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  1. Allele frequency distribution of CYP2C9 2 and CYP2C9 3 polymorphisms in six Mexican populations.

    PubMed

    Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Sandoval-García, Emmanuel; Sandoval-Ramírez, Lucila; González-Ibarra, Miriam; Solano-Solano, Gloria; Gómez-Díaz, Rita A; Parra, Esteban J; Cruz, Miguel; Valladares-Salgado, Adán

    2013-07-10

    Allele frequency differences of functional CYP2C9 polymorphisms are responsible for some of the variation in drug response observed in human populations. The most relevant CYP2C9 functional variants are CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853) and CYP2C9 3 (rs1057910). These polymorphisms show variation in allele frequencies among different population groups. The present study aimed to analyze these polymorphisms in 947 Mexican-Mestizo from Mexico City and 483 individuals from five indigenous Mexican populations: Nahua, Teenek, Tarahumara, Purepecha and Huichol. The CYP2C9*2 allele frequencies in the Mestizo, Nahua and Teenek populations were 0.051, 0.007 and 0.005, respectively. As for CYP2C9 3, the allelic frequencies in the Mestizo, Nahua and Teenek populations were 0.04, 0.005 and 0.005, respectively. The CYP2C9 2 and CYP2C9 3 alleles were not observed in the Tarahumara, Purepecha and Huichol populations. These findings are in agreement with previous studies reporting very low allele frequencies for these polymorphisms in American Indigenous populations.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Chirico, R.D.

    1991-04-01

    Removal of carbazole and its derivatives from heavy petroleum has proved to be particularly difficult using present technology. Studies have shown carbazole and its alkyl-homologs are the dominant nitrogen-containing components in clarified slurry oils, thereby indicating their low reactivity and/or formation during cat-cracking processes. The results reported here will point the way to the development of new methods of nitrogen removal from carbazole and its derivatives. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole. For studies on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Adiabatic heat-capacity and combustion calorimetric studies were reported previously for 9-methylcarbazole. Vapor pressures by comparative ebulliometry and inclined-piston gauge manometry, and heat-capacities for the liquid phase by d.s.c. are reported here. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for both compounds for selected temperatures between 298.15 K and near 700 K. The Gibbs energies of formation will be used in a subsequent report in thermodynamic calculations to study the reaction pathway of the initial hydrogenation step in the carbazole/H{sub 2} hydrodenitrogenation network. 52 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Electronic structure of U3+ in Cs3Lu2Cl9 and Cs3Y2I9 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Mirosław; Mech, Agnieszka; Drozdzyński, Janusz; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Reid, Michael F

    2005-01-13

    Low-temperature emission and polarized absorption spectra have been recorded for U(3+) ions diluted in Cs(3)Lu(2)Cl(9) and Cs(3)Y(2)I(9) host crystals. The experimental crystal-field levels were fitted to 13 parameters of a semiempirical Hamiltonian representing the combined atomic, one-electron crystal field (CF) as well as two-particle correlation crystal-field (CCF) operators. The red shift of the first f-d transitions from approximately 14,800 cm(-1) in the spectrum of U(3+):Cs(3)Lu(2)Cl(9) to as low as 11,790 cm(-1) in that of U(3+):Cs(3)Y(2)I(9) has been attributed to an increase in the covalence of the U(3+)-X(-) bonds. Comparison of the differences in the Coulomb repulsion strength between U(3+) and Er(3+) ions in Cs(3)Lu(2)Cl(9) and Cs(3)Y(2)I(9) crystals suggests that the 5f electrons of U(3+) ions are more 3d-like than 4f. The CF splitting of the (2)H(9/2) and (4)F(5/2) multiplets is unexpectedly larger for U(3+):Cs(3)Y(2)I(9) than for U(3+):Cs(3)Lu(2)Cl(9), which may be viewed as a result of the proximity of f-d states. For a correct description of the energy level structure of the (2)H(9/)(2) and (4)F(5/2) multiplets, the inclusion of CCF terms in the parametric Hamiltonian has proved to be essential. The larger f-f transition intensities for U(3+):Cs(3)Y(2)I(9) were also considered to be a consequence of the red shift of the first f-d states. The inadequacy in determination of the minor atomic parameters (other than parameters for Coulomb and spin-orbit interactions) and the insufficient inclusion of the influence of excited configuration in the applied CF Hamiltonian are assumed to be the main deficiencies preventing a better agreement between the experimental and calculated energies of CF levels.

  4. Infrared spectroscopy over the 2.9-3.9 microns waveband in biochemistry and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Al-Mufti, S.; Olavesen, A. H.; Wickramasinghe, D. T.

    1982-04-01

    Astronomical data for the source GC-IRS 7 are compared with infrared spectra of microorganisms sealed within KBr disks heated in an inert atmosphere up to temperatures of at least 380 C. A remarkably close correspondence is shown between the astronomical spectrum and biology, implying the possibility of a firm spectroscopic identification. Transmittance curves over the wavelength range 2.6-3.9 microns were obtained for E. coli at room temperature and at 350 C and for dehydrated vegetative yeast cells. Thermal stability of the biological materials was found up to about 400 C, and the transmittance curves show a surprising invariance of shape between 3.3 and 3.5 microns for both E. coli and the eukaryote. One spectrum could be explicable on the basis of a single grain model subject to irradiation by hard ultraviolet and X-ray quanta. A search for cosmically relevant organic polymers to produce an even tolerable fit to the data led to negative results.

  5. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to...

  6. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to...

  7. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to...

  8. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to...

  9. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to...

  10. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of La2W2O9:Eu3+ Micron-Crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao; Yang, Yanmin; Yu, Fang; Liu, Yanzhou; Han, Boning; Mi, Chao; Liu, Linlin

    2016-04-01

    La2W2O9:2%Eu3+ phosphors were synthesized by a typical hydrothermal procedure. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that a stock solution pH value equal to 9 is the ideal value, while the crystallization of the hydroxyl sodium yttrium tungstate crystal is improved by increasing the PH values of stock solution within limits. Meanwhile, SEMs of different pH values were recorded. Additionally, photo-luminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra were measured. It was found that this phosphor can be effectively excited by C-T band (266 nm) and ultraviolet light 342 nm. The wave-lengths at 342 nm fit in nicely with the whole visible region, thus the La2W2O9:2%Eu3+ phosphors emit white light. Furthermore, the annealing temperature's impact on PLE and PL spectra was also studied. The Eu3+-doped La2W2O9 phosphor may be a better candidate than current method for solid-state lighting applications. PMID:27451723

  11. High-throughput screening assays for the assessment of CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2, and CYP2C9*3 metabolism using fluorogenic Vivid substrates.

    PubMed

    Marks, Bryan D; Thompson, David V; Goossens, Tony A; Trubetskoy, Olga V

    2004-08-01

    CYP2C9 is a genetically polymorphic human cytochrome P450 isozyme involved in the oxidative metabolism of many drugs, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Individuals genotyped heterozygous or homozygous for CYP2C9 allelic variants have demonstrated altered metabolism of some drugs primarily metabolized by CYP2C9. The ability to expand screening of CYP2C9 allelic variants to a larger set of drugs and pharmaceutical agents would contribute to a better understanding of the significance of CYP2C9 polymorphisms in the population and to predictions of possible outcomes. The authors report the development of an in vitro fluorescence-based assay employing recombinant CYP2C9 variants (CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2, and CYP2C9*3) and fluorogenic Vivid(R) CYP2C9 substrates to explore the effects of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on drug metabolism, using drugs primarily metabolized by CYP2C9. Several chemically diverse fluorogenic substrates (Vivid(R) CYP2C9 blue, green, and red substrates) were used as prototypic probes to obtain in vitro CYP2C9 metabolic rates and kinetic parameters, such as apparent K(m), V(max), and V(max)/K(m) ratios for each allelic variant. In addition, a diverse panel of drugs was screened as assay modifiers with CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and the fluorogenic Vivid(R) CYP2C9 substrates. The inhibitory potential of this large group of chemically diverse drugs and compounds has been assessed on the basis of their ability to compete with Vivid(R) CYP2C9 substrates in fluorescent reporter assays, thus providing a sensitive and quick assessment of polymorphism-dependent changes in CYP2C9 metabolism.

  12. 2. Building D9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building D-9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of reactor leg to building proper. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  13. [Rb(18-crown-6)][Rb([2.2.2]-cryptand)]Rb(2)Sn(9)·5NH(3).

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Stefanie; Korber, Nikolaus

    2011-05-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, poly[[(4,7,13,16,21,24-hexa-oxa-1,10-diaza-bicyclo-[8.8.8]hexa-cosa-ne)rubidium] [[(1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-oxacyclo-octa-deca-ne)rubidium]di-μ-rubidium-μ-nona-stannide] penta-ammonia], {[Rb(C(18)H(36)N(2)O(6))][Rb(3)Sn(9)(C(12)H(24)O(6))C(12)H(24)O(6))]·5NH(3)}(n) represents the first ammoniate of a Zintl anion together with two different chelating substances, namely 18-crown-6 and [2.2.2]-cryptand. The involvement of these large mol-ecules in the crystal structure of [Rb(18-crown-6)][Rb([2.2.2]-cryptand)]Rb(2)Sn(9)·5NH(3) leads to the formation of a new structural motif, namely one-dimensionally extended double strands running parallel to [100] and built by Sn(9) (4-) cages and Rb(+) cations. The double strands are shielded by 18-crown-6 and [2.2.2]-cryptand. The cations are additionally coordin-ated by ammonia mol-ecules. One of the four independent Rb(+) cations is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.74 (2):0.26 (2) ratio. PMID:21754329

  14. Study of the structural phase transitions of (CH 3NH 3) 3Sb 2Cl 9 (MACA) and (CH 3NH 3) 3Bi 2Cl 9 (MACB) by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bator, G.; Jakubas, R.; Malarski, Z.

    1991-06-01

    Infrared spectra of polycrystalline (CH 3NH 3) 3Sb 2Cl 9 and (CH 3NH 3) 3Bi 2Cl 9 have been studied in the temperature range 90-300 K. A systematic temperature dependence study of the internal modes has been carried out. We discuss the effects of the dynamic state of methylammonium (MA) cations on their vibrational spectra. The results show that the dynamics of MA cations in both compounds is similar in higher (about 300 K) and lower temperature (in the vicinity of 100 K) regions. Substantial differences are revealed in the intermediate temperature interval. The results are in good agreement with earlier dielectric, calorimetric and 1H NMR studies.

  15. Unique Features of Human Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 9 (PRMT9) and Its Substrate RNA Splicing Factor SF3B2*

    PubMed Central

    Hadjikyriacou, Andrea; Yang, Yanzhong; Espejo, Alexsandra; Bedford, Mark T.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Human protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 9 symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues on splicing factor SF3B2 (SAP145) and has been functionally linked to the regulation of alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Site-directed mutagenesis studies on this enzyme and its substrate had revealed essential unique residues in the double E loop and the importance of the C-terminal duplicated methyltransferase domain. In contrast to what had been observed with other PRMTs and their physiological substrates, a peptide containing the methylatable Arg-508 of SF3B2 was not recognized by PRMT9 in vitro. Although amino acid substitutions of residues surrounding Arg-508 had no great effect on PRMT9 recognition of SF3B2, moving the arginine residue within this sequence abolished methylation. PRMT9 and PRMT5 are the only known mammalian enzymes capable of forming symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) residues as type II PRMTs. We demonstrate here that the specificity of these enzymes for their substrates is distinct and not redundant. The loss of PRMT5 activity in mouse embryo fibroblasts results in almost complete loss of SDMA, suggesting that PRMT5 is the primary SDMA-forming enzyme in these cells. PRMT9, with its duplicated methyltransferase domain and conserved sequence in the double E loop, appears to have a unique structure and specificity among PRMTs for methylating SF3B2 and potentially other polypeptides. PMID:25979344

  16. Genomic Distribution of H3K9me2 and DNA Methylation in a Maize Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lexiang; Eichten, Steven R.; Song, Jawon; Vaughn, Matthew W.; Schmitz, Robert J.; Springer, Nathan M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation and dimethylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2) are two chromatin modifications that can be associated with gene expression or recombination rate. The maize genome provides a complex landscape of interspersed genes and transposons. The genome-wide distribution of DNA methylation and H3K9me2 were investigated in seedling tissue for the maize inbred B73 and compared to patterns of these modifications observed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Most maize transposons are highly enriched for DNA methylation in CG and CHG contexts and for H3K9me2. In contrast to findings in Arabidopsis, maize CHH levels in transposons are generally low but some sub-families of transposons are enriched for CHH methylation and these families exhibit low levels of H3K9me2. The profile of modifications over genes reveals that DNA methylation and H3K9me2 is quite low near the beginning and end of genes. Although elevated CG and CHG methylation are found within gene bodies, CHH and H3K9me2 remain low. Maize has much higher levels of CHG methylation within gene bodies than observed in Arabidopsis and this is partially attributable to the presence of transposons within introns for some maize genes. These transposons are associated with high levels of CHG methylation and H3K9me2 but do not appear to prevent transcriptional elongation. Although the general trend is for a strong depletion of H3K9me2 and CHG near the transcription start site there are some putative genes that have high levels of these chromatin modifications. This study provides a clear view of the relationship between DNA methylation and H3K9me2 in the maize genome and how the distribution of these modifications is shaped by the interplay of genes and transposons. PMID:25122127

  17. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  2. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  3. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  4. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  5. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  6. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  7. Discovery of New Iron Oxide Fe7O9 and its Solid Solution, (Mg,Fe2+)3Fe3+4O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinmyo, R.; Bykova, E.; Ovsyannikov, S. V.; McCammon, C. A.; Kupenko, I.; Ismailova, L.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxides are fundamentally important compounds for Earth science. Particularly, the stability and properties of iron oxides are essential information to understand the structure and chemistry of the mantle. Here we report new high-pressure polymorphs of iron oxide Fe7O9 (Fe3+/Fe2+ = 4/3) and its Fe2+-Mg solid solution (Mg,Fe2+)3Fe3+4O9 that can be recovered at ambient conditions. We synthesized single crystals of the both compounds at about 24-26 GPa using a multi-anvil press. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystal structures of both Fe7O9 and (Mg,Fe2+)3Fe3+4O9 have monoclinic C2/m space groups, that differ from any other known lattices of iron oxides. Mössbauer spectra are in agreement with the crystal structure refined from single crystal XRD. This newly found Fe7O9 polymorph suggests that iron oxides may have more variable mixed valence state under high-pressure condition than previously thought. Based on analogy with Fe2+1+nFe3+2O4+n group, a Fe2+3±nFe3+4O9±n group might be also stable at certain high pressures and temperatures and oxygen fugacity.

  8. The Optical Stark Spectrum of the [11.9]Ω=3/2-X3π3/2 Band System of Platinum Monofluoride, PtF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chengbing; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2012-06-01

    Recently the O'Brien group reported on the field-free detection and analysis of the [11.9]Ω=3/2-X2π3/2 band system of PtF using intracavity laser absorption. The hollow cathode condition limited the spectral resolution, which was insufficient to fully resolved the hyperfine splitting of ^1^9^5Pt (I=1/2) and ^1^9F (I=1/2). Here we report laser-induced fluorescence spectra of the 1-0 and 0-0 bands of the [11.9]Ω=3/2-X2π3/2 transition of PtF, obtained at near natural linewidth resolution (FWHM 40MHz) using supersonic molecular beam techniques. The spectra show a complex, cleraly resolved hyperfine structure which has siginificant contributions from magnetic term in ^1^9^5Pt and ^1^9F. The spectra of ^1^9^4PtF, ^1^9^5PtF, ^1^9^6PtF, ^1^9^8PtF isotopogues have been assigned and analyzed. The electric field induced dependence of the R(1.5) branch of the ^1^9^5PtF isotopogue was analyzed to produce permanent electric dipole moment, μ, of 3.45 D and 2.32 D for the X2π3/2 and [11.9]Ω=3/2 states, respectively. A comparision with Ab Initio prediction will be given. K.G. Handler, R.A. Harris, L.C. O'Brien and J.J.O'Brien J.Mol. Spectrosc. 265 39, 2011. W. Liu and R. Franke J. Comput. Chem. 23 564, 2001. W. Zou, Y. Liu and J. E. Boggs Dalton Transactions, 39 2023, 2000

  9. Structural and dielectric properties of Sr3(MgTa2)O9 and Sr3(ZnTa2)O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoque, Md. M.; Dutta, Alo; Kumar, S.; Sinha, T. P.

    2015-07-01

    Herein, we report the crystal structures and morphological properties of Sr3(MgTa2)O9 (SMT) and Sr3(ZnTa2)O9 (SZT) synthesized by solid state ceramic method along with the results of alternating current impedance spectroscopic (ACIS) study in a frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz at selective temperatures between 393 and 573 K. The crystal structures of SMT and SZT have been determined by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction pattern using an initial structural model developed on the basis of literature survey. The results indicate that both the samples possess hexagonal structure of trigonal P 3 bar m 1 space group. The lattice parameters of SMT are a=b=5.65162 Å, c=6.94440 Å, α=β=90° and γ=120° and those of SZT are a=b=5.65832 Å, c=6.95911 Å and α=β=90° and γ=120°. SMT and SZT are isostructural and they exhibit 2:1 B site ordering with the staking sequence of {-Ta-Ta-Mg (Zn)-} (Mg for SMT and Zn for SZT) layer repeat on (111) plane of the pseudocells. The characteristic vibrational bands due to Ta-O, Mg-O and Zn-O bonds have been observed in the FTIR spectra of the samples. The FESEM micrographs of the samples show that the grains size ranges between 0.40 and 3.65 μm and 0.9 to 4.2 μm for SMT and SZT, respectively. To account for the polydispersive nature of the dielectric relaxation mechanism along with the effects of dc conductivity and localized space charges the variation of real (ε‧) and imaginary (ε″) parts of dielectric constant with frequency has been analytically interpreted in the framework of modified Cole-Cole model. SMT and SZT having the activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.33 eV, respectively (obtained from the Arrhenius plot of dc conductivity), are semiconducting in nature. The electrical current conduction in the samples occurs by polaron hopping process. Further, we have shown that chemical property of A site cations has significant role in determining the dielectric properties of A3B‧B″2O9 type perovskites

  10. Low Temperature Structural Phase Transition of Ba3NaIr2O9

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, H.; Loye, Z; Kim, S; Macquart, R; Smith, M; Lee, Y; Vogt, T

    2009-01-01

    Single crystal X-ray and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction have been used to probe the structure of Ba3NaIr2O9 from 300 K down to 20 K. Ba3NaIr2O9 is found to undergo a structural transition from hexagonal symmetry, P63/mmc, at ambient temperature to monoclinic symmetry, C2/c, at low temperature. The evolution of the unit cell volume upon cooling is indicative of a higher order structural transition, and the symmetry breaking becomes apparent as the temperature is decreased. The low temperature monoclinic structure of Ba3NaIr2O9 contains strongly distorted [NaO6] and [IrO6] octahedra in comparison to the room temperature hexagonal structure.

  11. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  12. A Novel Mixed Macrocycle Complex of Nickel: Synthesis, Structure, and Redox Chemistry of [Ni(II)([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](ClO(4))(2).CHCl(3) ([9]aneN(3) = 1,4,7-Triazacyclononane and [9]aneS(3) = 1,4,7-Trithiacyclononane).

    PubMed

    McAuley, A.; Subramanian, S.; Zaworotko, M. J.; Atencio, R.

    1998-09-01

    The mixed macrocycle cation, [Ni([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](2+) (where [9]aneN(3) = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane and [9]aneS(3) = 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane), has been prepared by stepwise complexation of [9]aneN(3) and [9]aneS(3), respectively, to Ni(II) cation. The intermediate [Ni([9]aneN(3))(CH(3)NO(2))(3)](2+) has been isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry and UV-visible spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry of [Ni([9]aneN(3))(CH(3)NO(2))(3)](2+) shows a quasireversible wave for the Ni(II/III) couple (E(1/2) = 0.73V vs Fc(+/0)), and the Ni(III) species exhibits an axial ESR spectrum (g( perpendicular) = 2.101 and g( parallel) = 1.985). The structure of [Ni([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](ClO(4))(2).CHCl(3) has been determined. It crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 13.3911(8) Å, b = 14.4430(9) Å, c = 13.6116(8) Å, beta = 107.2090(10) degrees, V = 2514.7(3) Å(3), and Z = 4. Of the 15 047 reflections collected, 5765 reflections (I > 2sigma(I)) were used in the refinement to obtain a final R(w) = 0.0278 and R(F) = 0.0368. In the cation [Ni([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](2+), the two macrocycles occupy the trigonal faces of the Ni(2+) ion, imposing a distorted octahedral geometry. Cyclic voltammetry of the complex in CH(3)CN (Pt electrodes, 0.1 M n-Bu(4)NClO(4), 500 mV) shows a quasireversible wave for the Ni(II)/Ni(III) couple (E(1/2) = 0.86V vs Fc(+/0)). Chemical oxidation by NOPF(6) of the cation [Ni([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](2+) generates a Ni(III) species that shows axial ESR spectrum with g( perpendicular) = 2.106 and g( parallel) = 2.063. No characteristic reduction wave was observed in either CH(3)CN or CH(3)NO(2) media. PMID:11670608

  13. H2O 2 induces myocardial hypertrophy in H9c2 cells: a potential role of Ube3a.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Guanghua; Wo, Da; Feng, Jian; Li, Xucheng; Li, Jue

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy that often leads to eventual heart failure is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. While both apoptosis and cell proliferation have been reported to play an important part in heart failure, its exact triggering mechanism is still unclear. Reports have shown that low concentrations of H2O2 (10-30 µM) can induce myocardial hypertrophy without affecting survival. The ubiquitin ligase Ube3a has been reported to have a close affiliation with Angelman syndrome; but many ubiquitin ligases have been reported in a variety of cardiovascular conditions including myocardial hypertrophy. However, the relationship between Ube3a and myocardial hypertrophy has never been reported in literature. The rat cardiac myoblast cell line H9c2 and primary neonatal cardiomyocytes showed similar hypertrophic responses in vitro. In this report, we utilized H2O2 treatment on H9c2 cells to induce myocardial hypertrophy and determined the relationship between Ube3a and myocardial hypertrophy. Our results showed that 10-20 μM H2O2 can induce myocardial hypertrophy without affecting cell viability and inducing cell apoptosis, while the corresponding transcription and translation levels of Ube3a are significantly increased during the process. Therefore, these findings underline that Ube3a may play an important role in myocardial hypertrophy. PMID:24917194

  14. A comparative study of Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 and Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2: Synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming; Dong, Youzhong; Fan, Qinghua; Lin, Xinghao; Liu, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The energy-density improvement for cathode materials by using the method of occupying the Li site with the lowest formation enthalpy was first presented, and successfully applied to Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2. Herein, the synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties (including both Li extraction and intercalation) of mixed alkali-ion phosphate Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 were comprehensively studied, and compared with its isologue Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2. Both Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 and Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 were synthesized via an original two-step method for the first time. The sintering temperature of Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 (650 °C) was much lower than that of Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 (750 °C). The Rietveld structure refinement indicated that Na ions occupied the Li1(2b) site of Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 as expected, and Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 showed a single charge plateau at 4.4 V vs. Li in the 1st cycle. However, the Na ions migrated from Li1(2b) site after the initial cycle, and the charge plateau at 3.7 V vs. Li reappeared. On the other hand, both Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 and Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 can deliver a high reversible capacity (∼200 mAh g-1), and reveal excellent cycle and rate performance in 3.0-0.05 V vs. Li. The gentle structure changes along with abundant Li intercalation into the bulks suggested that Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 and Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 were also promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  15. Lanthanum substitution for barium in YBa 2Cu 3O 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karen, P.; FjellvÅg, H.; Kjekshus, A.; Andresen, A. F.

    1991-07-01

    A detailed mapping is given for the existence range of the Y(Ba 1- yLa y) 2Cu 3O 9-δ solid solution phase with respect to y and δ. The findings are presented in the tetrahedral phase diagram of the Y(O) sbnd Ba(O) sbnd La(O) sbnd Cu(O) system. All samples were carefully prepared by citrate methods and gettering techniques giving high resolution in the degree of substitution y and oxygen content 9 - δ. The upper substitution limit of y = 0.36(2) can notably be exceeded if one at the same time allows substitution of Y by La, viz., by extending the phase region to include (Y 1- xLa x)(Ba 1- yLa y) 2Cu 3O 9-δ. For Y(Ba 1- yLa y) 2Cu 3O 9-δ, the lower limit for the oxygen content 9 - δ increases strongly with y, from 6.00(3) for y = 0.00 to, say, 6.45(3) for y = 0.20. The upper limit is approximately given as 9 - δ = 6.95 + y O,T [0.00 < y < 0.36(2)], i.e., the maximum formal Cu valency remains constant. Hence, oxygen contents well above seven per formula can be achieved, and for such samples the crystal symmetry eventually turns tetragonal, as seen by X-ray and neutron diffraction. A three-dimensional representation of the degree of orthorhombic distortion together with the parameters y and 9 - δ is made in the range where orthorhombic symmetry is adopted. For fully oxygenated samples (saturation at 340°C; PO 2 = 100 kPa; Cu valence constant: 2.30(1) according to iodometry), the symmetry change occurs at y O,T = 0.140(5); 9 - δ = 7.10. At the somewhat lower oxygen contents between 6.9 and 7.0, the domain of the orthorhombic state extends, e.g, to y O,T = 0.160(5) for 9 - δ = 6.98. An interesting consequence of this is that oxygen rich samples from the intermediate composition interval 0.14 < y < 0.16 undergo the phase transition sequence tetragonal to orthorhombic to tetragonal upon thermal removal of oxygen.

  16. N-(2,6-Dimeth­oxy­pyridin-3-yl)-9-methyl-9H-carbazole-3-sulfonamide

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guangzhi; Li, Zhuorong; Hu, Laixing; Jiang, Jiandong; Liu, Zongying

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H19N3O4S, a novel tubulin ligand active against human cancer, the dihedral angle between the pyridine ring and the carbazole ring system is 42.87 (10)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are held together by N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into layers, which are assembled into a three-dimensional network via π–π stacking inter­actions between inversion-related pyridine rings, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5101 (12) Å. PMID:23634116

  17. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267..., Additional Provisions § 15.251 Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz... spectrum analyzer or equivalent measuring receiver; (2) The angular separation between the direction...

  18. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267..., Additional Provisions § 15.251 Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz... spectrum analyzer or equivalent measuring receiver; (2) The angular separation between the direction...

  19. 3,3,6,6,9,9-Hexaethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexaoxacyclononane at 296 K.

    PubMed

    Cerna, Jorge; Bernès, Sylvain; Cañizo, Adriana; Eyler, Nora

    2009-11-01

    The title molecule (diethyl ketone triperoxide, DEKTP), C(15)H(30)O(6), is a cyclic triperoxide closely related to triacetone triperoxide (TATP), one of the most unstable explosives known. However, the stability of DEKTP is ca 20-50 times greater than that of TATP. DEKTP crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit, with virtually identical geometry. The cyclononane core is stabilized in a twisted boat-chair conformation (approximate D(3) symmetry), very close to that previously described for TATP. The explanation for the safe thermal behaviour of DEKTP compared with TATP should thus not be sought in the molecular dimensions, but rather in the thermal decomposition kinetics. PMID:19893236

  20. Structural chemistry and magnetic properties of the perovskite Sr3Fe2TeO9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yawei; Hunter, Emily C.; Battle, Peter D.; Sena, Robert Paria; Hadermann, Joke; Avdeev, Maxim; Cadogan, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    A polycrystalline sample of perovskite-like Sr3Fe2TeO9 has been prepared in a solid-state reaction and studied by a combination of electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetometry, X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The majority of the reaction product is shown to be a trigonal phase with a 2:1 ordered arrangement of Fe3+ and Te6+ cations. However, the sample is prone to nano-twinning and tetragonal domains with a different pattern of cation ordering exist within many crystallites. Antiferromagnetic ordering exists in the trigonal phase at 300 K and Sr3Fe2TeO9 is thus the first example of a perovskite with 2:1 trigonal cation ordering to show long-range magnetic order. At 300 K the antiferromagnetic phase coexists with two paramagnetic phases which show spin-glass behaviour below ~80 K.

  1. Chemical and orbital fluctuations in Ba3CuSb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Yusuke; Nakajima, Daisuke; Ishiguro, Yuki; Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q. R.; Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Ohwada, Kenji; Nakatsuji, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Structural fluctuation in Ba3CuSb2O9 , which is proposed to exhibit a spin-orbital entangled state, has been studied by diffuse x-ray scattering, x-ray fluorescence holography, and inelastic x-ray scattering. Two kinds of spatial fluctuations are observed: temperature-independent and temperature-dependent ones. The former is related to Cu/Sb arrangement. The short-range chemical correlation in Ba3CuSb2O9 is honeycomblike, whereas the correlation length is as short as the diameter of the honeycomb unit. The temperature variation of ferro- and antiferro-orbital correlations is extracted from Huang scattering intensity distributions. Both of these correlations increase with decreasing temperature down to 60 K, which corresponds to the energy of magnetic interaction of Ba3CuSb2O9 . A wide distribution of the characteristic time scale of the orbital motion is proposed from the spatial fluctuation of the ionic arrangement in Ba3CuSb2O9 .

  2. Transport and structural properties of the Ho1Ba2Cu3O9 - delta superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Ik; Golben, John P.; Song, Yi; Lee, Sang Young; Noh, Tae W.; Chen, Xiao-dong; Testa, Joe; Gaines, J. R.; Tettenhorst, Rodney T.

    1987-07-01

    The compound Ho1Ba2Cu3O9-δ has been found to be a high Tc superconductor. The onset of the superconducting transition is 88 K with zero resistance achieved at 87 K. The x-ray diffraction spectrum of this material shows it to be a single-phase perovskite similar to the Y1Ba2Cu3O9-δ compound but different from the K2NiF4 perovskite which is believed to be the superconducting phase for the La2(1-x) Ba2xCuO4-δ system. Possible oxygen deficiencies in several of the unit cell planes are discussed. The room-temperature resistance, the superconducting onset temperature, and the emergence of the single phase all depend upon the sample preparation firing conditions.

  3. Preparation and spectral characteristics of Ce3+-activated boroaluminate LaAl2B3O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xuebin; Cheng, Yu; Qin, Chuanxiang; Tao, Zhengxu; Huang, Yanlin; Cai, Peiqing; Chen, Cuili; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-02-01

    Ce3+-activated (1.0-10 mol%) aluminoborate LaAl2B3O9 was prepared via the chemical sol-gel method. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements. The luminescence performances such as photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, the thermal quenching, and the luminescence decay curves (lifetimes) were detected to the phosphors. The influences of Ce3+ activator concentration on the phase evolution and luminescence properties were investigated. Ce3+ ion has only one crystallographic site occupying on La3+ site in LaAl2B3O9 lattice, which results in the typical doublet blue emission band due to 4 f 65 d → 4 f 7 transition. The 2FJ ( J = 7/2, 5/2) energy gap of Ce3+ ions in this host is about 2,100 cm-1. In total, 7 mol% of Ce3+-doped LaAl2B3O9 exhibits the brightest blue luminescence color with CIE coordinates of ( x = 0.149, y = 0.123) and an absolute quantum efficiency of 76.0 %. The thermal stability of the luminescence was evaluated by the temperature-dependent luminescence intensity. The luminescence of phosphor shows a good thermal quenching with a high activation energy of Δ E = 0.34 eV, indicating it could be used at operation temperature 100-150 °C.

  4. Local Probe Studies of the Quantum Honeycomb Antiferromagnet Ba3CuSb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilliam, Jeffrey; Bert, Fabrice; Kermarrec, Edwin; Payen, Christophe; Guillot-Deudon, Cathérine; Bonville, Pierre; Mendels, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    The 6H-perovskites, Ba3 M Sb2O9, have generated an enormous amount of interest in the last two years following the possible discovery of quantum spin liquid physics in two such materials. We present local probe studies (muon spin rotation and nuclear magnetic resonance) on the spin-1/2 honeycomb antiferromagnet Ba3CuSb2O9. We show that the system presents no spin freezing down to temperatures as low as 20 mK. NMR measurements show evidence of a spin gap and suggest that the material has a random singlet ground state rather than the alternative spin-orbital liquid state. We acknowledge support from ANR, EC FP6 and NSERC.

  5. Assay of matrix metalloproteinases types 1, 2, 3 and 9 in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Remacle, A. G.; Noël, A.; Duggan, C.; McDermott, E.; O'Higgins, N.; Foidart, J. M.; Duffy, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc dependent endopeptidases implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis. Gelatin zymography was performed on 84 human breast carcinomas and seven normal breast tissues. The precursor form of MMP-2 (72 kDa) was found in 11 (12%) samples, while its two activated forms, i.e. 62 kDa and 59 kDa, were found in three (6%) and 34 (40%) samples respectively. In contrast to MMP-2, most of the samples (52%) contained MMP-9 in its precursor form. Using ELISA, MMP-1 levels were found in 12% of the samples while MMP-3 levels were found in only 2% of the samples. Levels of MMP-2, -3 and -9 correlated inversely with numbers of nodal metastases. Neither MMP-2 nor -9 levels were significantly related to patient outcome. However, patients with high levels of a 50-kDa gelatinase band after zymography had a significantly better survival than patients with low levels. This species was never observed in normal breast tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9528836

  6. Universal Heat Conduction in YBa2Cu3O6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillefer, Louis; Lussier, Benoit; Gagnon, Robert; Behnia, Kamran; Aubin, Hervé

    1997-07-01

    The thermal conductivity of YBa2Cu3O6.9 was measured at low temperatures in untwinned single crystals with concentrations of Zn impurities from 0% to 3% of Cu. A linear term κ0/T = 0.19 mW K-2 cm-1 is clearly resolved as T-->0, and found to be virtually independent of Zn concentration. The existence of this residual normal fluid strongly validates the basic theory of transport in unconventional superconductors. Moreover, the observed universal behavior is in quantitative agreement with calculations for a gap function of d-wave symmetry.

  7. Spectroscopic and Rheokinetic Properties of [(C4H9O)3P=O]2ZnCl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, E. R.; Karmanov, V. I.; Tereshatov, V. V.

    2013-09-01

    The complex [(C4H9O)3P=O]2ZnCl2 was synthesized. Its effects on urethane-formation kinetics via reaction of hydroxyl-containing oligomers and isocyanates were studied by IR spectroscopy; on polyurethane curing kinetics, by a rheological method. It was established that [(C4H9O)3P=O]2ZnCl2 was an effective catalyst that accelerated the initial step of regular structure formation during the synthesis of multi-component polyurethanes with low curing temperatures.

  8. The effect of a paramagnetic metal ion within a molecule: comparison of the structurally identical paramagnetic [3,3-Fe(1,2-C2B9H11)2]- with the diamagnetic [3,3-Co(1,2-C2B9H11)2]- sandwich complexes.

    PubMed

    Cioran, Ana M; Teixidor, Francesc; Viñas, Clara

    2015-02-14

    Derivatives of the ferrabisdicarbollide [3,3'-Fe(1,2-C(2)B(9)H(11))(2)](-) have been produced starting from the zwitterion [3,3'-Fe(8-(OCH(2)CH(2))(2)-1,2-C(2)B(9)H(10))(1',2'-C(2)B(9)H(11))], 1, upon reaction with nucleophiles: alkoxides, halides and hydrosulfide ions HS(-). The result has been the preparation of [3,3'-Fe(8-(OCH(2)CH(2))(2)R/X-1,2-C(2)B(9)H(10))(1',2'-C(2)B(9)H(11))] (R = OMe, [2](-); OEt, [3](-); OCH(2)CH(2)OCH(3), [4](-); and X = Cl, [5](-); Br, [6](-); I, [7](-); and SH, [8](-)). The reaction behavior of is comparable to the well-studied cobalt equivalent, [3,3'-Co(8-(OCH(2)CH(2))2-1,2-C(2)B(9)H(10))(1',2'-C(2)B(9)H(11))], and the yields and stability of the resulting complexes are similar. These results are relevant taking into account that [3,3'-Fe(1,2-C(2)B(9)H(11))(2))(-) is a paramagnetic anion. Implications of this are observed in the (11)B-, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of [3,3'-Co(1,2-C(2)B(9)H(11))(2)](-) and [3,3'-Fe(1,2-C(2)B(9)H(11))(2)](-) that having identical sandwich molecular structures and the same negative charge have absolutely different widths of the NMR field, between 15 and -25 ppm for [3,3'-Co(1,2-C(2)B(9)H(11))(2)](-) and in the range 150 to -550 ppm for [3,3'-Fe(1,2-C(2)B(9)H(11))(2)](-). The sharpness of both spectra is on the other hand comparable, although no B-H couplings are observed in the Fe metallacarborane or its derivatives. Remarkable is the comparative influence vs. [3,3'-Co(1,2-C(2)B(9)H(11))(2)](-) of replacing Co by Fe on the elements of the cluster layer nearest to the metal. The two equivalent C cluster (Cc) atoms are influenced at 36 840 Hz, the two equivalent B atoms that are adjacent to the two Cc are influenced at 38 157 Hz and the single B that is adjacent to the two B atoms is influenced at 44 062 Hz. Remarkable is the similar influence on B and on C, taking into account that the values have been obtained from two distinct NMR spectra of (11)B and (13)C. The {(11)B-(11)B} COSY NMR and {(1)H

  9. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz. 15.251 Section 15.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission...

  10. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz. 15.251 Section 15.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission...

  11. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz. 15.251 Section 15.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission...

  12. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  13. Synthesis and biological activity of 3-(2, 8, 9-trioxa-aza-1-germatricyclo [3. 3. 3. 0] undecane-1-yl)-caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lianbao; Luo, Yan; Peng, Xuedong; Zhou, Yuping; Ou, Xiaomin

    2009-07-01

    The new germanium compound of caffeic acid, (1), has been obtained to compare anti-tumor activities with 3-(2, 8, 9-trioxa-aza-1-germatricyclo[3. 3. 3. 0]undecane-1-yl)-hydroxycinnamic acids which have been researched previously. Compound was prepared which mainly used caffeic acid, germanium dioxide, sodium hypophosphite, triethanolamine as materials by reducing reaction, Micheal addition reaction and transesterification. The structure is comfirmed by (1)H-NMR and MS. Biological investigation has demonstrated that the compound is stronger anti-tumor activity than 3-(2, 8, 9-trioxa-aza-1-germatricyclo[3. 3. 3. 0]undecane-1-yl)-hydroxylcinnamic acids with lower toxicity.

  14. Cationic disorder and Mn3+/Mn4+ charge ordering in the B‧ and B″ sites of Ca3Mn2NbO9 perovskite: a comparison with Ca3Mn2WO9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, C. A.; Saleta, M. E.; Pedregosa, J. C.; Sánchez, R. D.; Alonso, J. A.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.

    2014-02-01

    We describe the preparation, crystal structure determination, magnetic and transport properties of two novel Mn-containing perovskites, with a different electronic configuration for Mn atoms located in B site. Ca3Mn3+2WO9 and Ca3Mn3+/4+2NbO9 were synthesized by standard ceramic procedures; the crystallographic structure was studied from X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD). Both phases exhibit a monoclinic symmetry (S.G.: P21/n); Ca3Mn2WO9 presents a long-range ordering over the B sites, whereas Ca3Mn2NbO9 is strongly disordered. By “in-situ” NPD, the temperature evolution of the structure study presents an interesting evolution in the octahedral size () for Ca3Mn2NbO9, driven by a charge ordering effect between Mn3+ and Mn4+ atoms, related to the anomaly observed in the transport measurements at T≈160 K. Both materials present a magnetic order below TC=30 K and 40 K for W and Nb materials, respectively. The magneto-transport measurements display non-negligible magnetoresistance properties in the paramagnetic regime.

  15. Laser site-selective spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions doped Y4Al2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczkan, M.; Turczyński, S.; Pawlak, D. A.; Wencka, M.; Malinowski, M.

    2016-08-01

    Eu3+ doped Y4Al2O9 (YAM) crystals were prepared by the micro-pulling down method. Optical-absorption and laser-selective-excitation techniques along with the luminescence decays have been used to reveal that Eu3+ ions in YAM occupy three distinct sites, which were characterized and discussed. The Stark energy levels of Eu3+ at three different sites in YAM were assigned from selectively excited emission spectra at 10 K. The intensity ratio of forced electric dipole (5D0 → 7F2) and magnetic dipole (5D0 → 7F1) transitions was discussed in order to obtain information about the degree of asymmetry of the luminescent centers. These results were confirmed by the luminescence lifetime measurements. The temperature dependent photo-luminescence spectra indicated that there is no energy transfer between different sites in the 10-300 K range.

  16. Spectrometric measurements and DFT studies on new complex of copper (II) with 2-((E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoyang; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    The molecular structure of a new complex of copper (II) with (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole ([Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2) was optimized with B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level. The ligand, (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole (emppc), binds to Cu(II) ions with a bi-dentate mode, two Cl(-) serve as bridging ligand, each Cu(II) ion has a highly distorted tetrahedron coordination geometry. With M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level, the calculated interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms N are between 183.3-200.0kJmol(-1) for α spin and 319.4-324.9kJmol(-1) for β spin, and interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms Cl atom are 248.0-252.4kJmol(-1) for α spin and 332.6-333.6kJmol(-1) for β spin. The experimental Fourier transform infrared spectrum was assigned. The calculated IR based on B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ methods were performed and compared with experimental results. The UV-Vis experimental spectra of [Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2 was measured in methanol solution. The calculated electronic spectrum was performed with TD/M062X and PCM-TD/M062X methods with LanL2DZ basis set. The nature bond orbital analysis and temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties were calculated with the same methods. PMID:27285472

  17. Spectrometric measurements and DFT studies on new complex of copper (II) with 2-((E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haoyang; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    The molecular structure of a new complex of copper (II) with (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole ([Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2) was optimized with B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level. The ligand, (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole (emppc), binds to Cu(II) ions with a bi-dentate mode, two Cl- serve as bridging ligand, each Cu(II) ion has a highly distorted tetrahedron coordination geometry. With M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level, the calculated interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms N are between 183.3-200.0 kJ mol- 1 for α spin and 319.4-324.9 kJ mol- 1 for β spin, and interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms Cl atom are 248.0-252.4 kJ mol- 1 for α spin and 332.6-333.6 kJ mol- 1 for β spin. The experimental Fourier transform infrared spectrum was assigned. The calculated IR based on B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ methods were performed and compared with experimental results. The UV-Vis experimental spectra of [Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2 was measured in methanol solution. The calculated electronic spectrum was performed with TD/M062X and PCM-TD/M062X methods with LanL2DZ basis set. The nature bond orbital analysis and temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties were calculated with the same methods.

  18. Cdyl, a new partner of the inactive X chromosome and potential reader of H3K27me3 and H3K9me2.

    PubMed

    Escamilla-Del-Arenal, M; da Rocha, S T; Spruijt, C G; Masui, O; Renaud, O; Smits, Arne H; Margueron, R; Vermeulen, M; Heard, E

    2013-12-01

    X chromosome inactivation is a remarkable example of chromosome-wide gene silencing and facultative heterochromatin formation. Numerous histone posttranslational modifications, including H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, accompany this process, although our understanding of the enzymes that lay down these marks and the factors that bind to them is still incomplete. Here we identify Cdyl, a chromodomain-containing transcriptional corepressor, as a new chromatin-associated protein partner of the inactive X chromosome (Xi). Using mouse embryonic stem cell lines with mutated histone methyltransferase activities, we show that Cdyl relies on H3K9me2 for its general association with chromatin in vivo. For its association with Xi, Cdyl requires the process of differentiation and the presence of H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, which both become chromosomally enriched following Xist RNA coating. We further show that the removal of the PRC2 component Eed and subsequent loss of H3K27me3 lead to a reduction of both Cdyl and H3K9me2 enrichment on inactive Xi. Finally, we show that Cdyl associates with the H3K9 histone methyltransferase G9a and the MGA protein, both of which are also found on Xi. We propose that the combination of H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 recruits Cdyl to Xi, and this, in turn, may facilitate propagation of the H3K9me2 mark by anchoring G9a.

  19. Complex translocation among chromosomes 2, 3, 9, 15, 18, 20 in a patient with 3p-syndrome.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Mir Davood; Saleh Gargari, Soraya; Azizi, Faezeh; Safavi Naini, Niloufar; Omrani, Sara

    2014-07-01

    A 3-month old girl with monosomy for distal part of the short arm of chromosome 3 is described. Physical examination showed growth retardation, microcephaly, ptosis, micrognathia, low set ears, broad nasal bridge, Simian crease, long philtrum, thin lips and hypertelorism. The patient's clinical phenotype largely resembled that of 3p- syndrome but her karyotype was more complicated than just losing the telomeric portion (3p-25.3) of the short arm of one of her chromosomes 3. Her karyotype was 46, XX, t(2;18) (p12;q12.1), del(3) (p23p26), t(3;9;15; 20) (q13;p23;q12; p12). Her parents showed a normal karyotype pattern. PMID:24979567

  20. Structure and magnetism of Sr3NiSb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battle, Peter D.; Chin, Chun-Mann; Evers, Sophie I.; Westwood, Mark

    2015-07-01

    The crystal structure of the perovskite-related oxide Sr3NiSb2O9 has been refined from X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data; space group P21/n, a=5.64381(2), b=5.62299(2), c=7.95687(3) Å, β=90.014(2)°. The structure has two crystallographically-distinct six-coordinate cation sites with occupancies Sb 0.97(1), Ni 0.03 and Sb 0.36, Ni 0.64. The magnetic susceptibility has been measured over the temperature range 2≤T/K≤300. Fitting data recorded in the temperature range 1503.49(1) μB per Ni2+, θ=-138(1) K. Ferrimagnetic coupling in the vicinity of the antisite defects is suggested to be responsible for the enhanced susceptibility observed below ~90 K. The zero-field cooled susceptibility shows a maximum at 8.7 K that is not observed in the field-cooled susceptibility. Hysteresis is observed in M(H) at 2 K but not at 7.5 K.

  1. Child Proportional Scaling: Is 1/3 = 2/6 = 3/9 = 4/12?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.; Levine, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The current experiments examined the role of scale factor in children's proportional reasoning. Experiment 1 used a choice task and Experiment 2 used a production task to examine the abilities of kindergartners through fourth-graders to match equivalent, visually depicted proportional relations. The findings of both experiments show that accuracy…

  2. Singlet Ground State of the Quantum Antiferromagnet Ba3CuSb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilliam, J. A.; Bert, F.; Kermarrec, E.; Payen, C.; Guillot-Deudon, C.; Bonville, P.; Baines, C.; Luetkens, H.; Mendels, P.

    2012-09-01

    We present local probe results on the honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet Ba3CuSb2O9. Muon spin relaxation measurements in a zero field down to 20 mK show unequivocally that there is a total absence of spin freezing in the ground state. Sb NMR measurements allow us to track the intrinsic susceptibility of the lattice, which shows a maximum at around 55 K and drops to zero in the low-temperature limit. The spin-lattice relaxation rate shows two characteristic energy scales, including a field-dependent crossover to exponential low-temperature behavior, implying gapped magnetic excitations.

  3. Homogeneous lattice disorder and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O6.9 films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuna, Davor; Gauzzi, Andrea

    We discuss the striking changes of the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O6.9 films to the homogeneous lattice disorder, induced by varying growth temperatures: Tc decreases with increasing disorder, while the width of the resistive transition and the normal state resistivity increase. We estimate the length scale of such dis- order from the broadening DJ of the lt; 005 > X-ray diffraction rocking curves. The suppression of superconductivity and normal conductivity scales as DJ and appears for in-plane lattice coherence lengths rc ≫ 1/DJ smaller than about 10 nm.

  4. 12-Acetyl-6-hy-droxy-3,3,9,9-tetra-methyl-furo[3,4-b]pyrano[3,2-h]xanthene-7,11(3H,9H)-dione.

    PubMed

    Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teo, Siow Hwa; Kwong, Huey Chong; Mohamed Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim; Silong, Sidik

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, Artonol B, C(24)H(20)O(7), isolated from the stem bark of Artocarpus kemando, consists of four six-membered rings and one five-membered ring. The tricyclic xanthone ring system is almost planar [maximum deviation 0.115 (5) Å], whereas the pyran-oid ring is in a distorted boat conformation·The furan ring is almost coplanar with the fused aromatic ring, making a dihedral angle of 3.76 (9)°. The phenol ring serves as a intra-molecular hydrogen-bond donor to the adjacent carbonyl group and also acts as an inter-molecular hydrogen-bond acceptor for the methyl groups of adjacent mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional network in the crystal.

  5. Conformational effects in the absorption spectra and photochemistry of [2, n](9,10)anthracenophanes ( n = 2,3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunand, Albert; Ferguson, James; Puza, Miroslav; Robertson, Glen B.

    1980-11-01

    The absorption spectra of [2.2](9,10)anthracenophane (1) and [2.3](9,10)anthracenophane (II), in condensed media, contain overlapping contributions from two conformational isomers with quite different spectra. The spectra of the two conformations of I and of one conformation of II have been separately determined by a solid state method. This involved the incorporation of the photoisomers of I (1,2,7,8,-tetrahydro-2a,6b[1',2']:8a, 12b[1″,2″] -dibenzenodibenzo [a,c] dicyclo- buta[e.g]cyclooctene) and II (1,2,8,9-tetrahydro-2a,6b[1',2']:9a,13b[1″,2″]-dibenzeno-7H-dibenzo[a,e]cyclobuta[c]-cyclopenta[g]cyclooctene) in host single crystals of the photoisomer of 1,3-di(9-anthryl)propane, I and II were then obtained by thermal dissociation and their spectra measured at 8 K. The two conformers of 1 were separated by photoselection, the rotated conformer being between 4 and 5 times more photoreactive than the translated conformer. A modified molecular force field program was used to simulate the environment around the guest molecule (I) and the resultant geometries and orientations in the (disordered) site of the host crystal are in excellent agreement with the polarization analysis of the absorption spectra. Two crystal orientations of the rotated conformer were found. For II, the rotated conformation, with two orientations, dominates the absorption spectrum and the translated conformer could not be obtained by photoselection. The force field program was used to calculate the molecular geometries (gas phase) of both conformations of I and II and their photoisomers, I was also obtained by ultraviolet photodissociation of its photoisomer at 8 K. Both conformers were obtained with the same ratio as for the thermally treated crystals. This result considered with the photoselection experiments, demonstrates that the reversible photoisomerization does not proceed via biradical intermediate.

  6. Muon-Spin Rotation in Multiferroic Cu3Mo2O9 under Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroe, Haruhiko; Kuwahara, Hideki; Sekine, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Isao; Raselli, Andrea-Raeto; Elender, Matthias; Biswas, Pabitra Kumar; Hase, Masashi; Oka, Kunihiko; Ito, Toshimitsu; Eisaki, Hiroshi

    It has been demonstrated that the muon spin rotation measurements under electric field give helpful information about the electrically induced magnetism, e.g., the cross correlation effects in multiferroic materials. We have developed an electric-field application system up to 500V for the Dolly spectrometer at the Paul Scherrer Institute. We report the electric-field effects on the μSR spectrum in the multiferroic material Cu3Mo2O9, where a slightly canted antiferromagnetic long-range order appears together with the ferroelectricity below 8K. In the muon-spin rotation spectrum at 1.5K, two kinds of the internal magnetic fields are clearly observed as a beating oscillation. The muon-spin spectrum depends on the electric fields along the c axis of the crystal along which the spontaneous electric polarization appears. From the fitting of the spectra in time and frequency domains, it is shown that the observation of the electric-field dependence on the muon-spin spectra clearly indicates a change of the internal magnetic fields induced by the application of the external electric fields. We propose a model with one muon-stopping site which explains the observed spectra qualitatively. This model is based on the magnetic excitations in Cu3Mo2O9 obtained from the inelastic neutron-scattering experiments.

  7. Elasticity of Polycrystalline Pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) to 9 GPa and 1000°C

    SciTech Connect

    Gwanmesia,G.; Zhang, J.; Darling, K.; Kung, J.; Li, B.; Wang, L.; Neuville, D.; Liebermann, R.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic wave velocities for synthetic polycrystalline pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) were measured to 9 GPa and temperatures up to 1000 C by ultrasonic interferometry combined with energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction in a cubic-anvil DIA-type apparatus (SAM-85). Specimen lengths at high pressures (P) and temperatures (T) are directly measured by X-radiographic methods. Elastic wave travel times and X-ray diffraction data were collected after heating and cooling at high pressures to minimize effect of non-hydrostatic stress on the measurements. A linear fit to the high P and T data set yields the elastic bulk and shear moduli [KS = 175 (2) GPa; G = 91 (1) GPa] and their pressure and temperature derivatives [K'S=3.9{+-}0.3; G' = 1.7 {+-} 0.2 and ({partial_derivative}KS/{partial_derivative}T)P = -18 (2) MPa/K; ({partial_derivative}G/{partial_derivative}T)P = -10 (1) MPa/K]. In a separate analysis, the pressure-volume-temperature data collected during these acoustic experiments were fit to a high temperature Birch-Murnaghan (HTBM) equation [with K' fixed at 3.9] and to each isothermal P-V-T data yielding ({partial_derivative}KT/{partial_derivative}T)P = -22 (2) MPa/K and ({partial_derivative}KT/{partial_derivative}T)P = -20 (5) MPa/K, respectively. Comparison of Py100 data with those other Py-Mj compositions indicates that the thermo elastic properties are insensitive to majorite content in the garnet along the pyrope-majorite join.

