlattices (SLS) with x = 0.225 to 0.296 in the temperature range from T = 13 K to 300 K

  4. Segregation at the surfaces of CuxPd1-x alloys in the presence of adsorbed S

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, James B.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Gellman, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    The influence of adsorbed S on surface segregation in Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} alloys (S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x)} was characterized over a wide range of bulk alloy compositions (x = 0.05 to 0.95) using high-throughput Composition Spread Alloy Film (CSAF) sample libraries. Top-surface and near-surface compositions of the CSAFs were measured as functions of bulk Cu composition, x, and temperature using spatially resolved low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Preferential segregation of Cu to the top-surface of the S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} CSAF was observed at all bulk compositions, x, but the extent of Cu segregation to the S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} surface was lower than the Cu segregation to the surface of a clean Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} CSAF, clear evidence of an S-induced “segregation reversal.” The Langmuir–McLean formulation of the Gibbs isotherm was used to estimate the enthalpy and entropy of Cu segregation to the top-surface, ΔH{sub seg}(x) and ΔS{sub seg}(x), at saturation sulfur coverages. While Cu segregation to the top-surface of the clean Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} is exothermic (ΔH{sub seg} < 0) for all bulk Cu compositions, it is endothermic (ΔH{sub seg} > 0) for S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x}. Segregation to the S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} surface is driven by entropy. Changes in segregation patterns that occur upon adsorption of S onto Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} appear to be related to formation of energetically favored Pd{single bond}S bonds at the surface, which counterbalance the enthalpic driving forces for Cu segregation to the clean surface.

  5. Structural, morphological and optical properties of sprayed nanocrystalline thin films of Cd1-xZnxS solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Urvashi; Thakur, Vikas; Rajaram, Poolla; Shrivastava, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    A series of nanocrystalline thin films of cadmium zinc sulphide (Cd1-xZnxS) solid solution were deposited on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2), zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and thiourea (NH2CSNH2) were used as the sources of Cd, Zn and S respectively. The films were characterized using structural, morphological and optical techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the films of Cd1-xZnxS are polycrystalline and single phase having the wurtzite structure. The crystallites in the thin films of pure CdS possess preferred crystallographic orientation along the <002> direction. The preferred orientation of crystallites in the Cd1-xZnxS films changes from <002> to <101> with increase in Zn concentration. The lattice parameters of Cd1-xZnxS decrease with increase in Zn concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies show that the surfaces of the films are smooth and are uniformly covered with nanoparticles. Energy dispersive analysis of xrays (EDAX) results reveal that the grown films have good stoichiometry. Optical transmission spectra confirm the good quality of the Cd1-xZnxS films.

  6. FT-IR evaluation of SmFeAsO1-xFx (x = 0, 0.069)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Hajime; Kamihara, Yoichi

    2012-02-01

    Optical properties of superconducting SmFeAsO1-xFx (x=0, 0.069) were demonstrated by reflection measurement with FT- IR method. Polycrystalline SmFeAsO1-xFx samples were synthesized using two-step solid state reaction described elsewhere [New J. Phys.12, 033005 (2010)]. Purity of samples was checked by X-ray diffraction patterns using Cu K- alpha radiation. The reflection measurement was performed at the range from 9000 cm-1 to 18000 cm-1 that was corresponded to an energy region from 1.12 eV to 2.25 eV. A photoconductivity of SmFeAsO1-xFx was determined by Kramer-Kroning (KK) relation. Reflectivity and photoconductivity measurements, as well as by FT-IR, at various areas were performed to define an energy level of materials [EPL, 84 67013 (2008), and J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 80 013707 (2011)]. Obtained photoconductivity and reflection spectra were similar to those of LaFeAsO1-xFx that was a basic compound of LnFeAsO1-xFx (Ln=La, Ce, Sm), reported by Z. G. Chen et al [Phys. Rev. B 81, 100502 (2010)]. Our result suggests that the energy band structure of SmFeAsO was affected by F-doping even in visible area. Details and temperature dependence of the reflection and photoconductivity spectra will be presented at the conference.

  7. Structure Peculiarities of Micro- and Nanocrystalline Perovskite Ferrites La1- x Sm x FeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovska, O. B.; Vasylechko, L. O.; Lutsyuk, I. V.; Koval, N. M.; Zhydachevskii, Ya A.; Pieniążek, A.

    2017-02-01

    Micro- and nanocrystalline lanthanum-samarium ferrites La1- x Sm x FeO3 with orthorhombic perovskite structure were obtained by using both solid state reactions ( x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) and sol-gel synthesis ( x = 0.5) techniques. Obtained structural parameters of both series of La1- x Sm x FeO3 are in excellent agreement with the "pure" LaFeO3 and SmFeO3 compounds, thus proving formation of continuous solid solution in the LaFeO3-SmFeO3 system. Peculiarity of La1- x Sm x FeO3 solid solution is divergence behaviour of unit cell dimensions with increasing x: systematic decrease of the a and c lattice parameters is accompanied with increasing b parameter. Such behaviour of the unit cell dimensions in La1- x Sm x FeO3 series led to crossover of the a and c perovskite lattice parameters and formation of dimensionally tetragonal structure near x = 0.04. Linear decrease of the unit cell volume of La1- x Sm x FeO3 with decreasing x according with the Vegard's rule indicate absence of short-range ordering of R-cations in the LaFeO3-SmFeO3 system.

  8. Temperature and frequency dependence on electrical properties of polyaniline/Ni(1-x)CoxFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitra, Palanisamy; Muthusamy, Athianna; Dineshkumar, Sengottuvelu; Jayaprakash, Rajan; Chandrasekar, J.

    2015-06-01

    Two nanocomposites of polyaniline (PANI) varying in their percentage composition of Ni(1-x)CoxFe2O4 nanoparticle (20%, 10% w/w of fine powders) were prepared by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method with and without ultrasonic treatment. The spinel ferrite nanoparticles of chemical composition Ni(1-x)CoxFe2O4 were prepared by auto combustion method. The structure and morphology of PANI and nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical structure of Ni(1-x)CoxFe2O4 nanoparticles and its composites were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-visible absorption spectrometer and XRD techniques. Dielectric properties of nanocomposites at different temperature have been performed in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 5 MHz. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity of PANI/Ni(1-x)CoxFe2O4 nanocomposites are significantly increasing with increase in ferrite content due to the polaron/bipolaron formation. The optical absorption experiments of PANI/Ni(1-x)CoxFe2O4 nanocomposite illustrate a direct transition with an energy band gap of Eg around 1.7.

  9. Band offsets engineering at CdxZn1-xS/Cu2ZnSnS4 heterointerface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wujisiguleng; Sachuronggui; Qiu, Fang-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Cd1-xZnxS/Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS)-based thin film solar cells usually use CdS as a buffer layer, but due to its smaller band gap (2.4 eV), CdS film has been replaced with higher band gap materials. The cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) ternary compound has a higher band gap than other compounds, which leads to a decrease in window absorption loss. In this paper, the band offsets at Cd1-xZnxS/Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) heterointerface are calculated by the first-principles, density-functional and pseudopotential method. The band offsets at Cd1-xZnxS/CZTS heterointerface are tuned by controlling the composition of Zn in Cd1-xZnxS alloy, the calculated valence band offsets are small, which is consistent with the common-anion rule. The favorable heterointerface of type-I with a moderate barrier height (< 0.3 eV) can be obtained by controlling the composition of Zn in Cd1-xZnxS alloy between 0.25 and 0.375. Project supported by the Special Funds of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11547226 and 11547180).

  10. Density functional study for crystalline structures and electronic properties of Si1- x Sn x binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Yuki; Kurosawa, Masashi; Shibayama, Shigehisa; Araidai, Masaaki; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Shiraishi, Kenji; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2016-08-01

    We have carried out density functional theory (DFT) calculation for Si1- x Sn x alloy and investigated the effect of the displacement of Si and Sn atoms with strain relaxation on the lattice constant and E- k dispersion. We calculated the formation probabilities for all atomic configurations of Si1- x Sn x according to the Boltzmann distribution. The average lattice constant and E- k dispersion were weighted by the formation probability of each configuration of Si1- x Sn x . We estimated the displacement of Si and Sn atoms from the initial tetrahedral site in the Si1- x Sn x unit cell considering structural relaxation under hydrostatic pressure, and we found that the breaking of the degenerated electronic levels of the valence band edge could be caused by the breaking of the tetrahedral symmetry. We also calculated the E- k dispersion of the Si1- x Sn x alloy by the DFT+U method and found that a Sn content above 50% would be required for the indirect-direct transition.