  8. Elasticity of Polycrystalline Pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) to 9 GPa and 1000 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Gwanmesia,G.; Zhang, J.; Darling, K.; Kung, J.; Li, B.; Wang, L.; Neuville, D.; Liebermann, R.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic wave velocities for synthetic polycrystalline pyrope (Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12}) were measured to 9 GPa and temperatures up to 1000 degrees C by ultrasonic interferometry combined with energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction in a cubic-anvil DIA-type apparatus (SAM-85). Specimen lengths at high pressures (P) and temperatures (T) are directly measured by X-radiographic methods. Elastic wave travel times and X-ray diffraction data were collected after heating and cooling at high pressures to minimize effect of non-hydrostatic stress on the measurements. A linear fit to the high P and T data set yields the elastic bulk and shear moduli [K{sub S} = 175 (2) GPa; G = 91 (1) GPa] and their pressure and temperature derivatives [K{prime}{sub S}=3.9{+-}0.3; G{prime} = 1.7 {+-} 0.2 and ({partial_derivative}K{sub S}/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} = -18 (2) MPa/K; ({partial_derivative}G/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} = -10 (1) MPa/K]. In a separate analysis, the pressure-volume-temperature data collected during these acoustic experiments were fit to a high temperature Birch-Murnaghan (HTBM) equation [with K{prime} fixed at 3.9] and to each isothermal P-V-T data yielding ({partial_derivative}K{sub T}/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} = -22 (2) MPa/K and ({partial_derivative}K{sub T}/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} = -20 (5) MPa/K, respectively. Comparison of Py{sub 100} data with those other Py-Mj compositions indicates that the thermo elastic properties are insensitive to majorite content in the garnet along the pyrope-majorite join.

  9. Differential patterns of histone methylase EHMT2 and its catalyzed histone modifications H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 during maturation of central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Ebbers, Lena; Runge, Karen; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2016-08-01

    Histone methylation is an important epigenetic mark leading to changes in DNA accessibility and transcription. Here, we investigate immunoreactivity against the euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EHMT2 and its catalyzed mono- and dimethylation marks at histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2) during postnatal differentiation of the mouse central auditory system. In the brainstem, expression of EHMT2 was high in the first postnatal week and down-regulated thereafter. In contrast, immunoreactivity in the auditory cortex (AC) remained high during the first year of life. This difference might be related to distinct demands for adult plasticity. Analyses of two deaf mouse models, namely Cldn14 (-/-) and Cacna1d (-/-), demonstrated that sound-driven or spontaneous activity had no influence on EHMT2 immunoreactivity. The methylation marks H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 were high throughout the auditory system up to 1 year. Young auditory neurons showed immunoreactivity against both methylations at similar intensities, whereas many mature neurons showed stronger labeling for either H3K9me1 or H3K9me2. These differences were only poorly correlated with cell types. To identify methyltransferases contributing to the persistent H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 marks in the adult brainstem, EHMT1 and the retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein RIZ1 were analyzed. Both were down-regulated during brainstem development, similar to EHMT2. Contrary to EHMT2, EHMT1 was also down-regulated in adult cortical areas. Together, our data reveal a marked difference in EHMT2 levels between mature brainstem and cortical areas and a decoupling between EHMT2 abundance and histone 3 lysine 9 methylations during brainstem differentiation. Furthermore, EHMT1 and EHMT2 are differentially expressed in cortical areas. PMID:27083448

  10. Lack of dentin acid resistance following 9.3 um CO2 laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Charles Q.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that laser irradiation of dental enamel by specific carbon dioxide laser conditions can inhibit subsequent acid dissolution of the dental enamel surface. The purpose of this study was to determine whether similar carbon dioxide laser conditions would have a protective effect on dentin. Blocks of human dentin roots (3x3 mm2) were irradiated at 9.3 µm wavelength with a 15-18 µs pulse duration laser and fluences of 0.50-1.50 J/cm2. A motion controller system was used to ensure uniform irradiation of the entire dentin surface. Surface acid dissolution profiles following irradiation were acquired for the five study groups, control group (Non-irradiated) and four laser-treated groups. Dissolution profiles of low fluence groups (0.50 and 0.75 J/cm2) exhibited similar profiles to the control group. Dissolution profiles of higher fluence groups (1.0 and 1.5 J/cm2) showed an increased dissolution rate over the control group, but these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that the application of carbon dioxide laser irradiation significantly alters the surface of dentin but did not decrease the acid dissolution rate.

  11. Scaling Between Localization Length and TC in Disordered YBa2Cu3 O6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, Andrea; Pavuna, Davor

    We quantitatively study the effect of growth-induced reduction of long range structural order on the superconducting transition in epitaxial YBa2Cu3O6.9 films. The corresponding reduction of structural coherence length rc is determined from the width of X-ray diffraction rocking curves. Tc measurements in the films give evidence for the validity of the empirical scaling relation ΔTc~ rc,ab-2, where ΔTc is the disorder-induced reduction of Tc and rc,ab is the structural coherence length in the ab-plane. To explain this algebraic law we propose a simple phenomenological model based on the disorder-induced localization of the charge carriers within each ordered domain of size rc,ab. This picture enables us to precisely determine the Ginzburg-Landau superconducting coherence length in the ab-plane, and we obtain ξab=1.41±0.04 nm.

  12. Solvatomorphism of 9,9'-[1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-diylbis(2,3-thiophendiyl-4,1-phenylene)]bis[9H-carbazole]: isostructurality, modularity and order-disorder theory.

    PubMed

    Stöger, Berthold; Kautny, Paul; Lumpi, Daniel; Zobetz, Erich; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2012-12-01

    During a systematic investigation of the crystallization behaviour of 9,9'-[1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-diylbis(2,3-thiophendiyl-4,1-phenylene)]bis[9H-carbazole] (I), six single crystalline solvates were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction at 100 K. The structure of the hemi-2-butanone (MEK) solvate contains two crystallographically independent molecules of (I) related by pseudo-inversion symmetry. The structure is polytypic and composed of non-polar (I) layers and polar solvent layers. It can be described according to an extended order-disorder (OD) theory with relaxed vicinity condition. The observed polytype is of a maximum degree of order (MDO). Layer triples of the second MDO polytype are shown by twinning by inversion. The mono-benzene and mono-toluene solvates are isostructural. Whereas the (I) layers are isostructural to those of the idealized description of the hemi-MEK solvate, the solvent layers are non-polar, resulting in a fully ordered structure. The toluene molecule is ordered, the benzene molecule features disorder. The (I) layers in the sesqui-dioxane and sesqui-benzene solvates are isostructural and unrelated to those in the hemi-MEK, mono-benzene and mono-toluene solvates. The solvent layers are isopointal in both sesqui-solvates, but the stacking differs significantly. The hemi-dideuterodichloromethane (DCM-d(2)) solvate is made up of two kinds of (I) rods, spaced by DCM-d(2) molecules. Rods of one kind are similar to analogous rods in the sesqui-dioxane and the sesqui-benzene solvates, whereas rods of the other kind are only remotely related to rods in the hemi-MEK solvate.

  13. The degenerate spin-flip doublet (3{sup +}/2,5{sup +}/2) of {sub {lambda}}{sup 9}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Sonika

    2009-05-15

    The energy of the degenerate doublet (3{sup +}/2,5{sup +}/2) of {sub {lambda}}{sup 9}Be, treating it as a partially nine-body system in the {lambda}{alpha}{alpha} cluster model, has been calculated in the variational Monte Carlo framework. A simplified treatment, with the central two-body Urbana type {lambda}N and the three-body dispersive and two-pion exchange {lambda}NN forces along with the central two- and three-body correlations, is found to be adequate in explaining the energy of observed {gamma}-ray transition from the excited degenerate doublet to the ground state. The hypernucleus {sub {lambda}}{sup 9}Be is highly deformed and has an oblate shape in the excited state. The results of the present work are consistent with the earlier three-body cluster model analyzes of {sub {lambda}}{sup 9}Be.

  14. Diversity of Functionalized Germanium Zintl Clusters: Syntheses and Theoretical Studies of [Ge9PdPPh3]3- and [Ni@(Ge9PdPPh3)]2-

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhong-Ming; Zhao, Ya-Fan; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai S.

    2009-09-10

    A new Zintl cluster [Ge9PdPPh3]3- has been isolated as (2,2,2-crypt)K+ salt through the reaction of K4Ge9 and Pd[PPh3]4 in ethylenediamine solutions and characterized via single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The as-prepared bimetallic [Ge9PdPPh3]3- cluster could successfully trap a nickel atom to form a trimetallic cluster [Ni@(Ge9PdPPh3)]2-. The coordination of Ge94- by PdPPh3 induces a one-electron oxidation and encapsulation of the Ni atom into the Ge93- cage leads to a further one-electron oxidation and a geometry transformation from C4v (nido) to C3v (closo).

  15. Effects of CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen in Korean subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Jeong; Byeon, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Se-Hyung; Choi, Chang-Ik; Bae, Jung-Woo; Sohn, Uy-Dong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Jeongmi; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen and its metabolite. The CYP2C9 genotypes were determined with the use of polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment and DNA sequencing analysis in 358 healthy Koreans. Among them, twenty individuals with CYP2C9*1/*1 (n = 12) or CYP2C9*1/*3 (n = 8) genotypes received a single 40 mg oral dose of flurbiprofen. The plasma concentrations of flurbiprofen and its metabolite, 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen were measured by HPLC. AUCinf of flurbiprofen was significantly higher and its clearance was significantly lower in the CYP2C9*1/*3 individuals than in those with CYP2C9*1/*1. The AUC ratio of 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen to flurbiprofen was significantly lower in the CYP2C9*1/*3 individuals than in those with CYP2C9*1/*1. These results indicate that the individuals carrying of CYP2C9*3 have significant reduction in flurbiprofen metabolism. The clinical use of this information may allow for more efficient personalized pharmacotherapy.

  16. SETDB1 modulates PRC2 activity at developmental genes independently of H3K9 trimethylation in mouse ES cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, Qi; Yang, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Qian; Yu, Yanyan; Yu, Yiling; Yi, Wei; Zhou, Shaolian; Chen, Taiping; Lu, Chris; Atadja, Peter; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Li, En; Zhang, Yong; Shou, Jianyong

    2015-09-01

    SETDB1, a histone methyltransferase responsible for methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), is involved in maintenance of embryonic stem (ES) cells and early embryonic development of the mouse. However, how SETDB1 regulates gene expression during development is largely unknown. Here, we characterized genome-wide SETDB1 binding and H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) profiles in mouse ES cells and uncovered two distinct classes of SETDB1 binding sites, termed solo and ensemble peaks. The solo peaks were devoid of H3K9me3 and enriched near developmental regulators while the ensemble peaks were associated with H3K9me3. A subset of the SETDB1 solo peaks, particularly those near neural development-related genes, was found to be associated with Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) as well as PRC2-interacting proteins JARID2 and MTF2. Genetic deletion of Setdb1 reduced EZH2 binding as well as histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation level at SETDB1 solo peaks and facilitated neural differentiation. Furthermore, we found that H3K27me3 inhibits SETDB1 methyltransferase activity. The currently identified reciprocal action between SETDB1 and PRC2 reveals a novel mechanism underlying ES cell pluripotency and differentiation regulation.

  17. Synthesis and discovery of (I-3,II-3)-biacacetin as a novel non-zinc binding inhibitor of MMP-2 and MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Nanjan, Pandurangan; Nambiar, Jyotsna; Nair, Bipin G; Banerji, Asoke

    2015-07-01

    Eleven biflavones (7a-b and 9a-i) were synthesised by a simple and efficient protocol and screened for MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities. Amongst them, a natural product-like analog, (I-3,II-3)-biacacetin (9h) was found to be the most potent inhibitor. Molecular docking studies suggest that unlike most of the known inhibitors, 9h inhibits MMP-2 and MMP-9 through non-zinc binding interactions.

  18. Exploring the spin-orbital ground state of Ba3CuSb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerald, Andrew; Mila, Frédéric

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the absence of both spin freezing and a cooperative Jahn-Teller effect at the lowest measured temperatures, we study the ground state of Ba3CuSb2O9. We solve a general spin-orbital model on both the honeycomb and the decorated honeycomb lattice, revealing rich phase diagrams. The spin-orbital model on the honeycomb lattice contains an SU(4) point, where previous studies have shown the existence of a spin-orbital liquid with algebraically decaying correlations. For realistic parameters on the decorated honeycomb lattice, we find a phase that consists of clusters of nearest-neighbor spin singlets, which can be understood in terms of dimer coverings of an emergent square lattice. While the experimental situation is complicated by structural disorder, we show qualitative agreement between our theory and a range of experiments.

  19. 40 CFR 721.9850 - 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro[5.5]undecane, 3,9- bis[2,4,6-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenoxy]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro undecane, 3,9- bis -. 721.9850 Section 721.9850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9850 - 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro[5.5]undecane, 3,9- bis[2,4,6-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenoxy]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro undecane, 3,9- bis -. 721.9850 Section 721.9850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9850 - 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro[5.5]undecane, 3,9- bis[2,4,6-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenoxy]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro undecane, 3,9- bis -. 721.9850 Section 721.9850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9850 - 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro[5.5]undecane, 3,9- bis[2,4,6-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenoxy]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro undecane, 3,9- bis -. 721.9850 Section 721.9850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9850 - 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro[5.5]undecane, 3,9-bis[2,4,6-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenoxy]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro undecane, 3,9-bis -. 721.9850 Section 721.9850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  4. Erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) Adenine alone and in combination with 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine in treatment of systemic herpesvirus infections in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, W M; Arnett, G; Schabel, F M; North, T W; Cohen, S S

    1980-01-01

    Although the antiviral activity of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine, a potent adenosine deaminase inhibitor, against herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell culture was readily confirmed, the compound was found to be totally ineffective in the treatment of experimentally induced systemic herpes simplex virus type 1 infections in Swiss mice. Data were obtained, however, which clearly indicated that the antiviral potency of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine in vivo could be enhanced by the co-administration of low, nontoxic doses of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine. PMID:6255863

  5. Metabolism of risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone by human cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4.

    PubMed

    Fang, J; Bourin, M; Baker, G B

    1999-02-01

    Risperidone is a relatively new antipsychotic drug that has been reported to improve both the positive and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and produces relatively few extrapyramidal side effects at low doses. Formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone, an active metabolite, is the most important metabolic pathway of risperidone in human. In the present study, in vitro metabolism of risperidone (100 microM) was investigated using the recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9-arg144, CYP2C9-cys144, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 supplemented with an NADPH-generating system. 9-Hydroxyrisperidone was determined by a new HPLC method with an Hypersil CN column and a UV detector. Of these enzymes, CYPs 2D6, 3A4 and 3A5 were found to be the ones capable of metabolising risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, with activities of 7.5, 0.4 and 0.2 pmol pmol(-1) CYP min(-1), respectively. A correlation study using a panel of human liver microsomes showed that the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with CYP2D6 and 3A activities. Thus, both CYP2D6 and 3A4 are involved in the 9-hydroxylation of risperidone at the concentration of risperidone used in this study. This observation is confirmed by the findings that both quinidine (inhibitor of CYP2D6) and ketoconazole (inhibitor of CYP3A4) can inhibit the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Furthermore, inducers of CYP can significantly increase the formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone in rat. The formation of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is highly correlated with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activities, suggesting that inducible CYP3A contributes significantly to the metabolism of risperidone in rat.

  6. Synthesis, spectral characterization, single crystal and conformational study of 1,5-dimethyl-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswaramoorthi, R.; John Francis Xavier, J.; Krishnasamy, K.; Saleem, H.

    2012-03-01

    1,5-Dimethyl-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one 1 and their derivatives 2-8 were obtained by condensation of 2,6-dimethyl cyclohexanone, Ammonium acetate and substituted aromatic aldehydes and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GC-MS, HOMOCOSY, HSQC, NOESY, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and theoretical DFT calculation. Compound 1 crystallized in the Triclinic system, space group P-1 with a = 6.8950(5) Ǻ, b = 11.5889(9) Ǻ, c = 11.9172(9) Ǻ, α = 76.277(4)°, β = 78.000(3)°, γ = 72.920(4)°, V = 874.41(12) Ǻ3 and Z = 2. 1,5-Dimethyl-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one 1 and their derivatives 2-8 were exist in boat-chair conformation with equatorial orientation of all the substituents at piperidine ring (two phenyl rings at C-2 and C-4 position, two methyl substituents at C-1 and C-5 position) of compound 1. In the crystal structure of compound 1, the molecules are connected by Nsbnd H⋯Odbnd C intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The existence of boat-chair conformation was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and theoretical DFT calculation.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal analysis and dielectric properties of [(C4H9)4N]3Bi2Cl9 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigui, W.; Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.; Hlel, F.

    2015-07-01

    A new organic-inorganic tri-tetrabutylammonium nonachlorobibismuthate(III) compound was prepared. It was found to crystallize in the monoclinic system (P21/n space group) with the following lattice parameters: a=11.32(2) Å, b=22.30(3) Å, c=28.53(2) Å and β=96.52(0)°. The [Bi2Cl9]3- anions are surrounded by six [(C4H9)N]+ cations, forming an octahedral configuration. These octahedra are sharing corners in order to provide the tri-dimensional network cohesion. The differential scanning calorimetry reveals four order-disorder reversible phase transitions located at 214, 238, 434 and 477 K. The Raman and infrared spectra confirm the presence of both cationic [(C4H9)N]+ and anionic [Bi2Cl9]3- parts. The dielectric parameters, real and imaginary dielectric permittivity (ε‧ and ε″), and dielectric loss tangent (tg δ), were measured in the frequency range of 209 kHz-5 MHz at different temperatures. The variations of dielectric dispersion (ε') and dielectric absorption (ε″) with frequency show a distribution of relaxation times, which is probably related to the change in the dynamical state of the [(C4H9)4N]+ cations and the [Bi2Cl9]3- anions.

  8. Microstructure changes and thermal conductivity reduction in UO2 following 3.9 MeV He2+ ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Janne Pakrinen; Marat Khafizov; Lingfeng He; Chris Wetland; Jian Gan; Andrew T. Nelson; David H Hurley; Anter El-Azab; Todd R Allen

    2014-11-01

    The microstructural changes and associated effects on thermal conductivity were examined in UO2 after irradiation using 3.9 MeV He2+ ions. Lattice expansion of UO2 was observed in x-ray diffraction after ion irradiation up to 5×1016 He2+/cm2 at low-temperature (< 200 °C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed homogenous irradiation damage across an 8 µm thick plateau region, which consisted of small dislocation loops accompanied by dislocation segments. Dome-shaped blisters were observed at the peak damage region (depth around 8.5 µm) in the sample subjected to 5×1016 He2+/cm2, the highest fluence reached, while similar features were not detected at 9×1015 He2+/cm2. Laser-based thermo-reflectance measurements showed that the thermal conductivity for the irradiated layer decreased about 55 % for the high fluence sample and 35% for the low fluence sample as compared to an un-irradiated reference sample. Detailed analysis for the thermal conductivity indicated that the conductivity reduction was caused by the irradiation induced point defects.

  9. A jumonji (Jarid2) protein complex represses cyclin D1 expression by methylation of histone H3-K9.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Haruki; Ogawa, Satoko; Nakajima, Kuniko; Inagawa, Masayo; Kojima, Mizuyo; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Covalent modifications of histone tails have critical roles in regulating gene expression. Previously, we identified the jumonji (jmj, Jarid2) gene, the jmjC domain, and a Jmj family. Recently, many Jmj family proteins have been shown to be histone demethylases, and jmjC is the catalytic domain. However, Jmj does not have histone demethylase activity because the jmjC domain lacks conserved residues for binding to cofactors. Independently of these studies, we previously showed that Jmj binds to the cyclin D1 promoter and represses the transcription of cyclin D1. Here, we show the mechanisms by which Jmj represses the transcription of cyclin D1. We found that a protein complex of Jmj had histone methyltransferase activity toward histone H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9). We also found that Jmj bound to the H3-K9 methyltransferases G9a and GLP. Expression of Jmj recruited G9a and GLP to the cyclin D1 promoter and increased H3-K9 methylation. Inactivation of both G9a and GLP, but not of only G9a, inhibited the methylation of H3-K9 in the cyclin D1 promoter and repression of cyclin D1 expression by Jmj. These results suggest that Jmj methylates H3-K9 and represses cyclin D1 expression through G9a and GLP, and that Jmj family proteins can regulate gene expression by not only histone demethylation but also other histone modification.

  10. Different cation-protonation patterns in mol-ecular salts of unsymmetrical dimethyhydrazine: C2H9N2·Br and C2H9N2·H2PO3.

    PubMed

    Katinaitė, Judita; Harrison, William T A

    2016-08-01

    We describe the syntheses and crystal structures of two mol-ecular salts containing the 1,1-di-methyl-hydrazinium cation, namely 1,1-di-methyl-hydrazin-1-ium bromide, C2H9N2 (+)·Br(-), (I), and 2,2-di-methyl-hydrazin-1-ium di-hydrogen phosphite, C2H9N2 (+)·H2PO3 (-), (II). In (I), the cation is protonated at the methyl-ated N atom and N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds generate [010] chains in the crystal. In (II), the cation is protonated at the terminal N atom and cation-to-anion N-H⋯O and anion-to-anion O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate (001) sheets. PMID:27536415

  11. Different cation-protonation patterns in mol­ecular salts of unsymmetrical dimethyhydrazine: C2H9N2·Br and C2H9N2·H2PO3

    PubMed Central

    Katinaitė, Judita; Harrison, William T. A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the syntheses and crystal structures of two mol­ecular salts containing the 1,1-di­methyl­hydrazinium cation, namely 1,1-di­methyl­hydrazin-1-ium bromide, C2H9N2 +·Br−, (I), and 2,2-di­methyl­hydrazin-1-ium di­hydrogen phosphite, C2H9N2 +·H2PO3 −, (II). In (I), the cation is protonated at the methyl­ated N atom and N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds generate [010] chains in the crystal. In (II), the cation is protonated at the terminal N atom and cation-to-anion N—H⋯O and anion-to-anion O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate (001) sheets. PMID:27536415

  12. Analysis of the hot bands in the 2 ν9 band region of propyne-d 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajappan, Geetha; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2004-04-01

    The rovibrational spectrum of 2 ν9 band of CD 3CCH is overlapped by two prominent hot bands identified as (2 ν90+ ν10±1)( E)← ν10±1( E) and 3 ν9±1( E)← ν9±1( E), where ν10 and ν9 are the degenerate CCC and CCH bending fundamental vibrations, respectively. Assignment of lines to the transitions of these hot bands were carried out with the help of the high-resolution spectra recorded at ˜195 K and at room temperature. Molecular parameters for these hot bands have been obtained from the rotational analysis of the partially resolved K-structure lines. Only Q-head of the third hot band (2ν 9 + 2ν 10)←2ν 10, originating from the lower 2 ν10 state could be identified.

  13. 3'-Azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine induced deficiency of thymidine kinases 1, 2 and deoxycytidine kinase in H9 T-lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Gröschel, Bettina; Kaufmann, Andreas; Höver, Gerold; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Noordhuis, Paul; Loves, Willem J P; Peters, Godefridus J; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2002-07-15

    Continuous cultivation of T-lymphoid H9 cells in the presence of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) resulted in a cell variant cross-resistant to both thymidine and deoxycytidine analogs. Cytotoxic effects of AZT, 2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine as well as different deoxycytidine analogs such as 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (dFdC) and 1-ss-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) were strongly reduced in H9 cells continuously exposed to AZT when compared to parental cells (>8.3-, >6.6-, >9.1-, 5 x 10(4)-, 5 x 10(3)-fold, respectively). Moreover, anti-HIV-1 effects of AZT, d4T, ddC and 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) were significantly diminished (>222-, >25-, >400-, >200-fold, respectively) in AZT-resistant H9 cells. Study of cellular mechanisms responsible for cross-resistance to pyrimidine analogs in AZT-resistant H9 cells revealed decreased mRNA levels of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and lack of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) mRNA expression. The loss of dCK gene expression was confirmed by western blot analysis of dCK protein as well as dCK enzyme activity assay. Moreover, enzyme activity of TK1 and TK2 was reduced in AZT-resistant cells. In order to determine whether lack of dCK affected the formation of the active triphosphate of the deoxycytidine analog dFdC, dFdCTP accumulation and retention was measured in H9 parental and AZT-resistant cells after exposure to 1 and 10 microM dFdC. Parental H9 cells accumulated about 30 and 100 pmol dFdCTP/10(6) cells after 4hr, whereas in AZT-resistant cells no dFdCTP accumulation was detected. These results demonstrate that continuous treatment of H9 cells in the presence of AZT selected for a thymidine analog resistant cell variant with cross-resistance to deoxycytidine analogs, due to deficiency in TK1, TK2, and dCK.

  14. Crystal structure of (1S,3R,8R,9R)-2,2-di-chloro-3,7,7-tri-methyl-10-methylenetri-cyclo-[6.4.0.0(1,3)]dodecan-9-ol.

    PubMed

    Benzalim, Ahmed; Auhmani, Aziz; Bimoussa, Abdoullah; Ait Itto, My Youssef; Daran, Jean-Claude; Auhmani, Abdelwahed

    2016-08-01

    The title compound, C16H24Cl2O, was synthesized by treating (1S,3R,8S,9R,10S)-2,2-di-chloro-3,7,7,10-tetra-methyl-9,10-ep-oxy-tri-cyclo-[6.4.0.0(1,3)]dodecane with a concentrated solution of hydro-bromic acid. It is built up from three fused rings: a cyclo-heptane ring, a cyclo-hexyl ring bearing alkene and hy-droxy substituents, and a cyclo-propane ring bearing two chlorine atoms. The asymmetric unit contains two mol-ecules linked by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, further O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds build up an R 4 (4)(8) cyclic tetra-mer. One of the mol-ecules presents disorder that affects the seven-membered ring. In both mol-ecules, the six-membered rings display a chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered rings display conformations inter-mediate between boat and twist-boat for the non-disordered mol-ecule and either a chair or boat and twist-boat for the disordered mol-ecule owing to the disorder. The absolute configuration for both mol-ecules is 1S,3R,8R,9R and was deduced from the chemical pathway and further confirmed by the X-ray structural analysis. PMID:27536404

  15. 5,8-Dimeth­oxy-3,9-dimethyl-3a,4,9,9a-tetra­hydro-4,9-ep­oxy­naphtho­[2,3-d]isoxazole

    PubMed Central

    Lough, Alan J.; Nagireddy, Jaipal R.; Tam, William

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C15H17NO4, is the exo isomer with a syn arrangement of the O atom in the isoxazole ring to the methyl group of the bicyclic alkene. The dihedral angle between the isoxazole ring and the benzene ring is 7.42 (9)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. The isoxazole O atom is an acceptor for both weak hydrogen bonds. PMID:24860352

  16. The ionothermal synthesis of metal organic frameworks, Ln(C 9O 6H 3)((CH 3NH) 2CO) 2, using deep eutectic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himeur, Farida; Stein, Irene; Wragg, David S.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Lightfoot, Philip; Morris, Russell E.

    2010-04-01

    Three new isostructural materials Ln(TMA)(DMU) 2 (Ln(C 9O 6H 3)((CH 3NH) 2CO) 2; Ln: La 1, Nd 2, Eu 3; TMA: trimesate, DMU: dimethylurea) have been synthesised ionothermally using a choline chloride/dimethylurea deep eutectic mixture as the solvent. Normally in ionothermal synthesis the urea portion of the deep eutectic solvent is unstable, breaking down to release ammonium cations that act as templates. In the case of 1- 3, however, the dimethylurea remains intact and is incorporated into the final structure.

  17. Analysis of genetic variations in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes using oligonucleotide microarray

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Huasheng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunxiu; Liu, Xiuming; Yao, Na; Sheng, Haihui; Li, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes play a critical role in the metabolism of many commonly prescribed drugs. Among them, the most important enzymes are highly polymorphic CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5, which are responsible for about 40% of the metabolism of clinical used drugs. Here we developed a novel CYP450 oligonucleotide microarray that allow for detection of 32 known variations of CYP genes from a single multiplex reaction, including 19 polymorphisms of CYP2D6 gene, 8 polymorphisms of CYP2C9 gene, 4 polymorphisms of CYP2C19 gene and 1 polymorphism of CYP3A5 gene. 229 genomic DNA samples from unrelated Han subjects were analyzed. The microarray results showed to have high call rate and accuracy according to concordance with genotypes identified by independent bidirectional sequencing. Furthermore, we found that the major CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 alleles in Chinese Han population were CYP2C9*3 (allelic frequency of 10.7%), CYP2C9*2 (20.31%), CYP2C19*2 (5.68%), CYP2D6*10 (58.52%), CYP2D6*2 (13.76) and CYP3A5*3 (70.69%). With flexible DNA preparation, the microarray can significantly facilitates the process of detecting genetics variations in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 gene and provide safe and effective therapy for individual patients. PMID:26770516

  18. Chain microstructure and specific features of excitation energy transfer in solution and films of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) doped with 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole comonomer units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevlampieva, N. P.; Khurchak, A. P.; Nosova, G. I.; Smyslov, R. Yu.; Berezin, I. A.; Ilgach, D. M.; Kopylova, T. N.; Gadirov, R. M.; Yakimansky, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Spectral, luminescent and electro-optical properties of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene), containing small quantity (1-2 mol%) of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole comonomer units, obtained by means of either Suzuki or Yamamoto polycondensation reactions were studied and compared. The difference of luminescent properties of the two copolymers with nearly identical chemical compositions was explained by different molecular structure of their macromolecules. The films of Yamamoto type copolymer, containing, obviously, microblock sequences of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole units, exhibit a nearly white electroluminescence (CIE x = 0.276, y = 0.274) with a high brightness (3747 cd/m2 at 10 V), while the films of Suzuki type copolymer with randomly distributed isolated 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole fragments - green electroluminescence.

  19. Luminescence intensity enhancement of Eu2+ and Eu3+ by Tb3+ in LiLa9(SiO4)6O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mubiao; Zhu, Guoxian; Pan, Rongkai; Li, Dongyu; Hou, Dejian

    2016-06-01

    Novel yellow-emitting phosphors LiLa9(SiO4)6O2: 0.05Eu, xTb (x  =  0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10) were prepared by a solid-state reaction in a CO-reducing atmosphere. The excitation and emission spectra, and the fluorescence decays were measured and discussed in detail. The fluorescence spectra results of sample LiLa9(SiO4)6O2: 0.05Eu reveal that still a small amount of Eu3+ ions are detected in the LiLa9(SiO4)6O2 host. The introduction of Tb3+ ions can enhance the emission intensity of LiLa9(SiO4)6O2: 0.05Eu under near-ultraviolet light excitation but they do not vary the emission color much. The results indicate that the yellow-emitting phosphors LiLa9(SiO4)6O2: Eu, Tb can be considered as potential phosphor-converted materials for n-UV white light-emitting diodes.

  20. Activation of phospholipase A2 by 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Code, Christian; Mahalka, Ajay K; Bry, Kristian; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2010-08-01

    Oxidative stress leads to drastic modifications of both the biophysical properties of biomembranes and their associated chemistry imparted upon the formation of oxidatively modified lipids. To this end, oxidized phospholipid derivatives bearing an aldehyde function, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PoxnoPC) can covalently react with proteins that come into direct contact. Intriguingly, we observed PoxnoPC in a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) matrix to shorten and abolish the lag time in the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on this composite substrate, with concomitant augmented decrement in pH, indicating more extensive hydrolysis, which was in keeping with enhanced 90 degrees light scattering. The latter was abolished by the aldehyde scavenger methoxyamine, thus suggesting the involvement of Schiff base. Enhanced hydrolysis of a fluorescent phospholipid analogue was seen for PLA2 preincubated with PoxnoPC. Mixing PLA2 with submicellar (22 microM) PoxnoPC caused a pronounced increase in Thioflavin T fluorescence, in keeping with the formation of amyloid-type fibers, which were seen also by electron microscopy.

  1. Luminescence from the 5D1,2,3 excited states of Eu3+ in Y4Al2O9 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczkan, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The site-selective emission originating from 5D1,2,3 energy levels of Eu3+ in Y4Al2O9 (YAM) monoclinic bulk crystal is investigated. Energy and Stark splitting of excited states of europium in YAM are determined based on the low temperature absorption and emission spectra. Luminescence decays of three different sites of Eu3+ ions are measured as a function of temperature and europium concentration. The cross-relaxation among the Eu3+ ions are observed and discussed. Non-resonant mechanisms responsible for the temperature quenching of 5D1 emission are proposed.

  2. 9 CFR 3.9 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.9 Feeding. (a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day... condition. (b) Food receptacles must be used for dogs and cats, must be readily accessible to all dogs...

  3. 9 CFR 3.9 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.9 Feeding. (a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day... condition. (b) Food receptacles must be used for dogs and cats, must be readily accessible to all dogs...

  4. 9 CFR 3.9 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.9 Feeding. (a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day... condition. (b) Food receptacles must be used for dogs and cats, must be readily accessible to all dogs...

  5. 9 CFR 3.9 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.9 Feeding. (a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day... condition. (b) Food receptacles must be used for dogs and cats, must be readily accessible to all dogs...

  6. 9 CFR 3.9 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.9 Feeding. (a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day... condition. (b) Food receptacles must be used for dogs and cats, must be readily accessible to all dogs...

  7. 6-(3,5-Dimeth-oxy-benzyl-amino)-9-(oxan-2-yl)-9H-purine.

    PubMed

    Starha, Pavel; Popa, Igor; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2013-04-01

    The mol-ecule of the title compound, C19H23N5O3, contains six-membered pyrimidine and five-membered imidazole rings merged into the essentially planar purine skeleton (r.m.s. deviation = 0.01 Å). In the crystal, pairs of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link mol-ecules into inversion dimers. The dimers are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming double-stranded chains propagating along [001]. These chains are linked via C-H⋯π and parallel slipped π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.467 (1) Å; slippage 0.519 Å], forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:23634074

  8. 6-(3,5-Dimeth­oxy­benzyl­amino)-9-(oxan-2-yl)-9H-purine

    PubMed Central

    Štarha, Pavel; Popa, Igor; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C19H23N5O3, contains six-membered pyrimidine and five-membered imidazole rings merged into the essentially planar purine skeleton (r.m.s. deviation = 0.01 Å). In the crystal, pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link mol­ecules into inversion dimers. The dimers are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming double-stranded chains propagating along [001]. These chains are linked via C—H⋯π and parallel slipped π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.467 (1) Å; slippage 0.519 Å], forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:23634074

  9. trans-Dichloridobis{2-chloro-6-[(3-fluoro-benz-yl)amino]-9-isopropyl-9H-purine-κN (7)}platinum(II).

    PubMed

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Starha, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    In the title compound, trans-[PtCl2(C15H15ClFN5)2], the Pt(II) atom, located on an inversion centre, is coordinated by the purine N atoms of the 2-chloro-6-[(3-fluoro-benz-yl)amino]-9-isopropyl-9H-purine ligands and two Cl atoms in a slightly distorted trans-square-planar coordination geometry [N-Pt-Cl angles = 89.91 (5) and 90.09 (5)°]. Weak intra-molecular N-H⋯Cl contacts occur. In the crystal, C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯F contacts, as well as weak π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distances = 3.5000 (11) and 3.6495 (12) Å] connect the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional architecture. PMID:23794993

  10. trans-Dichloridobis{2-chloro-6-[(3-fluoro­benz­yl)amino]-9-isopropyl-9H-purine-κN 7}platinum(II)

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Štarha, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, trans-[PtCl2(C15H15ClFN5)2], the PtII atom, located on an inversion centre, is coordinated by the purine N atoms of the 2-chloro-6-[(3-fluoro­benz­yl)amino]-9-isopropyl-9H-purine ligands and two Cl atoms in a slightly distorted trans-square-planar coordination geometry [N—Pt—Cl angles = 89.91 (5) and 90.09 (5)°]. Weak intra­molecular N—H⋯Cl contacts occur. In the crystal, C—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯F contacts, as well as weak π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.5000 (11) and 3.6495 (12) Å] connect the mol­ecules into a three-dimensional architecture. PMID:23794993

  11. Effects of mace and nutmeg on human cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2C9 activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuka; Ito, Hideyuki; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions between herbal medicines or food constituents and drugs have been studied as crucial factors determining therapeutic efficacy and outcome. Most of these interactions are attributed to inhibition or induction of activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic enzymes. Inhibition or induction of CYP enzymes by beverages, including grapefruit, pomegranate, or cranberry juice, has been well documented. Because spices are a common daily dietary component, other studies have reported inhibition of CYP activity by spices or their constituents/derivatives. However, a systematic evaluation of various spices has not been performed. In this study, we investigated effects of 55 spices on CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activity. Cinnamon, black or white pepper, ginger, mace, and nutmeg significantly inhibited CYP3A4 or CYP2C9 activity. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation of mace (Myristica fragrans) led to isolation and structural characterization of a new furan derivative (1) along with other 16 known compounds, including an acylphenol, neolignans, and phenylpropanoids. Among these isolates, (1S,2R)-1-acetoxy-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)propane (9) exhibited the most potent CYP2C9 inhibitory activity with an IC₅₀ value comparable to that of sulfaphenazole, a CYP2C9 inhibitor. Compound 9 competitively inhibited CYP2C9-mediated 4'-hydroxylation of diclofenac. The inhibitory constant (K(i)) of 9 was determined to be 0.037 µM. Compound 9 was found to be 14-fold more potent than was sulfaphenazole.

  12. Synthesis of 9H-furo [2,3-f]Chromene Derivatives by Promoting ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Hossaini, Zinatossadat; Sheikholeslami-Farahani, Fatemeh; Azizi, Zahra; Siadati, Seyyed Amir

    2015-01-01

    Three- component reactions of 1-(6-hydroxy-2-isopropenyl-1-benzofuran-yl)-1-ethanone, aldehydes and malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate in the presence of nanoparticles of ZnO as catalyst are explained as effective and green synthetic method for generating 9H- furo[2,3-f]chromenes in good yield. PMID:26004051

  13. The replication of Bangladeshi H9N2 avian influenza viruses carrying genes from H7N3 in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik K; Jones, Jeremy C; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; Turner, Jasmine; Rabiul Alam, S M; Kamrul Hasan, M; Akhtar, Sharmin; Seiler, Patrick; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses are continuously monitored by the World Health Organization because they are endemic; they continually reassort with H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses; and they periodically cause human infections. We characterized H9N2 influenza viruses carrying internal genes from highly pathogenic H7N3 viruses, which were isolated from chickens or quail from live-bird markets in Bangladesh between 2010 and 2013. All of the H9N2 viruses used in this study carried mammalian host-specific mutations. We studied their replication kinetics in normal human bronchoepithelial cells and swine tracheal and lung explants, which exhibit many features of the mammalian airway epithelium and serve as a mammalian host model. All H9N2 viruses replicated to moderate-to-high titers in the normal human bronchoepithelial cells and swine lung explants, but replication was limited in the swine tracheal explants. In Balb/c mice, the H9N2 viruses were nonlethal, replicated to moderately high titers and the infection was confined to the lungs. In the ferret model of human influenza infection and transmission, H9N2 viruses possessing the Q226L substitution in hemagglutinin replicated well without clinical signs and spread via direct contact but not by aerosol. None of the H9N2 viruses tested were resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitors. Our study shows that the Bangladeshi H9N2 viruses have the potential to infect humans and highlights the importance of monitoring and characterizing this influenza subtype to better understand the potential risk these viruses pose to humans. PMID:27094903

  14. The replication of Bangladeshi H9N2 avian influenza viruses carrying genes from H7N3 in mammals.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik K; Jones, Jeremy C; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; Turner, Jasmine; Rabiul Alam, S M; Kamrul Hasan, M; Akhtar, Sharmin; Seiler, Patrick; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses are continuously monitored by the World Health Organization because they are endemic; they continually reassort with H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses; and they periodically cause human infections. We characterized H9N2 influenza viruses carrying internal genes from highly pathogenic H7N3 viruses, which were isolated from chickens or quail from live-bird markets in Bangladesh between 2010 and 2013. All of the H9N2 viruses used in this study carried mammalian host-specific mutations. We studied their replication kinetics in normal human bronchoepithelial cells and swine tracheal and lung explants, which exhibit many features of the mammalian airway epithelium and serve as a mammalian host model. All H9N2 viruses replicated to moderate-to-high titers in the normal human bronchoepithelial cells and swine lung explants, but replication was limited in the swine tracheal explants. In Balb/c mice, the H9N2 viruses were nonlethal, replicated to moderately high titers and the infection was confined to the lungs. In the ferret model of human influenza infection and transmission, H9N2 viruses possessing the Q226L substitution in hemagglutinin replicated well without clinical signs and spread via direct contact but not by aerosol. None of the H9N2 viruses tested were resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitors. Our study shows that the Bangladeshi H9N2 viruses have the potential to infect humans and highlights the importance of monitoring and characterizing this influenza subtype to better understand the potential risk these viruses pose to humans. PMID:27094903

  15. Study on luminescent properties of Eu3+ doped Gd2WO6, Gd2W2O9 and Gd2(WO4)3 nanophosphors prepared by co-precipitation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyu; Hua, Ruinian; Chen, Baojiu; Tian, Yue; Lu, Shuchen; Sun, Linan

    2011-01-01

    Eu3+ doped Gd2WO6, Gd2W2O9 and Gd2(WO4)3 nanophosphors with different concentrations have been prepared by co-precipitation. XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) were used to investigate the structure and morphology. The emission spectra, excitation spectra and fluorescence decay curves were measured, and partial J-O parameters and quantum efficiencies of Eu3+ 5D0 energy level were calculated. Furthermore, concentration quenching curves of Eu3+ in different hosts were drawn. The photoluminescent properties of Eu3+ doped Gd2WO6, Gd2W2O9 and Gd2(WO4)3 nanophosphors have been studied. The results indicate that Eu3+ 5D0-7F2 red luminescence can be effectively excited by 395 nm and 465 nm in Gd2WO6 and Gd2W2O9 hosts, similar to the familiar Gd2(WO4)3:Eu. Especially Gd2W2O9:Eu has strong red emission and high quenching concentration, so it has potential applications for trichromatic white LED as red fluorescent materials. PMID:21446424

  16. P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn5/9Al1/9O2 Microparticles as Superior Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Enhanced Properties and Mechanisam via Graphene Connection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Pang, Wei-Lin; Wan, Fang; Guo, Jin-Zhi; Lü, Hong-Yan; Li, Jin-Yue; Xing, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-08-17

    As a promising alternative for lithium ion batteries, room-temperature sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have become one significant research frontier of energy storage devices although there are still many difficulties to be overcome. For the moment, the studies still concentrate on the preparation of new electrode materials for SIBs to meet the applicability. Herein, one new P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn5/9Al1/9O2 (NMA) cathode material is successfully prepared via a simple and facile liquid-state method. The prepared NMA is layered transition metal oxide, which can keep stable crystal structure during sodiation/desodiation as demonstrated by the ex situ X-ray diffraction, and its electrochemical properties can be further enhanced by connecting the cake-like NMA microparticles with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using a ball milling method. Electrochemical tests show that the formed RGO-connected NMA (NMA/RGO) can deliver a higher reversible capacity of up to 138 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and also exhibit a superior high-rate capabilities and cycling stability in comparison to pure NMA. The much improved properties should be attributed to the reduced particle size and improvement of electrical conductivity and apparent Na(+) diffusion due to RGO incorporation, which is comprehensively verified by the electrochemical technologies of galvanostatic intermittent titration technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry at various scan rate as well as ex-situ X-ray diffraction studies.

  17. Karchevskyite, [Mg18Al9(OH)54][Sr2(CO3,PO4)9(H2O,H3O)11], a new mineral species of the layered double hydroxide family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britvin, S. N.; Chukanov, N. V.; Bekenova, G. K.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Antonov, A. V.; Bogdanova, A. N.; Krasnova, N. I.

    2008-12-01

    Karchevskyite, a new mineral related to the family of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), has been found in the Iron open pit at the Kovdor carbonatite massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral occurs as spherulites of up to 1.5 mm in diameter composed of thin, curved lamellae. Dolomite, magnetite, quintinite-3 T, strontium carbonate, and fluorapatite are associated minerals. Karchevskyite is white in aggregates and colorless in separate platelets. Its luster is vitreous with a pearly shine on the cleavage surface. The new mineral is nonfluorescent. The Mohs hardness is 2. The cleavage is eminent (micalike), parallel to {001}. The measured density is 2.21(2) g/cm3, and the calculated value is 2.18(1) g/cm3. Karchevskyite is colorless and nonpleochroic in immersion liquids. It is uniaxial, negative, ω = 1.542(2), and ɛ = 1.534(2). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, average of ten point analyses, standard deviation in parentheses, wt %) is as follows: 29.7(1.1) MgO, 18.3(0.7) Al2O3, 7.4(0.4) SrO, 0.2(0.1) CaO, 1.3(0.2) P2O5, 14.5(0.4) CO2, and 28.6 H2O (estimated by difference); the total is 100. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of nine Al atoms is Mg18.00Al9.00(OH)54.00(Sr1.79Mg0.48Ca0.09)2.36 (Ca3)8.26(PO4)0.46(H2O)6.54(H3O)4.18. The idealized formula is [Mg18Al9(OH)54][Sr2(CO3, PO4)9(H2O, H3O)11]. The new mineral slowly dissolves in 10% HCl with weak effervescence. Karchevskyite is trigonal; possible space groups are P3, P3, P overline 3 1 m, P31 m, P312, P312, P3 m1, or P3 m1; unit-cell dimensions are a = 16.055(6), c = 25.66(1) Å, V = 5728(7) Å3, Z = 3. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d, ( I, %)( hkl)] are: 8.52(10)(003), 6.41(4)(004), 5.13(3)(005), 4.27(6)(006), 3.665(9)(007), 3.547(9)(107), 3.081(6)(315). Wavenumbers of absorption bands in the infrared spectrum of the new mineral are (cm-1; s is shoulder): 3470, 3420s, 3035, 2960s, 1650, 1426, 1366, 1024, 937, 860, 779, 678, 615s, 553, 449, 386

  18. Obesity increases histone H3 lysine 9 and 18 acetylation at Tnfa and Ccl2 genes in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Mikula, Michal; Majewska, Aneta; Ledwon, Joanna Karolina; Dzwonek, Artur; Ostrowski, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Obesity contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by the upregulated expression of two key inflammatory mediators: tumor necrosis factor (Tnfa) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (Mcp1; also known as Ccl2). However, the chromatin make-up at these genes in the liver in obese individuals has not been explored. In this study, to identify obesity-mediated epigenetic changes at Tnfa and Ccl2, we used a murine model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and hyperphagic (ob/ob) mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to determine the abundance of permissive histone marks, namely histone H3 lysine 9 and 18 acetylation (H3K9/K18Ac), H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3), in conjunction with polymerase 2 RNA (Pol2) and nuclear factor (Nf)-κB recruitment in the liver. Additionally, to correlate the liver tissue-derived ChIP measurements with a robust in vitro transcriptional response at the Tnfa and Ccl2 genes, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment to induce an inflammatory response in Hepa1-6 cells, a cell line derived from murine hepatocytes. ChIP revealed increased H3K9/K18Ac at Tnfa and Ccl2 in the obese mice, although the differences were only statistically significant for Tnfa (p<0.05). Unexpectedly, the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks, as well as Pol2 and Nf-κB recruitment, did not correspond with the increased expression of these two genes in the obese mice. By contrast, the acute treatment of Hepa1-6 cells with LPS significantly increased the H3K9/K18Ac marks, as well as Pol2 and Nf-κB recruitment at both genes, while the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks remained unaltered. These results demonstrate that increased Tnfa and Ccl2 expression in fatty liver at the chromatin level corresponds to changes in the level of histone H3 acetylation.

  19. Magnetism and multiferroicity of an isosceles triangular lattice antiferromagnet Sr3NiNb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Ma, J.; Sinclair, R.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Zhou, H. D.

    2016-11-01

    Various experimental measurements were performed to complete the phase diagram of a weakly distorted triangular lattice system, Sr3NiNb2O9 with Ni2+ , spin-1 magnetic ions. This compound possesses an isosceles triangular lattice with two shorter bonds and one longer bond. It shows a two-step magnetic phase transition at {{T}\\text{N1}}∼ 5.1 K and {{T}\\text{N2}}∼ 5.5 K at zero magnetic field, characteristic of an easy-axis anisotropy. In the magnetization curves, a series of magnetic phase transitions was observed such as an up-up-down phase at {μ0}{{H}c1}∼ 10.5 T with 1/3 of the saturation magnetization (M sat) and an oblique phase at {μ0}{{H}c2}∼ 16 T with \\sqrt{3} /3 M sat. Intriguingly, the magnetic phase transition below T N2 is in tandem with the ferroelectricity, which demonstrates multiferroic behaviors. Moreover, the multiferroic phase persists in all magnetically ordered phases regardless of the spin structure. The comparison between the phase diagrams of Sr3NiNb2O9 and its sister compound with an equilateral triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ba3NiNb2O9 (Hwang et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 257205), illustrates how a small imbalance among exchange interactions change the magnetic ground states of the TLAFs.

  20. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of dogs or cats with... the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a... chapter. (e) Shelter. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  1. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of dogs or cats with... the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a... chapter. (e) Shelter. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  2. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of dogs or cats with... the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a... chapter. (e) Shelter. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  3. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of dogs or cats with... the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a... chapter. (e) Shelter. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  4. Structure and magnetism of Sr{sub 3}NiSb{sub 2}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, Peter D. Chin, Chun-Mann; Evers, Sophie I.; Westwood, Mark

    2015-07-15

    The crystal structure of the perovskite-related oxide Sr{sub 3}NiSb{sub 2}O{sub 9} has been refined from X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data; space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=5.64381(2), b=5.62299(2), c=7.95687(3) Å, β=90.014(2)°. The structure has two crystallographically-distinct six-coordinate cation sites with occupancies Sb 0.97(1), Ni 0.03 and Sb 0.36, Ni 0.64. The magnetic susceptibility has been measured over the temperature range 2≤T/K≤300. Fitting data recorded in the temperature range 1503.49(1) µ{sub B} per Ni{sup 2+}, θ=−138(1) K. Ferrimagnetic coupling in the vicinity of the antisite defects is suggested to be responsible for the enhanced susceptibility observed below ~90 K. The zero-field cooled susceptibility shows a maximum at 8.7 K that is not observed in the field-cooled susceptibility. Hysteresis is observed in M(H) at 2 K but not at 7.5 K. - Graphical abstract: Antisite defects on the B sites of perovskite-related Sr{sub 3}NiSb{sub 2}O{sub 9} lead to complex magnetic behaviour. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 3}NiSb{sub 2}O{sub 9} is a monoclinic perovskite. • The magnetic behaviour of Sr{sub 3}NiSb{sub 2}O{sub 9} at around 90 K can be attributed to antisite defects. • The magnetic behaviour of Sr{sub 3}NiSb{sub 2}O{sub 9} can be related to that of the relaxor ferromagnet La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 9}.

  5. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2-[(2,4-diaryl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ylidene)hydrazono]-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones as a new class of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, R; Rani, M; Kabilan, S

    2009-05-15

    New series of 2,4-diaryl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one thiosemicarbazones (9-16) obtained from the corresponding 2,4-diaryl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones (1-8) upon cyclization with ethylbromoacetate in the presence of sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer afforded novel 2-[(2,4-diaryl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ylidene)hydrazono]-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones (17-24). The synthesized compounds have been characterized by their elemental, analytical and spectral studies. Besides, the reported compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against a spectrum of microbial organisms. These studies proved that compounds 11/18/20/23 against Staphylococcus aureus, 19/20/24 against Salmonella typhi show maximum inhibition potency at low concentration (6.25microg/ml) whereas 18/19 against Candida albicans and 19/20/21 against Rhizopus sp. showed beneficial antifungal activity at minimum concentration. PMID:19361987

  6. Composition dependence of photoluminescence properties of poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) with perovskite-structured SrTiO3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, U. K. N.; Salleh, M. M.; Aziz, T. H. T.; Umar, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Nanocomposite thin films of poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PHF) with 10-50 wt% perovskite-structured SrTiO3 nanoparticles (designated as PHF:SrTiO3) were prepared by spin coating. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of the nanocomposites thin films were studied. The incorporation of SrTiO3 nanoparticles into the nanocomposite thin films enhanced the original PL intensities of the host PHF thin films. The intensities of the PL peak for the nanocomposite thin films were dependent on the amount of SrTiO3 nanoparticles in the films and the homogeneity of the nanoparticle distribution. The distribution of the SrTiO3 nanoparticles contributed to the overlapping molecular orbital sites in PHF:SrTiO3, which promoted the excited electrons from the conduction band of SrTiO3 transferred to the excited energy level of the PHF host material. In this case, the perovskite-structured SrTiO3 nanoparticles act as sensitizers.