  11. Different response of the crystal structure to isoelectronic doping in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 and (Ba1-xSrx)Fe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, Marianne; Hieke, Christine; Johrendt, Dirk

    2010-07-01

    Superconductivity up to 30 K in charge neutrally doped BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 has been ascribed to chemical pressure caused by the shrinking unit cell. But the latter induces no superconductivity in (Ba1-xSrx)Fe2As2 in spite of the same volume range. We show that the spin-density-wave (SDW) state of BaFe2As2 becomes suppressed in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 by a subtle reorganization of the crystal structure, where arsenic and phosphorus are located at different coordinates zAs and zP . High-resolution x-ray diffraction experiments with BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 single crystals reveal almost unchanged Fe-P bonds, but a contraction of the Fe-As bonds, which remain nearly unchanged in (Ba1-xSrx)Fe2As2 . Since the Fe-As bond length is a gauge for the magnetic moment, our results show why the SDW is suppressed by P doping, but not by Sr doping. Only the Fe-P interaction increases the width of the iron 3d bands, which destabilizes the magnetic SDW ground state. The simultaneous contraction of the Fe-As bonds is rather a consequence of the vanishing magnetism. Ordered structure models of BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 obtained by density-functional theory calculations agree perfectly with the single-crystal x-ray structure determinations. The contraction of the Fe-As bonds saturates at doping levels above x≈0.3 , which corrects the unreasonable linear decrease in the so-called pnictide height.

  12. Growth and luminescent properties of single crystalline films of Ce3+ doped Pr1-xLuxAlO3 and Gd1-xLuxAlO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Voznyak, T.; Riva, F.; Douissard, P. A.; Martin, T.; Fedorov, A.; Suchocki, A.; Zhydachevskii, Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to development of UV emitting scintillating screens for microimaging applications based on the single crystalline films (SCFs) of Ce doped Gd1-xLuxAlO3 and Pr1-xLuxAlO3 (x=0-1) multicomponent perovskites grown onto YAlO3 (YAP) substrates using the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method with the objective to improve the X-ray stopping power. Recently Riva et al. [1] have reported that the full set of GdxLu1-xAlO3 SCFs with x values in x=0-1.0 range can be crystallized on YAP substrates using this technique. We report here that PrxLu1-xAlO3 SCFs with x values in x=0-0.5 range can be grown also by the LPE method from PbO-B2O3 flux onto the same YAP substrates. The structural quality of the films was studied using X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of Ce3+ doped of Gd1-xLuxAlO3 and Pr1-xLuxAlO3 (x=0-1) multicomponent perovskite films, studied by traditional spectroscopic methods, such as absorption, cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence and light yield measurements under α-particles excitation, are also reported in this work. We have shown that Pb2+ flux related impurity has significantly larger influence on the light yield of Pr0.5Lu0.5AlO3:Ce, GdAlO3:Ce and Gd0.5Lu0.5AlO3:Ce SCFs in comparison with the YAP:Ce and LuAlO3:Ce counterparts grown onto YAP substrates.

  13. A new species of Endecous Saussure, 1878 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) from northeast Brazil with the first X1X20 chromosomal sex system in Gryllidae.

    PubMed

    Zefa, Edison; Redü, Darlan Rutz; Da Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti; Fontanetti, Carmem S; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; Padilha, Giovanna Boff; Fernandes e Silva, Anelise; Martins, Luciano De P

    2014-08-06

    In this paper we describe a new species of Luzarinae cricket collected from the cave "Gruta de Ubajara, municipality of Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil, highlighting phallic sclerites morphology and chromosome complement as diagnostic characters. We presented meiotic and mitotic characterization in order to define the karyotype with 2n = 12 + X1X2♂/12 + X1X1X2X2♀. This represents the first record of X1X20 chromosomal sex system in Gryllidae.

  14. Effect of electron irradiation on superconductivity in isovalently substituted Ba(Fe1-xRux)2As2 and SrFe2(As1-xPx)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehlow, C. P.; Thaler, A.; Tanatar, M. A.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Prozorov, R.; Koczykowski, M.; Miyasaka, S.

    2013-03-01

    Single crystals of isovalently substituted Ba(Fe1-xRux)2 As2 and SrFe2(As1-xPx)2 were irradiated at 23 K by 2 . 5 MeV electrons with a total fluence up to 2 ×1019 electrons per cm2. Both the resistivity and Hall coefficient were measured before and after irradiation using the van der Pauw method. Irreversible vortex properties were probed using miniature Hall-probe arrays. We correlate the change in resistivity due to irradiation with changes in flux pinning, relaxation rate and irreversibility line. We compare the results with theoretical predictions for different pairing scenarios, including extended s+/-.

  15. Scrutinizing Hall Effect in Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si: Fermi Surface Evolution and Hidden Quantum Criticality.

    PubMed

    Glushkov, V V; Lobanova, I I; Ivanov, V Yu; Voronov, V V; Dyadkin, V A; Chubova, N M; Grigoriev, S V; Demishev, S V

    2015-12-18

    Separating between the ordinary Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect in the paramagnetic phase of Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si reveals an ordinary Hall effect sign inversion associated with the hidden quantum critical (QC) point x^{*}∼0.11. The effective hole doping at intermediate Fe content leads to verifiable predictions in the field of fermiology, magnetic interactions, and QC phenomena in Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si. The change of electron and hole concentrations is considered as a "driving force" for tuning the QC regime in Mn_{1-x}Fe_{x}Si via modifying the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction within the Heisenberg model of magnetism.