  7. (9E)-9-benzylidene-2-methylsulfanyl-5-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrimido[4,5-b]quinolin-4(3H)-one: a hydrogen-bonded R2(2)(8) dimer.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Diana; Insuasty, Braulio; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    In the molecule of the title compound, C25H21N3OS, which was prepared by mild oxidation of the corresponding 5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro analogue, the fused carbocyclic ring adopts an envelope conformation. Pairs of molecules are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers by pairs of inversion-related N-H···O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Biosynthesis of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine: hydrogen exchange at C-2' and oxygen exchange at C-3' of adenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Suhadolnik, R.J.; Pornbanlualap, S.; Wu, J.M.; Baker, D.C.; Hebbler, A.K.

    1989-04-01

    The data presented here describe new findings related to the bioconversion of adenosine to 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) by Streptomyces antibioticus by in vivo investigations and with a partially purified enzyme. First, in double label in vivo experiments with (2'-18O)- and (U-14C)adenosine, the 18O:14C ratio of the ara-A isolated does not change appreciably, indicating a stereospecific inversion of the C-2' hydroxyl of adenosine to ara-A with retention of the 18O at C-2'. In experiments with (3'-18O)- and (U-14C)-adenosine, (U-14C)ara-A was isolated; however, the 18O at C-3' is below detection. The adenosine isolated from the RNA from both double label experiments has essentially the same ratio of 18O:14C. Second, an enzyme has been isolated and partially purified from extracts of S. antibioticus that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine, but not AMP, ADP, ATP, inosine, guanosine, or D-ribose, to ara-A. In a single label enzyme-catalyzed experiment with (U-14C)adenosine, there was a 9.9% conversion to (U-14C)ara-A; with (2'-3H)-adenosine, there was a 8.9% release of the C-2' tritium from (2'-3H)adenosine which was recovered as 3H2O. Third, the release of 3H as 3H2O from (2'-3H)adenosine was confirmed by incubations of the enzyme with 3H2O and adenosine. Ninety percent of the tritium incorporated into the D-arabinose of the isolated ara-A was in C-2 and 8% was in C-3. The enzyme-catalyzed conversion of adenosine to ara-A occurs without added cofactors, displays saturation kinetics, a pH optimum of 6.8, a Km of 8 X 10(-4) M, and an inhibition by heavy metal cations. The enzyme also catalyzes the stereospecific inversion of the C-2' hydroxyl of the nucleoside antibiotic, tubercidin to form 7-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-4-aminopyrrolo(2,3-d)pyrimidine. The nucleoside antibiotic, sangivamycin, in which the C-5 hydrogen is replaced with a carboxamide group, is not a substrate.

  9. Magnetism and multiferroicity of an isosceles triangular lattice antiferromagnet Sr3NiNb2O9.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Choi, E S; Ma, J; Sinclair, R; Dela Cruz, C R; Zhou, H D

    2016-11-30

    Various experimental measurements were performed to complete the phase diagram of a weakly distorted triangular lattice system, Sr3NiNb2O9 with Ni(2+) , spin-1 magnetic ions. This compound possesses an isosceles triangular lattice with two shorter bonds and one longer bond. It shows a two-step magnetic phase transition at [Formula: see text] K and [Formula: see text] K at zero magnetic field, characteristic of an easy-axis anisotropy. In the magnetization curves, a series of magnetic phase transitions was observed such as an up-up-down phase at [Formula: see text] T with 1/3 of the saturation magnetization (M sat) and an oblique phase at [Formula: see text] T with [Formula: see text]/3 M sat. Intriguingly, the magnetic phase transition below T N2 is in tandem with the ferroelectricity, which demonstrates multiferroic behaviors. Moreover, the multiferroic phase persists in all magnetically ordered phases regardless of the spin structure. The comparison between the phase diagrams of Sr3NiNb2O9 and its sister compound with an equilateral triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ba3NiNb2O9 (Hwang et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 257205), illustrates how a small imbalance among exchange interactions change the magnetic ground states of the TLAFs. PMID:27661860

  10. Magnetism and multiferroicity of an isosceles triangular lattice antiferromagnet Sr3NiNb2O9.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Choi, E S; Ma, J; Sinclair, R; Dela Cruz, C R; Zhou, H D

    2016-11-30

    Various experimental measurements were performed to complete the phase diagram of a weakly distorted triangular lattice system, Sr3NiNb2O9 with Ni(2+) , spin-1 magnetic ions. This compound possesses an isosceles triangular lattice with two shorter bonds and one longer bond. It shows a two-step magnetic phase transition at [Formula: see text] K and [Formula: see text] K at zero magnetic field, characteristic of an easy-axis anisotropy. In the magnetization curves, a series of magnetic phase transitions was observed such as an up-up-down phase at [Formula: see text] T with 1/3 of the saturation magnetization (M sat) and an oblique phase at [Formula: see text] T with [Formula: see text]/3 M sat. Intriguingly, the magnetic phase transition below T N2 is in tandem with the ferroelectricity, which demonstrates multiferroic behaviors. Moreover, the multiferroic phase persists in all magnetically ordered phases regardless of the spin structure. The comparison between the phase diagrams of Sr3NiNb2O9 and its sister compound with an equilateral triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ba3NiNb2O9 (Hwang et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 257205), illustrates how a small imbalance among exchange interactions change the magnetic ground states of the TLAFs.

  11. Epb41l3 suppresses esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion and inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 expression.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rong; Huang, Jun-Peng; Li, Xu Feng; Xiong, Wei-Bin; Wu, Gang; Jiang, Zhao-Jing; Song, Shu-Jie; Li, Ji-Qiang; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Ji-Ren

    2016-04-01

    EPB41L3 may play a role as a metastasis suppressor by supporting regular arrangements of actin stress fibres and alleviating the increase in cell motility associated with enhanced metastatic potential. Downregulation of epb41l3 has been observed in many cancers, but the role of this gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Our study aimed to determine the effect of epb41l3 on ESCC cell migration and invasion. We investigated epb41l3 protein expression in tumour and non-tumour tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Expression in the non-neoplastic human esophageal cell line Het-1a and four ESCC cell lines - Kyse150, Kyse510, Kyse450 and Caes17 - was assessed by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting. Furthermore, an EPB41L3 overexpression plasmid and EPB41L3-specific small interfering RNA were used to upregulate EPB41L3 expression in Kyse150 cells and to downregulate EPB41L3 expression in Kyse450 cells, respectively. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated by wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. The expression levels of p-AKT, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9 were evaluated. Expression of epb41l3 was significantly lower in tumour tissues than in non-tumour tissues and in ESCC cell lines compared with the Het-1a cell line. Kyse450 and Caes17 cells exhibited higher expression of epb41l3 than Kyse150 and Kyse510 cells. Overexpressing epb41l3 decreased Kyse150 cell migration and invasion, whereas EPB41L3-specific small interfering RNA silencing increased these functions in Kyse450 cells. Furthermore, overexpressing epb41l3 led to downregulation of MMP2 and MMP9 in Kyse150 and Kyse510 cells. Our findings reveal that EPB41L3 suppresses tumour cell invasion and inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 expression in ESCC cells.

  12. Induction of nitric oxide production by the cytostatic macrolide apicularen A [2,4-heptadienamide, N-[(1E)-3-[(3S,5R,7R,9S)-3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-octahydro-7,14 dihydroxy-1-oxo-5,9-epoxy-1H-2-benzoxacyclododecin-3-yl]-1 propenyl]-, (2Z,4Z)-(9CI)] and possible role of nitric oxide in apicularen A-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, JangJa; Yokomakura, Aya; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Ban, Hyun Seung; Ishihara, Kenji; Ahn, Jong-Woong; Zee, OkPyo; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    We previously reported that apicularen A [2,4-heptadienamide, N-[(1E)-3-[(3S,5R,7R,9S)-3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-octahydro-7,14 dihydroxy-1-oxo-5,9-epoxy-1H-2-benzoxacyclododecin-3-yl]-1 propenyl]-, (2Z,4Z)-(9CI)], a highly cytostatic macrolide isolated from the myxobacterial genus Chondromyces, induces apoptosis in the mouse leukemic monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To analyze the action mechanism of apicularen A for the induction of apoptosis, effects of apicularen A on nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells were examined. It was demonstrated that apicularen A at 10 and 100 nM induced nitrite production, whereas apicularen B [2,4-heptadienamide, N-[(1E)-3-[(3S,5R,7R,9S)-7-[[2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-octahydro-14-hydroxy-1-oxo-5,9-epoxy-1H-2-benzoxacyclododecin-3-yl]-1 propenyl]-, (2Z,4Z)-(9CI)], an N-acetyl-glucosamine glycoside of apicularen A, had no effect at 100 nM. The apicularen A-induced nitrite production was accompanied by an increase in the level of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and its mRNA and was suppressed by the NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine acetate (l-NMMA). In addition, apicularen A activated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) and decreased the level of IkappaB-alpha and increased that of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Furthermore, the apicularen A-induced nitrite production was suppressed by the NF-kappaB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 [(E)-3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile] and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 [anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one]. These findings suggested that apicularen A activates NF-kappaB and AP-1, thus triggering the expression of iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein and induces NO production. Finally, apicularen A decreased cell growth and survival and cell viability and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. The addition of l-NMMA partially recovered the apicularen A-induced decrease in cell growth and survival and cell

  13. NaAg2Mo3O9AsO4

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Hamadi; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, sodium disilver arsenatotrimolybdate, Na0.93 (1)Ag2.07 (1)Mo3AsO13, was prepared by a solid-state reaction. In the crystal structure, isolated AsO4 tetra­hedra share corners with groups of three edge-sharing MoO6 octa­hedra. This arrangement leads to the formation of anionic 1 ∞[Mo3AsO13]n ribbons extending parallel to [100]. The three metal sites show occupational disorder by AgI and NaI cations, each with a different Ag:Na ratio. The metal cations are situated in the space between the ribbons and are surrounded by terminal O atoms of the ribbons in the form of distorted MO7 polyhedra (M = Ag, Na) for distances < 3.0 Å. The title compound shows weak ionic conductivity. Structural relationships between different compounds in the quaternary systems M–Sb–P–O, M–Nb–P–O and M–Mo–As–O (M is Ag or an alkali metal) are also discussed. PMID:21587345

  14. Dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines: Selective Toll-Like Receptor 9 Antagonists from Scaffold Morphing Efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in the innate immune system. In fact, recognition of endogenous immune complexes containing self-nucleic acids as pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns contributes to certain autoimmune diseases, and inhibition of these recognition signals is expected to have therapeutic value. We identified dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as novel selective TLR9 antagonists with high aqueous solubility. A structure–activity relationship study of a known TLR9 antagonist led to the promising compound 18, which showed potent TLR9 antagonistic activity, sufficient aqueous solubility for parenteral formulation, and druggable properties. Compound 18 suppressed the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in CpG-induced mouse model. It is therefore believed that compound 18 has great potential in the treatment of TLR9-mediated systemic uncontrollable inflammatory response like sepsis. PMID:25408837

  15. Methionine Adenosyltransferase II-dependent Histone H3K9 Methylation at the COX-2 Gene Locus*

    PubMed Central

    Kera, Yohei; Katoh, Yasutake; Ohta, Mineto; Matsumoto, Mitsuyo; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), which is utilized as a methyl donor in transmethylation reactions involving histones. MATIIα, a MAT isozyme, serves as a transcriptional corepressor in the oxidative stress response and forms the AdoMet-integrating transcription regulation module, affecting histone methyltransferase activities. However, the identities of genes regulated by MATIIα or its associated methyltransferases are unclear. We show that MATIIα represses the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), encoded by Ptgs2, by specifically interacting with histone H3K9 methyltransferase SETDB1, thereby promoting the trimethylation of H3K9 at the COX-2 locus. We discuss both gene-specific and epigenome-wide functions of MATIIα. PMID:23539621

  16. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of nonhuman primates... CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate at a point not... subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) holding a nonhuman primate in...

  17. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of nonhuman primates... CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate at a point not... subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) holding a nonhuman primate in...

  18. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of nonhuman primates... CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate at a point not... subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) holding a nonhuman primate in...

  19. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of nonhuman primates... CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate at a point not... subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) holding a nonhuman primate in...

  20. 1-, 3- and 8-substituted-9-deazaxanthines as potent and selective antagonists at the human A2B adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Stefanachi, Angela; Brea, Jose Manuel; Cadavid, Maria Isabel; Centeno, Nuria B; Esteve, Cristina; Loza, Maria Isabel; Martinez, Ana; Nieto, Rosa; Raviña, Enrique; Sanz, Ferran; Segarra, Victor; Sotelo, Eddy; Vidal, Bernat; Carotti, Angelo

    2008-03-15

    A large series of piperazin-, piperidin- and tetrahydroisoquinolinamides of 4-(1,3-dialkyl-9-deazaxanthin-8-yl)phenoxyacetic acid were prepared through conventional or multiple parallel syntheses and evaluated for their binding affinity at the recombinant human adenosine receptors, chiefly at the hA(2B) and hA(2A) receptor subtypes. Several ligands endowed with high binding affinity at hA(2B) receptors, excellent selectivity over hA(2A) and hA(3) and a significant, but lower, selectivity over hA(1) were identified. Among them, piperazinamide derivatives 23 and 52, and piperidinamide derivative 69 proved highly potent at hA(2B) (K(i)=11, 2 and 5.5 nM, respectively) and selective towards hA(2A) (hA(2A)/hA(2B) SI=912, 159 and 630, respectively), hA(3) (hA(3)/hA(2B) SI=>100, 3090 and >180, respectively) and hA(1) (hA(1)/hA(2B) SI=>100, 44 and 120, respectively), SI being the selectivity index. A number of selected ligands tested in functional assays in vitro showed very interesting antagonist activities and efficacies at both A(2A) and A(2B) receptor subtypes, with pA(2) values close to the corresponding pK(i)s. Structure-affinity and structure-selectivity relationships suggested that the binding potency at the hA(2B) receptor may be increased by lipophilic substituents at the N4-position of piperazinamides and that an ortho-methoxy substituent at the 8-phenyl ring and alkyl groups at N1 larger than the ones at N3, in the 9-deazaxanthine ring, may strongly enhance the hA(2A)/hA(2B) SI. PMID:18226909

  1. Spin frustration and magnetic ordering in triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jia; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Peng-Shuai; Pang, Fei; Munsie, Tim J.; Luke, Graeme M.; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yu, Wei-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    We synthesized a quasi-two-dimensional distorted triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9, in which the effective spin of Co2+ is 1/2 at low temperatures, whose magnetic properties were studied by dc susceptibility and magnetization techniques. The x-ray diffraction confirms the quality of our powder samples. The large Weiss constant θCW˜ -55 K and the low Neel temperature TN˜ 1.45 K give a frustration factor f = | θCW/TN | ≈ 38, suggesting that Ca3CoNb2O9 resides in strong frustration regime. Slightly below TN, deviation between the susceptibility data under zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) is observed. A new magnetic state with 1/3 of the saturate magnetization Ms is suggested in the magnetization curve at 0.46 K. Our study indicates that Ca3CoNb2O9 is an interesting material to investigate magnetism in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with weak anisotropy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374364 and 11222433), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00112). Research at McMaster University supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. Work at North China Electric Power University supported by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

  2. Pharmacokinetic assessment of a five-probe cocktail for CYPs 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A

    PubMed Central

    Turpault, Sandrine; Brian, William; Van Horn, Robert; Santoni, Alix; Poitiers, Franck; Donazzolo, Yves; Boulenc, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of selective substrates of CYP1A2 (caffeine), CYP2C9 (S-warfarin), CYP2C19 (omeprazole), CYP2D6 (metoprolol) and CYP3A (midazolam) when administered orally and concurrently as a cocktail relative to the drugs administered alone. METHODS This was an open-label, single-dose, randomized, six-treatment six-period six-sequence William's design study with a wash-out of 7 or 14 days. Thirty healthy male subjects received 100 mg caffeine, 100 mg metoprolol, 0.03 mg kg−1 midazolam, 20 mg omeprazole and 10 mg warfarin individually and in combination (cocktail). Poor metabolizers of CYP2C9, 2C19 and 2D6 were excluded. Plasma samples were obtained up to 48 h for caffeine, metoprolol and omeprazole, 12 h for midazolam, 312 h for warfarin and the cocktail. Three different validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods were used. Noncompartmental PK parameters were calculated. Log-transformed Cmax, AUClast and AUC for each analyte were analysed with a linear mixed effects model with fixed term for treatment, sequence and period, and random term for subject within sequence. Point estimates (90% CI) for treatment ratios (individual/cocktail) were computed for each analyte Cmax, AUClast and AUC. RESULTS There was no PK interaction between the probe drugs when administered in combination as a cocktail, relative to the probes administered alone, as the 90% CI of the PK parameters was within the prespecified bioequivalence limits of 0.80, 1.25. CONCLUSION The lack of interaction between probes indicates that this cocktail could be used to evaluate the potential for multiple drug–drug interactions in vivo. PMID:20002088

  3. Muon spin rotation study of spin dimers on a triangular lattice in Ba3 MRu2 O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziat, Djamel; Verrier, Aimé; Quilliam, Jeffrey; Aczel, Adam; Sinclair, Ryan; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Haidong

    The family of hexagonal perovskites, Ba3 MA2 O9 has recently been proven to be fertile ground for the discovery of new, exotic magnetic phases, including several quantum spin liquid candidates. The 6H-perovskites can also accommodate spin dimers on a triangular lattice, as in the ruthenate materials Ba3MRu2O9. We will present measurements on materials containing M3 + (M = Y, La, Lu, In), which give rise to mixed valence Ru4.5 + ions wherein the orbital and charge degrees of freedom must also be considered. In particular, muon spin rotation (µSR) experiments, have allowed us to probe the nature of the magnetically ordered ground state of these materials at low temperatures.

  4. Role of Yb3+ ions on enhanced ~2.9 μm emission from Ho3+ ions in low phonon oxide glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Sathravada; Gupta, Gaurav; Biswas, Kaushik; Ghosh, Debarati; Annapurna, Kalyandurg

    2016-07-01

    The foremost limitation of an oxide based crystal or glass host to demonstrate mid- infrared emissions is its high phonon energy. It is very difficult to obtain radiative mid-infrared emissions from these hosts which normally relax non-radiatively between closely spaced energy levels of dopant rare earth ions. In this study, an intense mid-infrared emission around 2.9 μm has been perceived from Ho3+ ions in Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped oxide based tellurite glass system. This emission intensity has increased many folds upon Yb3+: 985 nm excitation compared to direct Ho3+ excitations due to efficient excited state resonant energy transfer through Yb3+: 2F5/2 → Ho3+: 5I5 levels. The effective bandwidth (FWHM) and cross-section (σem) of measured emission at 2.9 μm are assessed to be 180 nm and 9.1 × 10‑21 cm2 respectively which are comparable to other crystal/glass hosts and even better than ZBLAN fluoride glass host. Hence, this Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxide glass system has immense potential for the development of solid state mid-infrared laser sources operating at 2.9 μm region.

  5. Role of Yb3+ ions on enhanced ~2.9 μm emission from Ho3+ ions in low phonon oxide glass system

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Sathravada; Gupta, Gaurav; Biswas, Kaushik; Ghosh, Debarati; Annapurna, Kalyandurg

    2016-01-01

    The foremost limitation of an oxide based crystal or glass host to demonstrate mid- infrared emissions is its high phonon energy. It is very difficult to obtain radiative mid-infrared emissions from these hosts which normally relax non-radiatively between closely spaced energy levels of dopant rare earth ions. In this study, an intense mid-infrared emission around 2.9 μm has been perceived from Ho3+ ions in Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped oxide based tellurite glass system. This emission intensity has increased many folds upon Yb3+: 985 nm excitation compared to direct Ho3+ excitations due to efficient excited state resonant energy transfer through Yb3+: 2F5/2 → Ho3+: 5I5 levels. The effective bandwidth (FWHM) and cross-section (σem) of measured emission at 2.9 μm are assessed to be 180 nm and 9.1 × 10−21 cm2 respectively which are comparable to other crystal/glass hosts and even better than ZBLAN fluoride glass host. Hence, this Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxide glass system has immense potential for the development of solid state mid-infrared laser sources operating at 2.9 μm region. PMID:27374129

  6. Advanced GF(32) nonbinary LDPC coded modulation with non-uniform 9-QAM outperforming star 8-QAM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-06-27

    In this paper, we first describe a 9-symbol non-uniform signaling scheme based on Huffman code, in which different symbols are transmitted with different probabilities. By using the Huffman procedure, prefix code is designed to approach the optimal performance. Then, we introduce an algorithm to determine the optimal signal constellation sets for our proposed non-uniform scheme with the criterion of maximizing constellation figure of merit (CFM). The proposed nonuniform polarization multiplexed signaling 9-QAM scheme has the same spectral efficiency as the conventional 8-QAM. Additionally, we propose a specially designed GF(32) nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC code for the coded modulation system based on the 9-QAM non-uniform scheme. Further, we study the efficiency of our proposed non-uniform 9-QAM, combined with nonbinary LDPC coding, and demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulation that the proposed GF(23) nonbinary LDPC coded 9-QAM scheme outperforms nonbinary LDPC coded uniform 8-QAM by at least 0.8dB.

  7. Advanced GF(32) nonbinary LDPC coded modulation with non-uniform 9-QAM outperforming star 8-QAM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-06-27

    In this paper, we first describe a 9-symbol non-uniform signaling scheme based on Huffman code, in which different symbols are transmitted with different probabilities. By using the Huffman procedure, prefix code is designed to approach the optimal performance. Then, we introduce an algorithm to determine the optimal signal constellation sets for our proposed non-uniform scheme with the criterion of maximizing constellation figure of merit (CFM). The proposed nonuniform polarization multiplexed signaling 9-QAM scheme has the same spectral efficiency as the conventional 8-QAM. Additionally, we propose a specially designed GF(32) nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC code for the coded modulation system based on the 9-QAM non-uniform scheme. Further, we study the efficiency of our proposed non-uniform 9-QAM, combined with nonbinary LDPC coding, and demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulation that the proposed GF(23) nonbinary LDPC coded 9-QAM scheme outperforms nonbinary LDPC coded uniform 8-QAM by at least 0.8dB. PMID:27410549

  8. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction network.

  9. Yttrium(III)-containing tungstoantimonate(III) stabilized by tetrahedral WO4(2-) capping unit, [{Y(α-SbW9O31(OH)2)(CH3COO)(H2O)}3(WO4)]17-.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Masooma; Mal, Sib Sankar; Bassil, Bassem S; Banerjee, Abhishek; Kortz, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The yttrium(III)-containing tungstoantimonate(III) [{Y(α-SbW(9)O(31)(OH)(2))(CH(3)COO)(H(2)O)}(3)(WO(4))](17-) (1) has been synthesized in a simple one-pot reaction of Y(3+) ions with [α-SbW(9)O(33)](9-) and WO(4)(2-) in a 3:3:1 molar ratio in 1 M LiOAc/AcOH buffer at pH 5.3. Polyanion 1 is composed of three (α-SbW(9)O(33)) units linked by three Y(3+) ions and a capping, tetrahedral WO(4)(2-) capping unit, resulting in an assembly with C(3v) symmetry. The hydrated ammonium-sodium salt of 1 was investigated in the solid state by single-crystal XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and elemental analyses, and in solution by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.

  10. A novel tunable white light emitting multiphase phosphor obtained from Ba2TiP2O9 by introducing Eu3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenzhen; Liu, Guanghui; Wan, Jieqiong; Ni, Jia; Lu, Zhouguang; Ma, Ruguang; Zhou, Yao; Wang, Jiacheng; Liu, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Tunable white light was realized in samples Ba2(1- x)TiP2O9:2 xEu ( x = 0-0.80) by introducing orange-red light emitting Eu3+ in self-activated blue-green light emitting matrix Ba2TiP2O9. The sample Ba2(1- x)TiP2O9:2 xEu is a multiphase system consisting of Ba2TiP2O9, EuPO4 and TiO2 when x is greater than or equal to 0.20. The tunable light from blue-green to bluish-white, to white, and eventually to pinky-white of samples Ba2(1- x)TiP2O9:2 xEu under UV light excitation is attributed to the light mixture of tunable blue-green light from Ti4+-O2- charge transfer transition in Ba2TiP2O9 and orange-red light from Eu3+ 4f-4f transition mostly in EuPO4. The Commission International de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates, correlated color temperature and color rendering index were tuned from (0.262, 0.339), 9492 K and 74 for matrix sample Ba2TiP2O9 to (0.324, 0.346), 5876 K and 87 for sample Ba2(1- x)TiP2O9:2 xEu ( x = 0.40) under UV light excitation. Therefore, a kind of promising UV-excited white light emitting multiphase phosphor was obtained.

  11. Corner sharing tetrahedral network in Co(3)(HAT)[N(CN)(2)](6)(OH(2))(2) (HAT = 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Shireen R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Dawe, Louise N; Shum, William W; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Miller, Joel S

    2002-07-15

    We report a trinuclear Co(II) complex containing bridging dicyanamides and a tris-chelated HAT, which possesses approximately 37% void space. The magnetic exchange pathways appear in the structure as a corner sharing tetrahedral network. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c [a = 13.655(3) A, b = 15.189(3) A, c = 22.367(4) A, beta = 114.100(2) degrees, V = 4234.5(14) A(3), Z = 4, R(F(o)) = 0.0823]. The magnetic data were fit to an S = 3/2 model for systems dominated by zero-field splitting effects with g = 2.01 and D = 38.9 cm(-1). PMID:12099860

  12. Global validation of SCIAMACHY limb ozone data (versions 2.9 and 3.0, IUP Bremen) using ozonesonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, J.; Rozanov, A.; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the latest SCIAMACHY limb ozone scientific vertical profiles, namely the current V2.9 and the upcoming V3.0, are extensively compared with ozonesonde data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) database. The comparisons are made on a global scale from 2003 to 2011, involving 61 sonde stations. The retrieval processors used to generate V2.9 and V3.0 data sets are briefly introduced. The comparisons are discussed in terms of vertical profiles and stratospheric partial columns. Our results indicate that the V2.9 ozone profile data between 20 and 30 km are in good agreement with ground-based measurements, with less than 5 % relative differences in the latitude range of 90° S-40° N (with the exception of the tropical Pacific region, where an overestimation of more than 10 % is observed), which corresponds to less than 5 DU partial-column differences. In the tropics the differences are within 3 %. However, this data set shows a significant underestimation northwards of 40° N (up to ~ 15 %). The newly developed V3.0 data set reduces this bias to below 10 % while maintaining a good agreement southwards of 40° N with slightly increased relative differences of up to 5 % in the tropics.

  13. Crystal structure, vibrational spectra and optical properties of praseodymium cyclotriphosphate PrP{sub 3}O{sub 9}.3H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Jouini, Anis . E-mail: jouini@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Ferid, Mokhtar; Gacon, Jean-Claude; Grosvalet, Laurent; Thozet, Alain; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2006-07-13

    Single crystals of the trihydrated praseodymium cyclotriphosphate PrP{sub 3}O{sub 9}.3H{sub 2}O were grown for the first time, using a classical method of aqueous chemistry and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. PrP{sub 3}O{sub 9}.3H{sub 2}O is isostructural with LnP{sub 3}O{sub 9}.3H{sub 2}O (Ln=La, Ce and Nd). It crystallizes in the hexagonal system with space group P{sub 6-}bar (C{sub 3h}{sup 1}), with lattice parameters: a=6.7677(4)A, b=6.7677(4)A, c=6.0501(4)A, V=239.98(3)A{sup 3}, Z=1 and D{sub x}=2.988gcm{sup -3}. The crystal structure is resolved for the first time, with final R(F{sup 2})=0.0175 and R{sub w}(F{sup 2})=0.0417 for 396 independent reflections (F{sub 0}{sup 2}>=2{sigma}(F{sub 0}{sup 2})). The P{sub 3}O{sub 9}{sup 3-} cyclic anions have a plane configuration with C{sub 3h} symmetry. The nearest neighbours of the rare earth ion are six oxygen atoms belonging to the P{sub 3}O{sub 9}{sup 3-} anions. Pr{sup 3+} ions occupy sites with C{sub 3h} symmetry. The energies of the crystal vibrational modes are obtained from infrared (IR) and Raman spectra. Optical absorption measurements and emission spectra under selective excitation in the Pr{sup 3+} (4f{sup 2}) {sup 3}P{sub J} (J=0, 1, 2) levels, at room and liquid-helium temperatures, are reported. The observed fluorescence originates mainly from {sup 3}P{sub 0} with a decay time on the order of 10ns, regardless of temperature.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of perovskite Ca{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}WO{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Sergey A. . E-mail: ivan@cc.nifhi.ac.ru; Eriksson, Sten Gunnar . E-mail: stene@inoc.chalmers.se; Tellgren, Roland . E-mail: rte@mkem.uu.se; Rundloef, Haekan

    2005-12-15

    A complex perovskite with composition Ca{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}WO{sub 9} has been synthesised, and the temperature evolution of nuclear and magnetic structures investigated by neutron powder diffraction. It was shown that at room temperature this compound adopts a monoclinic perovskite structure belonging to space group P12{sub 1}/n1 (a=5.4180(5)A, b=5.5093(5)A, c=7.7031(7)A), {beta}=90.04(2){sup o}). The partial B-site ordering, of the Fe{sup +3} and W{sup +6} cations, at (2c) and (2d) sites was determined. At low temperatures the magnetic diffraction peaks were registered and a possible model for the magnetic structure was proposed in accordance with the ferrimagnetic properties of the title compound. The magnetic structure is defined by a propagation vector k=(1/2,1/2,0) and can be described as an array of ferromagnetic (20-1) layers, which couple antiferromagnetically to each other. All the Fe moments within a layer are aligned parallel (or anti-parallel) to the c-axis. The structural and magnetic features of this compound are discussed and compared with those of some other quaternary oxides A{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}WO{sub 9} (A=Ba, Sr, Pb)

  15. Local Probe Study of S=1 Spin Liquid Candidate Ba3NiSb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilliam, Jeffrey; Bert, Fabrice; Mendels, Philippe; Orain, Jean-Christophe; Manseau, Anthoni; Darie, Céline; Payen, Christophe; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    The family of hexagonal perovskites, Ba3 M Sb2O9, has attracted a considerable amount of attention in recent years, with the discovery of several spin liquid candidates. For M = Cu, the material is fairly disordered and likely exhibits a honeycomb-like lattice whereas in other cases the structure consists of triangular planes of spins. Three different structural phases of Ba3NiSb2O9 have been discovered, depending on synthesis pressure. Two of these phases (6HA and 6HB) consist of triangular planes of S = 1 moments, and differ primarily by the stacking of these planes. Here, we present muon spin rotation (μSR) and 121Sb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results on a high-pressure synthesis of this material, 6HB-Ba3NiSb2O9. Most importantly, we demonstrate that there are no signs of magnetic ordering or spin freezing down to temperatures as low as 20 mK, making this material a plausible spin liquid candidate. Furthermore our NMR results are indicative of gapless excitations, consistent with previous specific heat and magnetic susceptibility results.

  16. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibition of vasculogenic mimicry in pancreatic cancer through downregulation of VE‑cadherin/EphA2/MMP9/MMP2 expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Qiang; Zheng, Qing-Hui; Chen, Hui; Chen, Liang; Xu, Jin-Bo; Chen, Min-Yuan; Lu, Dian; Wang, Zhao-Hong; Tong, Hong-Fei; Lin, Shengzhang

    2014-09-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), a trace tetracyclic triterpenoid saponin, is extracted from ginseng and shown to have anticancer activity against several types of cancers. This study explored the effect of Rg3 on pancreatic cancer vasculogenic mimicry. Altered vasculogenic mimicry formation was assessed using immunohistochemistry and PAS staining and associated with the expression of vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), epithelial cell kinase (EphA2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The effect of Rg3 on the regulation of pancreatic cancer vasculogenic mimicry was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The data showed vasculogenic mimicry in pancreatic cancer tissues. In addition, the expression of VE-cadherin, EphA2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins associated with formation of pancreatic cancer vasculogenic mimicry. Rg3 treatment reduced the levels of vasculogenic mimicry in nude mouse xenografts in vitro and in vivo, while the expression of VE-cadherin, EphA2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA and proteins was downregulated by Rg3 treatment in vitro and in tumor xenografts. In conclusion, ginsenoside Rg3 effectively inhibited the formation of pancreatic cancer vasculogenic mimicry by downregulating the expression of VE-cadherin, EphA2, MMP9 and MMP2. Further studies are required to evaluate ginsenoside Rg3 as an agent to control pancreatic cancer.

  17. Crystal structure, NMR study, dielectric relaxation and AC conductivity of a new compound [Cd3(SCN)2Br6(C2H9N2)2]n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, K.; Kamoun, S.; Ayedi, H. Ferid; Arous, M.

    2013-11-01

    The crystal structure, the 13C NMR spectroscopy and the complex impedance have been carried out on [Cd3(SCN)2Br6(C2H9N2)2]n. Crystal structure shows a 2D polymeric network built up of two crystallographically independent cadmium atoms with two different octahedral coordinations. This compound exhibits a phase transition at (T=355±2 K) which has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-rays powder diffraction, AC conductivity and dielectric measurements. Examination of 13C CP/MAS line shapes shows indirect spin-spin coupling (14N and 13C) with a dipolar coupling constant of 1339 Hz. The AC conductivity of this compound has been carried out in the temperature range 325-376 K and the frequency range from 10-2 Hz to 10 MHz. The impedance data were well fitted to two equivalent electrical circuits. The results of the modulus study reveal the presence of two distinct relaxation processes. One, at low frequency side, is thermally activated due to the ionic conduction of the crystal and the other, at higher frequency side, gradually disappears when temperature reaches 355 K which is attributed to the localized dipoles in the crystal. Moreover, the temperature dependence of DC-conductivity in both phases follows the Arrhenius law and the frequency dependence of σ(ω,T) follows Jonscher's universal law. The near values of activation energies obtained from the conductivity data and impedance confirm that the transport is through the ion hopping mechanism.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure, and properties of a perovskite-related bismuth phase, (NH4)3Bi2I9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shijing; Tominaka, Satoshi; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Xie, Fei; Bristowe, Paul D.; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2016-03-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskites, especially methylammonium lead halide, have recently led to remarkable advances in photovoltaic devices. However, due to environmental and stability concerns around the use of lead, research into lead-free perovskite structures has been attracting increasing attention. In this study, a layered perovskite-like architecture, (NH4)3Bi2I9, is prepared from solution and the structure solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The band gap, which is estimated to be 2.04 eV using UV-visible spectroscopy, is lower than that of CH3NH3PbBr3. The energy-minimized structure obtained from first principles calculations is in excellent agreement with the X-ray results and establishes the locations of the hydrogen atoms. The calculations also point to a significant lone pair effect on the bismuth ion. Single crystal and powder conductivity measurements are performed to examine the potential application of (NH4)3Bi2I9 as an alternative to the lead containing perovskites.

  19. MicroRNA-29a-3p attenuates ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jian; He, Hong-Peng; Gong, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Rui; Song, Tie-Feng; Zhang, Li-Nan; Guo, Zhi-Xia; Cao, Dong-Sun; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c4 (NFATc4) is the best-characterized target for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Aberrant microRNA-29 (miR-29) expression is involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis and congestive heart failure. However, whether miR-29 regulates hypertrophic processes is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the potential functions of miR-29a-3p in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We showed that miR-29a-3p was down-regulated in ET-1-treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of miR-29a-3p significantly reduced ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, which was accompanied by a decrease in NFATc4 expression. miR-29a-3p targeted directly to the 3'-UTR of NFATc4 mRNA and silenced NFATc4 expression. Our results indicate that miR-29a-3p inhibits ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibiting NFATc4 expression.

  20. MicroRNA-29a-3p attenuates ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jian; He, Hong-Peng; Gong, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Rui; Song, Tie-Feng; Zhang, Li-Nan; Guo, Zhi-Xia; Cao, Dong-Sun; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c4 (NFATc4) is the best-characterized target for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Aberrant microRNA-29 (miR-29) expression is involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis and congestive heart failure. However, whether miR-29 regulates hypertrophic processes is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the potential functions of miR-29a-3p in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We showed that miR-29a-3p was down-regulated in ET-1-treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of miR-29a-3p significantly reduced ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, which was accompanied by a decrease in NFATc4 expression. miR-29a-3p targeted directly to the 3'-UTR of NFATc4 mRNA and silenced NFATc4 expression. Our results indicate that miR-29a-3p inhibits ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibiting NFATc4 expression. PMID:26992639

  1. Optimization of a Novel Binding Motif to (E)-3-(3,5-Difluoro-4-((1R,3R)-2-(2-fluoro-2-methylpropyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl)phenyl)acrylic Acid (AZD9496), a Potent and Orally Bioavailable Selective Estrogen Receptor Downregulator and Antagonist.

    PubMed

    De Savi, Chris; Bradbury, Robert H; Rabow, Alfred A; Norman, Richard A; de Almeida, Camila; Andrews, David M; Ballard, Peter; Buttar, David; Callis, Rowena J; Currie, Gordon S; Curwen, Jon O; Davies, Chris D; Donald, Craig S; Feron, Lyman J L; Gingell, Helen; Glossop, Steven C; Hayter, Barry R; Hussain, Syeed; Karoutchi, Galith; Lamont, Scott G; MacFaul, Philip; Moss, Thomas A; Pearson, Stuart E; Tonge, Michael; Walker, Graeme E; Weir, Hazel M; Wilson, Zena

    2015-10-22

    The discovery of an orally bioavailable selective estrogen receptor downregulator (SERD) with equivalent potency and preclinical pharmacology to the intramuscular SERD fulvestrant is described. A directed screen identified the 1-aryl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole motif as a novel, druglike ER ligand. Aided by crystal structures of novel ligands bound to an ER construct, medicinal chemistry iterations led to (E)-3-(3,5-difluoro-4-((1R,3R)-2-(2-fluoro-2-methylpropyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl)phenyl)acrylic acid (30b, AZD9496), a clinical candidate with high oral bioavailability across preclinical species that is currently being evaluated in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of advanced estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer.

  2. Crystal structure of 2-[(3S,4S)-4-(anthracen-9-yl)-1-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2-oxoazetidin-3-yl]-2-aza-2H-phenalene-1,3-dione unknown solvate

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Ísmail; Akkurt, Mehmet; Jarrahpour, Aliasghar; Rad, Javad Ameri; Çelik, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The central β-lactam ring of the title compound, C36H24N2O4, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å) and makes dihedral angles of 17.17 (19), 89.76 (17) and 78.44 (17)° with the benzene ring, the anthracene ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å) and the 1H-benzo[de]iso­quinoline-1,3(2H)-dione moiety, which is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.098 (2) Å], respectively. The mol­ecular structure is stabilized by an intra­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via C—H⋯π and π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.5270 (19) and 3.779 (2) Å], forming a three-dimensional structure. A region of disordered electron density, probably disordered solvent mol­ecules, was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18], which indicated a solvent cavity of 322 Å3 containing approximately 91 electrons. Their formula mass and unit-cell characteristics were not taken into account during the refinement. PMID:25844239

  3. Crystal structure of 2-[(3S,4S)-4-(anthracen-9-yl)-1-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2-oxoazetidin-3-yl]-2-aza-2H-phenalene-1,3-dione unknown solvate.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ísmail; Akkurt, Mehmet; Jarrahpour, Aliasghar; Rad, Javad Ameri; Çelik, Ömer

    2015-03-01

    The central β-lactam ring of the title compound, C36H24N2O4, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å) and makes dihedral angles of 17.17 (19), 89.76 (17) and 78.44 (17)° with the benzene ring, the anthracene ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å) and the 1H-benzo[de]iso-quinoline-1,3(2H)-dione moiety, which is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.098 (2) Å], respectively. The mol-ecular structure is stabilized by an intra-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯π and π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distances = 3.5270 (19) and 3.779 (2) Å], forming a three-dimensional structure. A region of disordered electron density, probably disordered solvent mol-ecules, was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▶). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18], which indicated a solvent cavity of 322 Å(3) containing approximately 91 electrons. Their formula mass and unit-cell characteristics were not taken into account during the refinement. PMID:25844239

  4. A novel Pd3O9@α-Al2O3 catalyst under a hydroxylated effect: high activity in the CO oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaohong; Wei, Yongqin; Sa, Rongjian; Ma, Zuju; Wu, Kechen

    2015-12-28

    Considering the importance of palladium-based and doped metal-oxide catalysts in CO oxidation, we design a new Pd3O9@α-Al2O3 catalyst and simulate its efficiency under a hydroxylated effect. The structure, electronic structure and oxidation activity of the hydroxylated Pd3O9@α-Al2O3(0001) surface are investigated by density functional theory. Under the O-rich growth conditions, Pd preferentially replaces Al. The lowest formation energy of the Pd-doped α-Al2O3(0001) surface is 0.21 eV under conditions wherein the coverage of the Pd-doped α-Al2O3 is 0.75 on a pre-hydroxylated surface and the water coverage is 0.25, which leads to formation of a Pd3O9 cluster embedded in the Al2O3(0001) surface. The reaction mechanisms of CO oxidization have been elucidated first by CO adsorption and migration, second by O(v) formation with the first CO2 release, then by the first foreign O2 filling and CO co-adsorption, and finally by the second CO2 desorption and restoration of the hydroxylated Pd3O9@α-Al2O3(0001) surface. The rate-determining step is the formation of the first CO2 in the whole catalytic cycle. The results also indicate that the energy barrier for CO oxidization is obviously reduced compared to that of the undoped surface, which implies that the introduction of Pd can efficiently improve the oxidation reactivity of the α-Al2O3(0001) surface. Compared to the synthesized Ir1/FeO(x) (1.41 eV) and Pt1/FeO(x) (0.79 eV) catalysts, the reaction activation barrier of CO oxidation is lowered by 0.65 eV and 0.03 eV, respectively. Therefore, the Pd3O9@α-Al2O3 catalyst shows superior catalytic activity in CO oxidation. The present results enrich the understanding of the catalytic oxidation of CO by palladium-based catalysts and provide a clue for fabricating palladium-based catalysts with low cost and high activity.

  5. A novel Pd3O9@α-Al2O3 catalyst under a hydroxylated effect: high activity in the CO oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaohong; Wei, Yongqin; Sa, Rongjian; Ma, Zuju; Wu, Kechen

    2015-12-28

    Considering the importance of palladium-based and doped metal-oxide catalysts in CO oxidation, we design a new Pd3O9@α-Al2O3 catalyst and simulate its efficiency under a hydroxylated effect. The structure, electronic structure and oxidation activity of the hydroxylated Pd3O9@α-Al2O3(0001) surface are investigated by density functional theory. Under the O-rich growth conditions, Pd preferentially replaces Al. The lowest formation energy of the Pd-doped α-Al2O3(0001) surface is 0.21 eV under conditions wherein the coverage of the Pd-doped α-Al2O3 is 0.75 on a pre-hydroxylated surface and the water coverage is 0.25, which leads to formation of a Pd3O9 cluster embedded in the Al2O3(0001) surface. The reaction mechanisms of CO oxidization have been elucidated first by CO adsorption and migration, second by O(v) formation with the first CO2 release, then by the first foreign O2 filling and CO co-adsorption, and finally by the second CO2 desorption and restoration of the hydroxylated Pd3O9@α-Al2O3(0001) surface. The rate-determining step is the formation of the first CO2 in the whole catalytic cycle. The results also indicate that the energy barrier for CO oxidization is obviously reduced compared to that of the undoped surface, which implies that the introduction of Pd can efficiently improve the oxidation reactivity of the α-Al2O3(0001) surface. Compared to the synthesized Ir1/FeO(x) (1.41 eV) and Pt1/FeO(x) (0.79 eV) catalysts, the reaction activation barrier of CO oxidation is lowered by 0.65 eV and 0.03 eV, respectively. Therefore, the Pd3O9@α-Al2O3 catalyst shows superior catalytic activity in CO oxidation. The present results enrich the understanding of the catalytic oxidation of CO by palladium-based catalysts and provide a clue for fabricating palladium-based catalysts with low cost and high activity. PMID:26308732

  6. 1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene: a twisted heteroarene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Tai, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Chih; Baldridge, Kim K

    2009-07-01

    1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-Me) was prepared by palladium-catalyzed methylations of the corresponding hexabromide C-Br. The twisted structure of C-Me has been confirmed by X-ray crystal analysis. The physical properties of twisted C-Me and planar benzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-H) were studied and compared. Crystal structures are compared to computational structures determined using density functional theory, with both the M06-2X and B3PW91 functionals.

  7. Scaling between superconducting critical temperature and structural coherence length in YBa2Cu3O6.9 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, A.; Jönsson-Åkerman, B. Johan; Clerc-Dubois, A.; Pavuna, D.

    2000-09-01

    Measurements of critical temperature Tc in superconducting YBa2Cu3O6.9 films with reduced long-range structural order show the validity of the empirical scaling relation ΔTc propto rc-2 between disorder-induced reduction of Tc and structural coherence length rc in the ab-plane. This result is quantitatively explained by the disorder-induced confinement of the charge carriers within each ordered domain of size rc. Our analysis of the data based on this picture enables us to precisely determine the Ginzburg-Landau superconducting coherence length in the ab-plane, ξab = 1.41 ± 0.04 nm.

  8. Structure and microstructure of hexagonal Ba3Ti2RuO9 by electron diffraction and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Maunders, Christian; Etheridge, Joanne; Wright, Natasha; Whitfield, Harold J

    2005-04-01

    We have used electron microscopy and diffraction to refine the structure and investigate the microstructure of Ba(3)Ti(2)RuO(9). The parent compound is hexagonal BaTiO(3) with the space group P6(3)/mmc. Using convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) combined with electron-sensitive image plates we have found that the space group of Ba(3)Ti(2)RuO(9) is the non-centrosymmetric group P6(3)mc at room temperature and at approximately 110 K. This is consistent with the Ru and Ti atoms occupying alternate face-sharing octahedral sites in the 0001 direction. This maintains the c-glide, but breaks the mirror normal to the c axis and consequently removes the centre of symmetry. Using powder X-ray diffraction, we have measured the lattice parameters from polycrystalline samples to be a = 5.7056 +/- 0.0005, c = 14.0093 +/- 0.0015 A at room temperature. Using high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) we observed highly coherent, low-strain {10\\bar 10} grain boundaries intersecting at 60 and 120 degrees . From CBED we deduce that adjacent grains are identical but for the relative phase of the Ti and Ru atom ordering along the c axis. HREM also revealed occasional stacking faults, normal to the c-axis. PMID:15772447

  9. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 2,6-Di-chloro-9-(2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyl-β-d-ribo-furanos-yl)-9H-purine.

    PubMed

    Novosjolova, Irina; Stepanovs, Dmitrijs; Bizdēna, Erika; Mishnev, Anatoly; Turks, Māris

    2014-02-01

    The title synthetic analog of purine nucleosides, C16H16Cl2N4O7, has its acetyl-ated β-furan-ose ring in a 3'β-envelope conformation, with the corresponding C atom deviating by 0.602 (5) Å from the rest of the ring. The planar part of the furan-ose ring forms a dihedral angle of 65.0 (1)° with the mean plane of the purine bicycle. In the crystal, mol-ecules form a three-dimensional network through multiple C-H⋯O and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π interactions.

  15. Enantiomeric radiochemical synthesis of R and S (1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3-fluoropropan-2-yloxy)methylphosphonic acid (FPMPA)

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Knudson, Kathleen; Collins, Matt; Srinivasula, Sharat; Lim, Esther; Di Mascio, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients requires chronic multidrug administration. The eventual failure of therapy in some patients has brought into question the tissue concentration of the drugs. With an appropriately radiolabeled compound, we could utilize positron emission tomography to provide quantitative time–activity curves for various tissues. We have developed a fluorine-18 labeled analog of Tenofovir, the active metabolite of Tenofovir DF, a commonly prescribed component of multidrug therapy. Because (1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3-fluoropropan-2-yloxy)methylphosphonic acid (FPMPA) has a chiral center, we prepared both enantiomers and confirmed that the S-isomer exhibited significantly higher antiviral activity than the R-isomer. In viral replication inhibition assays in human MT4 cells infected with SHIVDH12R, S-FPMPA had an IC50 of 1.85 μM (95% CI; 0.8–5.53), while the R-isomer was inactive. An appropriate chiral precursor was prepared to allow the incorporation of fluorine-18. The [18F]FPMPA in racemic, R, or S form was prepared in a 50 min synthesis in 38±5% yield (n = 23, corrected for decay). The product was of high radiochemical and enantiomeric purity. The specific activity of the final product was 4.0±1.8 Ci/μmol at EOB (end of bombardment). This product may provide information about drug tissue distribution in animal models under chronic drug treatment. PMID:19724660

  16. Collective versus local Jahn-Teller distortion in Ba3CuSb2O9 : Raman scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drichko, Natalia; Broholm, Collin; Kimura, K.; Ishii, R.; Nakasutji, Satoru

    2016-05-01

    We present temperature dependent Raman spectra of single crystals of two different samples of the spin-orbital liquid candidate Ba3CuSb2O9 . The "hexagonal" sample is known to show no magnetic order down to low temperatures, while the "orthorhombic" sample undergoes a crossover into an orthorhombic crystal structure below TJT of approximately 200 K and shows spin freezing at 110 μ K . Our Raman scattering results demonstrate a strong influence of disorder in both samples. The frequencies of stretching vibrations of oxygens associated with CuSbO9 octahedra indicate a difference in the crystal structure between the hexagonal and orthorhombic samples even at room temperature. On cooling below TJT we observe new bands in the spectra of the orthorhombic sample due to a lowering of symmetry of the unit cell and a collective Jahn-Teller distortion. The spectra of the hexagonal sample show that average hexagonal symmetry is maintained at least down to 20 K. An analysis of the band shape of stretching oxygen vibrations suggests a weak disordered local Jahn-Teller distortion in the hexagonal sample of Ba3CuSb2O9 which increases slightly on cooling. This Jahn-Teller distortion is either static or dynamic with a frequency below 1.5 THz.

  17. Spectroscopic properties and structure refinement of Nd3+:(Y0.9La0.1)2O3 transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qing; Yang, Qiuhong; Jiang, Cen; Lu, Shenzhou; Yuan, Ye; Liu, Qiang; Lu, Bo

    2014-11-01

    (NdxY0.9-xLa0.1)2O3 (x = 0.01-0.04) transparent ceramics were fabricated by conventional solid state reaction processing. Spectroscopic properties and crystal structures were investigated. (Nd0.01Y0.89La0.1)2O3 ceramics display high transparency and dense structure with almost no pores. The highest transmittance reaches 80%. The absorption at LD wavelength 806 nm is high with broad full width at half maximum (FWHM) of about 6 nm. The strongest emission peak is centered at 1078 nm with broad FWHM of about 9 nm and the stimulated emission cross section is 4.97 × 10-20 cm2. The crystal structure was obtained via Rietveld refinement. It is found that (NdxY0.9-xLa0.1)2O3 crystallize in space group of Ia3bar, Z = 16. The lattice parameters and average bond lengths are increased with the increase of La2O3 and Nd2O3 contents.

  18. Theoretical study of isoelectronic molecules: B6H10, 2-CB5H9, 2,3-C2B4H8, 2,3,4-C3B3H7, and 2,3,4,5-C4B2H6.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shan Xi

    2005-07-28

    Isoelectronic molecules regarding B6H10, 2-CB5H9, 2,3-C2B4H8, 2,3,4-C3B3H7, and 2,3,4,5-C4B2H6 are studied by the density functional B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method and the electron propagator theory in the partial third-order quasiparticale approximation, as well as the extrapolated calculation with the coupled-cluster CCSD(T) theory. The calculated ionization potentials are in good agreement with the experimental data from photoelectron spectroscopy. Valence structures are characterized with natural orbital bond (NBO) theory, exhibiting the multiple three-center two-electron bonds B-H-B, B-B-B, C-B-B, B-C-B, and C-B-C, and chemical bond rearrangements in the cations. PMID:16834005

  19. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader

    2015-09-25

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  20. Mendigite, Mn2Mn2MnCa(Si3O9)2, a new mineral species of the bustamite group from the Eifel volcanic region, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Aksenov, S. M.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Van, K. V.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Pekov, I. V.; Gurzhiy, V. V.; Schüller, W.; Ternes, B.

    2015-12-01

    A new mineral, mendigite (IMA no. 2014-007), isostructural with bustamite, has been found in the In den Dellen pumice quarry near Mendig, Laacher Lake area, Eifel Mountains, Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), Germany. Associated minerals are sanidine, nosean, rhodonite, tephroite, magnetite, and a pyrochlore-group mineral. Mendigite occurs as clusters of long-prismatic crystals (up to 0.1 × 0.2 × 2.5 mm in size) in cavities within sanidinite. The color is dark brown with a brown streak. Perfect cleavage is parallel to (001). D calc = 3.56 g/cm3. The IR spectrum shows the absence of H2O and OH groups. Mendigite is biaxial (-), α = 1.722 (calc), β = 1.782(5), γ = 1.796(5), 2 V meas = 50(10)°. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, mean of 4 point analyses, the Mn2+/Mn3+ ratio determined from structural data and charge-balance constraints) is as follows (wt %): 0.36 MgO, 10.78 CaO, 37.47 MnO, 2.91 Mn2O3, 4.42 Fe2O3, 1.08 Al2O3, 43.80 SiO2, total 100.82. The empirical formula is Mn2.00(Mn1.33Ca0.67) (Mn0.50 2+ Mn0.28 3+ Fe0.15 3+ Mg0.07)(Ca0.80 (Mn0.20 2+)(Si5.57 Fe0.27 3+ Al0.16O18). The idealized formula is Mn2Mn2MnCa(Si3O9)2. The crystal structure has been refined for a single crystal. Mendigite is triclinic, space group Pbar 1; the unit-cell parameters are a = 7.0993(4), b = 7.6370(5), c = 7.7037(4) Å, α = 79.58(1)°, β = 62.62(1)°, γ = 76.47(1)°; V = 359.29(4) Å3, Z = 1. The strongest reflections on the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I, %) ( hkl)] are: 3.72 (32) (020), 3.40 (20) (002, 021), 3.199 (25) (012), 3.000 (26), (01bar 2, 1bar 20), 2.885 (100) (221, 2bar 11, 1bar 21), 2.691 (21) (222, 2bar 10), 2.397 (21) (02bar 2, 21bar 1, 203, 031), 1.774 (37) (412, 3bar 21). The type specimen is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, registration number 4420/1.

  1. Experimental and DFT studies on the vibrational and electronic spectra and NBO analysis of 2-amino-3-((E)-(9-p-tolyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl) methyleneamino) maleonitrile.

    PubMed

    Meng, Nana; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yiwei; Ma, Kuirong; Zhao, Jianying; Tang, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    2-Amino-3-((E)-(9-p-tolyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl) methyleneamino) maleonitrile (ACMM) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis spectra. The X-ray diffraction study showed that ACMM has a Z-configuration, due to the intramolecular C18H18A⋯N2, N3H3A⋯N2 and C20H20A⋯N4 hydrogen bonds and intermolecular C10H10A⋯N4, N3H3B⋯N9 (2-x, 2-y, 2-z) and N3H8C⋯N4 (2-x, 1-y, 2-z) hydrogen bonds. The benzene ring including methyl is twisted from the mean plane of the carbazole group by 59.7(3)°. Vibrational spectra and electronic spectra measurements were made for the compound. Optimized geometrical structure and harmonic vibrational frequencies were computed with DFT (B3-based B3P86, B3LYP, B3PW91 and B-based BP86, BLYP, BPW91) methods and ab initio RHF method using 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. Assignments of the observed spectra were proposed. The equilibrium geometries computed by all of the methods were compared with X-ray diffraction results. The absorption spectra of the title compound were computed both in gas phase and in DMF solution using TD-B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) and PCM-B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) approaches, respectively. The calculated results provide a good description of positions of the bands maxima in the observed electronic spectrum. Temperature dependence of thermodynamic parameters in the range of 100-1000K were determined. The bond orbital occupancies, contribution from parent natural bond orbital (NBO), the natural atomic hybrids was calculated and discussed.

  2. Luminescence and application of red-emitting phosphors of Eu3+-activated R2Zr3(MoO4)9 ( R = La, Sm, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuyun; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-01-01

    New red-emitting phosphors R2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ ( R = La, Sm, Gd) were prepared using the convenient solid-state reaction method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements and structural refinements. The luminescence properties were investigated by photoluminescence spectra, decay curves, and absolute internal quantum efficiency (QE). The phosphors exhibited bright red luminescence corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D0→7F2 at 615 nm under near UV light excitation. The thermal stability of the luminescence was investigated using temperature-dependent intensities at temperatures from 20 to 170°C. The results indicate that Gd2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ could be potentially considered for lighting due to its qualities, including their excitation spectra, QEs, red color coordinates, and thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Disorder-Driven Spin-Orbital Liquid Behavior in the Ba3X Sb2O9 Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerald, Andrew; Mila, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Recent experiments on the Ba3X Sb2O9 family have revealed materials that potentially realize spin- and spin-orbital liquid physics. However, the lattice structure of these materials is complicated due to the presence of charged X2 +-Sb5 + dumbbells, with two possible orientations. To model the lattice structure, we consider a frustrated model of charged dumbbells on the triangular lattice, with long-range Coulomb interactions. We study this model using Monte Carlo simulation, and find a freezing temperature, Tfrz , at which the simulated structure factor matches well to low-temperature x-ray diffraction data for Ba3 CuSb2 O9 . At T =Tfrz we find a complicated "branching" structure of superexchange-linked X2 + clusters, which form a fractal pattern with fractal dimension df=1.90 . We show that this gives a natural explanation for the presence of orphan spins. Finally we provide a plausible mechanism by which such dumbbell disorder can promote a spin-orbital resonant state with delocalized orphan spins.

  4. γ-ray linear polarization measurements and (g9/2)-3 neutron alignment in 91Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; de France, G.; Clément, E.; Dijon, A.; Cederwall, B.; Wadsworth, R.; Bäck, T.; Ghazi Moradi, F.; Jaworski, G.; Nyakó, B. M.; Nyberg, J.; Palacz, M.; Al-Azri, H.; de Angelis, G.; Atac, A.; Aktaş, Ö.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Brock, T.; Davies, P. J.; Di Nitto, A.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Gadea, A.; Gál, J.; Joshi, P.; Juhász, K.; Julin, R.; Jungclaus, A.; Kalinka, G.; Kownacki, J.; La Rana, G.; Lenzi, S. M.; Molnár, J.; Moro, R.; Napoli, D. R.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Persson, A.; Recchia, F.; Sandzelius, M.; Scheurer, J.-N.; Sletten, G.; Sohler, D.; Söderström, P.-A.; Taylor, M. J.; Timár, J.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Vardaci, E.

    2013-04-01

    Linear polarization measurements have been performed for γ rays in 91Ru produced with the 58Ni(36Ar, 2p1nγ)91Ru reaction at a beam energy of 111 MeV. The EXOGAM Ge clover array has been used to measure the γ-γ coincidences, γ-ray linear polarization, and γ-ray angular distributions. The polarization sensitivity of the EXOGAM clover detectors acting as Compton polarimeters has been determined in the energy range 0.3-1.3 MeV. Several transitions have been observed for the first time. Measurements of linear polarization and angular distribution have led to the firm assignments of spin differences and parity of high-spin states in 91Ru. More specifically, calculations using a semiempirical shell model were performed to understand the structures of the first and second (21/2+) and (17/2+) levels. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, supporting the interpretation of the nonyrast (21/2+) and (17/2+) states in terms of the Jmax and Jmax-2 members of the seniority-three ν(g9/2)-3 multiplet.

  5. Kinetic selection between organogel fibers and nano-ribbons of 2,3-didecyloxy-9,10-bisphenylethynyl-anthracene.

    PubMed

    Kao, Min-Tzu; Schäfer, Christian; Raffy, Guillaume; Del Guerzo, André

    2012-11-01

    A novel organogelator, DDPEA (2,3-didecyloxy-9,10-bisphenylethynyl-anthracene), displays a very unusual polymorphism upon self-assembly. The fluorescence resulting from J-aggregates reveals that the readily formed DDPEA gel evolves into another more stable state within four hours. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows that this kinetic metastable gel-state is constituted of nanofibers, while the thermodynamically stable state is constituted of a dispersion of nano-ribbons or -crystals. Nano-fibers or nano-ribbons can be selected upon trapping the states by drying.

  6. Effects of lattice disorder on the superconducting properties of YBa 2Cu 3O 6.9 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, Andrea; Pavuna, Davor

    1994-12-01

    We report on striking sensitivity of the superconducting properties of ion-beam sputtered YBa 2Cu 3O 6.9 films to the lattice disorder (induced by varying growth temperatures). Tc decreases with increasing disorder, while the width of the resistive transition and the normal state resistivity increase. We give a quantitative significance to this trend by expressing the degree of the disorder in terms of the lattice coherence length rc is extracted from the width of X-ray diffraction rocking curves. We find that Tc saturates to the maximum of ∼ 92 K for rc > 10 nm.

  7. Regioselective Palmitoylation of 9-(2,3-Dihydroxy- propyl)adenine Catalyzed by a Glycopolymer-enzyme Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Jana; Blažek, Jiří; Krečmerová, Marcela; Vondrášek, Jiří; Palomo, Jose M; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2016-05-16

    The enzymatic regioselective monopalmitoylation of racemic 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)- adenine (DHPA), an approved antiviral agent, has been performed by an immobilized form of Candida antarctica B lipase (CAL-B) using a 4:1 DMF/hexane mixture as the reaction medium. To improve the chemical yield of the desired monopalmitoylation reaction, solid-phase chemical modifications of the lipase were evaluated. The reaction yield was successfully increased obtaining 100% product after a second treatment of the product solution with fresh immobilised chemically glycosylated-CAL-B.

  8. Pulpal Effects of Enamel Ablation With a Microsecond Pulsed λ=9.3-μm CO2 Laser

    PubMed Central

    Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Goodis, Harold E.; Pierre, Daniel; Cox, Darren P.; Fan, Kenneth; Larson, Michael; Parisi, Renaldo; Hsu, Dennis; Manesh, Saman K.; Ho, Chi; Hosseini, Mehran; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives In vitro studies have shown that CO2 lasers operating at the highly absorbed 9.3 and 9.6-μm wavelengths with a pulse duration in the range of 10–20-microsecond are well suited for the efficient ablation of enamel and dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Even though these CO2 lasers are highly promising, they have yet to receive FDA approval. Clinical studies are necessary to determine if excessive heat deposition in the tooth may have any detrimental pulpal effects, particularly at higher ablative fluencies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulpal safety of laser irradiation of tooth occlusal surfaces under the conditions required for small conservative preparations confined to enamel. Study Design/Materials and Methods Test subjects requiring removal of third molar teeth were recruited and teeth scheduled for extraction were irradiated using a pulsed CO2 laser at a wavelength of 9.3 μm operating at 25 or 50 Hz using a incident fluence of 20 J/cm2 for a total of 3,000 laser pulses (36 J) for both rates with water cooling. Two control groups were used, one with no treatment and one with a small cut made with a conventional high-speed hand-piece. No anesthetic was used for any of the procedures and tooth vitality was evaluated prior to treatment by heat, cold and electrical testing. Short term effects were observed on teeth extracted within 72 hours after treatment and long term effects were observed on teeth extracted 90 days after treatment. The pulps of the teeth were fixed with formalin immediately after extraction and subjected to histological examination. Additionally, micro-thermocouple measurements were used to estimate the potential temperature rise in the pulp chamber of extracted teeth employing the same irradiation conditions used in vivo. Results Pulpal thermocouple measurements showed the internal temperature rise in the tooth was within safe limits, 3.3±4°C without water cooling versus 1.7±6

  9. Effect of cation substitution on structural transition: synthesis, characterization and theoretical studies of NaCa4B3O9, NaCaBO3, NaSrBO3 and Li4CaB2O6.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Su, Xin; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-10-21

    Single crystals of NaCa4B3O9, NaCaBO3, NaSrBO3 and Li4CaB2O6 have been successfully synthesized through conventional high-temperature solid-state reactions. They are structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit three-dimensional crystal structures consisting of isolated planar BO3 as fundamental building blocks. Interestingly, for the centrosymmetric crystal structure of NaCaBO3 (Na3Ca3B3O9), as 2/3 of the Na(+) ions are substituted by Ca(2+) ions, NaCa4B3O9 is obtained and crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group Ama2 (crystal class mm2). A second harmonic generation (SHG) test of the title compound by the Kurtz-Perry method shows that NaCa4B3O9 can be phase matchable with an effective SHG coefficient approximately one-half that of KH2PO4 (KDP). Studies of their optical properties as well as band structure calculations based on density functional theory methods have been also performed. NaCa4B3O9 possesses a moderate birefringence of about 0.05 at 1064 nm. To explain the difference in optical nonlinearity we compared the electronic structures of NaCa4B3O9, KCa4B3O9 and KSr4B3O9 crystals, in particular at the bottom of the conduction band (CB) and the top of the valence band (VB), since they are known to play a primary role in SHG. These electronic structures are responsible for the optical-nonlinearity of NaCa4B3O9, KCa4B3O9 and KSr4B3O9 crystals. PMID:26387438

  10. Frequency doubled operation of a ground state depleted laser using the Nd sup 3+ sup 4 F sub 3/2 - sup 4 I sub 9/2 transition in Y sub 2 SiO sub 5

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Mitchell, S.; Comaskey, B.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W. ); Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G. )

    1990-01-01

    A ground state depleted (GSD) laser has been demonstrated at 912 nm in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating on the Nd{sup 3+}{sup 4}F{sub 3/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transition in Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}. Samarium scandium gallium garnet has been demonstrated effective at selectively suppressing the competing and much stronger {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} lasing transition. Efficient harmonic generation has been demonstrated using non-critically phase matched KNbO{sub 3}. 15 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Effect of Sb2O3 on the electrical properties of Ba0.9Ca0.1Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 ceramics fabricated using nanocrystals seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parjansri, P.; Intatha, U.; Guo, R.; Bhalla, A. S.; Eitssayeam, S.

    2016-09-01

    This work was to investigate the effects of antimony oxide (Sb2O3) on the electrical properties of Ba0.9Ca0.1Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 (BCZT) ceramics and was prepared by adding 1 mol% of BCZT nanocrystals. The seed is nanocrystals of BCZT which was synthesized by the molten salt method. The ceramics powders were prepared by the mixed oxide method using BaCO3, CaCO3, ZrO2, TiO2 as starting materials, and the BCZT seed was added as nanocrystal for induce phase transition. They were doped with x mol% Sb2O3 ( x = 0.0-0.5). Results indicated that all samples show pure perovskite phase. The Sb2O3 enhanced the electrical properties of the ceramic systems. Excellent values of a dielectric constant ( ɛ r) at room temperature ( T r) were 4086 with sample of x = 0.5, and at Curie temperature ( T c) was 15,485 for samples with x = 0.1. The highest remnant polarization ( P r), piezoelectric charge coefficient ( d 33), piezoelectric voltage coefficient ( g 33), electromechanical coefficient for planar mode ( k p) and thickness mode ( k t) values were 6.3 μC/cm2, 346 pC/N, 15.6 × 10-3 Vm/N, 42 and 41 %, respectively, which were obtained for the sample of x = 0.2 mol% Sb.

  12. Crystal structure of (+)-N-[(1R,5S,6S,9S)-5-hydroxy-methyl-3,3,9-trimethyl-8-oxo-2,4,7-trioxabi-cyclo-[4.3.0]nonan-9-yl]acetamide.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Takeshi; Tsuzaki, Shun; Sugai, Tomoya; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2016-05-01

    In the title compound, C12H19NO6, the six-membered 1,3-dioxane ring adopts a chair-like conformation. The seat of this chair, containing two O atoms, is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.0021 (12) Å. The five-membered oxolane ring cis-fused to the 1,3-dioxane ring adopts an envelope form. The bridgehead C atom at the flap, which is bonded to the tetra-substituted C atom of the oxolane ring, deviates from the mean plane of other ring atoms by 0.539 (4) Å. In the crystal, classical O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a sheet structure enclosing an R 4 (4)(24) graph-set motif. Weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions support the sheet formation. PMID:27308035

  13. Warfarin Dosing in a Patient with CYP2C9(∗)3(∗)3 and VKORC1-1639 AA Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark; Richard, Craig; Bogdan, Renee; Kidd, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors most correlated with warfarin dose requirements are variations in the genes encoding the enzymes cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). Patients receiving warfarin who possess one or more genetic variations in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are at increased risk of adverse drug events and require significant dose reductions to achieve a therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). A 74-year-old white female with atrial fibrillation was initiated on a warfarin dose of 2 mg PO daily, which resulted in multiple elevated INR measurements and three clinically significant hemorrhagic events and four vitamin K antidote treatments over a period of less than two weeks. Genetic analysis later revealed that she had the homozygous variant genotypes of CYP2C933 and VKORC1-1639 AA. Warfarin dosing was subsequently restarted and stabilized at 0.5 mg PO daily with therapeutic INRs. This is the first case report of a white female with these genotypes stabilized on warfarin, and it highlights the value of pharmacogenetic testing prior to the initiation of warfarin therapy to maximize efficacy and minimize the risk of adverse drug events. PMID:24627811

  14. Warfarin Dosing in a Patient with CYP2C933 and VKORC1-1639 AA Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Renee

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors most correlated with warfarin dose requirements are variations in the genes encoding the enzymes cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). Patients receiving warfarin who possess one or more genetic variations in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are at increased risk of adverse drug events and require significant dose reductions to achieve a therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). A 74-year-old white female with atrial fibrillation was initiated on a warfarin dose of 2 mg PO daily, which resulted in multiple elevated INR measurements and three clinically significant hemorrhagic events and four vitamin K antidote treatments over a period of less than two weeks. Genetic analysis later revealed that she had the homozygous variant genotypes of CYP2C933 and VKORC1-1639 AA. Warfarin dosing was subsequently restarted and stabilized at 0.5 mg PO daily with therapeutic INRs. This is the first case report of a white female with these genotypes stabilized on warfarin, and it highlights the value of pharmacogenetic testing prior to the initiation of warfarin therapy to maximize efficacy and minimize the risk of adverse drug events. PMID:24627811

  15. MeCP2 binds to nucleosome free (linker DNA) regions and to H3K9/H3K27 methylated nucleosomes in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Thambirajah, Anita A.; Ng, Marlee K.; Frehlick, Lindsay J.; Li, Andra; Serpa, Jason J.; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V.; Silva-Moreno, Begonia; Missiaen, Kristal K.; Borchers, Christoph H.; Adam Hall, J.; Mackie, Ryan; Lutz, Frank; Gowen, Brent E.; Hendzel, Michael; Georgel, Philippe T.; Ausió, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a chromatin-binding protein that mediates transcriptional regulation, and is highly abundant in brain. The nature of its binding to reconstituted templates has been well characterized in vitro. However, its interactions with native chromatin are less understood. Here we show that MeCP2 displays a distinct distribution within fractionated chromatin from various tissues and cell types. Artificially induced global changes in DNA methylation by 3-aminobenzamide or 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, do not significantly affect the distribution or amount of MeCP2 in HeLa S3 or 3T3 cells. Most MeCP2 in brain is chromatin-bound and localized within highly nuclease-accessible regions. We also show that, while in most tissues and cell lines, MeCP2 forms stable complexes with nucleosome, in brain, a fraction of it is loosely bound to chromatin, likely to nucleosome-depleted regions. Finally, we provide evidence for novel associations of MeCP2 with mononucleosomes containing histone H2A.X, H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 in different chromatin fractions from brain cortex and in vitro. We postulate that the functional compartmentalization and tissue-specific distribution of MeCP2 within different chromatin types may be directed by its association with nucleosomes containing specific histone variants, and post-translational modifications. PMID:22144686

  16. Effect of water intercalation on the structure and electrophysical properties of YBa2Cu3O6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, I. B.; Zyuzeva, N. A.; Degtyarev, M. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Ponosov, Yu. S.; Pilyugin, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    The influence of water vapors and plastic deformation on the structure and electrophysical properties of YBa2Cu3O6.9 (123) has been studied. It has been established that, at T = 200°C, the introduction of water into the structure of YBa2Cu3O6.9 leads to its transition into a defect tetragonal phase of the 124 type as a result of the formation of planar stacking faults. After annealing at T = 930°C, these defects are partially retained and are efficient centers of pinning in the magnetic fields applied perpendicularly to the c axis, which makes it possible to increase (by an order of magnitude) the critical current density in the high-textured ceramics at 77 K in the external magnetic field of 5-10 T. The plastic deformation of the hydrated ceramics favors the reverse transition of the arising 124 phase to the 123 phase at T = 930°C and is accompanied by a recrystallization of the material, which leads to the appearance of a texture and an increase the critical current density.

  17. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R.

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  18. Density functional study of electronic, charge density, and chemical bonding properties of 9-methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic acid ethyl ester crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Kamarudin, H.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Auluck, S.; Chyský, Jan

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical density functional investigation of the electronic crystal structure, chemical bonding, and the electron charge densities of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3, 2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester (C15H12N4O2S2) is performed. The density of states at Fermi level equal to 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, and the calculated bare electronic specific heat coefficient is found to be 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K2 for the local density approximation (Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation). The electronic charge density space distribution contours in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes were calculated. We find that there are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit exhibit intramolecular C-H…O, C-H…N interactions. This intramolecular interaction is different in molecules A and B, where A molecule show C-H…O interaction while B molecule exhibit C-H…N interaction. We should emphasis that there is π-π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules gives extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. The calculated distance between the two neighbors pyrimidine rings found to be 3.345 Å, in good agreement with the measured one (3.424(1) Å).

  19. Bis[5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-8H-2-azonia-4,8,9-trizabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-2,6,9(1)-triene] sulfate.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Nittala V; Panpalia, Gopal M; Sarma, Jagarlapudi A R P

    2008-11-22

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, 2C(5)H(5)N(4)O(+)·SO(4) (2-), N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds assemble the mol-ecules into a two-dimensional network structure parallel to the cb plane. The S atom of the sulfate ion lies on a special position on a twofold axis.

  20. Effect of BIX-01294 on H3K9me2 levels and the imprinted gene Snrpn in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yao, Jian-Feng; Huang, Rong-Fu; Zheng, Fang-Fang; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xuan; Chen, Juan; Li, Ming; Huang, Hong-Feng; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Huang, Yan-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) hypermethylation is thought to be a major influential factor in cellular reprogramming, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The diazepin-quinazolin-amine derivative (BIX-01294) specifically inhibits the activity of histone methyltransferase EHMT2 (euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2) and reduces H3K9me2 levels in cells. The imprinted gene small nuclear ribonucleoprotein N (Snrpn) is of particular interest because of its important biological functions. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of BIX-01294 on H3K9me2 levels and changes in Snrpn DNA methylation and histone H3K9me2 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Results showed that 1.3 μM BIX-01294 markedly reduced global levels of H3K9me2 with almost no cellular toxicity. There was a significant decrease in H3K9me2 in promoter regions of the Snrpn gene after BIX-01294 treatment. A significant increase in methylation of the Snrpn differentially methylated region 1 (DMR1) and slightly decreased transcript levels of Snrpn were found in BIX-01294-treated MEFs. These results suggest that BIX-01294 may reduce global levels of H3K9me2 and affect epigenetic modifications of Snrpn in MEFs. PMID:26285804

  1. Exchange bias effect in Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}AlO{sub 9} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.; Shi, L. R.; Sun, H. G.; Zhu, C. M.; Tian, Z. M.; Yuan, S. L.

    2014-11-10

    The exchange bias (EB) effect is observed in Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}AlO{sub 9} polycrystalline ceramics. The EB field (H{sub EB}), vertical magnetization shift, and coercive field show a strong dependence on the cooling fields. When a larger applied field is used to measure the hysteresis loop, the EB effect is suppressed. The induced spin-glass-like phase via Al{sup 3+} doping is responsible for the EB effect below the spin-glass temperature (T{sub SG}) of ∼25 K. Moreover, the H{sub EB} varies nonmonotonically with temperature above T{sub SG}, which is interpreted using a random field model with the exchange coupling between ferromagnetic clusters and an antiferromagnetic phase.

  2. Observation of Cd 4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2}5p J=3 autoionizing levels in (e,2e) energy spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.L.S.; Bauman, R.P. Wilson, M.

    1998-06-01

    Cadmium (e,2e) energy spectra have been measured for kinematics corresponding to a momentum transfer of 1 a.u. Two previously unknown cadmium autoinizing levels have been observed. Their energies are in excellent agreement with existing {ital ab initio} structure calculations of the 4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2}5p J=3 levels. One level is easily seen at an ejected-electron direction along the momentum-transfer axis, but is absent for a direction 39{degree} away from this axis. The opposite is true for the other level; it is absent in the former, but present in the latter case. This behavior is in agreement with a calculation that takes into account that the J=3 levels can autoionize into both singlet and triplet 5sEf continua. The intensity of the new levels, relative to the well-known 4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2}5p J=1 levels, agrees well with a plane-wave Born approximation calculation for the J=3 levels. The third 4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2}5p J=3 level is calculated to lie within the broad 4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2}5p {sup 1}P{sub 1} level and cannot be seen in the present experiments. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. PARP9-DTX3L ubiquitin ligase targets host histone H2BJ and viral 3C protease to enhance interferon signaling and control viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Mao, Dailing; Roswit, William T.; Jin, Xiaohua; Patel, Anand C.; Patel, Dhara A.; Agapov, Eugene; Wang, Zhepeng; Tidwell, Rose M.; Atkinson, Jeffrey J.; Huang, Guangming; McCarthy, Ronald; Yu, Jinsheng; Yun, Nadezhda E.; Paessler, Slobodan; Lawson, T. Glen; Omattage, Natalie S.; Brett, Tom J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the response to interferon could offer an immunological advantage to the host. In support of this concept, we used a modified form of the transcription factor STAT1 to achieve interferon hyperresponsiveness without toxicity and markedly improve antiviral function in transgenic mice and transduced human cells. We found that the improvement depends on expression of a PARP9-DTX3L complex with distinct domains for interaction with STAT1 and for activity as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts on host histone H2BJ to promote interferon-stimulated gene expression and on viral 3C proteases to initiate their degradation via the immunoproteasome. Together, PARP9-DTX3L acts on host and pathogen to achieve a double layer of immunity within a safe reserve in the interferon signaling pathway. PMID:26479788

  4. Multimeas Version 3.9

    2005-09-02

    The software lets the user do the following: 1. Identify instruments connected through GPIB. 2. Identify which instruments should be used for control. 3. Identify which instruments should sample data. a. Specify name of data. b. Specify instrument. c. Specify instrument-specific measurement. d. Specify scaling factors from pre-ampliflers etc. 4. Identify entities/data columns that should be calculated from data or other data columns and specify these calculations 5. Create a list of measurements to run,more » a. Define file names. b. Define measurement variables (temperature, current, magnetic field, etc.) c. Define measurement limits and ramps or "manual control". d. Define changed condition for each run (new current, etc.) 6. Run, pause, siop, go to next file, create new runs, etc., during measurement. 7. Plot any columns of data. 8. Plot pulse shapes, pulse cycles, FFT, power spectrum etc. 9. Apply real-time filters and damping on data/calculated columns.« less

  5. 4-(9-Anthr­yl)-1-(2,4-dimethoxy­phen­yl)spiro­[azetidine-3,9′-xanthen]-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Baktır, Zeliha; Akkurt, Mehmet; Jarrahpour, Aliasghar; Ebrahimi, Edris; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C37H27NO4, crystallizes with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The β-lactam ring of each mol­ecule is very nearly planar, with maximum deviations of 0.001 (2) and 0.017 (2) Å in the two mol­ecules. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N contacts, as well as by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:21582891

  6. Study of the formation of the apatite-type phases La9.33+x(SiO4)6O2+3x/2 synthesized from a lanthanum oxycarbonate La2O2CO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, A.; Jouin, J.; Béchade, E.; Julien, I.; Masson, O.; Geffroy, P. M.; Mayet, R.; Thomas, P.; Fukuda, K.; Kagomiya, I.

    2014-12-01

    Lanthanum silicated apatites with nominal composition La9.33+x(SiO4)6O2+3x/2 (-0.2 < x < 0.27) have been successfully synthesized by solid state reaction using a new reagent La2O2CO3 and amorphous SiO2 precursors. The formation mechanism of La2O2CO3 reagent, which cannot be purchased, has been followed by in-situ temperature depend XRD of La2O3 under CO2 atmosphere. The stability of this reagent during the synthesis step allowed to limit the formation of secondary phase La2Si2O7 and made the weighting of the reagent easier. High purity powders could be synthesized at the temperature of 1400 °C. Dense pellets (more than 98.5%) were obtained by isostatic pressing of powders calcined at 1200 °C and then sintered at 1550 °C. Traces of La2SiO5 secondary phase present in synthesized powder disappeared after densification and pure oxyapatite materials were obtained for all the compositions. Electrical measurements confirmed that conductivity behaviors of the sintered pellets were dependent to the oxygen over-stoichiometry. Indeed, a relatively high conductivity of 1 × 10-2 S cm-1 was exhibited at 800 °C for the nominal composition La9.60(SiO4)6O2.405 with low activation energy around 0.79 eV. The ionic conductivity properties were comparable with that of the earlier obtained materials.

  7. Frequency doubled operation of a ground state depleted laser using the Nd(3+)(4)F(sub 3/2)-(4)I(sub 9/2) transition in Y2SiO5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Mitchell, S.; Comaskey, B.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, William F.; Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G.

    1990-01-01

    A ground state depleted (GSD) laser has been demonstrated at 912 nm in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating on the Nd(3+) F-4(sub 3/2) - I-4(sub 9/2) transition in Y2SiO5. Samarium scandium gallium garnet has been demonstrated effective at selectively suppressing the competing and much stronger F-4(sub 3/2) - I-4(sub 11/2) lasing transition. Efficient harmonic generation has been demonstrated using non-critically phase matched KNbO3.

  8. In Silico Prediction of Cytochrome P450-Drug Interaction: QSARs for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9

    PubMed Central

    Nembri, Serena; Grisoni, Francesca; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are the main actors in the oxidation of xenobiotics and play a crucial role in drug safety, persistence, bioactivation, and drug-drug/food-drug interaction. This work aims to develop Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models to predict the drug interaction with two of the most important CYP isoforms, namely 2C9 and 3A4. The presented models are calibrated on 9122 drug-like compounds, using three different modelling approaches and two types of molecular description (classical molecular descriptors and binary fingerprints). For each isoform, three classification models are presented, based on a different approach and with different advantages: (1) a very simple and interpretable classification tree; (2) a local (k-Nearest Neighbor) model based classical descriptors and; (3) a model based on a recently proposed local classifier (N-Nearest Neighbor) on binary fingerprints. The salient features of the work are (1) the thorough model validation and the applicability domain assessment; (2) the descriptor interpretation, which highlighted the crucial aspects of P450-drug interaction; and (3) the consensus aggregation of models, which largely increased the prediction accuracy. PMID:27294921

  9. Enhanced Dielectric Properties of [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.9-PbTiO3]0.1 Thin Films Grown on BaPbO3 Perovskite Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Sut Kam; Hau, Fei Fei; Wong, Kin Hung

    2004-11-01

    Polycrystalline and epitaxial [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.9-[PbTiO3]0.1 (PMN-PT) thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on BaPbO3 (BPO) and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) oxide electrodes. In comparison, the epitaxial films show higher dielectric constant and the polycrystalline films exhibit lower dielectric loss and smaller leakage current. It is also found that the use of lead based BPO electrodes helps to raise the dielectric constant of the PMN-PT layer by 30%, and to reduce the dielectric leakage by as much as three orders of magnitude. Our results have clearly demonstrated the superiority of using lead based electrodes for growing lead based dielectrics.

  10. Synthesis and thermoluminescence characterizations of Sr2B5O9Cl:Dy3+ phosphor for TL dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Oza, Abha H; Dhoble, N S; Park, K; Dhoble, S J

    2015-09-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) displayed by Dy-activated strontium haloborate (Sr2 B5 O9 Cl) were studied. A modified solid-state reaction was employed for the preparation of the phosphor. Photoluminescence spectra showed blue (484 nm) and yellow (575 nm) emissions due to incorporation of Dy(3+) into host matrix. The Dy-doped (0.5 mol%) Sr2 B5 O9 Cl was studied after exposure to γ-irradiation and revealed a prominent glow curve at 261°C with a small hump around 143°C indicating that two types of traps were generated. The glow peak at the higher temperature side (261°C) was more stable than the lower temperature glow peak. The TL intensity was 1.17 times less than that of the standard CaSO4 :Dy thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) phosphor, the phosphor showed a linear dose-response curve for different γ-ray irradiation doses (0.002-1.25 Gy) and fading of 5-7% was observed for higher temperature peaks upon storage. Trapping parameters and their estimated error values have been calculated by Chen's peak shape method and by the initial rise method. Values of activation energies estimated by both these techniques were comparable. The slight difference in activation energy values calculated by Chen's peak shape method indicated the formation of two kinds of traps Furthermore, slight differences in frequency values are due to various escaping and retrapping probabilities.

  11. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) nonhuman primates within, to... primate from the direct rays of the sun. A nonhuman primate must not be exposed to an ambient...

  12. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) nonhuman primates within, to... primate from the direct rays of the sun. A nonhuman primate must not be exposed to an ambient...

  13. Thermal expansion of lanthanum silicate oxyapatite (La9.33+2x(SiO4)6O2+3x), lanthanum oxyorthosilicate (La2SiO5) and lanthanum sorosilicate (La2Si2O7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Koichiro; Asaka, Toru; Uchida, Tomohiro

    2012-10-01

    Four types of powder specimens of La9.33(SiO4)6O2 (space group P63/m and Z=1), La9.33+2x(SiO4)6O2+3x with 0.06≤x≤0.13 (P63/m and Z=1), La2SiO5 (P21/c and Z=4) and La2Si2O7 (P21/c and Z=4) were examined by high-temperature X-ray powder diffractometry to determine the changes in unit-cell dimensions up to 1473 K. The anisotropy of thermal expansion was demonstrated for the former two crystals to clarify the thermal behaviors of the highly c-axis-oriented polycrystals. With La9.33(SiO4)6O2, the linear expansion coefficient of the a-axis (αa) was 4.8×10-6 K-1 and that of the c-axis (αc) was 1.8×10-6 K-1 in the temperature range from 298 to 1473 K. The αa- and αc-values of La9.33+2x(SiO4)6O2+3x (0.06≤x≤0.13) were, respectively, 5.9×10-6 K-1 and 2.3×10-6 K-1. The coefficients of mean linear thermal expansion were 4.9×10-6 K-1 for La2SiO5 and 6.0×10-6 K-1 for La2Si2O7, which describe the thermal expansion behaviors of the randomly grain-oriented polycrystalline materials.

  14. Evidence of superoxide radical contribution to demineralization of sulfamethoxazole by visible-light-driven Bi2O3/Bi2O2CO3/Sr6Bi2O9 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiyuan; Niu, Junfeng; Bao, Yueping; Hu, Lijuan

    2013-11-15

    Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using Bi2O3/Bi2O2CO3/Sr6Bi2O9 (BSO) photocatalyst under visible light (>420 nm) irradiation. The photochemical degradation of SMX followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reaction kinetics was determined as a function of initial SMX concentrations (5-20 mg L(-1)), initial pH (3-11) and BSO concentrations (6-600 mg L(-1)). Approximately, 90% of SMX (10 mg L(-1)) degradation and 36% of TOC reduction were achieved at pH 7.0 after 120 min irradiation. The main mineralization products, including NH4(+), NO3(-), SO4(2-) and CO2, as well as intermediates 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole (AMI), p-benzoquinone (BZQ), and sulfanilic acid (SNA) were detected in aqueous solution. The formation of O2(*-) radical was evidenced by using electron spin resonance and a chemiluminescent probe, luminal. A possible degradation mechanism involving excitation of BSO, followed by charge injection into the BSO conduction band and formation of reactive superoxide radical (O2(*-)) was proposed for the mineralization of SMX. During the reaction, the O2(*-) radical attacks the sulfone moiety and causes the cleavage of the SN bond, which leads to the formation of two sub-structure analogs, AMI and SNA.

  15. SERS investigations on orientation of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anuratha, M; Jawahar, A; Umadevi, M; Sathe, V G; Vanelle, P; Terme, T; Khoumeri, O; Meenakumari, V; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by solution combustion method with urea as fuel. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone (BMDMAQ) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles was investigated. The orientation of BMDMAQ on silver nanoparticles was inferred from nRs and SERS spectral features. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation was also performed to study the theoretical performance. The observed spectral features such as the high intensity of C-H out-of-plane bending mode and ring C-C stretching mode revealed that BMDMAQ adsorbed on silver surface through 'stand-on' orientation. Anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives have wide biomedical application which includes laxatives, antimalarials and antineoplastics used in the treatment of cancer. This present study would help to identify the interaction of drug molecules with DNA. PMID:25983057

  16. Local Jahn-Teller distortions and orbital ordering in Ba3Cu1 +xSb2 -xO9 investigated by neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Louca, Despina; Feygenson, Mikhail; Brown, Craig M.; Copley, John R. D.; Iida, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    A spin-orbital quantum liquid state is theoretically proposed in the honeycomb lattice of Ba3CuSb2O9 , enabled by dynamic short-range correlations between the spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Using neutron diffraction, the local atomic structure of Ba3Cu1 +xSb2 -xO9 at x =0 and 0.1 is obtained via the pair density function analysis. The results indicate that both compositions exhibit local Jahn-Teller (JT) distortions with the elongated CuO3 octahedral configuration. In Ba3Cu1.1Sb1.9O9 , JT ordering of the distorted CuO3 octahedra gives rise to the orthorhombic symmetry with ferro-orbital order. On the other hand, in Ba3CuSb2O9 , even though the CuO3 octahedra are JT distorted, there is no long-range ordering hence the symmetry is hexagonal. Furthermore, the local singlet excitation at 5.8 meV observed in Ba3CuSb2O9 below 50 K is absent in Ba3Cu1.1Sb1.9O9 . Instead, an excitation at 2.5 meV is observed in the latter, which is likely associated with short-range spin order.

  17. Local Jahn-Teller distortions and orbital ordering in Ba3Cu1+xSb2-xO9 investigated by neutron scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Bing; Feygenson, Mikhail; Brown, Craig M.; Copley, John R. D.; Iida, Kazuki

    2016-01-15

    In this study, a spin-orbital quantum liquid state is theoretically proposed in the honeycomb lattice of Ba3CuSb2O9, enabled by dynamic short-range correlations between the spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Using neutron diffraction, the local atomic structure of Ba3Cu1+xSb2-xO9 at x = 0 and 0.1 is obtained via the pair density function analysis. The results indicate that both compositions exhibit local Jahn-Teller (JT) distortions with the elongated CuO3 octahedral configuration. In Ba3Cu1.1Sb1.9O9, JT ordering of the distorted CuO3 octahedra gives rise to the orthorhombic symmetry with ferro-orbital order. On the other hand, in Ba3CuSb2O9, even though the CuO3 octahedra aremore » JT distorted, there is no long-range ordering hence the symmetry is hexagonal. Furthermore, the local singlet excitation at 5.8 meV observed in Ba3CuSb2O9 below 50 K is absent in Ba3Cu1.1Sb1.9O9. Instead, an excitation at 2.5 meV is observed in the latter, which is likely associated with short-range spin order.« less

  18. Effect of myricetin on cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Jin; Zheng, Shuang-Li

    2014-04-01

    Myricetin is one of the main ingredients of Chinese bayberry, which is used as a traditional medicine. The purpose of this study was to find out whether myricetin influences the rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4) by using cocktail probe drugs in vivo. A cocktail solution at a dose of 5 mL/kg, which contained phenacetin (20 mg/kg), tolbutamide (5 mg/kg) and midazolam (10 mg/kg), was orally administered to rats treated for 14 days with myricetin. Blood samples were collected at a series of time-points and the concentrations of probe drugs in plasma were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the software of DAS 2.0. Our study showed that treatment with multiple doses of myricetin had no effects on rat CYP1A2. However, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were inhibited after multiple doses of myricetin. Therefore, caution is needed when myricetin is co-administered with CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 substrates, which may result in herb-drug interactions.

  19. 9-[(2RS)-3-fluoro-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl] derivatives of purines: a class of highly selective antiretroviral agents in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, J; Holy, A; Jindrich, J; Dvorakova, H; Hao, Z; Snoeck, R; Herdewijn, P; Johns, D G; De Clercq, E

    1991-01-01

    A new class of compounds, 9-[(2RS)-3-fluoro-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl] [(RS)-FPMP] derivatives of purines, is described that has selective activity against a broad spectrum of retroviruses [including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2)] but not other RNA or DNA viruses. This activity spectrum is completely different from that of the parental compounds, 9-[(2S)-3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl] [(S)-HPMP] derivatives of purines, which are active against a broad range of DNA viruses. The racemic (RS)-FPMP derivatives of adenine and 2,6-diaminopurine, termed (RS)-FPMPA and (RS)-FPMPDAP, respectively, are markedly more selective as in vitro antiretroviral agents than their 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) (PME) counterparts, PMEA and PMEDAP. Also, (RS)-FPMPA and (RS)-FPMPDAP have a substantially higher therapeutic index in mice in inhibiting Moloney murine sarcoma virus-induced tumor formation and associated death and are markedly less inhibitory to human bone marrow cells than PMEA and PMEDAP. The diphosphate derivative of (RS)-FPMPA [(RS)-FPMPApp] is a potent and selective inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase but not of HSV-1 DNA polymerase or DNA polymerase alpha. (RS)-FPMPApp, akin to PMEA diphosphate (PMEApp), acts as a DNA chain terminator. The DNA chain-terminating properties of PMEApp and (RS)-FPMPApp seem to be a prerequisite for acyclic nucleoside phosphonates to exhibit antiretrovirus (i.e., anti-HIV) activity. Images PMID:1711214

  20. Identification of Nedd9 as a TGF-β-Smad2/3 Target Gene Involved in RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Comprehensive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Tetsuro; Hirose, Jun; Izawa, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Takumi; Imai, Yuuki; Seo, Sachiko; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Kadono, Yuho; Morimoto, Chikao; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    TGF-ß is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and function. We previously reported an essential role of the TGF-ß -Smad2/3 pathways in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing, we comprehensively identified Smad2/3 target genes in bone marrow macrophages. These genes were enriched in the gene population upregulated by TGF-ß and downregulated by RANKL. Recent studies have revealed that histone modifications, such as trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3), critically regulate key developmental steps. We identified Nedd9 as a Smad2/3 target gene whose histone modification pattern was converted from H3K4me3(+)/H3K4me27(+) to H3K4me3(+)/H3K4me27(-) by TGF-ß. Nedd9 expression was increased by TGF-ß and suppressed by RANKL. Overexpression of Nedd9 partially rescued an inhibitory effect of a TGF-ß inhibitor, while gene silencing of Nedd9 suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis were reduced and stimulatory effects of TGF-ß on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis were partially abrogated in cells from Nedd9-deficient mice although knockout mice did not show abnormal skeletal phenotypes. These results suggest that Nedd9 is a Smad2/3 target gene implicated in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27336669

  1. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the phosphate mineral vantasselite Al4(PO4)3(OH)3·9H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L.

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the phosphate mineral vantasselite Al4(PO4)3(OH)3·9H2O using a combination of SEM with EDX and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis shows Al, Fe and P. Raman bands at 1013 and 1027 cm-1 are assigned to the PO43- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. The observation of two bands suggests the non-equivalence of the phosphate units in the vantasselite structure. Raman bands at 1051, 1076 and 1090 cm-1 are attributed to the PO43- ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibration. A comparison is made with the spectroscopy of wardite. Strong infrared bands at 1044, 1078, 1092, 1112, 1133, 1180 and 1210 cm-1 are attributed to the PO43- ν3 antisymmetric stretching mode. Some of these bands may be due to δAl2OH deformation modes. Vibrational spectroscopy offers a mechanism for the study of the molecular structure of vantasselite.

  2. Effect of structural water on the critical characteristics of highly textured YBa2Cu3O6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, I. B.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Zyuzeva, N. A.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of low-temperature treatment (200°C) in a humid argon atmosphere and subsequent annealing (930°C) on the critical parameters of a highly textured YBa2Cu3O6.9 has been studied. During annealing at T = 200°C, the absorbed water is incorporated into the structure of the compound, which is accompanied by the deterioration of its superconducting properties. However, after the recovery annealing at T = 930°C and subsequent oxidation, the superconducting characteristics ( j c , B 1 c , and F p ) are improved. This is explained by the formation of 124-type planar defects, which are effective pinning centers, especially in high fields applied perpendicular to the c axis (⊥ c). The optimum conditions of double annealing substantially increasing the critical current density ( j c ≥ 104 A/cm2) in an external magnetic field up to 10 T and also the first critical fields have been found. In fields up to ˜3 T, the critical current density j c is isotropic despite the conservation of high texture in the samples.

  3. Wear Mechanism Maps for Magnesium Alloy AM60 and Composite AM60-9% (Al2O3)f

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah Khan, Muhammad Zafar

    The purpose of this work was to study the tribological behaviour of squeeze cast Mg alloy AM60 and its composite AM60-9% (Al2O3) f. Dry sliding wear tests were performed on specimens of these materials using a block-on-ring tribometer which was equipped with a COF and temperature measurement system. Wear, COF and temperature maps were constructed to illustrate the effect of temperature and COF on the wear behaviour of the Mg alloy and it's composite. Four wear regimes namely low, mild, transient and severe wear were identified. The transition from mild to severe wear regime was found to be dependent on the bulk temperature of the specimen. Oxidational wear prevailed in low and mild wear whereas plastic deformation induced wear and melt wear controlled the wear rates in transient and severe wear regimes, respectively. This study shows that the incorporation of Al2O3 fibres in AM60 alloy improved the wear resistance of the resulting composite by delaying the transition from mild to severe wear.

  4. Critical length of disorder for the onset of localization in YBa2Cu3O6.9films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, Andrea; Joensson, B. J.; Clerc-Dubois, Arnaud; Pavuna, Davor

    1996-07-01

    We report a combined analysis of resistivity and x-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements on c-axis oriented YBA2Cu3O6.9 films epitaxially grown on (100) SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 by ion-beam sputtering. We find that the growth-induced reduction of long-range lattice order in the films begins to depress superconductivity and normal conductivity at a critical value of lattice coherence length of approximately equals 10 and 5 nm for the two above types of substrates respectively. Evidence for disorder-induced localization is given by a deviation from linearity of the temperature-dependence of the resistivity which scales as the reduction of superconducting critical temperature. Similar nonlinear dependence observed in slightly reduced or lightly Co-doped samples suggests that the disorder in our films significantly affects the CuO chains. Our analysis of the paraconductivity term in the films gives evidence for the enhancement of the superconducting fluctuations by the disorder.

  5. Effect of 3-D viscoelastic structure on post-seismic relaxation from the 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.; Banerjee, P.; Grijalva, K.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake profoundly altered the state of stress in a large volume surrounding the ???1400 km long rupture. Induced mantle flow fields and coupled surface deformation are sensitive to the 3-D rheology structure. To predict the post-seismic motions from this earthquake, relaxation of a 3-D spherical viscoelastic earth model is simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The quasi-static deformation basis set and solution on the 3-D model is constructed using: a spherically stratified viscoelastic earth model with a linear stress-strain relation; an aspherical perturbation in viscoelastic structure; a 'static'mode basis set consisting of Earth's spheroidal and toroidal free oscillations; a "viscoelastic" mode basis set; and interaction kernels that describe the coupling among viscoelastic and static modes. Application to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake illustrates the profound modification of the post-seismic flow field at depth by a slab structure and similarly large effects on the near-field post-seismic deformation field at Earth's surface. Comparison with post-seismic GPS observations illustrates the extent to which viscoelastic relaxation contributes to the regional post-seismic deformation. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  6. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.92 Handling. (a) Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) nonhuman primates within, to... and efficiently as possible, and must provide the following during movement of the nonhuman...

  7. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.92 Handling. (a) Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) nonhuman primates within, to... and efficiently as possible, and must provide the following during movement of the nonhuman...

  8. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.92 Handling. (a) Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) nonhuman primates within, to... and efficiently as possible, and must provide the following during movement of the nonhuman...

  9. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate at a point not... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of nonhuman primates... not be able to touch or see any other animals, including other species of nonhuman primates....

  10. Beyond the Dimer and Trimer: Tetraspiro[2.1.2(5).1.2(9).1.2(13).1(3)] hexadecane-1,3,5,7-tetraone--the Cyclic Tetramer of Carbonylcyclopropane.

    PubMed

    Sedenkova, Kseniya N; Averina, Elena B; Grishin, Yuri K; Andriasov, Kristian S; Stepanova, Svetlana A; Roznyatovsky, Vitaly A; Kutateladze, Andrei G; Rybakov, Victor B; Albov, Dmitry V; Kuznetsova, Tamara S; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2016-03-14

    Tetraspiro[2.1.2(5).1.2(9).1.2(13).1(3)]hexadecane-1,3,5,7-tetraone 4, a unique tetraketone containing a cyclooctane core and four spiroannelated cyclopropane moieties, represents the previously unknown cyclotetramer of carbonylcyclopropane. For this purpose oxidation of the parent polyspirocyclic hydrocarbon was examined under various oxidative conditions, and the reactivity of oxidants towards methylene groups of the eight-membered cycle, activated by adjacent spirocyclopropane rings, was evaluated and contrasted. Whereas the treatment of tetraspirohexadecane with ozone resulted in monooxidation, its reaction with methyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane afforded the product of four-fold oxidation, triketoalcohol 10. Subsequent oxidation of the latter with Dess-Martin periodinane gave the target tetraketone 4.

  11. 9 CFR 203.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 203.3 Section 203.3 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.3...

  12. 9 CFR 145.3 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.3... 9-2 (formerly NPIP Form 3B) or through other appropriate means each breeding flock before the birds... designation; (3) Type: Primary or Multiplier; (4) Breed, variety, strain, or trade name of stock; (5)...

  13. 9 CFR 145.3 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.3... 9-2 (formerly NPIP Form 3B) or through other appropriate means each breeding flock before the birds... designation; (3) Type: Primary or Multiplier; (4) Breed, variety, strain, or trade name of stock; (5)...

  14. 9 CFR 145.3 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.3... 9-2 (formerly NPIP Form 3B) or through other appropriate means each breeding flock before the birds... designation; (3) Type: Primary or Multiplier; (4) Breed, variety, strain, or trade name of stock; (5)...

  15. 9 CFR 145.3 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.3... 9-2 (formerly NPIP Form 3B) or through other appropriate means each breeding flock before the birds... designation; (3) Type: Primary or Multiplier; (4) Breed, variety, strain, or trade name of stock; (5)...

  16. 9 CFR 145.3 - Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.3... 9-2 (formerly NPIP Form 3B) or through other appropriate means each breeding flock before the birds... designation; (3) Type: Primary or Multiplier; (4) Breed, variety, strain, or trade name of stock; (5)...

  17. 9 CFR 417.3 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrective actions. 417.3 Section 417.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.3 Corrective actions. (a) The written HACCP...

  18. 9 CFR 417.3 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corrective actions. 417.3 Section 417.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.3 Corrective actions. (a) The written HACCP...

  19. Investigation of beam transmission in A 9SDH-2 3.0 MV NEC pelletron tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Deoli, Naresh T.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Duggan, Jerome L.; Glass, Gary A.; McDaniel, Floyd D.; Reinert, Tilo; Rout, Bibhudutta; Weathers, Duncan L.

    2013-04-19

    Electrostatic tandem accelerators are widely used to accelerate ions for experiments in materials science such as high energy ion implantation, materials modification, and analyses. Many applications require high beam current as well as high beam brightness at the target; thus, maximizing the beam transmission through such electrostatic accelerators becomes important. The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at University of North Texas is equipped with four accelerators, one of which is a 9SDH-2 3.0 MV National Electrostatic Corporation (NEC) Pelletron Registered-Sign tandem accelerator. The tandem accelerator is equipped with three ion sources: one radio frequency-He ion source (Alphatross) and two ion sources of Cs-sputter type, the SNICS II (Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering) and a Cs-sputter source for trace-element accelerator based mass spectrometry. This work presents a detailed study of the beam transmission of hydrogen, silicon, and silver ions through the accelerator using the SNICS ion source with injection energies ranging from 20 keV to 70 keV. The beam transmission is quantified for three different terminal voltages: 1.5 MV, 2.0 MV and 2.5 MV. For a given terminal voltage, it has been found that beam transmission is strongly dependent on the ion source injector potential. Details of experiments and data analysis are presented.

  20. High Pressure Elastic Behavior of Synthetic Mg 3 Y 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 Garnet up to 9 GPa

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Dawei; Ma, Maining; Wei, Shuyi; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hongsen

    2013-01-01

    Tmore » he compression behavior of synthetic magnesium- (Mg-) yttrium (Y) garnet Mg 3 Y 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 has been investigated upto about 8.79 GPa at 300 K using in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and a diamond anvil cell at the beamline X17C, National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. No phase transition has been observed within the pressure range investigated.he unit-cell parameters and volume decreased systematically with increasing pressure, and a reliable isothermal bulk modulus ( K T 0 ) and its pressure derivative ( K T 0 ′ ) were obtained in this study.he values of zero-pressure volume V 0 , K 0 , and K 0 ′ refined with a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state are V 0 = 1727.9 ± 0.2  Å 3 , K T 0 = 145 ± 3  GPa, and K 0 ′ = 8.5 ± 0.9 . If K T 0 ′ is fixed at 4, K T 0 is obtained as 158 ± 2  GPa.« less

  1. Dual fluorescence from an isonido ReIII rhenacarborane phosphine complex, [7,10-mu-H-7-CO-7,7-(PPh3)2-isonido-7,8,9-ReC2B7H9].

    PubMed

    Buckner, Steven W; Fischer, Matthew J; Jelliss, Paul A; Luo, Rensheng; Minteer, Shelley D; Rath, Nigam P; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    2006-09-01

    The complex [7,10-mu-H-7-CO-7,7-(PPh3)2-isonido-7,8,9-ReC2B7H9] has been synthesized by treatment of the complex salt [NHMe3][3,3-Cl2-3,3-(CO)2-closo-3,1,2-ReC2B9H11] with PPh3 in refluxing THF (tetrahydrofuran) and isolated as intensely colored orange-red microcrystals. Spectroscopic NMR and IR data have suggested that the product has a highly asymmetric structure with two inequivalent PPh3 ligands and a single CO ligand. Measurement of 11B NMR spectra in particular have indicated seven distinct boron vertexes, although the resulting cage degradation by removal of two BH vertexes was confirmed only following X-ray crystallographic analysis, which revealed the pentadecahedral isonido-7,8,9-ReC2B7 architecture. The 11B NMR resonances span an enormous chemical shift range (Deltadelta = 113), and this appears to be a direct consequence of the deshielding of the boron vertex directly opposite the quadrilateral |ReCCB| aperture. The new complex has been shown by electrochemical measurements to undergo a reversible one-electron oxidation. Digitally simulated cyclic voltammograms support a proposed square scheme (E(1/2) = 0.58, 0.69 V vs ferrocene) involving a reversible isonido-closo transition of the metallacarborane cage. Most unusually for a metallacarborane complex, ambient temperature solutions in CH2Cl2 and DMF have been shown to be intensely turquoise-blue fluorescent (lambda(em) = 442 nm, Phi = 0.012). Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements in MeTHF (2-methyltetrahydrofuran) glass at 77 K have indicated that the likely cause of such a broad emission is dual fluorescence (lambda(em) = 404, 505 nm), with both emissions displaying vibronic structure. Following excited-state lifetime decay analysis, the emissive behavior has been accredited to metal-perturbed 1IL states, with the lower energy emission arising from a slight geometric distortion of the initially excited complex.

  2. Magnetoelectric properties of 0.1Bi0.95Dy0.05FeO3-0.9Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoch, A.; Stoch, P.; Kulawik, J.; Zieli ski, P.; Maurin, J.

    2011-10-01

    Pb-based complex perovskites with Fe3+ like Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 (PFW) were found to be interesting because of their unique properties such as relaxor and magnetoelectric behavior. PFW is ferroelectric with ferroelectric Curie temperature TC between 150 and 200 K and at the same time is antiferromagnetic with magnetic Neel temperature about 400 K. BiFeO3 is a well known perovskite compound which exhibits ferroelectric (TC = 1103 K) and antiferromagnetic (TN = 643 K) ordering simultaneously. The polycrystalline sample of 0.1Bi0.95Dy0.05FeO3 - 0.9Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 were synthesized using standard sintering procedure. Magnetization vs. magnetic field (at 4.2 K) curves was measured. Magnetoelectric properties of the sample were obtained.

  3. Preparation, patterning and luminescent properties of oxyapatite La9.33(SiO6)4O2:A(A = Eu3+, Tb3+, Ce3+) phosphor films by sol gel soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X. M.; Lin, J.; Xing, R. B.; Fu, J.; Wang, S. B.; Han, Y. C.

    2003-04-01

    Silicate oxyapatite La9.33(SiO6)4O2:A (A = Eu3+, Tb3+ and/or Ce3+) phosphor films and their patterning were fabricated by a sol-gel process combined with soft lithography. X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy and photoluminescence spectra, as well as lifetimes, were used to characterize the resulting films. The results of XRD indicated that the films began to crystallize at 800 °C and the crystallinity increased with the increase in annealing temperatures. Transparent nonpatterned phosphor films were uniform and crack-free, which mainly consisted of rodlike grains with a size between 150 and 210 nm. Patterned thin films with different bandwidths(20, 50µm) were obtained by the micromoulding in capillaries technique. The doped rare earth ions(Eu3+, Tb3+ and Ce3+) showed their characteristic emission in crystalline La9.33(SiO6)4O2 phosphor films, i.e. Eu3+5D 0 --7F J(J = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4), Tb3+5D 3,4 --7F J(J = 3, 4, 5, 6) and Ce3+ 5d(2D)-- 4f(2F 2/5,2F 2/7) emissions, respectively. Both the lifetimes and PL intensity of the Eu3+, Tb3+ ions increased with increasing annealing temperature from 800 to 1100 °C, and the optimum concentrations for Eu3+, Tb3+ were determined to be 9 and 7 mol% of La3+ in La9.33(SiO6)4O2 films, respectively. An energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+ was observed in the La9.33(SiO6)4O2:Ce, Tb phosphor films, and the energy transfer efficiency was estimated as a function of Tb3+ concentration.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,6-di(furan-3-yl)anthracene-9, 10-dione as an inhibitor of human protein kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Haidar, S; Meyers, A; Bollacke, A; Jose, J

    2015-12-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is an emerging target for the therapeutic intervention in human diseases, in particular in cancer. Inhibitors of this enzyme are at current in clinical trials indicating its drug ability. Here we report on the synthesis of two derivatives of 2,6-diaryl-anthracene-9,10-dione, one of them, 2,6-di(furan-3-yl)anthracene-9,10-dione (3), turned out to be active towards CK2, and ATP competitive with an IC50 value of 2.35 μM and a K(i) value of 1.26 μM. Molecular modeling studies were performed to explain the binding affinity of compound 3 in comparison to emodin. These indicated that unlike emodin, compound 3 was not able to perform a hydrogen bond with Lys68, although the compound fits well in the active site of human CK2α, which explains the difference in the measured affinity between those two compounds.

  5. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase-mediated Metabolic Activation of the Tobacco Carcinogen 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole*

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yijin; LeMaster, David M.; Nauwelaërs, Gwendoline; Gu, Dan; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that arises in tobacco smoke. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important enzymes that detoxicate many procarcinogens, including HAAs. UGTs compete with P450 enzymes, which bioactivate HAAs by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group; the resultant N-hydroxy-HAA metabolites form covalent adducts with DNA. We have characterized the UGT-catalyzed metabolic products of AαC and the genotoxic metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (HONH-AαC) formed with human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT isoforms, and human hepatocytes. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated by 1H NMR and mass spectrometry. AαC and HONH-AαC underwent glucuronidation by UGTs to form, respectively, N2-(β-d-glucosidurony1)-2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC-N2-Gl) and N2-(β-d-glucosidurony1)-2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC-HON2-Gl). HONH-AαC also underwent glucuronidation to form a novel O-linked glucuronide conjugate, O-(β-d-glucosidurony1)-2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC-HN2-O-Gl). AαC-HN2-O-Gl is a biologically reactive metabolite and binds to calf thymus DNA (pH 5.0 or 7.0) to form the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-AαC adduct at 20–50-fold higher levels than the adduct levels formed with HONH-AαC. Major UGT isoforms were examined for their capacity to metabolize AαC and HONH-AαC. UGT1A4 was the most catalytically efficient enzyme (Vmax/Km) at forming AαC-N2-Gl (0.67 μl·min−1·mg of protein−1), and UGT1A9 was most catalytically efficient at forming AαC-HN-O-Gl (77.1 μl·min−1·mg of protein−1), whereas UGT1A1 was most efficient at forming AαC-HON2-Gl (5.0 μl·min−1·mg of protein−1). Human hepatocytes produced AαC-N2-Gl and AαC-HN2-O-Gl in abundant quantities, but AαC-HON2-Gl was a minor product. Thus, UGTs, usually important enzymes in the detoxication of many procarcinogens, serve as a mechanism of bioactivation of

  6. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane attenuates cardiac H9c2 cell hypertrophy through 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jing; Wu, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Heng; Zhang, Jie-Yu; Yuan, Yuan; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Deng, Wei; Dai, Jia; Li, Fang-Fang; Xu, Man; Fang, Yi; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2015-07-01

    3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is the major product of the acid-catalyzed condensation of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a component of extracts of Brassica food plants. Numerous studies have suggested that DIM has several beneficial biological activities, including elimination of free radicals, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic effects and activation of apoptosis of various tumor cells. In the present study, an in vitro model was established, using 1 µM angiotensin II (Ang II) in cultured rat cardiac H9c2 cells, to observe the effects of DIM on cardiac hypertrophy. Following 24 h stimulation with DIM (1, 5, and 10 µM) with or without Ang II, cells were characterized by immunofluorescence to analyze cardiac α-actinin expression. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and molecular markers of cardiac hypertrophy were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide and myosin heavy chain β mRNA expression were induced by Ang II in H9c2 cells treated with the optimal concentration of DIM for 6, 12, and 24 h. The levels of phosphorylated and total proteins of the 5' AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in H9c2 cells treated with DIM for 0, 15, 30, and 60 min induced by Ang II were determined by western blot analysis. The results showed that DIM attenuated cellular hypertrophy in vitro, enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPKα and inhibited the MAPK‑mTOR signaling pathway in response to hypertrophic stimuli. PMID:25816057

  7. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) Adducts and Thiol Oxidation of Serum Albumin as Potential Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke*

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Khyatiben V.; Bellamri, Medjda; Wang, Yi; Langouët, Sophie; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed during the combustion of tobacco. AαC undergoes bioactivation to form electrophilic N-oxidized metabolites that react with DNA to form adducts, which can lead to mutations. Many genotoxicants and toxic electrophiles react with human serum albumin (albumin); however, the chemistry of reactivity of AαC with proteins has not been studied. The genotoxic metabolites, 2-hydroxyamino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (HONH-AαC), 2-nitroso-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (NO-AαC), N-acetyloxy-2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (N-acetoxy-AαC), and their [13C6]AαC-labeled homologues were reacted with albumin. Sites of adduction of AαC to albumin were identified by data-dependent scanning and targeted bottom-up proteomics approaches employing ion trap and Orbitrap MS. AαC-albumin adducts were formed at Cys34, Tyr140, and Tyr150 residues when albumin was reacted with HONH-AαC or NO-AαC. Sulfenamide, sulfinamide, and sulfonamide adduct formation occurred at Cys34 (AαC-Cys34). N-Acetoxy-AαC also formed an adduct at Tyr332. Albumin-AαC adducts were characterized in human plasma treated with N-oxidized metabolites of AαC and human hepatocytes exposed to AαC. High levels of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-AαC (dG-C8-AαC) DNA adducts were formed in hepatocytes. The Cys34 was the sole amino acid of albumin to form adducts with AαC. Albumin also served as an antioxidant and scavenged reactive oxygen species generated by metabolites of AαC in hepatocytes; there was a strong decrease in reduced Cys34, whereas the levels of Cys34 sulfinic acid (Cys-SO2H), Cys34-sulfonic acid (Cys-SO3H), and Met329 sulfoxide were greatly increased. Cys34 adduction products and Cys-SO2H, Cys-SO3H, and Met329 sulfoxide may be potential biomarkers to assess exposure and oxidative stress associated with AαC and other arylamine toxicants present in tobacco smoke. PMID:25953894

  8. B-allenyl- and B-(gamma-trimethylsilylpropargyl)-10-phenyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.2]decanes: asymmetric synthesis of propargyl and alpha-allenyl 3-degree-carbinols from ketones.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Eliud; Burgos, Carlos H; Alicea, Eyleen; Soderquist, John A

    2006-08-31

    Simple and efficient Grignard procedures are reported for the syntheses of B-allenyl-10-(phenyl)-9-borabicyclo[3.3.2]decane (1) and its B-(gamma-trimethylsilylpropargyl) counterpart (2) in both enantiomeric forms. Both add selectively to ketones, providing propargyl- and alpha-silylallenyl 3-degree-carbinols, respectively (i.e., 6 (61-93% ee) and 9 (64-98% ee)). The air-stable boron byproduct is efficiently recovered and recycled back to either 1 or 2. The ozonolysis and bromination of 9 provide nonracemic alpha-hydroxy acids and gamma-bromopropynyl carbinols, respectively. PMID:16928081

  9. B-Allenyl- and B-(Y-Trimethylsilylpropargyl)-10-phenyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.2]-decanes: Asymmetric Synthesis of Propargyl and α-Allenyl 3°-Carbinols from Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Eliud; Burgos, Carlos H.; Alicea, Eyleen; Soderquist, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Simple and efficient Grignard procedures are reported for the syntheses of B-allenyl-10-(phenyl)-9-borabicyclo[3.3.2]decane (1) and its B-(Y-trimethylsilylpropargyl)- counterpart (2) in both enantiomeric forms. Both add selectively to ketones providing propargyl- and α-silylallenyl 3°-carbinols, respectively (i.e., 6 (61– 93% ee) and 9 (64–98% ee)). The air-stable boron by-product is efficiently recovered and recycled back to either 1 or 2. The ozonolysis and bromination of 9 provide non-racemic α-hydroxy acids and Y-bromopropynyl carbinols, respectively. PMID:16928081

  10. Magnetoelectric Coupling, Ferroelectricity, and Magnetic Memory Effect in Double Perovskite La3Ni2NbO9.

    PubMed

    Dey, K; Indra, A; De, D; Majumdar, S; Giri, S

    2016-05-25

    We observe ferroelectricity in an almost unexplored double perovskite La3Ni2NbO9. Ferroelectricity appears below ∼60 K, which is found to be correlated with the significant magnetostriction. A reasonably large value of spontaneous electric polarization is recorded to be ∼260 μC/m(2) at 10 K for E = 5 kV/cm, which decreases signifi- cantly upon application of a magnetic field (H), suggesting considerable magnetoelectric coupling. The dielectric permittivity is also influenced by H below the ferroelectric transition. The magnetodielectric response scales linearly to the squared magnetization, as described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory. Meticulous studies of static and dynamic features of dc magnetization and frequency dependent ac susceptibility results suggest spin-glass state below 29 K. Intrinsic magnetic memory effect is observed from zero-field cooled magnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization studies, also pointing spin-glass state below 29 K. Appearance of ferroelectricity together with a significant magnetoelectric coupling in absence of conventional long-range magnetic order is promising for searching new magnetoelectric materials. PMID:27136317

  11. Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD), mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( HxCDD ) , mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8 - HxCDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9 - HxCDD ; CASRN 57653 - 85 - 7 and 19408 - 74 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in

  12. Cationic disorder and Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} charge ordering in the B′ and B″ sites of Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} perovskite: a comparison with Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}WO{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    López, C.A.; Saleta, M.E.; Pedregosa, J.C.; Sánchez, R.D.; Alonso, J.A.; and others

    2014-02-15

    We describe the preparation, crystal structure determination, magnetic and transport properties of two novel Mn-containing perovskites, with a different electronic configuration for Mn atoms located in B site. Ca{sub 3}Mn{sup 3+}{sub 2}WO{sub 9} and Ca{sub 3}Mn{sup 3+/4+}{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} were synthesized by standard ceramic procedures; the crystallographic structure was studied from X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD). Both phases exhibit a monoclinic symmetry (S.G.: P2{sub 1}/n); Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}WO{sub 9} presents a long-range ordering over the B sites, whereas Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} is strongly disordered. By “in-situ” NPD, the temperature evolution of the structure study presents an interesting evolution in the octahedral size (〈Mn–O〉) for Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9}, driven by a charge ordering effect between Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} atoms, related to the anomaly observed in the transport measurements at T≈160 K. Both materials present a magnetic order below T{sub C}=30 K and 40 K for W and Nb materials, respectively. The magneto-transport measurements display non-negligible magnetoresistance properties in the paramagnetic regime. - Graphical abstract: Comparison between the octahedron size and the magnetic behaviour for Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} in the temperature region where the charge and magnetic order occur. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two novel Mn-containing double perovskites were obtained by solid-state reactions. • Both double perovskites are monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) determined by XRPD and NPD. • Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}WO{sub 9} contains Mn{sup 3+} while Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} includes mixed-valence cations Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+}. • Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} presents a charge-ordering effect between Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} evidenced by NPD. • The magnetic and transport studies evidenced the charge ordering in Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9}.

  13. Structural studies on W{sup 6+} and Nd{sup 3+} substituted La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} materials

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero-Lopez, David; Canales-Vazquez, Jesus; Zhou Wuzong; Irvine, John T.S.; Nunez, Pedro . E-mail: pnunez@ull.es

    2006-01-15

    The structure of a series of new ionic conductors based in lanthanum molybdate (La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}) has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The superstructure 2a{sub c}x3a{sub c}x4a{sub c} of the low temperature {alpha}-polymorph relative to the {beta}-polymorph was confirmed by HRTEM imaging and electron diffraction. Furthermore, the effects of partial cation substitution in the La{sub 2-x}Nd{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} and La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}W{sub y}O{sub 9} series have been also evaluated in the search of new clues to understand the structure and stabilisation of the high temperature and better conductor {beta}-polymorph. The thermal analysis studies show that Nd-substitution does not stabilise completely the {beta}-polymorph at room temperature, although no superstructure ordering was observed by both XRD and HRTEM. On the other hand, W-substitution stabilises the cubic {beta}-polymorph for y>0.25, although, electron diffraction indicates a slight distortion from the cubic symmetry for low W-content. This distortion disappears as the W content increases and the Rietveld refinements gradually render better results.

  14. Negative magnetoresistance in (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 9} layered cobalt oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukada, I.; Yamamoto, T.; Takagi, M.; Tsubone, T.; Uchinokura, K.

    1998-12-31

    Transport and magnetic properties of layered cobalt oxide (BiPb){sub 2}Sr{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 9} are investigated in detail under magnetic field up to 8 T. Parent compound, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 9}, is a typical band insulator with Co ions being in a low-spin 3+ state because of the well-separated d{epsilon} and d{gamma} levels possibly due to a strong crystal field. The authors have tried to introduce holes mainly by Pb substitution for Bi. The hole-doped sample shows metallic behavior in a resistivity measurement between 300 and 30 K. Below 30 K, however, the resistivity increases. Under the magnetic field the resistivity is strongly suppressed in this region. The authors observed more than 30% resistivity drop at 2 K under H = 8 T, which is comparable to insulating (La,Sr)CoO{sub 3} system. They discuss the mechanism of hole doping and the origin of negative magnetoresistance with transport and magnetic properties, and point out that the conventional double-exchange mechanism cannot be applied to this system. This means that some new mechanism is necessary to explain this phenomenon.

  15. MMP1, 2, 3, 7, and 9 Gene Polymorphisms and Urinary Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zuo; Lin, Li; Lei, Yin; Hongyuan, Yu; Hongwei, Jing; Yang, Liu; Chuize, Kong

    2015-01-01

    Background: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of highly conserved, metal-dependent proteolytic enzymes that play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Many studies have been carried out on the association between polymorphisms in the MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, and MMP9 genes and urinary cancer risk. However, the data from these published studies are conflicting and have low statistical power. Methods: In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of 12 different publications from the PubMed and WanFang databases, published up to May 2015, to better assess the purported associations. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined to reveal association strengths. Results: Some significant associations were found. For the MMP1 -1607 1G/2G polymorphism, a negative association was identified for the 2G allele in bladder cancer (2G2G+2G1G vs. 1G1G: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.36–0.93, pheterogeneity = 0.001) and renal cell carcinoma (2G1G vs. 1G1G: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39–0.82, pheterogeneity = 0.567). For the MMP2 -1306 C/T polymorphism, there was a negative association with the T allele for bladder cancer in the Asian population (TT+TC vs. CC: OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.18–0.94, pheterogeneity = 0.195). For the MMP7 -181 A/G polymorphism, a decreased bladder cancer risk was found (G-allele vs. A-allele: OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66–0.98, pheterogeneity = 0.325). Conclusion: In summary, our study showed evidence that genetic polymorphisms in MMP1 for all populations, but only in the Asian population for MMP2 and MMP7, may protect against bladder cancer risk. Future studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to further evaluate these associations in more detail. PMID:26301605

  16. [1,1-(η(2)-dppe)-3-(NC5H5)-closo-1,2-RhSB9H8]: conformational lability and reactivity with H2 upon protonation.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Ana C; Calvo, Beatriz; Macías, Ramón; Artigas, María José; Lahoz, Fernando J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-05-21

    Metallaheteroboranes are versatile compounds that can be conveniently modified and eventually tailored by ligand modification at either the metal centre or the boron vertices. Recently, we have discovered that protonation of some rhodathiaboranes affords cationic clusters with interesting reaction chemistry. In order to tune the reactivity of some of these polyhedral boron-based compounds, we have prepared air-stable orange [1,1-(η(2)-dppe)-3-(NC5H5)-closo-1,2-RhSB9H8] (2) by the treatment of the known hydridorhodathiaborane [8,8,8-(H)(PPh3)2-9-(NC5H5)-nido-8,7-RhSB9H9] (1) with dppe. The new 11-vertex rhodathiaborane, 2, reacts readily with triflic acid (TfOH) in CH2Cl2 to give orange cationic [8,8-(η(2)-dppe)-9-(NC5H5)-nido-8,7-RhSB9H9](+) (3). VT NMR experiments have allowed the characterization of a structural closo ↔ nido tautomerism, which involves hapticity changes in the ligation of the {SB9H9-(NC5H5)} moiety to the {Rh(dppe)} fragment, with the proton moving between the Rh(1)-B(3) and the B(9)-B(10) edges of the closo- and nido-isomers, respectively. The proton enhances the stereochemical non-rigidity and Lewis acidity of 3 versus the neutral 2. This modification of the chemical and structural basis permits the efficient heterolytic splitting of the H-H bond, leading to the formation of new hydridorhodathiaborane isomers [8,8,8-(H)(η(2)-dppe)-μ-8,9-(H)-9-(NC5H5)-nido-8,7-RhSB9H10](+) ()4 that are in equilibrium with the reactants, H2 and 3.

  17. Isolation of a novel H3N2 influenza virus containing a gene of H9N2 avian influenza in a dog in South Korea in 2015.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Hong; Le, Tran Bac; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2016-02-01

    We isolated a serotype H3N2 influenza virus from a dog with severe respiratory distress in an animal clinic in South Korea in 2015 and characterized the sequences of its eight genes. The following seven genes were derived from canine influenza virus: PB2, PB1, HA, NP, NA, M, and NS. However, the PA gene was derived from avian H9N2 influenza virus that is circulating in poultry in Korea. These findings suggest that the continued surveillance of the influenza virus in dogs is warranted because humans have close contact with dogs, which may promote viral transmission.

  18. Electrochemical behavior and luminescent properties of a multilayer film containing mixed-addenda polyoxometalates K10H3[Eu(SiMo9W2O39)2] and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II).

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Ma, Huiyuan; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Lihong; Wang, Fuping; Li, Chunxiang

    2007-07-15

    Inorganic-organic composite films containing the mixed-addenda heteropolytungsto-molybdate K(10)H(3)[Eu(SiMo(9)W(2)O(39))(2)]xH(2)O (abbreviated as EuSiMo(9)W(2)) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) Ru(bpy)(2+)(3) (abbreviated as Ru(bpy)(3)) were fabricated by the layer-by-layer self-assembly method. UV-vis spectroscopy shows that the absorbance values at characteristic peaks increase linearly with the number of EuSiMo(9)W(2)/Ru(bpy)(3) bilayers, suggesting that the deposition process is linear and highly reproducible from layer to layer. The composition of the multilayer film was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectra. Atomic force microscopy presented a correspondingly uniform surface morphology and a homogeneity of the multilayer films. The film exhibited photoluminescence arising from the d-pi* metal-to-ligand transition of Ru(2+), and (5)D(0) metastable state to terminate levels in the (7)F(J) (J=0-4) ground-state multiplet transitions of Eu(3+). The film also exhibited catalytic activities toward the reduction of IO(-)(3), H(2)O(2), BrO(-)(3), NO(-)(2) and the oxidation of C(2)O(2-)(4). It may provide a novel material as bifunctional electrocatalysts and fluorescence probes in biochemistry, luminescence sensors, electroluminescent optical devices, and so on.

  19. Crystal structure of (E)-9-(4-nitro-benzyl-idene)-8,9-di-hydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5(7H)-one.

    PubMed

    Khodjaniyazov, Khamid U; Ashurov, Jamshid M

    2016-04-01

    The title compound, C17H12N4O3, a pyrido-pyrrolo-pyrimidine derivative, is almost planar. The nitro-benzene ring is inclined to the mean plane of the 8,9-di-hydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5(7H)-one moiety (r.m.s. deviation = 0.023 Å) by 6.8 (1)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯O and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (101). PMID:27375862

  20. 9 CFR 3.19 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.19 Handling. (a) Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) dogs or cats within, to, or... efficiently as possible and must provide the following during movement of the dog or cat: (1) Shelter...

  1. 9 CFR 3.12 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.12 Employees. Each person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining dogs and cats must have enough employees to..., background, and experience in proper husbandry and care of dogs and cats to supervise others. The...

  2. 9 CFR 3.12 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.12 Employees. Each person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining dogs and cats must have enough employees to..., background, and experience in proper husbandry and care of dogs and cats to supervise others. The...

  3. 9 CFR 3.12 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.12 Employees. Each person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining dogs and cats must have enough employees to..., background, and experience in proper husbandry and care of dogs and cats to supervise others. The...

  4. 9 CFR 354.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 354.3 Section 354.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... provisions of the regulations to permit experimentation so that new procedures, equipment, and...

  5. 9 CFR 354.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 354.3 Section 354.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... provisions of the regulations to permit experimentation so that new procedures, equipment, and...

  6. 9 CFR 381.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 381.3 Section 381.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... the event of a public health emergency or to permit experimentation so that new procedures,...

  7. 9 CFR 381.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 381.3 Section 381.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... the event of a public health emergency or to permit experimentation so that new procedures,...

  8. 9 CFR 354.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration. 354.3 Section 354.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... provisions of the regulations to permit experimentation so that new procedures, equipment, and...

  9. 9 CFR 381.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administration. 381.3 Section 381.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... the event of a public health emergency or to permit experimentation so that new procedures,...

  10. 9 CFR 381.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration. 381.3 Section 381.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... the event of a public health emergency or to permit experimentation so that new procedures,...

  11. Spectroscopic studies of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethylanthracene-9,10-dione on plasmonic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S R; Umadevi, M; Vanelle, P; Terme, T; Khoumeri, O; Sridhar, B

    2014-12-10

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes from 7nm to 22nm have been prepared by simple Dirk and Charles chemical method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence quenching of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethylanthracene-9,10-dione (DMDMAD) by silver nanoparticles has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the role of quenching mechanism. Furthermore, the intensity of DMDMAD fluorescence emission peak decreases with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. The fluorescence quenching rate constant and association constant for above system were determined using Stern-Volmer and Benesi-Hildebrand plots. The mechanism of DMDMAD fluorescence quenched by Ag NPs was discussed according to the Stern-Volmer equation. It has been observed that the quenching due to Ag NPs proceeds via dynamic quenching process. The distance between DMDMAD (donor) to Ag NPs (acceptor) and the critical energy transfer distance were estimated based on the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) theory.

  12. Spectroscopic studies of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethylanthracene-9,10-dione on plasmonic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S R; Umadevi, M; Vanelle, P; Terme, T; Khoumeri, O; Sridhar, B

    2014-12-10

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes from 7nm to 22nm have been prepared by simple Dirk and Charles chemical method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence quenching of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethylanthracene-9,10-dione (DMDMAD) by silver nanoparticles has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the role of quenching mechanism. Furthermore, the intensity of DMDMAD fluorescence emission peak decreases with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. The fluorescence quenching rate constant and association constant for above system were determined using Stern-Volmer and Benesi-Hildebrand plots. The mechanism of DMDMAD fluorescence quenched by Ag NPs was discussed according to the Stern-Volmer equation. It has been observed that the quenching due to Ag NPs proceeds via dynamic quenching process. The distance between DMDMAD (donor) to Ag NPs (acceptor) and the critical energy transfer distance were estimated based on the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) theory. PMID:24973788

  13. MMP13, Birc2 (cIAP1) and Birc3 (cIAP2), Amplified on Chromosome 9, Collaborate with p53 Deficiency in Mouse Osteosarcoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ou; Cai, Wei-Wen; Zender, Lars; Dayaram, Tajhal; Shen, Jianhe; Herron, Alan J.; Lowe, Scott W.; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Lau, Ching C.; Donehower, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the primary malignant cancer of bone and particularly affects adolescents and young adults, causing debilitation, and sometimes death. As a model for human osteosarcoma we have been studying p53+/− mice, which develop osteosarcoma at high frequency. To discover genes that cooperate with p53 deficiency in osteosarcoma formation we have integrated array comparative genomic hybridization, microarray expression analyses in mouse and human osteosarcomas, and functional assays. In this study we found seven frequent regions of copy number gain and loss in the mouse p53+/− osteosarcomas, but have focused on a recurrent amplification event on mouse chromosome 9A1. This amplicon is syntenic with a similar chromosome 11q22 amplicon identified in a number of human tumor types. Three genes on this amplicon, the matrix metalloproteinase gene MMP13, and the anti-apoptotic genes Birc2 (cIAP1), and Birc3 (cIAP2) show elevated expression in mouse and human osteosarcomas. We developed a functional assay using clonal osteosarcoma cell lines transduced with lentiviral shRNA vectors to show that downregulation of MMP13, Birc2, or Birc3 resulted in reduced tumor growth when transplanted into immunodeficient recipient mice. These experiments revealed that high MMP13 expression enhances osteosarcoma cell survival and that Birc2 and Birc3 also enhance cell survival, but only in osteosarcoma cells with the chromosome 9A1 amplicon. We conclude that the anti-apoptotic genes Birc2 and Birc3 are potential oncogenic drivers in the chromosome 9A1 amplicon. PMID:19276372

  14. GSK-3β promotes PA-induced apoptosis through changing β-arrestin 2 nucleus location in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fen; Liu, Jing; Fu, Hui; Wang, Jinlan; Li, Fang; Yue, Hongwei; Li, Wenjing; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Deling

    2016-09-01

    Palmitic acid (PA), a type of saturated fatty acids, induces cardiovascular diseases by causing cardiomyocyte apoptosis with unclear mechanisms. Akt participates in PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. GSK-3β is a substrate of Akt, we investigated its role in PA-induced apoptosis. We reveal that PA inhibits GSK-3β phosphorylation accompanied by inactivation of Akt in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. We also reveal that inhibition the activity of GSK-3β by its inhibitor LiCl or knockdown by siRNA significantly attenuates PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, this suggesting that GSK-3β plays a pro-apoptotic role. To detect its downstream factors, we analyzed the roles of JNK, p38 MAPK and β-arrestin 2 (β-Arr2). Here, we report that GSK-3β regulate PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by affecting the distribution of β-Arr2. PA diminishes the protein level of β-Arr2 and changes its distribution from nucleus to cytoplasm. Either inhibition of β-Arr2 by its siRNA or overexpression of its protein level by transfection of β-Arr2 full-length plasmid promotes PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which remind us to focus on the changes of its location. β-Arr2 siRNA decreased the background level of β-Arr2 in nucleus in normal H9c2 cells. Overexpression of β-Arr2 increased cytoplasm level of β-Arr2 as PA did. While LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β decreased PA-induced apoptosis, accompany with increased nucleus level of β-Arr2. Then we concluded that GSK-3β is closely associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by PA, it performs its pro-apoptotic function by affecting the location of β-Arr2. LiCl inhibits PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which might provide novel therapeutic for cardiovascular diseases induced by metabolic syndrome.

  15. GSK-3β promotes PA-induced apoptosis through changing β-arrestin 2 nucleus location in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fen; Liu, Jing; Fu, Hui; Wang, Jinlan; Li, Fang; Yue, Hongwei; Li, Wenjing; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Deling

    2016-09-01

    Palmitic acid (PA), a type of saturated fatty acids, induces cardiovascular diseases by causing cardiomyocyte apoptosis with unclear mechanisms. Akt participates in PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. GSK-3β is a substrate of Akt, we investigated its role in PA-induced apoptosis. We reveal that PA inhibits GSK-3β phosphorylation accompanied by inactivation of Akt in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. We also reveal that inhibition the activity of GSK-3β by its inhibitor LiCl or knockdown by siRNA significantly attenuates PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, this suggesting that GSK-3β plays a pro-apoptotic role. To detect its downstream factors, we analyzed the roles of JNK, p38 MAPK and β-arrestin 2 (β-Arr2). Here, we report that GSK-3β regulate PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by affecting the distribution of β-Arr2. PA diminishes the protein level of β-Arr2 and changes its distribution from nucleus to cytoplasm. Either inhibition of β-Arr2 by its siRNA or overexpression of its protein level by transfection of β-Arr2 full-length plasmid promotes PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which remind us to focus on the changes of its location. β-Arr2 siRNA decreased the background level of β-Arr2 in nucleus in normal H9c2 cells. Overexpression of β-Arr2 increased cytoplasm level of β-Arr2 as PA did. While LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β decreased PA-induced apoptosis, accompany with increased nucleus level of β-Arr2. Then we concluded that GSK-3β is closely associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by PA, it performs its pro-apoptotic function by affecting the location of β-Arr2. LiCl inhibits PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which might provide novel therapeutic for cardiovascular diseases induced by metabolic syndrome. PMID:27431999

  16. Syntheses of 3-[(Alkylamino)methylene]-6-methylpyridine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones, 3-Substituted 7-Methyl-2H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-2,5(6H)-dione Fluorescence Probes, and Tetrahydro-1H,9H-2,10-dioxa-9-azaanthracen-1-ones

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Allan M.; Gunaratna, Medha J.; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Desper, John; Kim, Yunjeong; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Maezawa, Izumi; Jin, Lee-Way; Hua, Duy H.

    2014-01-01

    Various condensation and ring-closing reactions were used for the syntheses of 3-[(alkylamino)methylene]-6-methylpyri-dine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones, bicyclic pyridinones, and tricyclic morpholinopyrones. For instance, 3-[(dialkylamino)methylene]-6-methylpyridine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones were synthesized from the condensation of dialkylamines and 3-formyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one. 3-Formyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one, derived from 3-formyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one, was used to construct a number of bicyclic pyridinones via a one-pot Knoevenagal and intramolecular lactonization reaction. Tricyclic morpholinopyrones were assembled from a dialkylation reaction involving a dinucleophile, 3-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, and a dielectrophile, trans-3,6-dibromocyclohexene. Depending on the reaction conditions, isomers of the tricyclic molecules can be selectively produced, and their chemical structures were unequivocally determined using single-crystal X-ray analyses and 2D COSY spectroscopy. The fluorescently active bicyclic pyridinone compounds show longer absorption (368–430 nm; maximum) and emission wavelengths (450–467 nm) than those of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC; λabs,max = 350 nm; λem = 430 nm) suggesting these molecules, such as 3-(2-aminoacetyl)-7-methyl-2H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-2,5(6H)-dione, can be employed as fluorescence activity based probes for tracing biological pathways. PMID:25177061

  17. Pharmacogenetics in American Indian Populations: Analysis of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fohner, Alison; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Austin, Melissa A.; Gaedigk, Andrea; Gordon, Adam; Thornton, Timothy; Rieder, Mark J.; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Howlett, Kevin; Beatty, Patrick; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a dominant role in drug elimination and variation in these genes is a major source of interindividual differences in drug response. Little is known, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. We have developed a partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) in northwestern Montana to address this knowledge gap. Methods We resequenced CYP2D6 in 187 CSKT subjects and CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in 94 CSKT subjects. Results We identified 67 variants in CYP2D6, 15 in CYP3A4, 10 in CYP3A5, and 41 in CYP2C9. The most common CYP2D6 alleles were CYP2D6*4 and *41 (20.86 and 11.23%, respectively). CYP2D6*3, *5, *6, *9, *10, *17, *28, *33, *35, *49, *1xN, *2xN, and *4xN frequencies were less than 2%. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and *1B were detected with frequencies of 92.47, 26.81, and 2.20%, respectively. Allelic variation in CYP2C9 was low: CYP2C9*2 (5.17%) and *3 (2.69%). In general, allele frequencies in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 were similar to those observed in European Americans. There was, however, a marked divergence in CYP3A4 for the CYP3A4*1G allele. We also observed low levels of linkage between CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A5*1 in the CSKT. The combination of nonfunctional CYP3A5*3 and putative reduced function CYP3A4*1G alleles may predict diminished clearance of CYP3A substrates. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of conducting pharmacogenomic research in AI/AN populations and demonstrate that extrapolation from other populations is not appropriate. This information could help to optimize drug therapy for the CSKT population. PMID:23778323

  18. Discovery of a Neuroprotective Chemical, (S)-N-(3-(3,6-Dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-fluoropropyl)-6-methoxypyridin-2-amine [(−)-P7C3-S243], with Improved Druglike Properties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    (−)-P7C3-S243 is a neuroprotective aminopropyl carbazole with improved druglike properties compared with previously reported compounds in the P7C3 class. It protects developing neurons in a mouse model of hippocampal neurogenesis and protects mature neurons within the substantia nigra in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. A short, enantioselective synthesis provides the neuroprotective agent in optically pure form. It is nontoxic, orally bioavailable, metabolically stable, and able to cross the blood–brain barrier. As such, it represents a valuable lead compound for the development of drugs to treat neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injury. PMID:24697290

  19. Absence of Jahn−Teller transition in the hexagonal Ba3CuSb2O9 single crystal

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Naoyuki; Kimura, Kenta; Han, Yibo; Nasu, Joji; Drichko, Natalia; Nakanishi, Yoshiki; Halim, Mario; Ishiguro, Yuki; Satake, Ryuta; Nishibori, Eiji; Yoshizawa, Masahito; Nakano, Takehito; Nozue, Yasuo; Wakabayashi, Yusuke; Ishihara, Sumio; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Sawa, Hiroshi; Nakatsuji, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    With decreasing temperature, liquids generally freeze into a solid state, losing entropy in the process. However, exceptions to this trend exist, such as quantum liquids, which may remain unfrozen down to absolute zero owing to strong quantum entanglement effects that stabilize a disordered state with zero entropy. Examples of such liquids include Bose−Einstein condensation of cold atoms, superconductivity, quantum Hall state of electron systems, and quantum spin liquid state in the frustrated magnets. Moreover, recent studies have clarified the possibility of another exotic quantum liquid state based on the spin–orbital entanglement in FeSc2S4. To confirm this exotic ground state, experiments based on single-crystalline samples are essential. However, no such single-crystal study has been reported to date. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first single-crystal study on the spin–orbital liquid candidate, 6H-Ba3CuSb2O9, and we have confirmed the absence of an orbital frozen state. In strongly correlated electron systems, orbital ordering usually appears at high temperatures in a process accompanied by a lattice deformation, called a static Jahn−Teller distortion. By combining synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electron spin resonance, Raman spectroscopy, and ultrasound measurements, we find that the static Jahn−Teller distortion is absent in the present material, which indicates that orbital ordering is suppressed down to the lowest temperatures measured. We discuss how such an unusual feature is realized with the help of spin degree of freedom, leading to a spin–orbital entangled quantum liquid state. PMID:26170280

  20. Crystal structure of 2,4-bis­(2-chloro­phen­yl)-7-tert-pent­yl-3-aza­bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ho; Ramkumar, V.; Parthiban, P.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C25H29Cl2NO, which is a chloro analog of 2,4-bis­(2-bromo­phen­yl)-7-(tert-pent­yl)-3-aza­bicyclo­[3.3.1]nonan-9-one [Park, Ramkumar & Parthiban (2012). Acta Cryst. E68, o2946], exists in a twin-chair conformation with an equatorial orientation of the 2-chloro­phenyl groups. The tert-pentyl group on the cyclo­hexa­none adopts an exocyclic equatorial position and is disordered between two orientations in a ratio 0.520 (8):0.480 (8). The crystal packing shows no directional contacts beyond van der Waals contacts. PMID:25484804

  1. Application of vibrational correlation formalism to internal conversion rate: case study of Cu(n) (n = 3, 6, and 9) and H2/Cu3.

    PubMed

    Chiodo, Sandro Giuseppe; Mineva, Tzonka

    2015-03-21

    This work reports non-radiative internal conversion (IC) rate constants obtained for Cun with n = 3, 6, and 9 and H2 on Cu3. The Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) method was employed with three different functionals in order to investigate the electronic structures and the absorption spectra. The performance of the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) and the hybrid B3LYP and PBE0 exchange correlation functionals in combination with the SVP and the def2-TZVP basis sets was examined. TDDFT results were used as input data to compute internal conversion rate constants. For this purpose, we have developed a program package. A description of the theoretical background used in our numerical implementation and the program input file is presented. In view of future applications of this program package in photoinduced catalysis, we present the analysis of the IC rate processes for the photodissociation of H2 on Cu3. These results showed the applicability of the method and the computational program to identify the vibrational modes in transition metal clusters giving rise to the largest IC rate constant due to their interactions with the excited electronic states occurring in the hot-electron induced dissociation phenomena.

  2. Crystal structures of Sr(ClO4)2·3H2O, Sr(ClO4)2·4H2O and Sr(ClO4)2·9H2O.

    PubMed

    Hennings, Erik; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    The title compounds, strontium perchlorate trihydrate {di-μ-aqua-aquadi-μ-perchlorato-strontium, [Sr(ClO4)2(H2O)3] n }, strontium perchlorate tetra-hydrate {di-μ-aqua-bis-(tri-aqua-diperchloratostrontium), [Sr2(ClO4)4(H2O)8]} and strontium perchlorate nona-hydrate {hepta-aqua-diperchloratostrontium dihydrate, [Sr(ClO4)2(H2O)7]·2H2O}, were crystallized at low temperatures according to the solid-liquid phase diagram. The structures of the tri- and tetra-hydrate consist of Sr(2+) cations coordinated by five water mol-ecules and four O atoms of four perchlorate tetra-hedra in a distorted tricapped trigonal-prismatic coordination mode. The asymmetric unit of the trihydrate contains two formula units. Two [SrO9] polyhedra in the trihydrate are connected by sharing water mol-ecules and thus forming chains parallel to [100]. In the tetra-hydrate, dimers of two [SrO9] polyhedra connected by two sharing water mol-ecules are formed. The structure of the nona-hydrate contains one Sr(2+) cation coordinated by seven water mol-ecules and by two O atoms of two perchlorate tetra-hedra (point group symmetry ..m), forming a tricapped trigonal prism (point group symmetry m2m). The structure contains additional non-coordinating water mol-ecules, which are located on twofold rotation axes. O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the water mol-ecules as donor and ClO4 tetra-hedra and water mol-ecules as acceptor groups lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network in each of the three structures.

  3. Photoluminescence, enhanced ferroelectric, and dielectric properties of Pr{sup 3+}-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} multifunctional ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Hua; Yu, Yao; Li, Jun; Cao, Qiufeng; Wang, Xusheng; Hou, Junwei

    2015-09-15

    Pr{sup 3+}-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBN) multifunctional ceramics were synthesized by the conventional solid state method. The photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra, enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FESEM analyses indicated that the samples were simple phase and uniform flake-structure. Under the 250–350 nm ultraviolet (UV) excitations, the red emission was obtained and the optimal emission intensity was investigated when Pr doping level was 0.005 mol. With the increasing of the Pr{sup 3+} ion contents, the ferroelectric properties were enhanced obviously. As a new multifunctional material, the Pr{sup 3+}-doped SBN ceramics could be used for a wide range of application, such as integrated electro-optical devices.

  4. Enhancing caries resistance with a short-pulsed CO2 9.3-μm laser: a laboratory study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, Peter; Rechmann, Beate M.; Groves, William H.; Le, Charles; Rapozo-Hilo, Marcia L.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this laboratory study was to test whether irradiation with a new 9.3µm microsecond short-pulsed CO2-laser enhances enamel caries resistance with and without additional fluoride applications. 101 human enamel samples were divided into 7 groups. Each group was treated with different laser parameters (Carbon-dioxide laser, wavelength 9.3µm, 43Hz pulse-repetition rate, pulse duration between 3μs to 7μs (1.5mJ/pulse to 2.9mJ/pulse). Using a pH-cycling model and cross-sectional microhardness testing determined the mean relative mineral loss delta Z (∆Z) for each group. The pH-cycling was performed with or without additional fluoride. The CO2 9.3μm short-pulsed laser energy rendered enamel caries resistant with and without additional fluoride use.

  5. Oxidative dissolution of chromium(III) hydroxide at pH 9, 3, and 2 with product inhibition at pH 2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Giehyeon; Hering, Janet G

    2005-07-01

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), can be immobilized under neutral to alkaline conditions by reduction to Cr(III); similarly, the mobility of naturally occurring Cr in soils and sediments can be limited by its occurrence in the +III oxidation state. Conversely, the oxidation of Cr(IIi) to Cr(VI) increases both its toxicity and often its mobility. Dissolution of Cr-(OH)3(s) in 0.01 M NaNO3 suspensions was examined in batch experiments in the presence and absence of the strong oxidant sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI). Dissolution of Cr(OH)3(s) (1.0 g/L) was accelerated in the presence of excess strong oxidant (20 mM) at pH 9 by a factor of ca. 200 and to a lesser extent at pH 2 and 3. Linear kinetics of oxidative dissolution was observed at pH 9 and 3. In contrast, the rate of Cr release at pH 2 decreased rapidly with time, and within 2.5 h, the dissolution reaction was completely inhibited. Under oxidizing conditions, Cr released into solution is expected to be present as Cr(VI), which sorbs strongly to Cr(OH)3(s) at low pH. Cr(VI) sorption followed a Langmuir isotherm and reached maximum sorption densities of 308 +/- 8 and 271 +/- 10 micromol/g at pH 3 and 2, respectively. However, sorption of Cr(VI) (putatively formed during oxidative dissolution) cannot explain the observed inhibition of the reaction because (1) sorption occurs at both pH 2 and 3 but inhibition only at pH 2 and (2) preequilibration of Cr(OH)3(s) with Cr(VI) did not affectthe rate of dissolution observed upon the addition of the oxidant. Thus, we hypothesize that the inhibition of (net) oxidative dissolution at pH 2 may be the result of secondary precipitation of a chromic hydroxy chromate phase.

  6. (1RS,2SR,5SR)-9-Benzyl-2-[(1RS)-1-hy­droxy­benz­yl]-9-aza­bicyclo­[3.3.1]nonan-3-one from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Lazny, Ryszard; Wolosewicz, Karol; Dauter, Zbigniew; Brzezinski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the racemic title compound, C22H25NO2, solved and refined against sychrotron diffraction data, the hy­droxy group and the carbonyl O atom participate in the formation of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between pairs of enanti­omers related by a crystallographic centre of symmetry. PMID:22590261

  7. Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Combining ZnO Nanoparticles and Poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfeng; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ling; Qian, Lei; Yang, Ziyan; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yixing; Cao, Weiran

    2016-02-10

    A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) has been successfully demonstrated by using a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] (PFN) bilayer structure as an effective electron collecting layer. This ZnO/PFN bilayer structure is designed to combine the advantages of both ZnO and PFN, based on the performance comparison of ZnO-only, PFN-only, and ZnO/PFN bilayer devices in our work. ZnO NPs can serve as an efficient electron transport and buffer layer for reduced series resistance, while the PFN interlayer can improve the energy level alignment of devices through the formation of an interfacial dipole. With the enhanced electron extraction induced by the ZnO/PFN bilayer structure and PTB7:ICBA:PC71BM ternary system, the corresponding inverted PSC device shows a high PCE of 9.3%, which is more than a 15% improvement compared to the ZnO- or PFN-only devices.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy of the borate mineral tunellite SrB6O9(OH)2·3(H2O) - Implications for the molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Xi, Yunfei

    2014-02-01

    Tunellite is a strontium borate mineral with formula: SrB6O9(OH)2·3(H2O) and occurs as colorless crystals in the monoclinic pyramidal crystal system. An intense Raman band at 994 cm-1 was assigned to the BO stretching vibration of the B2O3 units. Raman bands at 1043, 1063, 1082 and 1113 cm-1 are attributed to the in-plane bending vibrations of trigonal boron. Sharp Raman bands observed at 464, 480, 523, 568 and 639 cm-1 are simply defined as trigonal and tetrahedral borate bending modes. The Raman spectrum clearly shows intense Raman bands at 3567 and 3614 cm-1, attributed to OH units. The molecular structure of a natural tunellite has been assessed by using vibrational spectroscopy.

  9. [Study on the Preparation of Ba3Si6O9N4 : Eu(2+) Phosphor and the Characterization of Their Luminescence Properties].

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-yan; Wang, Le; Luo, Dong; Li, Yang-hui; Zhang, Hong; Shen, Ye

    2016-03-01

    Ba3Si6O9N4 : Eu(2+) phosphors were synthesized by two-step synthesis processes based on high temperature solid phase using BaSiO3 as a precursor. The influence mechanism of the Eu(2+) doping concentration to the luminescence properties of Ba3Si6O9N4 : Eu(2+) phosphors were mainly investigated. This paper made a comparison between the luminescence properties of Ba3Si6ON4 : Eu(2+) phosphors prepared by two-step processes and solid- state reaction method. The results showed that the Ba3Si6O9N4 : Eu(3+) phosphors synthesized by two-step processes had higher purity and higher crystallinity. There exists concentration quenching in Ba3Si6O9N4 : Eu(2+) phosphors for both two-step processes and solid-state reaction when the doping concentration x is more than 9%. Both the concentration quenching mechanism of Ba3 Si 09 N4 : EuI+ phosphor prepared by solid-state reaction and two-step processes is electric dipole-dipole interaction. The emission peak of Ba3Si6O9N4 : Eu(2+) phosphors (peak 489 nm) prepared by two-step processes had a blue shift compared to the emission peak of Ba3Si6O9N4 : Eu2+ phosphors (peak 512nm) prepared by solid-state reaction. The emission peak of Ba3Si6O9N4 : Eu2+ phosphors prepared by two-step processes relatively close to the theoretical value (480 nm). The spectrum analysis result showed that the element component of Ba3Si6O3N4 : Eu2+ phosphors prepared by two-step processes was closer to the theoretical value, it means that the two-step processes can effectively reduce the lattice defects. The Ba3Si6O9N4 : Eu(2+) phosphors synthesized by two-step processes had better thermal stability, which demonstrates to be a highly promising phosphor for white-LED applications. PMID:27400500

  10. A Case Report of a Patient Carrying CYP2C9*3/4 Genotype with Extremely Low Warfarin Dose Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Youn; Nam, Myung-Hyun; Kim, June Soo

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of intolerance to warfarin dosing due to impaired drug metabolism in a patient with CYP2C9*3/*4. A 73-yr-old woman with atrial fibrilation was taking warfarin. She attained a high prothrombin time international normalized ratio (INR) at the standard doses during the induction of anticoagulation and extremely low dose of warfarin (6.5 mg/week) was finally chosen to reach the target INR. Genotyping for CYP2C9 revealed that this patient had a genotype CYP2C9*3/*4. This is the first Korean compound heterozygote for CYP2C9*3 and *4. This case suggests the clinical usefulness of pharmacogenetic testing for individualized dosage adjustments of warfarin. PMID:17596671

  11. 6,6,9a-Trimethyl-5,5a,6,7,8,9,9a,9b-octa­hydro­naphtho[1,2-c]furan-1(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Iván; López-Rodríguez, Matías; Zárraga, Miguel; Paz, Cristian; Pérez, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C15H22O2, the cyclo­hexene and cyclo­hexane rings adopt half-boat and chair conformations, respectively, and the lactone ring is in an envelope conformation. PMID:21202128

  12. Diazotization of the amino acid [closo-1-CB9H8-1-COOH-6-NH3] and reactivity of the [closo-1-CB9H8-1-COO-6-N2]- anion.

    PubMed

    Ringstrand, Bryan; Kaszynski, Piotr; Young, Victor G

    2011-03-21

    A comparative study of the reactivity of dinitrogen acids [closo-1-CB(9)H(8)-1-COOH-10-N(2)] (3[10]) and [closo-1-CB(9)H(8)-1-COOH-6-N(2)] (3[6]) was conducted by diazotization of a mixture of amino acids [closo-1-CB(9)H(8)-1-COOH-6-NH(3)] (1[6]) and [closo-1-CB(9)H(8)-1-COOH-10-NH(3)] (1[10]) with NO(+)BF(4)(-) in the presence of a heterocyclic base (pyridine, 4-methoxypyridine, 2-picoline, or quinoline). The 10-amino acid 1[10] formed an isolable stable 10-dinitrogen acid 3[10], while the 6-dinitrogen carboxylate 3[6](-) reacted in situ, giving products of N-substitution at the B6 position with the heterocyclic solvent (4[6]). The molecular and crystal structures for pyridinium acid 4[6]a were determined by X-ray crystallography. The electronic structures and reactivity of the 6-dinitrogen derivatives of the {1-CB(9)} cluster were assessed computationally at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and MP2/6-31G(d,p) levels of theory and compared to those of the 10-dinitrogen, 2-dinitrogen, and 1-dinitrogen analogues.

  13. Keggin (K5, H3O)[SiV3W9O40H]·xH2O: Characterization and crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfim, Rodrigo de Paiva Floro; de Moura, Luiza Cristina; Eon, Jean-Guillaume; Mentré, Olivier; Vezin, Hervé; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Single crystals of the potassium salt (K5, H3O)[SiV3W9O40H]·xH2O of the vanadium tri-substituted α-Keggin dodecatungstosilicate were prepared and analyzed by vibrational, EPR and 51V NMR spectroscopy. Varying the synthesis conditions allows crystallization of partially reduced anions. The crystal structure was determined for both oxidized (V5+) and partially reduced (V4+/5+) potassium salts. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data and solid state 51V-NMR spectra confirm the occurrence of a single vanadium site in a cubic structure due to rotational disorder of the Keggin ion. Partially reduced compounds crystallize within the same structure as fully oxidized ones. EPR experiments confirm strong interaction of V4+ with two V5+ ions, in accordance with insertion of a V3 subunit into the lacunary Keggin ion as designed in the synthesis method. The 3D-edifice is composed of K+/H2O counter-sublattice with evidence of tunable water occupancy.

  14. 3-Amino-1-(3,4-dimeth-oxy-phen-yl)-9,10-dihydro-phenanthrene-2,4-dicarbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Faidallah, Hassan M; Alamry, Khalid A; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2012-04-01

    In the title compound, C(24)H(19)N(3)O(2), the partially saturated ring adopts a distorted half-chair conformation with the methyl-ene-C atom closest to the amino-benzene ring lying 0.664 (3) Å out of the plane defined by the five remaining atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.1429 Å. The dihedral angle [32.01 (10)°] between the benzene rings on either side of this ring indicates a significant fold in this part of the mol-ecule. The dimeth-oxy-substituted benzene ring is almost orthogonal to the benzene ring to which it is attached [dihedral angle = 72.03 (9)°]. The mol-ecule has been observed previously as the major component of a 1:19 co-crystal with 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimeth-oxy-phen-yl)-5,6-dihydro-benzo[ha]quinoline-3-carbonitrile [Asiri et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. E67, o2873-o2873]. Supra-molecular chains with base vector [201] are formed in the crystal structure via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amino H atoms of one mol-ecule inter-acting with the meth-oxy O atoms of a neighbouring mol-ecule. The chains are linked into a three-dimensional architecture by C-H⋯π inter-actions. PMID:22589974

  15. Determination by ultraviolet absorption spectrometry and theoretical calculation of dissociation constant of 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-4H-carbazol-4-one.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shufang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tang, Ke; Zhou, Zhengyu

    2009-08-15

    The dissociation constant of 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-4H-carbazol-4-one was determined by ultraviolet absorption spectrometry method based on the absorption spectra of 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-4H-carbazol-4-one at different pH in ethanol-water mixed solvents. The results show that the pK(b) was a good linear function of the volume fraction of ethanol in the concentration range studied. The dissociation constant of 1, 2, 3,9-tetrahydro-4H-carbazol-4-one in water were determined by extrapolation to be 14.04 under the condition of this experiment. The accurate pK(b) calculations of 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-4H-carbazol-4-one have been investigated using the combination of the extended clusters-continuum model with the polarizable continuum solvation model (PCM). The calculations are performed at the B3LYP/6-31G levels. The formation of molecular clusters by means of the 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-4H-carbazol-4-one wrapped up with water molecules leads to the weakness of the interaction between the polar solvents and the 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-4H-carbazol-4-one, hence, the accuracy of pK(b) has been enhanced. The dissociation constant of 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-4H-carbazol-4-one in water were calculated to be 14.10 and agreed well with experimental data.

  16. Unexpected formation of new fluoroboranes from the reaction of NMe4B3H8 with BF3 and MeC identical with CH: exo-2-FB4H9 and trans-MeCH=CHBF2.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark A; Greatrex, Robert; Ormsby, Daniel L

    2002-09-21

    The new fluoroboranes exo-2-FB4H9 1 and trans-MeCH=CHBF2 2 have been obtained unexpectedly and in good yield from the reaction of tetramethylammonium octahydrotriborate (NMe4B3H8) with boron trifluoride and propyne (MeC identical to CH).

  17. Sox2, Tlx, Gli3, and Her9 converge on Rx2 to define retinal stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Robert; Centanin, Lázaro; Tavhelidse, Tinatini; Inoue, Daigo; Wittbrodt, Beate; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Martinez-Morales, Juan Ramón; Wittbrodt, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional networks defining stemness in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are largely unknown. We used the proximal cis-regulatory element (pCRE) of the retina-specific homeobox gene 2 (rx2) to address such a network. Lineage analysis in the fish retina identified rx2 as marker for multipotent NSCs. rx2-positive cells located in the peripheral ciliary marginal zone behave as stem cells for the neuroretina, or the retinal pigmented epithelium. We identified upstream regulators of rx2 interrogating the rx2 pCRE in a trans-regulation screen and focused on four TFs (Sox2, Tlx, Gli3, and Her9) activating or repressing rx2 expression. We demonstrated direct interaction of the rx2 pCRE with the four factors in vitro and in vivo. By conditional mosaic gain- and loss-of-function analyses, we validated the activity of those factors on regulating rx2 transcription and consequently modulating neuroretinal and RPE stem cell features. This becomes obvious by the rx2-mutant phenotypes that together with the data presented above identify rx2 as a transcriptional hub balancing stemness of neuroretinal and RPE stem cells in the adult fish retina. PMID:25908840

  18. Static and Dynamical Properties of the Spin-1/2 Equilateral Triangular-Lattice Antiferromagnet Ba_{3}CoSb_{2}O_{9}.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Kamiya, Y; Hong, Tao; Cao, H B; Ehlers, G; Tian, W; Batista, C D; Dun, Z L; Zhou, H D; Matsuda, M

    2016-02-26

    We present single-crystal neutron scattering measurements of the spin-1/2 equilateral triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba_{3}CoSb_{2}O_{9}. Besides confirming that the Co^{2+} magnetic moments lie in the ab plane for zero magnetic field and then determining all the exchange parameters of the minimal quasi-2D spin Hamiltonian, we provide conclusive experimental evidence of magnon decay through observation of intrinsic line broadening. Through detailed comparisons with the linear and nonlinear spin-wave theories, we also point out that the large-S approximation, which is conventionally employed to predict magnon decay in noncollinear magnets, is inadequate to explain our experimental observation. Thus, our results call for a new theoretical framework for describing excitation spectra in low-dimensional frustrated magnets under strong quantum effects. PMID:26967439

  19. Static and dynamical properties of the spin-1/2 equilateral triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Jie; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Hong, Tao; Cao, H. B.; Ehlers, Georg; Tian, Wei; Batista, C. D.; Dun, Z. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Matsuda, Masaaki

    2016-02-24

    We present single-crystal neutron scattering measurements of the spin-1/2 equilateral triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9. Besides confirming that the Co2+ magnetic moments lie in the ab plane for zero magnetic field and then determining all the exchange parameters of the minimal quasi-2D spin Hamiltonian, we provide conclusive experimental evidence of magnon decay through observation of intrinsic line broadening. Through detailed comparisons with the linear and nonlinear spin-wave theories, we also point out that the large-S approximation, which is conventionally employed to predict magnon decay in noncollinear magnets, is inadequate to explain our experimental observation. Hence, our results call for a new theoreticalmore » framework for describing excitation spectra in low-dimensional frustrated magnets under strong quantum effects.« less

  20. Internal photopumping of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states in yttrium aluminum garnet by excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers and Fe3+ continuum emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, J. D.; Spinka, T. M.; Senin, A. A.; Eden, J. G.

    2011-07-01

    Photoexcitation of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states by the broad (˜70 nm FWHM), near-infrared continuum provided by Fe3+ has been observed at 300 K in bulk yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) crystals doped with trace concentrations (<50 ppm) of Fe, Cr, and Eu. Irradiation of YAG at 248 nm with a KrF laser, which excites the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) in YAG having peak absorption at ˜240 nm, culminates in ODC→Fe3+ excitation transfer and subsequent Fe3+ emission. This internal optical pumping mechanism for rare earth ions is unencumbered by the requirement for donor-acceptor proximity that constrains conventional Förster-Dexter excitation transfer in co-doped crystals.

  1. Altered CYP2C9 Activity Following Modulation of CYP3A4 Levels in Human Hepatocytes: an Example of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, Donald J.; Chan, Tom S.; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions resulting in modulation of enzyme activities have been well documented using recombinant isoforms. This interaction has been less clearly demonstrated in a more physiologic in vitro system such as human hepatocytes. As an expansion of earlier work (Subramanian et al., 2010), in which recombinant CYP2C9 activity decreased with increasing levels of CYP3A4, the current study modulated CYP3A4 content in human hepatocytes to determine the impact on CYP2C9. Modulation of CYP3A4 levels in situ was enabled by the use of a long-term human hepatocyte culture model (HepatoPac) shown to retain phenotypic hepatocyte function over a number of weeks. The extended period of culture allowed time for knockdown of CYP3A4 protein by small interfering RNA (siRNA) with subsequent recovery, as well as upregulation through induction with a recovery period. CYP3A4 gene silencing resulted in a 60% decrease in CYP3A4 activity and protein levels with a concomitant 74% increase in CYP2C9 activity, with no change in CYP2C9 mRNA levels. Upon removal of siRNA, both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities returned to pre-knockdown levels. Importantly, modulation of CYP3A4 protein levels had no impact on cytochrome P450 reductase activities or levels. However, the possibility for competition for limiting reductase cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, lowering CYP3A4 levels also increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 activity. These studies clearly demonstrate that alterations in CYP3A4 levels can modulate CYP2C9 activity in situ and suggest that further studies are warranted to evaluate the possible clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:25157098

  2. 29 CFR 9.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coverage. 9.3 Section 9.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISPLACEMENT OF QUALIFIED WORKERS UNDER SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 9.3 Coverage. This part applies to all service contracts and their solicitations, except those excluded by § 9.4 of this...

  3. 29 CFR 9.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 9.3 Section 9.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISPLACEMENT OF QUALIFIED WORKERS UNDER SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 9.3 Coverage. This part applies to all service contracts and their solicitations, except those excluded by § 9.4 of this...

  4. Crystal structure of 9-butyl-6-[2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethen­yl]carbazol-3-amine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Bai, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C23H23N3, consists of two mol­ecules, A and B, with different conformations. In mol­ecule A, the dihedral angle between the carbazole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.028 Å) and the pyridine ring is 20.28 (9)° and the N—C—C—C torsion angle of the butyl side chain is −63.4 (3)°. The equivalent data for mol­ecule B are 0.065 Å, 48.28 (11)° and 61.0 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are connected by weak N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, generating [030] C(14) chains of alternating A and B mol­ecules. PMID:25995940

  5. Crystal structure of 9-butyl-6-[2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethen-yl]carbazol-3-amine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Bai, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Ting

    2015-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C23H23N3, consists of two mol-ecules, A and B, with different conformations. In mol-ecule A, the dihedral angle between the carbazole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.028 Å) and the pyridine ring is 20.28 (9)° and the N-C-C-C torsion angle of the butyl side chain is -63.4 (3)°. The equivalent data for mol-ecule B are 0.065 Å, 48.28 (11)° and 61.0 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are connected by weak N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, generating [030] C(14) chains of alternating A and B mol-ecules.

  6. H-D exchange in metal carbene complexes: Structure of cluster (μ-H)(μ-OCD3)Os3(CO)9{:C(CD3)NC2H8O}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savkov, Boris; Maksakov, Vladimir; Kuratieva, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray and spectroscopic data for the new complex (μ-H)(μ-OCH3)Os3(CO)9{:C(CD3)NC2H8O} (2) obtained in the reaction of the (μ-H)(μ-Cl)Os3(CO)9{:C(CH3)NC2H8O} (1) with NaOCD3 in CD3OD solution are reported. It is shown that cluster 1 has the property of CH-acidity inherent of Fisher type carbenes. This had demonstrated using hydrogen deuterium exchange reaction in the presence of a strong base. Bridging chlorine to metoxide ligand substitution takes place during the reaction. The molecular structure of 2 is compared with known analogues.

  7. Thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance of amorphous and crystalline Zr47Cu31Al13Ni9 alloys with a Y2O3 coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Nitin C.; Liao, Hao-Hsiang; Abiade, Jeremiah T.; Liu, Fengxiao; Liaw, Peter K.; Huxtable, Scott T.

    2009-02-01

    We examine the thermal conductivity k and interface thermal conductance G for amorphous and crystalline Zr47Cu31Al13Ni9 alloys in contact with polycrystalline Y2O3. Using time-domain thermoreflectance, we find k =4.5 W m-1 K-1 for the amorphous metallic alloy of Zr47Cu31Al13Ni9 and k =5.0 W m-1 K-1 for the crystalline Zr47Cu31Al13Ni9. We also measure G =23 MW m-2 K-1 for the metallic glass/Y2O3 interface and G =26 MW m-2 K-1 for the interface between the crystalline Zr47Cu31Al13Ni9 and Y2O3. The thermal conductivity of the crystalline Y2O3 layer is found to be k =5.0 W m-1 K-1, and the conductances of Al/Y2O3 and Y2O3/Si interfaces are 68 and 45 MW m-2 K-1, respectively.

  8. 9 CFR 3.19 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) dogs or cats within, to, or... efficiently as possible and must provide the following during movement of the dog or cat: (1) Shelter from sunlight and extreme heat. Sufficient shade must be provided to protect the dog or cat from the direct...

  9. 9 CFR 3.12 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining dogs and cats must have enough employees to..., background, and experience in proper husbandry and care of dogs and cats to supervise others. The employer... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs...

  10. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of dogs or cats with... mammals that are pests to dogs and cats. (c) Ventilation. Ventilation must be provided in any animal holding area in a terminal facility containing dogs or cats, by means of windows, doors, vents, or...

  11. 9 CFR 3.19 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) dogs or cats within, to, or... of the sun. The dog or cat must not be exposed to an ambient air temperature above 85 °F (29.5...

  12. 9 CFR 3.19 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) dogs or cats within, to, or... of the sun. The dog or cat must not be exposed to an ambient air temperature above 85 °F (29.5...

  13. 9 CFR 3.19 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) dogs or cats within, to, or... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and... efficiently as possible and must provide the following during movement of the dog or cat: (1) Shelter...

  14. 9 CFR 3.12 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining dogs and cats must have enough employees to... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and..., background, and experience in proper husbandry and care of dogs and cats to supervise others. The...

  15. Responsiveness of four gender-specific genes, figla, foxl2, scp3 and sox9a to 17α-ethinylestradiol in adult rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cong; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Yingying; Gao, Jiancao; Yang, Yanping; Qin, Fang; Liu, Shaozhen; Zheng, Yao; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-05-01

    Proteins encoded by figla, foxl2, scp3 and sox9a play important roles in gonad differentiation and reproduction. In the present study, we aimed to determine the responsiveness of figla, foxl2, scp3 and sox9a to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in the gonads of adult Gobiocypris rarus. Full-length cDNAs of figla, scp3 and sox9a were cloned and characterized by RT-PCR and RACE methods. Expression patterns in adult tissues were investigated. Results indicated that figla was predominantly expressed in adult ovaries and scp3 was restrictively expressed in the male testes and sox9a was principally expressed in the brains of both genders and the testes of males. Gene expression profiles of figla, foxl2, scp3 and sox9a were analyzed in the gonads of adult G. rarus exposed to EE2 at 1, 5, 25, and 125ng/L for 3 and 6days. Three-day EE2 treatment at 1-125ng/L all caused a significant increase of figla transcript in testes and foxl2 transcript in ovaries. However, six-day EE2 exposure at 1-125ng/L repressed figla and scp3 transcript in testes and foxl2 transcript in ovaries. The present study indicates that the testicular transcripts of figla and scp3 in males and the ovarian foxl2 transcript in females have high responsiveness to EE2 and they can be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers for early warning to monitor the environmental estrogenic chemicals in fresh water environment. The present study also suggests that the effective EE2 dosage for feminization in male G. rarus might be at least 25ng/L. PMID:24631545

  16. Thermodynamic and biodistribution studies of Zn(II), Ca(II), Gd(III) and Cu(II) complexes of 3,3,9,9-tetramethyl-4,8-diazaundecane-2,10-dione dioxime.

    PubMed

    Nomkoko, Thembelani E; Jackson, Graham E; Nakani, Bandile S; Louw, Werner K A; Zeevaart, Jan R

    2004-03-01

    The thermodynamic equilibria of copper(II), zinc(II), calcium(II) and gadolinium(III) with 3,3,9,9-tetramethyl-4,8-diazaundecane-2,10-dione dioxime (L1) have been studied at 25 degrees C and an ionic strength of 0.15 mol dm(-3). Copper and gadolinium form stable complexes with the ligand while the corresponding zinc species are more than 9 log units less stable. No complexes between calcium and the ligand were detected. The low binding strength of L1 towards zinc is attributed to the square-planar coordination geometry forced on the metal ion by the ligand as revealed by molecular mechanics calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Speciation calculations, using a computer model of blood plasma, indicate that, despite the high concentration of zinc(II) and calcium(II) in vivo, L1 is able to increase the low-molecular-mass fraction of copper in plasma. Octanol/water partition coefficient of [CuL1H(-1)] indicates that although this species is largely hydrophilic, approximately 6% of the complex goes into the octanol phase and hence may promote dermal absorption of copper by the same amount. The dermal penetration rate is calculated to be 4.0 x 10(-4) mm h(-1). The [CuL1H(-1)] complex, which predominates at pH 7.4, is a poor mimic of native copper-zinc superoxide dismutase. Biodistribution experiments using the 64Cu-labelled [CuL1H(-1)] complex indicate an initial high uptake of this species in the liver followed by redistribution into muscle. Only a small amount is excreted through the urine.

  17. Crystal structure, morphotropic phase transition and luminescence in the new cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Tyutyunnik, Alexander P.; Leonidov, Ivan I.; Surat, Ludmila L.; Berger, Ivan F.; Zubkov, Vladimir G.

    2013-01-15

    A new series of promising luminescent materials, cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu, has been synthesized via a solid-state reaction. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction studies show that these oxides crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system (S.G. C2/c, Z=4) and have a morphotropic phase transition between Er and Tm compounds followed by a step-like change of the unit cell constants. Isolated [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings located in layers are basic building units and stack with Sr/R layers along the [1 0 1{sup Macron }] direction. The rare earth atoms are distributed among three independent Sr/R sites coordinated by 8, 7 and 6 oxygen atoms, and the Sr-R populations change from mixed to 0.5/0.5 over site (1) and full occupation of sites (2) and (3) by Sr and R, respectively, at the transition. Changes of the conformation and mutual arrangement of [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings, as well as exchange of oxygen atoms from the first and the second coordination sphere of two Sr/R sites also feature the phase transition. Luminescence in Sr{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} under ultraviolet (UV) excitation has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: The change of the [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] ring conformation in Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Eu, Er, Tm and Lu. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new group of cyclosilicates Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, R=Y, Eu-Lu, was first synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated [Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] rings located in layers are basic building units and stack with Sr/R layers along the [1 0 1{sup Macron }] direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rare earth atoms are distributed among three independent Sr/R sites coordinated by 6, 7 and 8 oxygen ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A step-like change of the unit cell parameters is observed in the Sr{sub 3}R{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2} structure for R=Er{yields}Tm. Black

  18. Highly Efficient Blue Organic-Light Emitting Diodes Based on 9,10-Diphenylanthracene End-Capped 5H-Pyrido[3,2-b]lndole Groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul Bee; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, two blue emitters based on 9,10-diphenylanthracene and 5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indole were designed and synthesized for OLEDs. Among those, a device using 5-(9,10-diphenyl-2-(5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indol-5-yl)anthracen-6-yl)-5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indole (2) exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 5.99 cd/A, 2.70 lm/W and 3.94% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The CIE coordinates of this device were (x = 0.15, y = 0.21) at 6.0 V.

  19. Solid-State Synthesis and Structure of the Enigmatic Ammonium Octaborate: (NH4)2[B7O9(OH)5]·3/4B(OH)3·5/4H2O.

    PubMed

    Neiner, Doinita; Sevryugina, Yulia V; Schubert, David M

    2016-09-01

    The compound known since the 19th century as ammonium octaborate was structurally characterized revealing the ammonium salt of the ribbon isomer of the heptaborate anion, [B7O9(OH)5](2-), with boric acid and water molecules. Of composition (NH4)2B7.75O12.63·4.88H2O, it approximates the classical ammonium octaborate composition (NH4)2B8O13·6H2O and has the structural formula {(NH4)2[B7O9(OH)5]}4·3B(OH)3·5H2O. It spontaneously forms at room temperature in solid-state mixtures of ammonium tetraborate and ammonium pentaborate. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 11.4137(2) Å, b = 11.8877(2) Å, c = 23.4459(3) Å, β = 90.092(1)°, V = 3181.19(8) Å(3), and Z = 2 and contains well-ordered ammonium cations and [B7O9(OH)5](2-) anions and disordered B(OH)3 and H2O molecules linked by extensive H bonding. Expeditious solid-state formation of the heptaborate anion under ambient conditions has important implications for development of practical syntheses of industrially useful borates. PMID:27513178

  20. STAT3 and ERK Signaling Pathways Are Implicated in the Invasion Activity by Oncostatin M through Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Park, Byung Joon; Choi, Sae Kyung; Kang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Ahyoung; Kim, Ho Shik; Park, In Yang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our previous studies have shown that oncostatin M (OSM) promotes trophoblast invasion activity through increased enzyme activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. We further investigated OSM-induced intracellular signaling mechanisms associated with these events in the immortalized human trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo. Materials and Methods We investigated the effects of OSM on RNA and protein expression of MMP-2 and -9 in the first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line (HTR8/SVneo) via Western blot. The selective signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 inhibitor, stattic, STAT3 siRNA, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) siRNA were used to investigate STAT3 and ERK activation by OSM. The effects of STAT3 and ERK inhibitors on OSM-induced enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and -9 and invasion activity were further determined via Western blot and gelatin zymography. Results OSM-induced MMP-2 and -9 protein expression was significantly suppressed by STAT3 inhibition with stattic and STAT3 siRNA silencing, whereas the ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and ERK silencing significantly suppressed OSM-induced MMP-2 protein expression. OSM-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities were significantly decreased by stattic pretreatment. The increased invasion activity induced by OSM was significantly suppressed by STAT3 and ERK1/2 inhibition, though to a greater extent by STAT3 inhibition. Conclusion Both STAT3 and ERK signaling pathways are involved in OSM-induced invasion activity of HTR8/SVneo cells. Activation of STAT3 appears to be critical for the OSM-mediated increase in invasiveness of HTR8/SVneo cells. PMID:26996579

  1. DNA oxidation as triggered by H3K9me2 demethylation drives estrogen-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Perillo, Bruno; Ombra, Maria Neve; Bertoni, Alessandra; Cuozzo, Concetta; Sacchetti, Silvana; Sasso, Annarita; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Malorni, Antonio; Abbondanza, Ciro; Avvedimento, Enrico V

    2008-01-11

    Modifications at the N-terminal tails of nucleosomal histones are required for efficient transcription in vivo. We analyzed how H3 histone methylation and demethylation control expression of estrogen-responsive genes and show that a DNA-bound estrogen receptor directs transcription by participating in bending chromatin to contact the RNA polymerase II recruited to the promoter. This process is driven by receptor-targeted demethylation of H3 lysine 9 at both enhancer and promoter sites and is achieved by activation of resident LSD1 demethylase. Localized demethylation produces hydrogen peroxide, which modifies the surrounding DNA and recruits 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 and topoisomeraseIIbeta, triggering chromatin and DNA conformational changes that are essential for estrogen-induced transcription. Our data show a strategy that uses controlled DNA damage and repair to guide productive transcription. PMID:18187655

  2. Rare earth-copper-magnesium compounds RECu 9Mg 2 ( RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Ho, Yb) with ordered CeNi 3-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solokha, P.; Pavlyuk, V.; Saccone, A.; De Negri, S.; Prochwicz, W.; Marciniak, B.; Różycka-Sokołowska, E.

    2006-10-01

    A series of ternary compounds RECu 9Mg 2 ( RE=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb) have been synthesized via induction melting of elemental metal ingots followed by annealing at 400 °C for 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) was used for examining microstructure and phase composition. These phases crystallize with an ordered version of the binary hexagonal structure type first reported for CeNi 3. The crystal structure was solved for TbCu 9Mg 2 from single crystal X-ray counter data (TbCu 9Mg 2-structure type, P6 3/mmc-space group, hP24-Pearson symbol, a=0.49886 (7) nm, c=1.61646 (3) nm, RF=0.0474 for 190 unique reflections). The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray powder diffraction patterns of RECu 9Mg 2 confirmed the same crystal structure for the reported rare earth metals. The unit cell volumes for RECu 9Mg 2 smoothly follow the lanthanide contraction. The existence of a RECu 9Mg 2 phase was excluded for RE=Er and Tm under the investigated experimental conditions.

  3. Determination of experimental charge density in model nickel macrocycle: [3,11-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-1,5,9,13-tetraazacyclohexadeca-1,3,9,11-tetraenato-(2-)-kappa(4)N]nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Domagała, Sławomir; Korybut-Daszkiewicz, Bohdan; Straver, Leo; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2009-05-01

    Experimental and theoretical atomic charges and d-orbital populations were obtained for [3,11-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-1,5,9,13-tetraazacyclohexadeca-1,3,9,11-tetraenato(2-)-kappa(4)N]nickel(II) monocrystal (16Ni) using the Hansen and Coppens formalism. Several models of this structure were tested as a function of quality of the fit, convergence of the refinement, value of residual peaks and holes, and Hirshfeld's rigid-bond test. The models with Ni-atomic scattering factors applied for the metal center are significantly better than those with the Ni-ionic scattering factors. The properties of the final electron density distributions are very consistent and similar for all of the models tested. The values of the d-orbital populations for Ni roughly agree with the occupation order of the d-electron levels for square-planar complexes derived from crystal field theory and are comparable with those obtained by the natural population analysis method. Experimental atoms-in-molecules charges calculated for four different models agree quite well for models with different symmetry restrictions and the same scattering factor for the Ni. Both experimental and theoretical methods predict relatively high negative values of charges for the nitrogen and oxygen atoms and also a quite high positive charge for the C(7) atom. The values of rho(r(BCP)) for the Ni-N bonds are in the range from 0.60 up to 0.75e A(-3), with positive laplacian values indicating noncovalent bonding. For the laplacian of the electron density evaluated in the plane of the macrocyclic ring, a typical map for a square-planar complex was obtained with four charge concentrations--3d(xy) orbitals--pointing toward the regions between the M-N bonds and charge depletions directed toward the (3,-1) critical points of the negative laplacian for the nitrogen atoms. PMID:19354267

  4. Tricyclo­[6.2.1.02,7]undeca-4,9-diene-3,6-dione

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chongchen

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C11H10O2, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In one mol­ecule, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the C—C=C—C group of the diene unit and essentially planar cyclo­hexene ring is 51.07 (9)°, while in the other mol­ecule it is 54.49 (12)°. In the crystal structure, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into columns along the b axis. PMID:21201200

  5. Luminescence of Tb-doped Ca{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2} oxide upon UV and VUV synchrotron radiation excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolska, Anna; Zych, Eugeniusz

    2011-07-15

    Powders of calcium yttrium silicate, Ca{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}, containing 0.1-3% Tb{sup 3+} were prepared using a sol-gel method and characterized with XRD, IR, UV-vis and UV-VUV spectroscopies at room temperature and 10 K. Structural analysis revealed pure monoclinic phase of Ca{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2} after heat-treatment at 1000 deg. C. Infrared spectroscopy showed that between 800 and 900 deg. C a short-range structural organization of the components proceeded, yet without crystallization. A strong emission of Tb{sup 3+} had been observed both in the green part of the spectrum due to the {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions and in the blue-violet region owing to the {sup 5}D{sub 3}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} radiative relaxation. The color of the light could be tuned from yellowish-green to bluish-white both by means of the dopant content and the temperature of synthesis. Efficient luminescence of Tb{sup 3+}-doped Ca{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2} phosphors could also be obtained upon stimulation with vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation demonstrating that an energy transfer from the host to the Tb{sup 3+} ions takes place. - Graphical abstract: Luminescence of Ca{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}:Tb covers the whole visible region of electromagnetic spectrum and the relative intensity of the blue part against the green one depends on the activator content and technological parameters of preparation. Highlights: > VUV-UV-vis luminescence of Ca{sub 3}Y{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}){sub 2}:Tb at RT and 10 K was analyzed. > Tb{sup 3+} ion can be excited directly or through the host lattice. > Specific structure of the host allowed to get intense {sup 5}D{sub 3}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} luminescence. > At 10 K an exciton is formed and radiatively relaxes with the use of a defect.

  6. 2-Amino-9-[(1S,3R,4S)-4-hydr­oxy-3-hydroxy­methyl-2-methyl­enecyclo­pent­yl]-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bin; Liu, Zhilu

    2009-01-01

    In the crystal of the title compound, C12H15N5O3·H2O, the component species are linked by N—H⋯N, N—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimesnional network. PMID:21577631

  7. 40 CFR 721.10079 - Quino[2,3-b]acridine-7, 14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-2,9-dimethyl-, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Requirements as specified in § 721.63 (a)(1), (a)(2)(i), (a)(3), (b) (concentration set at 1 percent), and (c...), (w)(1), and (x)(1). (iii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and (c)(4) (N=10). (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart A of this part apply to...

  8. BC3EE2,9B, a synthetic carbazole derivative, upregulates autophagy and synergistically sensitizes human GBM8901 glioblastoma cells to temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Min; Syu, Jhih-Pu; Way, Tzong-Der; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lin, Chung-Tien; Lin, Chih-Li

    2015-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most fatal form of human brain cancer. Although temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, improves the survival rate, the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. Naturally occurring carbazole alkaloids isolated from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) have been shown to possess a wide range of anticancer properties. However, the effects of carbazole derivatives on glioblastoma cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, anti‑glioblastoma profiles of a series of synthetic carbazole derivatives were evaluated in vitro. The most promising derivative in this series was BC3EE2,9B, which showed significant anti‑proliferative effects in GBM8401 and GBM8901 cells. BC3EE2,9B also triggered cell‑cycle arrest, most prominently at the G1 stage, and suppressed glioblastoma cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, BC3EE2,9B induced autophagy‑mediated cell death and synergistically sensitized GBM cells to TMZ cytotoxicity. The possible mechanism underlying BC3EE2,9B‑induced autophagy may involve activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the attenuation of the Akt and mammalian target of the rapamycin downstream signaling pathway. Taken together, the present results provide molecular evidence for the mode of action governing the ability of BC3EE2,9B to sensitize drug‑resistant glioblastoma cells to the chemotherapeutic agent TMZ.

  9. BC3EE2,9B, a synthetic carbazole derivative, upregulates autophagy and synergistically sensitizes human GBM8901 glioblastoma cells to temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, CHIEN-MIN; SYU, JHIH-PU; WAY, TZONG-DER; HUANG, LI-JIAU; KUO, SHENG-CHU; LIN, CHUNG-TIEN; LIN, CHIH-LI

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most fatal form of human brain cancer. Although temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, improves the survival rate, the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. Naturally occurring carbazole alkaloids isolated from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) have been shown to possess a wide range of anticancer properties. However, the effects of carbazole derivatives on glioblastoma cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, anti-glioblastoma profiles of a series of synthetic carbazole derivatives were evaluated in vitro. The most promising derivative in this series was BC3EE2,9B, which showed significant anti-proliferative effects in GBM8401 and GBM8901 cells. BC3EE2,9B also triggered cell-cycle arrest, most prominently at the G1 stage, and suppressed glioblastoma cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, BC3EE2,9B induced autophagy-mediated cell death and synergistically sensitized GBM cells to TMZ cytotoxicity. The possible mechanism underlying BC3EE2,9B-induced autophagy may involve activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the attenuation of the Akt and mammalian target of the rapamycin downstream signaling pathway. Taken together, the present results provide molecular evidence for the mode of action governing the ability of BC3EE2,9B to sensitize drug-resistant glioblastoma cells to the chemotherapeutic agent TMZ. PMID:26329365

  10. Synthesis and structural study of 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-ethoxy-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocycloocta[B]pyridine-3-carbonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathima, K. Saiadali; Vasumathi, M.; Anitha, K.

    2016-05-01

    The novel organic material C20H21ClN2O was synthesized by One-Pot synthesis method and the single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The crystal structure was elucidated by subjecting the grown crystals to the single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis and was refined by full matrix least-squares method to R=0.039 for 2746 reflections. Crystal system of the grown crystal was found to be monoclinic with the space group P21/a and a=9.196(4) Å, b=13.449(4) Å, c=14.818(4) Å, β= 101.542(3)°, V=1795.6(11) Å3 and Z=4. In this crystal structure, cyclooctanone prefers to reside in a chair-boat conformation. The structure is stabilized by attractive molecular force such as CH/π interaction called hydrophobic interaction.

  11. Compatibilities of YBa2Cu3O(9-delta) type phase in quintenary systems Y-Ba-Cu-O-X (impurity)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karen, P.; Braaten, O.; Fjellvag, H.; Kjekshus, A.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal phase diagrams at various oxygen pressures were studied by powder diffraction and chemical analytical methods. The components, Y, Ba, Cu, and O (specifically O2, O2-, and O2 sup 2-) are treated, together with C (specifically CO2 and CO2 sup 2-), alkaline metals, Mg, alkaline earths, Sc, 3-d and 4-f elements. Effects of the substitutions at the structural sites of YBa2Cu3O(9-delta) on T sub c are discussed with respect to changes in crystallochemical characteristics of the substituted phase and to the nature of the substituents.

  12. Ionic conductivity and activation energy for oxygen ion transport in superlattices--the semicoherent multilayer system YSZ (ZrO2 + 9.5 mol% Y2O3)/Y2O3.

    PubMed

    Korte, C; Peters, A; Janek, J; Hesse, D; Zakharov, N

    2008-08-21

    The oxygen ion conductivity of YSZ (ZrO(2) + 9.5 mol% Y(2)O(3))/Y(2)O(3) multilayer systems is measured parallel to the interfaces as a function of temperature between 350 and 700 degrees C. The multilayer samples are prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The film thicknesses, the crystallinity, the texture and the microstructure are investigated by SEM, XRD, HRTEM and SAED. To separate the interface contribution of the total conductivity from the bulk contribution the thickness of the YSZ and Y(2)O(3) layers is varied systematically. The total conductivity of the YSZ films increases when their thickness is decreased from 0.53 microm to 24 nm. It depends linearly on the reciprocal thickness of the individual layers, thus on the number of YSZ/Y(2)O(3) interfaces. This behaviour results from the parallel connection between individual conduction paths in the bulk and the interfacial regions. The activation energy for the ionic conductivity decreases from 1.13 to 0.99 kJ mol(-1) by decreasing the thicknesses of the individual YSZ layers. HRTEM studies show that the YSZ/Y(2)O(3) interfaces are semicoherent. The correlation between interface structure and ionic conduction is discussed.

  13. Mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline: tridentate 3N primary ligands determine DNA binding and cleavage and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ganeshpandian, Mani; Ramakrishnan, Sethu; Palaniandavar, Mallayan; Suresh, Eringathodi; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkadher

    2014-11-01

    A series of mononuclear mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(L)(2,9-dmp)](ClO4)21-4, where L is a tridentate 3N ligand such as diethylenetriamine (L1) (1) or N-methyl-N'-(pyrid-2-yl-methyl)ethylenediamine (L2) (2) or di(2-picolyl)amine (L3) (3) or bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)-N-methylamine (L4) (4) and 2,9-dmp is 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, has been isolated and characterized. The complexes 1 and 3 possess square-based pyramidal coordination geometry. Absorption spectral studies reveal that the intrinsic DNA binding affinity varies as 1>2>3>4. The higher DNA binding affinity of 1 arises from L1, which offers lower steric hindrance toward intercalation of 2,9-dmp co-ligand into DNA base pairs and is involved in hydrogen bonding interaction with DNA. Interestingly, all the complexes cleave pUC19 supercoiled DNA in the absence of an activating agent. They also exhibit oxidative (H2O2) DNA cleavage ability, which varies as 1>2>3>4, the highest cleavage efficiency of 1 being due to the largest amount of ROS it generates. The tryptophan emission-quenching experiment reveals that the stronger binding of 3 and 4 with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the hydrophobic region, which is in line with DNA viscosity measurements. The IC50 values of 1-4 for MCF-7 breast cancer cell line are lower than that of cisplatin. Flow cytometry analysis reveals that 1 mediates the arrest of S and G2/M phases in the cell cycle progression at 24h harvesting time, which progresses into apoptosis. Hoechst 33258 staining studies indicate the higher potency of 1 to induce apoptosis.

  14. Novel red-emitting phosphor Ca9Y(PO4)7:Ce3+,Mn2+ with energy transfer for fluorescent lamp application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hao; Kuo, Te-Wen; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2010-05-01

    A series of new luminescent emission-tunable phosphors Ca(9)Y(PO(4))(7):zCe(3+),xMn(2+) have been synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction. We report a broad deep red-emitting composition-optimized phosphor (Ca(0.9))(9)Y(0.85)(PO(4))(7):0.15Ce(3+),0.1Mn(2+), which has been found to be feasible for the application in fluorescent lamps. The Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates measured for the phosphor were (0.68, 0.29), and those for fluorescent lamps with and without a 600 nm filter were found to be (0.67, 0.29) and (0.54, 0.32), respectively. The Ca(9)Y(PO(4))(7):Ce(3+),Mn(2+) phosphor showed two emission bands under 254 nm excitation: the one observed at 366 nm was attributed to Ce(3+) ion emission, and the other found at 650 nm was assigned to the emission from Mn(2+) ions. We have shown that the mechanism of energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+) was of the resonance type and it occurred via an electric dipole-quadrupole interaction. Furthermore, we have calculated the critical distance for Ce(3+) --> Mn(2+) energy transfer to be 13.45 A by concentration quenching methods.

  15. Furano-1,2-Naphthoquinone Inhibits Src and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways in Ca9-22 Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuei-Li; Chien, Ching-Ming; Tseng, Chih-Hua; Chen, Yeh-Long; Chang, Long-Sen; Lin, Shinne-Ren

    2014-05-01

    Furano-1,2-naphthoquinone (FNQ), a biologically active component ofAvicennia marina, has been demonstrated to display anticancer activity. FNQ exerted cytotoxicity with the G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells. FNQ-induced G2/M arrest was correlated with a marked decrease in the expression levels of cyclin A and cyclin B, and their activating partner cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 1 and 2 with concomitant induction of p27. FNQ-induced apoptosis was accompanied by Bax and Bad upregulation, and the downregulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Mcl-1, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), resulting in cytochrome C release and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Mechanistic studies showed that FNQ suppressed Src phosphorylation, PI3K, and Akt activation in Ca9-22 cells. Moreover, the Src inhibitor PP2 reduced the phosphorylation of Src and activation of PI3K/Akt, which was comparable with FNQ treatment. The combined treatment of FNQ with PP2 enhanced the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and also led to the downregulation of Bcl-XL, Mcl-1, XIAP, cyclin A, cyclin B, CDK1, and CDK2 and upregulation of p27, Bax, and Bad. These findings suggest that FNQ-mediated cytotoxicity of Ca9-22 cells is related with the G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inactivation of Src and PI3K/Akt-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:22505597

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal analysis and dielectric properties of [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9} compound

    SciTech Connect

    Trigui, W. Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.; Hlel, F.

    2015-07-15

    A new organic–inorganic tri-tetrabutylammonium nonachlorobibismuthate(III) compound was prepared. It was found to crystallize in the monoclinic system (P2{sub 1}/n space group) with the following lattice parameters: a=11.32(2) Å, b=22.30(3) Å, c=28.53(2) Å and β=96.52(0)°. The [Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9}]{sup 3−} anions are surrounded by six [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9})N]{sup +} cations, forming an octahedral configuration. These octahedra are sharing corners in order to provide the tri-dimensional network cohesion. The differential scanning calorimetry reveals four order-disorder reversible phase transitions located at 214, 238, 434 and 477 K. The Raman and infrared spectra confirm the presence of both cationic [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9})N]{sup +} and anionic [Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9}]{sup 3−} parts. The dielectric parameters, real and imaginary dielectric permittivity (ε′ and ε″), and dielectric loss tangent (tg δ), were measured in the frequency range of 209 kHz–5 MHz at different temperatures. The variations of dielectric dispersion (ε') and dielectric absorption (ε″) with frequency show a distribution of relaxation times, which is probably related to the change in the dynamical state of the [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sup +} cations and the [Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9}]{sup 3−} anions. - Graphical abstract: Projection of the atomic arrangement of the [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9} compound along the b axis. - Highlights: • The structure of the (TBA){sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9} compound was solved and reported. • The cristal belongs to the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/n space group. • DSC discloses four order–disorder reversible phases transitions. • The temperature-dependent permittivity ε' and ε″ has been investigated.

  17. Construction of Metabolism Prediction Models for CYP450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9 Based on Microsomal Metabolic Reaction System

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuai-Bing; Li, Man-Man; Zhang, Bai-Xia; Ye, Xiao-Tong; Du, Ran-Feng; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, there have been continuous attempts in the prediction of metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. However, it has indeed remained a huge challenge to accurately predict the metabolism of xenobiotics mediated by these enzymes. To address this issue, microsomal metabolic reaction system (MMRS)—a novel concept, which integrates information about site of metabolism (SOM) and enzyme—was introduced. By incorporating the use of multiple feature selection (FS) techniques (ChiSquared (CHI), InfoGain (IG), GainRatio (GR), Relief) and hybrid classification procedures (Kstar, Bayes (BN), K-nearest neighbours (IBK), C4.5 decision tree (J48), RandomForest (RF), Support vector machines (SVM), AdaBoostM1, Bagging), metabolism prediction models were established based on metabolism data released by Sheridan et al. Four major biotransformations, including aliphatic C-hydroxylation, aromatic C-hydroxylation, N-dealkylation and O-dealkylation, were involved. For validation, the overall accuracies of all four biotransformations exceeded 0.95. For receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, each of these models gave a significant area under curve (AUC) value >0.98. In addition, an external test was performed based on dataset published previously. As a result, 87.7% of the potential SOMs were correctly identified by our four models. In summary, four MMRS-based models were established, which can be used to predict the metabolism mediated by CYP3A4, 2D6, and 2C9 with high accuracy. PMID:27735849

  18. EPR study of gamma irradiated N-methyl taurine (C 3H 9NO 3S) and sodium hydrogen sulphate monohydrate (NaHSO 3·H 2O) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, İlkay; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2011-03-01

    EPR study of gamma irradiated C 3H 9NO 3S and NaHSO 3.H 2O single crystals have been carried out at room temperature. There is one site for the radicals in C 3H 9NO 3S and two magnetically distinct sites for the radicals in NaHSO 3. The observed lines in the EPR spectra have been attributed to the species of SO3- and RH radicals for N-methyl taurine, and to the SO3- and OH radicals for sodium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate single crystals. The principal values of the g for SO3-, the hyperfine values of RH and OH proton splitting have been calculated and discussed.

  19. Nitrosyl-centered redox and acid-base interconversions in [Ru(Me3[9]aneN3)(bpy)(NO)](3,2,1+). The pKa of HNO for its nitroxyl derivative in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Codesido, Nicolás Osa; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Olabe, José A; Slep, Leonardo D

    2014-01-21

    This work reports the preparation of a new 6-coordinated nitrosyl compound and its use as a model to explore the redox and acid-base properties of the three redox states of bound nitrosyl (formally NO(+), NO(•), NO(-)/HNO) in {RuNO}(6,7,8) species. We prepared the octahedral {RuNO}(6) complex [Ru(Me3[9]aneN3)(bpy)(NO)](3+) (Me3[9]aneN3: 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), and the related [Ru(Me3[9]aneN3)(bpy)(NO2)](+) nitro derivative. The compounds were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, NMR, IR, and UV-vis spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV-vis/IR spectroelectrochemistry, and theoretical calculations (DFT, (TD)DFT). The reaction kinetics between the {RuNO}(6) complex and the nucleophile OH(-) is also presented. The incorporation of tridentate and bidentate ligands in the coordination sphere prevents labilization issues associated with the trans effect when attaining the reduced states of the nitrosyl group. This allows for a consistent interpretation of the changes in the main geometrical parameters: Ru-N and N-O distances, Ru-N-O angle, and the νNO frequency and electronic transitions. We explore the redox properties in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, and provide a potential (E1/2) - pH (Pourbaix) diagram for the three diatomic nitrosyl-bound species, as well as for HNO and NO2(-), including the report of the pKa of the [Ru(Me3[9]aneN3)(bpy)(HNO)](2+) ion, 9.78 ± 0.15 at 25.0 °C.

  20. 9-(Thio­phen-2-yl)-8,9-dihydro-3H-pyrazolo­[4,3-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juhua; Jia, Runhong

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H11N3OS·C2H5OH, the dihedral angle between the pyridine N—Cfused—Cfused—C(thio­phene) plane and the plane of the thio­phene ring is 81.9 (3)°, indicating that they are close to perpendicular. The dihedral angle between this pyridine plane and the benzene ring is 1.3 (3)°. The thio­phene ring is disordered over two coplanar orientations with an occupancy ratio of 0.692 (7):0.308 (7), while the ethanol solvent mol­ecule is also disordered over two sets of site in a 0.66 (4):0.34 (4) ratio. In the crystal, chains are formed along the b axis by N—H⋯O and O—H⋯N inter­actions with adjacent chains being connected through C—H⋯N and C—H⋯S inter­actions. PMID:22969512

  1. "Lantern-Shaped" Platinum(III) Complexes with Axially Bound 9-Ethylguanine or 1-Methylcytosine (L) of General Formula [Pt(2){HN=C(Bu)O}(4)L(2)](NO(3))(2).

    PubMed

    Pacifico, Concetta; Intini, Francesco Paolo; Nushi, Fiorentin; Natile, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis, NMR characterization, and X-ray crystallography of "lantern-shaped" platinum(III) complexes with four pivaloamidate bridging ligands and two 9-ethylguanines (9-EtG) or 1-methylcytosines (1-MeC) in axial positions are reported: cis-N(2)O(2)-[Pt(2){HN=C(Bu(t))O}(4)(9-EtG)(2)](NO(3))(2) and cis-N(2)O(2)-[Pt(2){HN=C(Bu(t))O}(4)(1-MeC)(2)](NO(3))(2). The last complex is, to the best of our knowledge, the first dinuclear compound of platinum(III) with axially bound 1-MeC.

  2. 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives. Part 9. Synthesis and biological activity of metal complexes of 5-(2-aminoethyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole.

    PubMed

    Barboiu, M; Cimpoesu, M; Guran, C; Supuran, C T

    1996-01-01

    Metal complexes of the title ligand (L) containing Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectroscopy and conductimetry. The new derivatives, possessing the following formulae, CuL(2)(OH)(2), NiL(2)Cl(2), and [Co(2)LCl(4)](n) showed in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus and Candida spp.

  3. 44 CFR 9.3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authority. 9.3 Section 9.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.3 Authority. The authority for...

  4. 44 CFR 9.3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authority. 9.3 Section 9.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.3 Authority. The authority for...

  5. 44 CFR 9.3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Authority. 9.3 Section 9.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.3 Authority. The authority for...

  6. 44 CFR 9.3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 9.3 Section 9.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.3 Authority. The authority for...

  7. 44 CFR 9.3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authority. 9.3 Section 9.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.3 Authority. The authority for...

  8. 29 CFR 9.3 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 9.3 Section 9.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISPLACEMENT OF QUALIFIED WORKERS UNDER SERVICE CONTRACTS (effective date pending) General § 9.3 Coverage. This part applies to all service contracts and their solicitations, except...

  9. Energy levels in Ag-like (4d{sup 10}4f, 4d{sup 10}5l (l = 0-3)), Pd-like (4d{sup 9}4f [J = 1], 4d{sup 9}5p [J = 1], 4d{sup 9}5f [J = 1]), and Rh-like (4d{sup 9} [J = 5/2, 3/2]) ions with Z {<=} 86

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, E.P.

    2009-11-15

    Relativistic perturbation theory with a model potential is used for the calculation of energy levels of the states 4f{sub 5/2}, 4f{sub 7/2}, 5s{sub 1/2}, 5p{sub 1/2}, 5p{sub 3/2}, 5d{sub 3/2}, 5d{sub 5/2}, 5f{sub 5/2}, and 5f{sub 7/2} above the 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}4s{sup 2}4p{sup 6}4d{sup 10} core, with one vacancy 4d{sub 5/2}{sup 9}, 4d{sub 7/2}{sup 9} in the same core, in the silver and rhodium isoelectronic sequences with the maximum nuclear charge Z = 86. The method of extrapolation of the model potential parameter is applied to calculate one-electron and one-vacancy wavefunctions. The wavefunctions of Ag- and Rh-like ions were used to calculate the energies of resonance transitions to the ground state {sup 1}S{sub 0} in Pd-like ions. Good agreement between the theoretical and the experimental energies of the resonance transitions in Pd-like ions indicates the reliability of the results obtained.

  10. Genetic Linkage Analysis of DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 Loci in GJB2 Negative Families with Autosomal Recessive Non-syndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    MASOUDI, Marjan; AHANGARI, Najmeh; POURSADEGH ZONOUZI, Ali Akbar; POURSADEGH ZONOUZI, Ahmad; NEJATIZADEH, Azim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is the most common hereditary form of deafness, and exhibits a great deal of genetic heterogeneity. So far, more than seventy various DFNB loci have been mapped for ARNSHL by linkage analysis. The contribution of three common DFNB loci including DFNB3, DFNB9, DFNB21 and gap junction beta-2 (GJB2) gene mutations in ARNSHL was investigated in south of Iran for the first time. Methods: In this descriptive study, we investigated sixteen large families with at least two affected individuals. After DNA extraction, GJB2 gene mutations were analyzed using direct sequencing method. Negative samples for GJB2 gene mutations were analyzed for the linkage to DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 loci by genotyping the corresponding short tandem repeat (STR) markers using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. Results: GJB2 mutations (283G>A and 29delT) were causes of hearing loss in 12.5% of families with ARNSHL and no evidence of linkage were found for any of DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 loci. Conclusion: GJB2 mutations are associated with ARNSHL. We failed to find linkage of the DFNB3, DFNB9 and DFNB21 loci among GJB2 negative families. Therefore, further studies on large-scale population and other loci will be needed to find conclusively linkage of DFNB loci and ARNSHL in the future. PMID:27398341

  11. Conformational analysis of four spiro6cyclohexane-1,3prime;-indolin9-2prime;-one derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halász, Judit; Podányi, Benjamin; Sánta-Csutor, Andrea; Böcskei, Zsolt; Simon, Kálmán; Hanusz, Miklós; Hermecz, István

    2003-06-01

    SR 121463 is a potent and selective, orally active vasopressin V 2 receptor antagonist. During the synthesis of SR 121463, the formation of the stereochemistry of the cyclohexyl moiety is one of the most important steps. Conformational analysis (via NMR studies and, for cis- 3, also via X-ray structure determination) of the isomers obtained in this step is reported.

  12. Effect of YBa2Cu3O7-δ film thickness on the dielectric properties of Ba0.1Sr0.9TiO3 in Ag /Ba0.1Sr0.9TiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-δ/LaAlO3 multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaohong; Peng, Wei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yingfei; Tian, Haiyan; Xu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Dongning

    2005-01-01

    Ferroelectric and superconductor bilayers of Ba0.1Sr0.9TiO3 (BSTO)/YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO), with different YBCO film thicknesses, have been fabricated in situ by pulsed-laser deposition on 1.2° vicinal LaAlO3 substrates. The dielectric properties of BSTO thin films were measured with a parallel-plate capacitor configuration in the temperature range of 77-300K. We observed a strong dependence of the dielectric properties of BSTO thin films on the thickness of the YBCO layer. As the YBCO-film thickness increases, the temperature of the dielectric permittivity maximum of BSTO thin films shifts to higher values, and the leakage current and dielectric loss increase drastically, while the dielectric constant and dielectric tunability decrease remarkably. The results are explained in terms of the transformation in the growth mode of the YBCO layer from two-dimensional step flow to three-dimensional island that leads to significant deterioration in the dielectric properties of BSTO thin films. We propose that improved dielectric properties could be obtained by reasonably manipulating the growth mode of the YBCO layer in the multilayer structures.

  13. 2-Amino-4-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-benzo[h]quinoline-3-carbonitrile-3-amino-1-phenyl-9,10-dihydro-phenanthrene-2,4-dicarbonitrile (5/3).

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Faidallah, Hassan M; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-11-01

    The asymmetric unit of the 5:3 title co-crystal of 2-amino-4-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-benzo[h]quinoline-3-carbonitrile and 3-amino-1-phenyl-9,10-dihydro-phenanthrene-2,4-dicarbonitrile, 0.625C(20)H(15)N(3).0.375C(22)H(15)N(3), has the atoms of the fused-ring system and those of the amino, cyano and phenyl substitutents overlapped. The fused-ring system is buckled owing to the ethyl-ene linkage in the central ring, the two flanking aromatic rings being twisted by 20.1 (1)°. This ethyl-ene portion is disordered over two positions in a 1:1 ratio. The phenyl ring is twisted by 69.5 (1)° relative to the amino- and cyano-bearing aromatic ring. In the crystal, two mol-ecules are linked by an N-H⋯N hydrogen bond, generating a a helical chain along [010]. PMID:22219912

  14. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Two Galaxies at z=2.3 and z=2.9: New Probes of Chemical and Dynamical Evolution at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Koo, David C.

    2000-12-01

    This study presents Keck optical and infrared spectroscopy of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission lines in two Lyα-emitting galaxies at z>2. These data provide insight on the evolution of fundamental galaxy scaling relations at early epochs, especially the luminosity-velocity and luminosity-metallicity relations. Spectral diagnostics suggest that the Coup Fourré galaxy at z=2.3 and Lynx 2-9691, a serendipitously discovered, luminous Lyman drop galaxy at z=2.9, are star-forming galaxies without active nuclei. Lynx 2-9691 exhibits extended [O III] emission over a diameter of greater than 28 kpc, reminiscent of the Lyα nebulae discovered near Lyman drop galaxies. We estimate star formation rates of 59 and 111 Msolar yr-1, respectively, from Balmer recombination line luminosities, 2-3 times higher than inferred from the ultraviolet continuum. The ratios of strong nebular emission lines indicate subsolar oxygen abundances in the range 8.2<12+log(O/H)<8.8 (Z=0.25-0.95 Zsolar). Interestingly, Galactic metal-rich globular clusters have similar metallicities, consistent with the idea that we could be seeing the formation of galaxies like the Milky Way at z~3. The measured gas-phase oxygen abundances are greater than 4-10 times higher than the Z<0.1 Zsolar metallicities found in damped Lyα (DLA) absorbers at similar redshifts, indicating that DLA systems trace fundamentally different environments than the vigorously star-forming objects observed here. If this intense star formation activity represents the dominant formation episodes for stars in today's spiral bulges or ellipticals, then the evolved descendants in the local universe should exhibit similarly subsolar metallicities in their dominant stellar populations that formed 8-10 Gyr ago. When these new data are combined with a sample of four other high-redshift spectroscopic results from the literature, we find that star-forming galaxies at z~3 are 2-4 mag more luminous than local spiral galaxies of

  15. B-site disordering in Ba{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} (Ln=Ho, Er) perovskites: A neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Larregola, S.A.; Alonso, J.A.; Garcia Hernandez, M.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T.; Pedregosa, J.C.

    2009-06-15

    We describe the preparation, structure determination and magnetic properties of two Ba perovskites containing rare-earth cations at the B-sublattice. Ba{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} (Ln=Ho{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}) were synthesized by ceramic procedures. Joint X-ray (XRPD) and neutron (NPD) powder diffraction refinements were carried out to analyse the crystal structure. At room temperature, both phases are tetragonal, space group I4/mcm, Z=4. Ln and Mo atoms are found to be distributed at random over the octahedral sites of the perovskites. Magnetic measurements at 0.1 T show that both samples are paramagnetic between 3 and 300 K, following a Curie-Weiss law. M vs. H curves show a region of paramagnetic behaviour and above 2.5 T a magnetic saturated system is observed. Finally, the temperature evolution of the NPD patterns of Ba{sub 3}Ho{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} reveals the absence of long-range magnetic ordering down to 2 K. - Graphical Abstract: Preparation, structure and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} (Ln=Ho{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}) are descripted. Joint XRPD and NPD refinements confirm a tetragonal I4/mcm structure. Ln and Mo atoms are found to be distributed at random over the octahedral sites of the perovskites.

  16. N-(4-Fluorobenzyl)-3-hydroxy-9,9-dimethyl-4-oxo-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrazino[1,2-a]pyrimidine-2-carboxamides a novel class of potent HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Petrocchi, Alessia; Jones, Philip; Rowley, Michael; Fiore, Fabrizio; Summa, Vincenzo

    2009-08-01

    A novel class of tetrahydro-pyrazinopyrimidine-2-carboxamides have been identified as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Optimization of the initial lead culminated in the discovery of a series of compounds with high potency on the enzyme and an antiviral cell-based activity equivalent to that showed by Raltegravir, the first in class HIV-1 integrase inhibitor.

  17. Dickkopf-1 is involved in BMP9-induced osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liangbo; Qiu, Quanhe; Zhou, Nian; Dong, Wen; Shen, Jieliang; Jiang, Wei; Fang, Ji; Hao, Jie; Hu, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is a potent inducer of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) is involved in skeletal development and bone remodeling. Here, we investigated the role of Dkk1 in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. We found that overexpression of BMP9 induced Dkk1 expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was reduced by the P38 inhibitor SB203580 but not the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Moreover, Dkk1 dramatically decreased not only BMP9-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity but also the expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) and matrix mineralization of C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, exogenous Dkk1 expression inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced by BMP9. Our findings indicate that Dkk1 negatively regulates BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation through inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and it could be used to optimize the therapeutic use of BMP9 and for bone tissue engineering. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 179-184] PMID:26674341

  18. Binding of [3H](2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(9-xanthylmethyl)-2-(2'-carboxycyclopropyl) glycine ([3H]LY341495) to cell membranes expressing recombinant human group III metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Arnold, M B; Wheeler, W J; Ornstein, P L; Schoepp, D D

    2000-12-01

    LY341495 is a highly potent and selective antagonist for group II mGlu receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3). High affinity binding of [3H]LY341495 to recombinant human group II mGlu receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3), and in rat brain homogenates (Kd approximately 1 nM), has been previously described. Although LY341495 is a very selective nM-potent antagonist for group II mGlu receptors, it is also a relatively potent antagonist for group III mGlu receptors at high nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations. In this study we examined and characterized the binding of [3H]LY341495 to membranes of cells expressing recombinant human group III mGlu receptors. Using up to 100 nM of [3H]LY341495, the level of specific binding in human mGlu4a receptor-expressing cell membranes was not appreciable and binding to this site was not examined further. In contrast, we demonstrated sufficient specific binding of [3H]LY341495 to human mGlu6, mGlu7a and mGlu8a receptor-expressing cell membranes to allow for further characterizations. [3H]LY341495 binding was saturable and rapidly reversible. [3H]LY341495 bound to a single site in each cell line, with Kd and Bmax values of 31.6+/-6.8 nM and 3.3+/-0.7 pmol/mg protein (mGlu6), 72.7+/-22.0 nM and 3.7+/-0.4 pmol/mg protein (mGlu7a), and 14.0+/-1.1 nM and 3.0+/-0.2 pmol/mg protein (mGlu8a). [3H]LY341495 binding to mGlu6, 7a and 8a was displaceable by compounds which interact functionally with group III mGlu receptors. For example, L-AP4 displaced [3H]LY341495 with Ki values of 6.8+/-3.1 microM (mGlu6), 211+/-43 microM (mGlu7a) and 1.6+/-0.3 microM (mGlu8a). With L-glutamate, we obtained Ki values of 12.3+/-3.5, 869+/-154 and 4.5+/-0.83 microM, for mGlu6, mGlu7a and mGlu8a, respectively. Ki values for unlabelled LY341495 were 0.058+/-0.008, 0.22+/-0.05 and 0.029+/-0.008 microM, respectively. These studies demonstrated that [3H]LY341495 is a useful radioligand for studying the pharmacology and expression of recombinant mGlu6, 7a and 8a receptors in cell

  19. Origin of the Spin-Orbital Liquid State in a Nearly J=0 Iridate Ba_{3}ZnIr_{2}O_{9}.

    PubMed

    Nag, Abhishek; Middey, S; Bhowal, Sayantika; Panda, S K; Mathieu, Roland; Orain, J C; Bert, F; Mendels, P; Freeman, P G; Mansson, M; Ronnow, H M; Telling, M; Biswas, P K; Sheptyakov, D; Kaushik, S D; Siruguri, Vasudeva; Meneghini, Carlo; Sarma, D D; Dasgupta, Indra; Ray, Sugata

    2016-03-01

    We show using detailed magnetic and thermodynamic studies and theoretical calculations that the ground state of Ba_{3}ZnIr_{2}O_{9} is a realization of a novel spin-orbital liquid state. Our results reveal that Ba_{3}ZnIr_{2}O_{9} with Ir^{5+} (5d^{4}) ions and strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) arrives very close to the elusive J=0 state but each Ir ion still possesses a weak moment. Ab initio density functional calculations indicate that this moment is developed due to superexchange, mediated by a strong intradimer hopping mechanism. While the Ir spins within the structural Ir_{2}O_{9} dimer are expected to form a spin-orbit singlet state (SOS) with no resultant moment, substantial frustration arising from interdimer exchange interactions induce quantum fluctuations in these possible SOS states favoring a spin-orbital liquid phase down to at least 100 mK. PMID:26991199

  20. Origin of the Spin-Orbital Liquid State in a Nearly J =0 Iridate Ba3ZnIr2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Abhishek; Middey, S.; Bhowal, Sayantika; Panda, S. K.; Mathieu, Roland; Orain, J. C.; Bert, F.; Mendels, P.; Freeman, P. G.; Mansson, M.; Ronnow, H. M.; Telling, M.; Biswas, P. K.; Sheptyakov, D.; Kaushik, S. D.; Siruguri, Vasudeva; Meneghini, Carlo; Sarma, D. D.; Dasgupta, Indra; Ray, Sugata

    2016-03-01

    We show using detailed magnetic and thermodynamic studies and theoretical calculations that the ground state of Ba3ZnIr2O9 is a realization of a novel spin-orbital liquid state. Our results reveal that Ba3ZnIr2O9 with Ir5 + (5 d4) ions and strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) arrives very close to the elusive J =0 state but each Ir ion still possesses a weak moment. Ab initio density functional calculations indicate that this moment is developed due to superexchange, mediated by a strong intradimer hopping mechanism. While the Ir spins within the structural Ir2O9 dimer are expected to form a spin-orbit singlet state (SOS) with no resultant moment, substantial frustration arising from interdimer exchange interactions induce quantum fluctuations in these possible SOS states favoring a spin-orbital liquid phase down to at least 100 mK.

  1. 5-AIQ inhibits H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species scavenging and Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Jun Chul; Kang, Do-Hyun; Jang, Yong Chang; Yi, Kyu Yang; Chung, Hun-Jong; Park, Jong Seok; Kim, Bokyung; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2013-04-01

    Poly(adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme activated by DNA strand breaks and plays an important role in the tissue injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5-AIQ), a PARP inhibitor, against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. 5-AIQ pretreatment significantly protected against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death, as determined by the XTT assay, cell counting, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, and Western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins such as caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2. Upregulation of antioxidant enzymes such as manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase accompanied the protective effect of 5-AIQ on H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death. Our data also showed that 5-AIQ pretreatment protected H9c2 cells from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis by triggering activation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and that the protective effect of 5-AIQ was diminished by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 at a concentration that effectively abolished 5-AIQ-induced Akt and GSK-3β activation. In addition, inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β pathway by LY294002 significantly attenuated the 5-AIQ-mediated decrease in cleaved caspase-3 and Bax activation and H9c2 cell apoptosis induction. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 5-AIQ prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species production, regulating apoptosis-related proteins, and activating the Akt/GSK-3β pathway. - Highlights: ► 5-AIQ, a PARP inhibitor, decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced H9c2 cell death and apoptosis. ► 5-AIQ upregulated antioxidant Mn-SOD and catalase, while decreasing ROS production. ► 5-AIQ decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced increase in cleaved caspase-3 and Bax and decrease in Bcl2. ► 5-AIQ activated Akt and GSK-3

  2. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  3. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  4. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  5. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  6. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  7. Synthesis, Cytotoxic and Contraceptive Activity of 6,8,9-Trihydroxy-2-methyl-2H-naphtho[2,3-b]pyran-5,10-dione, a Pigment of Echinothrix diadema, and its Analogs.

    PubMed

    Pokhilo, Natalia D; Melman, Galina I; Kiseleva, Marina I; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Anufriev, Victor Ph

    2015-07-01

    6,8,9-Trihydroxy-2-methyl-2H-naphtho[2,3-b]pyran-5,10-dion, a pigment of the sea urchin Echinothrix diadema, and six analogs were synthesized. The cytotoxic activity and contraceptive properties of the synthesized pyranonaphthazarins have been investigated using the sperm and eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

  8. Excellent stability of plasma-sprayed bioactive Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 ceramic coating on Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Xie, Youtao; Ji, Heng; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2010-05-01

    In this work, novel zirconium incorporated Ca-Si based ceramic powder Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 was synthesized. The aim of this study was to fabricate Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 coating onto Ti-6Al-4V substrate using atmospheric plasma-spraying technology and to evaluate its potential applications in the fields of orthopedics and dentistry. The phase composition, surface morphologies of the coating were examined by XRD and SEM, which revealed that the Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 coating was composed of grains around 100 nm and amorphous phases. The bonding strength between the coating and the substrate was 28 ± 4 MPa, which is higher than that of traditional HA coating. The dissolution rate of the coating was assessed by monitoring the ions release and mass loss after immersion in the Tris-HCl buffer solution. The in vitro bioactivity of the coating was determined by observing the formation of apatite on its surface in simulated body fluids. It was found that the Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 coating possessed both excellent chemical stability and good apatite-formation ability, suggesting its potential use as bone implants.

  9. Crystal structure of rac-(3a’R,9a’R)-3a’-(indol-3-yl)-1′,2′,3′,3a’,4′,9a’-hexa­hydro­spiro­[cyclo­pentane-1,9′-penta­leno[1,2-b]indole] p-xylene hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Wayland E.; Worth, Matthew A.; Schneerer, Andrew K.; Paal, Courtney L.; Tritch, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C26H26N2·0.5C8H10, is the first reported characterized 2:2 product from acid-catalyzed condensation of indole with cyclo­penta­none and no other 2:2 products were observed. Recrystallization from p-xylene gave the title hemisolvate with the p-xylene mol­ecule located about an inversion center. The terminal penta­lene ring is envelope-flap disordered at the C atom farthest from the skeletal indole unit, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.819 (4):0.181 (4). The major component has this C atom bent away from the spiro-fused cyclo­pentane ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected by N—H⋯π inter­actions, forming chains along [100], and N—H⋯π and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming chains along [001], which results in the formation of slabs parallel to (010). PMID:25995869

  10. Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep Are Associated with Polymorphisms in BTBD9, TOX3/BC034767, MEIS1, MAP2K5/SKOR1, and PTPRD

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Hyatt; Winkelmann, Juliane; Lin, Ling; Finn, Laurel; Peppard, Paul; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine association between periodic leg movements (PLM) and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 loci known to increase risk of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Setting: Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine and Clinical Research Unit of University of Wisconsin Institute for Clinical and Translational Research. Patients: Adult participants (n = 1,090, mean age = 59.7 years) from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (2,394 observations, 2000-2012). Design and Interventions: A previously validated automatic detector was used to measure PLMI. Thirteen SNPs within BTBD9, TOX3/BC034767, MEIS1 (2 unlinked loci), MAP2K5/SKOR1, and PTPRD were tested. Analyses were performed using a linear model and by PLM category using a 15 PLM/h cutoff. Statistical significance for loci was Bonferroni corrected for 6 loci (P < 8.3 × 10-3). RLS symptoms were categorized into four groups: likely, possible, no symptoms, and unknown based on a mailed survey response. Measurements and Results: Prevalence of PLMI ≥ 15 was 33%. Subjects with PLMs were older, more likely to be male, and had more frequent RLS symptoms, a shorter total sleep time, and higher wake after sleep onset. Strong associations were found at all loci except one. Highest associations for PLMI > 15/h were obtained using a multivariate model including age, sex, sleep disturbances, and the best SNPs for each loci, yielding the following odds ratios (OR) and P values: BTBD9 rs3923809(A) OR = 1.65, P = 1.5×10-8; TOX3/BC034767 rs3104788(T) OR = 1.35, P = 9.0 × 10-5; MEIS1 rs12469063(G) OR = 1.38, P = 2.0 × 10-4; MAP2K5/SKOR1 rs6494696(G) OR = 1.24, P = 1.3×10-2; and PTPRD(A) rs1975197 OR = 1.31, P = 6.3×10-3. Linear regression models also revealed significant PLM effects for BTBD9, TOX3/BC034767, and MEIS1. Co-varying for RLS symptoms only modestly reduced the genetic associations. Conclusions: Single nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrated to increase risk of RLS are strongly linked to increased

  11. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun; Zheng, Min; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  12. IR spectroscopic and thermal desorption studies of the interaction of the SO2 + O2 mixture with the 9% Ni-Cu-Cr/2% Ce/(θ + α)-Al2O3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosumov, K.; Popova, N. M.; Umbetkaliev, A. K.; Brodskii, A. R.; Tungatarova, S. A.; Zheksenbaeva, Z. T.

    2012-10-01

    Data on the formation of surface structures during the adsorption of sulfur dioxide on alumina-supported metal and oxide catalysts in the presence of oxygen were reviewed. The results of our IR spectroscopic and thermal desorption studies of the interaction of the SO2+O2 mixture with the 9% Ni-Cu-Cr/2% Ce/(θ + α)-Al2O3 catalyst are presented. At 673 K chemisorption of SO2 takes place (absorption band 1165 cm-1, T {des/m} = 673 K), and SO2 is oxidized to form sulfate structures (absorption bands 1235, 1140, 1100, 985, and 615 cm-1, T {des/m} = 973 K), which decompose into SO2 and O2 at 973 K and decay when reduced in H2.

  13. Protection of HepG2 cells against acrolein toxicity by 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide via glutathione-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Halley; Speen, Adam M; Saunders, Christina; Brooke, Elizabeth AS; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is an environmental toxicant, mainly found in smoke released from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Several studies showed that exposure to acrolein can lead to liver damage. The mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced hepatocellular toxicity, however, are not completely understood. This study examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of acrolein on HepG2 cells. Acrolein at pathophysiological concentrations was shown to cause apoptotic cell death and an increase in levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances. Acrolein also rapidly depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), GSH-linked glutathione-S-transferases, and aldose reductase, three critical cellular defenses that detoxify reactive aldehydes. Results further showed that depletion of cellular GSH by acrolein preceded the loss of cell viability. To further determine the role of cellular GSH in acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit cellular GSH biosynthesis. It was observed that depletion of cellular GSH by BSO led to a marked potentiation of acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. To further assess the contribution of these events to acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, triterpenoid compound 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) was used for induction of GSH. Induction of GSH by CDDO-Im afforded cytoprotection against acrolein toxicity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, BSO significantly inhibited CDDO-Im-mediated induction in cellular GSH levels and also reversed cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH is a predominant mechanism underlying acrolein-induced cytotoxicity as well as CDDO-Im-mediated cytoprotection. This study may provide understanding on the molecular action of acrolein which may be important to develop novel strategies for the prevention of acrolein-mediated toxicity. PMID:25504014

  14. Protection of HepG2 cells against acrolein toxicity by 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide via glutathione-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shah, Halley; Speen, Adam M; Saunders, Christina; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y Robert; Jia, Zhenquan

    2015-10-01

    Acrolein is an environmental toxicant, mainly found in smoke released from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Several studies showed that exposure to acrolein can lead to liver damage. The mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced hepatocellular toxicity, however, are not completely understood. This study examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of acrolein on HepG2 cells. Acrolein at pathophysiological concentrations was shown to cause apoptotic cell death and an increase in levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances. Acrolein also rapidly depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), GSH-linked glutathione-S-transferases, and aldose reductase, three critical cellular defenses that detoxify reactive aldehydes. Results further showed that depletion of cellular GSH by acrolein preceded the loss of cell viability. To further determine the role of cellular GSH in acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit cellular GSH biosynthesis. It was observed that depletion of cellular GSH by BSO led to a marked potentiation of acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. To further assess the contribution of these events to acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, triterpenoid compound 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) was used for induction of GSH. Induction of GSH by CDDO-Im afforded cytoprotection against acrolein toxicity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, BSO significantly inhibited CDDO-Im-mediated induction in cellular GSH levels and also reversed cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH is a predominant mechanism underlying acrolein-induced cytotoxicity as well as CDDO-Im-mediated cytoprotection. This study may provide understanding on the molecular action of acrolein which may be important to develop novel strategies for the prevention of acrolein-mediated toxicity.

  15. Alkyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes.

    PubMed

    Lidster, Benjamin J; Kumar, Dharam R; Spring, Andrew M; Yu, Chin-Yang; Helliwell, Madeleine; Raftery, James; Turner, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    [2.2]Paracyclophane-1,9-dienes substituted with n-octyl chains have been synthesised from the corresponding dithia[3.3]paracyclophanes using a benzyne induced Stevens rearrangement. The use of 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride as the in situ benzyne source gave significantly improved yields over traditional sources of benzyne and enabled the preparation of n-octyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes on a multi-gram scale.

  16. In Silico Predictions of Drug - Drug Interactions Caused by CYP1A2, 2C9 and 3A4 Inhibition - a Comparative Study of Virtual Screening Performance.

    PubMed

    Kaserer, Teresa; Höferl, Martina; Müller, Klara; Elmer, Sebastian; Ganzera, Markus; Jäger, Walter; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily represents the major enzyme class responsible for the metabolism of exogenous compounds. Investigation of clearance pathways is therefore an integral part in early drug development, as any alteration of metabolic enzymes may markedly influence the toxicological profile and efficacy of novel compounds. In silico methods are widely applied in drug development to complement experimental approaches. Several different tools are available for that purpose, however, for CYP enzymes they have only been applied retrospectively so far. Within this study, pharmacophore- and shape-based models and a docking protocol were generated for the prediction of CYP1A2, 2C9, and 3A4 inhibition. All theoretically validated models, the validated docking workflow, and additional external bioactivity profiling tools were applied independently and in parallel to predict the CYP inhibition of 29 compounds from synthetic and natural origin. After subsequent experimental assessment of the in silico predictions, we analyzed and compared the prospective performance of all methods, thereby defining the suitability of the applied techniques for CYP enzymes. We observed quite substantial differences in the performances of the applied tools, suggesting that the rational selection of that virtual screening method that proved to perform best can largely improve the success rates when it comes to CYP inhibition prediction. PMID:27490388

  17. Copper induced apoptosis in Caco-2 and Hep-G2 cells: Expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9, AIF and p53.

    PubMed

    Santos, Stefanie; Silva, Amélia M; Matos, Manuela; Monteiro, Sandra M; Álvaro, Ana R

    2016-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace metal needed to ensure cell function. However, when present at high concentrations it becomes toxic to organisms. Cell death, induced by toxic levels of copper, was previously observed in in vitro studies. However, there is no consensus about the cell death pathway induced by Cu and it is still not known whether this occurs as a result of the direct action of the metal or by indirect effects. In the present work, we intend to identify the influence of different Cu concentrations in the induction of apoptosis and to explore the potential signaling pathways, using two different in vitro cell culture models (Caco-2 and Hep-G2). Cells were exposed, during 6, 12, 24 and 48h, to Cu concentrations corresponding to IC50 and 1/8 of IC50, according to the viability assays. Then, considering the different apoptosis pathways, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and p53 genes was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. The results suggested that different Cu concentrations could trigger different apoptotic pathways, at different times of exposure. In both cell lines, apoptosis seems to be initiated by caspase independent pathway and intrinsic pathway, followed by extrinsic pathway. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cu induces the activation of apoptosis through caspase dependent and independent pathways, also suggesting that apoptosis activation mechanism is dependent on the concentration, time of exposure to Cu and cell type.

  18. Photochemistry of 1 and 2-(2-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene. [4a-methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, R.D.; Hornback, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to synthesize partially saturated phenanthrene derivatives by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction between a photochemically produced o-xylylene (diene) and a tethered dienophile, it was found that 1 and 2 underwent a photochemically allowed (2 + 2) cycloaddition. Irradiation of 1 gave 6-(2-methylphenyl)bicyclo(3.2.0)heptane in 86% yield. Upon irradiation of 2, a benzvalene rearrangement of 2 first took place, producing the meta isomer 2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene, followed by a (2 + 2) photocycloaddition giving 1-(3-methylphenyl)bicyclo(3.2.0)heptane in 15% yield. Direct irradiation of 2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene gave the same bicyclo derivative as 2 in 34% yield. Examination of the fluorescence spectra of 1 and 2 in comparison with 1-(2-methylphenyl)propene and 2-(2-methylphenyl)-1-butene, respectively, has shown that 1 may be biased toward (2 + 2) cycloaddition where 2 is not biased toward (2 + 2) photocycloization. Attempts to produce 4a-methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of the o-xylylene produced by irradiation of 3 will also be described.

  19. Electrosynthesis of Rh2(dpf)4(R) where dpf = N,N'-diphenylformamidinate anion and R = CH3, C2H5, C3H7, C4H9 or C5H11.

    PubMed

    Bear, J L; Van Caemelbecke, E; Ngubane, S; Da-Riz, V; Kadish, K M

    2011-03-21

    The electrosynthesis of Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R) where dpf is the N,N'-diphenylformamidinate anion and R = CH(3), C(2)H(5), C(3)H(7), C(4)H(9) or C(5)H(11) was carried out in THF containing 0.2 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) and one of several alkyl iodides represented as RI. The initial step in the reaction involved a one-electron reduction of the Rh(2)(4+) unit in Rh(2)(dpf)(4) to its Rh(2)(3+) form followed by a homogeneous reaction involving electrogenerated [Rh(2)(dpf)(4)](-) and the alkyl iodide in solution to give Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R). The homogeneously generated Rh(2)(5+) product was then immediately reduced by a second electron at the potential where [Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R)](-) is generated, giving [Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R)](-) which contains a Rh(2)(4+) center as a final product of an electrochemical ECE mechanism. The electrosynthesized [Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(CH(3))](-) derivative could be reoxidized to Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(CH(3)) on the reverse potential sweep and both forms of the CH(3) bonded derivative were in situ characterized by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-visible and/or ESR spectroscopy. The reversible Rh(2)(4+/3+) process of Rh(2)(dpf)(4) is located at E(1/2) = -1.11 V in THF, 0.2 M TBAP while the electrogenerated Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R) products are substantially easier to reduce, with E(p) values for the Rh(2)(5+/4+) couples ranging from -0.50 to -0.54 V vs. SCE depending upon the specific R group.

  20. Jujuboside A Protects H9C2 Cells from Isoproterenol-Induced Injury via Activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dandan; Wan, Changrong; Liu, Fenghua; Xu, Xiaolong; Jiang, Linshu; Xu, Jianqin

    2016-01-01

    Jujuboside A is a kind of the saponins isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba, which possesses multiple biological effects, such as antianxiety, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects; however, its mediatory effect on isoproterenol-stimulated cardiomyocytes has not been investigated yet. In this study, we tried to detect the protective effect and potential mechanism of JUA on ISO-induced cardiomyocytes injury. H9C2 cells were treated with ISO to induce cell damage. Cells were pretreated with JUA to investigate the effects on the cell viability, morphological changes, light chain 3 conversion, and the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Results showed that ISO significantly inhibited the cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. JUA pretreatment could reverse the reduction of cell viability and better the injury of H9C2 cells induced by ISO. Western blot analysis showed that JUA could accelerate the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR. Results also indicated that JUA could significantly decrease the ratio of microtubule-associated protein LC3-II/I in H9C2 cells. Taken together, our research showed that JUA could notably reduce the damage cause by ISO via promoting the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR and inhibiting LC3 conversion, which may be a potential choice for the treatment of heart diseases. PMID:27293469

  1. Electron diffraction and microscopy study of the structure and microstructure of the hexagonal perovskite Ba3Ti2MnO9.

    PubMed

    Maunders, Christian; Whitfield, Harold J; Hay, David G; Etheridge, Joanne

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports a structural and microstructural investigation of the hexagonal perovskite Ba(3)Ti(2)MnO(9) using electron microscopy and diffraction. Convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) revealed the structure has the non-centrosymmetric space group P6(3)mc (186) at room temperature and at approximately 110 K. Compared with the centrosymmetric parent structure BaTiO(3), with space group P6(3)/mmc, this represents a break in mirror symmetry normal to the c axis. This implies the Ti and Mn atoms are ordered on alternate octahedral sites along the 0001 direction in Ba(3)Ti(2)MnO(9). Using high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), we observed occasional 6H/12R interfaces on (0001) planes, however, no antiphase boundaries were observed, as were seen in Ba(3)Ti(2)RuO(9). Using powder X-ray Rietveld refinement we have measured the lattice parameters from polycrystalline samples to be a = 5.6880 +/- 0.0005, c = 13.9223 +/- 0.0015 A at room temperature. PMID:17507751

  2. Accessible DNA and Relative Depletion of H3K9me2 at Maize Loci Undergoing RNA-Directed DNA Methylation[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Jonathan I.; Madzima, Thelma F.; Bader, Rechien; Kent, Matthew R.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Stam, Maike; McGinnis, Karen M.; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in plants is a well-characterized example of RNA interference-related transcriptional gene silencing. To determine the relationships between RdDM and heterochromatin in the repeat-rich maize (Zea mays) genome, we performed whole-genome analyses of several heterochromatic features: dimethylation of lysine 9 and lysine 27 (H3K9me2 and H3K27me2), chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and small RNAs; we also analyzed two mutants that affect these processes, mediator of paramutation1 and zea methyltransferase2. The data revealed that the majority of the genome exists in a heterochromatic state defined by inaccessible chromatin that is marked by H3K9me2 and H3K27me2 but that lacks RdDM. The minority of the genome marked by RdDM was predominantly near genes, and its overall chromatin structure appeared more similar to euchromatin than to heterochromatin. These and other data indicate that the densely staining chromatin defined as heterochromatin differs fundamentally from RdDM-targeted chromatin. We propose that small interfering RNAs perform a specialized role in repressing transposons in accessible chromatin environments and that the bulk of heterochromatin is incompatible with small RNA production. PMID:25465407

  3. Master regulator for chondrogenesis, Sox9, regulates transcriptional activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer BBF2H7/CREB3L2 in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hino, Kenta; Saito, Atsushi; Kido, Miori; Kanemoto, Soshi; Asada, Rie; Takai, Tomoko; Cui, Min; Cui, Xiang; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2014-05-16

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer, box B-binding factor 2 human homolog on chromosome 7 (BBF2H7), is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transmembrane transcription factor. This molecule is activated in response to ER stress during chondrogenesis. The activated BBF2H7 accelerates cartilage matrix protein secretion through the up-regulation of Sec23a, which is responsible for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus and is a target of BBF2H7. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanisms of the transcriptional activation of Bbf2h7 in chondrocytes. The transcription of Bbf2h7 is regulated by Sex determining region Y-related high-mobility group box 9 (Sox9), a critical factor for chondrocyte differentiation that facilitates the expression of one of the major cartilage matrix proteins Type II collagen (Col2), through binding to the Sox DNA-binding motif in the Bbf2h7 promoter. BBF2H7 is activated as a transcription factor in response to physiological ER stress caused by abundant synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins, and consequently regulates the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins. Taken together, our findings demonstrate novel regulatory mechanisms of Sox9 for controlling the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins through the activation of BBF2H7-Sec23a signaling during chondrogenesis.

  4. Novel synergistic 0.9LiMn0.9Fe0.1PO4·0.1Na3V2(PO4)2F3/C nano-hybrid cathode with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Hu, Guorong; Cao, Yanbing; Duan, Jianguo; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong

    2016-01-01

    The nanostructured 0.9LiMn0.9Fe0.1PO4·0.1Na3V2(PO4)2F3/C composites are successfully synthesized by a facile solvothermal method followed by mechanical activation and subsequent carbonthermal reduction process. Behaviours of bi-phase co-existence and element mutual-substitution have been investigated by XRD, TEM/EDX and FTIR. The result shows that the composites have dual phase boundaries including the semi-coherent phase interface and incoherent phase interface, as well as the advantage of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 acting as ionic conductor. Due to the multifunctional phase and (Mn,Fe)-V mutual doping as well as nano-carbon continual conducting network, enhanced Li+ migration and charge transfer of nano-hybrid is obtained. Compared with pristine one, the 0.9LiMn0.9Fe0.1PO4·0.1Na3V2(PO4)2F3/C composites exhibit high rate capability and cycling ability, showing 125.5, 106.4 mAh g-1 at 1.0 C, 3.0 C at room temperature, respectively, with high capacity retention up to 93.9% after 600th at 2 C.

  5. Isolation, spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of 7-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-furo[2,3-f]chromen-9-one: a new flavonoid from the bark of Millettia ovalifolia.

    PubMed

    Taj Ur Rahman; Arfan, Mohammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Liaqat, Wajiha; Gilani, Mazhar Amjad; Uddin, Ghias; Ludwig, Ralf; Zaman, Khair; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Ayub, Khurshid

    2015-07-01

    The phytochemical examination of chloroform soluble fraction (FX2) of methanolic extract of bark of Millettia ovalifolia yielded a new flavonoid; 7-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-furo [2,3-f]chromen-9-one (1). Compound 1 is characterized by spectroscopic analytical techniques such as UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. A theoretical model is also developed for obtaining geometric, electronic and spectroscopic properties of 1. The geometry optimization and harmonic vibration simulations have been carried out at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p). The vibrational spectrum of compound 1 shows nice correlation with the experimental IR spectrum, through a scaling factor of 0.9613. (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts are simulated using Cramer's re-parameterized function WP04 at 6-31G(d,p) basis set, and correlate nicely with the experimental chemical shifts. PMID:25804510

  6. 9 CFR 3.104 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...** Antarctic Fur Seal 1.80 1.20 5.9 3.9 Arctocephalus tropicalis** Amsterdam Island Fur Seal 1.80 1.45 5.9 4.75... barriers (such as fences, rocks, or foliage) to provide relief from aggressive animals. (iii) Mixture of... sufficient visual barriers (such as fences, rocks, or foliage) to provide relief from aggressive animals....

  7. Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Qin, Mengnan; Hang, Pengzhou; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhiren; Liu, Gaofeng

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the activities of the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1A2, 2 C9, 2D6 and 3A4 in rats. The activities of CYP1A2, 2 C9, 2D6 and 3A4 were measured using specific probe drugs. After pretreatment for 1 week with PNS or physiological saline (control group), probe drugs caffeine (10 mg/kg; CYP1A2 activity), tolbutamide (15 mg/kg; CYP2C9 activity), metoprolol (20 mg/kg; CYP2D6 activity) and dapsone (10 mg/kg; CYP3A4 activity) were administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. The blood was then collected at different times for ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The data showed that PNS exhibited an induction effect on CYP1A2 by decreasing caffeine C(max) (36.3%, p < 0.01) and AUC(0-∞) (22.77%, p < 0.05) and increasing CL/F (27.03%, p < 0.05) compared with those of the control group. Western blot analysis was used to detect the effect of PNS on the protein level of CYP1A2, and the results showed that PNS could upregulate the protein expression of CYP1A2. However, no significant changes in CYP2C9, 2D6 or 3A4 activities were observed. In conclusion, the results indicate that PNS could induce CYP1A2, which may affect the disposition of medicines primarily dependent on the CYP1A2 pathway. Our work may be the basis of related herb-drug interactions in the clinic.

  8. Allosteric Remodelling of the Histone H3 Binding Pocket in the Pygo2 PHD Finger Triggered by Its Binding to the B9L/BCL9 Co-Factor

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas C.R.; Rutherford, Trevor J.; Johnson, Christopher M.; Fiedler, Marc; Bienz, Mariann

    2010-01-01

    The Zn-coordinated PHD fingers of Pygopus (Pygo) proteins are critical for β-catenin-dependent transcriptional switches in normal and malignant tissues. They bind to methylated histone H3 tails, assisted by their BCL9 co-factors whose homology domain 1 (HD1) binds to the rear PHD surface. Although histone-binding residues are identical between the two human Pygo paralogs, we show here that Pygo2 complexes exhibit slightly higher binding affinities for methylated histone H3 tail peptides than Pygo1 complexes. We solved the crystal structure of the Pygo2 PHD–BCL9-2 HD1 complex, which revealed paralog-specific interactions in its PHD–HD1 interface that could contribute indirectly to its elevated affinity for the methylated histone H3 tail. Interestingly, using NMR spectroscopy, we discovered that HD1 binding to PHD triggers an allosteric communication with a conserved isoleucine residue that lines the binding channel for histone H3 threonine 3 (T3), the link between the two adjacent binding pockets accommodating histone H3 alanine 1 and methylated lysine 4, respectively. This modulates the surface of the T3 channel, providing a plausible explanation as to how BCL9 co-factors binding to Pygo PHD fingers impact indirectly on their histone binding affinity. Intriguingly, this allosteric modulation of the T3 channel is propagated through the PHD structural core by a highly conserved tryptophan, the signature residue defining the PHD subclass of Zn fingers, which suggests that other PHD proteins may also be assisted by co-factors in their decoding of modified histone H3 tails. PMID:20637214

  9. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. [Tetrahydropyrene and hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H[sub 2] hydrogenation reaction network.

  10. 9 and Vδ2 T cell antigen receptor genes and butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) emerged with placental mammals and are concomitantly preserved in selected species like alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Mohindar M; Göbel, Thomas W; Starick, Lisa; Walter, Lutz; Herrmann, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Human Vγ92 T cells recognize phosphorylated products of isoprenoid metabolism (phosphoantigens) PAg with TCR comprising Vγ9JP γ-chains and Vδ2 δ-chains dependent on butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) expressed by antigen-presenting cells. They are massively activated in many infections and show anti-tumor activity and so far, they have been considered to exist only in higher primates. We performed a comprehensive analysis of databases and identified the three genes in species of both placental magnorders, but not in rodents. The common occurrence or loss of in silico translatable Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes suggested their co-evolution based on a functional relationship. In the peripheral lymphocytes of alpaca (Vicugna pacos), characteristic Vγ9JP rearrangements and in-frame Vδ2 rearrangements were found and could be co-expressed in a TCR-negative mouse T cell hybridoma where they rescued CD3 expression and function. Finally, database sequence analysis of the extracellular domain of alpaca BTN3 revealed complete conservation of proposed PAg binding residues of human BTN3A1. In summary, we show emergence and preservation of Vγ9 and Vδ2 TCR genes with the gene of the putative antigen-presenting molecule BTN3 in placental mammals and lay the ground for analysis of alpaca as candidate for a first non-primate species to possess Vγ92 T cells.

  11. Prolyl hydroxylation by EglN2 destabilizes FOXO3a by blocking its interaction with the USP9x deubiquitinase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xingnan; Zhai, Bo; Koivunen, Peppi; Shin, Sandra J; Lu, Gang; Liu, Jiayun; Geisen, Christoph; Chakraborty, Abhishek A; Moslehi, Javid J; Smalley, David M; Wei, Xin; Chen, Xian; Chen, Zhengming; Beres, Justine M; Zhang, Jing; Tsao, Jen Lan; Brenner, Mitchell C; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Cheng; DePinho, Ronald A; Paik, Jihye; Gygi, Steven P; Kaelin, William G; Zhang, Qing

    2014-07-01

    The three EglN prolyl hydroxylases (EglN1, EglN2, and EglN3) regulate the stability of the HIF transcription factor. We recently showed that loss of EglN2, however, also leads to down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and decreased cell proliferation in a HIF-independent manner. Here we report that EglN2 can hydroxylate FOXO3a on two specific prolyl residues in vitro and in vivo. Hydroxylation of these sites prevents the binding of USP9x deubiquitinase, thereby promoting the proteasomal degradation of FOXO3a. FOXO transcription factors can repress Cyclin D1 transcription. Failure to hydroxylate FOXO3a promotes its accumulation in cells, which in turn suppresses Cyclin D1 expression. These findings provide new insights into post-transcriptional control of FOXO3a and provide a new avenue for pharmacologically altering Cyclin D1 activity.

  12. Prolyl hydroxylation by EglN2 destabilizes FOXO3a by blocking its interaction with the USP9x deubiquitinase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xingnan; Zhai, Bo; Koivunen, Peppi; Shin, Sandra J.; Lu, Gang; Liu, Jiayun; Geisen, Christoph; Chakraborty, Abhishek A.; Moslehi, Javid J.; Smalley, David M.; Wei, Xin; Chen, Xian; Chen, Zhengming; Beres, Justine M.; Tsao, Jen Lan; Brenner, Mitchell C.; Fan, Cheng; DePinho, Ronald A.; Paik, Jihye; Gygi, Steven P.; Kaelin, William G.; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The three EglN prolyl hydroxylases (EglN1, EglN2, and EglN3) regulate the stability of the HIF transcription factor. We recently showed that loss of EglN2, however, also leads to down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and decreased cell proliferation in a HIF-independent manner. Here we report that EglN2 can hydroxylate FOXO3a on two specific prolyl residues in vitro and in vivo. Hydroxylation of these sites prevents the binding of USP9x deubiquitinase, thereby promoting the proteasomal degradation of FOXO3a. FOXO transcription factors can repress Cyclin D1 transcription. Failure to hydroxylate FOXO3a promotes its accumulation in cells, which in turn suppresses Cyclin D1 expression. These findings provide new insights into post-transcriptional control of FOXO3a and provide a new avenue for pharmacologically altering Cyclin D1 activity. PMID:24990963

  13. Metastatic function of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells: The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and MMP-9 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Myoung Hee; Oh, Sang Cheul; Kang, Han Na; Kim, Jung Lim; Kim, Jun Suk

    2011-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression in various types of cancer cells, but the role and cellular mechanism in the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells is not known. Herein, we determined the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in BMP-2-mediated metastatic function in gastric cancer. We found that stimulation of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Accompanying activation of AKT and ERK kinase, BMP-2 also enhanced phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and the nuclear translocation/activation of NF-{kappa}B. Interestingly, blockade of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling using LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced motility and invasiveness in association with the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced MMP-9 expression and enzymatic activity was also significantly blocked by treatment with PI3K/AKT, ERK, or NF-{kappa}B inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry staining of 178 gastric tumor biopsies indicated that expression of BMP-2 and MMP-9 had a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. These results indicate that the BMP-2 signaling pathway enhances tumor metastasis in gastric cancer by sequential activation of the PI3K/AKT or MAPK pathway followed by the induction of NF-{kappa}B and MMP-9 activity, indicating that BMP-2 has the potential to be a therapeutic molecular target to decrease metastasis.

  14. 10 CFR 9.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 9.3 Section 9.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. NRC personnel... members or a quorum thereof sitting as a body, as provided by section 201 of the Energy Reorganization...

  15. 10 CFR 9.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 9.3 Section 9.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. NRC personnel... members or a quorum thereof sitting as a body, as provided by section 201 of the Energy Reorganization...

  16. 10 CFR 9.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 9.3 Section 9.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. NRC personnel... members or a quorum thereof sitting as a body, as provided by section 201 of the Energy Reorganization...

  17. 10 CFR 9.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 9.3 Section 9.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. NRC personnel... members or a quorum thereof sitting as a body, as provided by section 201 of the Energy Reorganization...

  18. 10 CFR 9.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 9.3 Section 9.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. NRC personnel... members or a quorum thereof sitting as a body, as provided by section 201 of the Energy Reorganization...

  19. 18 CFR 9.3 - Transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfer. 9.3 Section 9.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT...

  20. 18 CFR 9.3 - Transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfer. 9.3 Section 9.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT...

  1. 18 CFR 9.3 - Transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transfer. 9.3 Section 9.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT...

  2. 18 CFR 9.3 - Transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transfer. 9.3 Section 9.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT...

  3. 18 CFR 9.3 - Transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer. 9.3 Section 9.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT...

  4. Differential expression of GDF9, TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 in porcine oocytes isolated from follicles of different size before and after culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jackowska, Marta; Kempisty, Bartosz; Woźna, Magdalena; Piotrowska, Hanna; Antosik, Paweł; Zawierucha, Piotr; Bukowska, Dorota; Nowicki, Michał; Jaśkowski, Jędrzej M; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter

    2013-03-01

    The TGFB superfamily genes are involved in several important cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation, and the role of the expression of these genes in growth and development of theca and granulosa cells is well recognised. However, the dependence between the stage of oocyte maturation or follicular size and the expression of these genes in pigs is still not entirely known. This study was aimed at investigating the expression pattern of GDF9, TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 in porcine oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) as well as in oocytes collected from follicles of different sizes. RQ-PCR was performed to analyse the expression of GDF9, TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 in oocytes before and after IVM (oocytes cultured for 44 h in TCM-199), isolated from large (> 5 mm), medium (3-5 mm) and small (< 3 mm) follicles collected from ovaries of 28 puberal crossbred Landrace gilts after slaughter. We found an increased expression of both TGFB1 and TGFB2 in oocytes before IVM collected from large as compared to medium and small follicles (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). In these groups of oocytes we did not observe differences in GDF9 and TGFB3 mRNA levels. However, after IVM, GDF9 protein distribution in oocytes was significantly higher in large and medium follicles as compared to small ones (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, an increased TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 proteins pattern was observed in oocytes of large compared to small follicles. The highest GDF9 and TGFB1 mRNA levels were found in oocytes after IVM compared to those before IVM. Based on our study we can suppose that the distribution pattern of TGFB superfamily genes is associated with the stage of maturation of porcine oocytes and the follicle size. Furthermore, GDF9 and TGFB1 may serve as molecular markers of the develop-mental potential of porcine oocytes. The confocal microscopic observation revealed that TGFB1 and TGFB3 were translocated between the zona

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigations on molecular structure of 7-Chloro-9-phenyl-2,3-dihydroacridin-4(1H)-one with cytotoxic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheeshkumar, Rajendran; Shankar, Ramasamy; Kaminsky, Werner; Kalaiselvi, Sivalingam; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Rajendra Prasad, Karnam Jayarampillai

    2016-04-01

    7-Chloro-9-phenyl-2,3-dihydroacridin-4(1H)-one (3) is synthesized from 2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone (1) and 1,2-cyclohexanedione (2) in the presence of catalyst InCl3. FT-IR, FT-Raman and FT-NMR spectra of molecule 3 have been recorded and the structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. CDCl3 and DMSO-d6 FT-NMR spectra and 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts have been measured in molecule 3 and calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and MO6-2x/6-311G (d,p) levels of theory. Similarly calculated vibrational frequencies were found in good agreement with experimental findings. The optimized geometry of molecule 3 was compared with experimental XRD values. DFT calculations of the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO - LUMO frontier orbitals identified chemically active sites of molecule 3 responsible for its bioactivity. The title compound, 3 exhibits higher cytotoxicity in Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) compared to human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549).

  6. PGC7 binds histone H3K9me2 to protect against conversion of 5mC to 5hmC in early embryos.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshinobu; Liu, Yu-Jung; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Hiroki; Inoue, Kimiko; Matoba, Shogo; Tachibana, Makoto; Ogura, Atsuo; Shinkai, Yoichi; Nakano, Toru

    2012-06-03

    The modification of DNA by 5-methylcytosine (5mC) has essential roles in cell differentiation and development through epigenetic gene regulation. 5mC can be converted to another modified base, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), by the tet methylcytosine dioxygenase (Tet) family of enzymes. Notably, the balance between 5hmC and 5mC in the genome is linked with cell-differentiation processes such as pluripotency and lineage commitment. We have previously reported that the maternal factor PGC7 (also known as Dppa3, Stella) is required for the maintenance of DNA methylation in early embryogenesis, and protects 5mC from conversion to 5hmC in the maternal genome. Here we show that PGC7 protects 5mC from Tet3-mediated conversion to 5hmC by binding to maternal chromatin containing dimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) in mice. In addition, imprinted loci that are marked with H3K9me2 in mature sperm are protected by PGC7 binding in early embryogenesis. This type of regulatory mechanism could be involved in DNA modifications in somatic cells as well as in early embryos.

  7. Preparation of 1,7- and 3,9-dideazapurines from 2-amino-3-iodo- and 3-amino-4-iodopyridines and activated acetylenes by conjugate addition and copper-catalyzed intramolecular arylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Back, Thomas G

    2014-11-21

    The conjugate addition of N-formyl derivatives of 2-amino-3-iodo- and 3-amino-4-iodopyridines to acetylenes activated by sulfone, ester, or ketone groups, followed by intramolecular arylation, affords variously substituted 1,7- and 3,9-dideazapurines. The method employs DMF-water as the solvent and copper(II) acetate as the catalyst for the cyclization step. Neither added ligands nor the exclusion of oxygen is necessary. The process therefore provides a simple, convenient, and inexpensive route to this biologically interesting class of products. PMID:25333726

  8. Effects of distortion of the intercluster motion in {sup 2}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 9}Be on Trojan horse applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2009-08-15

    Deuteron induced quasifree scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades as well as {sup 6}Li, {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, and {sup 9}Be induced reactions. This was done not only for the investigation of nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms but also for important astrophysical applications (Trojan horse method). In particular the widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan horse method will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the nucleus is a important input for this method. This gives hints on distortion effects at low energies important for nuclear astrophysics.

  9. 17O solid-state NMR and first-principles calculations of sodium trimetaphosphate (Na3P3O9), tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10), and pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7).

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Filipe; Cristol, Sylvain; Paul, Jean-Francois; Tricot, Grégory; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Montagne, Lionel; Mauri, Francesco; Delevoye, Laurent

    2008-08-18

    The assignment of high-field (18.8 T) (17)O MAS and 3QMAS spectra has been completed by use of first-principles calculations for three crystalline sodium phosphates, Na 3P 3O 9, Na 5P 3O 10, and Na 4P 2O 7. In Na 3P 3O 9, the calculated parameters, quadrupolar constant ( C Q), quadrupolar asymmetry (eta Q), and the isotropic chemical shift (delta cs) correspond to those deduced experimentally, and the calculation is mandatory to achieve a complete assignment. For the sodium tripolyphosphate Na 5P 3O 10, the situation is more complex because of the free rotation of the end-chain phosphate groups. The assignment obtained with ab initio calculations can however be confirmed by the (17)O{ (31)P} MAS-J-HMQC spectrum. Na 4P 2O 7 (17)O MAS and 3QMAS spectra show a complex pattern in agreement with the computed NMR parameters, which indicate that all of the oxygens exhibit very similar values. These results are related to structural data to better understand the influence of the oxygen environment on the NMR parameters. The findings are used to interpret those results observed on a binary sodium phosphate glass. PMID:18642900

  10. Crystal structure of (1S,3R,8R,9R,10S)-2,4,6-tris­(2,2-di­chloro-3,7,7,10-tetra­methyl­tri­cyclo­[6.4.0.01,3]dodec-9-yl)cyclo­triboroxane

    PubMed Central

    Benharref, Ahmed; El Ammari, Lahcen; Saadi, Mohamed; Mazoir, Noureddine; Berraho, Moha

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C48H75B3Cl6O3, was synthesized in two steps from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra­methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa­hydro-1H-benzo­cyclo­hept­ene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica). The mol­ecule consists of an almost planar cyclo­triboroxane ring [maximum deviation = 0.036 (2) Å] linked to three identical fused ring systems with different conformations. Each of the three attached ring systems is built up from a seven-membered ring to which a six- and a three-membered ring are fused. The three six-membered rings have a twist-boat conformation, whereas the seven-membered rings display boat, chair and twist-boat conformations. The dihedral angles between the central boroxane ring and the mean planes of the attached six-membered rings are 63.67 (18), 54.89 (2) and 56.57 (19)°. The crystal packing is governed only by van der Waals inter­actions. PMID:26396761

  11. Crystal structure and computational study of 3,4-dihy­droxy-3-hy­droxy­methyl-9-methyl-6-methyl­idene-3a,4,5,6,6a,9,9a,9b-octa­hydro­azuleno[4,5-b]furan-2,8(3H,7H)-dione

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Ísmail; Akkurt, Mehmet; Akşit, Hüseyin; Erenler, Ramazan; García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of title compound, C15H20O6, also known as cynarinin A, the cyclo­pentane ring having twist conformation and a γ-lactone ring assuming an envelope conformation are trans- and cis-fused, respectively, to a cyclo­heptane ring adopting a twist-chair conformation. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link neighbouring mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. Theoretical calculations of the mol­ecular structure using the CNDO approximation and MOPAC PM3 geometry optimization are in satisfactory agreement with the results of the X-ray structure analysis. PMID:26870396

  12. Stromatoxin-sensitive, heteromultimeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channels contribute to myogenic control of cerebral arterial diameter.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xi Zoë; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S; Liao, Chiu-Hsiang; El-Yazbi, Ahmed F; Walsh, Emma J; Walsh, Michael P; Cole, William C

    2010-11-15

    Cerebral vascular smooth muscle contractility plays a crucial role in controlling arterial diameter and, thereby, blood flow regulation in the brain. A number of K(+) channels have been suggested to contribute to the regulation of diameter by controlling smooth muscle membrane potential (E(m)) and Ca(2+) influx. Previous studies indicate that stromatoxin (ScTx1)-sensitive, Kv2-containing channels contribute to the control of cerebral arterial diameter at 80 mmHg, but their precise role and molecular composition were not determined. Here, we tested if Kv2 subunits associate with 'silent' subunits from the Kv5, Kv6, Kv8 or Kv9 subfamilies to form heterotetrameric channels that contribute to control of diameter of rat middle cerebral arteries (RMCAs) over a range of intraluminal pressure from 10 to 100 mmHg. The predominant mRNAs expressed by RMCAs encode Kv2.1 and Kv9.3 subunits. Co-localization of Kv2.1 and Kv9.3 proteins at the plasma membrane of dissociated single RMCA myocytes was detected by proximity ligation assay. ScTx1-sensitive native current of RMCA myocytes and Kv2.1/Kv9.3 currents exhibited functional identity based on the similarity of their deactivation kinetics and voltage dependence of activation that were distinct from those of homomultimeric Kv2.1 channels. ScTx1 treatment enhanced the myogenic response of pressurized RMCAs between 40 and 100 mmHg, but this toxin also caused constriction between 10 and 40 mmHg that was not previously observed following inhibition of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) and Kv1 channels. Taken together, this study defines the molecular basis of Kv2-containing channels and contributes to our understanding of the functional significance of their expression in cerebral vasculature. Specifically, our findings provide the first evidence of heteromultimeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channel expression in RMCA myocytes and their distinct contribution to control of cerebral arterial diameter over a wider range of E(m) and

  13. Control of ferromagnetism in (In{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}){sub 2}O{sub 3} via F doping of electron carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Shiming Ou, Haifeng; Zhang, Liying; He, Jie; Yu, Jingxin

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • F doping was achieved by a process of low temperature reaction with PVDF. • RTFM was obtained in the F-doped (In{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}){sub 2}O{sub 3.} • Magnetism and electric resistivity can be controlled by the content of doped F. • The FM can be ascribed to a long range exchange interaction induced by carriers. - Abstract: Ferromagnetism in (In{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}){sub 2}O{sub 3} was obtained by fluorine (F) doping. The ferromagnetism can be controlled by changing the electron carrier concentration via F doping. With increasing the F concentration, the electron carrier concentration increases, and samples undergo a paramagnetic insulator to ferromagnetic metal transition. For the ferromagnetic samples, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was observed. These results indicate that electron carriers play an important role in inducing the ferromagnetism.

  14. Evidence for nonuniversal behavior of paraconductivity caused by predominant short-wavelength Gaussian fluctuations in YBa2Cu3O6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, Andrea; Pavuna, Davor

    1995-06-01

    We report on in-plane paraconductivity measurements in thin YBa2Cu3O6.9 films. Our analysis of the data shows that the temperature dependence of paraconductivity is affected by lattice disorder and deviates at all temperatures from the universal power laws predicted by both scaling and mean-field theories. This gives evidence for the absence of critical fluctuations and for the failure of the Aslamazov-Larkin universal relation between critical exponent and dimensionality of the spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations. We account quantitatively for the data within the experimental error by introducing a short-wavelength cutoff into this spectrum. This implies that three-dimensional short-wavelength Gaussian fluctuations dominate in YBa2Cu3O6.9 and suggests a rapid attenuation of these fluctuations with decreasing wavelength in short-coherence-length systems as compared to the case of the conventional Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  15. Eupatilin inhibits the apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes via the Akt/GSK-3β pathway following hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zengyong; Xu, Ya-Wei; Yang, Jingyu

    2016-08-01

    Eupatilin, a pharmacologically active flavone derived from the Artemisia plant species, has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and neuroprotective activities against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, the role of eupatilin in myocardial I/R injury remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis in vitro. Our results showed that eupatilin markedly improved the cell viability and decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Eupatilin also suppressed oxidative stress and apoptosis in H9c2 cells after myocardial I/R injury. Furthermore, eupatilin obviously increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β in H9c2 cells. Our results suggested that eupatilin could provide significant cardioprotection against myocardial I/R injury, and the potential mechanisms might involve inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis through activating the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway. PMID:27470375

  16. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of La{sub 3}Co{sub 2}SbO{sub 9}: A double perovskite with competing antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, D.G.; Fuertes, V.C.; Blanco, M.C.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T.; Sanchez, R.D.; Carbonio, R.E.

    2012-10-15

    The synthesis, structural characterization, and magnetic properties of La{sub 3}Co{sub 2}SbO{sub 9} double perovskite are reported. The crystal structure has been refined by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n. Co{sup 2+} and Sb{sup 5+} have the maximum order allowed for the La{sub 3}Co{sub 2}SbO{sub 9} stoichiometry. Rietveld refinements of powder neutron diffraction data show that at room temperature the cell parameters are a=5.6274(2) A, b=5.6842(2) A, c=7.9748(2) A and {beta}=89.999(3) Degree-Sign . Magnetization measurements indicate the presence of ferromagnetic correlations with T{sub C}=55 K attributed to the exchange interactions for non-linear Co{sup 2+}-O-Sb{sup 5+}-O-Co{sup 2+} paths. The effective magnetic moment obtained experimentally is {mu}{sub exp}=4.38 {mu}{sub B} (per mol Co{sup 2+}), between the theoretical one for spin only (3.87 {mu}{sub B}) and spin-orbit value (6.63 {mu}{sub B}), indicating partially unquenched contribution. The low magnetization value at high magnetic field and low temperature (1 {mu}{sub B}/f.u., 5 T and 5 K) and the difference between ZFC and FC magnetization curves (at 5 kOe) indicate that the ferromagnetism do not reach a long range order and that the material has an important magnetic frustration. - Graphical abstract: Co-O-Co (Yellow octahedra only) rich zones (antiferromagnetic) are in contact with Co-O-Sb-O-Co (Red and yellow octahedra) rich zones (Ferromagnetic) to give the peculiar magnetic properties, as a consequence, a complex hysteresis loop can be observed composed by a main and irreversible curve in all the measured range, superimposed with a ferromagnetic component at low fields. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub 3}Co{sub 2}SbO{sub 9} has small Goldschmidt Tolerance Factor (t) due to the small size of La{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small t determines an angle for the path Co{sup 2+}-O-Sb{sup 5+}-O-Co{sup 2+} of 153 Degree-Sign . Black

  17. Molecular and crystal structures of dialkylated adenines ( N6, N9-Me 2Ade, N3, N6-MeBnAde) and cytosines ( N1, N4-Me 2Cyt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Thomas; Wagner, Christoph; Bruhn, Clemens; Lis, Tadeusz; Steinborn, Dirk

    2008-11-01

    N6, N9-Dimethyladenine ( N6, N9-Me 2Ade, 1) and N1, N4-dimethylcytosine ( N1, N4-Me 2Cyt, 3) were obtained by conventional methods, whereas the reaction of N6-benzyladenine with MeI/NaOH resulted in the formation of N3, N6-MeBnAde ( 2a) and N6, N9-BnMeAde ( 2b). All compounds were fully characterized by microanalysis, NMR spectroscopy ( 1H, 13C) and 1, 22MeOH and 3 also by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In single-crystals of 1, obtained from THF solutions, twofold N6-H···N7' hydrogen-bonded dimeric units ( N6, N9-Me 2Ade) 2 (AA1 2 type according to Jeffrey and Saenger, 1991) were found. This proved to be another modification than that obtained by crystallization N6, N9-Me 2Ade from MeOH/PhCl (Sternglanz, 1978). Crystals of 22MeOH exhibited an analogous hydrogen bond pattern as found in 1. The shorter N6···N7' distance in 22MeOH (2.932(2) Å) indicates slightly stronger hydrogen bonds than in 1 (3.078(3) Å). Crystals of 3 are built up from centrosymmetric dimers ( N1, N4-Me 2Cyt) 2 having a twofold N4-H···N3' hydrogen bond, thus exhibiting the CC3 2 hydrogen bond pattern. The hydrogen bonding patterns in the dialkylated nucleobase derivatives are discussed in terms of those found in crystals of the less substituted nucleobases N9-MeAde and Cyt/ N1-MeCyt, respectively.

  18. Innovative solid oxide fuel cells based on BaIn0.3Ti0.7O2.85 electrolyte and La2Mo2O9 amorphous reduced phase as anode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buvat, Gaëtan; Quarez, Eric; Joubert, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This article presents elaboration of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells based on the oxide ion conductor BaIn0.3Ti0.7O2.85 (BIT07) as electrolyte, the amorphous reduced phase of La2Mo2O9 (La2Mo2O7-y) as anode which presents a mixed ionic and electronic conduction in low pO2 and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) as cathode. Electrode materials have been deposited by screen-printing on BIT07 substrate. In order to avoid chemical reactivity between BIT07 and La2Mo2O9, a thin layer of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) has been used. Electrochemical performance of the single cell has been characterized by I-V measurements and impedance spectroscopy. Encouraging performance of 40 mW cm-2 at 700 °C is obtained with a thick electrolyte layer. Finally, ageing test of the cell at 700 °C during 800 h has been done with a low rate of performance loss of 4.4 × 10-3% h-1. No degradation of the electrolyte material is reported and stability of the anode material after operating the fuel cell is discussed.

  19. scAAV9-VEGF prolongs the survival of transgenic ALS mice by promoting activation of M2 microglia and the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Duan, Weisong; Wang, Wan; Di Wen; Liu, Yaling; Liu, Yakun; Li, Zhongyao; Hu, Haojie; Lin, Huiqian; Cui, Can; Li, Dongxiao; Dong, Hui; Li, Chunyan

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that leads to paralysis and death three to five years after diagnosis in most patients. The disease is incurable, and the mechanism of motoneuron degeneration remains unknown, although research has demonstrated that activated microglia are involved in motor neuron death. Here, we used a simple method to deliver AAV9 virus by direct intrathecal injection and found that scAAV9-VEGF-165 improved the motor performance and prolonged the life span of SOD1-G93A mice. Furthermore, scAAV9-VEGF-165 activated the PI3K/Akt survival pathway and increased the level of Bcl-2, which contributed to the protection of motor neurons. Additionally, scAAV9-VEGF-165 attenuated the expression of classically activated (M1) microglial markers and enhanced the expression of alternatively activated (M2) microglial markers. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that simple, direct intrathecal injection of scAAV9-VEGF-165 may have a curative effect for ALS. PMID:27392886

  20. 7,9-Diaryl-1,6,8-trioxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-2-ones: readily accessible and highly potent anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, Michael P; Smith, William B; Munoz, Alberto; Mohandas, Poornima; Au, Andrew S; Marineau, Jason J; Quadri, Luis E N; Bradner, James E; Murelli, Ryan P

    2014-08-15

    7,9-Diaryl-1,6,8-trioxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-2-ones are a recently described group of spirocyclic butenolides that can be generated rapidly and as a single diastereomer through a cascade process between γ-hydroxybutenolides and aromatic aldehydes. The following outlines our findings that these spirocycles are potently cytotoxic and have a dramatic structure-function profile that provides excellent insight into the structural features required for this potency.

  1. High-K (Ba0.8Bi0.2)(Zn0.1Ti0.9)O3 ceramics for high-temperature capacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Raengthon, Natthaphon; Cann, David P

    2011-09-01

    Solid solutions of BaTiO(3)-Bi(Zn(1/2)Ti(1/2))O(3) were investigated for high-temperature capacitor applications. Compositions close to 0.8BaTiO(3)-0.2Bi(Zn(1/2)Ti(1/2))O(3) revealed pseudo-cubic symmetry and showed a linear dielectric response. The existence of a nearly flat temperature dependence of the relative permittivity over the temperature range of 100 to 350°C was also obtained. In this study, the effects of cation non-stoichiometry and doping were investigated in an attempt to optimize the insulation resistance for high-temperature applications. The dielectric response of (Ba(0.8)-xBi(0.2))(Zn(0.1)Ti(0.9)) O(3) ceramics where 0 ≤ X ≤ 0.08, as well as ZrO2- and Mn(2)O(3)-doped ceramics were studied. The optimum compositions exhibited a relative permittivity in excess of 1150 with a low loss tangent (tan δ < 0.05) that persisted up to a temperature of 460δC. The temperature dependence of resistivity also revealed the improved insulation resistance of Ba-deficient compositions. Additionally, we suggest that an ionic conduction mechanism is responsible for the degradation of resistivity at high temperatures. The temperature coefficient of permittivity ((τ)K) and the RC time constant were also investigated.

  2. miR-9 and miR-124 synergistically affect regulation of dendritic branching via the AKT/GSK3β pathway by targeting Rap2a

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian; Yu, Caiyong; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Kun; Fang, Chao; Liu, Fangfang; Bian, Ganlan; Song, Bing; Yang, Angang; Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A single microRNA (miRNA) can regulate expression of multiple proteins, and expression of an individual protein may be controlled by numerous miRNAs. This regulatory pattern strongly suggests that synergistic effects of miRNAs play critical roles in regulating biological processes. miR-9 and miR-124, two of the most abundant miRNAs in the mammalian nervous system, have important functions in neuronal development. In this study, we identified the small GTP-binding protein Rap2a as a common target of both miR-9 and miR-124. miR-9 and miR-124 together, but neither miRNA alone, strongly suppressed Rap2a, thereby promoting neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and dendritic branching of differentiated neurons. Rap2a also diminished the dendritic complexity of mature neurons by decreasing the levels of pAKT and pGSK3β. Our results reveal a novel pathway in which miR-9 and miR-124 synergistically repress expression of Rap2a to sustain homeostatic dendritic complexity during neuronal development and maturation. PMID:27221778

  3. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in Arabidopsis thaliana and inheritance of modified genes in the T2 and T3 generations.

    PubMed

    Jiang, WenZhi; Yang, Bing; Weeks, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    The newly developed CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeted gene knockout or editing has recently been shown to function in plants in both transient expression systems as well as in primary T1 transgenic plants. However, stable transmission of genes modified by the Cas9/single guide RNA (sgRNA) system to the T2 generation and beyond has not been demonstrated. Here we provide extensive data demonstrating the efficiency of Cas9/sgRNA in causing modification of a chromosomally integrated target reporter gene during early development of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and inheritance of the modified gene in T2 and T3 progeny. Efficient conversion of a nonfunctional, out-of-frame GFP gene to a functional GFP gene was confirmed in T1 plants by the observation of green fluorescent signals in leaf tissues as well as the presence of mutagenized DNA sequences at the sgRNA target site within the GFP gene. All GFP-positive T1 transgenic plants and nearly all GFP-negative plants examined contained mutagenized GFP genes. Analyses of 42 individual T2 generation plants derived from 6 different T1 progenitor plants showed that 50% of T2 plants inherited a single T-DNA insert. The efficiency of the Cas9/sgRNA system and stable inheritance of edited genes point to the promise of this system for facile editing of plant genes.

  4. Theoretical investigation of a novel high density cage compound 4,8,11,14,15-pentanitro-2,6,9,13-tetraoxa-4,8,11,14,15-pentaazaheptacyclo[5.5.1.1(3,11).1(5,9)] pentadecane.

    PubMed

    Lin, He; Zhu, Shun-guan; Zhang, Lin; Peng, Xin-hua; Chen, Peng-yuan; Li, Hong-zhen

    2013-03-01

    A novel polynitro cage compound 4,8,11,14,15-pentanitro-2,6,9,13-tetraoxa-4,8,11,14,15-pentaazaheptacyclo [5.5.1.1(3,11).1(5,9)]pentadecane(PNTOPAHP) has been designed and investigated at the DFT-B3LYP/6-31(d) level. Properties, such as electronic structure, IR spectrum, heat of formation, thermodynamic properties and crystal structure have been predicted. This compound is most likely to crystallize in C2/c space group, and the corresponding cell parameters are Z = 8, a = 29.78 Å, b = 6.42 Å, c = 32.69 Å, α = 90.00°, β = 151.05°, γ = 90.00° and ρ = 1.94 g/cm(3). In addition, the detonation velocity and pressure have also been calculated by the empirical Kamlet-Jacobs equation. As a result, the detonation velocity and pressure of this compound are 9.82 km/s, 44.67 GPa, respectively, a little higher than those of 4,10-dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazaisowurtzitane(TEX, 9.28 km/s, 40.72 GPa). This compound has a comparable chemical stability to TEX, based on the N-NO(2) trigger bond length analysis. The bond dissociation energy ranges from 153.09 kJ mol(-1) to 186.04 kJ mol(-1), which indicates that this compound meets the thermal stability requirement as an exploitable HEDM. PMID:23111684

  5. New framework hydrous silicate K{sub 3}Sc[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] {center_dot} H{sub 2}O related to the high-temperature anhydrous silicate K{sub 3}Ho[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] and symmetry analysis of a phase transition with prediction of structures

    SciTech Connect

    Belokoneva, E. L. Zorina, A. P.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2013-07-15

    Crystals of a new framework silicate K{sub 3}Sc[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, space group Pm2{sub 1}n (nonstandard setting of space group Pmn2{sub 1} = C{sub 2v}{sup 7}), are obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The structure is determined without preliminary knowledge of the chemical formula. The absolute configuration is determined. The structure is close to that of the high-temperature K{sub 3}Ho[Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}] phase, which was obtained upon the heating of K{sub 3}HoSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 2}. This structural similarity is due to the specific conditions of synthesis and an analogous formula, where holmium is replaced by scandium. A symmetry analysis shows that the high local symmetry of a block (rod) is responsible for the first-order phase transition of both the order-disorder (OD) and displacement type. The number of structures in which the simplest and high-symmetry layers are multiplied by different symmetry elements are predicted.

  6. TLR9 Ligands Induce S100A8 in Macrophages via a STAT3-Dependent Pathway which Requires IL-10 and PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kenneth; Chung, Yuen Ming; Endoh, Yasumi; Geczy, Carolyn L.

    2014-01-01

    S100A8 and S100A9 are highly-expressed calcium-binding proteins in neutrophils and monocytes, and in subsets of macrophages in inflammatory lesions. Unmethylated CpG motifs found in bacterial and viral DNA are potent activators of innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). S100A8, but not S100A9, mRNA and protein was directly induced by CpG-DNA in murine and human macrophages. Induction in murine macrophages peaked at 16 h. CpG-DNA-induced S100A8 required de novo protein synthesis; IL-10 and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synergistically enhanced expression and promoted earlier gene induction. Inhibitors of endogenous IL-10, PGE2, and the E prostanoid (EP) 4 receptor strongly suppressed S100A8 expression, particularly when combined. Thus, S100A8 induction by E. coli DNA required both IL-10 and PGE2/EP4 signaling. The MAPKs, PI3K and JAK pathways were essential, whereas ERK1/2 appeared to play a direct role. S100A8 induction by CpG-DNA was controlled at the transcriptional level. The promoter region responsible for activation, either directly, or indirectly via IL-10 and PGE2, was located within a −178 to −34-bp region and required STAT3 binding. Because of the robust links connecting IL-10 and PGE2 with an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype, the induction profile of S100A8 strongly indicates a role for this protein in resolution of inflammation. PMID:25098409

  7. Magnetic phase diagram and multiferroicity of Ba3MnNb2O9 : A spin -52 triangular lattice antiferromagnet with weak easy-axis anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Huang, X.; Ma, J.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Matsuda, M.; Tian, W.; Dun, Z. L.; Dong, S.; Zhou, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    Here we have performed magnetic, electric, thermal and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations on Ba3MnNb2 O9. All results suggest that Ba3MnNb2 O9 is a spin-5/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF) with weak easy-axis anisotropy. At zero field, we observed a narrow two-step transition at TN1 = 3.4 K and TN2 = 3.0 K. The neutron diffraction measurement and the DFT calculation indicate a 120 spin structure in ab plane with out-of-plane canting at low temperatures. With increasing magnetic field, the 120 spin structure evolves into up-up-down (uud) and oblique phases showing successive magneticmore » phase transitions, which fits well to the theoretical prediction for the 2D Heisenberg TLAF with classical spins. Ultimately, multiferroicity is observed when the spins are not collinear but suppressed in the uud and oblique phases.« less

  8. Inhibitory activity of Socheongryong‑tang and its constituent components against the production of RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin‑3 and MMP‑9 from BEAS‑2B cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junh-Hoon; Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-12-01

    Socheongryeong‑tang (SCRT) is a herbal formula previously used to treat pulmonary diseases primarily caused by the common cold virus, including airway inflammation, asthma and allergy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of SCRT water extract and its 13 constituent components on chemokine and enzyme production in the human bronchial epithelium cell line BEAS‑2B when induced by tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑4. The chemokines examined included regulated on activation of normal T‑cell‑expressed‑and‑secreted (RANTES), eotaxin and eotaxin‑3. The SCRT water extract demonstrated a dose‑dependent inhibition of RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin‑3 and matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP‑9) in BEAS‑2B cells. The 13 constituent compounds of SCRT water extract were quantitatively determined, and it was found that gallic acid, 6‑gingerol and methyl eugenol produced the most potent inhibition of RANTES, eotaxin and eotaxin‑3 as well as MMP‑9 activity regardless of their concentration in SCRT water extract. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that the inhibitory effect of these three compounds contributed to that of SCRT water extract. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the inhibitory effects of SCRT on chemokine and enzyme production in BEAS‑2B cells was associated with three of its constituent compounds, gallic acid, 6‑gingerol and methyl eugenol. This therefore suggested the potential use of these compounds as anti‑inflammatory agents.

  9. 9 CFR 3.89 - Food and water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transported in commerce. Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and water requirements. 3.89... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.89 Food and water requirements. (a)...

  10. 9 CFR 3.89 - Food and water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transported in commerce. Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and water requirements. 3.89... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.89 Food and water requirements. (a)...

  11. 9 CFR 3.89 - Food and water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transported in commerce. Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food and water requirements. 3.89... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.89 Food and water requirements. (a)...

  12. 9 CFR 3.89 - Food and water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transported in commerce. Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and water requirements. 3.89... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.89 Food and water requirements. (a)...

  13. 9 CFR 3.89 - Food and water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transported in commerce. Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and water requirements. 3.89... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.89 Food and water requirements. (a)...

  14. (3′R)-3′-Benzyl-2′,3′-dihydro-1H-spiro­[indole-3,1′-naphtho­[2,3-c]pyrrole]-2,4′,9′-trione

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Garima; Kumar, S. Vasanth; Wahab, Habibah A.; Rosli, Mohd Mustaqim; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C26H18N2O3, the maximum deviations from planarity for the tetra­hydro-1H-naphtho­[2,3-c]pyrrole and indoline rings systems are 0.091 (1) and 0.012 (2) Å, respectively. These ring systems make a dihedral angle of 89.95 (6)° with each other and they make dihedral angles of 73.42 (8) and 71.28 (9)°, respectively, with the benzene ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(8) loops and C—H⋯O inter­actions connect the dimers into corrugated sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. PMID:22969650

  15. DFT studies on a high-energy density cage compound 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-hexaazatetracyclo[5, 5, 0, 0, 0] dodecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Yong, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Xian-Zhou

    2014-04-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra, heat of formation (HOF) and thermodynamic properties were investigated by B3LYP/6-31G** method for a new designed polynitro cage compound 1,3,5,7,9,11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5,5,0,0,0]dodecane. The detonation velocity (D) and pressure (P) were predicted by the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the theoretical density and condensed HOF. The bond dissociation energies and bond orders for the weakest bonds were analysed to investigate the thermal stability of the title compound. The computational result shows that the detonation velocity and pressure of the title compound are superior to those of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but inferior to those of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) and hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW). And the analysis of thermal stability shows that the first step of pyrolysis is the rupture of the N7-NO2 bond. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics belongs to the P21 space group, with the lattice parameters Z = 2, a = 11.8246 Å, b = 10.4632 Å, c = 15.9713 Å, ρ = 1.98 g cm-3.

  16. Probes for narcotic receptor mediated phenomena 49. N-Substituted rac-cis-4a-arylalkyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9a-hexahydrobenzofuro[2,3-c]pyridin-6-ols

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Malliga R.; Rothman, Richard B.; Dersch, Christina M.; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2015-01-01

    Racemic N-substituted -1,2,3,4,4a,9a-hexahydrobenzofuro[2,3-c]pyridin-6-ols containing cis-4aaralkyl groups were explored as probes for opioid receptors. Specifically cis-4a-phenylpropyl, -phenylbutyl, and- phenylpentyl groups coupled with widely varied substituents on the nitrogen atom were synthesized and their pharmacological profiles at opioid receptors examined. The study yielded compounds with good affinity and moderate to potent antagonist activity at the μ- and δ-opioid receptors, and agonist activity at the κ-opioid receptor. An N-allyl substituent in the C4a phenylpropyl series induced 6-fold higher affinity at δ- than μ-receptors, while an N-CPM substituent in the C4a (CH2)3Ph series led to a compound with high δ-affinity and potent δ-antagonist activity. PMID:25599950

  17. Comprehensive survey of Nd{sup 3+} substitution In La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} oxide-ion conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Corbel, Gwenael; Durand, Pierrick; Lacorre, Philippe

    2009-05-15

    Differential thermal analysis coupled to temperature-controlled diffraction have given evidence of a topological metastability phenomenon in an extended compositional range of the La{sub 2-x}Nd{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} solid solution. A metastable-stable phase diagram is proposed for this series of LAMOX-type fast oxide-ion conductors. In the Nd range 02 range, the amount of beta-metastable phase grows upon substitution for powders. The negative impact of beta-metastable to alpha phase transition on conductivity tends to disappear through the partial stabilization of the beta phase by shaping/sintering. - Graphical abstract: Metastable-stable phase diagram of the solid solution La{sub 2-x}Nd{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} determined from DTA. The topological metastability of the high-temperature cubic beta-form which goes back to monoclinic stable alpha-form above 450-500 deg. C is shown in the intermediate range 0.4<=x<=1.2. Above x=1.2, this transition progressively changes into a thermal trace of the postulated Arrhenius/VTF transformation of transport mechanism.

  18. Protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, -2, -3, -9 and -14) in Ewing family tumors and medulloblastomas of pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Elvis Cueva; Motta, Fabio José Nascimento; Queiroz, Rosane Gomes de Paula; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga

    2012-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are endopeptidases performing proteolytic functions in the extracellular matrix and their overexpression has been suggested to be a characteristic of malignant tumors. Molecular changes such as the presence of chimeric protein Ewing’s sarcoma protein-friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWS-FLI1) in the Ewing family of tumors (EFT) and the oncogenes C-ERBB-2, N-MYC, C-MYC in medulloblastoma (MB) promote the overexpression of MMP. In the present study, protein expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, -9 and -14 was qualitatively evaluated in 17 EFT and MB samples of children and adolescent by western blotting and optical densitometry, and the level of gene expression of some MMPs was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Five MB samples (45.4%) presented expression of the five MMPs and six samples (54.6%) presented expression of at least one of them. Four EFT samples (66.6%) presented expression of MMP-2, -9 and -14, and two samples (33.4%) presented expression of at least one of these MMPs, whereas the presence of MMP-1 and -3 was not observed. Gene analysis showed that MMP-2 had a high expression in MB, while the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-14 was higher in EFT. It has been established that the expression of the MMPs might be related to a complex pathway of gene regulation.

  19. Protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, -2, -3, -9 and -14) in Ewing family tumors and medulloblastomas of pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Elvis Cueva; Motta, Fabio José Nascimento; Queiroz, Rosane Gomes de Paula; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga

    2012-09-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are endopeptidases performing proteolytic functions in the extracellular matrix and their overexpression has been suggested to be a characteristic of malignant tumors. Molecular changes such as the presence of chimeric protein Ewing's sarcoma protein-friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWS-FLI1) in the Ewing family of tumors (EFT) and the oncogenes C-ERBB-2, N-MYC, C-MYC in medulloblastoma (MB) promote the overexpression of MMP. In the present study, protein expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, -9 and -14 was qualitatively evaluated in 17 EFT and MB samples of children and adolescent by western blotting and optical densitometry, and the level of gene expression of some MMPs was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Five MB samples (45.4%) presented expression of the five MMPs and six samples (54.6%) presented expression of at least one of them. Four EFT samples (66.6%) presented expression of MMP-2, -9 and -14, and two samples (33.4%) presented expression of at least one of these MMPs, whereas the presence of MMP-1 and -3 was not observed. Gene analysis showed that MMP-2 had a high expression in MB, while the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-14 was higher in EFT. It has been established that the expression of the MMPs might be related to a complex pathway of gene regulation. PMID:27625820

  20. Application of 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) in High-Throughput Screening for Microorganism Mutants Accumulating 9α-Hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (9α-OH-AD)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Fei; Xiong, Hui; Shen, Yanbing; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    To develop a quick method for the preliminarily screening of mutant strains that can accumulate 9α-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (9α-OH-AD), a high-throughput screening method was presented by applying the principle that 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) can react with ketones to produce precipitation. The optimal color assay conditions were the substrate androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) concentration at 2.0 g/L, the ratio of AD to DNPH solution at 1:4, and the sulfuric acid and ethanol solution percentages in DNPH solution at 2% and 35%, respectively. This method was used to preliminarily screen the mutants of Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM43269, from which the three ones obtained could produce more 9α-OH-AD. This DNPH color assay method not only broadens screening methods and increases screening efficiency in microbial mutation breeding but also establishes a good foundation for obtaining strains for industrial application. PMID:27706217

  1. Active site specificity profiling datasets of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13 and 14

    PubMed Central

    Eckhard, Ulrich; Huesgen, Pitter F.; Schilling, Oliver; Bellac, Caroline L.; Butler, Georgina S.; Cox, Jennifer H.; Dufour, Antoine; Goebeler, Verena; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Klein, Theo; Lange, Philipp F.; Marino, Giada; Morrison, Charlotte J.; Prudova, Anna; Rodriguez, David; Starr, Amanda E.; Wang, Yili; Overall, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The data described provide a comprehensive resource for the family-wide active site specificity portrayal of the human matrix metalloproteinase family. We used the high-throughput proteomic technique PICS (Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites) to comprehensively assay 9 different MMPs. We identified more than 4300 peptide cleavage sites, spanning both the prime and non-prime sides of the scissile peptide bond allowing detailed subsite cooperativity analysis. The proteomic cleavage data were expanded by kinetic analysis using a set of 6 quenched-fluorescent peptide substrates designed using these results. These datasets represent one of the largest specificity profiling efforts with subsequent structural follow up for any protease family and put the spotlight on the specificity similarities and differences of the MMP family. A detailed analysis of this data may be found in Eckhard et al. (2015) [1]. The raw mass spectrometry data and the corresponding metadata have been deposited in PRIDE/ProteomeXchange with the accession number PXD002265. PMID:26981551

  2. On the molecular structure of (E)-3-(9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one, theoretical calculations and SXRD studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labra-Vázquez, Pablo; Lugo-Aranda, Alejandra Zaavik; Maldonado-Domínguez, Mauricio; Arcos-Ramos, Rafael; Carreon-Castro, María del Pilar; Santillan, Rosa; Farfán, Norberto

    2015-12-01

    The azachalcone, (E)-3-(9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (C21H15NO) (3) was synthesized by classical Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction. An E-configuration was confirmed through single-crystal X-Ray diffraction studies; crystallizing in monoclinic space group P 21/c, with unit cell parameters a = 16.115 Å (3), b = 12.277 Å (3), c = 7.6884 Å (15) and Z = 4. Our approach to correlate the experimental molecular structure with the NMR assignment of this azachalcone comprised DFT computations of magnetic shielding, coupled with 2D-NMR spectroscopy. With a correlation of R2 = 0.9965 between experimental and computed 13C-NMR chemical shifts, this strategy allowed the full 13C assignment of the azachalcone π-system. The molecular structure was topologically analyzed within the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules; π-stacking and donor-acceptor π contacts are involved in the crystal packing of (E)-3-(9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (3).

  3. Combination Analysis in Genetic Polymorphisms of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Tomoko; Kamada, Yuka; Hayashida, Mariko; Iwao-Koizumi, Kyoko; Murata, Shigenori; Kinoshita, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 is the major enzyme involved in drug metabolism. CYP enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of most clinically used drugs. Individual variability in CYP activity is one important factor that contributes to drug therapy failure. We have developed a new straightforward TaqMan PCR genotyping assay to investigate the prevalence of the most common allelic variants of polymorphic CYP enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 in the Japanese population. Moreover, we focused on the combination of each genotype for clinical treatment. The genotype analysis identified a total of 139 out of 483 genotype combinations of five genes in the 1,003 Japanese subjects. According to our results, most of subjects seemed to require dose modification during clinical treatment. In the near future, modifications should be considered based on the individual patient genotype of each treatment. PMID:25552922

  4. Enantio- and Diastereoselective Synthesis of syn-β-Hydroxy-α-Vinyl Carboxylic Esters via Reductive Aldol Reactions of Ethyl Allenecarboxylate with 10-TMS-9-Borabicyclo[3.3.2]decane and DFT Analysis of the Hydroboration Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kister, Jeremy; Ess, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    An enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of syn-β-hydroxy-α-vinyl carboxylate esters 3 via the reductive aldol reaction of ethyl allenecarboxylate (2) with 10-trimethylsilyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.2]decane (1R, Soderquist’s borane) has been developed. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the allene hydroboration involves the 1,4-reduction of 2 with the chiral borane 1R, leading directly to dienolborinate Z-(O)-8a. PMID:24138187

  5. Electrospun Li2MnO3-modified Li1.2NixCo0.1Mn0.9-xO2 nanofibers: Synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jing; Wang, Xinlu; Zhao, Xinru; Wang, Jinxian; Zhang, Hongbo; Yu, Wensheng; Liu, Guixia; Dong, Xiangting

    2016-09-01

    The Li2MnO3-modified Li1.2NixCo0.1Mn0.9-xO2 (x = 0.2, 0.45, 0.7) as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries have been successfully synthesized by a simple electrospinning process. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performances of the resulting products are studied systematically. The as-prepared Li2MnO3-modified Li1.2NixCo0.1Mn0.9-xO2 (x = 0.2, 0.45, 0.7) with a diameter of 200-300 nm has an initial discharge capacity of 168.740 mAh·g-1, coulombic efficiency of 99.6% and a reversible capacity as high as 139.016 mAh·g-1 after 200 cycles at a current rate of 0.2 C. The excellent electrochemical performances of which are attributed to the stabilization of Li2MnO3 structure, the role of Li2MnO3 is contribute extra lithium to the reversible capacity and to facilitate Li+ transport through the structure.

  6. Effect of BaTiO3 impurity on the NaNO2 structure in (0.9)NaNO2 + (0.1)BaTiO3 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naberezhnov, A. A.; Alekseeva, O. A.; Stukova, E. V.; Borisov, S. A.; Simkin, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature evolution of the crystalline structure of the composite based on the ferroelectric mixture 0.9NaNO2 + 0.1BaTiO3 is analyzed using the neutron diffraction method. It is shown that the values of the order parameter of NaNO2 in the composite in the temperature range 360-430 K is smaller as compared to the bulk substance, which may indicate the coexistence of the ferroelectric and incommensurate phases of sodium nitrite in this interval.

  7. Probes for narcotic receptor mediated phenomena. 47.1 Novel C4a- and N-substituted-1,2,3,4,4a,9a-hexahydrobenzofuro[2,3-c] pyridin-6-ols

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Malliga R.; Rothman, Richard B.; Dersch, Christina M.; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2013-01-01

    A series of N-methyl rac-cis-4a-aralkyl- and alkyl-substituted-1,2,3,4,4a,9a-hexahydrobenzofuro[2,3-c]pyridin-6-ols have been prepared (2a–l) using a simple previously designed synthetic route, in order to find a ligand that would interact with both μ- and δ-opioid receptors. A C4a-phenethyl derivative 2a, was found to have modest receptor affinity both at μ- (Ki = 60 nM) and δ-opioid receptors (Ki = 64 nM). The N-methyl substituent of 2a and that of other ligands in the series was then modified to obtain compounds with different N-substituents that might provide higher affinity at both receptors. A number of compounds differently substituted at C4a and N were synthesized and evaluated. Binding studies and functional assays revealed a moderately selective δ-antagonist (2l), selective μ–δ antagonists (3d, 3g), and a μ–κ antagonist (3f). PMID:23618710

  8. Species differences in the pharmacokinetics of KW-7158 [(2S)-(+)-3,3,3-Trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5,5,10-trioxo-4,10-dihydrothieno[3,2-c][1]benzothiepin-9-yl)propanamide]: formation of hydrolyzed metabolite in human and animals.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Kodaira, Hiroshi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ushiki, Junko; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2012-07-01

    Species differences in the pharmacokinetics of KW-7158 [(2S)-(+)-3,3,3-Trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5,5,10-trioxo-4,10-dihydrothieno[3,2-c][1]benzothiepin-9-yl)propanamide] were studied in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The exposure ratio of hydrolyzed metabolite (M2, primary metabolite in human plasma)/KW-7158 was higher than the ratio of thiophen-to-furan converted metabolite (M1)/KW-7158 in human subjects after oral administration, but the mouse, rat and dog studies gave opposite results. M2 was produced in the highest amount by the 9000g supernatant of small intestine, followed by that of liver and kidney in human subjects. After correction for protein contents, the results obtained suggested that the small intestine plays a major role in the metabolism to M2 for the first pass effect after oral administration of KW-7158. The formation of M2 was independent of the presence of NADPH and was inhibited by various esterase inhibitors. These observations suggested that the predominant enzymes or isozymes involved in the formation of M2 are esterases, which differ between humans and animals. Such differences may be one of the reasons for the species differences in the pharmacokinetics of KW-7158 between humans and animals.

  9. K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9}: The first osmium perovskites containing alkali cations at the 'A' site

    SciTech Connect

    Mogare, Kailash M.; Klein, Wilhelm; Jansen, Martin

    2012-07-15

    K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} were obtained from solid-state reactions of potassium superoxide, sodium peroxide and osmium metal at elevated oxygen pressures. K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} crystallizes as an oxygen-deficient cubic double perovskite in space group Fm3{sup Macron }m with a=8.4184(5) A and contains isolated OsO{sub 6} octahedra. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystallizes hexagonally in P6{sub 3}/mmc with a=5.9998(4) A and c=14.3053(14) A. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} consists of face sharing Os{sub 2}O{sub 9} pairs of octahedra. According to magnetic measurements K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} is diamagnetic, whereas K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays strong antiferromagnetic coupling (T{sub N}=140 K), indicating enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair. - Graphical abstract: High oxidation states of Os, obtained by high oxygen pressure synthesis, are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New osmates containing highly oxidized Os were obtained by high O{sub 2} pressure synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High oxidation states of Os are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds represent the first Os perovskites with an alkali metal at the A site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair.

  10. Quantitative analysis of growth-induced reduction of long range lattice order in ion-beam sputtered YBa2Cu3O6.9 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, Andrea; Pavuna, Davor

    1995-04-01

    We report evidence for the reduction of long range lattice order caused by slight departures from the optimal growth temperature in fully doped (x≊0.9) YBa2Cu3O6+x films deposited by ion-beam sputtering on <001> SrTiO3. We estimate the characteristic length of this disorder from the broadening Δϑ of the <005> x-ray diffraction rocking curve. The depression of superconductivity and normal conductivity scales as Δϑ and disappears when the in-plane lattice coherence length rc˜1/Δϑ is larger than ≊10 nm.

  11. anti-Tricyclo-[4.2.1.1]deca-3,7-diene-9,10-dione.

    PubMed

    Gidaly, Matthew P; Harris, Andria D; Amado-Sierra, Maria Del Rosario I; Jones, Daniel S; Etzkorn, Markus

    2009-03-11

    The title compound, C(10)H(8)O(2), is a precursor to an unusual bis-homoaromatic dication and to heterodiamantanes and other oxa-cage compounds. Two independent mol-ecules, each of which is situated on a center of symmetry, comprise the unit cell. Both mol-ecules are in nearly identical chair conformations.

  12. Rethinking Sensitized Luminescence in Lanthanide Coordination Polymers and MOFs: Band Sensitization and Water Enhanced Eu Luminescence in [Ln(C15H9O5)3(H2O)3]n (Ln = Eu, Tb).

    PubMed

    Einkauf, Jeffrey D; Kelley, Tanya T; Chan, Benny C; de Lill, Daniel T

    2016-08-15

    A coordination polymer [Ln(C15H9O9)3(H2O)3]n (1-Ln = Eu(III), Tb(III)) assembled from benzophenonedicarboxylate was synthesized and characterized. The organic component is shown to sensitize lanthanide-based emission in both compounds, with quantum yields of 36% (Eu) and 6% (Tb). Luminescence of lanthanide coordination polymers is currently described from a molecular approach. This methodology fails to explain the luminescence of this system. It was found that the band structure of the organic component rather than the molecular triplet state was able to explain the observed luminescence. Deuterated (Ln(C15H9O9)3(D2O)3) and dehydrated (Ln(C15H9O9)3) analogues were also studied. When bound H2O was replaced by D2O, lifetime and emission increased as expected. Upon dehydration, lifetimes increased again, but emission of 1-Eu unexpectedly decreased. This reduction is reasoned through an unprecedented enhancement effect of the compound's luminescence by the OH/OD oscillators in the organic-to-Eu(III) energy transfer process. PMID:27472192

  13. 1,3-Dihydr­oxy-2-methoxy­methyl-9,10-anthraquinone from Rennellia elliptica Korth.

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Osman, Che Puteh; Ahmad, Rohaya; Awang, Khalijah; Ng, Seik Weng

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C16H12O5, common name: lucidin ω-methyl ether, exists as a planar mol­ecule (r.m.s. deviation = 0.04 Å). Within the mol­ecule, the 1-hydr­oxy group forms a hydrogen bond to the adjacent carbonyl O atom, and the 3-hydr­oxy group forms a hydrogen bond to the adjacent meth­oxy O atom. The meth­oxy O atom is disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. PMID:21583274

  14. 32 CFR 9.3 - Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.3 Jurisdiction... jurisdiction over violations of the laws of war and all other offenses triable by military commission....

  15. Dilute ferrimagnetism of ilmenites Mn3FeTiSbO9 and Mn4FeTi2SbO12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazuev, G. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Golovkin, B. G.

    2016-07-01

    Metastable solid solutions (SS) Mn3FeTiSbO9 and Mn4FeTi2SbO12 with the ilmenite structure (space group R bar 3) have been prepared by quenching at normal conditions. The compositions of the compounds have been justified using EDX spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties of SSs have been analyzed by comparison with ferrimagnetic ilmenite Mn2FeSbO6 ( T N = 269 K) as a natural mineral and ceramics obtained at high pressure and high temperature. The solid solutions have been characterized as dilute magnetic systems formed as a result of substitution of nonmagnetic cations Ti4+ for a part of Fe3+ and Sb5+ cations. Mn3FeTiSbO9 is considered as a ferromagnetic with T N = 171 K and Mn4FeTi2SbO12 as a magnetic with the concentration of magnetic clusters below the percolation threshold.

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of novel series of 4-methoxy, and 4,9-dimethoxy-5-substituted furo[2,3-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxide derivatives

    PubMed Central

    El-Sawy, Eslam R.; Ebaid, Manal S.; Abo-Salem, Heba M.; El-Hallouty, Salwa; Kassem, Emad M.; Mandour, Adel H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel series of 4-methoxy, and 4,9-dimethoxy-5-substituted furo[2,3-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxide derivatives 3a,b, 10a–g and 11a–g were prepared in good yields via the reaction of 4-methoxy (1a) and 4,7-dimethoxy-5-acetyl-6-hydroxybenzofurans (1b) and their α,β-unsaturated keto derivatives 6a–g and 7a–g with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI). On the other hand, N-chlorosulfonyl carbamate derivatives 4a,b, 12a,b and 13a,b were prepared and allowed to react with piperidine to give the corresponding N-piperidinosulfonyl carbamate derivatives 5a,b, 14a,b and 15a,b, respectively. Sixteen new target compounds 3a,b, 10a–g, and 11a–g were tested for their DPPH radical-scavenging, and in vitro antiproliferative activity against A-549, MCF7 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Compounds 10a, 11c, 11e, and 11g showed moderate DPPH radical-scavenging activity compared to ascorbic acid at 100 μg/mL. 4,9-Dimethoxy-5-substituted styrylfuro[3,2-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxides 11a, 11b, and 11c were found to be highly active against A-549 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.02 to 0.08 μmol/mL compared to doxorubicin with IC50 = 0.04 and 0.06 μmol/mL, respectively. PMID:25685501

  17. The RanBP2/RanGAP1*SUMO1/Ubc9 SUMO E3 ligase is a disassembly machine for Crm1-dependent nuclear export complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ritterhoff, Tobias; Das, Hrishikesh; Hofhaus, Götz; Schröder, Rasmus R.; Flotho, Annette; Melchior, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cycles of nucleocytoplasmic transport require disassembly of transport receptor/Ran-GTP complexes in the cytoplasm. A basic disassembly mechanism in all eukaryotes depends on soluble RanGAP and RanBP1. In vertebrates, a significant fraction of RanGAP1 stably interacts with the nucleoporin RanBP2 at a binding site that is flanked by FG-repeats and Ran-binding domains, and overlaps with RanBP2's SUMO E3 ligase region. Here, we show that the RanBP2/RanGAP1*SUMO1/Ubc9 complex functions as an autonomous disassembly machine with a preference for the export receptor Crm1. We describe three in vitro reconstituted disassembly intermediates, which show binding of a Crm1 export complex via two FG-repeat patches, cargo-release by RanBP2's Ran-binding domains and retention of free Crm1 at RanBP2 after Ran-GTP hydrolysis. Intriguingly, all intermediates are compatible with SUMO E3 ligase activity, suggesting that the RanBP2/RanGAP1*SUMO1/Ubc9 complex may link Crm1- and SUMO-dependent functions. PMID:27160050

  18. Ligand-field theory applied to diatomic transition metals. Results for the dA9dB9σ2 states of Ni2, the dNi9dCu10σ2 states of NiCu, and the dNi8(3F)dCu10σ2σ*1 excited states of NiCu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spain, Eileen M.; Morse, Michael D.

    1992-10-01

    A ligand-field theory has been developed for transition-metal diatomics having electronic configurations of dA9dB10σ2, dA9dB9σ2, and dA8(3F)dB10σ2σ*1. The theory treats each atom as a point charge and includes spin-orbit interactions. No contributions due to d-orbital chemical bonding are included. Since the d orbitals are quite small compared to the bond lengths in these molecules, the only inputs to the theory are the ligand charges (ZA and ZB), the radial expectation values 2≳nd, 2≳nd, 9dCu10σ2 manifold of states in NiCu, and on the dA9dB9σ2 manifold of states in Ni2. This demonstrates that the ligand-field model has some validity for metal molecules containing nickel, primarily because of the compact nature of the 3d orbitals in this element. Similar calculations of the dA9dB9σ2 manifold of states in Pt2 and the dNi9dPt9σ2 manifold of states in NiPt are presented for comparison to future ab initio or experimental measurements, although the possibility of d-orbital contributions to the bonding in these species makes the ligand-field model less favorable in these examples. The dNi8(3F)dCu10σ2σ*1 excited electronic states of NiCu, which are well known from resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy, are also investigated in the ligand-field model. As a final example, the dNi8(3F)σ2σ*1 excited electronic states of NiH are also examined using the same treatment as that employed for the dNi8(3F)dCu10σ2σ*1 excited manifold of NiCu.

  19. DNA Sequence Modulates Geometrical Isomerism of the trans-8,9- Dihydro-8-(2,6-diamino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimid-5-yl-formamido)- 9-hydroxy Aflatoxin B1 Adduct.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Brown, Kyle L; Ma, Ruidan; Stone, Michael P

    2015-02-16

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus, is oxidized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide, which alkylates DNA at N7-dG. Under basic conditions, this N7-dG adduct rearranges to yield the trans-8,9-dihydro-8-(2,6-diamino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimid-5-yl-formamido)-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)−FAPY) adduct. The AFB(1)−FAPY adduct exhibits geometrical isomerism involving the formamide moiety. NMR analyses of duplex oligodeoxynucleotides containing the 5′-XA-3′, 5′-XC-3′, 5′-XT-3′, and 5′-XY-3′ sequences (X = AFB(1)−FAPY; Y = 7-deaza-dG)demonstrate that the equilibrium between E and Z isomers is controlled by major groove hydrogen bonding interactions.Structural analysis of the adduct in the 5′-XA-3′ sequence indicates the preference of the E isomer of the formamide group,attributed to formation of a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the N(6) exocyclic amino group of the 3′-neighboradenine. While the 5′-XA-3′ sequence exhibits the E isomer, the 5′-XC-3′ sequence exhibits a 7:3 E:Z ratio at equilibrium at 283K. The E isomer is favored by a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the N(4)-dC exocyclic amino group of the 3′-neighbor cytosine. The 5′-XT-3′ and 5′-XY-3′ sequences cannot form such a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the 3′-neighbor T or Y, respectively, and in these sequence contexts the Z isomer is favored. Additional equilibria between α and β anomers and the potential to exhibit atropisomers about the C5−N(5) bond do not depend upon sequence. In each of the four DNA sequences, the AFB(1)−FAPY adduct maintains the β deoxyribose configuration. Each of these four sequences feature the atropisomer of the AFB(1) moiety that is intercalated above the 5′-face of the damaged guanine. This enforces the Ra axialc onformation for the C5−N(5) bond.

  20. Mechanical properties of Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-x} and Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-x} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites.

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J. L.

    1998-01-12

    The room-temperature elastic moduli, fracture strength, and fracture toughness of dense, fine-grained, pure Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} and composites containing 1.3 and 9.1 wt. % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated. Addition of 9.1 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} changed the fracture mode from intergranular to transgranular and increased room-temperature fracture strength from 65 to 125 MPa and fracture toughness from 1.3 to 1.6 MPam{sup 1/2}. In addition, steady-state compressive creep was measured for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} and the Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2{minus}x} + 9.1 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite. The stress exponent {approx}1.3 and the activation energy {approx}480 kJ/mole for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} suggested diffusional flow controlled by the cations. There was no difference in creep rate between Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2{minus}x} and the composite.

  1. N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918) as a chemical ATP-binding cassette transporter family G member 2 (Abcg2) knockout model to study nitrofurantoin transfer into milk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lipeng; Leggas, Markos; Goswami, Mamta; Empey, Philip E; McNamara, Patrick J

    2008-12-01

    Genetic knockout mice studies suggested ATP-binding cassette transporter family G member 2 (ABCG2)/Abcg2 translocates nitrofurantoin at the mammary-blood barrier, resulting in drug accumulation in milk. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of Abcg2 in nitrofurantoin accumulation in rat milk using N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918) as a "chemical knockout" equivalent. The inhibitory effect of GF120918 was verified in Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells stably expressing rat Abcg2 with Hoechst 33342 and nitrofurantoin flux in Transwells. Nitrofurantoin was infused (0.5 mg/h) in the absence and presence of GF120918 (10 mg/kg in dimethyl sulfoxide) to Sprague-Dawley lactating female rats using a balanced crossover design. Administration of GF120918 increased nitrofurantoin concentration in serum (from 443 +/- 51 to 650 +/- 120 ng/ml) and decreased concentration in milk (from 18.1 +/- 0.9 to 1.9 +/- 1.2 microg/ml), resulting in corresponding mean values for milk to serum concentration ratio (M/S) of 41.4 +/- 19.1 versus 3.04 +/- 2.27 in the absence and presence of GF120918 (p < 0.05), respectively. There was a decrease in systemic clearance with GF120918 (2.8 +/- 0.5 l/h/kg) compared with vehicle controls (4.1 +/- 0.5 l/h/kg; p < 0.05). Western blot analysis revealed good expression of Abcg2 and no P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in mammary gland, whereas immunohistochemistry confirmed the apical expression of Abcg2 in lactating mammary gland epithelia. Nitrofurantoin active transport into rat milk can be inhibited by GF120918 resulting in a 10-fold lower M/S. Although GF120918 inhibits both Abcg2 and P-gp, the high expression of Abcg2 and the absence of detectable P-gp expression in lactating mammary gland validate an important role for Abcg2 in nitrofurantoin accumulation in rat milk. GF120918 is particularly useful as a rat chemical knockout model to

  2. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  3. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  4. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  5. 9 CFR 3.133 - Separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation. 3.133 Section 3.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.133 Separation. Animals housed in the same...

  6. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  7. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  8. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  9. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  10. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  11. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  12. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  13. 9 CFR 3.51 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.51 Section 3.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.51 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities...

  14. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  15. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  16. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  17. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  18. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Transportation Standards § 3.66 Handling. (a) Any person who is subject to the Animal Welfare regulations and...

  19. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine...

  20. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Each label shall be identified as to: (1) Name and product code number as it appears on the product... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label...

  1. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Each label shall be identified as to: (1) Name and product code number as it appears on the product... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label...

  2. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Each label shall be identified as to: (1) Name and product code number as it appears on the product... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label...

  3. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Each label shall be identified as to: (1) Name and product code number as it appears on the product... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.3 Label...

  4. 9 CFR 112.3 - Diluent labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diluent labels. 112.3 Section 112.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.3...

  5. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  6. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  7. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  8. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  9. 9 CFR 3.128 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.128 Section 3... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.128 Space requirements. Enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space to allow each animal to make normal postural and...

  10. 9 CFR 3.104 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.104 Section 3... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.104 Space requirements. (a) General. Marine mammals must be housed in primary enclosures that comply with the minimum space requirements prescribed by...

  11. 9 CFR 3.104 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.104 Section 3... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.104 Space requirements. (a) General. Marine mammals must be housed in primary enclosures that comply with the minimum space requirements prescribed by...

  12. 9 CFR 3.104 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.104 Section 3... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.104 Space requirements. (a) General. Marine mammals must be housed in primary enclosures that comply with the minimum space requirements prescribed by...

  13. 9 CFR 112.3 - Diluent labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diluent labels. 112.3 Section 112.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.3...

  14. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Transportation Standards § 3.66 Handling. (a) Any person who is subject to the Animal Welfare regulations and...

  15. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.118...

  16. 9 CFR 3.128 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.128 Section 3... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.128 Space requirements. Enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space to allow each animal to make normal postural and...

  17. 9 CFR 3.104 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.104 Section 3... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.104 Space requirements. (a) General. Marine mammals must be housed in primary enclosures that comply with the minimum space requirements prescribed by...

  18. 9 CFR 3.128 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.128 Section 3... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.128 Space requirements. Enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space to allow each animal to make normal postural and...

  19. 9 CFR 3.128 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.128 Section 3... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.128 Space requirements. Enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space to allow each animal to make normal postural and...

  20. 9 CFR 3.128 - Space requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.128 Section 3... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.128 Space requirements. Enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space to allow each animal to make normal postural and...