  16. InAs(1-x)P(x) nanowires grown by catalyst-free molecular-beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Isakov, I; Panfilova, M; Sourribes, M J L; Tileli, V; Porter, A E; Warburton, P A

    2013-03-01

    We report on the self-catalysed growth of vertical InAs(1-x)P(x) nanowires on Si(111) substrates by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the mixed wurtzite and zincblende structure of the nanowires. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements were used to study the phosphorus content x in the InAs(1-x)P(x) nanowires, which was shown to be in the range 0-10 %. The dependence of phosphorus incorporation in the nanowires on the phosphorus flux in the growth chamber was investigated. The incorporation rate coefficients of As and P in InAs(1x)P(x) nanowires were found to be in the ratio 10 ± 5 to 1.

  17. Generic Superconducting Inhomogeneity in Single Crystal Fe(Te1-xSex) Probed by Nanostructure-transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Chunlei; Hu, Jin; Liu, Xue; Mao, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the nano-scale electronic properties of the iron-based unconventional superconductor Fe(Te1-xSex) with optimal Se content x = 0.5. Using the microexfoliation method and ion milling thinning, we successfully produced Fe(Te1-xSex) devices with thickness varying from 90nm down to 12nm. Our transport measurements revealed a suppression of superconductivity coinciding with the loss of normal state metallicity. Through the simulation of the formation of superconducting region in nano-scale thin flakes, we show that our observation is in line with the nano-scale inhomogeneity proposed for this material; therefore it provides a more direct evidence for the nano-scale inhomogeneous superconductivity in Fe(Te1-xSex) .

  18. Specific features of magnetoresistance during the antiferromagnet—paramagnet transition in Tm1 - x Yb x B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluchanko, N. E.; Azarevich, A. N.; Bogach, A. V.; Glushkov, V. V.; Demishev, S. V.; Levchenko, A. V.; Filippov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The transverse magnetoresistance Δρ/ρ( H, T) of Tm1 - x Yb x B12 single crystals is studied in the ytterbium concentration range corresponding to the antiferromagnet-paramagnet transition in a magnetic field up to 80 kOe at low temperatures. A magnetic H- T phase diagram is constructed for the antiferromagnetic state of substitutional Tm1 - x Yb x B12 solid solutions with x ≤ 0.1. The contributions to the magnetoresistance in the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the dodecaborides under study are separated. Along with negative quadratic magnetoresistance -Δρ/ρ ∝ H 2, the magnetically ordered phase of these compounds is found to have component Δρ/ρ ∝ H that linearly changes in a magnetic field. The negative contribution to the magnetoresistance of Tm1 - x Yb x B12 is analyzed in terms of the Yosida model for a local magnetic susceptibility.

  19. High-frequency permeability and permittivity of Ni xZn (1-x)Fe 2O 4 thick film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, D. C.; Lonkar, U. B.; Puri, Vijaya

    Magnetic materials such as Ni xZn (1-x)Fe 2O 4 have resonant frequency in high frequency; therefore, they are more useful especially in microwaves. The Ni xZn (1-x)Fe 2O 4 was prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method using citrate precursors, and the fritless thick film was screen printed on alumina substrates. The composition-dependent permeability and permittivity in the high frequency 8-12 GHz are investigated. Using the overlay technique on Ag-thick-film patch antenna, the change in reflectance and transmittance has been measured. The Ni xZn (1-x)Fe 2O 4 thick film, when used as overlay on Ag-thick-film patch antenna, changes the resonance characteristics. The changes in resonance frequency, reflectance and transmittance have been used to calculate the permeability and permittivity of the thick film. Zinc-concentration-dependent changes are obtained.

  20. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dispersion and lifetimes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhiting; Li, Mingda; Ren, Zhensong; Ma, Hao; Alatas, Ahmet; Wilson, Stephen D.; Li, Ju

    2015-09-01

    PbTe1-x Se x alloys are of special interest to thermoelectric applications. Inelastic x-ray scattering determination of phonon dispersion and lifetimes along the high symmetry directions for PbTe1-x Se x alloys are presented. By comparing with calculated results based on the virtual crystal model calculations combined with ab initio density functional theory, the validity of virtual crystal model is evaluated. The results indicate that the virtual crystal model is overall a good assumption for phonon frequencies and group velocities despite the softening of transverse acoustic phonon modes along [1 1 1] direction, while the treatment of lifetimes warrants caution. In addition, phonons remain a good description of vibrational modes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys.